Science.gov

Sample records for earth alloy magnets

  1. Iron-Nitride Alloy Magnets: Transformation Enabled Nitride Magnets Absent Rare Earths (TEN Mare)

    SciT

    None

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Case Western is developing a highly magnetic iron-nitride alloy to use in the magnets that power electric motors found in EVs and renewable power generators. This would reduce the overall price of the motor by eliminating the expensive imported rare earth minerals typically found in today’s best commercial magnets. The iron-nitride powder is sourced from abundant and inexpensive materials found in the U.S. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate this new magnet system, which contains no rare earths, in a prototype electric motor. This could significantly reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emitted in themore » U.S. each year by encouraging the use of clean alternatives to oil and coal.« less

  2. (BRI) Direct and Inverse Design Optimization of Magnetic Alloys with Minimized Use of Rare Earth Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-02

    Earths ”, MS&T15-Materials Science and Technology 2015 Conference, Columbus, Ohio, October 4-8, 2015. 3. Dulikrvich, G.S., Reddy, S., Orlande, H.R.B...Schwartz, J.and Koch, C.C., “Multi-Objective Design and Optimization of Hard Magnetic Alloys Free of Rare Earths ”, MS&T15-Materials Science and Technology...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0091 (BRI) Direct and Inverse Design Optimization of Magnetic Alloys with Minimized Use of Rare Earth Elements George

  3. Synthesis and magnetic properties of rare-earth free MnBi alloy: A high-energy hard magnetic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Prakash, H. R.; Ram, S.; Pradhan, D.

    2018-04-01

    MnBi is a rare-earth free high-energy magnetic material useful for the permanent magnet based devices. In a simple method, a MnBi alloy was prepared by arc melting method using Mn and Bi metals in 60:40 atomic ratio. In terms of the X-ray diffraction, a crystalline MnBi phase is formed with Bi as impurity phase of the as-prepared alloy. FESEM image of chemically etched sample shows small grains throughout the alloy. SEAD pattern and lattice image were studied to understand the internal microstructure of the alloy. The thermomagnetic curves measured in ZFC-FC cycles over 5-380 K temperatures at 500 Oe field, shows the induced magnetization of 5-25 % in the sample. The coercivity values, 7.455 kOe (13.07 emu/g magnetization) at 380 K, and 5.185k Oe (14.75 emu/g magnetization) at 300 K, are observed in the M-H hysteresis loops. A decreased value 0.181kOe (18.05 emu/g magnetization) appears at 100 K due to the change in the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The results are useful to fabricate small MnBi magnets for different permanent magnets based devices.

  4. Transport and magnetic properties of dilute rare-earth-PbSe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovovic, V.; Joottu-Thiagarajan, S.; West, J.; Heremans, J. P.; Story, T.; Golacki, Z.; Paszkowicz, W.; Osinniy, V.

    2007-03-01

    An increase in the density of states is predicted [1] to increase the thermoelectric (TE) figure of merit, and could be induced by doping TE materials with rare-earth elements. This was attempted here: the galvanomagnetic and thermomagnetic properties of dilute alloys of PbSe and Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd and Yb were measured from 80 to 380K; magnetic susceptibilities were measured from 4 to 120K. The density of states effective mass, the relaxation time, and the carrier density and mobility are calculated from measurements of the electrical conductivity and the Hall, Seebeck and transverse Nernst-Ettingshausen coefficients. The Eu, Gd, Nd and Yb-alloyed samples are paramagnetic; the concentrations of rare-earth atoms are determined from fitting a Curie-Weiss law. The magnetic behavior of the Ce and Pr-alloyed samples is different. Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd and Yb act as donors with efficiencies that will be reported. Alloying with divalent Eu does not affect carrier density but increases the energy gap. This work suggests that the 4f orbitals preserve their atomic-like localized character and exhibit only weak sp-f hybridization. 1 G. D. Mahan and J. O. Sofo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 7436 (1996)

  5. Combined computational-experimental design of high temperature, high-intensity permanent magnetic alloys with minimal addition of rare-earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Rajesh

    AlNiCo magnets are known for high-temperature stability and superior corrosion resistance and have been widely used for various applications. Reported magnetic energy density ((BH) max) for these magnets is around 10 MGOe. Theoretical calculations show that ((BH) max) of 20 MGOe is achievable which will be helpful in covering the gap between AlNiCo and Rare-Earth Elements (REE) based magnets. An extended family of AlNiCo alloys was studied in this dissertation that consists of eight elements, and hence it is important to determine composition-property relationship between each of the alloying elements and their influence on the bulk properties. In the present research, we proposed a novel approach to efficiently use a set of computational tools based on several concepts of artificial intelligence to address a complex problem of design and optimization of high temperature REE-free magnetic alloys. A multi-dimensional random number generation algorithm was used to generate the initial set of chemical concentrations. These alloys were then examined for phase equilibria and associated magnetic properties as a screening tool to form the initial set of alloy. These alloys were manufactured and tested for desired properties. These properties were fitted with a set of multi-dimensional response surfaces and the most accurate meta-models were chosen for prediction. These properties were simultaneously extremized by utilizing a set of multi-objective optimization algorithm. This provided a set of concentrations of each of the alloying elements for optimized properties. A few of the best predicted Pareto-optimal alloy compositions were then manufactured and tested to evaluate the predicted properties. These alloys were then added to the existing data set and used to improve the accuracy of meta-models. The multi-objective optimizer then used the new meta-models to find a new set of improved Pareto-optimized chemical concentrations. This design cycle was repeated twelve times

  6. Non-rare earth magnetic nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, Everett E.; Huba, Zachary J.; Carroll, Kyler J.; Farghaly, Ahmed; Khanna, Shiv N.; Qian, Meichun; Bertino, Massimo

    2017-09-26

    Continuous flow synthetic methods are used to make single phase magnetic metal alloy nanoparticles that do not contain rare earth metals. Soft and hard magnets made from the magnetic nanoparticles are used for a variety of purposes, e.g. in electric motors, communication devices, etc.

  7. COST-EFFECTIVE RARE EARTH ELEMENT RECYCLING PROCESS FROM INDUSTRIAL SCRAP AND DISCARDED ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS TO VALUABLE MAGNETIC ALLOYS AND PERMANENT MAGNETS - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rare earth element (REE) based Nd-Fe-B and Sm-Co permanent magnets have been widely used because of their excellent magnetic properties. The applications of Nd-Fe-B and Sm-Co rare earth permanent magnets include hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), power generators for wind tur...

  8. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    SciT

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  9. Large magnetic anisotropy predicted for rare-earth-free F e 16 - x C o x N 2 alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Yao, Yongxin; ...

    2016-12-23

    Structures and magnetic properties of Fe 16–xCo xN 2 are studied using adaptive genetic algorithm and first-principles calculations. We show that substituting Fe with Co in Fe 16N 2 with a Co/Fe ratio ≤1 can greatly improve the magnetic anisotropy of the material. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy from first-principles calculations reaches 3.18 MJ/m 3 (245.6 μeV per metal atom) for Fe 12Co 4N 2, much larger than that of Fe 16N 2, and is one of the largest among the reported rare-earth-free magnets. From our systematic crystal structure searches, we show that there is a structure transition from tetragonal Femore » 16N 2 to cubic Co 16N 2 in Fe 16–xCo xN 2 as the Co concentration increases, which can be well explained by electron counting analysis. As a result, different magnetic properties between the Fe-rich (x ≤ 8) and Co-rich (x > 8) Fe 16–xCo xN 2 is closely related to the structural transition.« less

  10. Large magnetic anisotropy predicted for rare-earth-free F e 16 - x C o x N 2 alloys

    SciT

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Yao, Yongxin

    Structures and magnetic properties of Fe 16–xCo xN 2 are studied using adaptive genetic algorithm and first-principles calculations. We show that substituting Fe with Co in Fe 16N 2 with a Co/Fe ratio ≤1 can greatly improve the magnetic anisotropy of the material. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy from first-principles calculations reaches 3.18 MJ/m 3 (245.6 μeV per metal atom) for Fe 12Co 4N 2, much larger than that of Fe 16N 2, and is one of the largest among the reported rare-earth-free magnets. From our systematic crystal structure searches, we show that there is a structure transition from tetragonal Femore » 16N 2 to cubic Co 16N 2 in Fe 16–xCo xN 2 as the Co concentration increases, which can be well explained by electron counting analysis. As a result, different magnetic properties between the Fe-rich (x ≤ 8) and Co-rich (x > 8) Fe 16–xCo xN 2 is closely related to the structural transition.« less

  11. Grindability of dental magnetic alloys.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Eisei; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Okuno, Osamu; Kimura, Kohei

    2005-06-01

    In this study, the grindability of cast magnetic alloys (Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy and magnetic stainless steel) was evaluated and compared with that of conventional dental casting alloys (Ag-Pd-Au alloy, Type 4 gold alloy, and cobalt-chromium alloy). Grindability was evaluated in terms of grinding rate (i.e., volume of metal removed per minute) and grinding ratio (i.e., volume ratio of metal removed compared to wheel material lost). Solution treated Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy had a significantly higher grinding rate than the aged one at a grinding speed of 750-1500 m x min(-1). At 500 m x min(-1), there were no significant differences in grinding rate between solution treated and aged Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloys. At a lower speed of 500 m x min(-1) or 750 m x min(-1), it was found that the grinding rates of aged Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy and stainless steel were higher than those of conventional casting alloys.

  12. Resistivity and magnetoresistivity of amorphous rare-earth alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchi, E.; Poli, M.; De Gennaro, S.

    1982-05-01

    The resistivity and magnetoresistivity of amorphous rare-earth alloys are studied starting from the general approach of Van Peski-Tinbergen and Dekker. The random axial crystal-field and the magnetic correlations between the rare-earth ions are consistently taken into account. The characteristic features of the available experimental data are explained both of the case of random ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order.

  13. Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gay B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

  14. Magnetic field of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws

  15. Low temperature diffusion process using rare earth-Cu eutectic alloys for hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets

    SciT

    Akiya, T., E-mail: akiya.takahiro@nims.go.jp; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.

    2014-05-07

    The low temperature grain boundary diffusion process using RE{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} (RE = Pr, Nd) eutectic alloy powders was applied to sintered and hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets. Although only marginal coercivity increase was observed in sintered magnets, a substantial enhancement in coercivity was observed when the process was applied to hot-deformed anisotropic bulk magnets. Using Pr{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} eutectic alloy as a diffusion source, the coercivity was enhanced from 1.65 T to 2.56 T. The hot-deformed sample expanded along c-axis direction only after the diffusion process as RE rich intergranular layers parallel to the broad surface of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B are thickened inmore » the c-axis direction.« less

  16. Replacing critical rare earth materials in high energy density magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallum, R. William

    2012-02-01

    High energy density permanent magnets are crucial to the design of internal permanent magnet motors (IPM) for hybride and electric vehicles and direct drive wind generators. Current motor designs use rare earth permanent magnets which easily meet the performance goals, however, the rising concerns over cost and foreign control of the current supply of rare earth resources has motivated a search for non-rare earth based permanent magnets alloys with performance metrics which allow the design of permanent magnet motors and generators without rare earth magnets. This talk will discuss the state of non-rare-earth permanent magnets and efforts to both improve the current materials and find new materials. These efforts combine first principles calculations and meso-scale magnetic modeling with advance characterization and synthesis techniques in order to advance the state of the art in non rare earth permanent magnets. The use of genetic algorithms in first principle structural calculations, combinatorial synthesis in the experimental search for materials, atom probe microscopy to characterize grain boundaries on the atomic level, and other state of the art techniques will be discussed. In addition the possibility of replacing critical rare earth elements with the most abundant rare earth Ce will be discussed.

  17. Science in a Box. Magnets IV: Magnet Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blizard, Elizabeth B.

    1992-01-01

    Presents low-cost learning activities to help teach elementary students about the earth's magnetic field. One project has students make a model of the earth's magnetic field. Another has them experiment with magnetism. (SM)

  18. Satellite to study earth's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Satellite (Magsat) designed to measure the near earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies is briefly described. A scalar magnetometer to measure the magnitude of the earth's crustal magnetic field and a vector magnetometer to measure magnetic field direction as well as magnitude are included. The mission and its objectives are summarized along with the data collection and processing system.

  19. Sintered rare earth-iron Laves phase magnetostrictive alloy product and preparation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Malekzadeh, Manoochehr; Pickus, Milton R.

    1979-01-01

    A sintered rare earth-iron Laves phase magnetostrictive alloy product characterized by a grain oriented morphology. The grain oriented morphology is obtained by magnetically aligning powder particles of the magnetostrictive alloy prior to sintering. Specifically disclosed are grain oriented sintered compacts of Tb.sub.x Dy.sub.1-x Fe.sub.2 and their method of preparation. The present sintered products have enhanced magnetostrictive properties.

  20. Magnetic interactions in equi-atomic rare-earth intermetallic alloys RScGe (R = Ce, Pr, Nd and Gd) studied by time differential perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S N

    2009-03-18

    Applying the time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique we have measured electric and magnetic hyperfine fields of the (111)Cd impurity in equi-atomic rare-earth intermetallic alloys RScGe (R = Ce, Pr and Gd) showing antiferro- and ferromagnetism with unusually high ordering temperatures. The Cd nuclei occupying the Sc site show high magnetic hyperfine fields with saturation values B(hf)(0) = 21 kG, 45 kG and 189 kG in CeScGe, PrScGe and GdScGe, respectively. By comparing the results with the hyperfine field data of Cd in rare-earth metals and estimations from the RKKY model, we find evidence for the presence of additional spin density at the probe nucleus, possibly due to spin polarization of Sc d band electrons. The principal electric field gradient component V(zz) in CeScGe, PrScGe and GdScGe has been determined to be 5.3 × 10(21) V m(-2), 5.5 × 10(21) V m(-2) and 5.6 × 10(21) V m(-2), respectively. Supplementing the experimental measurements, we have carried out ab initio calculations for pure and Cd-doped RScGe compounds with R = Ce, Pr, Nd and Gd using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT). From the total energies calculated with and without spin polarization we find ferrimagnetic ground states for CeScGe and PrScGe while NdScGe and GdScGe are ferromagnetic. In addition, we find a sizable magnetic moment at the Sc site, increasing from ≈0.10 μ(B) in CeScGe to ≈0.3 μ(B) in GdScGe, confirming the spin polarization of Sc d band electrons. The calculated electric field gradient and magnetic hyperfine fields of the Cd impurity closely agree with the experimental values. We believe spin polarization of Sc 3d band electrons, strongly hybridized with spin polarized 5d band electrons of the rare-earth, enables a long range Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction between RE 4f moments which in turn leads to high magnetic ordering temperatures in

  1. Rare earth elements and permanent magnets (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, Peter C.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth (RE) magnets have become virtually indispensible in a wide variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, medical, and military. RE elements are essential ingredients in these high performance magnets based on intermetallic compounds RECo5, RE2TM17 (TM: transition metal), and RE2TM14B. Rare earth magnets are known for their superior magnetic properties—high induction, and coercive force. These properties arise due to the extremely high magnetocrystalline anisotropy made possible by unique 3d-4f interactions between transition metals and rare earths. For more than 40 years, these magnets remain the number one choice in applications that require high magnetic fields in extreme operating conditions—high demagnetization forces and high temperature. EEC produces and specializes in RECo5 and RE2TM17 type sintered magnets. Samarium and gadolinium are key RE ingredients in the powder metallurgical magnet production processes which include melting, crushing, jet milling, pressing, sintering, and heat treating. The magnetic properties and applications of these magnets will be discussed. We will also briefly discuss the past, current, and future of the permanent magnet business. Currently, over 95% of all pure rare earth oxides are sourced from China, which currently controls the market. We will provide insights regarding current and potential new magnet technologies and designer choices, which may mitigate rare earth supply chain issues now and into the future.

  2. Method of increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; McMasters, O. Dale; Gibson, Edwin D.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Finnemore, Douglas K.

    1989-04-04

    This invention comprises a method of increasing the magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron (RFe) magnetostrictive alloy rods by a thermal-magnetic treatment. The rod is heated to a temperature above its Curie temperature, viz. from 400.degree. to 600.degree. C.; and, while the rod is at that temperature, a magnetic field is directionally applied and maintained while the rod is cooled, at least below its Curie temperature.

  3. Method of increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.; Gibson, E.D.; Ostenson, J.E.; Finnemore, D.K.

    1989-04-04

    This invention comprises a method of increasing the magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron (RFe) magnetostrictive alloy rods by a thermal-magnetic treatment. The rod is heated to a temperature above its Curie temperature, viz. from 400 to 600 C; and, while the rod is at that temperature, a magnetic field is directionally applied and maintained while the rod is cooled, at least below its Curie temperature. 2 figs.

  4. Flow Caster Produces Custom Alloy Magnetic Ribbon

    2016-12-21

    NASA Glenn’s large-scale, 5 kg planar flow caster cools a vat of molten metallic alloy, producing a magnetic ribbon that spouts into a collection bin. The caster has the ability to produce a magnetized ribbon that measures up to one mile long and 50 mm wide to support NASA’s hybrid electric aircraft propulsion and power management work.

  5. Quantum Theory of Rare-Earth Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Takashi; Akai, Hisazumi

    2018-04-01

    Strong permanent magnets mainly consist of rare earths (R) and transition metals (T). The main phase of the neodymium magnet, which is the strongest magnet, is Nd2Fe14B. Sm2Fe17N3 is another magnet compound having excellent magnetic properties comparable to those of Nd2Fe14B. Their large saturation magnetization, strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and high Curie temperature originate from the interaction between the T-3d electrons and R-4f electrons. This article discusses the magnetism of rare-earth magnet compounds. The basic theory and first-principles calculation approaches for quantitative description of the magnetic properties are presented, together with applications to typical compounds such as Nd2Fe14B, Sm2Fe17N3, and the recently synthesized NdFe12N.

  6. METHOD OF MAKING ALLOYS OF SECOND RARE EARTH SERIES METALS

    DOEpatents

    Baker, R.D.; Hayward, B.R.

    1963-01-01

    >This invention relates to a process for alloying the second rare earth series metals with Mo, Nb, or Zr. A halide of the rare earth metal is mixed with about 1 to 20 at.% of an oxide of Mo, Nb, or Zr. Iodine and an alkali or alkaline earth metal are added, and the resulting mixture is heated in an inert atmosphere to 350 deg C. (AEC)

  7. Cobalt-Free Permanent Magnet Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    carbide co- UC CbC lumbium carbide M003 Uranium carbide - tho- UC 2 25ThC rium carbide ZrO2 MgO WOs Use of this Process for MnAlC As indicated in the...cobalt. Free World Cobal Consumption Estimated Breakdown by End Uses Magnetic alloys 20% Cemented carbides - 5% 30 SuPerolloy _ 15% Other steels and...would normally result in the formation of binary alloy of TbFe 2 and preventing the formation of amorphous alloy (Fe-B) contain- ing Tb. The

  8. Novel pre-alloyed powder processing of modified alnico 8: Correlation of microstructure and magnetic properties

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, I. E.; Kassen, A. G.; White, E. M. H.; ...

    2015-04-13

    Progress is reviewed on development of an improved near-final bulk magnet fabrication process for alnico 8, as a non-rare earth permanent magnet with promise for sufficient energy density and coercivity for electric drive motors. This study showed that alnico bulk magnets in near-final shape can be made by simple compression molding from spherical high purity gas atomized pre-alloyed powder. Dwell time at peak sintering temperature (1250°C) greatly affected grain size of the resulting magnet alloys. This microstructure transformation was demonstrated to be useful for gaining partially aligned magnetic properties and boosting energy product. Furthermore, while a route to increased coercivitymore » was not identified by these experiments, manufacturability of bulk alnico magnet alloys in near-final shapes was demonstrated, permitting further processing and alloy modification experiments that can target higher coercivity and better control of grain anisotropy during grain growth.« less

  9. The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Gubbins, David

    1989-01-01

    Describes the change of earth's magnetic field at the boundary between the outer core and the mantle. Measurement techniques used during the last 300 years are considered. Discusses the theories and research for explaining the field change. (YP)

  10. Transport and magnetic properties of HITPERM alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekala, K.; Latuch, J.; Pekala, M.; Skorvanek, I.; Jaskiewicz, P.

    2003-02-01

    Nanocrystalline HITPERM alloys Fe44.6Co43.3X7.4B3.7Cu1 (X = Nb, Zr, Hf) prepared by crystallization of amorphous precursors are studied by magnetization and electrical resistivity measurements for the first time. Structural and magnetic components of the electrical resistivity are separated. The electrical resistivity of the nanocrystalline α' (FeCo) phase calculated using the Maxwell Garnett relation proves strong electron scattering on the grain boundaries. The temperature variation of the crystalline fraction during the first crystallization stage is calculated for the Hf based alloy.

  11. Magnetization Processes in Ribbons of Soft Magnetic Amorphous Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulkina, N. A.; Ivanov, O. A.; Mazeeva, A. K.; Kuznetsov, P. A.; Stepanova, E. A.; Blinova, O. V.; Mikhalitsyna, E. A.

    2018-02-01

    Using iron-based (Fe-B-Si-C; Fe-Ni-Si-B) and cobalt-based (Co-Fe-Ni-Cr-Mn-Si-B) soft magnetic alloys as examples, we have studied the dependences of the remanence measured using minor hysteresis loops on the maximum induction. The different degrees of stabilization of the 180° and 90° domain walls allows these dependences to be used to analyze the magnetization processes that occur in the rapidly quenched soft magnetic alloys. It has been established from the B r( B m) dependences that, in the ribbons of soft magnetic amorphous alloys, the processes of the rotation of the magnetization oriented perpendicular to the ribbon plane start before the end of the processes of the displacement of the walls of domains with planar magnetization. After the end of the magnetization rotation processes, the magnetization processes can be interpreted as the displacement of the domain walls with a planar magnetization accompanied by a decrease in their number and a transition to a bistable state.

  12. Magnetism in thin transition metal alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janke-Gilman, Nathaniel; Reade

    Magnetic linear dichroism measurements allowed us to measure atomic moments and spin order in alloy magnetic systems with chemical specificity and surface sensitivity. The width of the dichroism spectrum is a measure of the atomic moment via the local exchange, while the dichroism amplitude is a measure of the elemental contribution to magnetic order in the alloy via the dipole selection rules. A novel method has been introduced to systematically determine the dichroism width and amplitude. Changing magnetic moments have been tracked with changing alloy composition, along with changes in the magnetic easy axis and Curie temperature. Measurements have been made of the bandstructure and band topology near the Fermi energy. Well defined spin and k states are selected using high energy and k resolution. The 'Stoner gap' in d bands near the Fermi energy is equal to the minimum energy spin-flip excitation available to d electrons in particular symmetry states. The size and shape of the sp band Fermi surface in momentum space determines the periodicity of oscillatory magnetic coupling. The exchange splitting in the sp bands is one measure of changing magnetization in a magnetic alloy, while the spin dependent mean free path is the inverse of the band width dk. The strong variation of these effects from one magnetic impurity to another supports the concept of magnetic impurity doping in magnetoelectronic devices. When the thickness of a magnetic system is sufficiently reduced, the finite size effect leads to reduction in the critical temperature Tc with decreasing thickness n according to the power law 1 - Tc(n)/Tc(bulk) = b n^lambda.Deviations from this power law have been observed by many authors in the ultrathin film limit (2--3 monolayers or less). We have shown that these deviations from power law behavior arise when the film thickness becomes less than the mean range of spin-spin interactions in the magnetic film, at which point the reduced surface free energy term

  13. Properties of iron alloys under the Earth's core conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morard, Guillaume; Andrault, Denis; Antonangeli, Daniele; Bouchet, Johann

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's core is constituted of iron and nickel alloyed with lighter elements. In view of their affinity with the metallic phase, their relative high abundance in the solar system and their moderate volatility, a list of potential light elements have been established, including sulfur, silicon and oxygen. We will review the effects of these elements on different aspects of Fe-X high pressure phase diagrams under Earth's core conditions, such as melting temperature depression, solid-liquid partitioning during crystallization, and crystalline structure of the solid phases. Once extrapolated to the inner-outer core boundary, these petrological properties can be used to constrain the Earth's core properties.

