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Sample records for earn significantly higher

  1. Higher Education, Productivity, and Earnings: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pencavel, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides a review of research on the contribution of education to the organization and productivity of a nation's resources. Focuses on what is known about the particular contribution of higher education to U.S. economic growth. Discusses the relationship between earnings and additional schooling. Concludes that increased education probably has…

  2. Gender Earnings Gap among Young European Higher Education Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the composition of the gender earnings gap among young European higher education graduates, with a particular focus on competencies controlling for individual background and job characteristics. The results show that much of the female worker's earnings advantage can be explained by job characteristics. With respect to the…

  3. Profiles of higher earning wives in Hong Kong and the implications for marital satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Law, Frances Yik Wa; Hu, Debao; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul Siu Fai

    2015-01-01

    Higher earning wives are emerging as a global phenomenon; however, the profiles of higher earning wives and the implications for marital satisfaction remain unknown in Hong Kong. On the basis of a representative household survey of 689 Hong Kong Chinese couples in 2012, this study aimed to explore the profiles of higher earning wives in Hong Kong and examine the effect of wives' income advantage on the couples' marital satisfaction. Results indicated that higher earning wives were clustered into 2 groups. One group of higher earning wives was older, was better educated, held managerial and professional jobs, and lived in high-income families compared with lower earning wives. The other group of higher earning wives was not well educated, held nonprofessional jobs, and lived in low-income families. Higher earning wives reported similar marital satisfaction with lower earning wives as well as their husbands. However, higher earning wives with nonprofessional jobs and from low-income families reported lower life and marital satisfaction than did those with better socioeconomic status. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Implications of Higher Education on Earnings: An Empirical Analysis of Skills and Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Belle Selene; Liitiäinen, Elia

    2016-01-01

    One of the central topics in the research of higher education is the degree of match between education and work as measured by earnings. Traditional literature has shown the correlation between the duration of studies and earnings in the work life. The authors' present study aims to enlarge this scope by evaluating the impact of competence and…

  5. Exploring the Wealth Returns to Latino Higher Educational Attainment: Estimates of Work-Life Earnings Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    A significant research gap exists in our knowledge of how educational attainment affects wealth building and intergenerational wealth transfers among Latinos. Wealth includes earnings but is a much wider and more fundamental measure of economic mobility. The education-earnings-wealth relationship is explored by constructing estimates of social…

  6. Higher Education Earnings Premium: Value, Variation, and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    Much of the current skepticism about the financial payoff of higher education emerges from recent media focus on young college graduates struggling to enter a weak labor market. This brief highlights some of the complexities underlying discussions of the return to the investment in postsecondary education and describes some of the variation in…

  7. Comparative Study of University and Polytechnic Graduates in Finland: Implications of Higher Education on Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Belle Selene; Liitiainen, Elia; Rekola, Mika

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the implications of higher education on earnings in Finland. The challenges as well as opportunities of obtaining a university degree as compared to graduating from polytechnics are evaluated using the REFLEX (The Flexible Professional in the Knowledge Society) data. As a Nordic country, Finland is known for its educated…

  8. The Percentage of Supported Employees with Significant Disabilities Who Would Earn More in Sheltered Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimera, Robert Evert

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the percentage of 21,257 supported employees served by 74 state-federal vocational rehabilitation agencies in 2013 who would have earned more wages in sheltered workshops than in the community. It found that the overwhelming majority of supported employees earned more in their communities at all wage comparison points; however,…

  9. Earnings of Students Who Change Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmlund, Linda; Regner, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Using data on Swedish university entrants, this study finds that earnings are significantly lower for students who change universities compared to students who do not change. Earnings differences decrease over time and over the earnings distribution. The pattern in the estimates seems consistent with non-transfer students having higher earnings…

  10. House Price Growth When Children Are Teenagers: A Path to Higher Earnings? Working Paper No. 14-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Daniel; Luengo-Prado, María José

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether a rise in house prices that occurs immediately prior to children entering college has an impact on their earnings as adults. Higher house prices provide homeowners with additional funds to invest in their children's human capital. The results show that a 1 percentage point increase in house prices, when children are 17…

  11. Competitive Intelligence: Significance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Historically noncompetitive, the higher education sector is now having to adjust dramatically to new and increasing demands on numerous levels. To remain successfully operational within the higher educational market universities today must consider all relevant forces which can impact present and future planning. Those institutions that were…

  12. The gender earnings gap among pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Armayor, Graciela M; Deziel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A gender earnings gap exists across professions. Compared with men, women earn consistently lower income levels. The determinants of wages and salaries should be explored to assess whether a gender earnings gap exists in the pharmacy profession. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the responses of male and female pharmacists' earnings with human-capital stock, workers' preferences, and opinion variables and (2) assess whether the earnings determination models for male and female pharmacists yielded similar results in estimating the wage-and-salary gap through earnings projections, the influence of each explanatory variable, and gender differences in statistical significance. Data were collected through the use of a 37-question survey mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida, United States. Earnings functions were formulated and tested separately for male and female pharmacists using unlogged and semilog equation forms. Number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables were hypothesized to explain wage-and-salary differentials. The empirical evidence led to 3 major conclusions: (1) men's and women's earnings sometimes were influenced by different stimuli, and when they responded to the same variables, the effect often was different; (2) although the influence of some explanatory variables on earnings differed in the unlogged and semilog equations, the earnings projections derived from both equation forms for male and female pharmacists were remarkably similar and yielded nearly identical male-female earnings ratios; and (3) controlling for number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables reduced the initial unadjusted male-female earnings ratios only slightly, which pointed toward the presence of gender bias. After controlling for human-capital stock, job-related characteristics, and opinion variables, male pharmacists continued to earn higher income levels than female

  13. Higher Education Facilities: The SmartGrid Earns a Doctorate in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tysseling, John C.; Zibelman, Audrey; Freifeld, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Most higher education facilities have already accomplished some measure of a "microgrid" investment with building control systems (BCS), energy management systems (EMS), and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) installations. Available energy production facilities may include boilers, chillers, cogeneration, thermal storage, electrical…

  14. Does Higher Education Level the Playing Field? Socio-Economic Differences in Graduate Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Claire; van der Erve, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Education--and in particular higher education--is often regarded as a route to social mobility. For this to be the case, however, the link between family background and adult outcomes must be broken (or at least reduced) once we take account of an individual's education history. This paper provides new evidence on differences in graduates'…

  15. Does a Higher Income Have Positive Health Effects? Using the Earned Income Tax Credit to Explore the Income-Health Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Larrimore, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Context The existence of a positive relationship between income and morbidity has been well documented in the literature. But it is unclear whether the relationship is positive because increased income allows individuals to purchase more health inputs that improve their health, because healthy individuals are more productive and thus can earn higher wages in the labor market, or because a third factor is improving health and increasing income. This article explores whether increases in income improve the health of the low-income population. Methods Because health status may affect income, this article uses an “instrumental variable” strategy that considers income variations over seventeen years of changes in the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC, a measure that should be exogenous to health status). I measured health status using both the self-reported health status and the functional limitations indicated on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), as well as the self-reported health status indicated on the March Current Population Survey (CPS). Findings I found only limited support for the theory that the relationship between income and morbidity is derived from shifts in income. Although I did observe a correlation between income and self-reported health, I found no evidence that increases in income significantly improve self-reported health statuses. In addition, while increases in income appear to reduce the prevalence of hearing limitations when using corrective measures, these increases did not have a significant effect on most of the other functional limitations considered here. Conclusions These findings suggest that the ability to improve short-term health outcomes through public transfer payments may be limited. However, the lifetime effects on the health of people with higher incomes would still be a valuable avenue for future research. PMID:22188352

  16. Does a higher income have positive health effects? Using the earned income tax credit to explore the income-health gradient.

    PubMed

    Larrimore, Jeff

    2011-12-01

    The existence of a positive relationship between income and morbidity has been well documented in the literature. But it is unclear whether the relationship is positive because increased income allows individuals to purchase more health inputs that improve their health, because healthy individuals are more productive and thus can earn higher wages in the labor market, or because a third factor is improving health and increasing income. This article explores whether increases in income improve the health of the low-income population. Because health status may affect income, this article uses an "instrumental variable" strategy that considers income variations over seventeen years of changes in the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC, a measure that should be exogenous to health status). I measured health status using both the self-reported health status and the functional limitations indicated on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), as well as the self-reported health status indicated on the March Current Population Survey (CPS). I found only limited support for the theory that the relationship between income and morbidity is derived from shifts in income. Although I did observe a correlation between income and self-reported health, I found no evidence that increases in income significantly improve self-reported health statuses. In addition, while increases in income appear to reduce the prevalence of hearing limitations when using corrective measures, these increases did not have a significant effect on most of the other functional limitations considered here. These findings suggest that the ability to improve short-term health outcomes through public transfer payments may be limited. However, the lifetime effects on the health of people with higher incomes would still be a valuable avenue for future research. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  17. Employment and Earnings Outcomes for Recent Graduates of Public Higher Education Institutions in West Virginia, 1995. Research Report 1997-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krotseng, Marsha V.; Glenn, Darrell E.

    This report presents information on employment and earnings outcomes for recent graduates of West Virginia public higher education institutions. Data from the Central Office Student and Graduation files and the West Virginia Bureau of Employment Programs (WVBEP) wage and employment files were merged, creating a database that makes possible the…

  18. Examination of Electric Utility CEO Compensation 2000-2011 and its significance to Company Earnings, Company Revenue, Company Stock and the Dow Jones Utility Average

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labovitch, Andrew

    This dissertation examined electric utility CEO compensation during the years 2000 through 2011 for United States owned and operated companies. To determine the extent to which agency theory may apply to electric utility CEO compensation, this examination segmented the industry by four types of company financial metrics: revenue, earnings, stock price and the Dow Jones Utility Average; by five categories of CEO compensation: base salary, bonus, stock grants, all other compensation and total compensation; and by four categories of company size as measured by revenue: large, medium, small and the industry as a whole. Electric utility CEO compensation data was analyzed with the financial metrics to determine correlations. No type of compensation was highly correlated to any of the financial metrics for any size industry segment indicating that there was little agency. CEO compensation in large electric utility companies was higher than compensation in medium and smaller companies even though the CEOs at larger companies earned less per dollar of revenue and per dollar of earnings than their counterparts in smaller companies.

  19. Education, Occupation, Hierarchy and Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tachibanaki, Toshiaki

    1988-01-01

    Attempts to estimate a recursive model of earnings distribution with education, occupation, and hierarchy, using individual data for Japanese males. Proves that hierarchical position is very significant in determining earnings level. Compares the influence of education and earnings distribution in Japan and France. Includes 3 tables and 20…

  20. Investigating MBA Degrees Earned by Women: A Decade of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Cheryl; Rush, Douglas; Gartland, Myles

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined master of business administration (MBA) degrees earned by women at U.S. higher education institutions at three specific years spanning a decade: 2003, 2008, and 2013 to determine whether there was a significant difference in the percentage of MBA degrees earned by women based on the independent variables of institutional type,…

  1. Spousal Mobility and Earnings

    PubMed Central

    MCKINNISH, TERRA

    2008-01-01

    An important finding in the literature on migration has been that the earnings of married women typically decrease with a move, while the earnings of married men often increase with a move, suggesting that married women are more likely to act as the “trailing spouse.” This article considers a related but largely unexplored question: what is the effect of having an occupation that is associated with frequent migration on the migration decisions of a household and on the earnings of the spouse? Further, how do these effects differ between men and women? The Public Use Microdata Sample from the 2000 U.S. decennial census is used to calculate migration rates by occupation and education. The analysis estimates the effects of these occupational mobility measures on the migration of couples and the earnings of married individuals. I find that migration rates in both the husband’s and wife’s occupations affect the household migration decision, but mobility in the husband’s occupation matters considerably more. For couples in which the husband has a college degree (regardless of the wife’s educational level), a husband’s mobility has a large, significant negative effect on his wife’s earnings, whereas a wife’s mobility has no effect on her husband’s earnings. This negative effect does not exist for college-educated wives married to non-college-educated husbands. PMID:19110900

  2. Past epochs of significantly higher pressure atmospheres on Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, S. A.; Binzel, R. P.; Earle, A. M.; Singer, K. N.; Young, L. A.; Weaver, H. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Ennico, K.; Moore, J. M.; McKinnon, W. B.; Spencer, J. R.; New Horizons Geology; Geophysics; Atmospheres Teams

    2017-05-01

    Pluto is known to have undergone thousands of cycles of obliquity change and polar precession. These variations have a large and corresponding impact on the total average solar insolation reaching various places on Pluto's surface as a function of time. Such changes could produce dramatic increases in surface pressure and may explain certain features observed by New Horizons on Pluto's surface, including some that indicate the possibility of surface paleo-liquids. This paper is the first to discuss multiple lines of geomorphological evidence consistent with higher pressure epochs in Pluto's geologic past, and it also the first to provide a mechanism for potentially producing the requisite high pressure conditions needed for an environment that could support liquids on Pluto. The presence of such liquids and such conditions, if borne out by future work, would fundamentally affect our view of Pluto's past climate, volatile transport, and geological evolution. This paper motivates future, more detailed climate modeling and geologic interpretation efforts in this area.

  3. Yes, but Can They Earn a Living? Methods for Creating an Effective System of Measuring Labor Market Outcomes in Higher Education. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.5.13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Richard W.; Chapman, Kenneth; Huber, Bettina; Shors, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A new federal initiative calls for a College Scorecard which will include a yet to be determined measure of graduate earnings. In this paper we examine the political context that drives this initiative and examine the nascent efforts of four states to develop statewide systems to measure the labor market outcomes of higher education. We propose…

  4. Lifetime earnings patterns, the distribution of future Social Security benefits, and the impact of pension reform.

    PubMed

    Bosworth, B; Burtless, G; Steuerle, E

    2000-01-01

    career earnings at a somewhat earlier age. However, the difference in career earnings patterns between men and women has narrowed dramatically over time. Workers with greater educational attainment earn substantially higher wages than those with less education, and they attain their peak career earnings later in life. For example, among men with the least education, peak earnings are often attained around or even before age 40, whereas many men with substantial postsecondary schooling do not reach their peak career earnings until after 50. Our tabulations of the lifetime earnings profiles of the oldest cohorts (born around 1930) and projections of the earnings of the youngest profiles (born around 1960) imply that the inequality of lifetime earnings has increased noticeably over time. Women in the top one-fifth of female earners and men in the top one-fifth of male earners are predicted to receive a growing multiple of the economy-wide average wage during their career. Women born between 1931 and 1935 who were in the top fifth of female earners had lifetime average earnings that were approximately equal to the average economy-wide wage. In contrast, women born after 1951 who were in the top fifth of earners are predicted to earn almost 50 percent more, that is, roughly 150 percent of the economy-wide average wage. Women with a lower rank in the female earnings distribution will also see gains in their lifetime average earnings, but their gains are predicted to be proportionately much smaller than those of women with a high rank in the distribution. Men with high earnings are also predicted to enjoy substantial gains in their relative lifetime earnings, while men with a lower rank in the earnings distribution will probably see a significant erosion in their typical wages relative to the economy-wide average wage. That is mainly the result of a sharp decline in the relative earnings of low-wage men born after 1950. In creating stylized earnings profiles that are

  5. How Women Can Earn a Living Wage: The Effects of Pay Equity Remedies and a Higher Minimum Wage. Research-in-Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figart, Deborah M.; Lapidus, June

    Efforts to shift women from welfare into the labor market will not necessarily move women out of poverty because the wages they are likely to earn are so low. According to research tracking Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients over a 2-year period, 43% of AFDC recipients combine welfare with a substantial amount of paid…

  6. Women's Earnings: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, women's real earnings rose whereas those of men declined. Even as the gender pay gap narrowed, earnings differences between white women and black and Hispanic women continued to grow. (Author)

  7. HMO penetration and physicians' earnings.

    PubMed

    Hadley, J; Mitchell, J M

    1999-11-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate whether cross-sectional variations in enrollment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) affected physicians' earnings and hourly income in 1990. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 4,577 younger physicians (<45 years) conducted in 1991, we estimated a partial reduced-form model of physicians annual income and per hour income. We tested whether HMO penetration is endogenous and used the instrumental variables approach to obtain unbiased estimates. HMO penetration had a negative and statistically significant impact on physicians earnings in 1990. A doubling of the average level of HMO penetration in the market is estimated to reduce annual earnings by 7% to 10.7%, and hourly earnings by approximately 6% to 9%. It appears that HMOs were successful in reducing physicians' annual and per hour earnings in 1990, presumably through a combination of fewer visits and lower payment rates for people covered by HMOs. Although these results cannot be generalized to all physicians, the experience of a younger cohort of physicians may still be a good indicator of the future effects of HMOs because younger physicians may be more susceptible to market forces than older and more established physicians. Moreover, these results may be somewhat conservative because they reflect market behavior in 1990, several years before the rapid growth and more aggressive market behavior of HMOs in recent years.

  8. Education and Lifetime Earnings in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Christopher R; Kim, ChangHwan; Sakamoto, Arthur

    2015-08-01

    Differences in lifetime earnings by educational attainment have been of great research and policy interest. Although a large literature examines earnings differences by educational attainment, research on lifetime earnings--which refers to total accumulated earnings from entry into the labor market until retirement--remains limited because of the paucity of adequate data. Using data that match respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to their longitudinal tax earnings as recorded by the Social Security Administration, we estimate the 50-year work career effects of education on lifetime earnings for men and women. By overcoming the purely synthetic cohort approach, our results provide a more realistic appraisal of actual patterns of lifetime earnings. Detailed estimates are provided for gross lifetime earnings by education; net lifetime earnings after controlling for covariates associated with the probability of obtaining a bachelor's degree; and the net present 50-year lifetime value of education at age 20. In addition, we provide estimates that include individuals with zero earnings and disability. We also assess the adequacy of the purely synthetic cohort approach, which uses age differences in earnings observed in cross-sectional surveys to approximate lifetime earnings. Overall, our results confirm the persistent positive effects of higher education on earnings over different stages of the work career and over a lifetime, but also reveal notably smaller net effects on lifetime earnings compared with previously reported estimates. We discuss the implications of these and other findings.

  9. The Earnings Gap between Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The size of the earnings gap between men and women has not changed substantially in recent years. The sustained earnings differential contrasts significantly with recent gains women have made in the job market. Several factors contribute to the wage differences: (1) The majority of women are in lower-paying occupations and lower-status jobs even…

  10. Education and Lifetime Earnings in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Tamborini, Christopher R.; Kim, ChangHwan; Sakamoto, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Differences in lifetime earnings by educational attainment have been of great research and policy interest. Although a large literature examines earnings differences by educational attainment, research on lifetime earnings—which refers to total accumulated earnings from entry into the labor market until retirement—remains limited because of the paucity of adequate data. Using data that match respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to their longitudinal tax earnings as recorded by the Social Security Administration, we estimate the 50-year work career effects of education on lifetime earnings for men and women. By overcoming the purely synthetic cohort approach, our results provide a more realistic appraisal of actual patterns of lifetime earnings. Detailed estimates are provided for gross lifetime earnings by education; net lifetime earnings after controlling for covariates associated with the probability of obtaining a bachelor’s degree; and the net present 50-year lifetime value of education at age 20. In addition, we provide estimates that include individuals with zero earnings and disability. We also assess the adequacy of the purely synthetic cohort approach, which uses age differences in earnings observed in cross-sectional surveys to approximate lifetime earnings. Overall, our results confirm the persistent positive effects of higher education on earnings over different stages of the work career and over a lifetime, but also reveal notably smaller net effects on lifetime earnings compared with previously reported estimates. We discuss the implications of these and other findings. PMID:26100983

  11. Academic Entrepreneurship (Re)defined: Significance and Implications for the Scholarship of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mars, Matthew M.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades higher education scholars have conducted a significant amount of research aimed at understanding the implications of enhanced interactions between the academy and the private marketplace. Accordingly, a voluminous literature that includes conceptualizations and discussions of "academic entrepreneurship" has emerged.…

  12. The Inception of the Meaning and Significance of Endowment in American Higher Education, 1890-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Bruce A.; Johnson, Benjamin Ashby

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Endowments of institutions of higher education in the United States have attracted widespread attention in recent decades due to their meteoric rise in value and their precipitous decline during the recent recession. But there has been little research on the beginnings of the significant interest in and importance of…

  13. PCOS women show significantly higher homocysteine level, independent to glucose and E2 level

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Zahra; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Nejati, Vahid; Tizro, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is reasonable to think that some biochemical characteristics of follicular fluid (FF) surrounding the oocyte may play a critical role in determining the quality of oocyte and the subsequent potential needed to achieve fertilization and embryo development. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of FF homocysteine (Hcy) in IVF candidate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and any relationships with FF glucose and estradiol (E2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this case control study which was performed in Dr. Tizro Day Care and IVF Center 70 infertile patients were enrolled in two groups: comprising 35 PCOS and 35 non PCOS women. Long protocol was performed for all patients. FF Hcy, glucose and E2 levels were analyzed at the time of oocyte retrieval. Results: It was observed that FF Hcy level was significantly higher in PCOS patients compared with non PCOSs (p<0.01). Observations demonstrated that in PCOS group, the Hcy level increased independent to E2, glucose levels, BMI and age, while the PCOS group showed significantly higher BMI compared with non-PCOS group (p=0.03). However, no significant differences were revealed between groups for FF glucose and E2 levels. Conclusion: Present data showed that although FF glucose and E2 levels were constant in PCOS and non PCOS patients, but the FF Hcy levels in PCOS were significantly increased (p=0.01). PMID:27679823

  14. How do nonprofit hospitals manage earnings?

    PubMed

    Leone, Andrew J; Van Horn, R Lawrence

    2005-07-01

    We hypothesize that, unlike for-profit firms, nonprofit hospitals have incentives to manage earnings to a range just above zero. We consider two ways managers can achieve this. They can adjust discretionary spending [Hoerger, T.J., 1991. 'Profit' variability in for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Journal of Health Economics 10, 259-289.] and/or they can adjust accounting accruals using the flexibility inherent in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). To test our hypothesis we use regressions as well as tests of the distribution of earnings by Burgstahler and Dichev [Burgstahler, D., Dichev, I., 1997. Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses. Journal of Accounting and Economics 24, 99-126.] on a sample of 1,204 hospitals and 8,179 hospital-year observations. Our tests support the use of discretionary spending and accounting accrual management. Like Hoerger (1991), we find evidence that nonprofit hospitals adjust discretionary spending to manage earnings. However, we also find significant use of discretionary accruals (e.g., adjustments to the third-party-allowance, and allowance for doubtful accounts) to meet earnings objectives. These findings have two important implications. First, the previous evidence by Hoerger that nonprofit hospitals show less variation in income may at least partly be explained by an accounting phenomenon. Second, our findings provide guidance to users of these financial statements in predicting the direction of likely bias in reported earnings.

  15. The Agony and the Ecstasy: Current Status of Hispanic Individuals' Achievement in Higher Education and Earnings - With a Glimpse to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Santos, Gilberto; Asgary, Nader; Nazemzadeh, Asghar; DeShields, Jr., Oscar W.

    2005-01-01

    Some projections about Hispanic individuals point to a rosy picture regarding gains in higher educational enrollment. Other studies lament that these gains are, at best, minimal. Although the so-called higher education pie is undoubtedly expanding, this article concludes that Hispanic adults are losing, rather than gaining, educational attainment…

  16. Human cyclophilin has a significantly higher affinity for HIV-1 recombinant p55 than p24.

    PubMed

    Bristow, R; Byrne, J; Squirell, J; Trencher, H; Carter, T; Rodgers, B; Saman, E; Duncan, J

    1999-04-01

    The ability of cyclophilin to bind a panel of recombinant HIV-gag proteins was assessed using sensitive, quantitative, sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISAs). Significantly higher binding to cyclophilin was observed when recombinants contained at least 12 carboxy-terminal amino acids of p17 in addition to p24 sequences. These results indicate that the carboxy-terminus of p17 is important for optimal binding of cyclophilin to p24 and support the theory that cyclophilin acts on the uncleaved HIV-1 gag (p17-p24) precursor.

  17. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN U.S. HOSPITALS.

    PubMed

    Dong, Gang Nathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the hospital management practices of manipulating financial earnings within the bounds of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). We conduct regression analyses that relate earnings management to hospital characteristics to assess the economic determinants of hospital earnings management behavior. From the CMS Cost Reports we collected hospital financial data of all U.S. hospitals that request reimbursement from the federal government for treating Medicare patients, and regress discretionary accruals on hospital size, profitability, asset liquidity, operating efficiency, labor cost, and ownership. Hospitals with higher profit margin, current ratio, working capital, days of patient receivables outstanding and total wage are associated with more earnings management, whereas those with larger size and higher debt level, asset turnover, days cash on hand, fixed asset age are associated with lower level of earnings manipulation. Additionally, managers of non-profit hospitals are more likely to undertake some form of window-dressing by manipulating accounting accruals without changing business models or pricing strategies than their public hospital counterparts. We provide direct evidence of the use of discretionary accruals to manage financial earnings among U.S. hospitals and the finding has profound policy implications in terms of assessing the pervasiveness of accounting manipulation and the overall integrity of financial reporting in this very special public and quasi-public service sector.

  18. Why do very unattractive workers earn so much?

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi; Hu, Shihao; Larere, Adrien

    2018-05-01

    Kanazawa and Still (2018) showed that very unattractive workers earned more than unattractive workers, sometimes more than average-looking or attractive workers, because they had higher levels of intelligence and education, but they did not explain why very unattractive workers had higher intelligence and education. There are both theoretical and empirical reasons to expect that some intelligent men may prefer to marry very unattractive women. The analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) shows that very unattractive women were significantly more likely to be married at Age 29 than unattractive or average-looking women, and their spouses or partners earned significantly more than those of unattractive or average-looking women. If intelligent men have historically preferred to marry very unattractive women generation after generation, then, because both general intelligence and physical attractiveness are highly heritable, this can explain why very unattractive workers are more intelligent and achieve higher education, thereby earning more. It can also explain why the positive correlation between intelligence and physical attractiveness is not larger despite assortative mating of intelligent men of higher status and physically attractive women over many generations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk of abnormal triple screen for Down syndrome is significantly higher in patients with female fetuses.

    PubMed

    Spong, C Y; Ghidini, A; Stanley-Christian, H; Meck, J M; Seydel, F D; Pezzullo, J C

    1999-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that mid-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are significantly higher and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels significantly lower in women with male compared with female fetuses. We have evaluated whether triple-screen criteria are more likely to identify women with female fetuses as at risk for Down syndrome. From the Georgetown University genetics database we obtained the absolute values and corresponding multiples of the median (MoM) for AFP, hCG and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) in singleton gestations for the period database November 1992 July 1996. A Down syndrome risk of 1/270 or greater at mid-trimester was considered as high risk. A total of 977 patients with triple screen and outcome information were identified, including 502 female and 475 male fetuses. Patients with female fetuses were significantly more likely to have lower serum AFP (p=0.003) and a positive triple screen for Down syndrome (72 (14 per cent) versus 45 (9 per cent), p<0.02) than those with male fetuses. The gestational age at triple screen, maternal serum hCG and uE3, race and diabetes were not significantly different between the two groups. Since Down syndrome is less common in female than male fetuses, and the rates of female and male Down syndrome fetuses detected by triple screen and subsequent amniocentesis are not significantly different, the excess of positive mid-trimester maternal serum triple screen in women with female fetuses is likely due to false-positive results.

  20. The prevalence of coeliac disease is significantly higher in children compared with adults.

    PubMed

    Mariné, M; Farre, C; Alsina, M; Vilar, P; Cortijo, M; Salas, A; Fernández-Bañares, F; Rosinach, M; Santaolalla, R; Loras, C; Marquès, T; Cusí, V; Hernández, M I; Carrasco, A; Ribes, J; Viver, J M; Esteve, M

    2011-02-01

    Some limited studies of coeliac disease have shown higher frequency of coeliac disease in infancy and adolescence than in adulthood. This finding has remained unnoticed and not adequately demonstrated. To assess whether there are age and gender differences in coeliac disease prevalence. A total of 4230 subjects were included consecutively (1 to ≥80 years old) reproducing the reference population by age and gender. Sample size was calculated assuming a population-based coeliac disease prevalence of 1:250. After an interim analysis, the paediatric sample was expanded (2010 children) due to high prevalence in this group. Anti-transglutaminase and antiendomysial antibodies were determined and duodenal biopsy was performed if positive. Log-linear models were fitted to coeliac disease prevalence by age allowing calculation of percentage change of prevalence. Differences between groups were compared using Chi-squared test. Twenty-one subjects had coeliac disease (male/female 1:2.5). Coeliac disease prevalence in the total population was 1:204. Coeliac disease prevalence was higher in children (1:71) than in adults (1:357) (P = 0.00005). A significant decrease of prevalence in older generations was observed [change of prevalence by age of -5% (95% CI: -7.58 to -2.42%)]. In the paediatric expanded group (1-14 years), a decrease of coeliac disease prevalence was also observed [prevalence change: -17% (95% CI: -25.02 to -6.10)]. The prevalence of coeliac disease in childhood was five times higher than in adults. Whether this difference is due to environmental factors influencing infancy, or latency of coeliac disease in adulthood, remains to be demonstrated in prospective longitudinal studies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns

    PubMed Central

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988–2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature. PMID:26300582

  2. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988-2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature.

  3. Significantly Improving Regional Seismic Amplitude Tomography at Higher Frequencies by Determining S -Wave Bandwidth

    DOE PAGES

    Fisk, Mark D.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2016-05-03

    Characterizing regional seismic signals continues to be a difficult problem due to their variability. Calibration of these signals is very important to many aspects of monitoring underground nuclear explosions, including detecting seismic signals, discriminating explosions from earthquakes, and reliably estimating magnitude and yield. Amplitude tomography, which simultaneously inverts for source, propagation, and site effects, is a leading method of calibrating these signals. A major issue in amplitude tomography is the data quality of the input amplitude measurements. Pre-event and prephase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) tests are typically used but can frequently include bad signals and exclude good signals. The deficiencies ofmore » SNR criteria, which are demonstrated here, lead to large calibration errors. To ameliorate these issues, we introduce a semi-automated approach to assess the bandwidth of a spectrum where it behaves physically. We determine the maximum frequency (denoted as F max) where it deviates from this behavior due to inflections at which noise or spurious signals start to bias the spectra away from the expected decay. We compare two amplitude tomography runs using the SNR and new F max criteria and show significant improvements to the stability and accuracy of the tomography output for frequency bands higher than 2 Hz by using our assessments of valid S-wave bandwidth. We compare Q estimates, P/S residuals, and some detailed results to explain the improvements. Lastly, for frequency bands higher than 4 Hz, needed for effective P/S discrimination of explosions from earthquakes, the new bandwidth criteria sufficiently fix the instabilities and errors so that the residuals and calibration terms are useful for application.« less

  4. Individual and societal impact on earnings associated with serious mental illness in metropolitan China

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sing; Tsang, Adley; Huang, Yue-qin; He, Yan-ling; Liu, Zhao-rui; Zhang, Ming-yuan; Shen, Yu-cun; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate individual-level and societal-level losses of income associated with serious mental illness in metropolitan China, a multi-stage probability survey was administered to adults aged 18–70 in Beijing and Shanghai. We used data to estimate individual-level expected earnings from a model that included information about the respondents’ education level, marital status, age, and gender. Expected earnings were compared to observed earnings among respondents with mental illness and serious disability. The result shows that the 12-month prevalence of such serious mental illness was 0.6%. Its impact on earnings was significant in the total sample and was higher for males (76% of gender-specific expected salary was lost) than females (32%). When projected to societal level, the annual impact was estimated to be 466 million Renminbi (RMB 8.27= USD 1), less than 0.2% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the two cities. Serious mental illness was associated with a substantial decrease in individual-level earnings, but the burden that resulted from societal-level loss of earnings was not large enough to help drive mental health policy and programs in China. PMID:20493555

  5. External Stakeholders of Higher Education Institutions in Poland: Their Identification and Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowska-Piatek, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the ongoing changes in the management systems of higher education, the issue of higher education institutions' (HEIs) relationships with external stakeholders are of key importance. This article discusses this problem from the perspective of Polish higher education system. The aim of it is to answer the following questions: (1)…

  6. Significant enhancement in thermoelectric performance of nanostructured higher manganese silicides synthesized employing a melt spinning technique.