  14. Unique magnetism and structural transformation in rare earth dialumindes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Arjun; Mudryk, Yaroslav; Paudyal, Durga; Pecharsky, Vitalij

    Rare earth metallic alloys play a critical yet often obscure role in numerous technological applications, including but not limited to sensors, actuators, permanent magnets, and rechargeable batteries; therefore, understanding their fundamental properties is of utmost importance. We study structural behavior, specific heat, and magnetism of various binary and pseudobinary rare earth dialumindes by means of temperature-dependent x-ray powder diffraction, heat capacity and magnetization measurements, and first principles calculations. Here, we focus on our recent understanding of low temperature magnetism, and crystal structure of DyAl2, TbAl2, PrAl2, ErAl2, and discuss magnetic and structural instabilities in the pseudobinary PrAl2 - ErAl2 system. Unique among other mixed heavy lanthanide dialumindes, the substitution of Er in Pr1-xErxAl2 results in unusual ferrimagnetic behavior, and the ferrimagnetic interactions become strongest around x = 0.25. The Ames Laboratory is operated for the U. S. DOE by Iowa State University of Science and Technology under contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358. This work was supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences Division.

  15. Combinatorial investigation of rare-earth free permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fackler, Sean Wu

    The combinatorial high throughput method allows one to rapidly study a large number of samples with systematically changing parameters. We apply this method to study Fe-Co-V alloys as alternatives to rare-earth permanent magnets. Rare-earth permanent magnets derive their unmatched magnetic properties from the hybridization of Fe and Co with the f-orbitals of rare-earth elements, which have strong spin-orbit coupling. It is predicted that Fe and Co may also have strong hybridization with 4d and 5d refractory transition metals with strong spin-orbit coupling. Refractory transition metals like V also have the desirable property of high temperature stability, which is important for permanent magnet applications in traction motors. In this work, we focus on the role of crystal structure, composition, and secondary phases in the origin of competitive permanent magnetic properties of a particular Fe-Co-V alloy. Fe38Co52V10, compositions are known as Vicalloys. Fe-CoV composition spreads were sputtered onto three-inch silicon wafers and patterned into discrete sample pads forming a combinatorial library. We employed highthroughput screening methods using synchrotron X-rays, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) to rapidly screen crystal structure, composition, and magnetic properties, respectively. We found that in-plane magnetic coercive fields of our Vicalloy thin films agree with known bulk values (300 G), but found a remarkable eight times increase of the out-of-plane coercive fields (˜2,500 G). To explain this, we measured the switching fields between in-plane and out-of-plane thin film directions which revealed that the Kondorsky model of 180° domain wall reversal was responsible for Vicalloy's enhanced out-of-plane coercive field and possibly its permanent magnetic properties. The Kondorsky model suggests that domain-wall pinning is the origin of Vicalloy's permanent magnetic properties, in contrast to strain, shape, or

  16. Magnetic Damping of Solid Solution Semiconductor Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szofran, Frank R.; Benz, K. W.; Croell, Arne; Dold, Peter; Cobb, Sharon D.; Volz, Martin P.; Motakef, Shariar

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study is to: (1) experimentally test the validity of the modeling predictions applicable to the magnetic damping of convective flows in electrically conductive melts as this applies to the bulk growth of solid solution semiconducting materials; and (2) assess the effectiveness of steady magnetic fields in reducing the fluid flows occurring in these materials during processing. To achieve the objectives of this investigation, we are carrying out a comprehensive program in the Bridgman and floating-zone configurations using the solid solution alloy system Ge-Si. This alloy system has been studied extensively in environments that have not simultaneously included both low gravity and an applied magnetic field. Also, all compositions have a high electrical conductivity, and the materials parameters permit reasonable growth rates. An important supporting investigation is determining the role, if any, that thermoelectromagnetic convection (TEMC) plays during growth of these materials in a magnetic field. TEMC has significant implications for the deployment of a Magnetic Damping Furnace in space. This effect will be especially important in solid solutions where the growth interface is, in general, neither isothermal nor isoconcentrational. It could be important in single melting point materials, also, if faceting takes place producing a non-isothermal interface. In conclusion, magnetic fields up to 5 Tesla are sufficient to eliminate time-dependent convection in silicon floating zones and possibly Bridgman growth of Ge-Si alloys. In both cases, steady convection appears to be more significant for mass transport than diffusion, even at 5 Tesla in the geometries used here. These results are corroborated in both growth configurations by calculations.

  17. Magnetic Earth Ionosphere Resonant Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaniol, Craig

    1994-01-01

    The Community College Division is pleased to report progress of NASA funded research at West Virginia State College. During this reporting period, the project research group has continued with activities to develop instrumentation capability designed to monitor resonant cavity frequencies in the atmospheric region between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. In addition, the project's principal investigator, Dr. Craig Spaniol, and NASA technical officer, Dr. John Sutton, have written and published technical papers intended to expand the scientific and technical framework needed for project research. This research continues to provide an excellent example of government and education working together to provide significant research in the college environment. This cooperative effort has provided many students with technical project work which compliments their education.

  18. Mathematical developments regarding the general theory of the Earth magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, A.

    1983-01-01

    A literature survey on the Earth's magnetic field, citing the works of Gauss, Erman-Petersen, Quintus Icilius and Neumayer is presented. The general formulas for the representation of the potential and components of the Earth's magnetic force are presented. An analytical representation of magnetic condition of the Earth based on observations is also made.

  19. Navigation: bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Holland, Richard A; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J; Cochran, William W; Wikelski, Martin

    2006-12-07

    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation, but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances. Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark.

  20. On the genesis of the Earth's magnetism.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Paul H; King, Eric M

    2013-09-01

    Few areas of geophysics are today progressing as rapidly as basic geomagnetism, which seeks to understand the origin of the Earth's magnetism. Data about the present geomagnetic field pours in from orbiting satellites, and supplements the ever growing body of information about the field in the remote past, derived from the magnetism of rocks. The first of the three parts of this review summarizes the available geomagnetic data and makes significant inferences about the large scale structure of the geomagnetic field at the surface of the Earth's electrically conducting fluid core, within which the field originates. In it, we recognize the first major obstacle to progress: because of the Earth's mantle, only the broad, slowly varying features of the magnetic field within the core can be directly observed. The second (and main) part of the review commences with the geodynamo hypothesis: the geomagnetic field is induced by core flow as a self-excited dynamo. Its electrodynamics define 'kinematic dynamo theory'. Key processes involving the motion of magnetic field lines, their diffusion through the conducting fluid, and their reconnection are described in detail. Four kinematic models are presented that are basic to a later section on successful dynamo experiments. The fluid dynamics of the core is considered next, the fluid being driven into motion by buoyancy created by the cooling of the Earth from its primordial state. The resulting flow is strongly affected by the rotation of the Earth and by the Lorentz force, which alters fluid motion by the interaction of the electric current and magnetic field. A section on 'magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo theory' is devoted to this rotating magnetoconvection. Theoretical treatment of the MHD responsible for geomagnetism culminates with numerical solutions of its governing equations. These simulations help overcome the first major obstacle to progress, but quickly meet the second: the dynamics of Earth's core are too complex

  1. Magnetic strength and corrosion of rare earth magnets.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Khalid A; Drummond, James L; Graber, Thomas; BeGole, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Rare earth magnets have been used in orthodontics, but their corrosion tendency in the oral cavity limits long-term clinical application. The aim of this project was to evaluate several; magnet coatings and their effects on magnetic flux density. A total of 60 neodymium-iron-boron magnets divided into 6 equal groups--polytetrafluoroethylene-coated (PTFE), parylene-coated, and noncoated--were subjected to 4 weeks of aging in saline solution, ball milling, and corrosion testing. A significant decrease in magnet flux density was recorded after applying a protective layer of parylene, whereas a slight decrease was found after applying a protective layer of PTFE. After 4 weeks of aging, the coated magnets were superior to the noncoated magnets in retaining magnetism. The corrosion-behavior test showed no significant difference between the 2 types of coated magnets, and considerable amounts of iron-leached ions were seen in all groups. Throughout the processes of coating, soaking, ball milling, and corrosion testing, PTFE was a better coating material than parylene for preserving magnet flux density. However, corrosion testing showed significant metal leaching in all groups.

  2. Magnetic monitoring of earth and space

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    For centuries, navigators of the world’s oceans have been familiar with an effect of Earth’s magnetic field: It imparts a directional preference to the needle of a compass. Although in some settings magnetic orientation remains important, the modern science of geomagnetism has emerged from its romantic nautical origins and developed into a subject of great depth and diversity. The geomagnetic field is used to explore the dynamics of Earth’s interior and its surrounding space environment, and geomagnetic data are used for geophysical mapping, mineral exploration, risk mitigation, and other practical applications. A global distribution of ground-based magnetic observatories supports those pursuits by providing accurate records of the magnetic-field direction and intensity at fixed locations and over long periods of time.Magnetic observatories were first established in the early 19th century in response to the influence of Alexander von Humboldt and Carl Friedrich Gauss. Since then, magnetic measurement has advanced significantly, progressing from simple visual readings of magnetic survey instruments to include automatic photographic measurement and modern electronic acquisition. To satisfy the needs of the scientific community, observatories are being upgraded to collect data that meet ever more stringent standards, to achieve higher acquisition frequencies, and to disseminate data in real time.To appreciate why data from magnetic observatories can be used for so many purposes, one needs only to recall that the geomagnetic field is a continuum, connecting the different parts of Earth to each other and to nearby space. Beneath our feet and above our heads, electric currents generate magnetic fields that contribute to the totality of the geomagnetic field measured at an observatory on Earth’s surface. The many physical processes that operate in each geophysical domain give rise to a complicated field that exhibits a wide variety of time-dependent behavior.1 In

  3. Measuring the Earth's Magnetic Field in a Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartacci, A.; Straulino, S.

    2008-01-01

    Two methods for measuring the Earth's magnetic field are described. In the former, according to Gauss, the Earth's magnetic field is compared with that of a permanent magnet; in the latter, a well-known method, the comparison is made with the magnetic field generated by a current. As all the used instruments are available off the shelf, both…

  4. Magnetic properties of doped Mn-Ga alloys made by mechanical milling and heat treatment

    SciT

    Brown, Daniel R.; National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310; Han, Ke

    2016-05-15

    Mn-Ga alloys have shown hard magnetic properties, even though these alloys contain no rare-earth metals. However, much work is needed before rare-earth magnets can be replaced. We have examined the magnetic properties of bulk alloys made with partial replacement of both the Mn and Ga elements in the Mn{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2} system. Bulk samples of Mn-Ga-Bi, Mn-Ga-Al, Mn-Fe-Ga and Mn-(FeB)-Ga alloys were fabricated and studied using mechanically milling and heat treatments while altering the atomic percentage of the third element between 2.5 and 20 at%. The ternary alloy exhibits all hard magnetic properties at room temperature with large coercivity. Annealedmore » Mn-Ga-X bulk composites exhibit high coercivities up to 16.6 kOe and remanence up to 9.8 emu/g, that is increased by 115% over the binary system.« less

  5. Magnetic resonance signal moment determination using the Earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Fridjonsson, E O; Creber, S A; Vrouwenvelder, J S; Johns, M L

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a method to manipulate magnetic resonance data such that the moments of the signal spatial distribution are readily accessible. Usually, magnetic resonance imaging relies on data acquired in so-called k-space which is subsequently Fourier transformed to render an image. Here, via analysis of the complex signal in the vicinity of the centre of k-space we are able to access the first three moments of the signal spatial distribution, ultimately in multiple directions. This is demonstrated for biofouling of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane module, rendering unique information and an early warning of the onset of fouling. The analysis is particularly applicable for the use of mobile magnetic resonance spectrometers; here we demonstrate it using an Earth's magnetic field system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cluster-Expansion Model for Complex Quinary Alloys: Application to Alnico Permanent Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Zhou, Lin; Tang, Wei; Kramer, Matthew J.; Anderson, Iver E.; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2017-11-01

    An accurate and transferable cluster-expansion model for complex quinary alloys is developed. Lattice Monte Carlo simulation enabled by this cluster-expansion model is used to investigate temperature-dependent atomic structure of alnico alloys, which are considered as promising high-performance non-rare-earth permanent-magnet materials for high-temperature applications. The results of the Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with available experimental data and provide useful insights into phase decomposition, selection, and chemical ordering in alnico. The simulations also reveal a previously unrecognized D 03 alloy phase. This phase is very rich in Ni and exhibits very weak magnetization. Manipulating the size and location of this phase provides a possible route to improve the magnetic properties of alnico, especially coercivity.

  7. Structural and magnetic correlation of Finemet alloys with Ge addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraca, D.; Cremaschi, V.; Moya, J.; Sirkin, H.

    The correlation between saturation magnetization and the magnetic moment per Fe atom in the nanocrystalline state is studied for Finemet-type alloys. These studies were performed on nanocrystalline ribbons whose compositions were Fe 73.5Si 13.5-xGe xNb 3B 9Cu 1 ( x=8, 10 and 13.5 at%). We used a simple lineal model, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy data to calculate the magnetic contribution of the nanocrystals and the results were contrasted with the measured saturation magnetization of the different alloys. The technique presented here provides a very simple and powerful tool to compute the magnetic contribution of the nanocrystalline phase to the alloy. This calculus could be used to determine the volume fraction of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases in the nanocrystallized alloy, without using a very sophisticated microscopy method.

  8. Monitoring the Earth's Dynamic Magnetic Field

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Applegate, David; Townshend, John B.

    2008-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey's Geomagnetism Program is to monitor the Earth's magnetic field. Using ground-based observatories, the Program provides continuous records of magnetic field variations covering long timescales; disseminates magnetic data to various governmental, academic, and private institutions; and conducts research into the nature of geomagnetic variations for purposes of scientific understanding and hazard mitigation. The program is an integral part of the U.S. Government's National Space Weather Program (NSWP), which also includes programs in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense (DOD), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSWP works to provide timely, accurate, and reliable space weather warnings, observations, specifications, and forecasts, and its work is important for the U.S. economy and national security. Please visit the National Geomagnetism Program?s website, http://geomag.usgs.gov, where you can learn more about the Program and the science of geomagnetism. You can find additional related information at the Intermagnet website, http://www.intermagnet.org.

  9. Two main and a new type rare earth elements in Mg alloys: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Linghang

    2017-09-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys stand for the lightest structure engineering materials. Moreover, the strengthening of Mg alloys in ductility, toughness and corrosion predominates their wide applications. With adding rare earth elements in Mg, the mechanical properties will be improved remarkably, especially their plasticity and strength. A brief overview of the addition of rare earth elements for Mg alloys is shown. The basic mechanisms of strengthening Mg alloys with rare earth elements are reviewed, including the solid solution strengthening, grain refinement and long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase. Furthermore, the available rare earth elements are summarized by type, chemical or physical effects and other unique properties. Finally, some challenge problems that the research is facing and future expectations of ra-re-earth Mg alloys are stated and discussed.

  10. Iron-magnesium alloy in the Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovinskaia, N.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Abrikosov, I.

    2005-12-01

    Composition of the Earth's outer core is a geochemical parameter crucial for understanding the evolution and current dynamics of our planet. Since it was recognized that the liquid metallic outer core is about 10% less dense than pure iron, different elements lighter than iron, including Si, S, O, C, and H, were proposed as major or at least significantly abundant in Earth's core. However, combination of experimental results with theoretical and geochemical considerations shows that it is unlikely that any one of these elements can account for the density deficit on its own. In series of experiments in a multianvil apparatus and in electrically- and laser-heated diamond anvil cells, we demonstrate that high pressure promotes solubility of magnesium in iron and at megabar pressure range more than 10 at% of Mg can dissolve in Fe. At pressures above 95 to 100 GPa, molten iron reacts with periclase MgO forming an iron-magnesium alloy and iron oxide. Our observations suggest that magnesium can be an important light element in Earth's outer core, but it cannot account for the seismologically determined density deficit on its own.

  11. Magnetic Earth Ionosphere Resonant Frequencies (MEIRF) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaniol, Craig

    1993-01-01

    The West Virginia State College Community College Division NASA Magnetic Earth Ionosphere Resonant Frequencies (MEIRF) study is described. During this contract period, the two most significant and professionally rewarding events were the presentation of the research activity at the Sir Isaac Newton Conference in St. Petersburg, Russia, and the second Day of Discovery Conference, focusing on economic recovery in West Virginia. An active antenna concept utilizing a signal feedback principle similar to regenerative receivers used in early radio was studied. The device has potential for ELF research and other commercial applications for improved signal reception. Finally, work continues to progress on the development of a prototype monitoring station. Signal monitoring, data display, and data storage are major areas of activity. In addition, we plan to continue our dissemination of research activity through presentations at seminars and other universities.

  12. Observation of high magnetocrystalline anisotropy on Co doping in rare earth free Fe2P magnetic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Jyoti; Singh, Om Pal; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay; Kashyap, Manish K.

    2018-04-01

    ab-initio investigation of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) for Fe2P and CoFeP using density functional theory based full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) is reported. CoFeP alloy exhibits large magnetic moment 13.28 µB and enhanced anisotropy energy reaching as high as 1326 µeV/f.u. This energy is nearly doubled as compared to its parent Fe2P alloy, making this system a promising candidate for a rare earth free permanent magnet. Substituitng Co at Fe-3f site in Fe2P helps in stabilizing the new structure and further improves the magnetic properties.

  13. Bringing Earth Magnetism Research into the High School Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. V.; Bluth, G.; Engel, E.; Kurpier, K.; Foucher, M. S.; Anderson, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    We present our work in progress from an NSF CAREER project that aims to integrate paleomagnetic research and secondary school physics education. The research project is aimed at quantifying the strength and geometry of the Precambrian geomagnetic field. Investigation of the geomagnetic field behavior is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of field generation, and the development of the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere, and can serve as a focus for connecting high-level Earth science research with a standard physics curriculum. High school science teachers have participated in each summer field and research component of the project, gaining field and laboratory research experience, sets of rock and mineral samples, and classroom-tested laboratory magnetism activities for secondary school physics and earth science courses. We report on three field seasons of teacher field experiences and two years of classroom testing of paleomagnetic research materials merged into physics instruction on magnetism. Students were surveyed before and after dedicated instruction for both perceptions and attitude towards earth science in general, then more specifically on earth history and earth magnetism. Students were also surveyed before and after instruction on major earth system and magnetic concepts and processes, particularly as they relate to paleomagnetic research. Most students surveyed had a strongly positive viewpoint towards the study of Earth history and the importance of studying Earth Sciences in general, but were significantly less drawn towards more specific topics such as mineralogy and magnetism. Students demonstrated understanding of Earth model and the basics of magnetism, as well as the general timing of life, atmospheric development, and magnetic field development. However, detailed knowledge such as the magnetic dynamo, how the magnetic field has changed over time, and connections between earth magnetism and the development of an atmosphere remained largely

  14. Magnetic to magnetic and kinetic to magnetic energy transfers at the top of the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguet, Ludovic; Amit, Hagay; Alboussière, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    We develop the theory for the magnetic to magnetic and kinetic to magnetic energy transfer between different spherical harmonic degrees due to the interaction of fluid flow and radial magnetic field at the top of the Earth's core. We show that non-zero secular variation of the total magnetic energy could be significant and may provide evidence for the existence of stretching secular variation, which suggests the existence of radial motions at the top of the Earth's core-whole core convection or MAC waves. However, the uncertainties of the small scales of the geomagnetic field prevent a definite conclusion. Combining core field and flow models we calculate the detailed magnetic to magnetic and kinetic to magnetic energy transfer matrices. The magnetic to magnetic energy transfer shows a complex behaviour with local and non-local transfers. The spectra of magnetic to magnetic energy transfers show clear maxima and minima, suggesting an energy cascade. The kinetic to magnetic energy transfers, which are much weaker due to the weak poloidal flow, are either local or non-local between degree one and higher degrees. The patterns observed in the matrices resemble energy transfer patterns that are typically found in 3-D MHD numerical simulations.

  15. The B-dot Earth Average Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capo-Lugo, Pedro A.; Rakoczy, John; Sanders, Devon

    2013-01-01

    The average Earth's magnetic field is solved with complex mathematical models based on mean square integral. Depending on the selection of the Earth magnetic model, the average Earth's magnetic field can have different solutions. This paper presents a simple technique that takes advantage of the damping effects of the b-dot controller and is not dependent of the Earth magnetic model; but it is dependent on the magnetic torquers of the satellite which is not taken into consideration in the known mathematical models. Also the solution of this new technique can be implemented so easily that the flight software can be updated during flight, and the control system can have current gains for the magnetic torquers. Finally, this technique is verified and validated using flight data from a satellite that it has been in orbit for three years.

  16. Models of Mass Transport During Microgravity Crystal Growth of Alloyed Semiconductors in a Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Alloyed semiconductor crystals, such as germanium-silicon (GeSi) and various II-VI alloyed crystals, are extremely important for optoelectronic devices. Currently, high-quality crystals of GeSi and of II-VI alloys can be grown by epitaxial processes, but the time required to grow a certain amount of single crystal is roughly 1,000 times longer than the time required for Bridgman growth from a melt. Recent rapid advances in optoelectronics have led to a great demand for more and larger crystals with fewer dislocations and other microdefects and with more uniform and controllable compositions. Currently, alloyed crystals grown by bulk methods have unacceptable levels of segregation in the composition of the crystal. Alloyed crystals are being grown by the Bridgman process in space in order to develop successful bulk-growth methods, with the hope that the technology will be equally successful on earth. Unfortunately some crystals grown in space still have unacceptable segregation, for example, due to residual accelerations. The application of a weak magnetic field during crystal growth in space may eliminate the undesirable segregation. Understanding and improving the bulk growth of alloyed semiconductors in microgravity is critically important. The purpose of this grant to to develop models of the unsteady species transport during the bulk growth of alloyed semiconductor crystals in the presence of a magnetic field in microgravity. The research supports experiments being conducted in the High Magnetic Field Solidification Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and future experiments on the International Space Station.

  17. Method of forming magnetostrictive rods from rare earth-iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    McMasters, O. Dale

    1986-09-02

    Rods of magnetrostructive alloys of iron with rare earth elements are formed by flowing a body of rare earth-iron alloy in a crucible enclosed in a chamber maintained under an inert gas atmosphere, forcing such molten rare-earth-iron alloy into a hollow mold tube of refractory material positioned with its lower end portion within the molten body by means of a pressure differential between the chamber and mold tube and maintaining a portion of the molten alloy in the crucible extending to a level above the lower end of the mold tube so that solid particles of higher melting impurities present in the alloy collect at the surface of the molten body and remain within the crucible as the rod is formed in the mold tube.

  18. Method of forming magnetostrictive rods from rare earth-iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    McMasters, O.D.

    1986-09-02

    Rods of magnetostrictive alloys of iron with rare earth elements are formed by flowing a body of rare earth-iron alloy in a crucible enclosed in a chamber maintained under an inert gas atmosphere, forcing such molten rare-earth-iron alloy into a hollow mold tube of refractory material positioned with its lower end portion within the molten body by means of a pressure differential between the chamber and mold tube and maintaining a portion of the molten alloy in the crucible extending to a level above the lower end of the mold tube so that solid particles of higher melting impurities present in the alloy collect at the surface of the molten body and remain within the crucible as the rod is formed in the mold tube. 5 figs.

  19. Coercivity of domain wall motion in thin films of amorphous rare earth-transition metal alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansuripur, M.; Giles, R. C.; Patterson, G.

    1991-01-01

    Computer simulations of a two dimensional lattice of magnetic dipoles are performed on the Connection Machine. The lattice is a discrete model for thin films of amorphous rare-earth transition metal alloys, which have application as the storage media in erasable optical data storage systems. In these simulations, the dipoles follow the dynamic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation under the influence of an effective field arising from local anisotropy, near-neighbor exchange, classical dipole-dipole interactions, and an externally applied field. Various sources of coercivity, such as defects and/or inhomogeneities in the lattice, are introduced and the subsequent motion of domain walls in response to external fields is investigated.

  20. Fabrication and Magnetic Properties of Co₂MnAl Heusler Alloys by Mechanical Alloying.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Hyo

    2018-02-01

    We have applied mechanical alloying (MA) to produce nanocrystalline Co2MnAl Heusler alloys using a mixture of elemental Co50Mn25Al25 powders. An optimal milling and heat treatment conditions to obtain a Co2MnAl Heusler phase with fine microstructure were investigated by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. α-(Co, Mn, Al) FCC phases coupled with amorphous phase are obtained after 3 hours of MA without any evidence for the formation of Co2MnAl alloys. On the other hand, a Co2MnAl Heusler alloys can be obtained by the heat treatment of all MA samples up to 650 °C. X-ray diffraction result shows that the average grain size of Co2MnAl Heusler alloys prepared by MA for 5 h and heat treatment is in the range of 95 nm. The saturation magnetization of MA powders decreases with MA time due to the magnetic dilution by alloying with nonmagnetic Mn and Al elements. The magnetic hardening due to the reduction of the grain size with ball milling is also observed. However, the saturation magnetization of MA powders after heat treatment increases with MA time and reaches to a maximum value of 105 emu/g after 5 h of MA. It can be also seen that the coercivity of 5 h MA sample annealed at 650 °C is fairly low value of 25 Oe.

  1. Micromagnetics of rare-earth efficient permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischbacher, Johann; Kovacs, Alexander; Gusenbauer, Markus; Oezelt, Harald; Exl, Lukas; Bance, Simon; Schrefl, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    The development of permanent magnets containing less or no rare-earth elements is linked to profound knowledge of the coercivity mechanism. Prerequisites for a promising permanent magnet material are a high spontaneous magnetization and a sufficiently high magnetic anisotropy. In addition to the intrinsic magnetic properties the microstructure of the magnet plays a significant role in establishing coercivity. The influence of the microstructure on coercivity, remanence, and energy density product can be understood by using micromagnetic simulations. With advances in computer hardware and numerical methods, hysteresis curves of magnets can be computed quickly so that the simulations can readily provide guidance for the development of permanent magnets. The potential of rare-earth reduced and rare-earth free permanent magnets is investigated using micromagnetic simulations. The results show excellent hard magnetic properties can be achieved in grain boundary engineered NdFeB, rare-earth magnets with a ThMn12 structure, Co-based nano-wires, and L10-FeNi provided that the magnet’s microstructure is optimized.

  2. Magnetomigration of rare-earth ions in inhomogeneous magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Franczak, Agnieszka; Binnemans, Koen; Jan Fransaer

    2016-10-05

    The effects of external inhomogenous (gradient) magnetic fields on the movement of the rare-earth ions: Dy 3+ , Gd 3+ and Y 3+ , in initially homogeneous aqueous solutions have been investigated. Differences in the migration of rare-earth ions in gradient magnetic fields were observed, depending on the magnetic character of the ions: paramagnetic ions of Dy 3+ and Gd 3+ move towards regions of the sample where the magnetic field gradient is the strongest, while diamagnetic ions of Y 3+ move in the opposite direction. It has been showed that the low magnetic field gradients, such the ones generated by permanent magnets, are sufficient to observe the magnetomigration effects of the ions in solution. The present work clearly establishes the behavior of magnetically different ions in initially homogeneous aqueous solutions exposed to magnetic field gradients. To this avail, a methodology for measuring the local concentration differences of metal ions in liquid samples was developed.

  3. The Earth's magnetic field is primarily dipolar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besse, J.; Cogne, J. P.; Courtillot, V.; Gilder, S.

    2003-04-01

    The question of the geometry of the Earth's magnetic field has been, and should remain, a central concern for all paleomagnetists. The founding assumption that the field has always been dominantly dipolar has been under recent challenge; stable, long standing octupolar contributions of up to 10% of the main dipole have been proposed for several periods in the Phanerozoic (e.g. ref. 1). Uncertainties that limit interpretation of paleomagnetic data arise from physical, field and laboratory problems. We note mainly uncertainties in rock or magnetization age, inclination shallowing in sediments, possible remagnetization, lack of proper averaging of secular variation in lavas, improperly modeled tectonics or unnoticed deformations of large blocks or plates, failure of reference APWPs to be valid, or uncertainties in past plate motions based on oceanic kinematic parameters... There are so many instances in which these problems have been demonstrated to occur or are likely (at no major cost to geophysical hypotheses and theories) that they must have been all excluded with satisfactory likelihood before the major and 'expensive' hypothesis that the field could be very significantly non-dipolar over long geological periods must be entertained. We will discuss a number of data that pertain to this problem. (a) In a recent review of the global paleomagnetic data base (ref. 2), when all data were averaged in 20 Ma windows, we were unable to find conclusive evidence for significant long term departures from a dipolar geometry, except for a contribution from a quadrupolar component of some 3% pm 2% (grand average) of the axial dipole. This confirms a result which had been suggested since the early 70's and vindicated by all recent analyses of the best data sets from the last 5 Ma (with a value up to possibly ca. 7%; see for instance Elmaleh et al, this meeting). Detailed analyses of key time periods when enough data with widespread enough coverage are available are clearly

  4. Effects of Zr alloying on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Alnico permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Sajjad Ur; Ahmad, Zubair; Haq, A. ul; Akhtar, Saleem

    2017-11-01

    Alnico-8 permanent magnets were produced through casting and subsequent thermal treatment process. Magnetic alloy of nominal composition 32.5 Fe-7.5 Al-1.0 Nb-35.0 Co-4.0 Cu-14.0 Ni-6.0 Ti were prepared by arc melting and casting technique. The Zr was added to 32.5 Fe-7.5 Al-1.0 Nb-35.0 Co-4.0 Cu-14.0 Ni-6.0 Ti alloy ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 wt%. The magnets were developed by employing two different heat treatment cycles known as conventional treatment and thermo-magnetic annealing treatment. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction method, Scanning electron microscope and magnetometer by plotting magnetic hysteresis demagnetization curves. The results indicate that magnetic properties are strongly depended upon alloy chemistry and process. The 0.6 wt% Zr added alloys yielded the best magnetic properties among the studied alloys. The magnetic properties obtained through conventional heat treatment are Hc = 1.35 kOe, Br = 5.2 kG and (BH)max = 2 MGOe. These magnetic properties were enhanced to Hc = 1.64 kOe, Br = 6.3 kG and (BH)max = 3.7 MGOe by thermo-magnetic annealing treatment.

  5. Earth's Magnetic Field Measurements for the LCLS Undulators

    SciT

    Hacker, Kirsten

    2010-12-13

    Measurements of the earth's magnetic field at several locations at SLAC were conducted to determine the possible field error contribution from tuning the undulators in a location with a different magnetic field than that which will be found in the undulator hall. An average difference of 0.08 {+-} 0.04 Gauss has been measured between the downward earth's field components in the test facility and SLAC tunnel locations.

  6. Spacecraft attitude determination using the earth's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, David G.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented by which the attitude of a low-Earth orbiting spacecraft may be determined using a vector magnetometer, a digital Sun sensor, and a mathematical model of the Earth's magnetic field. The method is currently being implemented for the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft (as a backup for the failing star trackers) as a way to determine roll gyro drift.

  7. Microanalytical characterization of multi-rare earth nanocrystalline magnets by TEM and APT

    SciT

    Wu, Y. Q.; Tang, W.; Miller, Michael K

    2006-01-01

    The partitioning behavior of various rare-earth (RE) elements during solidification and their segregation behavior at the grain boundaries were investigated in nanocrystalline (Y{sub 0.5}Dy{sub 0.5}{sub 2.2}Fe{sub 14}B and (Nd{sub 0.5}Y{sub 0.25}Dy{sub 0.25}){sub 1.8}Zr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 12.5}B alloys by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The best hard magnetic properties obtained are H{sub cj} = 22 kOe, B{sub r}=5.10 kG, and (BH){sub max} = 5.97 MG Oe for the Y-Dy-based alloy and H{sub cj}=10.6 kOe, B{sub r}=6.64 kG, and (BH){sub max}=9.56 MG Oe for the Y-Nd-Dy based alloy. The grain size of the Y-Dy based alloy was {approx} 50 nm.more » The Y-Nd-Dy based alloy had an overall finer, bimodal grain size. An intergranular (Y{sub 0.36}Dy{sub 0.64}){sub 6}Fe{sub 23} phase was detected in the Y-Dy based alloy. A uniform distribution of RE elements was found within the 2-14-1 grains in both alloys. The Y:(Dy+Nd) ratio in the Y-Nd-Dy alloy was lower than its nominal composition, indicating that the Y is segregating to grain boundaries or forming a second phase.« less

  8. Microstructural and magnetic property evolution with different heat-treatment conditions in an alnico alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Lin; Tang, Wei; Ke, Liqin; ...

    2017-05-08

    Further property enhancement of alnico, an attractive near-term, non-rare-earth permanent magnet alloy system, primarily composed of Al, Ni, Co, and Fe, relies on improved morphology control and size refinement of its complex spinodally decomposed nanostructure that forms during heat-treatment. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography techniques, this study evaluates the magnetic properties and microstructures of an isotropic 32.4Fe-38.1Co-12.9Ni-7.3Al-6.4Ti-3.0Cu (wt.%) alloy in terms of processing parameters such as annealing temperature, annealing time, application of an external magnetic field, as well as low-temperature “draw” annealing. Optimal spinodal morphology and spacing is formed within a narrow temperature andmore » time range (~840 °C and 10 min) during thermal-magnetic annealing (MA). The ideal morphology is a mosaic structure consisting of periodically arrayed ~40 nm diameter (Fe-Co)-rich rods (α 1 phase) embedded in an (Al-Ni)-rich (α 2 phase) matrix. A Cu-enriched phase with a size of ~3–5 nm is located at the corners of two adjacent {110} facets of the α 1 phase. The MA process significantly increased remanence (B r) (~40–70%) of the alloy due to biased elongation of the α 1 phase along the <100> crystallographic direction, which is closest in orientation to the applied magnetic field. As a result, the optimum magnetic properties of the alloy with an intrinsic coercivity (H cj) of 1845 Oe and a maximum energy product (BH max) of 5.9 MGOe were attributed to the uniformity of the mosaic structure.« less

  9. Magnetic alloy nanowire arrays with different lengths: Insights into the crossover angle of magnetization reversal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanifar, S.; Alikhani, M.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2017-05-01

    Nanoscale magnetic alloy wires are being actively investigated, providing fundamental insights into tuning properties in magnetic data storage and processing technologies. However, previous studies give trivial information about the crossover angle of magnetization reversal process in alloy nanowires (NWs). Here, magnetic alloy NW arrays with different compositions, composed of Fe, Co and Ni have been electrochemically deposited into hard-anodic aluminum oxide templates with a pore diameter of approximately 150 nm. Under optimized conditions of alumina barrier layer and deposition bath concentrations, the resulting alloy NWs with aspect ratio and saturation magnetization (Ms) up to 550 and 1900 emu cm-3, respectively, are systematically investigated in terms of composition, crystalline structure and magnetic properties. Using angular dependence of coercivity extracted from hysteresis loops, the reversal processes are evaluated, indicating non-monotonic behavior. The crossover angle (θc) is found to depend on NW length and Ms. At a constant Ms, increasing NW length decreases θc, thereby decreasing the involvement of vortex mode during the magnetization reversal process. On the other hand, decreasing Ms decreases θc in large aspect ratio (>300) alloy NWs. Phenomenologically, it is newly found that increasing Ni content in the composition decreases θc. The angular first-order reversal curve (AFORC) measurements including the irreversibility of magnetization are also investigated to gain a more detailed insight into θc.

  10. Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Binary Amorphous Transition Metal Alloys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Sy-Hwang

    The electrical, superconductive and magnetic properties of several binary transition metal amorphous and metastable crystalline alloys, Fe(,x)Ti(,100-x) (30 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 100), Fe(,x)Zr(,100-x) (20 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 93), Fe(,x)Hf(,100-x) (20 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 100), Fe(,x)Nb(,100 -x) (22 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 85), Ni(,x)Nb(,100-x) (20 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 80), Cu(,x)Nb(,100-x) (10 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 90) were studied over a wide composition range. Films were made using a magnetron sputtering system, and the structure of the films was investigated by energy dispersive x-ray diffraction. The composition region of each amorphous alloys system was determined and found in good agreement with a model proposed by Egami and Waseda. The magnetic properties and hyperfine interactions in the films were investigated using a conventional Mossbauer spectrometer and a ('57)Co in Rh matrix source. In all Fe-early transition metal binary alloys systems, Fe does not retain its moment in the low iron concentration region and the result is that the critical concentration for magnetic order (x(,c)) is much larger than anticipated from percolation considerations. A direct comparison between crystalline alloys and their amorphous counterparts of the same composition illustrate no clear correlation between crystalline and amorphous states. Pronounced discontinuities in the magnetic properties with variation in Fe content of all Fe-early transition metal alloys at phase boundaries separating amorphous and crystalline states have been observed. This is caused by the differences in the atomic arrangement and the electronic structure between crystalline and amorphous solids. The temperature dependence of resistivity, (rho)(T), of several binary amorphous alloys of Fe-TM (where TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb etc.) has been studied from 2K to 300K. The Fe-poor (x < x(,c)) samples and the Fe-rich (x > x(,c)) samples have distinctive differences in (rho)(T) at low temperature

  11. Synthesis, structures and magnetic properties of Pr-lean Pr2Fe14B/Fe3B nanocomposite alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingxiang, Pan; Pengyue, Zhang; Hongliang, Ge; Hangfu, Yang; Qiong, Wu

    2012-09-01

    The lean rare-earth Pr4.5Fe77-xTixB18.5 (x=0, 1, 4, 5) nanocomposite alloys were prepared by melt spinning method and subsequent thermal annealing. The effect of Ti content and annealing temperature on the magnetic properties and the microstructure of these magnets were investigated. The enhancing coercivity Hc from 211.4 to 338.2 kA/m has been observed at the optimal annealing temperature of 700 °C by the addition of 5 at% Ti in Pr2Fe14B/Fe3B alloys. It was also found that increasing Ti content leads to marked grain refinement in the annealed alloys, resulting in strong exchange-coupling interaction between the hard and the soft phases in these ribbons. In addition, the magnetization reversal behaviors of Pr2Fe14B/Fe3B nanocomposites were discussed in detail.

  12. In Vitro Biocompatibility and Endothelialization of Novel Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloys for Improved Stent Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Watson, Nevija; Xu, Zhigang; Chen, Yongjun; Waterman, Jenora; Sankar, Jagannathan; Zhu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) based alloys are the most advanced cardiovascular stent materials. This new generation of stent scaffold is currently under clinical evaluation with encouraging outcomes. All these Mg alloys contain a certain amount of rare earth (RE) elements though the exact composition is not yet disclosed. RE alloying can usually enhance the mechanical strength of different metal alloys but their toxicity might be an issue for medical applications. It is still unclear how RE elements will affect the magnesium (Mg) alloys intended for stent materials as a whole. In this study, we evaluated MgZnCaY-1RE, MgZnCaY-2RE, MgYZr-1RE, and MgZnYZr-1RE alloys for cardiovascular stents applications regarding their mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, hemolysis, platelet adhesion/activation, and endothelial biocompatibility. The mechanical properties of all alloys were significantly improved. Potentiodynamic polarization showed that the corrosion resistance of four alloys was at least 3–10 times higher than that of pure Mg control. Hemolysis test revealed that all the materials were non-hemolytic while little to moderate platelet adhesion was found on all materials surface. No significant cytotoxicity was observed in human aorta endothelial cells cultured with magnesium alloy extract solution for up to seven days. Direct endothelialization test showed that all the alloys possess significantly better capability to sustain endothelial cell attachment and growth. The results demonstrated the promising potential of these alloys for stent material applications in the future. PMID:24921251

  13. Accelerated discovery of new magnets in the Heusler alloy family

    PubMed Central

    Sanvito, Stefano; Oses, Corey; Xue, Junkai; Tiwari, Anurag; Zic, Mario; Archer, Thomas; Tozman, Pelin; Venkatesan, Munuswamy; Coey, Michael; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic materials underpin modern technologies, ranging from data storage to energy conversion to contactless sensing. However, the development of a new high-performance magnet is a long and often unpredictable process, and only about two dozen magnets are featured in mainstream applications. We describe a systematic pathway to the design of novel magnetic materials, which demonstrates a high throughput and discovery speed. On the basis of an extensive electronic structure library of Heusler alloys containing 236,115 prototypical compounds, we filtered those displaying magnetic order and established whether they can be fabricated at thermodynamic equilibrium. Specifically, we carried out a full stability analysis of intermetallic Heusler alloys made only of transition metals. Among the possible 36,540 prototypes, 248 were thermodynamically stable but only 20 were magnetic. The magnetic ordering temperature, TC, was estimated by a regression calibrated on the experimental TC of about 60 known compounds. As a final validation, we attempted the synthesis of a few of the predicted compounds and produced two new magnets: Co2MnTi, which displays a remarkably high TC in perfect agreement with the predictions, and Mn2PtPd, which is an antiferromagnet. Our work paves the way for large-scale design of novel magnetic materials at potentially high speed. PMID:28439545

  14. Rare-earth magnet ingestion: a childhood danger reaches adolescence.

    PubMed

    Agha, Beesan Shalabi; Sturm, Jesse J; Costello, Brian E

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of multiple magnets may cause serious gastrointestinal morbidity, such as pressure necrosis, perforation, fistula formation, or intestinal obstruction due to forceful attraction across bowel wall. Although the consequences of multiple magnet ingestion are well documented in young children, the current popularity of small, powerful rare-earth magnets marketed as "desk toys" has heightened this safety concern in all pediatric age groups. A recent US Consumer Product Safety Commission product-wide warning additionally reports the adolescent practice of using toy high-powered, ball-bearing magnets to simulate tongue and lip piercings, a behavior that may increase risk of inadvertent ingestion. We describe 2 cases of older children (male; aged 10 and 13 years, respectively) with unintentional ingestion of multiple rare-earth magnets. Health care providers should be alerted to the potential for misuse of these high-powered, ball-bearing magnets among older children and adolescents.

  15. Simple Magnetic Device Indicates Thickness Of Alloy 903

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Pin Jeng; Rodriguez, Sergio; Bright, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    Handheld device called "ferrite indicator" orginally designed for use in determining ferrite content of specimen of steel. Placed in contact with specimen and functions by indicating whether magnet attracted more strongly to specimen or to calibrated reference sample. Relative strength of attraction shows whether alloy overlay thinner than allowable.

  16. Satellite measurements of the earth's crustal magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The literature associated with the Magsat mission has evaluated the capabilities and limitations of satellite measurements of the earth's crustal magnetic field, and demonstrated that there exists a 300-3000 km magnetic field, related to major features in the earth's crust, which is primarily caused by induction. Due to its scale and sensitivity, satellite data have been useful in the development of models for such large crustal features as subduction zones, submarine platforms, continental accretion boundaries, and rifts. Attention is presently given to the lack of agreement between laboratory and satellite estimates of lower crustal magnetization.

  17. Remanent and induced contributions of the Earth's magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervelidou, Foteini; Lesur, Vincent; Thébault, Erwan; Dyment, Jérôme; Holschneider, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Inverting the magnetic field of crustal origin for the magnetization distribution that generates it suffers from non-uniqueness. The reason for this is the so-called annihilators, i.e. structures that produce no visible magnetic field outside the sources. Gubbins et al., 2011 uses the complex vector Spherical Harmonics notation in order to separate the Vertical Integrated Magnetization (VIM) distribution into the parts that do and do not contribute to the magnetic field measured in source free regions. We use their formalism and convert a crustal SH model based on the WDMAM into a model for the equivalent magnetization. However, we extend their formalism and assume that the magnetization is confined within a layer of finite thickness. A different thickness is considered for the oceanic crust than for the continental one. It is well known that the large scales of the crustal field are entirely masked by the Earth's main field. Therefore, we complement the WDMAM based magnetization map (SH degrees 16 to 800) with the magnetization map for the large wavelengths (SH degrees 1-15) that was recently derived by Vervelidou and Thébault (2015) from a series of regional statistical analyses of the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map. Finally we propose a tentative separation of this magnetization map into induced and remanent contributions on a regional scale. We do so based on the direction of the core magnetic field. We discuss the implications of these results in terms of the tectonic history of the Earth.

  18. Magnetic properties and magnetic hardening mechansim of Pt-Co-B alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Ning; Flanagan, F.; Wittig, James E.

    1994-01-01

    The intrinsic coercivity is found to be maximized in the Pt42Co45B13 ternary alloy which is undercooled and rapidly solidified (quenched using a 70 m/s wheel speed after undercooling), and then annealed (800 C for 2400 min). The same alloy, processed at slower cooling rates and annealed in the same way, has a much larger scale microstructure and a much lower resulting magnetic coercivity. The microstructure which would optimize the coercitvity of this coercivity of this ternary alloy is a completely ordered L1(sub zero) Pt-Co matrix with a submicron magnetic single-domion Co-boride precipitate. The L1(sub zero) phase is highly anistropic magnetically while the Co-boride precipate is somewhat less so. Annealing treatments designed to produced single-domain Co-boride precipitates enhance the coercivity. This suggests that the refined microstructures is responsible for the high coercivities found in the rapidly solidified and annealed alloy. The magnetic domain wall thickness for a Co-boride precipitate is determined from both experimental observation and theoretical calculation in order to evaluate its influence on the coercivity of the alloy. The effects of the pinning of domain walls and the barrier to the nucleation of reverse domains on the coercivity are discussed. Both microstrucutral analysis and theoretical calculation indicate that the high coercivities in the Pt42Co45B13 alloy are due to the difficult nucleation of reverse magnetic domains.