    PubMed

    Muthiah, Saravanan; Singh, R C; Pathak, B D; Avasthi, Piyush Kumar; Kumar, Rishikesh; Kumar, Anil; Srivastava, A K; Dhar, Ajay

    2018-01-25

    The limited thermoelectric performance of p-type Higher Manganese Silicides (HMS) in terms of their low figure-of-merit (ZT), which is far below unity, is the main bottle-neck for realising an efficient HMS based thermoelectric generator, which has been recognized as the most promising material for harnessing waste-heat in the mid-temperature range, owing to its thermal stability, earth-abundant and environmentally friendly nature of its constituent elements. We report a significant enhancement in the thermoelectric performance of nanostructured HMS synthesized using rapid solidification by optimizing the cooling rates during melt-spinning followed by spark plasma sintering of the resulting melt-spun ribbons. By employing this experimental strategy, an unprecedented ZT ∼ 0.82 at 800 K was realized in spark plasma sintered 5 at% Al-doped MnSi 1.73 HMS, melt spun at an optimized high cooling rate of ∼2 × 10 7 K s -1 . This enhancement in ZT represents a ∼25% increase over the best reported values thus far for HMS and primarily originates from a nano-crystalline microstructure consisting of a HMS matrix (20-40 nm) with excess Si (3-9 nm) uniformly distributed in it. This nanostructure, resulting from the high cooling rates employed during the melt-spinning of HMS, introduces a high density of nano-crystallite boundaries in a wide spectrum of nano-scale dimensions, which scatter the low-to-mid-wavelength heat-carrying phonons. This abundant phonon scattering results in a significantly reduced thermal conductivity of ∼1.5 W m -1 K -1 at 800 K, which primarily contributes to the enhancement in ZT.

  7. Personality, Education and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Economists are only beginning to understand the relationship between personality traits and economic outcomes. This paper examines the influence of childhood social maladjustment on cognitive development, labor market earnings and career progression using longitudinal data drawn from the National Child Development Study. Net of differences in…

  8. Non-Targeted Effects Models Predict Significantly Higher Mars Mission Cancer Risk than Targeted Effects Models

    DOE PAGES

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Cacao, Eliedonna

    2017-05-12

    Cancer risk is an important concern for galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, which consist of a wide-energy range of protons, heavy ions and secondary radiation produced in shielding and tissues. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors for surrogate cancer endpoints in cell culture models and tumor induction in mice vary considerable, including significant variations for different tissues and mouse strains. Many studies suggest non-targeted effects (NTE) occur for low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, leading to deviation from the linear dose response model used in radiation protection. Using the mouse Harderian gland tumor experiment, the only extensive data-setmore » for dose response modelling with a variety of particle types (>4), for the first-time a particle track structure model of tumor prevalence is used to investigate the effects of NTEs in predictions of chronic GCR exposure risk. The NTE model led to a predicted risk 2-fold higher compared to a targeted effects model. The scarcity of data with animal models for tissues that dominate human radiation cancer risk, including lung, colon, breast, liver, and stomach, suggest that studies of NTEs in other tissues are urgently needed prior to long-term space missions outside the protection of the Earth’s geomagnetic sphere.« less

  9. Non-Targeted Effects Models Predict Significantly Higher Mars Mission Cancer Risk than Targeted Effects Models

    SciT

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Cacao, Eliedonna

    Cancer risk is an important concern for galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, which consist of a wide-energy range of protons, heavy ions and secondary radiation produced in shielding and tissues. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors for surrogate cancer endpoints in cell culture models and tumor induction in mice vary considerable, including significant variations for different tissues and mouse strains. Many studies suggest non-targeted effects (NTE) occur for low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, leading to deviation from the linear dose response model used in radiation protection. Using the mouse Harderian gland tumor experiment, the only extensive data-setmore » for dose response modelling with a variety of particle types (>4), for the first-time a particle track structure model of tumor prevalence is used to investigate the effects of NTEs in predictions of chronic GCR exposure risk. The NTE model led to a predicted risk 2-fold higher compared to a targeted effects model. The scarcity of data with animal models for tissues that dominate human radiation cancer risk, including lung, colon, breast, liver, and stomach, suggest that studies of NTEs in other tissues are urgently needed prior to long-term space missions outside the protection of the Earth’s geomagnetic sphere.« less

  10. The Significance of Blackstone's Understanding of Sovereign Immunity for America's Public Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Brian A.; Thro, William E.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that from the perspective of America's public institutions of higher education, Blackstone's greatest legacy is his understanding of sovereign immunity. Explores the similarities between Blackstone's understanding of sovereign immunity and the current jurisprudence of the U.S. Supreme Court. (EV)

  11. The Strategic Purposes and Significant Effects of Quality Assurance in German Higher Education: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how the German higher education system strategically used quality assurance, through the new system of accreditation, to offer globally recognisable degrees such as the Bachelor's (Bakkalaureaus) and Master's (Magister) degrees. We also discuss the types of effects that this strategy has produced on the current…

  12. Earnings and Benefits of Contingent and Noncontingent Workers [and] Earnings and Benefits of Workers in Alternative Work Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipple, Steven; Stewart, Jay

    1996-01-01

    Contingent workers generally earn less income and are less likely to receive health insurance and pension benefits through their employers than are noncontingent workers. However, many earn higher wages than those in traditional arrangements and have access to health insurance from other sources. (Author)

  13. Her earnings: Exploring variation in wives' earning contributions across six major Asian groups and Whites.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Veena S

    2015-07-01

    Previous research on understanding race-ethnic differentials in employment and economic contributions by married women has primarily focused on Blacks, Hispanics, or Whites. This study investigates variations in wives' earning contributions as measured by wives earnings as a proportion of total annual household earnings among six Asian groups, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese relative to native born non-Hispanic White. I disaggregate the six Asian groups by their ethnicity and nativity status. Using pooled data from 2009-2011 American Community Survey, the findings show significance of human capital, hours of paid labor market engagement and nativity status. There is strong and negative association between husbands' human capital and labor supply with wives' earning contributions suggesting near universality of male-breadwinner status. Notwithstanding the commonalities, there is significant intergroup diversity. While foreign born and native born Filipina wives despite their spouses' reasonably high human capital and work hours, contribute one of the highest shares, the same cannot be said for the Asian Indians and Japanese. For foreign born Asian Indian and to some extent Japanese women, their high human capital is not translated to high earning contribution after controlling for husband's human capital. Further, nativity status impacts groups differentially. Native born Vietnamese wives contribute the greatest. Overall, the findings underscore the relevance of employing multiple conceptual frameworks in understanding earning contributions of foreign and native born Asian wives belonging to the six Asian groups, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Earned Value-Added

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Earned value management [EVM] ...either you swear by it, or swear at it. Either way, there s no getting around the fact that EVM can be one of the most efficient and insightful methods of synthesizing cost, schedule, and technical status information into a single set of program health metrics. Is there a way of implementing EVM that allows a program to reap its early warning benefits while avoiding the pitfalls that make it infamous to its detractors? That s the question recently faced by the International Space Station [ISS] program.

  15. Significance of two distinct types of tryptophan synthase beta chain in Bacteria, Archaea and higher plants.

    PubMed

    Xie, Gary; Forst, Christian; Bonner, Carol; Jensen, Roy A

    2002-01-01

    Tryptophan synthase consists of two subunits, alpha and beta. Two distinct subgroups of beta chain exist. The major group (TrpEb_1) includes the well-studied beta chain of Salmonella typhimurium. The minor group of beta chain (TrpEb_2) is most frequently found in the Archaea. Most of the amino-acid residues important for catalysis are highly conserved between both TrpE subfamilies. Conserved amino-acid residues of TrpEb_1 that make allosteric contact with the TrpEa subunit (the alpha chain) are absent in TrpEb_2. Representatives of Archaea, Bacteria and higher plants all exist that possess both TrpEb_1 and TrpEb_2. In those prokaryotes where two trpEb genes coexist, one is usually trpEb_1 and is adjacent to trpEa, whereas the second is trpEb_2 and is usually unlinked with other tryptophan-pathway genes. TrpEb_1 is nearly always partnered with TrpEa in the tryptophan synthase reaction. However, by default at least six lineages of the Archaea are likely to use TrpEb_2 as the functional beta chain, as TrpEb_1 is absent. The six lineages show a distinctive divergence within the overall TrpEa phylogenetic tree, consistent with the lack of selection for amino-acid residues in TrpEa that are otherwise conserved for interfacing with TrpEb_1. We suggest that the standalone function of TrpEb_2 might be to catalyze the serine deaminase reaction, an established catalytic capability of tryptophan synthase beta chains. A coincident finding of interest is that the Archaea seem to use the citramalate pathway, rather than threonine deaminase (IlvA), to initiate the pathway of isoleucine biosynthesis.

  16. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory.

  17. The Effect of CETA on the Postprogram Earnings of Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassi, Laurie J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a study of efforts to use the Continuous Longitudinal Manpower Survey to estimate the effect that the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) has had on the post-training earnings of participants. Results indicate that CETA has had a positive and often significant effect on the earnings of participants, and that women benefited…

  18. Significantly higher number of fetal cells in the maternal circulation of women with pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M W; Korver-Hakkennes, K; van Leenen, D; Visser, W; in 't Veld, P A; de Groot, C J; Wladimiroff, J W

    2001-12-01

    Although the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia is unknown, several studies have indicated that abnormal placentation early in pregnancy might play a key role. It has recently been suggested that this abnormal placentation may result in transfusion of fetal cells (feto-maternal transfusion) in women with pre-eclampsia. In the present study, fetal nucleated red blood cells were isolated from 20 women with pre-eclampsia and 20 controls using a very efficient magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) protocol. The number of male cells was determined using two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for X and Y chromosomes. Significantly more XY cells could be detected in women with pre-eclampsia (0.61+/-1.2 XY cells/ml blood) compared to women with uncomplicated pregnancies (0.02+/-0.04 XY cells/ml blood) (Mann-Whitney U-test, p<0.001). These results suggest that fetal cell trafficking is enhanced in women with pre-eclampsia, and this finding may contribute to the understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Labor Market Earnings of American Artists in 1980. A Report to the National Endowment for the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filer, Randall K.

    While some studies of the earnings of artists have typically claimed that artists earn significantly less than other workers, others suggest that there is no basis for concluding that artists earn any less on average than they would in other jobs. This study presents information regarding the earning and labor market success of artists in the…

  20. 7 CFR 1767.25 - Retained earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retained earnings. 1767.25 Section 1767.25....25 Retained earnings. The retained earnings accounts identified in this section shall be used by all RUS borrowers. Retained Earnings 433-439 [Reserved] Retained Earnings 433-439 [Reserved] ...

  1. Learn to Earn: Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vella Rose B.

    The sixth grade learn-to-earn field tested unit was designed to develop career awareness and employability skills. The purpose is to help the learner understand the tasks performed in the home setting as related to the interest, aptitude, and training of the individuals performing these tasks. The lesson topics are: ways to earn money; personal…

  2. 20 CFR 416.974a - When and how we will average your earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 416.974a Section 416.974a Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... as a self-employed person was continuous without significant change in work patterns or earnings, and there has been no change in the substantial gainful activity earnings levels, your earnings will be...

  3. 20 CFR 416.974a - When and how we will average your earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 416.974a Section 416.974a Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... as a self-employed person was continuous without significant change in work patterns or earnings, and there has been no change in the substantial gainful activity earnings levels, your earnings will be...

  4. Educational Pairings, Motherhood, and Women's Relative Earnings in Europe.

    PubMed

    Van Bavel, Jan; Klesment, Martin

    2017-12-01

    As a consequence of the reversal of the gender gap in education, the female partner in a couple now typically has as much as or more education compared with the male partner in most Western countries. This study addresses the implications for the earnings of women relative to their male partners in 16 European countries. Using the 2007 and 2011 rounds of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (N = 58,292), we investigate the extent to which international differences in women's relative earnings can be explained by educational pairings and their interaction with the motherhood penalty on women's earnings, by international differences in male unemployment, or by cultural gender norms. We find that the newly emerged pattern of hypogamy is associated with higher relative earnings for women in all countries and that the motherhood penalty on relative earnings is considerably lower in hypogamous couples, but neither of these findings can explain away international country differences. Similarly, male unemployment is associated with higher relative earnings for women but cannot explain away the country differences. Against expectations, we find that the hypogamy bonus on women's relative earnings, if anything, tends to be stronger rather than weaker in countries that exhibit more conservative gender norms.

  5. 47 CFR 32.4550 - Retained earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4550 Retained earnings. (a) This account shall include the undistributed balance of retained earnings derived from the...

  6. The influence of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems' performance on earnings management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Kuen-Chang; Liu, Jau-Yang; Lin, Sin-Jin; Chou, Yu-Wei

    2012-11-01

    We analyse whether there is a linkage between performance measures of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems and earnings management. We find that earnings management decreases with the higher performance of ERP systems. The empirical result is as expected. We further analyse how the dimension of the DeLone and McLean model of information systems success affects earnings management. We find that the relationship between the performance of ERP systems and earnings management depends on System Quality after ERP implementation. The more System Quality improves, the more earnings management is reduced.

  7. The Impact of Literacy, Numeracy and Computer Skills on Earnings and Employment Outcomes. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Marguerita; Conlon, Gavan

    2016-01-01

    Using the 2012 PIAAC data, our analysis confirms that there are significantly higher earnings and employment returns to "both" increasing levels of formally recognised education, and to increasing levels of numeracy, literacy and information and communication technologies (ICT) skills proficiencies controlling for the level of education.…

  8. Coping with the Sluggish Economy: State Responses to Revenue Shortfalls and Their Significance for Public Schools and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Gale

    Responses of southern states to revenue shortfalls and their significance for public schools and higher education are examined in this report. Many different actions have been take to address state fiscal problems: most strategies require changes in revenue polices that increase taxes and fees or reallocate funds, and many have mandated spending…

  9. Increasing Earnings Inequality in Faculty Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monks, James

    This study examined earnings inequality for college and university faculty, using data from the National Study of Postsecondary Faculty to examine whether earnings for this group increased from the late 1980s to the late 1990s. The study was the first to decompose faculty earnings inequality into the proportion of the earnings inequality that is…

  10. The Flexible Fairness: Equality, Earned Entitlement, and Self-Interest

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ruolei; Broster, Lucas S.; Shen, Xueyi; Tian, Tengxiang; Luo, Yue-Jia; Krueger, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored whether earned entitlement modulated the perception of fairness in three experiments. A preliminary resource earning task was added before players decided how to allocate the resource they jointly earned. Participants’ decision in allocation, their responses to equal or unequal offers, whether advantageous or disadvantageous, and subjective ratings of fairness were all assessed in the current study. Behavioral results revealed that participants proposed more generous offers and showed enhanced tolerance to disadvantageous unequal offers from others when they performed worse than their presumed “partners,” while the reverse was true in the better-performance condition. The subjective ratings also indicated the effect of earned entitlement, such that worse performance was associated with higher perceived feelings of fairness for disadvantageous unequal offers, while better performance was associated with higher feelings of fairness for advantageous unequal offers. Equal offers were considered “fair” only when earned entitlement was even between two parties. In sum, the perception of fairness is modulated by an integration of egalitarian motivation and entitlement. In addition to justice principles, participants were also motivated by self-interest, such that participants placed more weight on entitlement in the better-performance condition than in the worse-performance condition. These results imply that earned entitlement is evaluated in a self-serving way. PMID:24039867

  11. Gender Segregation in Fields of Study at Community Colleges and Implications for Future Earnings. Fact Sheet #C395

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moughari, Layla; Gunn-Wright, Rhiana; Gault, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary education yields myriad benefits, including increased earnings potential, higher lifetime wages, and access to quality jobs. But postsecondary degrees are not all equal in the benefits they bring to students, and women tend to obtain degrees in fields with lower earnings. Women with associate degrees earn approximately 75 percent of…

  12. Earning and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haughton, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    The higher education landscape has changed considerably in the past decade, with the introduction of a range of flexible work-related opportunities to allow working people to study and progress at higher levels. This includes the development of modes of delivery such as distance and e-learning options, but also new ways of working between…

  13. Twitter sentiment around the Earnings Announcement events

    PubMed Central

    Grčar, Miha

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between social media, Twitter in particular, and stock market. We provide an in-depth analysis of the Twitter volume and sentiment about the 30 companies in the Dow Jones Industrial Average index, over a period of three years. We focus on Earnings Announcements and show that there is a considerable difference with respect to when the announcements are made: before the market opens or after the market closes. The two different timings of the Earnings Announcements were already investigated in the financial literature, but not yet in the social media. We analyze the differences in terms of the Twitter volumes, cumulative abnormal returns, trade returns, and earnings surprises. We report mixed results. On the one hand, we show that the Twitter sentiment (the collective opinion of the users) on the day of the announcement very well reflects the stock moves on the same day. We demonstrate this by applying the event study methodology, where the polarity of the Earnings Announcements is computed from the Twitter sentiment. Cumulative abnormal returns are high (2–4%) and statistically significant. On the other hand, we find only weak predictive power of the Twitter sentiment one day in advance. It turns out that it is important how to account for the announcements made after the market closes. These after-hours announcements draw high Twitter activity immediately, but volume and price changes in trading are observed only on the next day. On the day before the announcements, the Twitter volume is low, and the sentiment has very weak predictive power. A useful lesson learned is the importance of the proper alignment between the announcements, trading and Twitter data. PMID:28235103

  14. Twitter sentiment around the Earnings Announcement events.

    PubMed

    Gabrovšek, Peter; Aleksovski, Darko; Mozetič, Igor; Grčar, Miha

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between social media, Twitter in particular, and stock market. We provide an in-depth analysis of the Twitter volume and sentiment about the 30 companies in the Dow Jones Industrial Average index, over a period of three years. We focus on Earnings Announcements and show that there is a considerable difference with respect to when the announcements are made: before the market opens or after the market closes. The two different timings of the Earnings Announcements were already investigated in the financial literature, but not yet in the social media. We analyze the differences in terms of the Twitter volumes, cumulative abnormal returns, trade returns, and earnings surprises. We report mixed results. On the one hand, we show that the Twitter sentiment (the collective opinion of the users) on the day of the announcement very well reflects the stock moves on the same day. We demonstrate this by applying the event study methodology, where the polarity of the Earnings Announcements is computed from the Twitter sentiment. Cumulative abnormal returns are high (2-4%) and statistically significant. On the other hand, we find only weak predictive power of the Twitter sentiment one day in advance. It turns out that it is important how to account for the announcements made after the market closes. These after-hours announcements draw high Twitter activity immediately, but volume and price changes in trading are observed only on the next day. On the day before the announcements, the Twitter volume is low, and the sentiment has very weak predictive power. A useful lesson learned is the importance of the proper alignment between the announcements, trading and Twitter data.

  15. Visible light-induced oxidation of unsaturated components of cutins: a significant process during the senescence of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Rontani, Jean-François; Rabourdin, Adélaïde; Pinot, Franck; Kandel, Sylvie; Aubert, Claude

    2005-02-01

    9-Hydroperoxy-18-hydroxyoctadec-10(trans)-enoic and 10-hydroperoxy-18-hydroxyoctadec-8(trans)-enoic acids deriving from type II (i.e. involving 1O2) photooxidation of 18-hydroxyoleic acid were detected after visible light-induced senescence experiments carried out with Petroselinum sativum and subsequent cutin depolymerisation. These results showed that in senescent plants, where the 1O2 formation rate exceeds the quenching capacity of the photoprotective system, 1O2 can migrate outside the chloroplasts and affect the unsaturated components of cutins. Significant amounts of 9,18-dihydroxyoctadec-10(trans)-enoic and 10,18-dihydroxyoctadec-8(trans)-enoic acids resulting from the reduction of these photoproducts of 18-hydroxyoleic acid were also detected in different natural samples. These results well support the significance of the photooxidation of the unsaturated components of higher plant cutins in the natural environment.

  16. Thoughts on Earned Value Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pido, Kelle

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of Earned Value reporting and Earned Value Metrics (EVM) and the implementation for the Constellation Program. EVM is used to manage both the contract and civil service workforce, and used as a measure of contractor costs and performance. The Program EVM is not as useful for Level of Effort tasking, for either contractor, or civil service employees. Some issues and concerns in reference to EVM and the process for the use of EVM for Mission assurance are reviewed,

  17. The Impact of Advanced Vocational Education and Training on Earnings in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Roland; Nabavi, Pardis; Wilhelmsson, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have established a relationship between greater education and training and higher earnings but it is difficult to infer that the former causes the latter if those with higher earnings tend to engage in more education and training. The present study attempts to control for ability and family background to see if stronger inferences can…

  18. Post-Service Earnings of Veterans: A Survey and Further Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    its impact on a veteran’s earnings potential in the civilian sector becomes extremely important. A potential enlistee’s decision to join the military...to investments in human capital and their subsequent influence on the earnings ability of veterans entering the civilian sector . Although human...non-veterans in the early years of their civilian worklife (Bryant and Wilhite, 1990; Daymont and Andrisani, 1986) but have higher earnings growth

  19. Earned Degrees Conferred: 1969-70 Summary Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Mary Evans

    This document presents a report of earned degrees conferred by institutions of higher education in the United States in 1969-1970. Some of the highlights of the report include: (1) 1,072,581 degrees were conferred at the bachelor's and higher levels at 1,617 institutions; (2) publically controlled institutions awarded 65% of all degrees; (3)…

  20. Rib fractures and their association With solid organ injury: higher rib fractures have greater significance for solid organ injury screening.

    PubMed

    Rostas, Jack W; Lively, Timothy B; Brevard, Sidney B; Simmons, Jon D; Frotan, Mohammad A; Gonzalez, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patients with rib injuries who were at risk for solid organ injury. A retrospective chart review was performed of all blunt trauma patients with rib fractures during the period from July 2007 to July 2012. Data were analyzed for association of rib fractures and solid organ injury. In all, 1,103 rib fracture patients were identified; 142 patients had liver injuries with 109 (77%) associated right rib fractures. Right-sided rib fractures with highest sensitivity for liver injury were middle rib segment (5 to 8) and lower segment (9 to 12) with liver injury sensitivities of 68% and 43%, respectively (P < .001); 151 patients had spleen injuries with 119 (79%) associated left rib fractures. Left middle segment rib fractures and lower segment rib fractures had sensitivities of 80% and 63% for splenic injury, respectively (P < .003). Rib fractures higher in the thoracic cage have significant association with solid organ injury. Using rib fractures from middle plus lower segments as indication for abdominal screening will significantly improve rib fracture sensitivity for identification of solid organ injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of skin tone, height, and gender on earnings

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Using a theoretical approach grounded in implicit bias and stereotyping theories, this study examines the relationship between observable physical characteristics (skin tone, height, and gender) and earnings, as measured by income. Combining separate streams of research on the influence of these three characteristics, we draw from a sample of 31,356 individual-year observations across 4,340 individuals from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) 1997. We find that skin tone, height, and gender interact such that taller males with darker skin tone attain lower earnings; those educated beyond high school, endowed with higher cognitive ability, and at the higher income level (>75th percentile) had even lower levels of earnings relative to individuals with lighter skin tone. The findings have implications for implicit bias theories, stereotyping, and the human capital literature within the fields of management, applied psychology, and economics. PMID:29293634

  2. Women's Education and Earnings in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werschkul, Misha; Gault, Barbara; Caiazza, Amy; Hartmann, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    Women have made remarkable strides in education during the past three decades, but these gains have yet to translate into full equity in pay. Women still earn less than men earn in nearly every profession and at every stage of their careers, and this earnings gap is evident in every state in the nation. This report focuses on educational…

  3. Farm Wives' Labor Force Participation and Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Deborah D.; Marlowe, Julia

    1990-01-01

    Examines relationship between employment earnings and farm wives' decisions to work off-farm. Examines effects of wives' human capital, home factors, and labor market on work decisions and earnings. Education, experience, debt, and farm size were stronger influences on wives' decisions than on their earnings variations, once employed. (TES)

  4. 5 CFR 630.604 - Earning rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Earning rates. 630.604 Section 630.604... § 630.604 Earning rates. (a) For each 12 months of service abroad, an employee earns home leave at the following rate: (1) An employee who accepts an appointment to, or occupies, a position for which the agency...

  5. 5 CFR 630.604 - Earning rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Earning rates. 630.604 Section 630.604... § 630.604 Earning rates. (a) For each 12 months of service abroad, an employee earns home leave at the following rate: (1) An employee who accepts an appointment to, or occupies, a position for which the agency...

  6. 5 CFR 630.604 - Earning rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earning rates. 630.604 Section 630.604... § 630.604 Earning rates. (a) For each 12 months of service abroad, an employee earns home leave at the following rate: (1) An employee who accepts an appointment to, or occupies, a position for which the agency...

  7. 5 CFR 630.604 - Earning rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Earning rates. 630.604 Section 630.604... § 630.604 Earning rates. (a) For each 12 months of service abroad, an employee earns home leave at the following rate: (1) An employee who accepts an appointment to, or occupies, a position for which the agency...

  8. 5 CFR 630.604 - Earning rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Earning rates. 630.604 Section 630.604... § 630.604 Earning rates. (a) For each 12 months of service abroad, an employee earns home leave at the following rate: (1) An employee who accepts an appointment to, or occupies, a position for which the agency...

  9. The Earnings Gap: Research Needs and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    As almost everyone knows, the earnings gap between men and women is very large. In 1972, the average woman earned only 58 percent as much as the average man when both worked full time. The author directs her discussion toward the large volume of research on the topic of the earnings gap and points to areas where further work might be done. She…

  10. Handedness, Earnings, Ability and Personality. Evidence from the Lab

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Evidence showing that on average left-handed (L), who are 10% in a population, tend to earn less than others is solely based on survey data. This paper is the first to test the relationship between handedness and earnings experimentally and also to assess whether the mechanism underlying it is predominantly cognitive or psychological. Data on 432 undergraduate students show that L do not obtain significantly different payoffs, a proxy for earnings, in a stylised labour market with multiple principals and agents. Similarly, scores in the Cognitive Reflection Test are not significantly different. Data on personality, measured using the Big Five test, show, instead, that L are significantly more agreeable and L females more extroverted. In addition, earnings significantly vary with personality only for L, increasing with extraversion and decreasing with neuroticism. Overall, our results fail to reject the null hypothesis that earnings do not differ by handedness and suggest differences in personality as a novel mechanism to rationalise L’s behaviour. PMID:27788156

  11. Significance of Trends on Enrolment, Budget and Actual Expenditure in the Examination of Higher Education Financing in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memba, Albert Zephaniah; Feng, Zhao Jun

    2016-01-01

    Financing of higher education in Tanzania is considered a crucial factor in realizing the country's development vision. It is for these reasons that Tanzania has been financing its higher education since its inception. Diminishing resource capacity and competing interests for government finance plunged the higher education into financial doldrums.…

  12. Tribes and Territories in the 21st Century: Rethinking the Significance of Disciplines in Higher Education. International Studies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trowler, Paul, Ed.; Saunders, Murray, Ed.; Bamber, Veronica, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "tribes and territories" metaphor for the cultures of academic disciplines and their roots in different knowledge characteristics has been used by those interested in university life and work since the early 1990s. This book draws together research, data and theory to show how higher education has gone through major change since then…

  13. Judgments of learning are significantly higher following feedback on relatively good versus relatively poor trials despite no actual learning differences.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michael J; Smith, Victoria; Ste-Marie, Diane M

    2016-02-01

    Studies have consistently shown that prospective metacognitive judgments of learning are often inaccurate because humans mistakenly interpret current performance levels as valid indices of learning. These metacognitive discrepancies are strongly related to conditions of practice. Here, we examined how the type of feedback (after good versus poor trials) received during practice and awareness (aware versus unaware) of this manipulation affected judgments of learning and actual learning. After each six-trial block, participants received feedback on their three best trials or three worst trials and half of the participants were made explicitly aware of the type of feedback they received while the other half were unaware. Judgments of learning were made at the end of each six-trial block and before the 24-h retention test. Results indicated no motor performance differences between groups in practice or retention; however, receiving feedback on relatively good compared to relatively poor trials resulted in significantly higher judgments of learning in practice and retention, irrespective of awareness. These results suggest that KR on relatively good versus relatively poor trials can have dissociable effects on judgments of learning in the absence of actual learning differences, even when participants are made aware of their feedback manipulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from Taiwan displayed significantly higher levels of antimicrobial resistance than those from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Torpdahl, Mia; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Li, Ishien; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Chiou, Chien-Shun

    2013-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a major zoonotic pathogen with a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. This pathogen can disseminate across borders and spread far distances via the food trade and international travel. In this study, we compared the genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of 378 S. Typhimurium isolates collected in Taiwan and Denmark between 2009 and 2010. Genotyping revealed that many S. Typhimurium strains were concurrently circulating in Taiwan, Denmark and other countries in 2009 and 2010. When compared to the isolates collected from Denmark, the isolates from Taiwan displayed a significantly higher level of resistance to 11 of the 12 tested antimicrobials. Seven genetic clusters (A-G) were designated for the isolates. A high percentage of the isolates in genetic clusters C, F and G were multidrug-resistant. Of the isolates in cluster C, 79.2% were ASSuT-resistant, characterized by resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. In cluster F, 84.1% of the isolates were ACSSuT-resistant (resistant to ASSuT and chloramphenicol). Cluster G was unique to Taiwan and characterized in most isolates by the absence of three VNTRs (ST20, ST30 and STTR6) as well as a variety of multidrug resistance profiles. This cluster exhibited very high to extremely high levels of resistance to several first-line drugs, and among the seven clusters, it displayed the highest levels of resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. The high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in S. Typhimurium from Taiwan highlights the necessity to strictly regulate the use of antimicrobials in the agriculture and human health care sectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Education and Synthetic Work-Life Earnings Estimates. American Community Survey Reports. ACS-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Tiffany; Kominski, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between education and earnings is a long-analyzed topic of study. Generally, there is a strong belief that achievement of higher levels of education is a well established path to better jobs and better earnings. This report provides one view of the economic value of educational attainment by producing an estimate of the amount of…

  16. Earning, Spending, and Drug Use in a Therapeutic Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Shrinidhi; DeFulio, Anthony; Jarvis, Brantley P.; Holtyn, August F.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing health problem that is associated with the degree to which individuals choose small, immediate monetary outcomes over larger, delayed outcomes. This study was a secondary analysis exploring the relation between financial choices and drug use in opioid-dependent adults in a therapeutic workplace intervention. Sixty-seven participants were randomly assigned to a condition in which access to paid job training was contingent upon naltrexone adherence (N = 35) or independent of naltrexone adherence (N = 32). Participants could earn approximately $10 per hour for 4 hours every weekday and could exchange earnings for gift cards or bill payments each weekday. Urine was collected and tested for opiates and cocaine thrice weekly. Participants’ earning, spending, and drug use were not related to measures of delay discounting obtained prior to the intervention. When financial choices were categorized based on drug use during the intervention, however, those with less frequent drug use or frequent use of one drug spent a smaller proportion of their daily earnings and maintained a higher daily balance than those who frequently tested positive for both drugs (i.e., opiates and cocaine). Several patterns described the relation between cumulative earning and spending including no saving, periods of saving, and sustained saving. One destructive effect of drug use may be that it creates a perpetual zero-balance situation in the lives of users, which in turn prevents them from gaining materials that could help to break the cycle of addiction. PMID:29104320

  17. Earning, Spending, and Drug Use in a Therapeutic Workplace.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Shrinidhi; DeFulio, Anthony; Jarvis, Brantley P; Holtyn, August F; Silverman, Kenneth

    2017-06-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing health problem that is associated with the degree to which individuals choose small, immediate monetary outcomes over larger, delayed outcomes. This study was a secondary analysis exploring the relation between financial choices and drug use in opioid-dependent adults in a therapeutic workplace intervention. Sixty-seven participants were randomly assigned to a condition in which access to paid job training was contingent upon naltrexone adherence (N = 35) or independent of naltrexone adherence (N = 32). Participants could earn approximately $10 per hour for 4 hours every weekday and could exchange earnings for gift cards or bill payments each weekday. Urine was collected and tested for opiates and cocaine thrice weekly. Participants' earning, spending, and drug use were not related to measures of delay discounting obtained prior to the intervention. When financial choices were categorized based on drug use during the intervention, however, those with less frequent drug use or frequent use of one drug spent a smaller proportion of their daily earnings and maintained a higher daily balance than those who frequently tested positive for both drugs (i.e., opiates and cocaine). Several patterns described the relation between cumulative earning and spending including no saving, periods of saving, and sustained saving. One destructive effect of drug use may be that it creates a perpetual zero-balance situation in the lives of users, which in turn prevents them from gaining materials that could help to break the cycle of addiction.