  19. Carbide/nitride grain refined rare earth-iron-boron permanent magnet and method of making

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R. William; Branagan, Daniel J.

    1996-01-23

    A method of making a permanent magnet wherein 1) a melt is formed having a base alloy composition comprising RE, Fe and/or Co, and B (where RE is one or more rare earth elements) and 2) TR (where TR is a transition metal selected from at least one of Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and Al) and at least one of C and N are provided in the base alloy composition melt in substantially stoichiometric amounts to form a thermodynamically stable compound (e.g. TR carbide, nitride or carbonitride). The melt is rapidly solidified in a manner to form particulates having a substantially amorphous (metallic glass) structure and a dispersion of primary TRC, TRN and/or TRC/N precipitates. The amorphous particulates are heated above the crystallization temperature of the base alloy composition to nucleate and grow a hard magnetic phase to an optimum grain size and to form secondary TRC, TRN and/or TRC/N precipitates dispersed at grain boundaries. The crystallized particulates are consolidated at an elevated temperature to form a shape. During elevated temperature consolidation, the primary and secondary precipitates act to pin the grain boundaries and minimize deleterious grain growth that is harmful to magnetic properties.

  20. Carbide/nitride grain refined rare earth-iron-boron permanent magnet and method of making

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Branagan, D.J.

    1996-01-23

    A method of making a permanent magnet is disclosed wherein (1) a melt is formed having a base alloy composition comprising RE, Fe and/or Co, and B (where RE is one or more rare earth elements) and (2) TR (where TR is a transition metal selected from at least one of Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and Al) and at least one of C and N are provided in the base alloy composition melt in substantially stoichiometric amounts to form a thermodynamically stable compound (e.g. TR carbide, nitride or carbonitride). The melt is rapidly solidified in a manner to form particulates having a substantially amorphous (metallic glass) structure and a dispersion of primary TRC, TRN and/or TRC/N precipitates. The amorphous particulates are heated above the crystallization temperature of the base alloy composition to nucleate and grow a hard magnetic phase to an optimum grain size and to form secondary TRC, TRN and/or TRC/N precipitates dispersed at grain boundaries. The crystallized particulates are consolidated at an elevated temperature to form a shape. During elevated temperature consolidation, the primary and secondary precipitates act to pin the grain boundaries and minimize deleterious grain growth that is harmful to magnetic properties. 33 figs.

  1. Earth's magnetic moment during geomagnetic reversals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloff, D. D.

    2017-11-01

    The behavior of the dipole magnetic moment of the geomagnetic field during the reversals is considered. By analogy with the reversals of the magnetic field of the Sun, the scenario is suggested in which during the reversal the mean dipole moment becomes zero, whereas the instantaneous value of the dipole magnetic moment remains nonzero and the corresponding vector rotates from the vicinity of one geographical pole to the other. A thorough discussion concerning the definition of the mean magnetic moment, which is used in this concept, is presented. Since the behavior of the geomagnetic field during the reversal is far from stationary, the ensemble average instead of the time average has to be considered.

  2. Combinatorial search of rare-earth free permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tieren; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Fackler, Sean; Fang, Lei; Zhang, Ying; Krammer, Matthew; Anderson, Iver; McCallum, Bill; University of Maryland Collaboration; Ames Laboratory Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Permanent magnets play important roles in modern technologies such as in generators, motors, speakers, and relays. Today's high performance permanent magnets contain at least one rare earth element such as Nd, Sm, Pr and Dy. However, rare earth elements are increasingly rare and expensive, and alternative permanent magnet materials which do not contain them are needed by the industry. We are using the thin film composition spread technique to explore novel compositions of permanent magnets without rare-earth. Ternary co-sputtering is used to generate composition spreads. We have thus far looked at Mo doped Fe-Co as one of the initial systems to search for possible compounds with enhanced coercive fields. The films were deposited on Si (100) substrates and annealed at different temperatures. The structural properties of films are mapped by synchrotron diffraction. We find that there is a structural transition from a crystalline to an amorphous state at about 20% atomic Mo. With increasing annealing temperature, the Mo onset concentration of the structural transition increases from 25% for 600°C to 35% for 700°C. We find that some of compounds display enhanced coercive field. With increasing Mo concentration, the magnetization of Fe-Co-Mo begins to switch from in-plane to out-of-plane direction. This work is funded by the BREM (Beyond Rare-earth Magnet) project (DOE EERE).

  3. Equatorial magnetic field of the near-Earth magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, S.; Motoba, T.

    2017-08-01

    The equatorial magnetic field of the nightside magnetosphere is critical for understanding not only the configuration of the magnetotail but also its state and dynamics. The present study observationally addresses various aspects of the equatorial magnetic field, such as its spatial distribution, possible antisunward gradients, and extremely weak magnetic fields, with emphasis on the transition region between dipolar and stretched magnetic configurations. The results are summarized as follows: (1) the transition of the tail magnetic field from a near-Earth dipolar configuration to a stretched one farther out takes place around -12 ≤ Xagsm ≤ -9 RE, although instantaneous configurations can vary significantly; (2) the average equatorial magnetic field in this transition region is noticeably weaker at solar minimum presumably reflecting weaker nightside magnetospheric currents closer to Earth; (3) the statistical comparison of equatorial magnetic fields measured simultaneously at two locations indicates that the gradient of the equatorial magnetic field is directed predominantly earthward, and it is suggested that apparent tailward gradients observed can be very often attributed to other factors such as structures in the Y direction and local fluctuations; (4) however, the gradient can be transiently directed tailward in association with the dipolarization of local magnetic field; (5) extremely weak (≤ 2 nT) magnetic fields are occasionally observed in the transition region during the substorm growth phase and during prolonged quiet intervals, but the association with steady magnetospheric convection, which was suggested before, cannot be confirmed possibly because of its rare occurrence.

  4. Magnetic structure of rare-earth dodecaborides

    SciT

    Siemensmeyer, K.; Flachbart, K.; Gabani, S.

    2006-09-15

    We have investigated the magnetic structure of HoB{sub 12}, ErB{sub 12} and TmB{sub 12} by neutron diffraction on isotopically enriched single-crystalline samples. Results in zero field as well as in magnetic field up to 5T reveal modulated incommensurate magnetic structures in these compounds. The basic reflections can be indexed with q=(1/2+/-{delta}, 1/2+/-{delta}, 1/2+/-{delta}), where {delta}=0.035 both for HoB{sub 12} and TmB{sub 12} and with q=(3/2+/-{delta}, 1/2+/-{delta}, 1/2+/-{delta}), where {delta}=0.035, for ErB{sub 12}. In an applied magnetic field, new phases are observed. The complex magnetic structure of these materials seems to result from the interplay between the RKKY and dipole-dipole interaction.more » The role of frustration due to the fcc symmetry of dodecaborides and the crystalline electric field effect is also considered.« less

  5. Dependence of magnetic permeability on residual stresses in alloyed steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, E.; Ktena, A.; Vourna, P.; Argiris, K.

    2018-04-01

    A method for the monitoring of residual stress distribution in steels has been developed based on non-destructive surface magnetic permeability measurements. In order to investigate the potential utilization of the magnetic method in evaluating residual stresses, the magnetic calibration curves of various ferromagnetic alloyed steels' grade (AISI 4140, TRIP and Duplex) were examined. X-Ray diffraction technique was used for determining surface residual stress values. The overall measurement results have shown that the residual stress determined by the magnetic method was in good agreement with the diffraction results. Further experimental investigations are required to validate the preliminary results and to verify the presence of a unique normalized magnetic stress calibration curve.

  6. Microstructure and magnetic properties of alnico permanent magnetic alloys with Zr-B additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Sajjad Ur; Jiang, Qingzheng; Ge, Qing; Lei, Weikai; Zhang, Lili; Zeng, Qingwen; ul Haq, A.; Liu, Renhui; Zhong, Zhenchen

    2018-04-01

    Alnico alloys are prepared with nominal composition of 31.4-xFe-7.0Al-36.0Co-4.0Cu-1.0Nb-14.0Ni-6.0Ti-0.6Zr-xB (x = 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, in wt%) by arc melting and casting techniques and subsequent heat treatment. The alloys are characterized by X-ray diffraction method, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and pulse field magnetometer by plotting magnetic hysteresis demagnetization curve. The results of HRSEM show at least two new phases at α-grain boundaries and triple junctions. These phases, when retained at low concentration, help in enhancing magnetic properties of alnico alloys by purifying spinodal phases and reducing the adverse effects of impurity elements. Two different heat treatment cycles are employed. In the first phase, the alloys are processed by using heat treatment cycles without magnetic field; and Hc of 1.35 kOe, Br of 4.87 kGs and (BH)max of 1.96 MGOe are obtained by furnace cooling below TC and subsequent tempering at 680 °C and 550 °C. In the second phase, the alloy with best magnetic properties is treated thermo-magnetically; and Hc of 1.68 kOe, Br of 7.1 kG and (BH)max of 4.45 MGOe are obtained.

  7. 3-T MRI safety assessments of magnetic dental attachments and castable magnetic alloys

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, K; Abe, Y; Ishii, T; Ishigami, T; Ohtani, K; Nagai, E; Ohyama, T; Umekawa, Y; Nakabayashi, S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the safety of different magnetic dental attachments during 3-T MRI according to the American Society for Testing and Materials F2182-09 and F2052-06e1 standard testing methods and to develop a method to determine MRI compatibility by measuring magnetically induced torque. Methods: The temperature elevations, magnetically induced forces and torques of a ferromagnetic stainless steel keeper, a coping comprising a keeper and a cast magnetic alloy coping were measured on MRI systems. Results: The coping comprising a keeper demonstrated the maximum temperature increase (1.42 °C) for the whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate and was calculated as 2.1 W kg−1 with the saline phantom. All deflection angles exceeded 45°. The cast magnetic alloy coping had the greatest deflection force (0.33 N) during 3-T MRI and torque (1.015 mN m) during 0.3-T MRI. Conclusions: The tested devices showed minimal radiofrequency (RF)-induced heating in a 3-T MR environment, but the cast magnetic alloy coping showed a magnetically induced deflection force and torque approximately eight times that of the keepers. For safety, magnetic dental attachments should be inspected before and after MRI and large prostheses containing cast magnetic alloy should be removed. Although magnetic dental attachments may pose no great risk of RF-induced heating or magnetically induced torque during 3-T MRI, their magnetically induced deflection forces tended to exceed acceptable limits. Therefore, the inspection of such devices before and after MRI is important for patient safety. PMID:25785821

  8. Exploring Earth's Magnetism and Northern lights in High School Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, M.; Peticolas, L.

    2008-05-01

    Present studies are being conducted as a part of the outreach project entitled Geomagnetic Event Observation Network by Students (GEONS) to share excitement of the THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macro scale Interactions during Substorm) mission launched during February, 2007. The goal of this mission is to investigate the causality of events that lead to the explosive release of energy (derived from the Sun) stored in the Earth's magnetic field. The visible manifestation of the energy release is Aurora Borealis observed in the Northern hemisphere of the Earth. Inherent to understanding the root-cause of formation of spectacular aurora is the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind charged particles. To achieve this ambitious objective in a high school classroom, students conducted activities using the magnetic field of bar magnets, electromagnets, electromagnetic induction, and Lenz's Law. Following the fundamental understanding of these concepts, students acquired the necessary vocabulary and explored the various components of the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind charged particles. They were also familiarized with the general format in which THEMIS spacecraft data is displayed. In this presentation, we will address student's misconceptions, their struggle to make connections before they can appreciate "Big Idea" in terms of its components. Discussion will highlight the relationship between student understanding of new ideas and how these ideas connect with their prior knowledge.

  9. Crystallographic, hyperfine and magnetic characterization of a maraging-400 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, T. J. B.; Nunes, G. C. S.; Sarvezuk, P. W. C.; Ivashita, F. F.; de Andrade, A. M. H.; Viegas, A.; Paesano, A.

    2017-11-01

    Maraging400-like alloys were made by arc-melting iron with the alloy elements (i.e., Ni, Co, Ti and Mo), followed by a high temperature heat-treatment for solubilization. The solubilized alloys were further heat-treated (480 °C and 580 °C, by 3 h), for aging. The samples were finely characterized by X-ray diffraction (Rietveld refinement), Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization techniques. The results revealed that the as-solubilized sample is martensitic and ferromagnetic. Its residual induction and coercive field increase monotonically with the maximum applied field of a magnetization minor loop and both curves presented very similar shapes. The area of the minor loops varies parabolically with this maximum applied field. The aging induced an atomic rearrangement in the martensite phase, involving change in the composition and lattice parameters, reversion of austenite and the formation of the Fe 3 Mo 2 intermetallic compound. Comparisons are presented between the results obtained by us for these alloys and those obtained for Maraging-350 steel samples.

  10. Microstructure and magnetic behavior of Cu-Co-Si ternary alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying and isothermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabri, Sumit; Bera, S.; Mondal, B. N.; Basumallick, A.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2017-03-01

    Microstructure and magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline 50Cu-40Co-10Si (at%) alloy prepared by mechanical alloying and subsequent isothermal annealing in the temperature range of 450-650 °C have been studied. Phase evolution during mechanical alloying and isothermal annealing is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analyzer (DTA), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and magnetic measurement. Addition of Si has been found to facilitate the metastable alloying of Co in Cu resulting into the formation of single phase solid solution having average grain size of 9 nm after ball milling for 50 h duration. Annealing of the ball milled alloy improves the magnetic properties significantly and best combination of magnetic properties has been obtained after annealing at 550 °C for 1 h duration.

  11. Alternatives to Rare Earth Permanent Magnets for Energy Harvesting Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazdozian, Helena; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    Direct-drive permanent magnet generators (DDPMGs) offer increased reliability and efficiency over the more commonly used geared doubly-fed induction generator, yet are only employed in less than 1 percent of utility scale wind turbines in the U.S. One major barrier to increased deployment of DDPMGs in the U.S. wind industry is NdFeB permanent magnets (PMs), which contain critical rare earth elements Nd and Dy. To allow for the use of rare earth free PMs, the magnetic loading, defined as the average magnetic flux density over the rotor surface, must be maintained. Halbach cylinders are employed in 3.5kW Halbach PMGs (HPMGs) of varying slot-to-pole ratio to concentrate the magnetic flux output by a lower energy density PM over the rotor surface. We found that for high pole and slot number, the increase in magnetic loading is sufficient to allow for the use of strontium iron oxide hard ferrite PMs and achieved rated performance. Joule losses in the stator windings were found to increase for the hard ferrite PMs due to increased inductance in the stator windings. However, for scaling of the HPMG designs to 3MW, rated performance and high efficiency were achieved, demonstrating the potential for elimination for rare earth PMs in commercial scale wind turbines. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1069283 and a Barbara and James Palmer Endowment at Iowa State University.

  12. Soft magnetic characteristics of laminated magnetic block cores assembled with a high Bs nanocrystalline alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Atsushi; Inoue, Masaki; Tsukada, Kouhei; Fujisaki, Keisuke

    2018-05-01

    This paper focuses on an evaluation of core losses in laminated magnetic block cores assembled with a high Bs nanocrystalline alloy in high magnetic flux density region. To discuss the soft magnetic properties of the high Bs block cores, the comparison with amorphous (SA1) block cores is also performed. In the high Bs block core, both low core losses and high saturation flux densities Bs are satisfied in the low frequency region. Furthermore, in the laminated block core made of the high Bs alloy, the rate of increase of iron losses as a function of the magnetic flux density remains small up to around 1.6 T, which cannot be realized in conventional laminated block cores based on amorphous alloy. The block core made of the high Bs alloy exhibits comparable core loss with that of amorphous alloy core in the high-frequency region. Thus, it is expected that this laminated high Bs block core can achieve low core losses and high saturation flux densities in the high-frequency region.

  13. Magnetic properties of mechanically alloyed Mn-Al-C powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohmoto, O.; Kageyama, N.; Kageyama, Y.; Haji, H.; Uchida, M.; Matsushima, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We have prepared supersaturated-solution Mn-Al-C alloy powders by mechanical alloying using a planetary high-energy mill. The starting materials were pure Mn, Al and C powers. The mechanically-alloyed powders were subjected to a two-step heating. Although starting particles are Al and Mn with additive C, the Al peak disappears with MA time. With increasing MA time, transition from α-Mn to β-Mn does not occur; the α-Mn structure maintains. At 100 h, a single phase of supersaturated-solution α-Mn is obtained. The lattice constant of α-Mn decreases with increasing MA time. From the Scherrer formula, the crystallite size at 500 h is obtained as 200Å, which does not mean amorphous state. By two-step heating, high magnetization (66 emu/g) was obtained from short-time-milled powders (t=10 h). The precursor of the as-milled powder is not a single phase α-Mn but contains small amount of fcc Al. After two-step heating, the powder changes to τ-phase. Although the saturation magnetization increases, the value is less than that by conventional bulk MnAl (88 emu/g). Meanwhile, long-time-milled powder of single α-Mn phase results in low magnetization (5.2 emu/g) after two-step heating.

  14. First principles statistical mechanics of alloys and magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbach, Markus; Khan, Suffian N.; Li, Ying Wai

    Modern high performance computing resources are enabling the exploration of the statistical physics of phase spaces with increasing size and higher fidelity of the Hamiltonian of the systems. For selected systems, this now allows the combination of Density Functional based first principles calculations with classical Monte Carlo methods for parameter free, predictive thermodynamics of materials. We combine our locally selfconsistent real space multiple scattering method for solving the Kohn-Sham equation with Wang-Landau Monte-Carlo calculations (WL-LSMS). In the past we have applied this method to the calculation of Curie temperatures in magnetic materials. Here we will present direct calculations of the chemical order - disorder transitions in alloys. We present our calculated transition temperature for the chemical ordering in CuZn and the temperature dependence of the short-range order parameter and specific heat. Finally we will present the extension of the WL-LSMS method to magnetic alloys, thus allowing the investigation of the interplay of magnetism, structure and chemical order in ferrous alloys. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division and it used Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility resources at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  15. The Earth's Magnetic Field Fuels Inter-Disciplinary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq; Biller, R. Dale; Wilson, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    There is no doubt that integrated concepts inspire students and take learning to a new level. As we fly, we fly through the magnetic field of the Earth. We used the concepts involved in flying to develop an exercise that bonds geology, physics and life sciences.

  16. CONDUCTION ELECTRON-MAGNETIC ION INTERACTION IN RARE EARTHS

    SciT

    Anderson, G.S.; Legvold, S.

    1958-11-01

    The proposal is maade that there is an additional effective electron- electron interaction in the rare earths which results from the conduction electron-magnetic ion exchange. The strength of the net electron-electron interaction should tnen be expected to be a function of spin as well as solute concentrations. (W.D.M.)

  17. Simple System to Measure the Earth's Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoglu, R.; Halilsoy, M.; Mazharimousavi, S. Habib

    2010-01-01

    Our aim in this proposal is to use Faraday's law of induction as a simple lecture demonstration to measure the Earths magnetic field (B). This will also enable the students to learn about how electric power is generated from rotational motion. Obviously the idea is not original, yet it may be attractive in the sense that no sophisticated devices…

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of magnetic properties of mixed spin (3/2, 1) ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic disordered binary alloys with amorphous structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motlagh, H. Nakhaei; Rezaei, G.

    2018-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation is used to study the magnetic properties of mixed spin (3/2, 1) disordered binary alloys on simple cubic, hexagonal and amorphous magnetic ultra-thin films with 18 × 18 × 2 atoms. To this end, at the first approximation, the exchange coupling interaction between the spins is considered as a constant value and at the second one, the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) model is used. Effects of concentration, structure, exchange interaction, single ion-anisotropy and the film size on the magnetic properties of disordered ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic binary alloys are investigated. Our results indicate that the spontaneous magnetization and critical temperatures of rare earth-3d transition binary alloys are affected by these parameters. It is also found that in the ferrimagnetic state, the compensation temperature (Tcom) and the magnetic rearrangement temperature (TR) appear for some concentrations.

  19. Voltage Control of Rare-Earth Magnetic Moments at the Magnetic-Insulator-Metal Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Alejandro O.; Cahaya, Adam B.; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.

    2018-01-01

    The large spin-orbit interaction in the lanthanides implies a strong coupling between their internal charge and spin degrees of freedom. We formulate the coupling between the voltage and the local magnetic moments of rare-earth atoms with a partially filled 4 f shell at the interface between an insulator and a metal. The rare-earth-mediated torques allow the power-efficient control of spintronic devices by electric-field-induced ferromagnetic resonance and magnetization switching.

  20. Satellite Attitude Control Utilizing the Earth's Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John S.; Shigemoto, Fred H.; Bourquin, Kent

    1961-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a satellite attitude fine-control system using the interaction of the earth's magnetic field with current-carrying coils to produce torque. The approximate intensity of the earth's magnetic field was determined as a function of the satellite coordinates. Components of the magnetic field were found to vary essentially sinusoidally at approximately twice orbital frequency. Amplitude and distortion of the sinusoidal components were a function of satellite orbit. Two systems for two-axis attitude control evolved from this study, one using three coils and the other using two coils. The torques developed by the two systems differ only when the component of magnetic field along the tracking line is zero. For this case the two-coil system develops no torque whereas the three-coil system develops some effective torque which allows partial control. The equations which describe the three-coil system are complex in comparison to those of the two-coil system and require the measurement of all three components of the magnetic field as compared with only one for the two-coil case. Intermittent three-axis torquing can also be achieved. This torquing can be used for coarse attitude control, or for dumping the stored momentum of inertia reaction wheels. Such a system has the advantage of requiring no fuel aboard the satellite. For any of these magnetic torquing schemes the power required to produce the magnetic moment and the weight of the coil seem reasonable.

  1. Magnetic cluster expansion model for random and ordered magnetic face-centered cubic Fe-Ni-Cr alloys

    SciT

    Lavrentiev, M. Yu., E-mail: Mikhail.Lavrentiev@ukaea.uk; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Dudarev, S. L.

    A Magnetic Cluster Expansion model for ternary face-centered cubic Fe-Ni-Cr alloys has been developed, using DFT data spanning binary and ternary alloy configurations. Using this Magnetic Cluster Expansion model Hamiltonian, we perform Monte Carlo simulations and explore magnetic structures of alloys over the entire range of compositions, considering both random and ordered alloy structures. In random alloys, the removal of magnetic collinearity constraint reduces the total magnetic moment but does not affect the predicted range of compositions where the alloys adopt low-temperature ferromagnetic configurations. During alloying of ordered fcc Fe-Ni compounds with Cr, chromium atoms tend to replace nickel rathermore » than iron atoms. Replacement of Ni by Cr in ordered alloys with high iron content increases the Curie temperature of the alloys. This can be explained by strong antiferromagnetic Fe-Cr coupling, similar to that found in bcc Fe-Cr solutions, where the Curie temperature increase, predicted by simulations as a function of Cr concentration, is confirmed by experimental observations. In random alloys, both magnetization and the Curie temperature decrease abruptly with increasing chromium content, in agreement with experiment.« less

  2. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; McMasters, O. D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their Magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900.degree. to 1000.degree. C. for 20 minutes to six hours.

  3. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900 to 1,000 C for 20 minutes to six hours.

  4. Determination of Thermodynamic Properties of Alkaline Earth-liquid Metal Alloys Using the Electromotive Force Technique

    PubMed Central

    Nigl, Thomas P.; Smith, Nathan D.; Lichtenstein, Timothy; Gesualdi, Jarrod; Kumar, Kuldeep; Kim, Hojong

    2017-01-01

    A novel electrochemical cell based on a CaF2 solid-state electrolyte has been developed to measure the electromotive force (emf) of binary alkaline earth-liquid metal alloys as functions of both composition and temperature in order to acquire thermodynamic data. The cell consists of a chemically stable solid-state CaF2-AF2 electrolyte (where A is the alkaline-earth element such as Ca, Sr, or Ba), with binary A-B alloy (where B is the liquid metal such as Bi or Sb) working electrodes, and a pure A metal reference electrode. Emf data are collected over a temperature range of 723 K to 1,123 K in 25 K increments for multiple alloy compositions per experiment and the results are analyzed to yield activity values, phase transition temperatures, and partial molar entropies/enthalpies for each composition. PMID:29155770

  5. Plasma observations at the Earth's magnetic equator

    SciT

    Olsen, R.C.; Shawhan, S.D.; Gallagher, D.L.

    1987-03-01

    The magnetic equator provides a unique location for thermal plasma and plasma wave measurements. Plasma populations are found to be confined within a few degrees latitude of the equator, particularly the ions. The equatorially trapped ion population is found to be primarily hydrogen, and the authors find little evidence for preferential heating of heavier ions. Helium is occasionally found to be heated along with the protons, and forms about 10% of the equatorially trapped populations at such times, similar to the percentage of He{sup +} in the cold, core plasma of the plasmasphere. One case of a heated O{sup +}more » component was found; at the 0.1% level it generally comprises in the outer plasmasphere core plasma. The heated H{sup +} ions can be characterized by a bi-Maxwellian with kT{sub {parallel}} = 0.5-1.0 eV, and kT = 5-50 eV, with a density of 10-100 cm{sup {minus}3}. The total plasma density, as inferred from the plasma wave instrument measurements of the upper hybrid measurements of the upper hybrid resonance (UHR), is relatively constant with latitude, occasionally showing a local minimum at the magnetic equator, even though the ion flux has increased substantially. The first measurements of the equatorially trapped plasma and coincident UHR measurements show that the trapped plasma is a feature of the plasmapause region, found at total plasma densities of 20-200 cm{sup {minus}3}. The warm, trapped plasma is found in conjunction with equatorial noise, a plasma wave feature found at frequencies near 100 Hz, with a broad spectrum generally found between the proton gyrofrequency at the low frequency edge and the geometric mean gyrofrequency at the high frequency edge. This latter frequency is generally the lower hybrid resonance (LHR) for a proton-electron plasma. Sharp spatial boundaries are occasionally found with latitude, delimiting the equatorially trapped plasma.« less

  6. Magnetic softening and nanocrystallization in amorphous Co-rich alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttino, G.; Cecchetti, A.; Poppi, M.

    1997-02-01

    In this work we have analyzed the changes of the magnetic properties in the Co-based Metglas 2714A (made by Allied Chem. Corp., USA) caused by isothermal heat treatments in the range of temperature from room temperature to conventional crystallization temperature Tcr = 550°C. The nominal composition of the amorphous alloy is Co 66Fe 4Ni 1B 14Si 15. The analysis is made on toroidal samples prepared by winding lengths of amorphous ribbon of about 20 cm. The magnetic properties undergo variations depending on the treatment temperature, except for the saturation magnetization which remains unchanged. For heat treatments of about half an hour around 500°C, superior soft magnetic properties are obtained. Particularly, the initial permeability reaches values up to ten times the value of permeability in the as-received sample. Analysis by the transmission electron microscopy of the sample annealed around 500°C reveals the formation of a nanocrystalline phase, with average grain size of 2 nm, embedded in a residual amorphous matrix. The occurrence of permeability increases in concomitance with the formation of the nanocrystalline phase is ascribed to a drastic reduction in the local magnetocrystalline anisotropy randomly averaged out by the exchange interactions, similar to the case of the annealed Fe-based alloys containing Cu.

  7. Magnetic cluster expansion simulation and experimental study of high temperature magnetic properties of Fe-Cr alloys.

    PubMed

    Lavrentiev, M Yu; Mergia, K; Gjoka, M; Nguyen-Manh, D; Apostolopoulos, G; Dudarev, S L

    2012-08-15

    We present a combined experimental and computational study of high temperature magnetic properties of Fe-Cr alloys with chromium content up to about 20 at.%. The magnetic cluster expansion method is applied to model the magnetic properties of random Fe-Cr alloys, and in particular the Curie transition temperature, as a function of alloy composition. We find that at low (3-6 at.%) Cr content the Curie temperature increases with the increase of Cr concentration. It is maximum at approximately 6 at.% Cr and then decreases for higher Cr content. The same feature is found in thermo-magnetic measurements performed on model Fe-Cr alloys, where a 5 at.% Cr alloy has a higher Curie temperature than pure Fe. The Curie temperatures of 10 and 15 at.% Cr alloys are found to be lower than the Curie temperature of pure Fe.

  8. Bats Use Magnetite to Detect the Earth's Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Richard A.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Doak, Thomas G.; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-01-01

    While the role of magnetic cues for compass orientation has been confirmed in numerous animals, the mechanism of detection is still debated. Two hypotheses have been proposed, one based on a light dependent mechanism, apparently used by birds and another based on a “compass organelle” containing the iron oxide particles magnetite (Fe3O4). Bats have recently been shown to use magnetic cues for compass orientation but the method by which they detect the Earth's magnetic field remains unknown. Here we use the classic “Kalmijn-Blakemore” pulse re-magnetization experiment, whereby the polarity of cellular magnetite is reversed. The results demonstrate that the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus uses single domain magnetite to detect the Earths magnetic field and the response indicates a polarity based receptor. Polarity detection is a prerequisite for the use of magnetite as a compass and suggests that big brown bats use magnetite to detect the magnetic field as a compass. Our results indicate the possibility that sensory cells in bats contain freely rotating magnetite particles, which appears not to be the case in birds. It is crucial that the ultrastructure of the magnetite containing magnetoreceptors is described for our understanding of magnetoreception in animals. PMID:18301753

  9. Bats use magnetite to detect the earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Holland, Richard A; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Doak, Thomas G; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-02-27

    While the role of magnetic cues for compass orientation has been confirmed in numerous animals, the mechanism of detection is still debated. Two hypotheses have been proposed, one based on a light dependent mechanism, apparently used by birds and another based on a "compass organelle" containing the iron oxide particles magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). Bats have recently been shown to use magnetic cues for compass orientation but the method by which they detect the Earth's magnetic field remains unknown. Here we use the classic "Kalmijn-Blakemore" pulse re-magnetization experiment, whereby the polarity of cellular magnetite is reversed. The results demonstrate that the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus uses single domain magnetite to detect the Earths magnetic field and the response indicates a polarity based receptor. Polarity detection is a prerequisite for the use of magnetite as a compass and suggests that big brown bats use magnetite to detect the magnetic field as a compass. Our results indicate the possibility that sensory cells in bats contain freely rotating magnetite particles, which appears not to be the case in birds. It is crucial that the ultrastructure of the magnetite containing magnetoreceptors is described for our understanding of magnetoreception in animals.

  10. ThMn12-type phases for magnets with low rare-earth content: Crystal-field analysis of the full magnetization process.

    PubMed

    Tereshina, I S; Kostyuchenko, N V; Tereshina-Chitrova, E A; Skourski, Y; Doerr, M; Pelevin, I A; Zvezdin, A K; Paukov, M; Havela, L; Drulis, H

    2018-02-26

    Rare-earth (R)-iron alloys are a backbone of permanent magnets. Recent increase in price of rare earths has pushed the industry to seek ways to reduce the R-content in the hard magnetic materials. For this reason strong magnets with the ThMn 12  type of structure came into focus. Functional properties of R(Fe,T) 12 (T-element stabilizes the structure) compounds or their interstitially modified derivatives, R(Fe,T) 12 -X (X is an atom of hydrogen or nitrogen) are determined by the crystal-electric-field (CEF) and exchange interaction (EI) parameters. We have calculated the parameters using high-field magnetization data. We choose the ferrimagnetic Tm-containing compounds, which are most sensitive to magnetic field and demonstrate that TmFe 11 Ti-H reaches the ferromagnetic state in the magnetic field of 52 T. Knowledge of exact CEF and EI parameters and their variation in the compounds modified by the interstitial atoms is a cornerstone of the quest for hard magnetic materials with low rare-earth content.

  11. Global maps of the magnetic thickness and magnetization of the Earth's lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervelidou, Foteini; Thébault, Erwan

    2015-10-01

    We have constructed global maps of the large-scale magnetic thickness and magnetization of Earth's lithosphere. Deriving such large-scale maps based on lithospheric magnetic field measurements faces the challenge of the masking effect of the core field. In this study, the maps were obtained through analyses in the spectral domain by means of a new regional spatial power spectrum based on the Revised Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis (R-SCHA) formalism. A series of regional spectral analyses were conducted covering the entire Earth. The R-SCHA surface power spectrum for each region was estimated using the NGDC-720 spherical harmonic (SH) model of the lithospheric magnetic field, which is based on satellite, aeromagnetic, and marine measurements. These observational regional spectra were fitted to a recently proposed statistical expression of the power spectrum of Earth's lithospheric magnetic field, whose free parameters include the thickness and magnetization of the magnetic sources. The resulting global magnetic thickness map is compared to other crustal and magnetic thickness maps based upon different geophysical data. We conclude that the large-scale magnetic thickness of the lithosphere is on average confined to a layer that does not exceed the Moho.

  12. Magsat - A new satellite to survey the earth's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, F. F.; Eckard, L. D.; Fountain, G. H.; Ousley, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Magsat satellite was launched on Oct. 30, 1979 into a sun-synchronous dawn-dusk orbit, of 97 deg inclination, 350 km perigee, and 550 km apogee. It contains a precision vector magnetometer and a cesium-vapor scalar magnetometer at the end of a 6-m long graphite epoxy scissors boom. The magnetometers are accurate to 2 nanotesla. A pair of star cameras are used to define the body orientation to 10 arc sec rms. An 'attitude transfer system' measures the orientation of the magnetometer sensors relative to the star cameras to approximately 5 arc sec rms. The satellite position is determined to 70 meters rms by Doppler tracking. The overall objective is to determine each component of the earth's vector magnetic field to an accuracy of 6 nanotesla rms. The Magsat satellite gathers a complete picture of the earth's magnetic field every 12 hours. The vector components are sampled 16 times per second with a resolution of 0.5 nanotesla. The data will be used by the U.S. Geological Survey to prepare 1980 world magnetic field charts and to detect large-scale magnetic anomalies in the earth's crust for use in planning resource exploration strategy.

  13. Addressing Criticality in Rare Earth Elements via Permanent Magnets Recycling

    SciT

    Nlebedim, I. C.; King, A. H.

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical for many advanced technologies and are faced with potential supply disruptions. Recycling of permanent magnets (PMs) can be good sources for REEs which can help minimize global dependence on freshly mined REEs, but PMs are rarely recycled. Recycling of PMs has been discussed with respect to improving REEs resource sustainability. Some challenges to be addressed in order to establish industrially deployable technologies for PMs recycling have also been discussed, including profitability, energy efficiency and environmental impacts. Key considerations for promoting circular economy via PMs recycling is proposed with the focus on deciding the targetmore » points in the supply chain at which the recycled products will be inserted. Important technical considerations for recycling different forms of waste PMs, including swarfs, slags, shredded and intact hard disk drives magnets, have been presented. Lastly, the aspects of circular economy considered include reusing magnets, remanufacturing magnets and recovering of REEs from waste PMs.« less

  14. Addressing Criticality in Rare Earth Elements via Permanent Magnets Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nlebedim, I. C.; King, A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical for many advanced technologies and are faced with potential supply disruptions. Recycling of permanent magnets (PMs) can be good sources for REEs which can help minimize global dependence on freshly mined REEs, but PMs are rarely recycled. Recycling of PMs has been discussed with respect to improving REEs resource sustainability. Some challenges to be addressed in order to establish industrially deployable technologies for PMs recycling have also been discussed, including profitability, energy efficiency and environmental impacts. Key considerations for promoting circular economy via PMs recycling is proposed with the focus on deciding the target points in the supply chain at which the recycled products will be inserted. Important technical considerations for recycling different forms of waste PMs, including swarfs, slags, shredded and intact hard disk drives magnets, have been presented. The aspects of circular economy considered include reusing magnets, remanufacturing magnets and recovering of REEs from waste PMs.

  15. Addressing Criticality in Rare Earth Elements via Permanent Magnets Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nlebedim, I. C.; King, A. H.

    2018-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical for many advanced technologies and are faced with potential supply disruptions. Recycling of permanent magnets (PMs) can be good sources for REEs which can help minimize global dependence on freshly mined REEs, but PMs are rarely recycled. Recycling of PMs has been discussed with respect to improving REEs resource sustainability. Some challenges to be addressed in order to establish industrially deployable technologies for PMs recycling have also been discussed, including profitability, energy efficiency and environmental impacts. Key considerations for promoting circular economy via PMs recycling is proposed with the focus on deciding the target points in the supply chain at which the recycled products will be inserted. Important technical considerations for recycling different forms of waste PMs, including swarfs, slags, shredded and intact hard disk drives magnets, have been presented. The aspects of circular economy considered include reusing magnets, remanufacturing magnets and recovering of REEs from waste PMs.

  16. Addressing Criticality in Rare Earth Elements via Permanent Magnets Recycling

    DOE PAGES

    Nlebedim, I. C.; King, A. H.

    2017-12-12

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical for many advanced technologies and are faced with potential supply disruptions. Recycling of permanent magnets (PMs) can be good sources for REEs which can help minimize global dependence on freshly mined REEs, but PMs are rarely recycled. Recycling of PMs has been discussed with respect to improving REEs resource sustainability. Some challenges to be addressed in order to establish industrially deployable technologies for PMs recycling have also been discussed, including profitability, energy efficiency and environmental impacts. Key considerations for promoting circular economy via PMs recycling is proposed with the focus on deciding the targetmore » points in the supply chain at which the recycled products will be inserted. Important technical considerations for recycling different forms of waste PMs, including swarfs, slags, shredded and intact hard disk drives magnets, have been presented. Lastly, the aspects of circular economy considered include reusing magnets, remanufacturing magnets and recovering of REEs from waste PMs.« less

  17. Microbially assisted recording of the Earth's magnetic field in sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangyu; Egli, Ramon; Gilder, Stuart A; Müller, Sebastian

    2016-02-11

    Sediments continuously record variations of the Earth's magnetic field and thus provide an important archive for studying the geodynamo. The recording process occurs as magnetic grains partially align with the geomagnetic field during and after sediment deposition, generating a depositional remanent magnetization (DRM) or post-DRM (PDRM). (P)DRM acquisition mechanisms have been investigated for over 50 years, yet many aspects remain unclear. A key issue concerns the controversial role of bioturbation, that is, the mechanical disturbance of sediment by benthic organisms, during PDRM acquisition. A recent theory on bioturbation-driven PDRM appears to solve many inconsistencies between laboratory experiments and palaeomagnetic records, yet it lacks experimental proof. Here we fill this gap by documenting the important role of bioturbation-induced rotational diffusion for (P)DRM acquisition, including the control exerted on the recorded inclination and intensity, as determined by the equilibrium between aligning and perturbing torques acting on magnetic particles.

  18. The elements of the Earth's magnetism and their secular changes between 1550 and 1915

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritsche, H.

    1983-01-01

    The results of an investigation about the magnetic agents outside the Earth's surface as well as the Earth's magnetic elements for the epochs 1550, 1900, 1915 are presented. The secular changes of the Earth's magnetic elements during the time interval 1550 - 1900 are also included.

  19. 77 FR 58578 - Certain Sintered Rare Earth Magnets, Methods of Making Same and Products Containing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-855] Certain Sintered Rare Earth Magnets... importation of certain sintered rare earth magnets, methods of making same and products containing same by... importation of certain sintered rare earth magnets, methods of making same and products containing same that...

  20. Magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite synthesized by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedi, Idayanti, Novrita; Kristiantoro, Tony; Alam, Ginanjar Fajar Nur; Sudrajat, Nanang

    2018-05-01

    Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) is a well-known hard magnetic material with high coercivity and moderate magnetization. These properties, along with their great physical and chemical stability, make CoFe2O4 suitable for many applications such as generator, audio, video-tape etc. In this study, the magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite synthesized via the mechanical alloying using α-Fe2O3 of Hot Strip Mill (HSM) waste and cobalt carbonate as the precursors have been investigated. Structural and magnetic properties were systematically investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern exhibited the single phase of cobalt ferrite when the sintering temperature was 1000 °C. Permagraph measurements of the sintered sample revealed a saturation magnetization (Ms) of 77-83 emu/g and coercivity (Hc) of 575 Oe which closely to the magnetic properties of references; Ms = 47.2-56.7 emu/g and Hc =233-2002 Oe.

  1. Production and detection of atomic hexadecapole at Earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Acosta, V M; Auzinsh, M; Gawlik, W; Grisins, P; Higbie, J M; Jackson Kimball, D F; Krzemien, L; Ledbetter, M P; Pustelny, S; Rochester, S M; Yashchuk, V V; Budker, D

    2008-07-21

    Optical magnetometers measure magnetic fields with extremely high precision and without cryogenics. However, at geomagnetic fields, important for applications from landmine removal to archaeology, they suffer from nonlinear Zeeman splitting, leading to systematic dependence on sensor orientation. We present experimental results on a method of eliminating this systematic error, using the hexadecapole atomic polarization moment. In particular, we demonstrate selective production of the atomic hexadecapole moment at Earth's magnetic field and verify its immunity to nonlinear Zeeman splitting. This technique promises to eliminate directional errors in all-optical atomic magnetometers, potentially improving their measurement accuracy by several orders of magnitude.

  2. Attitude and Trajectory Estimation Using Earth Magnetic Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1996-01-01

    The magnetometer has long been a reliable, inexpensive sensor used in spacecraft momentum management and attitude estimation. Recent studies show an increased accuracy potential for magnetometer-only attitude estimation systems. Since the Earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computer and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of both the spacecraft trajectory and attitude errors. Therefore, these errors can be used to estimate both trajectory and attitude. Traditionally, satellite attitude and trajectory have been estimated with completely separate system, using different measurement data. Recently, trajectory estimation for low earth orbit satellites was successfully demonstrated in ground software using only magnetometer data. This work proposes a single augmented extended Kalman Filter to simultaneously and autonomously estimate both spacecraft trajectory and attitude with data from a magnetometer and either dynamically determined rates or gyro-measured body rates.

  3. Thermal stability and temperature coefficients of four rare-earth-cobalt matrix magnets heated in dry air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strnat, R. M. W.; Liu, S.; Strnat, K. J.

    1982-03-01

    Flux-loss characteristics during long-term air aging of four rare-earth-cobalt matrix magnet types were measured. Irreversible losses and reversible temperature coefficients on heating above room temperature are reported. Purely magnetic and permanent microstructure-related changes during aging were differentiated by measuring hysteresis curves before and after long-term exposure. Three commercial polymer-bonded magnets using different rare-earth-cobalt-transition metal alloys and a solder-matrix magnet with Sm(Co, Cu, Fe, Zr)7.4 were studied. They were cycled between 25 °C and maximum temperatures to 150 °C (25 ° intervals) as applicable. Aging data at 50 and 125 °C for an exposure time of 3300 h are reported. The 2-17 samples have a stability far superior to bonded 1-5. The soft metal binder imparts significantly better aging behavior on precipitation-hardened 2-17 magnet alloys above 100 °C than an epoxy resin matrix.

  4. Metal Amorphous Nanocomposite Soft Magnetic Material-Enabled High Power Density, Rare Earth Free Rotational Machines [Metal Amorphous Nanocomposite (MANC) Soft Magnetic Material (SMM) Enabled High Power Density, Rare Earth Free Rotational Machines

    SciT

    Simizu, Satoru; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; McHenry, Michael E.

    Metal amorphous nanocomposites (MANCs) are promising soft magnetic materials (SMMs) for power electronic applications offering low power loss at high frequency and maintaining a relatively high flux density. While applications in certain motor designs have been recently modeled, their widespread application awaits scaled manufacturing of MANC materials and proliferation of new higher speed motor designs. A hybrid motor design based on permanent magnets and doubly salient stator and rotor is reported here to develop a compact (a factor of 10 smaller than currently possible in Si steels), high-speed (>1 kHz, electrical), high-power (>2.5 kW) motor by incorporating low loss (<10more » W/kg at 1 kHz) MANCs such as recently reported Fe-Ni-based alloys. A feature of this motor design is flux focusing from the permanent magnet allowing use of lower energy permanent magnet chosen from among non-rare earth containing compositions and attractive due to constraints posed by rare earth criticality. A 2-D finite element analysis model reported here indicates that a 2.5 kW hybrid motor may be built with a permanent magnet with a 0.4 T remanence at a rotor speed of 6000 rpm. At a magnetic switching frequency of 1.4 kHz, the core loss may be limited to <3 W by selecting an appropriate MANC SMM. The projected efficiency exceeds 96% not including power loss in the controller. Under full load conditions, the flux density distributions for the SMM stay predominantly <1.3 T, the saturation magnetization of optimized FeNi-based MANC alloys. As a result, the maximum demagnetizing field in the permanent magnet is less than 2.2 × 10 5 A/m sustainable, for example, with a high-grade hard ferrite magnet.« less

  5. Metal Amorphous Nanocomposite Soft Magnetic Material-Enabled High Power Density, Rare Earth Free Rotational Machines [Metal Amorphous Nanocomposite (MANC) Soft Magnetic Material (SMM) Enabled High Power Density, Rare Earth Free Rotational Machines

    DOE PAGES

    Simizu, Satoru; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; McHenry, Michael E.