  18. The practice and earnings of preventive medicine physicians.

    PubMed

    Salive, M E

    1992-01-01

    A shortage of preventive medicine (PM) physicians exists in the United States. Researchers know little about these physicians' earnings and practice characteristics. The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) mailed a survey to all self-identified PM physicians on the American Medical Association (AMA) Physician Masterfile. A total of 3,771 (54%) responded; respondents' sex and region of residence were typical for PM physicians in general, with a slight excess of older physicians and those reporting board certification. A total of 2,664 (71%) were working full time, with median earnings of $85,000 (mean $90,000). Among full-time physicians, relatively higher earnings were associated with the following characteristics: male sex; age 45 to 64 years; major source of income from clinical, business, or industrial sources, rather than governmental or academic; and PM board certification. Full-time PM physicians earned much less than office-based private practitioners in several primary care specialties in 1989. The gap in earnings between PM specialists in government positions and those in the private sector is also substantial. Both disparities may require creative solutions.

  19. Higher Education in the United Arab Emirates: An Analysis of the Outcomes of Significant Increases in Supply and Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, several countries across the Middle and Far East have established higher education hubs, some of which have grown rapidly by attracting foreign universities to set up international branch campuses. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is by far the largest host of international branch campuses globally, having over 40 providers…

  20. Earning Differences by Major Field of Study: Evidence from Three Cohorts of Recent Canadian Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnie, Ross; Frenette, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of earnings differences by major field of study of three cohorts of graduates (1982, 1986, 1990) with bachelors' degrees from Canadian postsecondary institutions. Finds that earnings differences are large and statistically significant. The patterns are relatively consistent for the three cohorts and for male and female graduates, 2 and 5…

  1. The H3 antagonist ABT-288 is tolerated at significantly higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Othman, Ahmed A; Haig, George; Florian, Hana; Locke, Charles; Gertsik, Lev; Dutta, Sandeep

    2014-06-01

    ABT-288 is a potent and selective H3 receptor antagonist with procognitive effects in several preclinical models. In previous studies, 3 mg once daily was the maximal tolerated dose in healthy volunteers. This study characterized the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ABT-288 in stable subjects with schizophrenia. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of ABT-288 (10 dose levels, from 1 to 60 mg once daily for 14 days) in stable subjects with schizophrenia treated with an atypical antipsychotic. In each dose group, five to seven and two to three participants were assigned to ABT-288 and placebo, respectively. Of the 67 participants enrolled, nine participants (on ABT-288) were prematurely discontinued, in seven of these due to adverse events. ABT-288 was generally safe and tolerated at doses up to 45 mg once daily. The most common adverse events, in decreasing frequency (from 31 to 5%), were abnormal dreams, headache, insomnia, dizziness, somnolence, dysgeusia, dry mouth, psychotic disorder, parosmia and tachycardia. Adverse events causing early termination were psychotic events (four) and increased creatine phosphokinase, pyrexia and insomnia (one each). The half-life of ABT-288 ranged from 28 to 51 h, and steady state was achieved by day 12 of dosing. At comparable multiple doses, ABT-288 exposure in subjects with schizophrenia was 45% lower than that previously observed in healthy subjects. At trough, ABT-288 cerebrospinal fluid concentrations were 40% of the total plasma concentrations. ABT-288 was tolerated at a 15-fold higher dose and 12-fold higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than previously observed in healthy volunteers. The greater ABT-288 tolerability was not due to limited brain uptake. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Keyboarding Coursework and Employment, Earnings, and Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, James C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Survey data from 6,476 postsecondary students and 2,525 nonstudents were examined for postschool effects of student participation in typing and keyboarding coursework on employment, earnings, further education attainment, and related equity and cost-effectiveness issues. Results indicate significant positive effects on almost all aspects examined.…

  3. Gender and Racial Gaps in Earnings among Recent College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang

    2008-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of baccalaureate graduates from 1993 (B&B 93/97/03), I explore factors that contribute to the gender and racial gap in earnings among recent college graduate. Results indicate that college major remains the most significant factor in accounting for the gender gap in pay. Female graduates are still left…

  4. Sources of Inspiration: The role of significant persons in young people's choice of science in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjaastad, Jørgen

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this article were to investigate to which extent and in what ways persons influence students' choice of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in tertiary education, and to assess the suitability of an analytical framework for describing this influence. In total, 5,007 Norwegian STEM students completed a questionnaire including multiple-choice as well as open-ended questions about sources of inspiration for their educational choice. Using the conceptualisation of significant persons suggested by Woelfel and Haller, the respondents' descriptions of parents and teachers are presented in order to elaborate on the different ways these significant persons influence a STEM-related educational choice. Parents engaged in STEM themselves are models, making the choice of STEM familiar, and they help youngsters define themselves through conversation and support, thus being definers. Teachers are models by displaying how STEM might bring fulfilment in someone's life and by giving pupils a positive experience with the subjects. They help young people discover their STEM abilities, thus being definers. Celebrities are reported to have minor influence on STEM-related educational choices. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses indicate that interpersonal relationships are key factors in order to inspire and motivate a choice of STEM education. Implications for recruitment issues and for research on interpersonal influence are discussed. It is suggested that initiatives to increase recruitment to STEM might be aimed at parents and other persons in interpersonal relationships with youth as a target group.

  5. In vitro screening and in silico validation revealed key microbes for higher production of significant therapeutic enzyme l-asparaginase.

    PubMed

    Vimal, Archana; Kumar, Awanish

    2017-03-01

    l-asparaginase is an enzyme of medical prominence and reputable as a chemotherapeutic agent. It also has immense potential to cure autoimmune and infectious diseases. The vast application of this enzyme in healthcare sector increases its market demand. However, presently the huge market demand is not achieved completely. This serves the basis to explore better producer microbial strains to bridge the gap between huge demand and supply of this therapeutic enzyme. The present study deals with the successful screening of potent microorganisms producing l-asparaginase. 47 microorganisms were screened including bacteria, fungi, and yeasts. Among all, Penicillium lilacinum showed the highest enzyme activity i.e., 39.67 IU/ml. Shigella flexneri has 23.21 IU/ml of enzyme activity (highest among all the bacterial strain tested). Further, the 3-D structure of l-asparaginase from higher producer strains was developed and validated in silico for its activity. l-asparagine (substrate for l-asparaginase) was docked inside the binding pocket of P. lilacinum and S. flexneri. Docking score for the most common substrate l-asparagine is -6.188 (P. lilacinum), -5.576 (S. flexneri) which is quite good. Moreover, the chemical property of the binding pocket revealed that amino acid residues Phe 243, Gln 260, Gly 365, Asp 386 in P. lilacinum and residues Asp 181, Thr 318, Asn 320 in S. flexneri have an important role in H-bonding. The in silico results supports and strengthen the wet lab results. The outcome obtained motivates to take the present study result from lab to industry for the economic/massive production of this enzyme for the diverse therapeutic application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibody treatment against pulmonary exposure to abrin confers significantly higher levels of protection than treatment against ricin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Tamar; Gal, Yoav; Elhanany, Eitan; Sapoznikov, Anita; Falach, Reut; Mazor, Ohad; Kronman, Chanoch

    2015-09-02

    Abrin, a potent plant-derived toxin bearing strong resemblance to ricin, irreversibly inactivates ribosomes by site-specific depurination, thereby precipitating cessation of protein synthesis in cells. Due to its high availability and ease of preparation, abrin is considered a biological threat, especially in context of bioterror warfare. To date, there is no established therapeutic countermeasure against abrin intoxication. In the present study, we examined the progress of pulmonary abrin intoxication in mice, evaluated the protective effect of antibody-based post-exposure therapy, and compared these findings to those observed for ricin intoxication and therapy. Salient features of abrin intoxication were found to be similar to those of ricin and include massive recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs, high levels of pro-inflammatory markers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and damage of the alveolar-capillary barrier. In contrast, the protective effect of anti-abrin antibody treatment was found to differ significantly from that of anti-ricin treatment. While anti-ricin treatment efficiency was quite limited even at 24h post-exposure (34% protection), administration of polyclonal anti-abrin antibodies even as late as 72h post-exposure, conferred exceedingly high-level protection (>70%). While both anti-toxin antibody treatments caused neutrophil and macrophage levels in the lungs to revert to normal, only anti-abrin treatment brought about a significant decline in the pulmonary levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. The differential ability of the anti-toxin treatments to dampen inflammation caused by the two similar toxins, abrin and ricin, could explain the radically different levels of protection achieved following antibody treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. How have people responded to changes in the retirement earnings test in 2000?

    PubMed

    Song, Jae G; Manchester, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This article describes responses to removing the retirement earnings test in 2000 for persons at the full retirement age or older. We examine annual earnings and retirement benefit claims from Social Security administrative data that cover the 4 years before and after the change. Three findings emerge from the study. First, the effect on earnings of removing the earnings test is uneven across people with different earnings levels. We find little effect on earnings at lower levels, but the effect on earnings in the mid to upper levels (50th to 80th percentiles) is large and significant. Such a finding indicates that the removal most affects people with earnings levels above the earnings test threshold. The largest increases in earnings are found at the 70th percentile for persons who have attained ages 65-69 and at the 60th percentile for those turning 65. Second, there is no clear evidence of the effect of the test's removal on the overall rate of labor force participation. A small rise in work participation among individuals aged 65-69 may be at least partially attributable to the trend already under way. Increases in work participation that do occur are mostly attributable to retaining older workers rather than inducing older workers back into the workforce. The effect appears to increase over time, suggesting that the removal has long-lasting effects on work participation. Third, the removal of the earnings test accelerated applications for benefits by 2 to 5 percentage points among individuals aged 65-69 and by 3 to 7 percentage points among those reaching age 65.

  8. Low Carbon Rice Farming Practices in the Mekong Delta Yield Significantly Higher Profits and Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Tinh, T. K.; Tin, H. Q.; Thu Ha, T.; Pha, D. N.; Cui, T. Q.; Tin, N. H.; Son, N. N.; Thanh, H. H.; Kien, H. T.; Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Vietnam Low-Carbon Rice Project (VLCRP) seeks to significantly reduce GHG emissions from rice cultivation, an activity responsible for more than 30% of Vietnam's overall GHG emissions, while improving livelihoods for the rice farmer community by decreasing costs and enhancing yield as well as providing supplemental farmer income through the sale of carbon credits. The Mekong Delta makes up 12% of Vietnam's land area, but produces more than 50% of the country's rice, including more than 90% of the rice for export. Rice cultivation is the main source of income for 80% of farmers in the Mekong Delta. VLCRP was launched in late 2012 in the Mekong Delta in two major rice production provinces, Kien Giang and An Giang. To date, VLCRP has completed 11 crop seasons (in Kien Giang and An Giang combined), training over 400 farmer households in applying VLCRP's package of practices (known as 1 Must - 6 Reductions) and building technical capacity to its key stakeholders and rice farmer community leaders. By adopting the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices (including reduced seeding density, reduced fertilizer and pesticide application, and alternative wetting and drying water management), rice farmers reduce their input costs while maintaining or improving yields, and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. The VLCRP package of practices also deliver other environmental and social co-benefits, such as reduced water pollution, improved habitat for fishery resources and reduced health risks for farmers through the reduction of agri-chemicals. VLCRP farmers use significantly less inputs (50% reduction in seed, 30% reduction in fertilizer, 40-50% reduction in water) while improving yields 5-10%, leading to an increase in profit from 10% to as high as 60% per hectare. Preliminary results indicate that the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices have led to approximately 40-65% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, equivalent to 4 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in An Giang and 35 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in Kien

  9. The Determination of Earnings Among College Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaeth, Joe L.

    Differences in levels and determinants of earnings for men and women college graduates are examined. Perspectives from human capital theory, research on the socioeconomic achievement process, and research on segmented labor markets are used to design models of the determination of earnings. Data are taken from the National Opinion Research Center…

  10. The College Payoff: Education, Occupations, Lifetime Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.; Cheah, Ban

    2011-01-01

    A college degree pays off--but by just how much? In this report from the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, the authors examine just what a college degree is worth--and what else besides a degree might influence an individual's potential earnings. This report examines lifetime earnings for all education levels and…

  11. Insult to Injury: Disability, Earnings, and Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Perry

    2012-01-01

    This study measures the longitudinal effect of disability on earnings, marriage, and divorce. The data come from the Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to administrative data on longitudinal earnings. Using event-study methods, the results show that the onset of a work-preventing disability is associated with a precipitous decline…

  12. Is the gap more than gender? A longitudinal analysis of gender, gender role orientation, and earnings.

    PubMed

    Judge, Timothy A; Livingston, Beth A

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of between-individual differences in gender role orientation were also considered). Results indicated that whereas traditional gender role orientation was positively related to earnings, gender significantly predicted the slope of this relationship: Traditional gender role orientation was strongly positively associated with earnings for men; it was slightly negatively associated with earnings for women. Occupational segregation partly explained these gender differences. Overall, the results suggest that although gender role attitudes are becoming less traditional for men and for women, traditional gender role orientation continues to exacerbate the gender wage gap.

  13. Associations of serious mental illness with earnings: results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Daphna; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Petukhova, Maria; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Borges, Guilherme; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Browne, Mark Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, José; Sagar, Rajesh; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Burden-of-illness data, which are often used in setting healthcare policy-spending priorities, are unavailable for mental disorders in most countries. Aims To examine one central aspect of illness burden, the association of serious mental illness with earnings, in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Method The WMH Surveys were carried out in 10 high-income and 9 low- and middle-income countries. The associations of personal earnings with serious mental illness were estimated. Results Respondents with serious mental illness earned on average a third less than median earnings, with no significant between-country differences (χ2(9) = 5.5–8.1, P = 0.52–0.79). These losses are equivalent to 0.3–0.8% of total national earnings. Reduced earnings among those with earnings and the increased probability of not earning are both important components of these associations. Conclusions These results add to a growing body of evidence that mental disorders have high societal costs. Decisions about healthcare resource allocation should take these costs into consideration. PMID:20679263

  14. Field of Study in College and Lifetime Earnings in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.; Sakamoto, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding about the relationship between education and lifetime earnings often neglects differences by field of study. Utilizing data that matches respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to their longitudinal earnings records based on administrative tax information, we investigate the trajectories of annual earnings following the same individuals over 20 years and then estimate the long-term effects of field of study on earnings for U.S. men and women. Our results provide new evidence revealing large lifetime earnings gaps across field of study. We show important differences in individuals’ earnings trajectories across the different stages of the work-life by field of study. In addition, the gaps in 40-year (i.e., ages 20 to 59) median lifetime earnings among college graduates by field of study are larger, in many instances, than the median gap between high school graduates and college graduates overall. Significant variation is also found among graduate degree holders. Our results uncover important similarities and differences between men and women with regard to the long-term earnings differentials associated with field of study. In general, these findings underscore field of study as a critical dimension of horizontal stratification in educational attainment. Other implications of the empirical findings are also discussed. PMID:28042177

  15. Intraoccupational Earnings Inequality. Human Capital and Institutional Determinants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorence, Jon

    1987-01-01

    Examines the distribution of earnings within occupations. Finds that these are more widely distributed than earnings among differing occupations. Suggests some gender differences in the processes generating earnings disparities within occupations. (CH)

  16. Earnings among people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, K; Loh, S Y; Omar, Z

    2011-09-01

    Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. To identify differences in earnings among participants with spinal cord injury (SCI) and their relation to demographic, injury, educational and employment-related factors. People living with SCI in the community who were members of a disability support organization. A total of 76 members who have had traumatic SCI for at least 2 years, between 15 and 64 years of age at time of study and were working before SCI were interviewed over the phone. The earnings were categorized as more, same or less than before SCI or no income for those unemployed. Of the 76 participants (who averaged about 15.1 years post SCI), only 13 participants (17.1%) were earning more than before injury, whereas majority were in the category of having no income, being unemployed at time of study, n=36 (47.4%). Factors positively related to earnings were having more years in education, both at time of injury and at time of survey. As anticipated, those currently in full time and paid employments were earning more while receipt of financial compensation was negatively related to earnings. Despite a lengthy period of time post SCI, only a minority were earning more, reflecting poorly on the quality of post SCI employment experience. The rehabilitation team should therefore focus on improving both educational and vocational opportunities for persons with SCI and aim for full time, paid employments. The current workers' compensation scheme renders the recipient at a static income and may need to be revised.

  17. Educational homogamy and gender-specific earnings: Sweden, 1990-2009.

    PubMed

    Dribe, Martin; Nystedt, Paul

    2013-08-01

    Several studies have shown strong educational homogamy in most Western societies, although the trends over time differ across countries. In this article, we study the connection between educational assortative mating and gender-specific earnings in a sample containing the entire Swedish population born 1960-1974; we follow this sample from 1990 to 2009. Our empirical strategy exploits a longitudinal design, using distributed fixed-effects models capturing the impact of partner education on postmarital earnings, relating it to the income development before union formation. We find that being partnered with someone with more education (hypergamy) is associated with higher earnings, while partnering someone with less education (hypogamy) is associated with lower earnings. However, most of these differences in earnings emerge prior to the time of marriage, implying that the effect is explained by marital selection processes rather than by partner education affecting earnings. The exception is hypogamy among the highly educated, for which there are strong indications that in comparison with homogamy and hypergamy, earnings grow slower after union formation.

  18. A Formulation of the Earnings Function using the Concept of Occupational Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Kathryn L.

    1984-01-01

    In this study, occupational investment--the accumulation of skills acquired to work within an occupation--is demonstrated to be a more significant determinant of earnings growth than length of experience. (SK)

  19. Earnings and Income Volatility in America: Evidence from Matched CPS. Discussion Paper Series. DP 2010-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziliak, James P.; Hardy, Bradley; Bollinger, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we offer new evidence on earnings and income volatility in the United States over the past four decades by using matched data from the March Current Population Survey. We find that between 1973 and 2008 family income volatility rose by 38 percent, primarily as a result of higher volatility of husbands earnings and non means-tested…

  20. Exploring the Alignment between Post-Secondary Education Programs and Earnings: An Examination of 2005 Ontario Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Kristyn; Walters, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the influence that field of study and level of post-secondary education have on the earnings of recent graduates in Ontario. Graduates of trades, community college, and university programs are compared. Results suggest that graduates of applied and technical programs obtain higher earnings within two years of graduation than…

  1. Racial Earnings Differentials and Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heywood, John S.; O'Halloran, Patrick L.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative analysis between output-based payment and time rates payment is presented. It is observed that racial or gender earnings discrimination is more likely in time rates payment and supervisory evaluations.

  2. Relative changes in earned income five years after diagnosis with diabetes: A register based study 1996-2012.

    PubMed

    Cleal, Bryan; Panton, Ulrik Haagen; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-10-01

    With previous studies indicating that diabetes affects employment status and lifetime earnings, the aim of this study was to determine the impact on earnings in the immediate period after diagnosis. Recognising that earnings and employment status are dynamic over the life course, we matched people with diabetes to counterparts in the general population and compared nominal growth in earned income five calendar years after diagnosis. The study draws upon Danish population registers. Residents aged 25-62years between 1996 and 2007 were included in the study. We identified an individually matched control group from approximately 2,800,000 'diabetes-free' Danish adults using propensity score matching. Matching was based on age, gender, residence, earned income, growth in earned income, and unemployment in the calendar year before diagnosis. 91,090 people with diabetes were included in the study and matched to 91,090 controls in the general population. The analysis revealed highly significant loss of earnings for people with diabetes when compared with people without diabetes, with an overall relative loss of US $ 3694 (8.01%) among men and US $ 924 (3.03%) among women. The effect was generally largest in the youngest age-group, in lower earners and among men. The results clearly indicate that a diagnosis of diabetes has a significant impact on earnings. Age and earnings at the time of diagnosis appear to play a moderating role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 5 CFR 844.402 - Restoration of earning capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of earning capacity. 844.402... Reinstatement of Disability Annuity § 844.402 Restoration of earning capacity. (a) Earning capacity... current rate of basic pay of the position occupied immediately before retirement, the annuitant's earning...

  4. Geographic Differences in the Earnings of Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, John V.; Xu, Weineng

    2014-01-01

    Economics has been shown to be a relatively high-earning college major, but geographic differences in earnings have been largely overlooked. The authors of this article use the American Community Survey to examine geographic differences in both absolute earnings and relative earnings for economics majors. They find that there are substantial…

  5. 48 CFR 52.234-4 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earned Value Management....234-4 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 34.203(c), insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (JUL 2006) (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management system (EVMS...

  6. 48 CFR 52.234-4 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Earned Value Management....234-4 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 34.203(c), insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (JUL 2006) (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management system (EVMS...

  7. 48 CFR 52.234-4 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Earned Value Management....234-4 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 34.203(c), insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (JUL 2006) (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management system (EVMS...

  8. 48 CFR 52.234-4 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Earned Value Management....234-4 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 34.203(c), insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (MAY 2014) (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management system (EVMS...

  9. 48 CFR 52.234-4 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Earned Value Management....234-4 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 34.203(c), insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (JUL 2006) (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management system (EVMS...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1502-33 - Earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... has no effect on the earnings and profits of P and S.) Example 2. Section 355 distribution. (a) Facts... section 312(h). Thus, P's earnings and profits rather than S's earnings and profits may be eliminated...) of this section, P's earnings and profits may be reduced under section 312(h) as a result of the...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1502-33 - Earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... has no effect on the earnings and profits of P and S.) Example 2. Section 355 distribution. (a) Facts... section 312(h). Thus, P's earnings and profits rather than S's earnings and profits may be eliminated...) of this section, P's earnings and profits may be reduced under section 312(h) as a result of the...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1502-33 - Earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... has no effect on the earnings and profits of P and S.) Example 2. Section 355 distribution. (a) Facts... section 312(h). Thus, P's earnings and profits rather than S's earnings and profits may be eliminated...) of this section, P's earnings and profits may be reduced under section 312(h) as a result of the...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1502-33 - Earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... has no effect on the earnings and profits of P and S.) Example 2. Section 355 distribution. (a) Facts... section 312(h). Thus, P's earnings and profits rather than S's earnings and profits may be eliminated...) of this section, P's earnings and profits may be reduced under section 312(h) as a result of the...

  14. An Examination of Potential Variation in the Benefits of Higher Education for Health and Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the implications of the significant expansion in higher education over the latter half of the 20th century remains one of the central questions of research in stratification and inequality. Attaining a college degree is associated with numerous advantages ranging from higher earnings to improved health and wellbeing. As higher…

  15. Administrators' Perceptions of Factors Related to Student Retention at Colleges with a Significant Black Student Enrollment Affiliated with the Association for Biblical Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Wesley B.

    2013-01-01

    This study described and explored the factors perceived as relevant to student retention by administrators at colleges and universities with significant Black student populations. The sample was 31 institutions affiliated with the Association for Biblical Higher Education (ABHE) that had Black student enrollment of 20% or more. The study sought to…

  16. A Longitudinal Analysis of Family Migration and the Gender Gap in Earnings in the United States and Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    COOKE, THOMAS J.; BOYLE, PAUL; COUCH, KENNETH; FEIJTEN, PETEKE

    2009-01-01

    This article uses longitudinal data for the United States and Great Britain to examine the impact of residential mobility and childbirth on the earnings of women, their family earnings, and the related division of earnings by gender. This project is the first to compare explicitly the impact of childbirth and family migration on women’s earnings, and it extends prior cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on isolated countries by providing a direct contrast between two major industrialized nations, using comparable measures. The results indicate that families respond in similar ways in both countries to migration and childbirth. In response to both migration and childbirth, women’s earnings fall at the time of the event and recover slowly afterward, but the magnitude of the impact is roughly twice as large for childbirth as for migration. However, migration—but not the birth of a child—is also associated with a significant increase in total family earnings because of increased husbands’ earnings. As a result, the effect of migration on the relative earnings of wives to husbands is similar to the effect of childbirth. These results suggest that family migration should be given consideration in the literature on the gender earnings gap. PMID:19348113

  17. The Female-Male Earnings Gap: A Review of Employment and Earnings Issues. Report 673.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Janet L.

    In the last 20 years, an increase in the number of working women has been accompanied by changes in the female labor force and in the concentration of women in particular occupations and industries. These changes have a profound effect upon women's earnings. The Current Population Survey (CPS) shows a wide disparity in the median earnings of women…

  18. 20 CFR 422.125 - Statements of earnings; resolving earnings discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statements of earnings; resolving earnings discrepancies. 422.125 Section 422.125 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND... investigation the district office or branch office, where appropriate, contacts the employer and the employee or...

  19. Earned Income Credit Utilization by Welfare Recipients: A Case Study of Minnesota's Earned Income Credit Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirasuna, Donald P.; Stinson, Thomas F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines utilization of a state earned income credit by AFDC and TANF recipients. Although utilization percentages are increasing, we find that among TANF recipients in 1999, 45.7 percent of all households and 34.8 percent of eligible households did not receive the state earned income credit. Moreover, we find that utilization may…

  20. Solar Research Earns Three Prestigious R&D 100 Awards | News | NREL

    1 » Solar Research Earns Three Prestigious R&D 100 Awards News Release: Solar Research Earns Three Prestigious R&D 100 Awards June 22, 2011 A technique to turn silicon into ink, a faster way to significant innovations by R&D Magazine. The three prestigious awards bring to 50 the number of R&D

  1. Does the Number of College Credits Earned in a Tech Prep and Postsecondary Enrollment Options Program Predict College Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a Tech Prep Program located in Northwest Ohio and determine the degree to which college credits earned in high school through the Tech Prep and PSEO Programs predict college success and if there were any significant gender/race differences in credits earned and college success as well as high school…

  2. The Influence of Education and Family Background on Women's Earnings in Midlife: Evidence from a British National Birth Cohort Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, Diana; Head, Fenny; Hardy, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Observes that research on the influence of education on adult earnings hasn't focused on differences between women. Looks at British women born immediately after World War Two. Shows that women who were able to take advantage of expanded educational opportunities and achieve high educational qualifications earned significantly more than less…

  3. Policies to Reduce High-Tenured Displaced Workers' Earnings Losses through Retraining. Discussion Paper 2011-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Louis S.; LaLonde, Robert J.; Sullivan, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    High-tenured displaced workers often experience significant earnings losses that persist for the rest of their working lives. A well-targeted training initiative has the potential to substantially reduce permanent earnings losses for those displaced workers who have the academic preparation, work experience, and interest to complete high-return…

  4. The earnings game. Everyone plays, nobody wins.

    PubMed

    Collingwood, H

    2001-06-01

    Quarterly earnings numbers dominate the decisions of executives, analysts, investors, and auditors. Yet for all the attention paid to these numbers, they're not much use in predicting a company's future performance and cash flows. Even economists are unanimous in their view that these numbers say next to nothing about a company's prospects beyond the next quarter. Nonetheless, meetings analysts' expectations that earnings will rise in a smooth, steady, unbroken line has become, at many corporations, a game whose imperatives override even the imperative to deliver the highest possible return to shareholders. The fetishistic attention paid to this almost meaningless indicator might be cause for amusement, except for one thing: the earnings game does real harm. It distorts corporate decision making. It reduces securities analysis and investing to a guessing contest. It compromises the integrity of corporate audits. Ultimately, it undermines the capital markets. As market participants increasingly come to view the quarterly number as a sort of collective fiction, offered and received in a spirit of mutual cynicism, they lose faith in the numbers affected by quarterly earnings--including stock prices themselves. And no market can survive long if its participants see no connection between prices and the intrinsic value of the goods on offer. In this article, HBR senior editor Harris Collingwood takes an in-depth look at these effects, examining the intricacies of the earnings game and why companies believe they have no choice but to play it. Until more corporate executives change their practices, he explains, the earning game will never lack for players.

  5. Does cancer in a child affect parents' employment and earnings? A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Syse, Astri; Larsen, Inger Kristin; Tretli, Steinar

    2011-06-01

    Cancer in a child may adversely affect parents' work opportunities due to enlarged care burdens and/or altered priorities. Few studies exist, and possible effects on parental employment and earnings were therefore explored. Data on the entire Norwegian population aged 27-65 with children under the age of 20 in 1990-2002 (N=1.2 million) was retrieved from national registries. Employment rates for parents of 3263 children with cancer were compared to those of parents with children without cancer by means of logistic regression models. Log-linear regression models were used to explore childhood cancer's effect on parental earnings for the large majority of parents who remained employed. Cancer in a child was in general not associated with a reduced risk of employment, although some exceptions exist among both mothers and fathers. For employed mothers, CNS cancers, germinal cell cancers, and unspecified leukemia were associated with significant reductions in earnings (10%, 21%, and 60%, respectively). Reductions were particularly pronounced for mothers with a young and alive child, and became more pronounced with time elapsed from diagnosis. Fathers' earnings were not affected significantly. Parents' employment is not adversely affected by a child's cancer in Norway. Earnings are reduced in certain instances, but the overall effects are minor. Generous welfare options and flexible labor markets typical for Nordic welfare states may account for this. In line with traditional caregiving responsibilities, reductions in earnings were most pronounced for mothers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Opportunity Texas[TM]: Learn. Earn. Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Public Policy Priorities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Texas faces numerous challenges but also has abundant opportunities to build the middle class and increase prosperity. Unfortunately, too many Texans are on the sideline, lacking access to opportunities to learn, earn, and save to secure a more prosperous future for themselves and their families. To create jobs, increase income, and promote…

  7. E-Learning Strategy for Earning Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The study enlightens the effectiveness of e-learning strategy in learning English among the in-service teachers who are studying B.Ed in School of Distance Education, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. E-learning strategy is a life long learning strategy for earning in-service teachers. It is a strategy of remaining in employment, which can be…

  8. Japan's Teachers Earn Tenure on Day One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth; Asanuma, Shigeru; Mori, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in Japan earn tenure on their first day of employment--not after two years of experience based on evaluations of teaching performance or student test scores. This is almost too good to be true. If tenure is so easy to attain, how do the Japanese make sure their teachers, especially novice teachers hired with little teaching experience,…

  9. The Earnings Gap Between Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Differences between the earnings of men and women suggest that women are being paid less for doing the same job. Factors that attribute to the wage differences are (1) women are concentrated in those occupations which are less skilled and in which wages are relatively low, (2) women working on full-time schedules tend to work less overtime than…

  10. 26 CFR 301.7507-5 - Earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... correctly compute the tax liability, even though in the opinion of the taxpayer it is immune from tax... of the $6,400 immune from collection from 1954 earnings may be collected thereafter from unsegregated... for 1955, is not available for collection of the tax for prior years, which became immune as described...