    2018-02-27

    Metal amorphous nanocomposites (MANCs) are promising soft magnetic materials (SMMs) for power electronic applications offering low power loss at high frequency and maintaining a relatively high flux density. While applications in certain motor designs have been recently modeled, their widespread application awaits scaled manufacturing of MANC materials and proliferation of new higher speed motor designs. A hybrid motor design based on permanent magnets and doubly salient stator and rotor is reported here to develop a compact (a factor of 10 smaller than currently possible in Si steels), high-speed (>1 kHz, electrical), high-power (>2.5 kW) motor by incorporating low loss (<10more » W/kg at 1 kHz) MANCs such as recently reported Fe-Ni-based alloys. A feature of this motor design is flux focusing from the permanent magnet allowing use of lower energy permanent magnet chosen from among non-rare earth containing compositions and attractive due to constraints posed by rare earth criticality. A 2-D finite element analysis model reported here indicates that a 2.5 kW hybrid motor may be built with a permanent magnet with a 0.4 T remanence at a rotor speed of 6000 rpm. At a magnetic switching frequency of 1.4 kHz, the core loss may be limited to <3 W by selecting an appropriate MANC SMM. The projected efficiency exceeds 96% not including power loss in the controller. Under full load conditions, the flux density distributions for the SMM stay predominantly <1.3 T, the saturation magnetization of optimized FeNi-based MANC alloys. As a result, the maximum demagnetizing field in the permanent magnet is less than 2.2 × 10 5 A/m sustainable, for example, with a high-grade hard ferrite magnet.« less

  6. The Effects of Grain Refinement and Rare Earth Intermetallics on Mechanical Properties of As-Cast and Wrought Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourbahari, Bita; Mirzadeh, Hamed; Emamy, Massoud

    2018-03-01

    The effects of rare earth intermetallics and grain refinement by alloying and hot extrusion on the mechanical properties of Mg-Gd-Al-Zn alloys have been studied to elucidate some useful ways to enhance the mechanical properties of magnesium alloys. It was revealed that aluminum as an alloying element is a much better grain refining agent compared with gadolinium, but the simultaneous presence of Al and Gd can refine the as-cast grain size more efficiently. The presence of fine and widely dispersed rare earth intermetallics was found to be favorable to achieve finer recrystallized grains during hot deformation by extrusion. The presence of coarse dendritic structure in the GZ61 alloy, grain boundary eutectic containing Mg17Al12 phase in the AZ61 alloy, and rare earth intermetallics with unfavorable morphology in the Mg-4Gd-2Al-1Zn alloy was found to be detrimental to mechanical properties of the alloy in the as-cast condition. As a result, the microstructural refinement induced by hot extrusion process resulted in a significant enhancement in strength and ductility of the alloys. The presence of intermetallic compounds in the extruded Mg-4Gd-2Al-1Zn and Mg-2Gd-4Al-1Zn alloys deteriorated tensile properties, which was related to the fact that such intermetallic compounds act as stress risers and microvoid initiation sites.

  7. Irradiation and Thermal Annealing Effects in Amorphous Magnetic Alloys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, David G.

    Irradiation with protons, electrons, and alpha particles produces effects in amorphous magnetic alloys (Fe(,x)Ni(,80)P(,20-y)B(,y), where x was 20, 27, 34, or 40 and y was either 6 or 20) that appear analogous to effects produced by thermal annealing. The work presented in this dissertation represents an extension of work performed by Franz('(1)) and/or Donnelly.('(2)) The work of Franz, Donnelly, and this author has been a coordinated investigation into various aspects of radiation damage and thermal annealing effects in the above-mentioned amorphous alloys' magnetic properties. Upon either irradiation or thermal annealing, the Curie temperature, T(,c), is enhanced in these alloys. Also the relative permeability, (mu)(,r), is raised as much as seven-fold. Electrolytic layer removal experiments on proton-irradiated (0.25-MeV) samples conclusively demonstrate that the particle irradiation does not merely heat the sample bulk. Annealing studies performed on both irradiated and as-quenched samples suggested, via T(,c) measurement, that a structural relaxation process had taken place. The structural relaxation takes place as a result of a macroscopic heating in the case of the annealed samples and it is postulated that the structural relaxation takes place as a result of a miroscopic heating about the particle track (thermal spike mechanism) in the case of the irradiated samples. This work also presents preliminary results concerning the influence of irradiation and thermal annealing on the crystallization process in these alloys. The results of DSC and electrical resistivity (above room temperature) are presented. Using electrical resistivity as an indicator, a series of isothermal recrystallization measurements were performed using samples of 2.25-MeV proton-irradiated, 200(DEGREES)C-annealed, and as-quenched Fe(,20)Ni(,60)P(,14)B(,6). The activation energy for the onset of recrystallization is 2.0 eV for as-quenched samples and is 5.3 eV for the irradiated and

  8. Measured iron-gallium alloy tensile properties under magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jin-Hyeong; Flatau, Alison B.

    2004-07-01

    Tension testing is used to identify Galfenol material properties under low level DC magnetic bias fields. Dog bone shaped specimens of single crystal Fe100-xGax, where 17<=x<=33, underwent tensile testing along two crystalographic axis orientations, [110] and [100]. The material properties being investigated and calculated from measured quantities are: Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. Data are presented that demonstrate the dependence of these material properties on applied magnetic field levels and provide a preliminary assessment of the trends in material properties for performance under varied operating conditions. The elastic properties of Fe-Ga alloys were observed to be increasingly anisotropic with rising Ga content for the stoichiometries examined. The largest elastic anisotropies were manifested in [110] Poisson's ratios of as low as -0.63 in one specimen. This negative Poisson's ratio creates a significant in-plane auxetic behavior that could be exploited in applications that capitalize on unique area effects produced under uniaxial loading.

  9. The Rare Earth Magnet Industry and Rare Earth Price in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kaihong

    2014-07-01

    In the past four years, the price of rare earth metal fluctuates sharply for many reasons. Currently, it has become more stable and more reasonable. This presentation is focused on the effect about the rare earth metal price. Some motor manufacturers have shifted from rare earth permanent magnet to ferrite magnet. Many motor manufacturers changed the design for the motor cooling system to make the motor function at a lower temperature. Thus the consumption of Dy can be markedly reduced. As for manufacturer of NdFeB magnet, we are also trying to optimize our process to reduce to dependence of HREE such as Dy and Tb. HS process have been introduced to solve the problem. With more and more people focusing and engaging on the REE industry, the price of REE will be more transparent without too many fluctuations. China is considering the problems of balancing the environment, energy sources, and labor sources. The application field about NdFeB such as wind turbine generator, HEV/EV, FA /OA is flourishing.

  10. Gyre-driven decay of the Earth's magnetic dipole

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, Christopher C.; Aubert, Julien; Gillet, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Direct observations indicate that the magnitude of the Earth's magnetic axial dipole has decreased over the past 175 years; it is now 9% weaker than it was in 1840. Here we show how the rate of dipole decay may be controlled by a planetary-scale gyre in the liquid metal outer core. The gyre's meridional limbs on average transport normal polarity magnetic flux equatorward and reverse polarity flux poleward. Asymmetry in the geomagnetic field, due to the South Atlantic Anomaly, is essential to the proposed mechanism. We find that meridional flux advection accounts for the majority of the dipole decay since 1840, especially during times of rapid decline, with magnetic diffusion making an almost steady contribution generally of smaller magnitude. Based on the morphology of the present field, and the persistent nature of the gyre, the current episode of dipole decay looks set to continue, at least for the next few decades. PMID:26814368

  11. Gyre-driven decay of the Earth's magnetic dipole.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Christopher C; Aubert, Julien; Gillet, Nicolas

    2016-01-27

    Direct observations indicate that the magnitude of the Earth's magnetic axial dipole has decreased over the past 175 years; it is now 9% weaker than it was in 1840. Here we show how the rate of dipole decay may be controlled by a planetary-scale gyre in the liquid metal outer core. The gyre's meridional limbs on average transport normal polarity magnetic flux equatorward and reverse polarity flux poleward. Asymmetry in the geomagnetic field, due to the South Atlantic Anomaly, is essential to the proposed mechanism. We find that meridional flux advection accounts for the majority of the dipole decay since 1840, especially during times of rapid decline, with magnetic diffusion making an almost steady contribution generally of smaller magnitude. Based on the morphology of the present field, and the persistent nature of the gyre, the current episode of dipole decay looks set to continue, at least for the next few decades.

  12. Identification of a Group's Physiological Synchronization with Earth's Magnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Timofejeva, Inga; McCraty, Rollin; Atkinson, Mike; Joffe, Roza; Vainoras, Alfonsas; Alabdulgader, Abdullah A; Ragulskis, Minvydas

    2017-09-01

    A new analysis technique for the evaluation of the degree of synchronization between the physiological state of a group of people and changes in the Earth's magnetic field based on their cardiac inter-beat intervals was developed and validated. The new analysis method was then used to identify clusters of similar synchronization patterns in a group of 20 individuals over a two-week period. The algorithm for the identification of slow wave dynamics for every person was constructed in order to determine meaningful interrelationships between the participants and the local magnetic field data. The results support the hypothesis that the slow wave rhythms in heart rate variability can synchronize with changes in local magnetic field data, and that the degree of synchronization is affected by the quality of interpersonal relationships.

  13. Identification and recovery of rare-earth permanent magnets from waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    PubMed

    Lixandru, A; Venkatesan, P; Jönsson, C; Poenaru, I; Hall, B; Yang, Y; Walton, A; Güth, K; Gauß, R; Gutfleisch, O

    2017-10-01

    Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are a strategic material for a number of emerging technologies. They are a key component in the most energy efficient electric motors and generators, thus, they are vital for energy technologies, industrial applications and automation, and future forms of mobility. Rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, dysprosium and praseodymium are also found in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in volumes that grow with the technological evolution, and are marked as critical elements by the European Commission due to their high economic importance combined with significant supply risks. Recycling could be a good approach to compensate for the lack of rare earths (REs) on the market. However, less than 1% of REs are currently being recycled, mainly because of non-existing collection logistics, lack of information about the quantity of RE materials available for recycling and recycling-unfriendly product designs. To improve these lack of information, different waste streams of electrical and electronic equipment from an industrial recycling plant were analyzed in order to localize, identify and collect RE permanent magnets of the Nd-Fe-B type. This particular type of magnets were mainly found in hard disk drives (HDDs) from laptops and desktop computers, as well as in loudspeakers from compact products such as flat screen TVs, PC screens, and laptops. Since HDDs have been investigated thoroughly by many authors, this study focusses on other potential Nd-Fe-B resources in electronic waste. The study includes a systematic survey of the chemical composition of the Nd-Fe-B magnets found in the selected waste streams, which illustrates the evolution of the Nd-Fe-B alloys over the years. The study also provides an overview over the types of magnets integrated in different waste electric and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ab initio simulations of iron-nickel alloys at Earth's core conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côté, Alexander S.; Vočadlo, Lidunka; Brodholt, John P.

    2012-09-01

    We report ab initio density functional theory calculations on iron-nickel (FeNi) alloys at conditions representative of the Earth's inner core. We test different concentrations of Ni, up to ∼39 wt% using ab initio lattice dynamics, and investigate the thermodynamic and vibrational stability of the three candidate crystal structures (bcc, hcp and fcc). First of all, at inner core pressures, we find that pure Fe transforms from the hcp to the fcc phase at around 6000 K. Secondly, in agreement with low pressure experiments on Fe-Ni alloys, we find the fcc structure is stabilised by the incorporation of Ni under core pressures and temperatures. Our results show that the fcc structure may, therefore, be stable under core conditions depending on the temperature in the inner core and the Ni content. Lastly, we find that within the quasi-harmonic approximation, there is no stability field for FeNi alloys in the bcc structure under core conditions.

  15. A global estimate of the Earth's magnetic crustal thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervelidou, Foteini; Thébault, Erwan

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's lithosphere is considered to be magnetic only down to the Curie isotherm. Therefore the Curie isotherm can, in principle, be estimated by analysis of magnetic data. Here, we propose such an analysis in the spectral domain by means of a newly introduced regional spatial power spectrum. This spectrum is based on the Revised Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis (R-SCHA) formalism (Thébault et al., 2006). We briefly discuss its properties and its relationship with the Spherical Harmonic spatial power spectrum. This relationship allows us to adapt any theoretical expression of the lithospheric field power spectrum expressed in Spherical Harmonic degrees to the regional formulation. We compared previously published statistical expressions (Jackson, 1994 ; Voorhies et al., 2002) to the recent lithospheric field models derived from the CHAMP and airborne measurements and we finally developed a new statistical form for the power spectrum of the Earth's magnetic lithosphere that we think provides more consistent results. This expression depends on the mean magnetization, the mean crustal thickness and a power law value that describes the amount of spatial correlation of the sources. In this study, we make a combine use of the R-SCHA surface power spectrum and this statistical form. We conduct a series of regional spectral analyses for the entire Earth. For each region, we estimate the R-SCHA surface power spectrum of the NGDC-720 Spherical Harmonic model (Maus, 2010). We then fit each of these observational spectra to the statistical expression of the power spectrum of the Earth's lithosphere. By doing so, we estimate the large wavelengths of the magnetic crustal thickness on a global scale that are not accessible directly from the magnetic measurements due to the masking core field. We then discuss these results and compare them to the results we obtained by conducting a similar spectral analysis, but this time in the cartesian coordinates, by means of a published

  16. Structure and Magnetic Properties of Rare Earth Doped Transparent Alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limmer, Krista; Neupane, Mahesh; Chantawansri, Tanya

    Recent experimental studies of rare earth (RE) doped alumina suggest that the RE induced novel phase-dependent structural and magnetic properties. Motivated by these efforts, the effects of RE doping of alpha and theta alumina on the local structure, magnetic properties, and phase stability have been examined in this first principles study. Although a direct correlation between the magnetic field dependent materials properties observed experimentally and calculated from first principles is not feasible because of the applied field and the scale, the internal magnetic properties and other properties of the doped materials are evaluated. The RE dopants are shown to increase the substitutional site volume as well as increasingly distort the site structure as a function of ionic radii. Doping both the alpha (stable) and theta (metastable) phases enhanced the relative stability of the theta phase. The energetic doping cost and internal magnetic moment were shown to be a function of the electronic configuration of the RE-dopant, with magnetic moment directly proportional to the number of unpaired electrons and doping cost being inversely related.

  17. The Earth's core composition from high pressure density measurements of liquid iron alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morard, G.; Siebert, J.; Andrault, D.; Guignot, N.; Garbarino, G.; Guyot, F.; Antonangeli, D.

    2013-07-01

    High-pressure, high-temperature in situ X-ray diffraction has been measured in liquid iron alloys (Fe-5 wt% Ni-12 wt% S and Fe-5 wt% Ni-15 wt% Si) up to 94 GPa and 3200 K in laser-heated diamond anvil cells. From the analysis of the X-ray diffuse scattering signal of the metallic liquids, we determined density and bulk modulus of the two liquid alloys. Comparison with a reference Earth model indicates that a core composition containing 6% of sulfur and 2% of silicon by weight would best match the geophysical data. Models with 2.5% of sulfur and 4-5% of silicon are still consistent with geophysical constraints whereas silicon only compositions are not. These results suggest only moderate depletion of sulfur in the bulk Earth.

  18. Iron-Nickel alloy in the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Heinz, Dion L.; Campbell, Andrew J.; Devine, James M.; Mao, Wendy L.; Shen, Guoyin

    2002-05-01

    The phase relations of an Fe10wt%Ni alloy were investigated in a diamond anvil cell up to 86 GPa and 2382 K. Adding nickel into iron stabilizes the fcc phase to higher pressures and lower temperatures compared to pure iron, and a region of two-phase coexistence between fcc and hcp phases is observed. Iron with up to 10 wt% nickel is likely to be in the hcp structure under inner core conditions. The axial ratio (c/a) of hcp-Fe10wt%Ni has a weak pressure dependence, but it increases substantially with increasing temperature. The extrapolated c/a ratio at ~5700 K and ~86 GPa is approximately 1.64, lower than a theoretically predicted value of nearly 1.7 for hcp-Fe at 5700 K and inner-core pressure. A lower c/a ratio should have an effect on the longitudinal anisotropy of the hcp phase, and hence, may influence the interpretation of the seismic wave anisotropy of the inner core.

  19. Heusler Alloyed Electrodes Integrated in Magnetic Tunnel-Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hütten, Andreas; Kämmerer, Sven; Schmalhorst, Jan; Reiss, Günter

    As a consequence of the growing theoretically predictions of 100% spin polarized half- and full-Heusler compounds over the past 6 years, Heusler alloys are among the most promising materials class for future magnetoelectronic and spintronic applications. We have integrated Co2MnSi as a representative of the full-Heusler compound family as one magnetic electrode into technological relevant magnetic tunnel junctions. The resulting tunnel magnetoresistance at 20 K was determined to be 95% corresponding to a Co2MnSi spin polarization of 66% in combination with an AlOx barrier thickness of 1.8 nm. For magnetic tunnel junctions prepared with an initially larger Al layer prior to oxidation the tunnel magnetoresistance at 20 K increases to about 108% associated with a Co2MnSi spin polarization of 72% clearly proving that Co2MnSi is already superior to 3d-based magnetic elements or their alloys. The corresponding room temperature values of the tunnel magnetoresistance are 33% and 41%, respectively. Structural and magnetic properties of the Co2MnSi AlOx - barrier interface have been studied with X-ray diffraction, electron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and it is shown that the ferromagnetic order of Mn and Co spins at this interface is only induced in optimally annealed Co2MnSi layer. The underlying atomic ordering mechanism responsible for achieving about its theoretical magnetic moment could be assigned to the elimination of Co-Si antisite defects whereas the reduction of Co-Mn antisite defects results in large tunnel magnetoresistance. The presence of a step like tunnel barrier which is already created during plasma oxidation while preparing the AlOx tunnel barrier has been identified as the current limitation to achieve larger tunnel magnetoresistance and hence larger spin polarization and is a direct consequence of the oxygen affinity of the Co2MnSi - Heusler elements Mn and Si.

  20. Magnetism and high magnetic-field-induced stability of alloy carbides in Fe-based materials.

    PubMed

    Hou, T P; Wu, K M; Liu, W M; Peet, M J; Hulme-Smith, C N; Guo, L; Zhuang, L

    2018-02-14

    Understanding the nature of the magnetic-field-induced precipitation behaviors represents a major step forward towards unravelling the real nature of interesting phenomena in Fe-based alloys and especially towards solving the key materials problem for the development of fusion energy. Experimental results indicate that the applied high magnetic field effectively promotes the precipitation of M 23 C 6 carbides. We build an integrated method, which breaks through the limitations of zero temperature and zero external field, to concentrate on the dependence of the stability induced by the magnetic effect, excluding the thermal effect. We investigate the intimate relationship between the external field and the origins of various magnetics structural characteristics, which are derived from the interactions among the various Wyckoff sites of iron atoms, antiparallel spin of chromium and Fe-C bond distances. The high-magnetic-field-induced exchange coupling increases with the strength of the external field, which then causes an increase in the parallel magnetic moment. The stability of the alloy carbide M 23 C 6 is more dependent on external field effects than thermal effects, whereas that of M 2 C, M 3 C and M 7 C 3 is mainly determined by thermal effects.

  1. 4-d magnetism: Electronic structure and magnetism of some Mo-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Bose, S. K.; Kudrnovský, J.

    2017-02-01

    We report results of a first-principles density-functional study of alloys of the 4 d -element Mo with group IV elements Si, Ge and Sn in zinc blende (ZB) and rock salt (RS) structures. The study was motivated by a similar study of ours based on the 4 d -element Tc, which showed the presence of half-metallic states with integer magnetic moment (1μB) per formula unit in TcX (X=C, Si, Ge) alloys. The calculated Curie temperatures for the ferromagnetic (FM) phases were low, around or less than 300 K. Searching for the possibility of 4 d -based alloys with higher Curie temperatures we have carried out the study involving the elements Mo, Ru and Rh. Among these the most promising case appears to be that involving the element Mo. Among the MoX (X=Si, Ge, Sn) alloys in ZB and RS structures, both MoGe and MoSn in ZB structures are found to possess an integer magnetic moment of 2μB per formula unit. ZB MoSn can be classified as a marginal/weak half-metal or a spin gapless semiconductor, while ZB MoGe would be best described as a gapless magnetic semiconductor. The calculated Curie temperatures are in the range 300-700 K. Considering the theoretical uncertainty in the band gaps due not only to the treatment of exchange and correlation effects, but density functional theory itself, these classifications may change somewhat, but both merit investigation from the viewpoint of potential spintronic application. Based on their higher Curie temperatures, Mo-based alloys would serve such purpose better than the previously reported Tc-based ones.

  2. Intralayer magnetic ordering in Ge/Mn digital alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otrokov, M. M.; Ernst, A.; Ostanin, S.; Fischer, G.; Buczek, P.; Sandratskii, L. M.; Hergert, W.; Mertig, I.; Kuznetsov, V. M.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2011-04-01

    We present a first-principles investigation of the electronic properties of Ge/Mn digital alloys obtained by the insertion of Mn monolayers in the Ge host. The main attention is devoted to the study of the magnetic properties of the Mn layers for various types of ordering of the Mn atoms. Depending on the type of Mn position three different structures are considered: substitutional, interstitial, and combined substitutional-interstitial. In all three cases numerical structural relaxation of the atomic positions has been performed. We find that the intralayer exchange parameters depend strongly on the crystal structure. For the substitutional and interstitial types of structure the stable magnetic order was found to be ferromagnetic. For the mixed substitutional-interstitial structure the ferromagnetic configuration appears unstable and a complex ferrimagnetic structure forms. The spin-wave excitations are calculated within the Heisenberg model. The critical temperatures of the magnetic phase transitions are determined using Monte Carlo simulations with interatomic exchange parameters obtained for two different magnetic reference states: a ferromagnetic and a disordered local moment state.

  3. Mimicking the magnetic properties of rare earth elements using superatoms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bo; Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Castleman, A W

    2015-04-21

    Rare earth elements (REs) consist of a very important group in the periodic table that is vital to many modern technologies. The mining process, however, is extremely damaging to the environment, making them low yield and very expensive. Therefore, mimicking the properties of REs in a superatom framework is especially valuable but at the same time, technically challenging and requiring advanced concepts about manipulating properties of atom/molecular complexes. Herein, by using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we provide original idea and direct experimental evidence that chosen boron-doped clusters could mimic the magnetic characteristics of REs. Specifically, the neutral LaB and NdB clusters are found to have similar unpaired electrons and magnetic moments as their isovalent REs (namely Nd and Eu, respectively), opening up the great possibility in accomplishing rare earth mimicry. Extension of the superatom concept into the rare earth group not only further shows the power and advance of this concept but also, will stimulate more efforts to explore new superatomic clusters to mimic the chemistry of these heavy atoms, which will be of great importance in designing novel building blocks in the application of cluster-assembled nanomaterials. Additionally, based on these experimental findings, a novel "magic boron" counting rule is proposed to estimate the numbers of unpaired electrons in diatomic LnB clusters.

  4. Earth's external magnetic fields at low orbital altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpar, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Under our Jun. 1987 proposal, Magnetic Signatures of Near-Earth Distributed Currents, we proposed to render operational a modeling procedure that had been previously developed to compute the magnetic effects of distributed currents flowing in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. After adaptation of the software to our computing environment we would apply the model to low altitude satellite orbits and would utilize the MAGSAT data suite to guide the analysis. During the first year, basic computer codes to run model systems of Birkeland and ionospheric currents and several graphical output routines were made operational on a VAX 780 in our research facility. Software performance was evaluated using an input matchstick ionospheric current array, field aligned currents were calculated and magnetic perturbations along hypothetical satellite orbits were calculated. The basic operation of the model was verified. Software routines to analyze and display MAGSAT satellite data in terms of deviations with respect to the earth's internal field were also made operational during the first year effort. The complete set of MAGSAT data to be used for evaluation of the models was received at the end of the first year. A detailed annual report in May 1989 described these first year activities completely. That first annual report is included by reference in this final report. This document summarizes our additional activities during the second year of effort and describes the modeling software, its operation, and includes as an attachment the deliverable computer software specified under the contract.