  11. 26 CFR 301.7507-5 - Earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... correctly compute the tax liability, even though in the opinion of the taxpayer it is immune from tax... of the $6,400 immune from collection from 1954 earnings may be collected thereafter from unsegregated... for 1955, is not available for collection of the tax for prior years, which became immune as described...

  12. EARNINGS IN THE MACHINERY INDUSTRIES, MID-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAUER, FREDERICK L.

    RESULTS OF A MID-1966 NATIONWIDE SURVEY BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS SHOWED THAT THE EARNINGS OF PRODUCTION AND RELATED NONELECTRICAL MACHINERY WORKERS IN 21 LARGE OCCUPATIONAL AREAS VARIED BY OCCUPATION, SIZE OF ESTABLISHMENT, AND COMMUNITY, INDUSTRY, LABOR-MANAGEMENT CONTRACT STATUS, AND LOCATION. THE AVERAGE HOURLY WAGE WAS $2.84. HIGHER…

  13. School Desegregation, Academic Attainment, and Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Steven G.

    2000-01-01

    High School and Beyond longitudinal survey data were used to investigate the impact of school racial composition and quality on achievement, educational attainment, and earnings for blacks. Results support the idea that school quality improvement is likely to be much more effective than desegregation as a means of improving academic and labor…

  14. Differences in Occupational Earnings by Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Derek

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of the female/male wage gap in diverse countries looks at pay scales/job rates, average wage/salary rates, and average earnings in medical, public service, banking, and finance occupations. Explanations for differences and discussion of methodological issues are offered. (SK)

  15. Enterprise Bargaining and the Gender Earnings Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooden, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Examination of the widening gender earnings gap in Australia indicates that women's wages continue to lag behind those of men. The main factor appears to be women's concentration in part-time work in enterprises where bargaining is less likely to occur. (JOW)

  16. 26 CFR 301.7507-5 - Earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... correctly compute the tax liability, even though in the opinion of the taxpayer it is immune from tax... of the $6,400 immune from collection from 1954 earnings may be collected thereafter from unsegregated... for 1955, is not available for collection of the tax for prior years, which became immune as described...

  17. 26 CFR 301.7507-5 - Earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... correctly compute the tax liability, even though in the opinion of the taxpayer it is immune from tax... of the $6,400 immune from collection from 1954 earnings may be collected thereafter from unsegregated... for 1955, is not available for collection of the tax for prior years, which became immune as described...

  18. 26 CFR 301.7507-5 - Earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... correctly compute the tax liability, even though in the opinion of the taxpayer it is immune from tax... of the $6,400 immune from collection from 1954 earnings may be collected thereafter from unsegregated... for 1955, is not available for collection of the tax for prior years, which became immune as described...

  19. NASA Earned Value Management (EVM) Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerby, Jerald

    2013-01-01

    Earned Value Management (EVM) is an integrated management control system for assessing, understanding and qualifying what a project is achieving with the resoures. EVM integrates technical cost and schedules with risk management. It allows objective assessment and quantification of current project performance, and helps predict future performance-based trents.

  20. Abnormal vaginal colonization by gram-negative bacteria is significantly higher in pregnancy conceived through infertility treatment compared to natural pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Y; Sung, Ji-Hee; Chang, Kylie Hae-Jin; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2017-03-01

    To compare abnormal vaginal colonization between natural pregnancy and pregnancy by infertility treatment in high-risk parturient women and to examine the association between abnormal vaginal colonization and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). The clinical characteristics, vaginal culture result, and delivery outcome of patients who admitted to our high-risk unit between 2005 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed and compared. We investigated the prevalence of EONS according to maternal vaginal colonization and examined the concordance between maternal vaginal bacteria and etiologic microorganism causing EONS. Among 1096 pregnancies, the rate of vaginal colonization by gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli was significantly higher in pregnancies by infertility treatment after adjustment of confounding variables (E. coli, OR [95% CI]: 2.47 [1.33-4.57], p = 0.004). The rate of EONS was significantly higher in neonates with maternal abnormal vaginal bacteria colonization (OR [95% CI]: 3.38 [1.44-7.93], p = 0.005) after adjusting for confounding variables. Notably, among microorganisms isolated from maternal vagina, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus were consistent with the results from neonatal blood culture in EONS. Our data implicate a possible association between gram-negative bacteria colonization and infertility treatment and suggest that maternal vaginal colonization may be associated with EONS of neonates in high-risk pregnancy.

  1. Lifetime earnings for physicians across specialties.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Paul; Tancredi, Daniel; Jerant, Anthony; Romano, Patrick S; Kravitz, Richard L

    2012-12-01

    Earlier studies estimated annual income differences across specialties, but lifetime income may be more relevant given physicians' long-term commitments to specialties. Annual income and work hours data were collected from 6381 physicians in the nationally representative 2004-2005 Community Tracking Study. Data regarding years of residency were collected from AMA FREIDA. Present value models were constructed assuming 3% discount rates. Estimates were adjusted for demographic and market covariates. Sensitivity analyses included 4 alternative models involving work hours, retirement, exogenous variables, and 1% discount rate. Estimates were generated for 4 broad specialty categories (Primary Care, Surgery, Internal Medicine and Pediatric Subspecialties, and Other), and for 41 specific specialties. The estimates of lifetime earnings for the broad categories of Surgery, Internal Medicine and Pediatric Subspecialties, and Other specialties were $1,587,722, $1,099,655, and $761,402 more than for Primary Care. For the 41 specific specialties, the top 3 (with family medicine as reference) were neurological surgery ($2,880,601), medical oncology ($2,772,665), and radiation oncology ($2,659,657). The estimates from models with varying rates of retirement and including only exogenous variables were similar to those in the preferred model. The 1% discount model generated estimates that were roughly 150% larger than the 3% model. There was considerable variation in the lifetime earnings across physician specialties. After accounting for varying residency years and discounting future earnings, primary care specialties earned roughly $1-3 million less than other specialties. Earnings' differences across specialties may undermine health reform efforts to control costs and ensure adequate numbers of primary care physicians.

  2. Building human capital to increase earning power among people living with mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ni; Schmidt, Lisa T; Gill, Kenneth J; Pratt, Carlos W

    2011-01-01

    Human Capital Theory, a well-established model from the field of economics, maintains that a person's lifetime earnings are affected by the amount of education and job training they receive. This study uses Human Capital Theory to predict wages and explain employment outcomes among individuals living with psychiatric illnesses. Hourly wages were examined between 100 individuals with mental illnesses and 100 matched comparisons who had no mental illnesses. The study found that participants with mental illnesses earned $12.19 an hour vs. $14.54 an hour earned by their counterparts without disability. The study also revealed that higher educational attainment and longer work history predicted higher wages among participants with mental illnesses. The severity of psychiatric symptoms and diagnosis, however, did not predict wages. These findings indicate that human capital variables are correlated with wages earned by persons living with mental illnesses. Findings also suggest that assisting mental health consumers in the pursuit of education and job training may increase earning potential which can lead to financial independence and community integration. This supports the value in developing and implementing Supported Education to assist consumers in acquiring education and job training.

  3. Earnings Differences between Women and Men. Facts on Working Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Although the gap between women's and men's wages differs slightly depending on how the gap is measured, no matter how they are measured, women's earnings are below those received by men in 97% of the occupations for which data are available. Since 1979, women's earnings have been climbing when compared with men's earnings, gaining steeply during…

  4. 20 CFR 209.13 - Employers' gross earnings reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.13 Employers' gross earnings reports. (a) Each employer is required to report the gross earnings of a one-percent sample group of railroad employees. The... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employers' gross earnings reports. 209.13...

  5. Can Motherhood Earnings Losses Be Ever Regained? Evidence from Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xuelin

    2010-01-01

    This study examines earnings losses associated with motherhood using longitudinal administrative Canadian data. Contrary to the endogenous motherhood hypothesis, the author found no dips in earnings for women during their prechildbirth years. Although the results show that earnings losses incurred by mothers in the year of childbirth and the year…

  6. 48 CFR 252.234-7002 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Earned Value Management... of Provisions And Clauses 252.234-7002 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 234.203(2), use the following clause: Earned Value Management System (MAY 2011) (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  7. 48 CFR 252.234-7002 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Earned Value Management... of Provisions And Clauses 252.234-7002 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 234.203(2), use the following clause: Earned Value Management System (MAY 2011) (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  8. 48 CFR 252.234-7002 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Earned Value Management... of Provisions And Clauses 252.234-7002 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 234.203(2), use the following clause: Earned Value Management System (MAY 2011) (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.234-2 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Earned Value Management... and Clauses 1852.234-2 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 1834.203-70(b) insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (NOV 2006) (a) In the performance of this contract, the...

  10. 48 CFR 252.234-7002 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Earned Value Management... of Provisions And Clauses 252.234-7002 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 234.203(2), use the following clause: EARNED VALUE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (MAY 2011) (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  11. 48 CFR 252.234-7002 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earned Value Management... of Provisions And Clauses 252.234-7002 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 234.203(2), use the following clause: Earned Value Management System (APR 2008) (a) In the performance of this...

  12. 48 CFR 1852.234-2 - Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Earned Value Management... and Clauses 1852.234-2 Earned Value Management System. As prescribed in 1834.203-70(b) insert the following clause: Earned Value Management System (NOV 2006) (a) In the performance of this contract, the...

  13. 17 CFR 256.216 - Unappropriated retained earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retained earnings. This account shall include the balance, either debit or credit, arising from earnings... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unappropriated retained earnings. 256.216 Section 256.216 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  14. 17 CFR 256.215 - Appropriated retained earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appropriated retained earnings... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Liabilities and Other Credit Accounts § 256.215 Appropriated retained earnings. This account shall include the amount of retained earnings which has been appropriated or set...

  15. Personality Traits and Gender-Specific Income Expectations in Dutch Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Need, Ariana; de Jong, Uulkje

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine gender differences in income expectations of students in higher education. We found quite large gender differences. Men and women differ significantly in the income they expect to earn at the top of their career. We examined how much personality traits contribute to explain gender differences in income expectations, and…

  16. Creating Public Policy for Minority Access to Higher Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez, Gina

    2006-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that one way to a better life is through education. Individuals who have a college education will earn significantly higher income that those who only have a high school diploma (McGlynn, 2001). Having a college degree is not only beneficial to an individual, but a community with an educated work force can acquire…

  17. Risk of Interval Cancer in Fecal Immunochemical Test Screening Significantly Higher During the Summer Months: Results from the National Cancer Screening Program in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae Myung; Suh, Mina; Kwak, Min Seob; Sung, Na Young; Choi, Kui Son; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Do-Hoon; Kim, Byung Chang; Lee, You Kyoung; Han, Dong Soo

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of seasonal variations in climate on the performance of the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in screening for colorectal cancer in the National Cancer Screening Program in Korea. Data were extracted from the National Cancer Screening Program databases for participants who underwent FIT between 2009 and 2010. We compared positivity rates, cancer detection rates, interval cancer rates, positive predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity for FIT during the spring, summer, fall, and winter seasons in Korea. In total, 4,788,104 FIT results were analyzed. FIT positivity rate was lowest during the summer months. In the summer, the positive predictive value of FIT was about 1.1 times (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.16) higher in the overall FIT group and about 1.3 times (aOR 1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.50) higher in the quantitative FIT group, compared to those in the other seasons. Cancer detection rates, however, were similar regardless of season. Interval cancer risk was significantly higher in the summer for both the overall FIT group (aOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07-1.27) and the quantitative FIT group (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.12-1.52). In addition, interval cancers in the rectum and distal colon were more frequently detected in the summer and autumn than in the winter. The positivity rate of FIT was lower in the summer, and the performance of the FIT screening program was influenced by seasonal variations in Korea. These results suggest that more efforts to reduce interval cancer during the summer are needed in population-based screening programs using FIT, particularly in countries with high ambient temperatures.

  18. Endometrial carcinomas with significant mucinous differentiation associated with higher frequency of k-ras mutations: a morphologic and molecular correlation study.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinjun; He, Mai; Jackson, Cynthia; Ou, Joyce J; Sung, C James; Breese, Virgina; Steinhoff, Margaret M; Quddus, M Ruhul; Tejada-Berges, Trevor; Lawrence, W Dwayne

    2013-09-01

    K-ras gene product in the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway is critical in the development of certain types of malignancies. K-ras mutation-associated pancreatic and ovarian carcinomas often display mucinous differentiation. Previous studies have shown that k-ras mutation is found in 10% to 30% of endometrial carcinomas. We investigated k-ras mutations in several morphologic subtypes of endometrial carcinomas with particular emphasis on various degrees of mucinous differentiation. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. Polymerase chain reaction amplification for k-ras codons 12 and 13 were performed, followed by sequencing using capillary electrophoresis. The Fisher exact test is used to compare the prevalent difference of k-ras mutation among the groups. P < 0.05 was considered significant. K-ras mutations were detected in 8 (80%) of 10 mucinous carcinomas, 12 (67%) of 18 endometrioid carcinomas (ECs) with significant mucinous differentiation (ECMD), 4 (25%) of 16 ECs, and 1 (9%) of 11 serous carcinomas. The differences were statistically significant between mucinous carcinomas versus EC (P < 0.01) and ECMD versus EC (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that mucinous carcinoma and endometrioid carcinoma with significant mucinous component are more likely to be associated with k-ras mutation. Potential clinical implications of k-ras mutation lies in the management of recurrent or higher-stage endometrial mucinous tumors, which would not be responsive to treatment protocols containing epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

  19. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.452 Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages...

  20. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.452 Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages...

  1. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.452 Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages...

  2. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment. 404.452 Section 404.452 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL...; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.452 Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages...

  3. Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy are significantly shorter than those with Becker muscular dystrophy, with the higher incidence of short stature in Dp71 mutated subgroup.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masaaki; Awano, Hiroyuki; Lee, Tomoko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2017-11-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) are caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene and are characterized by severe and mild progressive muscle wasting, respectively. Short stature has been reported as a feature of DMD in the Western hemisphere, but not yet confirmed in Orientals. Height of young BMD has not been fully characterized. Here, height of ambulant and steroid naive Japanese 179 DMD and 42 BMD patients between 4 and 10 years of age was retrospectively examined using height standard deviation score (SDS). The mean height SDS of DMD was -1.08 SD that was significantly smaller than normal (p < 0.001), indicating short stature of Japanese DMD. Furthermore, the mean height SDS of BMD was -0.27 SD, suggesting shorter stature than normal. Remarkably, the mean height SDS of DMD was significantly smaller than that of BMD (p < 0.0001). In DMD higher incidence of short stature (height SDS < -2.5 SD) was observed in Dp71 subgroup having mutations in dystrophin exons 63-79 than others having mutations in exons 1-62 (27.8% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.017). These suggested that height is influenced by dystrophin in not only DMD but also BMD and that dystrophin Dp71 has a role in height regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Earnings and Financial Compensation from Social Security Systems Correlate Strongly with Disability for Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Kavaliunas, Andrius; Wiberg, Michael; Tinghög, Petter; Glaser, Anna; Gyllensten, Hanna; Alexanderson, Kristina; Hillert, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients earn lower incomes and receive higher benefits. However, there is limited knowledge of how this is correlated with their disability. To elucidate sources and levels of income among MS patients with different disability, assessed with the Expanded Disability Status Scale. A total of 7929 MS patients aged 21-64 years and living in Sweden in 2010 were identified for this cross-sectional study. Descriptive statistics, logistic and truncated linear regression models were used to estimate differences between MS patients regarding earnings, disability pension, sickness absence, disability allowance, unemployment compensation, and social assistance. The average level of earnings was ten times lower and the average level of health- related benefits was four times higher when comparing MS patients with severe and mild disability. MS patients with severe disability had on average SEK 166,931 less annual income from earnings and SEK 54,534 more income from benefits compared to those with mild disability. The combined average income for MS patients was 35% lower when comparing patients in the same groups. The adjusted risk ratio for having earnings among MS patients with severe disability compared to the patients with mild disability was 0.33 (95% CI 0.29-0.39), while the risk ratio for having benefits was 1.93 (95% CI 1.90-1.94). Disease progression affects the financial situation of MS patients considerably. Correlations between higher disability and patient income were observed, suggesting that earnings and benefits could be used as measures of MS progression and proxies of disability.

  5. Clinically significant association of elevated expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 expression with higher glucose uptake and progression of upper urinary tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Nukui, Akinori; Narimatsu, Takahiro; Kambara, Tsunehito; Abe, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Setsu; Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro; Kamai, Takao

    2018-05-02

    There is growing evidence that the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the major participant in regulating antioxidants and pathways for detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as having a vital role in tumor proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance. It was also recently reported that Nrf2 supports cell proliferation by promoting metabolic activity. Thus, Nrf2 is involved in progression of cancer. Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a biologically aggressive tumor with high rates of recurrence and progression, resulting in a poor prognosis. However, the role of Nrf2 in UTUC is largely unknown. In order to study the role of Nrf2 in UTUC from the metabolic perspective, we retrospectively assessed Nrf2 expression in the surgical specimen and the preoperative maximum standard glucose uptake (SUVmax) on [ 18 F]fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG-PET) of 107 patients with UTUC who underwent radical nephroureterectomy. Increased expression of Nrf2 in the primary lesion was correlated with less differentiated histology, local invasion, and lymph node metastasis, and was also an independent indicator of shorter overall survival according to multivariate analysis. Furthermore, increased expression of Nrf2 was associated with higher preoperative SUVmax by the primary tumor on 18 F-FDG-PET, while Nrf2 expression and SUVmax were also significantly correlated in the metastatic lymph nodes. Among the 18 patients with lymph node metastasis at nephroureterectomy who underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and received adjuvant chemotherapy, the patients with higher Nrf2 expression in the primary tumor had worse recurrence-free survival. These results suggest that constitutive activation of Nrf2 might be linked with tumor aerobic glycolysis and progression of UTUC, indicating that Nrf2 signaling in the tumor microenvironment promotes progression of UTUC.

  6. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Katrina D; Goharpey, Nahal; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2008-01-01

    Background Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID) is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. Methods The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. Results In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Conclusion Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form. PMID:18671882

  7. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Bello, Katrina D; Goharpey, Nahal; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2008-08-01

    Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID) is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form.

  8. Earnings and Education in Argentina: An Analysis of the 1985 Buenos Aires Household Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugler, Bernardo; Psacharopoulos, George

    1989-01-01

    Using data from the 1985 Buenos Aires (Argentina) Household Survey of 4,500 employed individuals, earnings differences are explained by a set of individual human capital characteristics. Returns to education investments are then estimated for different levels and types of schooling. Secondary and higher education investments need to be retargeted.…

  9. Earnings Expectations of Typical South African University of Technology First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Merwe, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Human capital theory holds that a higher education will be pursued to the extent that its pecuniary rewards outstrip its costs. This notion is founded on the neoclassical economic assumption that expected earnings conditional on educational investment are accurately anticipated by those considering such investments. However, the evidence in…

  10. Patriarchal Pressures: An Exploration of Organizational Processes That Exacerbate and Erode Gender Earnings Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia D.; Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of data from the North Carolina Employment and Health Survey examined organizational characteristics that affect gender inequality: organizational resources, regional culture, market sector, organization size, and employment relations. Gender earnings inequality ranged from 51% to parity, were higher where organizational resources are…

  11. A Random Assignment Evaluation of Learning Communities Seven Years Later: Impacts on Education and Earnings Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael J.; Mayer, Alexander; Cullinan, Dan; Ratledge, Alyssa; Sommo, Colleen; Diamond, John

    2014-01-01

    Empirical evidence confirms that increased education is positively associated with higher earnings across a wide spectrum of fields and student demographics (Barrow & Rouse, 2005; Card, 2001; Carneiro, Heckman, & Vytlacil, 2011; Dadgar & Weiss, 2012; Dynarski, 2008; Jacobson & Mokher, 2009; Jepsen, Troske, & Coomes, 2009; Kane…

  12. Strategies for Professors Who Service the University to Earn Tenure and Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Ruben; Stokes, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Tenure and promotion are great aspirations for college professors. They are indicators of success in the professions. Universities stipulate in their official documents and numerous higher education publications specify what professors must achieve in order to earn tenure and promotion; which almost always cite effectiveness in teaching, research,…

  13. Self-selection and earnings assimilation: immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel and the United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yinon; Haberfeld, Yitchak

    2007-08-01

    Drawing on U.S. decennial census data and on Israeli census and longitudinal data, we compare the educational levels and earnings assimilation of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the United States and Israel during 1968-2000. Because the doors to both countries were practically open to FSU immigrants between 1968 and 1989, when FSU immigrants were entitled to refugee visas in the United States, the comparison can be viewed as a natural experiment in immigrants' destination choices. The results suggest that FSU immigrants to the United States are of significantly higher educational level and experience significantly faster rates of earnings assimilation in their new destination than their counterparts who immigrated to Israel. We present evidence that patterns of self-selection in immigration to Israel and the United States--on both measured and unmeasured productivity-related traits--is the main reason for these results. When the immigration regulations in the United States changed in 1989, and FSU Jewish immigrants to the United States had to rely on family reunification for obtaining immigrant visas, the adverse effects of the policy change on the type of FSU immigrants coming to the United States were minor and short-lived As early as 1992, the gaps in the educational levels between FSU immigrants coming to Israel and to the United States returned to their pre-1989 levels, and the differences in earnings assimilation of post-1989 immigrants in the United States and Israel are similar to the differences detected in the 1980s.

  14. Burden of potentially pathologic copy number variants is higher in children with isolated congenital heart disease and significantly impairs covariate-adjusted transplant-free survival.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel Seung; Kim, Jerry H; Burt, Amber A; Crosslin, David R; Burnham, Nancy; Kim, Cecilia E; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine H; Nicolson, Susan C; Spray, Thomas L; Stanaway, Ian B; Nickerson, Deborah A; Heagerty, Patrick J; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gaynor, J William; Jarvik, Gail P

    2016-04-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) are duplications or deletions of genomic regions. Large CNVs are potentially pathogenic and are overrepresented in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We sought to determine the frequency of large CNVs in children with isolated CHD, and to evaluate the relationship of these potentially pathogenic CNVs with transplant-free survival. These cases are derived from a prospective cohort of patients with nonsyndromic CHD (n = 422) identified before first surgery. Healthy pediatric controls (n = 500) were obtained from the electronic Medical Records and Genetic Epidemiology Network, and CNV frequency was contrasted for CHD cases and controls. CNVs were determined algorithmically; subsequently screened for >95% overlap between 2 methods, size (>300 kb), quality score, overlap with a gene, and novelty (absent from databases of known, benign CNVs); and separately validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Survival likelihoods for cases were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling to evaluate the joint effect of CNV burden and known confounders on transplant-free survival. Children with nonsyndromic CHD had a higher burden of potentially pathogenic CNVs compared with pediatric controls (12.1% vs 5.0%; P = .00016). Presence of a CNV was associated with significantly decreased transplant-free survival after surgery (hazard ratio, 3.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.66-7.09; P = .00090) with confounder adjustment. We confirm that children with isolated CHD have a greater burden of rare/large CNVs. We report a novel finding that these CNVs are associated with an adjusted 2.55-fold increased risk of death or transplant. These data suggest that CNV burden is an important modifier of survival after surgery for CHD. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of cellular protective proteins SIRT1, HSP70 and SOD2 correlates with age and is significantly higher in NK cells of the oldest seniors.

    PubMed

    Kaszubowska, Lucyna; Foerster, Jerzy; Kaczor, Jan Jacek; Schetz, Daria; Ślebioda, Tomasz Jerzy; Kmieć, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    NK cells are key effector lymphocytes of innate immunity provided with constitutive cytolytic activity, however, their role in human ageing is not entirely understood. The study aimed to analyze the expression of proteins involved in cellular stress response sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in non-stimulated NK cells of the oldest seniors ( n  = 25; aged over 85; mean age 88 years) and compare with NK cells of the old ( n  = 30; aged under 85; mean age 76 years) and the young ( n  = 32; mean age 21 years) to find potential relationships between the level of expression of these proteins in NK cells and longevity. The concentration of carbonyl groups and 8-isoprostanes in NK cell lysates reflecting the level of oxidative stress was also measured. The group of the oldest seniors differed from the other age groups by significantly higher percentage of NK cells expressing SIRT1, HSP70 and SOD2. The concentration of both carbonyl groups and 8-isoprostanes in NK cell extracts remained within the normal range in all age groups. The percentage of NK cells with the expression of, respectively, SIRT1, HSP70 and SOD2 correlated positively with age. Some correlations between expression levels of particular protective proteins SIRT1, HSP70 and SOD2 were observed in the study population. The increased expression of cellular protective proteins SIRT1, HSP70 and SOD2 in NK cells of the oldest seniors seems to correspond to longevity and the observed correlations may suggest the involvement of these proteins in establishing NK cell homeostasis specific for healthy ageing process.

  16. Earned Value Management (EVM) Implementation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Earned Value Management (EVM) guidance for the effective application, implementation, and utilization of EVM on NASA programs, projects, major contracts and subcontracts in a consolidated reference document. EVM is a project management process that effectively integrates a project s scope of work with schedule and cost elements for optimum project planning and control. The goal is to achieve timely and accurate quantification of progress that will facilitate management by exception and enable early visibility into the nature and the magnitude of technical problems as well as the intended course and success of corrective actions.

  17. Earned Value Management (EVM) Implementation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, Stefanie M.; Richards, Brad W.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Earned Value Management (EVM) guidance for the effective application, implementation, and utilization of EVM on NASA programs, projects, major contracts and subcontracts in a consolidated reference document. EVM is a project management process that effectively integrates a project?s scope of work with schedule and cost elements for optimum project planning and control. The goal is to achieve timely and accurate quantification of progress that will facilitate management by exception and enable early visibility into the nature and the magnitude of technical problems as well as the intended course and success of corrective actions.

  18. Bridging Social Capital and Individual Earnings: Evidence for an Inverted U.

    PubMed

    Growiec, Katarzyna; Growiec, Jakub

    Based on data on a cross section of individuals surveyed in the 1999-2002 wave of World and European Values Surveys, we investigate the multilateral associations between bridging social capital, individuals' earnings, as well as social trust and employment status. Our analysis provides robust evidence that the relationship between bridging social capital and earnings is inverted-U shaped. We carry out a range of tests in order to ascertain that this result is not driven by regressor endogeneity or omitted variables bias. We also identify significant interaction effects between bridging social capital, social trust, and employment status.

  19. The Determinants of Private and Government Sector Earnings in Russia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    private sector earnings in Russia compare to those in the still strong government sector. This paper estimates sectoral earnings equations for rural and urban men and women which control for: (1) Self-selection into the workforce; and (2) Self-selection into either the private or government sector, while allowing for simultaneity in the selection decisions. The selection controls are found to have a considerable effect on the estimated sectoral earnings differentials for all four sample groups. Earnings differentials are examined by age, education, and unobserved skill.

  20. Factors of the Earning Functions and Their Influence on the Intellectual Capital of an Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile; Tanasoiu, Ovidiu Emil

    2008-01-01

    This paper tries to consider some earning function as "start point" for the construction of indicators for intellectual capital measure. The analyze combines concepts from Mincer's and Becker theories and intellectual capital definitions currently in use. The correlation, significance and relation between elements are shown using three econometric…

  1. Educational Attainment and Earnings Inequality among US-Born Men: A Lifetime Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Since the onset of the Great Recession over six years ago, restoring full employment has been the most urgent labor market priority. As the economy slowly recovers, long-term labor market challenges will receive renewed attention. Among the most significant is the growing earnings divide between different types of workers and the potential role of…

  2. Assessing the Impact of Gender and Race on Earnings in the Library Science Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeper, Darren; Smith, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates, this paper examines earnings in the library science labor market and assesses the impact of gender on the income attainment process. We use this cross-sectional dataset to determine if there are significant income differences between male and female library science professionals. The…

  3. The North-South Earnings Gap: Changes during the 1960's and 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Charles; Blankenship, Kim

    1981-01-01

    A study of earnings differences between northern and southern states shows that white-collar workers in both areas now receive roughly equal pay. Women, blacks and blue-collar workers in the South still receive significantly lower wages than their northern counterparts. (AM)

  4. Significant Labor and Employment Law Issues in Higher Education During the Past Decade and What To Look for Now: A Management Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsicker Jr., J. Freedley

    2000-01-01

    A management perspective of major issues in higher education labor law in the 1990s addresses: sexual harassment; the Civil Rights Act of 1991; diversity on campus, elimination of mandatory retirement for faculty; development of contingent work force; and unionization of residents, interns, and graduate assistants. Predicts alternatives to…

  5. Significant Labor and Employment Law Issues in Higher Education During the Past Decade and What To Look for Now: A Union Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    A union perspective of major issues in higher education labor law in the 1990s includes the 11th Circuit Court cases on whether Congress abrogated states' 11th Amendment immunity for suits under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Analyzes contract issues of protection around age…

  6. A Comparison of Earned Value Management and Earned Schedule as Schedule Predictors on DoD ACAT I Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    33 Mario Vanhoucke and Stephan Vandevoorde – “Measuring the Accuracy of Earned Value/Earned Schedule Forecasting Predictors” (2007...technical problem to the present day ‘ super projects’” (Clark and Lorenzoni, 1997: 2). Cost engineering has “application regardless of industry...large construction projects, but also the acceptance of earned schedule principles on an international scale. Mario Vanhoucke and Stephan Vandevoorde

  7. Earnings of the internationally educated nurses in the U.S. labor market.

    PubMed

    Walani, Salimah R

    2013-01-01

    Internationally educated registered nurses comprise 5.4% of the U.S. nursing workforce. These nurses perceive unequal treatment in the workplace. However, studies comparing their wages to U.S.-educated registered nurses are limited and inconclusive. It is unclear whether there is a wage differential in the U.S. labor market. The aims of this study were to determine if there is a difference in the wages of internationally and U.S.-educated nurses and to determine the extent to which the wage gap relates to differences in the human capital, employment, and demographic characteristics of the two groups. The 2008 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses data were used for this secondary data analysis study. The sample included 988 internationally educated nurses and 21,715 U.S.-educated nurses. Multiple regression and Oaxaca decomposition were used to find predictors of log hourly wages. Internationally educated nurses earned 5% higher log hourly wages, controlling for human capital, employment, and demographic characteristics. Male gender, working in a metropolitan area, hospital job, union representation, higher nursing experience, and higher education exerted significant positive effects on hourly wages. Oaxaca decomposition showed that 67% of the wage differential was because of the differences in the characteristics of two groups. If there is any form of discrimination against internationally educated nurses in the United States, it does not translate into wage inequality. Predictors of economic success should be explored in future research.

  8. 20 CFR 404.1574a - When and how we will average your earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... has been no change in the substantial gainful activity earnings levels, we will average your earnings... time during which the substantial gainful activity earnings levels change, we will average your earnings separately for each period in which a different substantial gainful activity earnings level...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1574a - When and how we will average your earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... has been no change in the substantial gainful activity earnings levels, we will average your earnings... time during which the substantial gainful activity earnings levels change, we will average your earnings separately for each period in which a different substantial gainful activity earnings level...