  5. Mapping magnetic field lines between the Sun and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Gosling, J. T.; Steward, G.; Francis, M.; Neudegg, D.; Schulte in den Bäumen, H.; Player, P. R.; Milne, A. R.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic field topologies between the Sun and Earth are important for the connectivity to Earth of solar suprathermal particles, e.g., solar energetic particles and beam electrons in type III solar radio bursts. An approach is developed for mapping large-scale magnetic field lines near the solar equatorial plane, using near-Earth observations and a solar wind model with nonzero azimuthal magnetic field at the source surface. Unlike Parker's spiral model, which restricts the in-ecliptic angle ΦB in the Geocentric Solar Ecliptic coordinates to (90°-180°, 270°-360°) and so is unable to predict field configurations for the other ΦB values frequently observed in the solar wind, our approach can account for all the observed ΦB values. A set of predicted maps shows that near both minimal and maximal solar activity the field lines are typically open and that loops with both ends either connected to or disconnected from the Sun are relatively rare. The open field lines, nonetheless, often do not closely follow the Parker spiral, being less or more tightly wound, or strongly azimuthally or radially oriented, or inverted. The time-varying classes, e.g., bidirectional electrons, of suprathermal electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) at 1 AU are predicted from the mapped field line configurations and compared with Wind observations for two solar rotations, one each near solar minimum and solar maximum. PAD predictions by our approach agree quantitatively (≈90%) with the PAD observations and outperform (by ≈20%) PAD predictions using Parker's model.

  6. Magnetization curves of sintered heavy tungsten alloys for applications in MRI-guided radiotherapy

    SciT

    Kolling, Stefan; Oborn, Bradley M.; Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Due to the current interest in MRI-guided radiotherapy, the magnetic properties of the materials commonly used in radiotherapy are becoming increasingly important. In this paper, measurement results for the magnetization (BH) curves of a range of sintered heavy tungsten alloys used in radiation shielding and collimation are presented. Methods: Sintered heavy tungsten alloys typically contain >90 % tungsten and <10 % of a combination of iron, nickel, and copper binders. Samples of eight different grades of sintered heavy tungsten alloys with varying binder content were investigated. Using a superconducting quantum interference detector magnetometer, the induced magnetic momentm was measured for eachmore » sample as a function of applied external field H{sub 0} and the BH curve derived. Results: The iron content of the alloys was found to play a dominant role, directly influencing the magnetizationM and thus the nonlinearity of the BH curve. Generally, the saturation magnetization increased with increasing iron content of the alloy. Furthermore, no measurable magnetization was found for all alloys without iron content, despite containing up to 6% of nickel. For two samples from different manufacturers but with identical quoted nominal elemental composition (95% W, 3.5% Ni, 1.5% Fe), a relative difference in the magnetization of 11%–16% was measured. Conclusions: The measured curves show that the magnetic properties of sintered heavy tungsten alloys strongly depend on the iron content, whereas the addition of nickel in the absence of iron led to no measurable effect. Since a difference in the BH curves for two samples with identical quoted nominal composition from different manufacturers was observed, measuring of the BH curve for each individual batch of heavy tungsten alloys is advisable whenever accurate knowledge of the magnetic properties is crucial. The obtained BH curves can be used in FEM simulations to predict the magnetic impact of sintered

  7. Project Centaur. [for earth dayside magnetic cleft investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brence, W. A.; Hardin, J. W.; Crook, E. D.; Roberts, H.

    1982-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Canada Centre for Space Science, National Research Council of Canada (NRCC), conducted a cooperative sounding rocket campaign in the Canadian Arctic during November/December 1981. The objective of the campaign was to investigate the earth's dayside magnetic cleft region. The project was named CENTAUR for Cleft Energetics Transport and Ultraviolet Radiation. Remote launch support facilities were established at Cape Parry, NWT, Canada (70 deg 10 min N latitude, 124 deg 40 min W longitude). The cleft region is accessible from this location when launched poleward during reasonably quiet magnetic activity. Five large sounding rockets were launched (3 NASA, 2 NRCC). About 30 scientific experiments were launched, and an extensive array of ground based experiments was established at Cape Parry and at Sachs Harbour, Banks Island, 130 miles poleward. This paper discusses the unique organization, planning, facilities, instrumentation, and operation required to support the campaign, and looks briefly at the results.

  8. Modelling the core magnetic field of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, C. G. A.; Carle, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that radial off-center dipoles located within the core of the earth be used instead of spherical harmonics of the magnetic potential in modeling the core magnetic field. The off-center dipoles, in addition to more realistically modeling the physical current systems within the core, are if located deep within the core more effective at removing long wavelength signals of either potential or field. Their disadvantage is that their positions and strengths are more difficult to compute, and such effects as upward and downward continuation are more difficult to manipulate. It is nevertheless agreed with Cox (1975) and Alldredge and Hurwitz (1964) that physical realism in models is more important than mathematical convenience. A radial dipole model is presented which agrees with observations of secular variation and excursions.

  9. Polarity reversals and tilt of the Earth's magnetic dipole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolginov, A. Z.

    1993-01-01

    There is evidence that the terrestrial magnetic field is connected with the Earth's mantle: (1) there are magnetic anomalies that do not take part in the westward drift of the main field, but are fixed with respect to the mantle; (2) the geomagnetic pole position flips in a particular way by preferred meridional paths during a reversal; and (3) magnetic polarity reversals are correlated with the activations of geological processes. These facts may be explained if we take into account that a significant horizontal temperature gradient can exist in the top levels of the liquid core because of the different thermoconductivity of the different areas of the core-mantle boundary. These temperature inhomogeneities can penetrate the core because fluxes along the core boundary (the thermal wind) can be strongly suppressed by a small redistribution of the chemical composition in the top of the core. The nonparallel gradients of the temperature, density, and composition on the top of the core create a curled electric field that produces a current and a magnetic field. This seed-field can be amplified by motions in the core. The resulting field does not forget the seed-field distribution and in this way the field on the Earth surface (that can be created only in regions with high conductivity, i.e. in the core) is connected with the core-mantle boundary. Contrary to the usual approach to the dynamo problem, we will take into account that the seed field of thermoelectric origin is acting not only at some initial moment of time but permanently.

  10. Magnetic Modes in Rare Earth Perovskites: A Magnetic-Field-Dependent Inelastic Light Scattering study.

    PubMed

    Saha, Surajit; Cao, Bing-Chen; Motapothula, M; Cong, Chun-Xiao; Sarkar, Tarapada; Srivastava, Amar; Sarkar, Soumya; Patra, Abhijeet; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Ariando; Coey, J M D; Yu, Ting; Venkatesan, T

    2016-11-15

    Here, we report the presence of defect-related states with magnetic degrees of freedom in crystals of LaAlO 3 and several other rare-earth based perovskite oxides using inelastic light scattering (Raman spectroscopy) at low temperatures in applied magnetic fields of up to 9 T. Some of these states are at about 140 meV above the valence band maximum while others are mid-gap states at about 2.3 eV. No magnetic impurity could be detected in LaAlO 3 by Proton-Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy. We, therefore, attribute the angular momentum-like states in LaAlO 3 to cationic/anionic vacancies or anti-site defects. Comparison with the other rare earth perovskites leads to the empirical rule that the magnetic-field-sensitive transitions require planes of heavy elements (e.g. lanthanum) and oxygen without any other light cations in the same plane. These magnetic degrees of freedom in rare earth perovskites with useful dielectric properties may be tunable by appropriate defect engineering for magneto-optic applications.

  11. Electrodeposition of quaternary alloys in the presence of magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Electrodeposition of Ni-Co-Fe-Zn alloys was done in a chloride ion solution with the presence and absence of a Permanent Parallel Magnetic Field (PPMF). The PPMF was applied parallel to the cathode surface. The deposition profile was monitored chronoamperometrically. It was found that the electrodeposition current was enhanced in the presence of PPMF (9 T) compared to without PPMF. The percentage of current enhancement (Γ%) was increased in the presence of PPMF, with results of Γ% = 11.9%, 16.7% and 18.5% at -1.1, -1.2 and -1.3 V respectively for a 2400 sec duration. In chronoamperometry, the Composition Reference Line (CRL) for Ni was around 57%, although the nobler metals (i.e. Ni, Co) showed anomalous behaviour in the presence of Zn and Fe. The anomalous behaviour of the Ni-Co-Fe-Zn electrodeposition was shown by the Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) results. From Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements, it was found that the surface roughness of the Ni-Co-Fe-Zn alloy films decreased in the presence of a PPMF. PMID:20604934

  12. The Earth's Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the earth's core is described. Indirect evidence (such as that determined from seismological data) indicates that it is an iron alloy, solid toward its center but otherwise liquid. Evidence also suggests that it is the turbulent flow of the liquid that generates the earth's magnetic field. (JN)

  13. The impact of rare earth cobalt permanent magnets on electromechanical device design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. L.; Studer, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    Specific motor designs which employ rare earth cobalt magnets are discussed with special emphasis on their unique properties and magnetic field geometry. In addition to performance improvements and power savings, high reliability devices are attainable. Both the mechanism and systems engineering should be aware of the new performance levels which are currently becoming available as a result of the rare earth cobalt magnets.

  14. Thermal and damping behaviour of magnetic shape memory alloy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glock, Susanne; Michaud, Véronique

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (MSMA) exhibit magnetic field and stress induced strains via energy dissipating twinning. Embedding single crystalline MSMA particles into a polymer matrix could thus produce composites with enhanced energy dissipation, suitable for damping applications. Composites of ferromagnetic, martensitic or austenitic Ni-Mn-Ga powders embedded in a standard epoxy matrix were produced by casting. The martensitic powder composites showed a crystal structure dependent damping behaviour that was more dissipative than that of austenitic powder or Cu-Ni reference powder composites and than that of the pure matrix. The loss ratio also increased with increasing strain amplitude and decreasing frequency, respectively. Furthermore, Ni-Mn-Ga powder composites exhibited an increased damping behaviour at the martensite/austenite transformation temperature of the Ni-Mn-Ga particles in addition to that at the glass transition temperature of the epoxy matrix, creating possible synergetic effects.

  15. Structure and magnetic properties of nanostructured MnNi alloys fabricated by mechanical alloying and annealing treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalal, T.; Hossein Nedjad, S.; Khalili Molan, S.

    2013-05-01

    A nearly equiatomic MnNi alloy was fabricated from the elemental powders by means of mechanical alloying in a planetary ball milling apparatus. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and measurements of magnetization were conducted to identify the structural states and properties of the prepared alloys. After ball milling for 20 h, a disordered face-centered cubic (f.c.c.) solid solution was formed which increased in lattice parameter by further milling up to 50 h. An exothermic reaction took place at around 300-400°C during continuous heating of the disordered f.c.c. solid solution. This reaction is attributed to a structural ordering leading to the formation of a face-centered tetragonal (f.c.t.) phase with L10 type ordering. Examination of the magnetic properties indicated that the structural ordering increases remnant magnetization and decreases coerecivity.

  16. Site-preference and valency for rare-earth sites in (R-Ce)2Fe14B magnets

    SciT

    Alam, Aftab; Khan, Mahmud; McCallum, R. W.

    2013-01-28

    Rare-earth (R) permanent magnets of R2Fe14B have technological importance due to their high energy products, and they have two R-sites (Wyckoff 4f and 4g, with four-fold multiplicity) that affect chemistry and valence. Designing magnetic behavior and stability via alloying is technologically relevant to reduce critical (expensive) R-content while retaining key properties; cerium, an abundant (cheap) R-element, offers this potential. We calculate magnetic properties and Ce site preference in (R1-xCex)2Fe14B [R=La,Nd] using density functional theory (DFT) methods—including a DFT+U scheme to treat localized 4f-electrons. Fe moments compare well with neutron data—almost unaffected by Hubbard U, and weakly affected by spin-orbit coupling.more » In La2Fe14B, Ce alloys for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and prefers smaller R(4f) sites, as observed, a trend we find unaffected by valence. Whereas, in Nd2Fe14B, Ce is predicted to have limited alloying (x ≤ 0.3) with a preference for larger R(4g) sites, resulting in weak partial ordering and segregation. The Curie temperatures versus x for (Nd,Ce) were predicted for a typical sample processing and verified experimentally.« less

  17. Site-preference and valency for rare-earth sites in (R-Ce)(2)Fe14B magnets

    SciT

    Alam, A; Khan, M; McCallum, RW

    2013-01-28

    Rare-earth (R) permanent magnets of R2Fe14B have technological importance due to their high energy products, and they have two R-sites (Wyckoff 4f and 4g, with four-fold multiplicity) that affect chemistry and valence. Designing magnetic behavior and stability via alloying is technologically relevant to reduce critical (expensive) R-content while retaining key properties; cerium, an abundant (cheap) R-element, offers this potential. We calculate magnetic properties and Ce site preference in (R1-xCex)(2)Fe14B [R = La, Nd] using density functional theory (DFT) methods-including a DFT+U scheme to treat localized 4f-electrons. Fe moments compare well with neutron data-almost unaffected by Hubbard U, and weakly affectedmore » by spin-orbit coupling. In La2Fe14B, Ce alloys for 0 <= x <= 1 and prefers smaller R(4f) sites, as observed, a trend we find unaffected by valence. Whereas, in Nd2Fe14B, Ce is predicted to have limited alloying (x <= 0.3) with a preference for larger R(4g) sites, resulting in weak partial ordering and segregation. The Curie temperatures versus x for (Nd, Ce) were predicted for a typical sample processing and verified experimentally. (C) 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4789527]« less

  18. Magnetic properties of Co2Fe(Ga1-xSix) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Bhargab; Chakraborty, Dibyashree; Srinivasan, Ananthakrishnan

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic and crystallographic properties of bulk Co2Fe(Ga1-xSix) alloys with 0≤x≤1 are reported in this work. The alloys with x=0.75 and 1.00 exhibit L21 structure whereas the alloys with x=0, 0.25 and 0.50 crystallized in the disordered A2 phase. Unit cell volume of this series of alloys decreased from 189.1 to 178.5 Å3 as x was increased from 0 to 1.00. All alloy compositions exhibit ferromagnetic behavior with a high Curie temperature (TC) which showed a systematic variation with x (1089 K, 1075 K, 1059 K, 1019 K and 1015 K for x=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00, respectively). The saturation magnetization moment Ms for the alloys with x=0, 0.25 and 0.50 are 5.05μB, 5.23μB, 5.49μB, respectively, in accordance with the Slater-Pauling rule, but alloys with x=0.75 and 1.00 deviated from this rule. The effective moment per magnetic atom (pc) of the alloys was estimated from the inverse DC magnetic susceptibility data above TC. A comparison of Ms with pc reveals the half-metallic character of the alloys.

  19. Abnormal variation of magnetic properties with Ce content in (PrNdCe)2Fe14B sintered magnets prepared by dual alloy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue-Feng, Zhang; Jian-Ting, Lan; Zhu-Bai, Li; Yan-Li, Liu; Le-Le, Zhang; Yong-Feng, Li; Qian, Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Resource-saving (PrNdCe)2Fe14B sintered magnets with nominal composition (PrNd)15-x Ce x Fe77B8 (x = 0-10) were prepared using a dual alloy method by mixing (PrNd)5Ce10Fe77B8 with (PrNd)15Fe77B8 powders. For Ce atomic percent of 1% and 2%, coercivity decreases dramatically. With further increase of Ce atomic percent, the coercivity increases, peaks at 6.38 kOe in (PrNd)11Ce4Fe77B8, and then declines gradually. The abnormal dependence of coercivity is likely related to the inhomogeneity of rare earth chemical composition in the intergranular phase, where PrNd concentration is strongly dependent on the additive amount of (PrNd)5Ce10Fe77B8 powders. In addition, for Ce atomic percent of 8%, 7%, and 6% the coercivity is higher than that of magnets prepared by the conventional method, which shows the advantage of the dual alloy method in preparing high abundant rare earth magnets. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51461033, 51571126, 51541105, and 11547032), the Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia, China (Grant No. 2013MS0110), and the Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology Innovation Fund, China.

  20. Magnetic effect on oxide-scale growth of Fe-5Cr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C. H.; Li, X. W.; Wang, S. H.; Ma, H. T.

    2018-01-01

    The oxidation behaviour of Fe-5Cr alloy was investigated at 650°C in the presence of magnetic field. Results indicated that the oxide scales were both consisted of an outer Fe-oxide scale and an inner mixed-oxide scale in the presence or absence of magnetic field. The oxide-scale growth of Fe-5Cr alloy, gained by measuring the oxide-scale thickness, was verified to follow parabolic lawyer. And the oxidation kinetics showed that the applied magnetic field retarded the oxide-scale growth of Fe-5Cr alloy.

  1. Microstructural characterisation of Al-Si cast alloys containing rare earth additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgallad, E. M.; Ibrahim, M. F.; Doty, H. W.; Samuel, F. H.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a thorough study on the effect of rare earth elements, specifically La and Ce, on the microstructure characteristics of non-modified and Sr-modified A356 and A413 alloys. Several alloys were prepared by adding 1% La and 1% Ce either individually or in combination. Microstructural characterisation was carried out using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The results showed that the individual and combined additions of La and Ce did not bring about any modification or even refinement in the eutectic Si structure. Moreover, these additions were found to negate the modification effect of Sr, particularly in the presence of La. The A356 and A413 alloys containing La and/or Ce displayed high phase volume fractions owing to the formation of Al-Si-La/Ce/(La,Ce) and Al-Ti-La/Ce intermetallic phases. DSC analysis revealed that the formation temperatures of these phases varied from 560 to 568 °C and 568 to 574 °C, respectively. This analysis also showed that the addition of La and Ce whether individually or in combination resulted in a depression in the eutectic temperature and a considerable increase in the solidification range, particularly for the A413 alloy.

  2. Probing the Earth's core with magnetic field observations from Swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, Christopher; Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros; Gillet, Nicolas; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    By far the largest part of the Earth's magnetic field is generated by motions taking place within our planet's liquid metal outer core. Variations of this core-generated field thus provide a unique means of probing the dynamics taking place in the deepest reaches of the Earth. In this contribution we present a new high resolution model of the core-generated magnetic field, and its recent time changes, derived from a dataset that includes more two years of observations from the Swarm mission. Resulting inferences regarding the underlying core flow, its dynamics, and the nature of the geodynamo process will be discussed. The CHAOS-6 geomagnetic field model, covering the interval 1999-2016, is derived from magnetic data collected by the three Swarm missions, as well as the earlier CHAMP and Oersted satellites, and monthly means data collected from 160 ground observatories. Advantage is taken of the constellation aspect of the Swarm mission by ingesting both scalar and vector field differences along-track and across track between the lower pair of Swarm satellites. The internal part of the model consists of a spherical harmonic (SH) expansion, time-dependent for degrees 20 and below. The model coefficients are estimated using a regularized, iteratively reweighted, least squares scheme involving Huber weights. At Earth's surface, CHAOS-6 shows evidence for positive acceleration of the field intensity in 2015 over a broad area around longitude 90deg E that is also seen at ground observatories such as Novosibirsk. At the core surface, we are able to map the secular variation (linear trend in the magnetic field) up to SH degree 16. The radial field acceleration at the core surface in 2015 is found be largest at low latitudes under the India-South East Asia region and under the region of northern South America, as well as at high northern latitudes under Alaska and Siberia. Surprisingly, there is also evidence for some acceleration in the central Pacific region, for example

  3. Effects of microstructures on the performance of rare-earth-free MnBi magnetic materials and magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Vuong Van; Nguyen, Truong Xuan

    2018-03-01

    Since the solidification of MnBi alloys is peritectic, their microstructures always consist of the starting phases of Mn and Bi and the productive phase MnBi. The high performance of MnBi bulk magnets requires appropriate routes of preparing MnBi powders of high spontaneous magnetization Ms and large coercivity iHc as well a route of producing bulk magnets thereof. In these routes, the microstructures of arc-melted alloys, annealed alloys and magnets strongly related to the quality of powders and the performance of magnets. The paper proves that: i) The microstructure of fine Mn-inclusions embedded in the matrix of Bi is preferred for arc-melted alloys to realize the rapid evolution of the ferromagnetic phase inside them during their sequent annealing process; ii) The time-controlled annealing process plays a key role in controlling the microstructure with the main ferromagnetic phase matrix, in which the rest of Mn and the Bi accumulations are embedded; iii) The cold (in-liquid-nitrogen) ball milling annealed alloys is required for preparing a high quality powders with the preferred sub-micrometer microstructure without a Bi-decomposition; iv) The short-time warm compaction is crucial to fabricate dense, highly textured bulk magnets with the micrometer microstructure. The realization and control of these preferred microstructures figured in these routes enhance the chance of preparing MnBi bulk magnets with the energy product (BH)max larger than 8 MGOe.

  4. Magnetic State of Quasiordered Fe-Al Alloys Doped with Ga and B: Magnetic Phase Separation and Spin Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronina, E. V.; Ivanova, A. G.; Arzhnikov, A. K.; Chumakov, A. I.; Chistyakova, N. I.; Pyataev, A. V.; Korolev, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Results of structural, magnetic, and Mössbauer studies of quasi ordered alloys Fe65Al35 - x M x ( M x = Ga, B; x = 0, 5 at %) are presented. The magnetic state of examined structurally-single-phase alloys at low temperatures is interpreted from the viewpoint of magnetic phase separation. An explanation is proposed for the observed behavior of magnetic characteristics of Fe65Al35 and Fe65Al30Ga5 in the framework of the model of two magnetic phases, a ferromagnetic-type one and a spin density wave. The boron-doped alloy Fe65Al30B5 is shown to demonstrate behavior that is typical of materials with the ferromagnetic type of ordering.

  5. Endothelialization of Novel Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloys with Fluoride and Collagen Coating

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Workman, Benjamin; Zhu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are promising scaffolds for the next generation of cardiovascular stents because of their better biocompatibility and biodegradation compared to traditional metals. However, insufficient mechanical strength and high degradation rate are still the two main limitations for Mg materials. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment and collagen coating were used in this research to improve the endothelialization of two rare earth-based Mg alloys. Results demonstrated that a nanoporous film structure of fluoride with thickness of ~20 μm was formed on the Mg material surface, which improved the corrosion resistance. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) had much better attachment, spreading, growth and proliferation (the process of endothelialization) on HF-treated Mg materials compared to bare- or collagen-coated ones. PMID:24670478

  6. Magnetic properties of CoNiFe alloys electrodeposited under potential and current control conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, L.; Attenborough, K.; De Boeck, J.; Celis, J. P.; Aroca, C.; Sánchez, P.; López, E.; Sánchez, M. C.

    2002-04-01

    Electrodeposited CoNiFe alloys have been produced under potential and current control conditions. It was found that composition, crystalline structure and magnetic properties are the same irrespective of which plating control is used. Magnetic anisotropy is present in the softest samples. A study of the dependence of magnetic properties and domain structure on the thickness of the films is also reported.