  10. Attenuated live cholera vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR elicits significantly higher serum vibriocidal antibody titers in persons of blood group O.

    PubMed Central

    Lagos, R; Avendaño, A; Prado, V; Horwitz, I; Wasserman, S; Losonsky, G; Cryz, S; Kaper, J B; Levine, M M

    1995-01-01

    Persons of blood group O are at increased risk of developing cholera gravis. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety-immunogenicity trial of live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR in 5- to 9-year-old Chilean children, vibriocidal antibody seroconversion (74% overall) did not differ by blood group. However, the reciprocal geometric mean titer (GMT) in blood group O vaccines (GMT = 486) was higher than that in non-O vaccines (GMT = 179) (P < 0.02). PMID:7822046

  11. Age, education, and earnings in the course of Brazilian development: does composition matter?

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Amaral, Ernesto Friedrich; Potter, Joseph E.; Hamermesh, Daniel S.; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The impacts of shifts in the age distribution of the working-age population have been studied in relation to the effect of the baby boom generation on the earnings of different cohorts in the U.S. However, this topic has received little attention in the context of the countries of Asia and Latin America, which are now experiencing substantial shifts in their age-education distributions. OBJECTIVE In this analysis, we estimate the impact of the changing relative size of the adult male population, classified by age and education groups, on the earnings of employed men living in 502 Brazilian local labor markets during four time periods between 1970 and 2000. METHODS Taking advantage of the huge variation across Brazilian local labor markets and demographic census micro-data, we used fixed effects models to demonstrate that age education group size depresses earnings. RESULTS These effects are more detrimental among age-education groups with higher education, but they are becoming less negative over time. The decrease in the share of workers with the lowest level of education has not led to gains in the earnings of these workers in recent years. CONCLUSIONS These trends might be a consequence of technological shifts and increasing demand for labor with either education or experience. Compositional shifts are influential, which suggests that this approach could prove useful in studying this central problem in economic development. PMID:26146484

  12. Opting Out and Buying Out: Wives' Earnings and Housework Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killewald, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the negative association between wives' earnings and their time in housework is due to greater outsourcing of household labor by households with high-earning wives, but this hypothesis has not been tested directly. In a sample of dual-earner married couples in the Consumption and Activities Mail Survey of the Health and…

  13. 20 CFR 410.530 - Reductions; excess earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reductions; excess earnings. 410.530 Section 410.530 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.530 Reductions; excess earnings...

  14. 5 CFR 582.401 - Aggregate disposable earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCIAL GARNISHMENT OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' PAY Consumer Credit Protection Act Restrictions § 582.401 Aggregate disposable earnings. In accordance with the Consumer Credit Protection Act, the aggregate disposable earnings under this part are the employee-obligor's pay less those amounts excluded in accordance...

  15. Boverhof's App Earns Honorable Mention in Amazon's Web Services

    » Boverhof's App Earns Honorable Mention in Amazon's Web Services Competition News & Publications News Publications Facebook Google+ Twitter Boverhof's App Earns Honorable Mention in Amazon's Web Services by Amazon Web Services (AWS). Amazon officially announced the winners of its EC2 Spotathon on Monday

  16. Earnings Inequality in the Nonmetropolitan United States: 1967-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolbert, Charles M.; Lyson, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of census data indicates that earnings inequality among full-time workers increased in the 1980s. Compared to metropolitan areas, nonmetro economic inequality was greater and was explained better by both neoclassical and restructuring frameworks. Gender and college education accounted for far more earnings inequality than other sources…

  17. 20 CFR 702.285 - Report of earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... earnings from employment or self-employment. This report may not be required any more frequently than semi... employment and self-employment and the periods for which the earnings apply. The employee must return the..., salaries, tips, sales commissions, fees for services provided, piecework and all revenue received from self...

  18. A Structural Decomposition of Black-White Earnings Differentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    Two factors which create differences in Black-White earnings are: (1) differentials between Blacks and Whites within divisions of the labor market; and (2) differences between industries and occupations in earnings, combined with the differential distribution of Blacks and Whites across labor market divisions. The labor market structure is crucial…

  19. Earned-Secure Attachment Status in Retrospect and Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Padron, Elena; Sroufe, L. Alan; Egeland, Byron

    2002-01-01

    This 23-year longitudinal study examined the attachment history of earned-secure young adults who coherently describe negative childhood experiences. Findings indicated that retrospective earned-secures were not more likely than continuous-secures to have been anxiously attached in infancy, and were observed in childhood and adolescence to have…

  20. 24 CFR 904.110 - Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA... Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA) (a) Credits to the account. The LHA shall establish and maintain a separate EHPA for each homebuyer. Since the homebuyer is responsible for maintaining the home, a portion of...

  1. 24 CFR 904.110 - Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA... Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA) (a) Credits to the account. The LHA shall establish and maintain a separate EHPA for each homebuyer. Since the homebuyer is responsible for maintaining the home, a portion of...

  2. 24 CFR 904.110 - Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA... Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA) (a) Credits to the account. The LHA shall establish and maintain a separate EHPA for each homebuyer. Since the homebuyer is responsible for maintaining the home, a portion of...

  3. 24 CFR 904.110 - Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA... Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA) (a) Credits to the account. The LHA shall establish and maintain a separate EHPA for each homebuyer. Since the homebuyer is responsible for maintaining the home, a portion of...

  4. 24 CFR 904.110 - Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA... Earned Home Payments Account (EHPA) (a) Credits to the account. The LHA shall establish and maintain a separate EHPA for each homebuyer. Since the homebuyer is responsible for maintaining the home, a portion of...

  5. 20 CFR 416.1110 - What is earned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....1110 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED... else's employee. Wages are the same for SSI purposes as for the earnings test in the social security... under the SSI program are the same net earnings that we would count under the social security retirement...

  6. 5 CFR 550.105 - Biweekly maximum earnings limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biweekly maximum earnings limitation. 550... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.105 Biweekly maximum... basic pay and premium pay for any biweekly pay period to exceed the greater of— (1) The maximum biweekly...

  7. 5 CFR 550.106 - Annual maximum earnings limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual maximum earnings limitation. 550... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.106 Annual maximum... and premium pay for the calendar year to exceed the greater of— (1) The maximum annual rate of basic...

  8. Integrating Earning College Credit in High School into Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2015

    2015-01-01

    Earning college credit in high school matters to students and parents. Students who earn college credits by taking a college-level course while in high school are more likely to enter college and succeed. Through these experiences, students become familiar with college expectations, academic behaviors, and habits of mind; get a head start on…

  9. 5 CFR 630.303 - Part-time employees; earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Part-time employees; earnings. 630.303... AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.303 Part-time employees; earnings. A part-time employee for whom there... workweek, and a part-time employee on a flexible work schedule for whom there has been established only a...

  10. The life-cycle argument: age as a mediator of pharmacists' earnings.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Armayor, Graciela M

    2015-01-01

    Age diversity poses challenges to pharmacy employers and managers. A life-cycle argument has been presented to explain pharmacists' age-related differences at work. Explore responses of pharmacists' wage-and-salary earnings in three age groups (younger than 40, 40-54 years, and 55 years plus) to labor input and human-capital variables. A survey questionnaire was mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida, USA. An earnings function was formulated and tested, using ordinary least squares, for each age group separately to compare the direction, magnitude, and statistical significance of each determinant on earnings. The covariates were number of hours worked, type of pharmacy degree, years of professional experience, gender, number of children, and whether the pharmacist had completed a residency and/or attained a specialty board certification. The model showed better fit and statistical significance for practitioners under 40 and 55 years or older. The number of hours worked was the overwhelming determinant, but the magnitude of its influence was different for the three age groups. Human-capital indicators provided evidence in support of the life-cycle argument. The wage-and-salary earnings of pharmacy practitioners were mediated by age group in their response to labor input and human-capital variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 26 CFR 1.809-9 - Computation of the differential earnings rate and the recomputed differential earnings rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Gain and Loss... equal to the product of— (i) The life insurance company's average equity base for the taxable year...— (i) The imputed earnings rate for the taxable year; over (ii) The average mutual earning rate for the...

  12. The significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine: an examination of the need for effective approaches used in admissions by higher education institutions.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Obed

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM). This would include African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The research findings support the belief that URMs, upon graduating, are more likely to become practitioners in underserved communities, thereby becoming a resource that prompts us to find effective ways to help increase their college enrollments statewide. This paper analyzes the recruitment challenges for institutions, followed by a review of creative and effective approaches used by organizations and universities. The results have shown positive outcomes averaging a 50% increase in minority enrollments and retention. In other areas, such as cognitive development, modest gains were achieved in programs that were shorter in duration. The results nevertheless indicated steps in the right direction inspiring further program developments.

  13. The significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine: an examination of the need for effective approaches used in admissions by higher education institutions

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Obed

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM). This would include African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The research findings support the belief that URMs, upon graduating, are more likely to become practitioners in underserved communities, thereby becoming a resource that prompts us to find effective ways to help increase their college enrollments statewide. This paper analyzes the recruitment challenges for institutions, followed by a review of creative and effective approaches used by organizations and universities. The results have shown positive outcomes averaging a 50% increase in minority enrollments and retention. In other areas, such as cognitive development, modest gains were achieved in programs that were shorter in duration. The results nevertheless indicated steps in the right direction inspiring further program developments. PMID:25192970

  14. PCR reveals significantly higher rates of Trypanosoma cruzi infection than microscopy in the Chagas vector, Triatoma infestans: High rates found in Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Lucero, David E; Stevens, Lori

    2007-01-01

    AGC GGA TAG TTC AGG – 3') primers. Amplicons were chromatographed on a 2% agarose gel with a 100 bp size standard, stained with ethidium bromide and viewed with UV fluorescence. For both the microscopy and PCR assays, we calculated sensitivity (number of positives by a method divided by the number of positives by either method) and discrepancy (one method was negative and the other was positive) at the locality, life stage and habitat level. The degree of agreement between PCR and microscopy was determined by calculating Kappa (k) values with 95% confidence intervals. Results We observed a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans (81.16% by PCR and 56.52% by microscopy) and discovered that PCR is significantly more sensitive than microscopic observation. The overall degree of agreement between the two methods was moderate (Kappa = 0.43 ± 0.07). The level of infection is significantly different among communities; however, prevalence was similar among habitats and life stages. Conclusion PCR was significantly more sensitive than microscopy in all habitats, developmental stages and localities in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Overall we observed a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans in this area of Bolivia; however, microscopy underestimated infection at all levels examined. PMID:17597541

  15. Telecommuting and Earnings Trajectories Among American Women and Men 1989-2008.

    PubMed

    Glass, Jennifer L; Noonan, Mary C

    2016-09-01

    While flexibility in the location of work hours has shown positive organizational effects on productivity and retention, less is known about the earnings effects of telecommuting. We analyze weekly hours spent working from home using the 1989-2008 panels of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth. We describe the demographic and occupational characteristics of the employees engaged in telecommuting, then track their earnings growth with fixed-effects models, focusing on gender and parental status. Results show substantial variation in the earnings effects of telecommuting based on the point in the hours distribution worked from home. Working from home rather than the office produces equal earnings growth in the first 40 hours worked, but "taking work home" or overtime telecommuting yields significantly smaller increases than overtime worked on-site. Yet most observed telecommuting occurs precisely during this low-yield overtime portion of the hours distribution. Few gender or parental status differences emerged in these processes. These trends reflect potentially widespread negative consequences of the growing capacity of workers to perform their work from any location. Rather than enhancing true flexibility in when and where employees work, the capacity to work from home mostly extends the work day and encroaches into what was formerly home and family time.

  16. Telecommuting and Earnings Trajectories Among American Women and Men 1989–2008

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Jennifer L.; Noonan, Mary C.

    2016-01-01

    While flexibility in the location of work hours has shown positive organizational effects on productivity and retention, less is known about the earnings effects of telecommuting. We analyze weekly hours spent working from home using the 1989–2008 panels of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth. We describe the demographic and occupational characteristics of the employees engaged in telecommuting, then track their earnings growth with fixed-effects models, focusing on gender and parental status. Results show substantial variation in the earnings effects of telecommuting based on the point in the hours distribution worked from home. Working from home rather than the office produces equal earnings growth in the first 40 hours worked, but “taking work home” or overtime telecommuting yields significantly smaller increases than overtime worked on-site. Yet most observed telecommuting occurs precisely during this low-yield overtime portion of the hours distribution. Few gender or parental status differences emerged in these processes. These trends reflect potentially widespread negative consequences of the growing capacity of workers to perform their work from any location. Rather than enhancing true flexibility in when and where employees work, the capacity to work from home mostly extends the work day and encroaches into what was formerly home and family time. PMID:27833214

  17. Marketization, occupational segregation, and gender earnings inequality in urban China.

    PubMed

    He, Guangye; Wu, Xiaogang

    2017-07-01

    This article analyzes a large sample of the 2005 population mini-census data and prefecture-level statistics of China to investigate gender earnings inequality in the context of economic marketization, paying special attention to the changing role of occupational segregation in the process. We approximate marketization by employment sectors and also construct an index of marketization at the prefecture level. Results show that, despite the tremendous economic growth, marketization has exacerbated gender earnings inequality in urban China's labor markets. Gender earnings inequality is the smallest in government/public institutions, followed by public enterprises, and then private enterprises. The gender inequality also increases with the prefecture's level of marketization. Multilevel analyses show that occupational segregation plays an important role in affecting gender earnings inequality: the greater the occupational segregation, the more disadvantaged women are relative to men in earnings in a prefecture's labor market. Moreover, the impact of occupational segregation on gender earnings inequality increases with the prefectural level of marketization. These findings contribute to understanding the dynamics of gender earnings inequality and have important implications for policy to promote gender equality in urban China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Money Isn't Everything: Wives’ Earnings and Housework Time

    PubMed Central

    Killewald, Alexandra; Gough, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The autonomy perspective of housework time predicts that wives’ housework time falls steadily as their earnings rise, because wives use additional financial resources to outsource or forego time in housework. We argue, however, that wives’ ability to reduce their housework varies by household task. That is, we expect that increases in wives’ earnings will allow them to forego or outsource some tasks, but not others. As a result, we hypothesize more rapid declines in wives’ housework time for low-earning wives as their earnings increase than for high-earning wives who have already stopped performing household tasks that are the easiest and cheapest to outsource or forego. Using fixed-effects models and data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we find considerable support for our hypothesis. We further conclude that past evidence that wives who out-earn their husbands spend additional time in housework to compensate for their gender-deviant success in the labor market is due to the failure to account for the non-linear relationship between wives’ absolute earnings and their housework time. PMID:21278852

  19. Long-Term Effect of Exposure to a Friend's Adolescent Childbirth on Fertility, Education, and Earnings.

    PubMed

    Kapinos, Kandice A; Yakusheva, Olga

    2016-09-01

    To examine the long-term effect of a female adolescent's exposure to a peer's childbirth on fertility, schooling, and earnings. Estimating causal peer effects in fertility is challenging because the exposure variable (peer pregnancy and childbirth) is nonrandomly assigned. Miscarriages in early pregnancy occur spontaneously in a significant proportion of pregnancies and, therefore, create a natural experiment within which the causal effect of childbirth can be examined. This exploratory study compared adjusted fertility, educational, and labor market outcomes of female adolescents whose adolescent pregnant friend gave birth to female adolescents whose pregnant friend miscarried. Longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed using logistic, ordinal logistic, linear, and log-linear regressions. Females whose adolescent pregnant friends gave birth (instead of miscarried) had decreased adolescent sexual activity, pregnancy, and teen childbearing and increased educational attainment, but there were no significant long-term effects on total fertility or differences in labor market outcomes, relative to females whose pregnant adolescent friend miscarried. Adolescent females appear to learn vicariously from teen childbearing experiences of their friends, resulting in delayed childbearing and higher educational attainment. Interventions that expose adolescents to the reality of teen motherhood may be an effective way of reducing the rates of teen childbearing and improving schooling. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of class size in grades K-3 on adult earnings, employment, and disability status: evidence from a multi-center randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Elizabeth Ty; Finn, Jeremy; Johnson, Gretchen; Muennig, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Early education interventions have been forwarded as a means for reducing social disparities in income and health in adulthood. We explore whether a successful early education intervention, which occurred between 1985 and 1989, improved the employment rates, earnings and health of blacks relative to whites through 2008. We used data from Project STAR (Student Teacher Achievement Ratio), a four-year multi-center randomized controlled trial of reduced class sizes in Tennessee involving 11,601 students. Students were initially randomized within 79 schools to classes with 22-25 or 13-17 students. We linked subject records to Social Security Administration (SSA) earnings and disability data collected between 1997 and 2008-when the majority of subjects were between the ages of 18 and 28. We focused our analysis on annual, rather than cumulative, measures of earnings and employment because educational attainment after high school might reduce earnings through age 23. We considered three or more years of statistically significant positive (or negative) annual impacts to be a meaningful effect. Project STAR improved cognition and high school graduation rates. These benefits were primarily realized among low-income and minority students. These early education benefits did not translate into reduced disability claims in adulthood for treated subjects. However, exposure to small class size increased employment for blacks, and increased earnings for black males (p<0.05). Exposure to small classes also led to an increase in earnings for white males. However, white females exposed to small classes experienced a net decline in earnings and employment across the later years of follow up (p<0.05), offsetting any gains by white males. Exposure to small class size in grades K-3 appears to improve earnings and employment for black males and earnings for white males, while reducing employment and earnings among white females.

  1. 25 CFR 20.308 - What does earned income include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Determining Need and Income § 20.308 What does earned income... and entertainment expenses, personal transportation, capital equipment purchases, or principal payments on loans for capital assets or durable goods. ...

  2. Procedures to Help Program Offices with Earned Value Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Earned Value Management (EVM) Procedures describe the Agency methods for collecting and reporting performance information on major IT investments. The EVM Procedures explain how EPA Program Offices are to receive, organize, analyze, and report cost.

  3. 25 CFR 20.308 - What does earned income include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Determining Need and Income § 20.308 What does earned income... and entertainment expenses, personal transportation, capital equipment purchases, or principal payments on loans for capital assets or durable goods. ...

  4. The Wage Gap: Women's and Men's Earnings. Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Lois; Gish, Melinda; Braunstein, Jill; Allore, Sara

    After remaining virtually unchanged from 1995 through the 1970s, the wage gap between women and men began to decline in the 1980s. By the early 1990s, the ratio of the annual earnings of women employed full time year-round to the annual earnings of their male counterparts reached 72.0%. That ratio decreased slightly (to 71.4%) in 1995. The wage…

  5. The stature of the self-employed and its relation with earnings and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Cornelius A; Hessels, Jolanda; van der Zwan, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Taller individuals have on average a higher socio-economic status than shorter individuals. In countries where entrepreneurs have high social status, we may therefore expect that entrepreneurs are taller than wage workers. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (2002-2012), we find that a 1cm increase in an individual's height raises the probability of being self-employed (the most common proxy for entrepreneurship) versus paid employed by 0.15 percentage points. Within the self-employed, the probability of being an employer is increased by 0.10 percentage points as a result of a 1cm increase in height, whereas this increase is 0.05 percentage points for an own-account worker. This result corroborates the higher social status of employers compared to own-account workers. We find a height premium in earnings for self-employed and paid-employed individuals: an additional 1cm in height is associated with a 0.39% increase in hourly earnings for paid employees and a 0.52% increase for self-employed individuals. Our analysis reveals that approximately one third of the height premium in earnings is explained by differences in educational attainment. We also establish the existence of a height premium in terms of work and life satisfaction, which is more pronounced for paid employees than for self-employed individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth of Jobs with Above Average Earnings Projected at All Education Levels. Issues in Labor Statistics. Summary 94-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC.

    The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects national employment to grow by almost 26.4 million over the 1992-2005 period. The majority of these new jobs will be in higher-paying occupations. Entry requirements of the new jobs in occupations having above-average earnings will range from no more than a high school education to a bachelor's degree or…

  7. College Major and the Gender Earnings Gap: A Multi-Country Examination of Postgraduate Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of degree choice on the distribution of occupational benefits in terms of income, and their contribution to the gender earnings gap, among young European higher education graduates. The results reveal that the field of study, which is the result of a personal choice, appears to influence the distribution of…

  8. The effects of Earned Income Tax Credit payment expansion on maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Averett, Susan; Wang, Yang

    2013-11-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit is the largest antipoverty program in the USA. In 1993, the Earned Income Tax Credit benefit levels were changed significantly based on the number of children in the family such that families with two or more children experienced an exogenous expansion in their incomes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, we use a triple-difference plus fixed effects framework to examine the effect of this change on the probability of smoking among low-educated mothers. We find that the probability of smoking for White low-educated mothers of two or more children significantly decreased relative to those with only one child, and this result is robust to various specification tests. This result provides new evidence on the protective effect of income on health through changes in a health-related behavior and therefore has important policy implications. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Welfare dynamics, support services, mothers' earnings, and child cognitive development: implications for contemporary welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, H

    1999-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY; N = 614), addresses the gap in the research literature regarding the effects of welfare reform on children. Key questions addressed include whether welfare dynamics and support services relevant to welfare reform, both measured across the first 5 years of life, are associated with mothers' earnings in the 6th year and three child cognitive outcomes in the 7th and 8th years: Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) math and reading scores, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Welfare dynamics are represented by total time on welfare, degree of cycling on and off welfare, and degree to which welfare and work are combined. Support services measured include three forms of child care (relative, babysitter, and center-based), as well as three forms of human capital supports (child support, job training, and education). Controlling for a range of background factors and for different patterns of welfare use across the first 5 years, small positive associations with mother's earnings were found for child support, education, and job training. Small positive associations also were found between child support and both math and reading scores. Finally positive associations of medium effect size were found between center care and both mothers' earnings and child PPVT scores. Although effect sizes are generally small, the results suggest the potential value of welfare reform approaches that emphasize long-term human capital development. Interactions between welfare dynamics and support services suggest subgroup differences. Specifically, positive effects of support services on earnings are strongest among mothers with higher levels of human capital (higher levels of work while on welfare, lower total time on welfare). Babysitter care appears to have negative effects on both reading and math scores of children whose mothers report low levels of work while on welfare

  10. 25 CFR 115.713 - When does money in a trust account start earning interest?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does money in a trust account start earning interest... and Interests § 115.713 When does money in a trust account start earning interest? Funds must remain on deposit at least one business day before interest is earned. Interest earnings of less than one...

  11. 25 CFR 700.173 - Average net earnings of business or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Average net earnings of business or farm. 700.173 Section... PROCEDURES Moving and Related Expenses, Temporary Emergency Moves § 700.173 Average net earnings of business or farm. (a) Computing net earnings. For purposes of this subpart, the average annual net earnings of...

  12. 25 CFR 700.173 - Average net earnings of business or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Average net earnings of business or farm. 700.173 Section... PROCEDURES Moving and Related Expenses, Temporary Emergency Moves § 700.173 Average net earnings of business or farm. (a) Computing net earnings. For purposes of this subpart, the average annual net earnings of...

  13. 26 CFR 1.964-1 - Determination of the earnings and profits of a foreign corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of the earnings and profits of a....964-1 Determination of the earnings and profits of a foreign corporation. (a)(1) In general. For rules for determining the earnings and profits (or deficit in earnings and profits) of a foreign corporation...

  14. 26 CFR 1.312-1 - Adjustment to earnings and profits reflecting distributions by corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... earnings and profits. The reduction in earnings and profits by reason of such distribution is $5,000. Such...,000. The reduction in earnings and profits is $15,000. Such is the reduction even though only the... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustment to earnings and profits reflecting...

  15. 18 CFR 367.4360 - Account 436, Appropriations of retained earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Appropriations of retained earnings. 367.4360 Section 367.4360 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4360 Account 436, Appropriations of retained earnings. This account must include appropriations of retained earnings as follows: (a) Appropriations required...

  16. How did the Elimination of the Earnings Test above the Normal Retirement Age affect Retirement Expectations?1

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Pierre-Carl

    2010-01-01

    We look at the effect of the 2000 repeal of the earnings test above the normal retirement age on retirement expectations of workers in the Health and Retirement Study, aged 51 to 61 in 1992. For men, we find that those whose marginal wage rate increased when the earnings test was repealed, had the largest increase in the probability to work full-time past normal retirement age. We do not find significant evidence of effects of the repeal of the earnings test on the probability to work past age 62 or the expected claiming age. On the other hand, for those reaching the normal retirement age, deviations between the age at which Social Security benefits are actually claimed and the previously reported expected age are more negative in 2000 than in 1998. Since our calculations show that the tax introduced by the earnings test was small when accounting for actuarial benefit adjustments and differential mortality, our results suggest that although male workers form expectations in a way consistent with forward-looking behavior, they misperceive the complicated rules of the earnings test. Results for females suggest similar patterns but estimates are imprecise. PMID:21037938

  17. Two by two, inch by inch: Height as an indicator of environmental conditions during childhood and its influence on earnings over the life cycle among twins.

    PubMed

    Lång, Elisabeth; Nystedt, Paul

    2018-02-01

    Adult height is a function of genetic predispositions and environmental influences during childhood. Hence, any variation in height among monozygotic twins, who share genetic predispositions, is bound to reflect differences in their environmental exposure. Therefore, a height premium in earnings among monozygotic twins also reflects such exposure. In this study, we analyze the height premium over the life cycle among Swedish twins, 10,000 of whom are monozygotic. The premium is relatively constant over the life cycle, amounting to 5-6% higher earnings per decimeter for men and less for women, suggesting that environmental conditions in childhood and youth affect earnings over most of the adult life course. The premium is larger below median height for men and above median height for young women. The estimates are similar for monozygotic and dizygotic twins, indicating that environmentally and genetically induced height differences are similarly associated with earnings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of occupational attributes in gender earnings inequality, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in the research on the important role of social structures in forming gender inequalities, this study examines the effect of occupational attributes on the gender earnings gap over four decades. Using the IPUMS-USA from 1970 to 2010, the paper shows that occupational attributes cannot be reduced to the aggregate attributes of their individual incumbents. Rather, the effect of occupations on the gender earnings gap goes far beyond both the distributive role of occupational segregation and the effect of individual wage-related characteristics. Furthermore, occupations not only explain a significant portion of net gender pay gaps, but have also contributed to the narrowing of the gaps over the past several decades, as occupational attributes that favor women's pay have become more dominant over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rising labor costs, earnings management, and financial performance of health care providers around the world.

    PubMed

    Dong, Gang Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Amid increasing interest in how government regulation and market competition affect the cost and financial sustainability in health care sector, it remains unclear whether health care providers behave similarly to their counterparts in other industries. The goal of this chapter is to study the degree to which health care providers manipulate accruals in periods of financial difficulties caused, in part, by the rising costs of labor. We collected the financial information of health care provider in 43 countries from 1984 to 2013 and conducted a pooled cross-sectional study with country and year fixed-effects. The empirical evidence shows that health care providers with higher wage costs are more likely to smooth their earnings in order to maintain financial sustainability. The finding of this study not only informs regulators that earnings management is pervasive in health care organizations around the world, but also contributes to the studies of financial booktax reporting alignment, given the existing empirical evidence linking earnings management to corporate tax avoidance in this very sector.

  20. Custodial Parole Sanctions and Earnings after Release from Prison

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.; Siegel, Jonah A.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.

    2018-01-01

    Although the labor market consequences of incarceration in prison have been central to the literature on mass incarceration, punishment, and inequality, other components of the growing criminal justice system have received less attention from sociologists. In particular, the rise of mass incarceration was accompanied by an even larger increase in community supervision. In this paper, we examine the labor market effects of one frequently experienced aspect of post-prison parole, short-term custody for parole violations. Although such sanctions are viewed as an alternative to returning parole violators to prison, they have the potential to affect labor market outcomes in ways similar to imprisonment, including both adverse and positive effects on earnings. We estimate that parolees lost approximately 37 percent of their earnings in quarters during which they were in short-term custody. Although their earnings tended to increase in the quarter immediately following short-term custody—consistent with the stated intentions of such sanctions—parolees experienced further earnings loss over the longer term after such sanctions. In the third quarter following a short-term custody sanction, earnings are lowered by about 13 percent. These associations are larger for those who were employed in the formal labor market before their initial incarceration. PMID:29706673

  1. Danwei Profitability and Earnings Inequality in Urban China*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Xiaogang

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has debated the relative importance of such factors as human capital, political capital and region in determining workers’ earnings in reform-era urban China. This article argues that a main agent of social stratification in contemporary China continues to be the danwei, the work unit. Using data from a 1999 survey we conducted in three large Chinese cities, Wuhan, Shanghai and Xi’an, we assess the extent to which workers’ earnings (including regular wages, bonuses and subsidies) depend on the profitability of their danwei. Results show that the financial situation of the danwei is one of the most important determinants of earnings in today’s urban China. Furthermore, the importance of danwei profitability does not vary by city or by employment sector. PMID:20445771

  2. Amount of earnings during prize contingency management treatment is associated with posttreatment abstinence outcomes.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Roll, John M

    2011-12-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments that provide patients with the opportunity to earn chances of winning prizes of varying magnitudes are becoming increasingly popular. In the CM literature, magnitude of reinforcement is linked with effect sizes, such that CM treatments that provide larger magnitude reinforcement are more efficacious than those that provide lower magnitude reinforcement. With prize CM, even when magnitudes of overall expected prize earnings are constant, some patients win more prizes than others. Thus, patients who win larger overall amounts of prizes during treatment may have better outcomes than those who win fewer prizes. This study evaluated the impact of overall amounts of prizes won on long-term abstinence outcomes. The dollar amount of prizes won during prize CM treatments was determined from 78 cocaine-abusing methadone-maintenance patients who were randomized to prize CM treatments in three clinical trials. Abstinence three months following the end of the CM intervention was the primary dependent variable. The dollar amount of prizes won during CM treatment was a significant predictor of submission of cocaine-negative urine samples and self-reports of cocaine abstinence at the follow-up evaluation, even after controlling for other variables associated with long-term abstinence, such as pretreatment urinalysis results and longest duration of abstinence achieved during treatment. These results suggest that magnitudes of earnings during prize CM may impact outcomes and call for further experimentation of parameters related to the efficacy of prize CM.

  3. State earnings analysis for the Administrator's Annual Report. analysis memorandum. [Use of Regional Earnings Impact System (REIS)

    SciT

    Sandoval, A.D.; Schnapp, R.M.; Wenger, R.S.

    1978-05-01

    The 1978 EIA Annual Report to Congress, Volume II, considers a series of energy projections that incorporate different assumptions about energy resource availability, economic growth, and the price of imported oil. A version of the Regional Earnings Impact System (REIS) is used to estimate the 1985 State earnings associated with five of those energy projections. The projections are: Series A: high energy resources and high economic growth; Series B: low energy resources and high economic growth; Series C: mid-level energy resources and economics growth; Series D: high energy resources and low economic growth; and Series E: low energy resources andmore » low economic growth. The series assume a $13.00 constant real price for imported oil. Besides depicting the obvious relationship between earnings in the energy-resource states and the assumed level of energy production, the REIS results show that earnings in the industrial states, particularly in the Midwest and in New England, vary the most under different projections. In contrast, earnings in the predominantly agricultural states and in the District of Columbia vary little between projections.« less

  4. 26 CFR 1.312-7 - Effect on earnings and profits of gain or loss realized after February 28, 1913.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Effect on earnings and profits of gain or loss realized after February 28, 1913. (a) In order to... earnings and profits for any period beginning after February 28, 1913. For example, since the earnings and profits accumulated after February 28, 1913, or the earnings and profits of the taxable year, are earnings...

  5. Skills, education, and the rise of earnings inequality among the "other 99 percent".

    PubMed

    Autor, David H

    2014-05-23

    The singular focus of public debate on the "top 1 percent" of households overlooks the component of earnings inequality that is arguably most consequential for the "other 99 percent" of citizens: the dramatic growth in the wage premium associated with higher education and cognitive ability. This Review documents the central role of both the supply and demand for skills in shaping inequality, discusses why skill demands have persistently risen in industrialized countries, and considers the economic value of inequality alongside its potential social costs. I conclude by highlighting the constructive role for public policy in fostering skills formation and preserving economic mobility. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. The fiscal consequences of ADHD in Germany: a quantitative analysis based on differences in educational attainment and lifetime earnings.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P; Sobanski, Esther; Postma, Maarten J

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the long-term fiscal consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the German government and social insurance system based on differences in educational attainment and the resulting differences in lifetime earnings compared with non-ADHD cohorts. Differences in educational attainment between ADHD and non-ADHD cohorts were linked to education-specific earnings data. Direct and indirect tax rates and social insurance contributions were linked to differences in lifetime, education-specific earnings to derive lost tax revenue in Germany associated with ADHD. For ADHD and non-ADHD cohorts we derived the age-specific discounted net taxes paid by deducting lifetime transfers from lifetime gross taxes paid. The lifetime net tax revenue for a non-ADHD individual was approximately EUR 80,000 higher compared to an untreated ADHD individual. The fiscal burden of untreated ADHD, based on a cohort of n=31,844 born in 2010, was estimated at EUR 2.5 billion in net tax revenue losses compared with an equally-sized non-ADHD cohort. ADHD interventions providing a small improvement in educational attainment resulted in fiscal benefits from increases in lifetime tax gains. ADHD results in long-term financial loss due to lower education attainment and lifetime reduced earnings and resulting lifetime taxes and social contributions paid. Investments in ADHD interventions allowing more children to achieve their educational potential may offer fiscal benefits generating a positive rate of return.

  7. Subject Choice and Earnings of UK Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with…

  8. 76 FR 40280 - Major System Acquisition; Earned Value Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carl Weber, NASA, Office of Procurement, Contract Management Division (Suite 5K80); (202) 358-1784; e-mail: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background... external Earned Value Management Requirements. Response: The regulation in the NASA FAR Supplement, 1834...

  9. Job Search Methods: Consequences for Gender-based Earnings Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Matt L.; Torres, Lisa

    2001-01-01

    Data from adults in Atlanta, Boston, and Los Angeles (n=1,942) who searched for work using formal (ads, agencies) or informal (networks) methods indicated that type of method used did not contribute to the gender gap in earnings. Results do not support formal job search as a way to reduce gender inequality. (Contains 55 references.) (SK)

  10. Rural Earnings Holding Steady in the Early 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaim, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate an overall decline in the rural-urban pay gap during the early 1990s (due to declining urban wages, not rising rural wages). In 1993, the earnings of 30 percent of rural full-time workers were below the poverty level. Compares low-income workers by gender, age group, education, and race/ethnicity. (LP)

  11. Ethnicity, Education, and Earnings in Bolivia and Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George

    1993-01-01

    In Guatemala and Bolivia, countries with high proportions of ethnic (Native) population, indigenous workers had lower educational attainment and earned less at every educational level, relative to nonindigenous workers. The differences between ethnic groups were greater in Guatemala than Bolivia. (SV)

  12. ATRF Earns Three Green Globes, Exceeds NIH Building Standards | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer From project management and energy and water efficiency to emissions and the indoor environment, the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) was built with sustainability in mind, exceeding the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH’s) building standards and earning three Green Globes from the Green Building Initiative (GBI).

  13. 26 CFR 1.1502-33 - Earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-tier members and consolidating the group's earnings and profits in the common parent. References in... tax year beginning on or after January 1, 1995. The statement must be signed by the common parent, and... acquisition of either the assets of the common parent of the terminating group in a reorganization described...

  14. How Money Matters: College, Motherhood, Earnings, and Wives' Housework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usdansky, Margaret L.; Parker, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    Using new data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), the authors consider how educational and parental status influence the relationship between wives' relative earnings and the time they devote to housework in a climate of heightened gender egalitarianism and growing similarity between women's and men's time use. The authors capitalize on the…

  15. Psychology Baccalaureates at Work: Major Area Subspecializations, Earnings, and Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajecki, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    A Census Bureau national survey identified baccalaureates aged up to 64 years having major area subspecializations labeled "psychology," "industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology," and "counseling psychology." Median 2009 earnings of all such types of baccalaureate psychology alumni were well below the distribution mean of the 153 fields in the…

  16. The Motherhood Earnings Dip: Evidence from Administrative Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Kranz, Daniel; Lacuesta, Aitor; Rodriguez-Planas, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Using Spanish Social Security records, we document the channels through which mothers fall onto a lower earnings track, such as shifting into part- time work, accumulating lower experience, or transitioning to lower-paying jobs, and are able to explain 71 percent of the unconditional individual fixed- effects motherhood wage gap. The earnings…

  17. An Investigation into Managers' Language Use in Earnings Press Releases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracey Jean

    2011-01-01

    For years, researchers have examined financial data in corporate earnings announcements and their influence on market participants. More recently, a body of research has been developing recognizing the impact of narrative disclosures and managers' deliberate language choices. However, no prior studies have investigated those language choices of…

  18. Education and Earnings: Empirical Findings from Alternative Operationalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kominski, Robert

    Data from the third-wave interview of the 1984 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) are used to assess the empirical impact of a SIPP item concerning educational attainment on the regression of earnings on educational attainment. The SIPP is a longitudinal survey conducted by the United States Census Bureau to measure…

  19. Motivating Factors behind Latinas Earning a Baccalaureate Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizaga Marron, Aryca

    2014-01-01

    Two concerns served the impetus for this study. Limited literature has created a research gap exploring why Latinas earn baccalaureate degrees from extended universities, and the community central to the study has been lagging behind state and national baccalaureate degree attainment. The researcher employed mixed-methods to describe motivating…

  20. Schooling, Literacy and Individual Earnings. International Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osberg, Lars

    This paper uses direct measures of literacy skill levels provided by the International Adult Literacy Survey to estimate the return to literacy skills. Using a very simple human capital earnings equation and standard ordinary least squares regression, it tested estimates of the return to literacy skills for their robustness to alternative scalings…

  1. Helping Working Families: The Earned Income Tax Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Saul D.; Seidman, Laurence S.

    The impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on working families was analyzed. The analysis established that the EITC is, on balance, a highly effective program that meets its primary objectives well. The following benefits of the EITC were identified: (1) it reduced the poverty rate in 1999 by an estimated 1.5 percentage points; (2) it is…

  2. Measuring the Earnings Returns to Lifelong Learning in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanden, Jo; Buscha, Franz; Sturgis, Patrick; Urwin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the earnings returns to learning that takes place following the conventional "school-to-work" stage of the life-course. We operationalise such "lifelong learning" as the attainment of certified qualifications in adulthood, following the completion of the first period of continuous full-time education. Using…

  3. Explaining Gender Differences in Earnings in the Microenterprise Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Susana M.; Pagan, Jose A.

    Chapter 5 in "The Economics of Gender in Mexico," presents a study analyzed male-female differences in earnings in rural and urban microenterprises in Mexico. Data were gathered from surveys of 1,944 households in 54 rural communities and 11,461 microenterprise owners in 34 urban areas. Findings indicate that female-headed…

  4. Can "Some College" Help Reduce Future Earnings Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitterman, Daniel P.; Moulton, Jeremy G.; Bono-Lunn, Dillan; Chrisco, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the policy debate over "college for all" versus "college for some" in the United States and analyzes the relationship between "some college" (as a formal education attainment category) and earnings. Our evidence confirms--using data from the American Community Survey (ACS), the Panel Study on…

  5. The College Payoff: Education, Occupations, Lifetime Earnings. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.; Cheah, Ban

    2011-01-01

    Education and earnings interact in complex and often unexpected ways--but there are rules to the game. "The College Payoff," a new paper from the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, uses in-depth data analysis to identify, illuminate and elucidate those rules. This executive summary provides a glimpse of the education and…

  6. The Gender Gap in Yearly Earnings: Can Vocational Education Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    Recent research conducted by K. Gray and N. Huang (1993) provided new insights into the gender gap in yearly earnings. These researchers tested Terrell's (1992) hypothesis that the issue now is not equal educational opportunity, but inequality in the distribution of women among all occupations. The study examined the variables that affected the…

  7. Evaluating the Impact of CETA on Participant Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Edward C.; Rupp, Kalman

    1987-01-01

    Estimates of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act's net impact on participant earnings, using Continuous Longitudinal Manpower Survey data, were compared to a similar sample from the Current Population Survey. The use of multivariate matching and weighting yielded acceptable results. (GDC)

  8. Panel Estimates of Male-Female Earnings Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Moon-Kak; Polachek, Solomon W.

    1994-01-01

    Application of single and simultaneous equation fixed-effects and random-effects shows that earnings appreciation with experience and depreciation with labor market interruptions are comparable for men and women. Adjusting for heterogeneity reduces the wage gap to 20%; adjusting for endogeneity reduces it nearly to zero. (SK)

  9. 18 CFR 367.2160 - Account 216, Unappropriated retained earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 216, Unappropriated retained earnings. 367.2160 Section 367.2160 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE...

  10. 18 CFR 367.2150 - Account 215, Appropriated retained earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 215, Appropriated retained earnings. 367.2150 Section 367.2150 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE...

  11. 20 CFR 404.428 - Earnings in a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... satisfaction that you have a different taxable year. If you are self-employed, your taxable year is a calendar year unless you have a different taxable year for the purposes of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue... rule that applies to the earnings of a beneficiary who attains full retirement age (as described in...

  12. Earned-secure attachment status in retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed

    Roisman, Glenn L; Padrón, Elena; Sroufe, L Alan; Egeland, Byron

    2002-01-01

    Past research with the Berkeley Adult Attachment Interview demonstrates that retrospectively defined earned-secures (who coherently describe negative childhood experiences) parent as effectively as do continuous-secures (who coherently describe positive childhood experiences), but manifest liabilities in the form of depressive symptomatology. This article presents data from a 23-year longitudinal study that replicate and extend prior research, testing a key premise that earned-secures so defined actually have a history of insecure attachments that change over time and/or endure consistently harsh or ineffective parenting in their youth. Discrepant with assumptions, retrospective earned-secures were not more likely than continuous-secures to have been anxiously attached in infancy and were observed in childhood and adolescence to have encountered among the most supportive and structured maternal parenting in a high-risk sample. Prospectively defined earned-secures (operationalized using participants' infant attachment classifications) did indeed go on to have success in their close relationships, many without reporting relatively high levels of internalizing distress in adulthood.

  13. 12 CFR 615.5215 - Distribution of earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....5215 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Capital Adequacy § 615.5215 Distribution of earnings. The boards of directors of System institutions may not reduce the permanent capital of the institution...

  14. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Adjusted current earnings. 1.56(g)-1 Section 1.56(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56(g)-1 Adjusted current...

  15. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjusted current earnings. 1.56(g)-1 Section 1.56(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56(g)-1 Adjusted current...

  16. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adjusted current earnings. 1.56(g)-1 Section 1.56(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56(g)-1 Adjusted current...

  17. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjusted current earnings. 1.56(g)-1 Section 1.56(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56(g)-1 Adjusted current...

  18. Educators' Degrees Earned on Internet Raise Fraud Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how the degrees earned by a dozen educators on the Internet have raised fraud issues. Small firms known as "credential evaluators" help states and school districts detect educators who present phony or flimsy academic credentials from overseas institutions--a safeguard that is becoming more important with the…

  19. 26 CFR 1.1502-43 - Consolidated accumulated earnings tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consolidated Federal income tax return due (without extensions) on or after December 21, 2009. However, a consolidated group may apply this section to any consolidated Federal income tax return filed on or after... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated accumulated earnings tax. 1.1502...

  20. Education and the Earnings of Poverty-Area Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sheldon

    This paper employs data from the Census Employment Survey (CES) to analyze the effect of education on the earnings of poverty-area residents. Section I compares the definitions of the poverty area used by this survey with that of the Survey of Economic Opportunity (SEO). Section II examines their implications for truncation bias. In Section III,…

  1. 26 CFR 1.312-6 - Earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exclude from earnings and profits that portion of any premium which is unearned under the provisions of section 832(b)(4) and which is segregated accordingly in the unearned premium reserve. (b) Among the items... items includible in gross income under section 61 or corresponding provisions of prior revenue acts...

  2. 26 CFR 1.312-6 - Earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (Continued) Effects on Corporation § 1.312-6 Earnings and profits. (a) In determining the... income tax returns under subchapter E, chapter 1 of the Code, on the cash receipts and disbursements...

  3. 26 CFR 1.312-6 - Earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Corporation § 1.312-6 Earnings and profits. (a) In determining the... income tax returns under subchapter E, chapter 1 of the Code, on the cash receipts and disbursements...

  4. 26 CFR 1.312-6 - Earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.312-6 Earnings and profits. (a) In determining the amount of... income, as the case may be). For instance, a corporation keeping its books and filing its income tax...

  5. 20 CFR 725.536 - Reductions; excess earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... excess earnings under the provisions of sections 203 (b), (f), (g), (h), (j), and (l) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 403 (b), (f), (g), (h), (j), and (l)), as if such benefit payments were benefits... was filed at any time, or of a miner whose claim was filed on or after January 1, 1982, benefit...

  6. 20 CFR 725.536 - Reductions; excess earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... excess earnings under the provisions of sections 203 (b), (f), (g), (h), (j), and (l) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 403 (b), (f), (g), (h), (j), and (l)), as if such benefit payments were benefits... claim was filed at any time, or of a miner whose claim was filed on or after January 1, 1982, benefit...

  7. 20 CFR 725.536 - Reductions; excess earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... excess earnings under the provisions of sections 203 (b), (f), (g), (h), (j), and (l) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 403 (b), (f), (g), (h), (j), and (l)), as if such benefit payments were benefits... claim was filed at any time, or of a miner whose claim was filed on or after January 1, 1982, benefit...

  8. 20 CFR 725.536 - Reductions; excess earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... excess earnings under the provisions of sections 203 (b), (f), (g), (h), (j), and (l) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 403 (b), (f), (g), (h), (j), and (l)), as if such benefit payments were benefits... claim was filed at any time, or of a miner whose claim was filed on or after January 1, 1982, benefit...

  9. 20 CFR 725.536 - Reductions; excess earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... excess earnings under the provisions of sections 203 (b), (f), (g), (h), (j), and (l) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 403 (b), (f), (g), (h), (j), and (l)), as if such benefit payments were benefits... claim was filed at any time, or of a miner whose claim was filed on or after January 1, 1982, benefit...

  10. 20 CFR 302.4 - Nonqualifying earnings or payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 302.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT... organization; (b) Tips; (c) Payments under nongovernmental plans for unemployment, maternity or sickness... lost; (e) Wages from employment that is subject to the Federal Unemployment Tax Act; (f) Earnings from...

  11. 20 CFR 302.4 - Nonqualifying earnings or payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 302.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT... organization; (b) Tips; (c) Payments under nongovernmental plans for unemployment, maternity or sickness... lost; (e) Wages from employment that is subject to the Federal Unemployment Tax Act; (f) Earnings from...

  12. 20 CFR 302.4 - Nonqualifying earnings or payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 302.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT... organization; (b) Tips; (c) Payments under nongovernmental plans for unemployment, maternity or sickness... lost; (e) Wages from employment that is subject to the Federal Unemployment Tax Act; (f) Earnings from...

  13. 20 CFR 302.4 - Nonqualifying earnings or payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 302.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT... organization; (b) Tips; (c) Payments under nongovernmental plans for unemployment, maternity or sickness... lost; (e) Wages from employment that is subject to the Federal Unemployment Tax Act; (f) Earnings from...

  14. 20 CFR 302.4 - Nonqualifying earnings or payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 302.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT... organization; (b) Tips; (c) Payments under nongovernmental plans for unemployment, maternity or sickness... lost; (e) Wages from employment that is subject to the Federal Unemployment Tax Act; (f) Earnings from...

  15. Earnings among Young and Mature Danish University Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the association between graduation age and earnings among university graduates in Denmark, which is a country with one of the oldest student populations in the world. Exploiting a rich data-set from administrative registers, the current study is able to track labour market career for a longer period of time and to control for…

  16. 26 CFR 1.809-9 - Computation of the differential earnings rate and the recomputed differential earnings rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED... the amount equal to the product of— (i) The life insurance company's average equity base for the... the excess of— (i) The imputed earnings rate for the taxable year; over (ii) The average mutual...

  17. Impact of a Dual PharmD/MBA Degree on Graduates' Academic Performance, Career Opportunities, and Earning Potential

    PubMed Central

    Chumney, Elinor C.G.; Jones, Kathy J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the academic experience and satisfaction of students who completed a dual PharmD/MBA degree program and the program's long-term impact on the students' career choice and earning potential. Methods GPAs, job placement, and starting job salaries were compared between graduates who completed the dual PharmD/MBA program and those who completed only the PharmD program. A satisfaction survey instrument was administered to 17 students who completed the dual PharmD/MBA degree program in May 2007. Data from a standardized job placement and starting salary survey instrument completed by all PharmD graduates were also obtained, as well as all students' final grade point averages (GPAs). GPAs, job placement, and starting job salaries were compared between graduates who had completed the dual PharmD/MBA program and those who had completed only the PharmD program. Results The graduating GPAs of dual-degree students were higher than those of both pharmacy (3.52 vs 3.41, p > 0.10) and business (3.82 vs. 3.68, p = 0.018) students not enrolled in the dual-degree program. Dual-degree students were slightly less likely to enter a residency (17% vs. 27%, p = 0.44) than other pharmacy graduates. Among those who elected not to pursue a residency, both mean starting salaries ($111,090 vs. $101,965) and mean total first-year compensation ($127,290 vs. $110,388) were significantly higher for dual-degree graduates compared to the PharmD graduates. Conclusions Students enrolled in the dual-degree program did slightly better academically than students who completed only the MBA or PharmD programs and indicated a high level of satisfaction with the program. Dual-degree graduates reported increased career opportunities and were slated to earn significantly more during their first year in the workforce. These results affirm continuation of our program and make the case for support of similar programs across the nation. PMID:18483594

  18. Power Scaling of Petroleum Field Sizes and Movie Box Office Earnings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, J. A.; Barton, C. C.

    2017-12-01

    The size-cumulative frequency distribution of petroleum fields has long been shown to be power scaling, Mandelbrot, 1963, and Barton and Scholz, 1995. The scaling exponents for petroleum field volumes range from 0.8 to 1.08 worldwide and are used to assess the size and number of undiscovered fields. The size-cumulative frequency distribution of movie box office earnings also exhibits a power scaling distribution for domestic, overseas, and worldwide gross box office earnings for the top 668 earning movies released between 1939 and 2016 (http://www.boxofficemojo.com/alltime/). Box office earnings were reported in the dollars-of-the-day and were converted to 2015 U.S. dollars using the U.S. consumer price index (CPI) for domestic and overseas earnings. Because overseas earnings are not reported by country and there is no single inflation index appropriate for all overseas countries. Adjusting the box office earnings using the CPI index has two effects on the power functions fit. The first is that the scaling exponent has a narrow range (2.3 - 2.5) between the three data sets; and second, the scatter of the data points fit by the power function is reduced. The scaling exponents for the adjusted value are; 2.3 for domestic box office earnings, 2.5 for overseas box office earnings, and 2.5 worldwide box office earnings. The smaller the scaling exponent the greater the proportion of all earnings is contributed by a smaller proportion of all the movies: where E = P (a-2)/(a-1) where E is the percentage of earnings, P is the percentage of all movies in the data set. The scaling exponents for box office earnings (2.3 - 2.5) means that approximately 20% of the top earning movies contribute 70-55% of all the earnings for domestic, worldwide earnings respectively.

  19. The growth in Social Security benefits among the retirement-age population from increases in the cap on covered earnings.

    PubMed

    Gustman, Alan L; Steinmeier, Thomas L; Tabatabai, Nahid

    2012-01-01

    Analysts have proposed raising the maximum level of earnings subject to the Social Security payroll tax (the "tax max") to improve long-term Social Security Trust Fund solvency. This article investigates how raising the tax max leads to the "leakage" of portions of the additional revenue into higher benefit payments. Using Health and Retirement Study data matched to Social Security earnings records, we compare historical payroll tax payments and benefit amounts for Early Boomers (born 1948-1953) with tax and benefit simulations had they been subject to the tax max (adjusted for wage growth) faced by cohorts 12 and 24 years older. We find that 43.2 percent of the additional payroll tax revenue attributable to tax max increases affecting Early Boomers relative to taxes paid by the cohort 12 years older leaked into higher benefits. For Early Boomers relative to those 24 years older, we find 53.5 percent leakage.

  20. The Dynamics and Inequality of Italian Men's Earnings: Long-Term Changes or Transitory Fluctuations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappellari, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a longitudinal perspective on changes in Italian men's earnings inequality since the late 1970s by decomposing the earnings autocovariance structure into its long-term and transitory parts. Cross-sectional earnings differentials grew over the period and the longitudinal analysis shows that such growth was determined by the…

  1. Earnings in 1981 of Married-Couple Families, by Selected Characteristics of Husbands and Wives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Robert W.; Henson, Mary F.

    1984-01-01

    This report contains data on the annual earnings of husbands and wives and their combined earnings as married couples. A narrative summarizing findings precedes each group of related charts and tables. Figures 1A through 1C and tables 1A through 1D classify the earnings of married couples, husbands, and wives by weeks of work and…

  2. Labor Market Experiences after Postsecondary Education: Earnings and Other Outcomes of Florida's Postsecondary Graduates and Completers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This report results from a partnership between the State of Florida and College Measures. It focuses on the median first-year earnings of recent graduates and completers from Florida's public postsecondary educational institutions: SUS, FCS, and DTCs. The report documents the variation in first-year earnings for completers who earned degrees or…

  3. 5 CFR 839.1003 - How will OPM compute the amount of lost earnings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will OPM compute the amount of lost... § 839.1003 How will OPM compute the amount of lost earnings? (a) Lost earnings will generally be computed in accordance with the Board's lost earnings regulations (5 CFR 1606 of chapter VI). However, the...

  4. Inequality: Race Differences in the Distribution of Earnings. Rand Paper Series P5481-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James P.; Welch, Finis

    Characteristics and determinants of earnings distributions for black and white males are revealed in samples from the 1960 and 1970 censuses. Using this data, this paper describes and contrasts the properties of black and white male earnings distributions. It also uses earnings functions estimated from the census to identify and rank variables in…

  5. 20 CFR 418.3325 - What earned income do we not count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... percentage of your total earned income per month. The amount we exclude will be equal to the average... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What earned income do we not count? 418.3325... Subsidies Income § 418.3325 What earned income do we not count? (a) While we must know the source and amount...

  6. 20 CFR 418.3325 - What earned income do we not count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... percentage of your total earned income per month. The amount we exclude will be equal to the average... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What earned income do we not count? 418.3325... Subsidies Income § 418.3325 What earned income do we not count? (a) While we must know the source and amount...

  7. 48 CFR 1052.234-72 - Core Earned Value Management System AUG 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management System AUG 2011 1052.234-72 Section 1052.234-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... and Clauses 1052.234-72 Core Earned Value Management System AUG 2011 As prescribed in DTAR 1034.203... an earned value management system (EVMS). (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management...

  8. 48 CFR 1052.234-72 - Core Earned Value Management System AUG 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Management System AUG 2011 1052.234-72 Section 1052.234-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... and Clauses 1052.234-72 Core Earned Value Management System AUG 2011 As prescribed in DTAR 1034.203... an earned value management system (EVMS). (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management...

  9. 48 CFR 1052.234-72 - Core Earned Value Management System AUG 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Management System AUG 2011 1052.234-72 Section 1052.234-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... and Clauses 1052.234-72 Core Earned Value Management System AUG 2011 As prescribed in DTAR 1034.203... an earned value management system (EVMS). (a) The Contractor shall use an earned value management...

  10. 26 CFR 1.312-15 - Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits... earnings and profits. (a) Depreciation for taxable years beginning after June 30, 1972—(1) In general... of computing the earnings and profits of a corporation (including a real estate investment trust as...

  11. 26 CFR 1.312-15 - Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits... earnings and profits. (a) Depreciation for taxable years beginning after June 30, 1972—(1) In general... of computing the earnings and profits of a corporation (including a real estate investment trust as...

  12. 26 CFR 1.996-3 - Divisions of earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... earnings and profits (see section 312(e)) over (b) the amount of the reduction under § 1.996-4(b)(1) in...) ($60.00) (2) Earnings and profits for year before reduction for distributions $80.00 (3) Deemed... $30 (2) Earnings and profits for year before reduction for distributions $80 (3) Deemed distribution...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1080 - Net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1080 Net earnings from self-employment. (a) Definition of net earnings from self-employment... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net earnings from self-employment. 404.1080...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1080 - Net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1080 Net earnings from self-employment. (a) Definition of net earnings from self-employment... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net earnings from self-employment. 404.1080...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1080 - Net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1080 Net earnings from self-employment. (a) Definition of net earnings from self-employment... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net earnings from self-employment. 404.1080...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1080 - Net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1080 Net earnings from self-employment. (a) Definition of net earnings from self-employment... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net earnings from self-employment. 404.1080...

  17. 76 FR 10944 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Tuesday...

  18. 75 FR 33894 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  19. 76 FR 17995 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  20. 76 FR 32024 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  1. 75 FR 18955 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  2. 75 FR 11998 - Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue... Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Issue Committee will be held Tuesday, April 20, 2010 from 8 a.m. to...

  3. 75 FR 25316 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  4. 75 FR 7540 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  5. 76 FR 56879 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, October 24, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time...

  6. 76 FR 45006 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, September 26, 2011, at 3 p.m...

  7. 76 FR 6188 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, March 28, 2011, at 2 p.m., Eastern...

  8. 76 FR 22171 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  9. 76 FR 63716 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, November 28, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time...

  10. 76 FR 2197 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee. AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit...

  11. 5 CFR 630.202 - Full biweekly pay period; leave earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (b) Part-time employees. Hours in a pay status in excess of an agency's basic working hours in a pay period are disregarded in computing the leave earnings of a part-time employee. [33 FR 12475, Sept. 4... biweekly pay period; leave earnings. (a) Full-time employees. A full-time employee earns leave during each...

  12. Do Survey Data Estimate Earnings Inequality Correctly? Measurement Errors among Black and White Male Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have considered how earnings inequality estimates may be affected by measurement error in self-reported earnings in surveys. Utilizing restricted-use data that links workers in the Survey of Income and Program Participation with their W-2 earnings records, we examine the effect of measurement error on estimates of racial earnings…

  13. 18 CFR 367.4390 - Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings. 367.4390 Section 367.4390 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT Retained Earnings Accounts § 367.4390 Account 439, Adjustments to retained earnings. (a...

  14. The Demand for Higher Education in Belgium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, I.; Nonneman, W.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates determinants behind the spectacular higher education enrollment growth in Belgium since 1953, using a demand model that integrates consumption and investment aspects and empirically tests time-series data specifications between 1953 and 1992. Income and foregone earnings are driving enrollments. Income, opportunity costs, and the wage…

  15. Higher Education and Problems of Citizenship Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the university should be grounded in the concept of citizenship rather than the promise of increased future earnings and research consultancy work. However, this conception of citizenship should be republican rather than liberal. British higher education institutions have suffered at the hands of mechanisms intended to promote…

  16. Higher Education and Employment Markets in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingat, Alain; Eicher, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The link between educational investment and individual earnings is discussed based on a 1974 study in Dijon. An investigation of the relationship between these two elements is shown to need to consider the choice model used by the individual student entering higher education. Academic and social background influence the student's choice.…

  17. The association between spending on methamphetamine/amphetamine and cannabis for personal use and earnings from acquisitive crime among police detainees in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Chris; Sweetsur, Paul

    2011-04-01

    Few studies have examined the statistical association between methamphetamine/amphetamine use and acquisitive crime. Both methamphetamine/amphetamine and cannabis use have been implicated by New Zealand Police as factors in acquisitive offending among active criminal populations. The aim of our study was to examine the statistical association between spending on methamphetamine/amphetamine and cannabis and earnings from acquisitive crime among police detainees in New Zealand. Four police stations in different regions. A sample of 2125 police detainees were interviewed about their drug use and acquisitive crime. Statistical models were developed to predict involvement in acquisitive crime using spending on methamphetamine/amphetamine and cannabis for personal use, and to examine associations between the level of spending on methamphetamine/amphetamine and cannabis for personal use and level of dollar earnings from acquisitive crime. Self-reported spending on drug use and self-reported earnings from acquisitive crime in the past 30 days. Spending on cannabis and methamphetamine/amphetamine could predict involvement in acquisitive crime. Level of spending on methamphetamine/amphetamine and cannabis was associated positively with the level of earnings from property crime. Level of spending on methamphetamine/amphetamine was also associated positively with level of earnings from drug dealing. There was a largely negative association between level of spending on cannabis and level of earnings from drug dealing. High spending on methamphetamine/amphetamine is associated statistically with higher earnings from acquisitive crime among police detainees. Further research into this association, and in particular the causal nature of the association, is required to obtain clear policy recommendations. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Opting Out and Buying Out: Wives’ Earnings and Housework Time

    PubMed Central

    Killewald, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the negative association between wives’ earnings and their time in housework is due to greater outsourcing of household labor by households with high-earning wives, but this hypothesis has not been tested directly. In a sample of dual-earner married couples in the Consumption and Activities Mail Survey of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 796), use of market substitutes for women’s housework was found to be only weakly associated with wives’ time cooking and cleaning. Furthermore, expenditures on market substitutes explain less than 15% of the earnings–housework time relationship. This suggests that use of market substitutes plays a smaller role in explaining variation in wives’ time in household labor than has previously been hypothesized. PMID:22053115

  19. Sex differentials in the earnings of Ph.D.s.

    PubMed

    Ferber, M A; Kordick, B

    1978-01-01

    Using a survey of two cohorts of men and women who received Ph.D.s in the years 1958-63 and 1967-72, the authors test two hypotheses: (1) that the relatively lower earnings of highly educated women can be explained largely by their career interruptions and by their lesser willingness to accumulate human capital in anticipation of such interruptions, and (2) that the differential in earnings between men and women increases with age because of career interruptions and that the gap narrows once women reenter the labor force on a permanent basis The findings do not lend support to either of these hypotheses, leading the authors to reject the proposition that the lower rewards of women Ph.D.s are primarily caused by their own voluntary decisions.

  20. The Effect of Military Enlistment on Earnings and Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    to compensate individuals for their sacrifice and service (a “compensating wage differential ”). We do not directly test these alternative hypotheses...earnings effects are attributable to a compensating wage differential . For Category I and II enlistees, it seems likely that this differential explains...the need for the military to pay a compensating wage differential to attract young men and women to endure the hardships of military service. Some of

  1. Work Status Choice and the Distribution of Family Earnings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    were in the market. Since wages for secondary earners are observable only for market participants, censoring corrections will have to be made to...obtain the true correlation of earners’ earnings. The problem of censoring corrections has been extensively studied in the female labor supply...earners are defined to be male members other than the HH. The censoring framework is fairly similar to the occupation-choice model discussed earlier

  2. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    PubMed

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results.

  3. Risk-sensitive choice in humans as a function of an earnings budget.

    PubMed Central

    Pietras, C J; Hackenberc, T D

    2001-01-01

    Risky choice in 3 adult humans was investigated across procedural manipulations designed to model energy-budget manipulations conducted with nonhumans. Subjects were presented with repeated choices between a fixed and a variable number of points. An energy budget was simulated by use of an earnings budget, defined as the number of points needed within a block of trials for points to be exchanged for money. During positive earnings-budget conditions, exclusive preference for the fixed option met the earnings requirement. During negative earnings-budget conditions, exclusive preference for the certain option did not meet the earnings requirement, but choice for the variable option met the requirement probabilistically. Choice was generally risk averse (the fixed option was preferred) when the earnings budget was positive and risk prone (the variable option was preferred) when the earnings budget was negative. Furthermore, choice was most risk prone during negative earnings-budget conditions in which the earnings requirement was most stringent. Local choice patterns were also frequently consistent with the predictions of a dynamic optimization model, indicating that choice was simultaneously sensitive to short-term choice contingencies, current point earnings, and the earnings requirement. Overall, these results show that the patterns of risky choice generated by energy-budget variables can also be produced by choice contingencies that do not involve immediate survival, and that risky choice in humans may be similar to that shown in nonhumans when choice is studied under analogous experimental conditions. PMID:11516113

  4. Brothers of the Academy: Up and Coming Black Scholars Earning Our Way in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lee, Ed.

    This book offers 26 papers by black male scholars that examine the experience of being a black man in the academy and demonstrate what black men have contributed to the scholarly enterprise. After a Foreword by the editor and an Introduction by Lee Jones, in Part 1, "Characteristics of the Academy," includes eight papers that cover…

  5. Learning to Earn? The Role of Performance Grades in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Raymond; Hennessy, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Through the reinforcement of shared assessment biographies, the provision of performance grades has been socially constructed as an operating imperative within the assessment practices of universities. The drive towards enhanced accountability through the production of quantifiable outcomes has also played a naturalising role in this practice. In…

  6. Significant figures.

    PubMed

    Badrick, Tony; Hickman, Peter E

    2008-08-01

    * For consistency of reporting the same number of significant figures should be used for results and reference intervals. * The choice of the reporting interval should be based on analytical imprecision (measurement uncertainty).

  7. Oral Presentations Have a Significantly Higher Publication Rate, But Not Impact Factors, Than Poster Presentations at the International Society for Study of Lumbar Spine meeting: Review of 1126 Abstracts From 2010 to 2012 Meetings.

    PubMed

    Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Inoue, Masahiro; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Norimoto, Masaki; Umimura, Tomotaka; Furuya, Takeo; Masao, Koda; Maki, Satoshi; Akazawa, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2018-03-05

    A retrospective study. The aim of this study was to determine the publication rate and impact factors (IFs) among all abstracts presented at the 2010 and 2012 meetings of the International Society for the Study of Lumbar Spine (ISSLS). The publication rate of abstracts presented at overseas meetings was reported to be around 50%. However, the publication rate and IFs of oral and poster presentations made at ISSLS meetings were unclear. Moreover, whether the publication rates and IFs differed for papers associated with oral or poster presentations at ISSLS meetings was unknown. We investigated all 1126 abstracts (oral, special posters, general posters) presented at ISSLS meetings held between 2010 and 2012. PubMed was searched to identify publications and IFs were determined using journal citation reports. We also compared the publication rates and IFs between oral and poster presentations. The overall publication rate was 50.1% for three ISSLS meetings (564 publications/1126 abstracts). The overall publication rate for oral presentations, special posters, and general posters given in the 2010 to 2012 meetings was 62.0%, 48.3, and 46.6%, respectively. Overall, papers related to oral presentations had significantly higher publication rates than those of special and general posters (P = 0.0002). The average IFs of publications associated with abstracts presented at three ISSLS meetings was 2.802 for oral presentations, 2.593 for special posters, and 2.589 for general posters. There were no significant differences in average IFs between oral and poster presentations (P > 0.05). The publication rate for abstracts presented at ISSLS meetings was high and similar to publication rates for abstracts presented at other meetings concerning orthopedic and spine research. However, there was no significant difference in IFs between oral and poster presentations, suggesting that abstract evaluations cannot predict IFs of the eventual publication. 4.

  8. Trends in the earnings gender gap among dentists, physicians, and lawyers.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Le, Thanh An; Lo Sasso, Anthony T; Vujicic, Marko

    2017-04-01

    The authors examined the factors associated with sex differences in earnings for 3 professional occupations. The authors used a multivariate Blinder-Oaxaca method to decompose the differences in mean earnings across sex. Although mean differences in earnings between men and women narrowed over time, there remained large, unaccountable earnings differences between men and women among all professions after multivariate adjustments. For dentists, the unexplained difference in earnings for women was approximately constant at 62% to 66%. For physicians, the unexplained difference in earnings for women ranged from 52% to 57%. For lawyers, the unexplained difference in earnings for women was the smallest of the 3 professions but also exhibited the most growth, increasing from 34% in 1990 to 45% in 2010. The reduction in the earnings gap is driven largely by a general convergence between men and women in some, but not all, observable characteristics over time. Nevertheless, large unexplained gender gaps in earnings remain for all 3 professions. Policy makers must use care in efforts to alleviate earnings differences for men and women because measures could make matters worse without a clear understanding of the nature of the factors driving the differences. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Does it pay to attend a for-profit college? Vertical and horizontal stratification in higher education.

    PubMed

    Denice, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Despite the recent growth of for-profit colleges, scholars are only beginning to understand the labor market consequences of attending these institutions. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I find that for-profit associate's degree holders encounter lower hourly earnings than associate's degree holders educated at public or private, nonprofit colleges, and earnings that are not significantly different than high school graduates. However, individuals who complete a bachelor's degree by attending college in either the for-profit or nonprofit sectors encounter positive returns. These findings, robust to model selection, suggest that the distinction between for-profit and nonprofit colleges constitutes an important axis in the horizontal dimension of education at the sub-baccalaureate level, and complicate notions of vertical stratification such that higher levels of educational attainment do not necessarily guarantee a wage premium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Significantly higher activity of a cytoplasmic hammerhead ribozyme than a corresponding nuclear counterpart: engineered tRNAs with an extended 3′ end can be exported efficiently and specifically to the cytoplasm in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Tomoko; Warashina, Masaki; Koseki, Shiori; Sano, Masayuki; Ohkawa, Jun; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Taira, Kazunari

    2001-01-01

    Hammerhead ribozymes were expressed under the control of similar tRNA promoters, localizing transcripts either in the cytoplasm or the nucleus. The tRNAVal-driven ribozyme (tRNA-Rz; tRNA with extra sequences at the 3′ end) that has been used in our ribozyme studies was exported efficiently into the cytoplasm and ribozyme activity was detected only in the cytoplasmic fraction. Both ends of the transported tRNA-Rz were characterized comprehensively and the results confirmed that tRNA-Rz had unprocessed 5′ and 3′ ends. Furthermore, it was also demonstrated that the activity of the exported ribozyme was significantly higher than that of the ribozyme which remained in the nucleus. We suggest that it is possible to engineer tRNA-Rz, which can be exported to the cytoplasm based on an understanding of secondary structures, and then tRNA-driven ribozymes may be co-localized with their target mRNAs in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. PMID:11433023

  11. Post-Service Earnings of Vietnam-Era Veterans.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    vets, for ihany faictors that civilian waces . 1contribLitC to earnings. f5 S. Bolin. Hess & Little Reereosion analysis Use of military trainingiI! %1... Method to Learn Job On the Job lraining X X = of Employers X SES X Completed Civilian Training X Duncan X Change in Duncan X Rotter X I nion X ;IPR\\TE X...career 0 =No Method of entry ENTRY I = Drafted into military 2 = Enlisted 3 = OCS :ROTC*ACADEM Y 4 = Other Type of training TTYPE 0= None ini ilitary I

  12. The male-female gap in physician earnings: evidence from a public health insurance system.

    PubMed

    Theurl, Engelbert; Winner, Hannes

    2011-10-01

    Empirical evidence from US studies suggests that female physicians earn less than their male counterparts, on average. The earnings gap does not disappear when individual and market characteristics are controlled for. This paper investigates whether a gender earnings difference can also be observed in a health-care system predominantly financed by public insurance companies. Using a unique data set of physicians' earnings recorded by a public social security agency in an Austrian province between 2000 and 2004, we find a gender gap in average earnings of about 32%. A substantial share of this gap (20-47%) cannot be explained by individual and market characteristics, leaving labor market discrimination as one possible explanation for the observed gender earnings difference of physicians. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The Male-Female Wage Gap: Lifetime Earnings Losses. Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Heidi; Whittaker, Julie

    Currently, the median full-time woman worker earns 74.4 percent of the annual earnings of the median man. Over their lifetime, young women stand to lose a great deal of money due to differences in the wages for women and men. Estimates are that the average 25-year-old woman who works full time year round for 40 years will earn $523,000 less than…

  14. Model construction of “earning money by taking photos”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jingmei

    2018-03-01

    In the era of information, with the increasingly developed network, “to earn money by taking photos” is a self-service model under the mobile Internet. The user downloads the APP, registers as a member of the APP, and then takes a task that needs to take photographs from the APP and earns the reward of the task on the APP. The article uses the task data and membership information data of an already completed project, including the member’s location and reputation value. On the basis of reasonable assumption, the data was processed with the MATLAB, SPSS and Excel software. This article mainly studied problems of the function relationship between the task performance, task position (GPS latitude and GPS longitude) and task price of users, analyzed the project’s task pricing rules and the reasons why the task is not completed, and applied multivariate regression function and GeoQ software to analyze the data, studied the task pricing rules, applied the chart method to solve the complex data, clear and easy to understand, and also reality simulation is applied to analyze why the tasks are not completed. Also, compared with the previous program, a new task pricing program is designed for the project to obtain the confidence level by means of the SPSS software, to estimate the reasonable range of the task pricing, predict and design a new pricing program on the reasonable price range.

  15. Measurement error in earnings data: Using a mixture model approach to combine survey and register data.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Erik; Rohwedder, Susann; Wansbeek, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Survey data on earnings tend to contain measurement error. Administrative data are superior in principle, but they are worthless in case of a mismatch. We develop methods for prediction in mixture factor analysis models that combine both data sources to arrive at a single earnings figure. We apply the methods to a Swedish data set. Our results show that register earnings data perform poorly if there is a (small) probability of a mismatch. Survey earnings data are more reliable, despite their measurement error. Predictors that combine both and take conditional class probabilities into account outperform all other predictors.

  16. Adolescent mental health and earnings inequalities in adulthood: evidence from the Young-HUNT Study.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Miriam; Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde; Melkevik, Ole; Reneflot, Anne; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that adolescent mental health problems are associated with lower employment probabilities and risk of unemployment. The evidence on how earnings are affected is much weaker, and few have addressed whether any association reflects unobserved characteristics and whether the consequences of mental health problems vary across the earnings distribution. A population-based Norwegian health survey linked to administrative registry data (N=7885) was used to estimate how adolescents' mental health problems (separate indicators of internalising, conduct, and attention problems and total sum scores) affect earnings (≥30 years) in young adulthood. We used linear regression with fixed-effects models comparing either students within schools or siblings within families. Unconditional quantile regressions were used to explore differentials across the earnings distribution. Mental health problems in adolescence reduce average earnings in adulthood, and associations are robust to control for observed family background and school fixed effects. For some, but not all mental health problems, associations are also robust in sibling fixed-effects models, where all stable family factors are controlled. Further, we found much larger earnings loss below the 25th centile. Adolescent mental health problems reduce adult earnings, especially among individuals in the lower tail of the earnings distribution. Preventing mental health problems in adolescence may increase future earnings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Relationship between Grades Earned and Time in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Lin B.; Mukherjee, Keya; Lucio, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Online education is rapidly becoming a significant method of course delivery in higher education. Consequently, instructors analyze student performance in an attempt to better scaffold student learning. Learning analytics can provide insight into online students' course behaviors. Archival data from 167 graduate level education students enrolled…

  18. Adult Part-Time Students and the C.I.C. Universities. A Study of Credit and Degree Earning Opportunities for Adults at Eleven Midwestern Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Robert F.

    As a sequel to a 1971-72 study, this report for 1975-76 provides an updated inventory of the programs and policies of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) universities through which adult part-time students may earn credit and bachelor's or master's degrees, notes significant changes since the first report, and offers suggestions for…

  19. Excellence in Higher Education Workbook and Scoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D.

    2007-01-01

    Self-assessment leads to stronger performance in the nation's colleges and universities. That's the premise of "Excellence in Higher Education," a model self-assessment program that has earned accolades from the higher education community. Based on the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award framework, the fourth edition of this bestseller is the…

  20. Estimating earnings losses due to mental illness: a quantile regression approach.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Dave E; Wilcox-Gök, Virginia

    2003-09-01

    The ability of workers to remain productive and sustain earnings when afflicted with mental illness depends importantly on access to appropriate treatment and on flexibility and support from employers. In the United States there is substantial variation in access to health care and sick leave and other employment flexibilities across the earnings distribution. Consequently, a worker's ability to work and how much his/her earnings are impeded likely depend upon his/her position in the earnings distribution. Because of this, focusing on average earnings losses may provide insufficient information on the impact of mental illness in the labor market. In this paper, we examine the effects of mental illness on earnings by recognizing that effects could vary across the distribution of earnings. Using data from the National Comorbidity Survey, we employ a quantile regression estimator to identify the effects at key points in the earnings distribution. We find that earnings effects vary importantly across the distribution. While average effects are often not large, mental illness more commonly imposes earnings losses at the lower tail of the distribution, especially for women. In only one case do we find an illness to have negative effects across the distribution. Mental illness can have larger negative impacts on economic outcomes than previously estimated, even if those effects are not uniform. Consequently, researchers and policy makers alike should not be placated by findings that mean earnings effects are relatively small. Such estimates miss important features of how and where mental illness is associated with real economic losses for the ill.

  1. The Talking Cure of Avoidant Personality Disorder: Remission through Earned-Secure Attachment.

    PubMed

    Guina, Jeffrey

    The concept of earned security is important and has significant implications for psychotherapy. Understanding how individuals with insecure attachment styles can develop secure attachment styles through reparative relationships, such as the therapeutic relationship, can assist psychotherapists in helping patients to overcome the effects of early negative life experiences. Personality disorders are commonly associated with negative experiences, such as abuse, neglect, and other empathic failures. These disorders are particularly difficult to treat because of their pervasive nature and the resultant defense mechanisms that often thwart psychotherapy. However, an understanding of the role that attachment can play in the etiology, symptomatology, and treatment of psychopathology can greatly enhance the therapeutic process. This case report describes the long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy of a woman with a history of childhood trauma, avoidant attachment style, and avoidant personality disorder. Through the therapeutic relationship, she developed a secure attachment, and her symptoms remitted, and her life drastically improved.

  2. Doing the same and earning less: male and female physicians in a new medical specialty.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Timothy J

    2004-01-01

    This study presents findings from a national survey of physicians working in the emerging career of hospital medicine. It finds that female hospitalists earn significantly less annually than male hospitalists, despite similar work schedules and commitments; that these similarities in work and differences in pay remain even for male and female hospitalists who are married and have children; and that female hospitalists maintain positive feelings toward their work careers despite assuming multiple work and nonwork roles simultaneously. The results present a unique picture of female physicians' career experiences in toto. They have implications for how health care organizations and managers should think about the contemporary female physician (e.g., her career development needs and workplace challenges);for female physicians' need to gain greater equity vis-à-vis men within the profession; and for the kinds of questions researchers should raise around physician gender in their work.

  3. Network effects across the earnings distribution: payoffs to visible and invisible job finding assistance.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study makes three critical contributions to the "Do Contacts Matter?" debate. First, the widely reported null relationship between informal job searching and wages is shown to be mostly the artifact of a coding error and sample selection restrictions. Second, previous analyses examined only active informal job searching without fully considering the benefits derived from unsolicited network assistance (the "invisible hand of social capital") - thereby underestimating the network effect. Third, wage returns to networks are examined across the earnings distribution. Longitudinal data from the NLSY reveal significant wage returns for network-based job finding over formal job searching, especially for individuals who were informally recruited into their jobs (non-searchers). Fixed effects quantile regression analyses show that contacts generate wage premiums among middle and high wage jobs, but not low wage jobs. These findings challenge conventional wisdom on contact effects and advance understanding of how social networks affect wage attainment and inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA... Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social Security... certain eligibility requirements as described in part 216 of this chapter. The Social Security Dual...

  5. 20 CFR 404.211 - Computing your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... averages to make them comparable to the averages for 1951-1990. (d) Indexing your earnings. (1) The first step in indexing your social security earnings is to find the relationship (under paragraph (d)(2) of... average wage of all workers in your indexing year. As a general rule, your indexing year is the second...

  6. 20 CFR 404.211 - Computing your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... averages to make them comparable to the averages for 1951-1990. (d) Indexing your earnings. (1) The first step in indexing your social security earnings is to find the relationship (under paragraph (d)(2) of... average wage of all workers in your indexing year. As a general rule, your indexing year is the second...

  7. 20 CFR 404.211 - Computing your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... averages to make them comparable to the averages for 1951-1990. (d) Indexing your earnings. (1) The first step in indexing your social security earnings is to find the relationship (under paragraph (d)(2) of... average wage of all workers in your indexing year. As a general rule, your indexing year is the second...

  8. 20 CFR 404.211 - Computing your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... averages to make them comparable to the averages for 1951-1990. (d) Indexing your earnings. (1) The first step in indexing your social security earnings is to find the relationship (under paragraph (d)(2) of... average wage of all workers in your indexing year. As a general rule, your indexing year is the second...

  9. 20 CFR 404.211 - Computing your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... averages to make them comparable to the averages for 1951-1990. (d) Indexing your earnings. (1) The first step in indexing your social security earnings is to find the relationship (under paragraph (d)(2) of... average wage of all workers in your indexing year. As a general rule, your indexing year is the second...

  10. Not by Productivity Alone: How Visibility and Specialization Contribute to Academic Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahey, Erin

    2007-01-01

    The popular adage "publish or perish" has long defined individual career strategies as well as scholarly investigations of earnings inequality in academe, as researchers have relied heavily on research productivity to explain earnings inequality among faculty members. Academia, however, has changed dramatically in the last few decades: it has…

  11. Some effects of overall rate of earning reinforcers on run lengths and visit durations.

    PubMed

    Macdonall, James S

    2006-07-01

    In a concurrent schedule, responding at each alternative is controlled by a pair of schedules that arrange reinforcers for staying at that alternative and reinforcers for switching to the other alternative. Each pair of schedules operates only while at the associated alternative. When only one pair of stay and switch schedules is presented, the rates of earning reinforcers for staying divided by the rates of earning reinforcers for switching controls the mean number responses in a visit and the mean duration of visits. The purpose of the present experiment was to see whether the sum of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers changed the way that run length and visit duration were affected by the ratio of the rates of stay to switch reinforcers. Rats were exposed to pairs of stay and switch schedules that varied both the ratio of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers and the sum of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers. Run lengths and visit durations were joint functions of the ratio of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers and the sum of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers. These results shows that the effect of the ratio of the sum of the rates of earning stay and switch reinforcers results from processes operating at the alternative, rather than from processes operating at both alternatives.

  12. Evolution of Earnings and Rates of Returns to Education in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys

    This paper reviews the factors and mechanisms that have been driving inequality in Mexico and finds that educational inequality accounts for by far the largest share of Mexico's variation in earnings inequality. More specifically, it examines the expansion in earnings inequality with emphasis on the role of education, establishes an analytical…

  13. 5 CFR 2636.304 - The 15 percent limitation on outside earned income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The 15 percent limitation on outside earned income. 2636.304 Section 2636.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT... Noncareer Employees § 2636.304 The 15 percent limitation on outside earned income. (a) Limitation applicable...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1112 - Earned income we do not count.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Earned Income § 416.1112 Earned income we do not count. (a) General... receive it. (3) If you are under age 22 and a student who is regularly attending school as described in... not blind) and under age 65 or you are disabled (but not blind) and received SSI as a disabled...

  15. Women's Entry into Management: Trends in Earnings, Authority, and Valued among Salaried Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jerry A.

    1992-01-01

    Earnings and authority differentials between male and female managers are analyzed with data from three sources for the period between 1970 and 1988. Results indicate that the sex gap in earnings among managers narrowed during this period, whereas the gap in authority remained constant. The implication of these results for theories of internal…

  16. Is Economics a Good Major for Future Lawyers? Evidence from Earnings Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, John V.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports descriptive data on earnings differences for practicing lawyers by undergraduate major with a focus on economics majors. Some majors do much better than others. Economics majors tend to do very well in both median and mean earnings. Electrical engineering, accounting, finance, and some other majors also do relatively well. This…

  17. Factors Considered by Vocational Rehabilitation Professionals in Employability and Earning Capacity Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John M.; Dunn, Patrick L.; Bast, Steve; Giesen, Judy

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that contributed to vocational rehabilitation assessment of earning capacity. Rehabilitation professionals who attended a national forensic rehabilitation conference were asked to rate the importance of 26 variables in development of opinions of earning capacity. Exploratory factor analysis…

  18. 26 CFR 1.532-1 - Corporations subject to accumulated earnings tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corporations subject to accumulated earnings tax... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Corporations Used to Avoid Income Tax on Shareholders § 1.532-1 Corporations subject to accumulated earnings tax. (a) General rule. (1) The tax imposed...

  19. 26 CFR 1.532-1 - Corporations subject to accumulated earnings tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corporations subject to accumulated earnings tax... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Corporations Used to Avoid Income Tax on Shareholders § 1.532-1 Corporations subject to accumulated earnings tax. (a) General rule. (1) The tax imposed...

  20. 26 CFR 1.532-1 - Corporations subject to accumulated earnings tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Corporations subject to accumulated earnings tax... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Corporations Used to Avoid Income Tax on Shareholders § 1.532-1 Corporations subject to accumulated earnings tax. (a) General rule. (1) The tax imposed...

  1. 20 CFR 225.4 - Limitation on amount of earnings used to compute a PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... compute a PIA. 225.4 Section 225.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... earnings used to compute a PIA. Certain PIA's used by the Board are based on a combination of compensation... purposes of crediting earnings when computing any PIA, compensation is always treated as wages. Regardless...

  2. Economics of Education and Work Life Demand in Terms of Earnings and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Belle Selene; Liitiäinen, Elia

    2014-01-01

    This article uses data from a major international survey to construct earnings functions in terms of learning outcomes and variables related to working life in different European countries. In order to complement the extended earnings regression model, the authors have used partial correlation analysis and the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to…

  3. A Hierarchical Linear Model for Estimating Gender-Based Earnings Differentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberfield, Yitchak; Semyonov, Moshe; Addi, Audrey

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of gender earnings inequality in data from 116,431 Jewish workers were compared using a hierarchical linear model (HLM) and ordinary least squares model. The HLM allows estimation of the extent to which earnings inequality depends on occupational characteristics. (SK)

  4. 26 CFR 1.964-2 - Treatment of blocked earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of blocked earnings and profits. 1... blocked earnings and profits. (a) General rule. If, in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section, it... profits of a controlled foreign corporation for the taxable year (determined under § 1.964-1) was subject...

  5. 26 CFR 1.964-2 - Treatment of blocked earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of blocked earnings and profits. 1... blocked earnings and profits. (a) General rule. If, in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section, it... profits of a controlled foreign corporation for the taxable year (determined under § 1.964-1) was subject...

  6. 26 CFR 1.964-2 - Treatment of blocked earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of blocked earnings and profits. 1... blocked earnings and profits. (a) General rule. If, in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section, it... profits of a controlled foreign corporation for the taxable year (determined under § 1.964-1) was subject...

  7. 26 CFR 1.964-2 - Treatment of blocked earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Treatment of blocked earnings and profits. 1.964... blocked earnings and profits. (a) General rule. If, in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section, it... profits of a controlled foreign corporation for the taxable year (determined under § 1.964-1) was subject...

  8. 26 CFR 1.964-2 - Treatment of blocked earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... property of a type normally owned by such corporation in the operation of its business or other money which... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of blocked earnings and profits. 1... earnings and profits. (a) General rule. If, in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section, it is...

  9. Annual Earnings of Household Heads in Production Jobs, 1973. Summary: Special Labor Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    The statistics are based on a household survey, collected annually, and are related to one year's earnings experience of family heads and unrelated individuals. Data show that after-tax earnings for the 30 million persons surveyed rose in 1973 by 5.8 percent but fell 0.4 percent after adjustment for consumer price increases (real after-tax…

  10. 20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225... Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social Security... certain eligibility requirements as described in part 216 of this chapter. The Social Security Dual...

  11. 20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. 225... Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social Security... certain eligibility requirements as described in part 216 of this chapter. The Social Security Dual...

  12. 20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA... Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social Security... certain eligibility requirements as described in part 216 of this chapter. The Social Security Dual...

  13. 20 CFR 225.13 - Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA... Spouse Annuities § 225.13 Social Security Earnings Dual Benefit PIA. (a) General. The Social Security... certain eligibility requirements as described in part 216 of this chapter. The Social Security Dual...

  14. Business Administration and Computer Science Degrees: Earnings, Job Security, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Kamlesh; Uhlig, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of business administration vs. computer science degrees in terms of earnings, job security, and job satisfaction. The paper focuses on earnings potential five years and ten years after the completion of business administration and computer science degrees. Moreover, the paper presents the income changes with…

  15. Does Human Capital Investment Impact the Earning Mobility of the Near Poor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasik, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    This secondary analysis of the earning mobility of the near poor examined the impact of human capital investment on the earning mobility of the near poor between 2005 and 2009. The theory framing this study is Human Capital Theory (Shultz, 1961). Other demographic and socioeconomic variables were included in this study to further explore factors…

  16. Students' Expectations about Earnings and Employment and the Experience of Recent University Graduates: Evidence from Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou; Pashourtidou, Nicoletta; Polycarpou, Alexandros; Pashardes, Panos

    2012-01-01

    The employability of university graduates constitutes a major policy concern in both developed and developing nations. In this context, the present study uses self-reported data to compare the earnings and employment expectations of university students, and the realised earnings and employment paths of recent graduates. The sample consisted of 476…

  17. 26 CFR 1.911-3 - Determination of amount of foreign earned income to be excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... income to be excluded. 1.911-3 Section 1.911-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Residents of United States § 1.911-3 Determination of amount of foreign earned income to be excluded. (a) Definition of foreign earned income. For purposes of section 911 and the regulations thereunder, the term...

  18. 29 CFR 548.303 - Average earnings for each type of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Average earnings for each type of work. 548.303 Section 548... REGULATIONS AUTHORIZATION OF ESTABLISHED BASIC RATES FOR COMPUTING OVERTIME PAY Interpretations Authorized Basic Rates § 548.303 Average earnings for each type of work. (a) Section 548.3(c) authorizes as an...

  19. 29 CFR 548.302 - Average earnings for period other than a workweek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Average earnings for period other than a workweek. 548.302... LABOR REGULATIONS AUTHORIZATION OF ESTABLISHED BASIC RATES FOR COMPUTING OVERTIME PAY Interpretations Authorized Basic Rates § 548.302 Average earnings for period other than a workweek. (a) Section 548.3(b...

  20. 29 CFR 548.306 - Average earnings for year or quarter year preceding the current quarter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PAY Interpretations Authorized Basic Rates § 548.306 Average earnings for year or quarter year... regular rates of pay during the current quarter year, and (ii) such average hourly remuneration during the... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Average earnings for year or quarter year preceding the...

  1. Educated Mis-Employment in Hong Kong: Earnings Effects of Employment in Unmatched Fields of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yue-Ping

    1990-01-01

    Presents an empirical study on misemployment (the underutilization of worker's skills acquired through vocational education) in Hong Kong. Analyzes earnings functions of graduates from various educational fields and for workers employed in various fields. Misemployed graduates received lower earnings than their colleagues working in matched work…

  2. Field of Study in College and Lifetime Earnings in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.; Sakamoto, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding about the relationship between education and lifetime earnings often neglects differences by field of study. Utilizing data that match respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to their longitudinal earnings records based on administrative tax information, we investigate the trajectories of annual earnings…

  3. Is the Gap More than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…

  4. The Earnings of Dropouts and High School Enrollments: Evidence from the Coal Boom and Bust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Dan; Daniel, Kermit; Sanders, Seth

    Economic theory suggests that when the reduction in earnings from dropping out of school is minimal, dropout rates will be high. As earnings loss for dropouts grows, however, the dropout rate should decrease. This chapter examines whether these predicted effects actually occur by looking at changes in dropout rates in Kentucky in the 1970s and…

  5. Title VII and the Male/Female Earnings Gap: An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Andrea

    1978-01-01

    After controlling statistically for the effects of other factors that affect earnings, it was found that enforcement of sex discrimination charges under Title VII increased the relative demand for women and thus decreased the male/female earnings differential between 1967 and 1974. (Author)

  6. Multilevel Analysis of the Effects of Antidiscrimination Policies on Earnings by Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klawitter, Marieka

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the 2000 U.S. Census data to assess the impact of antidiscrimination policies for sexual orientation on earnings for gays and lesbians. Using a multilevel model allows estimation of the effects of state and local policies on earnings and of variation in the effects of sexual orientation across local labor markets. The results…

  7. 20 CFR 225.24 - SS Earnings PIA used in survivor annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Security Earnings PIA (SS Earnings PIA) used in survivor annuities may be used in computing the tier II... the Social Security Act as in effect on December 31, 1974. It is computed using the deceased employee... RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Survivor Annuities and the...

  8. 48 CFR 52.234-2 - Notice of Earned Value Management System-Pre-Award IBR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Management System-Pre-Award IBR. 52.234-2 Section 52.234-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.234-2 Notice of Earned Value Management System—Pre-Award IBR. As prescribed in 34.203(a) use the following provision: Notice of Earned Value Management System—Pre-Award IBR (JUL 2006...

  9. 48 CFR 352.234-4 - Partial earned value management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... management system. 352.234-4 Section 352.234-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN....234-4 Partial earned value management system. As prescribed in 334.203-70(d), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Partial Earned Value Management System (October 2008) (a) The...

  10. 48 CFR 352.234-4 - Partial earned value management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... management system. 352.234-4 Section 352.234-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN....234-4 Partial earned value management system. As prescribed in 334.203-70(d), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Partial Earned Value Management System (October 2008) (a) The...

  11. 48 CFR 52.234-2 - Notice of Earned Value Management System-Pre-Award IBR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Management System-Pre-Award IBR. 52.234-2 Section 52.234-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.234-2 Notice of Earned Value Management System—Pre-Award IBR. As prescribed in 34.203(a) use the following provision: Notice of Earned Value Management System—Pre-Award IBR (JUL 2006...

  12. 48 CFR 352.234-3 - Full earned value management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... management system. 352.234-3 Section 352.234-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN....234-3 Full earned value management system. As prescribed in 334.203-70(c), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Full Earned Value Management System (October 2008) (a) The Contractor...

  13. 48 CFR 352.234-4 - Partial earned value management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... management system. 352.234-4 Section 352.234-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN....234-4 Partial earned value management system. As prescribed in 334.203-70(d), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Partial Earned Value Management System (October 2008) (a) The...

  14. 48 CFR 352.234-3 - Full earned value management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... management system. 352.234-3 Section 352.234-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN....234-3 Full earned value management system. As prescribed in 334.203-70(c), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Full Earned Value Management System (October 2008) (a) The Contractor...

  15. 48 CFR 352.234-3 - Full earned value management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... management system. 352.234-3 Section 352.234-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN....234-3 Full earned value management system. As prescribed in 334.203-70(c), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Full Earned Value Management System (October 2008) (a) The Contractor...

  16. 48 CFR 52.234-2 - Notice of Earned Value Management System-Pre-Award IBR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Management System-Pre-Award IBR. 52.234-2 Section 52.234-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.234-2 Notice of Earned Value Management System—Pre-Award IBR. As prescribed in 34.203(a) use the following provision: Notice of Earned Value Management System—Pre-Award IBR (JUL 2006...

  17. 48 CFR 352.234-4 - Partial earned value management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... management system. 352.234-4 Section 352.234-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN....234-4 Partial earned value management system. As prescribed in 334.203-70(d), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Partial Earned Value Management System (October 2008) (a) The...

  18. 48 CFR 352.234-3 - Full earned value management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... management system. 352.234-3 Section 352.234-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN....234-3 Full earned value management system. As prescribed in 334.203-70(c), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Full Earned Value Management System (October 2008) (a) The Contractor...

  19. 26 CFR 1.959-3 - Allocation of distributions to earnings and profits of foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... profits of foreign corporations. 1.959-3 Section 1.959-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Corporations § 1.959-3 Allocation of distributions to earnings and profits of foreign corporations. (a) In general. For purposes of §§ 1.959-1 and 1.959-2, the source of the earnings and profits from which...

  20. 26 CFR 1.857-7 - Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a real estate investment... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-7 Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust. (a) Any real estate investment trust whether or not...

  1. 26 CFR 1.852-5 - Earnings and profits of a regulated investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-5 Earnings and profits of a regulated investment company. (a) Any regulated... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a regulated investment...

  2. 26 CFR 1.852-5 - Earnings and profits of a regulated investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-5 Earnings and profits of a regulated investment company. (a) Any regulated... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a regulated investment...

  3. 26 CFR 1.852-5 - Earnings and profits of a regulated investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-5 Earnings and profits of a regulated investment company. (a) Any regulated investment... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a regulated investment...

  4. 26 CFR 1.852-5 - Earnings and profits of a regulated investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-5 Earnings and profits of a regulated investment company. (a) Any regulated... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a regulated investment...

  5. 26 CFR 1.857-7 - Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a real estate investment... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-7 Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust. (a) Any real estate investment trust whether or not...

  6. 26 CFR 1.857-7 - Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a real estate investment... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-7 Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust. (a) Any real estate investment trust whether or not...

  7. 26 CFR 1.852-5 - Earnings and profits of a regulated investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-5 Earnings and profits of a regulated investment company. (a) Any regulated... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a regulated investment...

  8. 26 CFR 1.857-7 - Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a real estate investment... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-7 Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust. (a) Any real estate investment trust whether or not...

  9. 26 CFR 1.857-7 - Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits of a real estate investment... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-7 Earnings and profits of a real estate investment trust. (a) Any real estate investment trust whether or not such trust...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1091 - Figuring net earnings for ministers and members of religious orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1091 Figuring net earnings for ministers and members of... § 404.1023 (c) and (e). In figuring your net earnings from self-employment from performing these...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1091 - Figuring net earnings for ministers and members of religious orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1091 Figuring net earnings for ministers and members of... § 404.1023 (c) and (e). In figuring your net earnings from self-employment from performing these...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1091 - Figuring net earnings for ministers and members of religious orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1091 Figuring net earnings for ministers and members of... § 404.1023 (c) and (e). In figuring your net earnings from self-employment from performing these...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1091 - Figuring net earnings for ministers and members of religious orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1091 Figuring net earnings for ministers and members of... § 404.1023 (c) and (e). In figuring your net earnings from self-employment from performing these...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1091 - Figuring net earnings for ministers and members of religious orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1091 Figuring net earnings for ministers and members of... § 404.1023 (c) and (e). In figuring your net earnings from self-employment from performing these...

  15. An Inquiry into the Relationship between Projected Changes in Earnings per Share and Subsequent Security Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbee, William C., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variable of estimated earnings in order to determine how forecasts might be utilized to develop a securities portfolio strategy. The hypothesis stated that there is an inverse relationship between projected change in earnings per share and security performance. Ninety-one New York Stock Exchange…

  16. Universities Report $1.8-Billion in Earnings on Inventions in 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Universities and their inventors earned more than $1.8-billion from commercializing their academic research in the 2011 fiscal year, collecting royalties from new breeds of wheat, from a new drug for the treatment of HIV, and from longstanding arrangements over enduring products like Gatorade. Northwestern University earned the most of any…

  17. 75 FR 55406 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, October 27, 2010, at 1:00 p.m. Eastern Time...

  18. 75 FR 62632 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, November 24, 2010, at 1 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  19. 75 FR 4140 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION... Tax Credit Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public... Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, February 24, 2010, at 1 p...

  20. 75 FR 47349 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, September 22, 2010, at 1 p.m. Eastern Time...

  1. 76 FR 37199 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Monday, August 22, 2011, at 3 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  2. 75 FR 39333 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Earned Income Tax Credit Project Committee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Earned Income Tax Credit... Income Tax Credit Project Committee will be held Wednesday, August 25, 2010, at 1 p.m. Eastern Time via...

  3. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(2)-1 - Earnings and profits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(2)-1 Earnings and profits. (a) In... profits, after the date of distribution or transfer and before the completion of the reorganization or... maintaining two separate earnings and profits accounts after the date of distribution or transfer. The first...

  4. 48 CFR 52.234-2 - Notice of Earned Value Management System-Pre-Award IBR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Management System-Pre-Award IBR. 52.234-2 Section 52.234-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.234-2 Notice of Earned Value Management System—Pre-Award IBR. As prescribed in 34.203(a) use the following provision: Notice of Earned Value Management System—Pre-Award IBR (JUL 2006...

  5. 48 CFR 52.234-2 - Notice of Earned Value Management System-Pre-Award IBR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management System-Pre-Award IBR. 52.234-2 Section 52.234-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.234-2 Notice of Earned Value Management System—Pre-Award IBR. As prescribed in 34.203(a) use the following provision: Notice of Earned Value Management System—Pre-Award IBR (JUL 2006...

  6. 77 FR 34414 - Submission for Review: Annuitant's Report of Earned Income, RI 30-2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: RI 30-2 is used annually to determine if disability retirees under age 60 have earned... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Annuitant's Report of Earned Income, RI 30-2... of functions of the agency, including whether the information will have practical utility; 2...

  7. 48 CFR 252.234-7001 - Notice of Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Industries Alliance Standard 748, Earned Value Management Systems (ANSI/EIA-748) (current version at time of... Management System. 252.234-7001 Section 252.234-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.234-7001 Notice of Earned Value Management System. As...

  8. The Earnings of Community College Graduates in California. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I draw on longitudinal data for 1.1 million students in California to estimate the effects of community college credentials on students' earnings, as compared with students who are not awarded a credential. In contrast to much of the recent work on this subject, which assumed that the effects of credentials on students' earnings are…

  9. The impact of mothers' earnings on health inputs and infant health.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Naci; Raschke, Christian; Unel, Bulent

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of mothers' earnings on birth weight and gestational age of infants in the U.S. It also analyzes the impact of earnings on mothers' consumption of prenatal medical care, and their propensity to smoke and drink during pregnancy. The paper uses census division-year-specific skill-biased technology shocks as an instrument for mothers' earnings and employs a two-sample instrumental variables strategy. About 14 million records of births between 1989 and 2004 are used from the Natality Detail files along with the CPS Annual Demographic Files from the same period. The results reveal that an increase in weekly earnings prompts an increase in prenatal care of low-skill mothers (those who have at most a high school degree) who are not likely to be on Medicaid, and that earnings have a small positive impact on birth weight and gestational age of the newborns of these mothers. Specifically, if a mother's earnings double, this produces a weight gain of the newborn by about 100g and an increase in gestational age by 0.7 weeks. An increase in earnings does not influence the health of newborns of high-skill mothers (those with at least some college education). Variations in earnings have no impact on birth weight for mothers who are likely to be on Medicaid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Higher Education: Schools' Use of the Antitrust Exemption Has Not Significantly Affected College Affordability or Likelihood of Student Enrollment to Date. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-06-963

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991 the U.S. Department of Justice sued nine colleges and universities, alleging that they had restrained competition by making collective financial aid determinations for students accepted to more than one of these schools. Against the backdrop of this litigation, Congress enacted a temporary exemption from antitrust laws for higher education…

  11. Earnings Management before Rights Issues and the Subsequent Cash Transfer in Chinese Firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Bi-Huei

    2009-08-01

    Unlike private enterprises in developed markets, political influence is profound upon Chinese state-dominated firms. Under this consideration, this paper demonstrates how political impact interferes in Chinese managers' decisions. State-assigned managers were found to deliberately transfer cash raised via rights issues from the public shareholders to the state by cash dividends in order to please Chinese politicians. Especially, to meet the regulatory requirement of rights issues, managers from firms which distributed more cash dividends in the same year of rights issues were more likely to inflate earnings before rights issues. The earnings inflation which managers use to boost firm's incomes is defined as "earnings management." Furthermore, the empirical results also exhibit that firm's close relationship with the state enables managers to obtain approvals of rights issues easily, which reduces the firm's earnings management tendency. The manager's incentives of earnings management is closely attributed to the political intervention.

  12. Selection, Language Heritage, and the Earnings Trajectories of Black Immigrants in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Tod G.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean surpass the earnings of U.S.-born blacks approximately one decade after arriving in the United States. Using data from the 1980–2000 U.S. censuses and the 2005–2007 American Community Surveys on U.S.-born black and non-Hispanic white men as well as black immigrant men from all the major sending regions of the world, I evaluate whether selective migration and language heritage of immigrants’ birth countries account for the documented earnings crossover. I validate the earnings pattern of black immigrants documented in previous studies, but I also find that the earnings of most arrival cohorts of immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean, after residing in the United States for more than 20 years, are projected to converge with or slightly overtake those of U.S.-born black internal migrants. The findings also show three arrival cohorts of black immigrants from English-speaking African countries are projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born black internal migrants. No arrival cohort of black immigrants is projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites. Birth-region analysis shows that black immigrants from English-speaking countries experience more rapid earnings growth than immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. The arrival-cohort and birth-region variation in earnings documented in this study suggest that selective migration and language heritage of black immigrants’ birth countries are important determinants of their initial earnings and earnings trajectories in the United States. PMID:24854004

  13. Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium Resulted in Significantly Higher Tissue Chromium Burden Compared With Trivalent Chromium Following Similar Oral Doses to Male F344/N Rats and Female B6C3F1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Bradley J.; Stout, Matthew D.; Levine, Keith E.; Kissling, Grace E.; Fennell, Timothy R.; Walden, Ramsey; Abdo, Kamal; Pritchard, John B.; Fernando, Reshan A.; Burka, Leo T.; Hooth, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    In National Toxicology Program 2-year studies, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] administered in drinking water was clearly carcinogenic in male and female rats and mice, resulting in small intestine epithelial neoplasms in mice at a dose equivalent to or within an order of magnitude of human doses that could result from consumption of chromium-contaminated drinking water, assuming that dose scales by body weight3/4 (body weight raised to the 3/4 power). In contrast, exposure to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] at much higher concentrations may have been carcinogenic in male rats but was not carcinogenic in mice or female rats. As part of these studies, total chromium was measured in tissues and excreta of additional groups of male rats and female mice. These data were used to infer the uptake and distribution of Cr(VI) because Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III) in vivo, and no methods are available to speciate tissue chromium. Comparable external doses resulted in much higher tissue chromium concentrations following exposure to Cr(VI) compared with Cr(III), indicating that a portion of the Cr(VI) escaped gastric reduction and was distributed systemically. Linear or supralinear dose responses of total chromium in tissues were observed following exposure to Cr(VI), indicating that these exposures did not saturate gastric reduction capacity. When Cr(VI) exposure was normalized to ingested dose, chromium concentrations in the liver and glandular stomach were higher in mice, whereas kidney concentrations were higher in rats. In vitro studies demonstrated that Cr(VI), but not Cr(III), is a substrate of the sodium/sulfate cotransporter, providing a partial explanation for the greater absorption of Cr(VI). PMID:20843897

  14. Exposure to hexavalent chromium resulted in significantly higher tissue chromium burden compared with trivalent chromium following similar oral doses to male F344/N rats and female B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Collins, Bradley J; Stout, Matthew D; Levine, Keith E; Kissling, Grace E; Melnick, Ronald L; Fennell, Timothy R; Walden, Ramsey; Abdo, Kamal; Pritchard, John B; Fernando, Reshan A; Burka, Leo T; Hooth, Michelle J

    2010-12-01

    In National Toxicology Program 2-year studies, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] administered in drinking water was clearly carcinogenic in male and female rats and mice, resulting in small intestine epithelial neoplasms in mice at a dose equivalent to or within an order of magnitude of human doses that could result from consumption of chromium-contaminated drinking water, assuming that dose scales by body weight(3/4) (body weight raised to the 3/4 power). In contrast, exposure to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] at much higher concentrations may have been carcinogenic in male rats but was not carcinogenic in mice or female rats. As part of these studies, total chromium was measured in tissues and excreta of additional groups of male rats and female mice. These data were used to infer the uptake and distribution of Cr(VI) because Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III) in vivo, and no methods are available to speciate tissue chromium. Comparable external doses resulted in much higher tissue chromium concentrations following exposure to Cr(VI) compared with Cr(III), indicating that a portion of the Cr(VI) escaped gastric reduction and was distributed systemically. Linear or supralinear dose responses of total chromium in tissues were observed following exposure to Cr(VI), indicating that these exposures did not saturate gastric reduction capacity. When Cr(VI) exposure was normalized to ingested dose, chromium concentrations in the liver and glandular stomach were higher in mice, whereas kidney concentrations were higher in rats. In vitro studies demonstrated that Cr(VI), but not Cr(III), is a substrate of the sodium/sulfate cotransporter, providing a partial explanation for the greater absorption of Cr(VI).

  15. Poverty and Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986–2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores. We conducted 2 analyses. In the first, we used multivariate linear regressions with child-level fixed effects to examine the association of EITC payment size with BPI and HOME scores; in the second, we used EITC payment size as an instrument to estimate the associations of income with BPI and HOME scores. In linear regression models, higher EITC payments were associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = −0.57; P = 0.04). In instrumental variable analyses, higher income was associated with improved short-term BPI scores (per $1,000, β = −0.47; P = 0.01) and medium-term HOME scores (per $1,000, β = 0.64; P = 0.02). Our results suggest that both EITC benefits and higher income are associated with modest but meaningful improvements in child development. These findings provide valuable information for health researchers and policymakers for improving child health and development. PMID:27056961

  16. The male-female earnings gap for nurses in Germany: A pooled cross-sectional study of the years 2006 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Muench, Ulrike; Dietrich, Hans

    2017-07-14

    Nursing is one of the largest occupations for women in every country. Evidence suggests a substantial male-female pay gap for registered nurses in the U.S., possibly contributing to disparities between genders more broadly. Differences in motivation and skills between men and women have long been considered important factors in the gender earnings gap, but these factors are difficult to measure. Because of country specific educational pathways and limited upward job mobility in Germany, nurses tend to be more homogenous in their motivation to work and their work skills compared to the U.S. To study male-female earnings in the nursing labor market in Germany. This is a pooled cross-sectional study of survey data collected for the years 2006 and 2012. We used a representative survey of nurses (n=828) who are active labor force participants. In a multivariate ordinary least squares regression, the analysis estimated the log of monthly earnings for male and female nurses. The full model accounted for demographic, human capital, and geographic characteristics, in addition to employment characteristics, such as hours worked, additional education obtained, years of nursing experience, years of labor market experience, career inactivity, years with the employer, and responsibilities at work, among other factors. We conducted follow-up analyses to test alternative explanations for the pay gap, examining earnings for nurses who no longer worked in nursing and testing potential differences in motivation with the likelihood of working nightshifts and length of time with current employer. Unadjusted monthly earnings for full-time male nurses were 30% higher, or 700 Euros more, than monthly earnings for full-time female nurses. In the fully adjusted analysis, male nurses out-earned female nurses by approximately 9.3%, or 260 Euros per month. Follow-up analyses suggested that better outside options exist for male than female nurses in the German labor market, while we found no

  17. Does Money Matter: Earnings Patterns Among a National Sample of the US State Governmental Public Health Agency Workforce.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, Brian C; Leider, Jonathon P; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Earnings have been shown to be a critical point in workforce recruitment and retention. However, little is known about how much governmental public health staff are paid across the United States. To characterize earnings among state health agency central office employees. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of state health agency central office employees in late 2014. The sampling approach was stratified by 5 (paired HHS) regions. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to correctly calculate variance estimates, given the complex sampling design. Descriptive and bivariate statistical comparisons were conducted. A linear regression model was used to examine correlates of earnings among full-time employees. A total of 9300 permanently employed, full-time state health agency central office staff who reported earnings information. Earnings are the main outcomes examined in this article. Central office staff earn between $55,000 and $65,000 on average annually. Ascending supervisory status, educational attainment, and tenure are all associated with greater earnings. Those employed in clinical and laboratory positions and public health science positions earn more than their colleagues in administrative positions. Disparities exist between men and women, with men earning more, all else being equal (P < .001). Racial/ethnic disparities also exist, after accounting for other factors. This study provides baseline information to characterize the workforce and key challenges that result from earnings levels, including disparities in earnings that persist after accounting for education and experience. Data from the survey can inform strategies to address earnings issues and help reduce disparities.

  18. Estimates of Year-to-Year Volatility in Earnings and in Household Incomes from Administrative,Survey, and Matched Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Molly; DeLeire, Thomas; Schwabish, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    We document trends in the volatility in earnings and household incomes between 1985 and 2005 in three different data sources: administrative earnings records, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) matched to administrative earnings records, and SIPP survey data. In all data sources, we find a substantial amount of year-to-year…

  19. The Effect of the Social Security Earnings Test on Male Labor Supply: New Evidence from Survey and Administrative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Steven J.; Loughran, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Despite numerous empirical studies, there is surprisingly little agreement about whether the Social Security earnings test affects male labor supply. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the labor supply effects of the earnings test using longitudinal administrative earnings data and more commonly used survey data. We find that…

  20. 5 CFR 839.1002 - Will OPM compute the lost earnings if my qualifying retirement coverage error was previously...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will OPM compute the lost earnings if my... compute the lost earnings if my qualifying retirement coverage error was previously corrected and I made... coverage error was previously corrected, OPM will compute the lost earnings on your make-up contributions...

  1. 26 CFR 1.312-9 - Adjustments to earnings and profits reflecting increase in value accrued before March 1, 1913.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustments to earnings and profits reflecting... § 1.312-9 Adjustments to earnings and profits reflecting increase in value accrued before March 1..., that part of the earnings and profits which is represented by increase in value of property accrued...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1248-2 - Earnings and profits attributable to a block of stock in simple cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... earnings and profits of the corporation accumulated for the taxable year (computed without any reduction... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Earnings and profits attributable to a block of... Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1248-2 Earnings and profits attributable to a block of stock in...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1248-8 - Earnings and profits attributable to stock following certain non-recognition transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of this section. (5) Reduction in earnings and profits attributable to stock to prevent multiple... reduce the CFC3 earnings and profits attributable to its CFC2 stock by $9. These reductions occur without... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Earnings and profits attributable to stock...

  4. 42 CFR 137.66 - May a Self-Governance Tribe keep interest earned on statutorily mandated grant funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe keep interest earned on...-GOVERNANCE Statutorily Mandated Grants § 137.66 May a Self-Governance Tribe keep interest earned on statutorily mandated grant funds? Yes, a Self-Governance Tribe may keep Interest Earned on Statutorily...

  5. An evaluation of the construct of earned security in adolescents: evidence from an inpatient sample.

    PubMed

    Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla; Shmueli-Goetz, Yael; Newlin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In adult attachment research, a group of individuals who convey secure attachments despite recalling difficult early caregiver relationships has been identified. The term earned security refers to individuals in this group, whereas continuous security refers to individuals who convey secure attachments and describe caring early relationships. Evidence on the validity of earned security in adults is mixed--with one longitudinal study showing that earned secure adults, despite contrary recollections, are actually more likely to have experienced positive caregiving than continuous secure adults. There is currently no evidence of earned security in adolescence, and exploring it in this age group may help shed light on the overall problem of the validity of this construct. Therefore, the broad aim of this study was to examine the construct of earned security in a group of inpatient adolescents. First, the authors aimed to identify a group of adolescents with secure attachments and memories of difficult caregiver relationships (i.e., proposed earned secure group) in a sample of 240 inpatient adolescents. Next, to explore external validity, the authors examined whether this group differed from others with regard to internalizing distress and emotion regulation. Findings indicated that a subset of secure adolescents recall difficult caregiving, as has been noted in adults, and that they differ from others with regard to emotion regulation. Despite this preliminary evidence that earned security can be identified in adolescents, the authors conclude with a discussion of the caveats of applying this construct in adolescents as well as adults.

  6. Migration, self-selection and earnings in Philippine rural communities.

    PubMed

    Lanzona, L A

    1998-06-01

    "Estimated returns to schooling investments can be misleading if migration causes significant shifts in population distribution across time. Data gathered in rural Philippine communities show that the more educated and experienced individuals are more likely to outmigrate, causing a sample selection bias in the estimation of wage equations. The observed wages were then lower than the conditional population mean of an entire cohort residing originally in the area. Controlling for self-selection, the wage returns to schooling and experience were higher, Finally, the sample selectivity variable accounts substantially for the difference in the wages of men and women." excerpt

  7. The impact of cancer on spouses' labor earnings: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Syse, Astri; Tretli, Steinar; Kravdal, Oystein

    2009-09-15

    Cancer affects patients' incomes, but to the authors' knowledge few studies to date have examined how the income of the patients' spouses may be influenced. In this population-based study from Norway, the effects of cancer on both partners' earnings are analyzed. The difference between labor earnings the year before the cancer diagnosis and that 2, 5, or 8 years later was compared with the difference in earnings over a corresponding period for similar persons without cancer, applying linear regression models to national registry data. Approximately 1.1 million married persons ages 35 to 59 years were included, among them 17,250 persons diagnosed with cancer during 1991 through 1999. Two and 5 years after a cancer diagnosis, married men experienced lower earnings than they would have absent the illness. Cancer in wives, however, did not affect men's earnings. Women's earnings were adversely influenced to the same extent by their own as by their spouses' cancer. Brain, lung, and colorectal cancer in male spouses produced the most adverse effects on women's earnings. All effects were most pronounced for women no longer married. Women's earnings are lower after both their own and their spouses' cancer illness, and divorced and widowed women experience the most pronounced reduction after spousal cancer. Men's earnings are lower only if they are diagnosed themselves. This may reflect traditional sex roles, with men as main breadwinners and women as caregivers. For family households, cancer in men may result in greater financial difficulties than cancer among women, although the effect will depend on breadwinner roles before diagnosis. Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  8. Women Reap More Benefits from Higher Education, Study Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troumpoucis, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Higher education offers a variety of benefits, both economic and non-economic, and women seem to reap much bigger economic benefits from earning an associate's degree or a bachelor's degree than their male counterparts, according to a new study. The study's author said this revelation could shed some light on why the numbers of women in college…

  9. Consequences of Neglect: Performance Trends in California Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Colleen; Offenstein, Jeremy; Shulock, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    California lawmakers have found it increasingly difficult to protect the state's investment in its colleges and universities over the last decade despite the growing evidence that the state needs far more of its citizens to earn postsecondary credentials. Additionally, California higher education continues to operate without effective coordination…

  10. Vocational and Liberal Education. Maintaining the Balance in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Robert M.

    Higher education must find an appropriate mix between liberal and vocational education to assure that every individual, upon leaving postsecondary institutions, will understand society and how it functions and will be able to earn a living. Dewey's thoughts on integrating the two are still relevant today for dispelling the false notion of…

  11. Measures and predictors of community-based employment and earnings of persons with schizophrenia in a multisite study.

    PubMed

    Salkever, David S; Karakus, Mustafa C; Slade, Eric P; Harding, Courtenay M; Hough, Richard L; Rosenheck, Robert A; Swartz, Marvin S; Barrio, Concepcion; Yamada, Anne Marie

    2007-03-01

    Data from a national study of persons with schizophrenia-related disorders were examined to determine clinical factors and labor-market conditions related to employment outcomes. Data were obtained from the U.S. Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program, a naturalistic study of more than 2,300 persons from organized care systems in six U.S. regions. Data were collected via surveys and from medical records and clinical assessments at baseline and for three years. Outcome measures included any community-based (nonsheltered) employment, 40 or more hours of work in the past month, employment at or above the federal minimum wage, days and hours of work, and earnings. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses of data from more than 7,000 assessments tested relationships between outcomes and sociodemographic, clinical, and local labor market characteristics. The employment rate was 17.2%; only 57.1% of participants who worked reported 40 or more hours of past-month employment. The mean hourly wage was $7.05, and mean monthly earnings were $494.20. Employment rates and number of hours worked were substantially below those found in household surveys or in baseline data from trials of employment programs but substantially higher than those found in a recent large clinical trial. Strong positive relationships were found between clinical factors and work outcomes, but evidence of a relationship between local unemployment rates and outcomes was weak. Work attachment and earnings were substantially lower than in previous survey data, not very sensitive to labor market conditions, and strongly related to clinical status.

  12. How much do cancer specialists earn? A comparison of physician fees and remuneration in oncology and radiology in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Seán; Petch, Jeremy; Batt, Kathy; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Thomson, Sarah

    2018-02-01

    The main driver of higher spending on health care in the US is believed to be substantially higher fees paid to US physicians in comparison with other countries. We aim to compare physician incomes in radiology and oncology considering differences in relation to fees paid, physician capacity and volume of services provided in five countries: the United States, Canada, Australia, France and the United Kingdom. The fee for a consultation with a specialist in oncology varies threefold across countries, and more than fourfold for chemotherapy. There is also a three to fourfold variation in fees for ultrasound and CT scans. Physician earnings in the US are greater than in other countries in both oncology and radiology, more than three times higher than in the UK; Canadian oncologists and radiologists earn considerably more than their European counterparts. Although challenging, benchmarking earnings and fees for similar health care activities across countries, and understanding the factors that explain any differences, can provide valuable insights for policy makers trying to enhance efficiency and quality in service delivery, especially in the face of rising care costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Is child labor harmful? The impact of working earlier in life on adult earnings.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Patrick M; Souza, André Portela

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the question: is working as a child harmful to an individual in terms of adult outcomes in earnings? Although this is an extremely important question, little is known about the effect of child labor on adult outcomes. Estimations of an instrumental variables earnings model on data from Brazil show that child labor has a large negative impact on adult earnings for male children even when controlling for schooling and that the negative impact of starting to work as a child reverses at around ages 12–14.

  14. Gender pay gap and employment sector: sources of earnings disparities in the United States, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Using data from the IPUMS-USA, the present research focuses on trends in the gender earnings gap in the United States between 1970 and 2010. The major goal of this article is to understand the sources of the convergence in men's and women's earnings in the public and private sectors as well as the stagnation of this trend in the new millennium. For this purpose, we delineate temporal changes in the role played by major sources of the gap. Several components are identified: the portion of the gap attributed to gender differences in human-capital resources; labor supply; sociodemographic attributes; occupational segregation; and the unexplained portion of the gap. The findings reveal a substantial reduction in the gross gender earnings gap in both sectors of the economy. Most of the decline is attributed to the reduction in the unexplained portion of the gap, implying a significant decline in economic discrimination against women. In contrast to discrimination, the role played by human capital and personal attributes in explaining the gender pay gap is relatively small in both sectors. Differences between the two sectors are not only in the size and pace of the reduction but also in the significance of the two major sources of the gap. Working hours have become the most important factor with respect to gender pay inequality in both sectors, although much more dominantly in the private sector. The declining gender segregation may explain the decreased impact of occupations on the gender pay gap in the private sector. In the public sector, by contrast, gender segregation still accounts for a substantial portion of the gap. The findings are discussed in light of the theoretical literature on sources of gender economic inequality and in light of the recent stagnation of the trend.

  15. Discrimination versus specialization: a survey of economic studies on sexual orientation, gender and earnings in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Elizabeth Dunne

    2008-01-01

    Several studies examine the link between sexual orientation and earnings using large data sets that distinguish sexual orientation through questions about sexual behavior and/or by allowing respondents to self-identify as part of a same-sex cohabitating couple. After controlling for other earnings-related characteristics these studies generally show an earnings penalty for gay/bisexual men relative to heterosexual men and an earnings premium for lesbian/bisexual women relative to heterosexual women. Explanations for this gender disparity include gender differences in sexual orientation discrimination, greater labor force attachment for lesbian/bisexual women, and the effects of the overall gender earnings gap.

  16. Single-stranded DNA condensed with poly-L-lysine results in nanometric particles that are significantly smaller, more stable in physiological ionic strength fluids and afford higher efficiency of gene delivery than their double-stranded counterparts.

    PubMed

    Molas, M; Bartrons, R; Perales, J C

    2002-08-15

    Nonviral gene transfer vectors have been actively studied in the past years in order to obtain structural entities with minimum size and defined shape. The final size of a gene transfer vector, which is compacted into unimolecular complexes, is directly proportional to the mass of the nucleic acid to be compacted. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the possibility of producing ssDNA vectors and their biophysical and biological characterization. We have obtained ssDNA/poly-L-lysine complexes that are significantly smaller than their double-stranded counterparts. We have also identified a lesser aggregative behavior of compacted single-stranded vs. double-stranded DNA vectors in the presence of physiological NaCl concentrations. Expression of compacted ssDNA is observed in hepatoma cell lines. Moreover, we have successfully delivered galactosylated ssDNA complexes into cells that express the asialoglycoprotein receptor via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The reduced size and biophysical behavior of ssDNA vectors may provide an advantage for transfection of eukaryotic cells.

  17. Essays on the statistical mechanics of the labor market and implications for the distribution of earned income

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Markus P. A.

    This dissertation contributes to two areas in economics: the understanding of the distribution of earned income and to Bayesian analysis of distributional data. Recently, physicists claimed that the distribution of earned income is exponential (see Yakovenko, 2009). The first chapter explores the perspective that the economy is a statistical mechanical system and the implication for labor market outcomes is considered critically. The robustness of the empirical results that lead to the physicists' claims, the significance of the exponential distribution in statistical mechanics, and the case for a conservation law in economics are discussed. The conclusion reached is that physicists' conception of the economy is too narrow even within their chosen framework, but that their overall approach is insightful. The dual labor market theory of segmented labor markets is invoked to understand why the observed distribution may be a mixture of distributional components, corresponding to different generating mechanisms described in Reich et al. (1973). The application of informational entropy in chapter II connects this work to Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy econometrics. The analysis follows E. T. Jaynes's treatment of Wolf's dice data, but is applied to the distribution of earned income based on CPS data. The results are calibrated to account for rounded survey responses using a simple simulation, and answer the graphical analyses by physicists. The results indicate that neither the income distribution of all respondents nor of the subpopulation used by physicists appears to be exponential. The empirics do support the claim that a mixture with exponential and log-normal distributional components ts the data. In the final chapter, a log-linear model is used to fit the exponential to the earned income distribution. Separating the CPS data by gender and marital status reveals that the exponential is only an appropriate model for a limited number of subpopulations, namely

  18. 5 CFR 1645.3 - Calculation of total net earnings for each TSP Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BOARD CALCULATION OF SHARE PRICES § 1645.3 Calculation of total net earnings for each TSP Fund. (a) Each... be used to calculate the share price for that business day. [70 FR 32214, June 1, 2005] ...

  19. 78 FR 16297 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-503] Earned Import Allowance Program... Review AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of opportunity to provide... located in the United States International Trade Commission Building, 500 E Street SW., Washington, DC...

  20. 48 CFR 252.234-7001 - Notice of Earned Value Management System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... documentation that the Cognizant Federal Agency (CFA) has determined that the proposed Earned Value Management... compliance with ANSI/EIA-748. (2) If the offeror proposes to use an EVMS that has been determined by the CFA...