  7. Texture evolution during thermomechanical processing in rare earth free magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Victoria Mayne

    The use of wrought magnesium alloys is highly desirable for a wide range of applications where low component weight is desirable due to the high specific strength and stiffness the alloys can achieve. However, the implementation of wrought magnesium has been hindered by the limited room temperature formability which typically results from deformation processing. This work identifies opportunities for texture modification during thermomechanical processing of conventional (rare earth free) magnesium alloys via a combination of experimental investigation and polycrystal plasticity simulations. During deformation, it is observed that a homogeneous distribution of coarse intermetallic particles efficiently weakens deformation texture at all strain levels, while a highly inhomogeneous particle distribution is only effective at high strains. The particle deformation effects are complemented by the addition of alkaline earth solute, which modifies the relative deformation mode activity. During recrystallization, grains with basal orientations recrystallize more readily than off-basal grains, despite similar levels of internal misorientation. Dislocation substructure investigations revealed that this is a result of enhanced nucleation in the basal grains due to the dominance of prismatic slip. This dissertation identifies avenues to enhance the potential formability of magnesium alloys during thermomechanical processing by minimizing the evolved texture strength. The following are the identified key aspects of microstructural control: -Maintaining a fine grain size, likely via Zener pinning, to favorably modify deformation mode activity and homogenize deformation. -Developing a coarse, homogeneously distributed population of coarse intermetallic particles to promote a diffuse deformation texture. -Minimizing the activity of prismatic slip to retard the recrystallization of grains with basal orientations, allowing the development of a more diffuse recrystallization texture.

  8. Design and development of novel MRI compatible zirconium- ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Zhou, F Y; Li, L; Zheng, Y F

    2016-04-19

    In the present study, novel MRI compatible zirconium-ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility were developed for biomedical and therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. The results demonstrated that alloying with ruthenium into pure zirconium would significantly increase the strength and hardness properties. The corrosion resistance of zirconium-ruthenium alloys increased significantly. High cell viability could be found and healthy cell morphology observed when culturing MG 63 osteoblast-like cells and L-929 fibroblast cells with zirconium-ruthenium alloys, whereas the hemolysis rates of zirconium-ruthenium alloys are <1%, much lower than 5%, the safe value for biomaterials according to ISO 10993-4 standard. Compared with conventional biomedical 316L stainless steel, Co-Cr alloys and Ti-based alloys, the magnetic susceptibilities of the zirconium-ruthenium alloys (1.25 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)-1.29 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1) for zirconium-ruthenium alloys) are ultralow, about one-third that of Ti-based alloys (Ti-6Al-4V, ~3.5 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1), CP Ti and Ti-6Al-7Nb, ~3.0 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)), and one-sixth that of Co-Cr alloys (Co-Cr-Mo, ~7.7 × 10(-6) cm(3)·g(-1)). Among the Zr-Ru alloy series, Zr-1Ru demonstrates enhanced mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and cell viability with lowest magnetic susceptibility, and thus is the optimal Zr-Ru alloy system as therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments.

  9. Design and development of novel MRI compatible zirconium- ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Li, H.F.; Zhou, F.Y.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, novel MRI compatible zirconium-ruthenium alloys with ultralow magnetic susceptibility were developed for biomedical and therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. The results demonstrated that alloying with ruthenium into pure zirconium would significantly increase the strength and hardness properties. The corrosion resistance of zirconium-ruthenium alloys increased significantly. High cell viability could be found and healthy cell morphology observed when culturing MG 63 osteoblast-like cells and L-929 fibroblast cells with zirconium-ruthenium alloys, whereas the hemolysis rates of zirconium-ruthenium alloys are <1%, much lower than 5%, the safe value for biomaterials according to ISO 10993-4 standard. Compared with conventional biomedical 316L stainless steel, Co–Cr alloys and Ti-based alloys, the magnetic susceptibilities of the zirconium-ruthenium alloys (1.25 × 10−6 cm3·g−1–1.29 × 10−6 cm3·g−1 for zirconium-ruthenium alloys) are ultralow, about one-third that of Ti-based alloys (Ti–6Al–4V, ~3.5 × 10−6 cm3·g−1, CP Ti and Ti–6Al–7Nb, ~3.0 × 10−6 cm3·g−1), and one-sixth that of Co–Cr alloys (Co–Cr–Mo, ~7.7 × 10−6 cm3·g−1). Among the Zr–Ru alloy series, Zr–1Ru demonstrates enhanced mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and cell viability with lowest magnetic susceptibility, and thus is the optimal Zr–Ru alloy system as therapeutic devices under MRI diagnostics environments. PMID:27090955

  10. Achievement of high coercivity in sintered R-Fe-B magnets based on misch-metal by dual alloy method

    SciT

    Niu, E, E-mail: niue@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Wang, Zhen-Xi; Beijing Zhong Ke San Huan Research, No.10 Chuangxin Road, Changping District, Beijing 102200

    2014-03-21

    The R-Fe-B (R, rare earth) sintered magnets prepared with different ratio of alloys of MM-Fe-B (MM, misch-metal) and Nd-Fe-B by dual alloy method were investigated. As expected, the high ratio of MM-Fe-B alloy degrades the hard magnetic properties heavily with intrinsic coercivity lower than 5 kOe. When the atomic ratio MM/R ≤ 21.5% the magnetic properties can reach a practical level of B{sub r} ≥ 12.1 kGs, H{sub cj} ≥ 10.7 kOe, and (BH){sub max} ≥ 34.0 MGOe. And the effect of H{sub cj} enhancement by the grain boundary diffusion process is obvious when MM/R ≤ 21.5%. It is revealed that the decrement of intrinsic magnetic properties of R{sub 2}Fe{submore » 14}B matrix phase is not the main reason of the degradation of the magnets with high MM ratio. The change of deteriorated microstructure together with phase component plays fundamental roles in low H{sub cj}. In high MM ratio magnets, (a) after annealing, Ce atoms inside main phase are inclined to be segregated in the outer layer of the main phase grains; (b) there is no thin layer of Ce-rich phase as an analogue of Nd-rich phase to separate main phase grains; (c) excessive Ce tends to form CeFe{sub 2} grains.« less

  11. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoXPd100-X alloys for magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. D.; Natarajarathinam, A.; Tadisina, Z. R.; Chen, P. J.; Shull, R. D.; Gupta, S.

    2017-08-01

    CoFeB/MgO-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJ's) with high anisotropy and low damping are critical for spin-torque transfer random access memory (STT-RAM). Most schemes of making the pinned CoFeB fully perpendicular require ferrimagnets with high damping constants, a high temperature-grown L10 alloy, or an overly complex multilayered synthetic antiferromagnet (SyAF). We report a compositional study of perpendicular CoxPd alloy-pinned Co20Fe60B20/MgO based MTJ stacks, grown at moderate temperatures in a planetary deposition system. The perpendicular anisotropy of the CoxPd alloy films can be tuned based on the layer thickness and composition. The films were characterized by alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM), energy-dispersive X-rays (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) measurements have also been performed on the compositionally varied CoxPd MTJ stacks. The CoxPd alloy becomes fully perpendicular at approximately x = 30% (atomic fraction) Co. Full-film MTJ stacks of Si/SiO2/MgO (13)/CoXPd100-x (50)/Ta (0.3)/CoFeB (1)/MgO (1.6)/CoFeB (1)/Ta (5)/Ru (10), with the numbers enclosed in parentheses being the layer thicknesses in nm, were sputtered onto thermally oxidized silicon substrates and in-situ lamp annealed at 400 °C for 5 min. CIPT measurements indicate that the highest TMR is observed for the CoPd composition with the highest perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  12. On the analytical form of the Earth's magnetic attraction expressed as a function of time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlheim-Gyllenskold, V.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt is made to express the Earth's magnetic attraction in simple analytical form using observations during the 16th to 19th centuries. Observations of the magnetic inclination in the 16th and 17th centuries are discussed.

  13. Electron magnetic reconnection without ion coupling in Earth's turbulent magnetosheath.

    PubMed

    Phan, T D; Eastwood, J P; Shay, M A; Drake, J F; Sonnerup, B U Ö; Fujimoto, M; Cassak, P A; Øieroset, M; Burch, J L; Torbert, R B; Rager, A C; Dorelli, J C; Gershman, D J; Pollock, C; Pyakurel, P S; Haggerty, C C; Khotyaintsev, Y; Lavraud, B; Saito, Y; Oka, M; Ergun, R E; Retino, A; Le Contel, O; Argall, M R; Giles, B L; Moore, T E; Wilder, F D; Strangeway, R J; Russell, C T; Lindqvist, P A; Magnes, W

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic reconnection in current sheets is a magnetic-to-particle energy conversion process that is fundamental to many space and laboratory plasma systems. In the standard model of reconnection, this process occurs in a minuscule electron-scale diffusion region 1,2 . On larger scales, ions couple to the newly reconnected magnetic-field lines and are ejected away from the diffusion region in the form of bi-directional ion jets at the ion Alfvén speed 3-5 . Much of the energy conversion occurs in spatially extended ion exhausts downstream of the diffusion region 6 . In turbulent plasmas, which contain a large number of small-scale current sheets, reconnection has long been suggested to have a major role in the dissipation of turbulent energy at kinetic scales 7-11 . However, evidence for reconnection plasma jetting in small-scale turbulent plasmas has so far been lacking. Here we report observations made in Earth's turbulent magnetosheath region (downstream of the bow shock) of an electron-scale current sheet in which diverging bi-directional super-ion-Alfvénic electron jets, parallel electric fields and enhanced magnetic-to-particle energy conversion were detected. Contrary to the standard model of reconnection, the thin reconnecting current sheet was not embedded in a wider ion-scale current layer and no ion jets were detected. Observations of this and other similar, but unidirectional, electron jet events without signatures of ion reconnection reveal a form of reconnection that can drive turbulent energy transfer and dissipation in electron-scale current sheets without ion coupling.

  14. Earth's dynamo limit of predictability controlled by magnetic dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuillier, Florian; Aubert, Julien; Hulot, Gauthier

    2011-08-01

    To constrain the forecast horizon of geomagnetic data assimilation, it is of interest to quantify the range of predictability of the geodynamo. Following earlier work in the field of dynamic meteorology, we investigate the sensitivity of numerical dynamos to various perturbations applied to the magnetic, velocity and temperature fields. These perturbations result in some errors, which affect all fields in the same relative way, and grow at the same exponential rate λ=τ-1e, independent of the type and the amplitude of perturbation. Errors produced by the limited resolution of numerical dynamos are also shown to produce a similar amplification, with the same exponential rate. Exploring various possible scaling laws, we demonstrate that the growth rate is mainly proportional to an advection timescale. To better understand the mechanism responsible for the error amplification, we next compare these growth rates with two other dynamo outputs which display a similar dependence on advection: the inverse τ-1SV of the secular-variation timescale, characterizing the secular variation of the observable field produced by these dynamos; and the inverse (τmagdiss)-1 of the magnetic dissipation time, characterizing the rate at which magnetic energy is produced to compensate for Ohmic dissipation in these dynamos. The possible role of viscous dissipation is also discussed via the inverse (τkindiss)-1 of the analogous viscous dissipation time, characterizing the rate at which kinetic energy is produced to compensate for viscous dissipation. We conclude that τe tends to equate τmagdiss for dynamos operating in a turbulent regime with low enough Ekman number, and such that τmagdiss < τkindiss. As these conditions are met in the Earth's outer core, we suggest that τe is controlled by magnetic dissipation, leading to a value τe=τmagdiss≈ 30 yr. We finally discuss the consequences of our results for the practical limit of predictability of the geodynamo.

  15. Electron magnetic reconnection without ion coupling in Earth's turbulent magnetosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, T. D.; Eastwood, J. P.; Shay, M. A.; Drake, J. F.; Sonnerup, B. U. Ö.; Fujimoto, M.; Cassak, P. A.; Øieroset, M.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Rager, A. C.; Dorelli, J. C.; Gershman, D. J.; Pollock, C.; Pyakurel, P. S.; Haggerty, C. C.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Lavraud, B.; Saito, Y.; Oka, M.; Ergun, R. E.; Retino, A.; Le Contel, O.; Argall, M. R.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Wilder, F. D.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Magnes, W.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic reconnection in current sheets is a magnetic-to-particle energy conversion process that is fundamental to many space and laboratory plasma systems. In the standard model of reconnection, this process occurs in a minuscule electron-scale diffusion region1,2. On larger scales, ions couple to the newly reconnected magnetic-field lines and are ejected away from the diffusion region in the form of bi-directional ion jets at the ion Alfvén speed3-5. Much of the energy conversion occurs in spatially extended ion exhausts downstream of the diffusion region6. In turbulent plasmas, which contain a large number of small-scale current sheets, reconnection has long been suggested to have a major role in the dissipation of turbulent energy at kinetic scales7-11. However, evidence for reconnection plasma jetting in small-scale turbulent plasmas has so far been lacking. Here we report observations made in Earth's turbulent magnetosheath region (downstream of the bow shock) of an electron-scale current sheet in which diverging bi-directional super-ion-Alfvénic electron jets, parallel electric fields and enhanced magnetic-to-particle energy conversion were detected. Contrary to the standard model of reconnection, the thin reconnecting current sheet was not embedded in a wider ion-scale current layer and no ion jets were detected. Observations of this and other similar, but unidirectional, electron jet events without signatures of ion reconnection reveal a form of reconnection that can drive turbulent energy transfer and dissipation in electron-scale current sheets without ion coupling.

  16. Ab - initio study of rare earth magnesium alloy: TbMg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Meena; Yadav, Priya; Nautiyal, Shashank; Verma, U. P.

    2018-05-01

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of TbMg were analyzed by using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. This intermetallic is stable in structure CsCl (B2 phase) with space group Pm-3m. In electronic properties, we show the electronic band structure and density of states plots. These plots show that this alloy have metallic character because there is no band gap between the valance band and conduction band at Fermi level. The structural properties, i.e. equilibrium lattice constant, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative, energy and volume show good agreement with available data. In this paper, we also present the total magnetic moment along with the magnetic moment on the atomic and interstitial sites of TbMg intermetallic in B2 phase.

  17. Structural, Kinetic And Magnetic Properties Of Mechanically Alloyed Fe-Zr Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Debabrata; Perumal, A.; Srinivasan, A.

    2008-04-01

    We report the study of amorphous/non-equilibrium solid solution Fe100-xZrx (x = 20 to 35) alloys by mechanical alloying process. It is observed that with increasing Zr substitution, (a) the activation energy increases, (b) the saturation magnetization and coercivity show oscillating behavior. Low temperature magnetic measurements show the presence of spin-glass like phase transition even at H = 10 kOe. The oscillating behavior of magnetic parameters is explained on the basis of variations in the average internal stress calculated using magnetic data.

  18. Enhanced magnetoelectric effects in composite of piezoelectric ceramics, rare-earth iron alloys, and shape-optimized nanocrystalline alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jitao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; He, Wei; Yang, Aichao; Lu, Caijiang

    2014-03-01

    An enhancement for magnetoelectric (ME) effects is studied in a three-phase ME architecture consisting of two magnetostrictive Terfenol-D (Tb(0.3)Dy(0.7)Fe(1.92)) plates, a piezoelectric PZT (Pb(Zr,Ti)O3) plate, and a pair of shape-optimized FeCuNbSiB nanocrystalline alloys. By modifying the conventional shape of the magnetic flux concentrator, the shape-optimized flux concentrator has an improved effective permeability (μ(eff)) due to the shape-induced demagnetizing effect at its end surface. The flux concentrator concentrates and amplifies the external magnetic flux into Terfenol-D plate by means of changing its internal flux concentrating manner. Consequently, more flux lines can be uniformly concentrated into Terfenol-D plates. The effective piezomagnetic coefficients (d(33m)) of Terfenol-D plate and the ME voltage coefficients (α(ME)) can be further improved under a lower magnetic bias field. The dynamic magneto-elastic properties and the effective magnetic induction of Terfenol-D are taken into account to derive the enhanced effective ME voltage coefficients (α(ME,eff)), the consistency of experimental results and theoretical analyses verifies this enhancement. The experimental results demonstrate that the maximum d(33m) in our proposed architecture achieves 22.48 nm/A under a bias of 114 Oe. The maximum α(ME) in the bias magnetic range 0-900 Oe reaches 84.73 mV/Oe under the low frequency of 1 kHz, and 2.996 V/Oe under the resonance frequency of 102.3 kHz, respectively. It exhibits a 1.43 times larger piezomagnetic coefficient and a 1.87 times higher ME voltage coefficient under a smaller magnetic bias of 82 Oe than those of a conventional Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D composite. These shape-induced magnetoelectric behaviors provide the possibility of using this ME architecture in ultra-sensitive magnetic sensors.

  19. Effect of a weak transverse magnetic field on the microstructure in directionally solidified peritectic alloys

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Lu, Zhenyuan; Fautrelle, Yves; Gagnoud, Annie; Moreau, Rene; Ren, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    Effect of a weak transverse magnetic field on the microstructures in directionally solidified Fe-Ni and Pb-Bi peritectic alloys has been investigated experimentally. The results indicate that the magnetic field can induce the formation of banded and island-like structures and refine the primary phase in peritectic alloys. The above results are enhanced with increasing magnetic field. Furthermore, electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA) analysis reveals that the magnetic field increases the Ni solute content on one side and enhances the solid solubility in the primary phase in the Fe-Ni alloy. The thermoelectric (TE) power difference at the liquid/solid interface of the Pb-Bi peritectic alloy is measured in situ, and the results show that a TE power difference exists at the liquid/solid interface. 3 D numerical simulations for the TE magnetic convection in the liquid are performed, and the results show that a unidirectional TE magnetic convection forms in the liquid near the liquid/solid interface during directional solidification under a transverse magnetic field and that the amplitude of the TE magnetic convection at different scales is different. The TE magnetic convections on the macroscopic interface and the cell/dendrite scales are responsible for the modification of microstructures during directional solidification under a magnetic field. PMID:27886265

  20. Magnetic transition and sound velocities of Fe 3S at high pressure: implications for Earth and planetary cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Fei, Yingwei; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Zhao, Jiyong; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2004-09-01

    Magnetic, elastic, thermodynamic, and vibrational properties of the most iron-rich sulfide, Fe3S, known to date have been studied with synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy (SMS) and nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (NRIXS) up to 57 GPa at room temperature. The magnetic hyperfine fields derived from the time spectra of the synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy show that the low-pressure magnetic phase displays two magnetic hyperfine field sites and that a magnetic collapse occurs at 21 GPa. The magnetic to non-magnetic transition significantly affects the elastic, thermodynamic, and vibrational properties of Fe3S. The magnetic collapse of Fe3S may also affect the phase relations in the iron-sulfur system, changing the solubility of sulfur in iron under higher pressures. Determination of the physical properties of the non-magnetic Fe3S phase is important for the interpretation of the amount and properties of sulfur present in the planetary cores. Sound velocities of Fe3S obtained from the measured partial phonon density of states (PDOS) for 57Fe incorporated in the alloy show that Fe3S has higher compressional and shear wave velocity than those of hcp-Fe and hcp-Fe0.92Ni0.08 alloy under high pressures, making sulfur a potential light element in the Earth's core based on geophysical arguments. The VP and VS of the non-magnetic Fe3S follow a Birch's law trend whereas the slopes decrease in the magnetic phase, indicating that the decrease of the magnetic moment significantly affects the sound velocities. If the Martian core is in the solid state containing 14.2 wt.% sulfur, it is likely that the non-magnetic Fe3S phase is a dominant component and that our measured sound velocities of Fe3S can be used to construct the corresponding velocity profile of the Martian core. It is also conceivable that Fe3P and Fe3C undergo similar magnetic phase transitions under high pressures.

  1. Rare Earth Element Yttrium Modified Mg-Al-Zn Alloy: Microstructure, Degradation Properties and Hardness

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yuan, Fulai; Zhao, Mingchun; Gao, Chengde; Feng, Pei; Yang, Youwen; Yang, Sheng; Shuai, Cijun

    2017-01-01

    The overly-fast degradation rates of magnesium-based alloys in the biological environment have limited their applications as biodegradable bone implants. In this study, rare earth element yttrium (Y) was introduced into AZ61 magnesium alloy (Mg-6Al-1Zn wt %) to control the degradation rate by laser rapid melting. The results showed that the degradation rate of AZ61 magnesium alloy was slowed down by adding Y. This was attributed to the reduction of Mg17Al12 phase and the formation of Al2Y phase that has a more active potential, which decreased galvanic corrosion resulting from its coupling with the anodic matrix phase. Meanwhile, the hardness increased as Y contents increased due to the uniform distribution of the Al2Y and Mg17Al12 phases. However, as the Y contents increased further, the formation of excessive Al2Y phase resulted in the increasing of degradation rate and the decreasing of hardness due to its agglomeration. PMID:28772837

  2. Illustrating the quantum approach with an Earth magnetic field MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pars Benli, Kami; Dillmann, Baudouin; Louelh, Ryma; Poirier-Quinot, Marie; Darrasse, Luc

    2015-05-01

    Teaching imaging of magnetic resonance (MR) today is still as challenging as it has always been, because it requires admitting that we cannot express fundamental questions of quantum mechanics with straightforward language or without using extensive theory. Here we allow students to face a real MR setup based on the Earth's magnetic field. We address the applied side of teaching MR using a device that is affordable and that proves to be sufficiently robust, at universities in Orsay, France, and San Sebastian, Spain, in experimental practicals at undergraduate and graduate levels. We specifically present some of the advantages of low field for measuring R2 relaxation rates, reaching a power of separation of 1.5 μmol on Mn(II) ions between two water bottles each of half a liter. Finally we propose key approaches for the lecturers to adopt when they are asked to pass from theoretical knowledge to teachable knowhow. The outcomes are fast calibration and the MR acquisition protocols, demonstrating the reproducibility of energy transfer during the saturation pulses, and the quantitative nature of MR, with water protons and a helium-3 sample.

  3. Use of Earth's magnetic field for mitigating gyroscope errors regardless of magnetic perturbation.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Haris; Renaudin, Valérie; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Most portable systems like smart-phones are equipped with low cost consumer grade sensors, making them useful as Pedestrian Navigation Systems (PNS). Measurements of these sensors are severely contaminated by errors caused due to instrumentation and environmental issues rendering the unaided navigation solution with these sensors of limited use. The overall navigation error budget associated with pedestrian navigation can be categorized into position/displacement errors and attitude/orientation errors. Most of the research is conducted for tackling and reducing the displacement errors, which either utilize Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) or special constraints like Zero velocity UPdaTes (ZUPT) and Zero Angular Rate Updates (ZARU). This article targets the orientation/attitude errors encountered in pedestrian navigation and develops a novel sensor fusion technique to utilize the Earth's magnetic field, even perturbed, for attitude and rate gyroscope error estimation in pedestrian navigation environments where it is assumed that Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) navigation is denied. As the Earth's magnetic field undergoes severe degradations in pedestrian navigation environments, a novel Quasi-Static magnetic Field (QSF) based attitude and angular rate error estimation technique is developed to effectively use magnetic measurements in highly perturbed environments. The QSF scheme is then used for generating the desired measurements for the proposed Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based attitude estimator. Results indicate that the QSF measurements are capable of effectively estimating attitude and gyroscope errors, reducing the overall navigation error budget by over 80% in urban canyon environment.

  4. Current status and recent topics of rare-earth permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, S.

    2011-02-01

    After the development of Nd-Fe-B magnets, rare-earth magnets are now essential components in many fields of technology, because of their ability to provide a strong magnetic flux. There are two, well-established techniques for the manufacture of rare earth magnets: powder metallurgy is used to obtain high-performance, anisotropic, fully dense magnet bodies; and the melt-spinning or HDDR (hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination) process is widely used to produce magnet powders for bonded magnets. In the industry of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets, the total amount of production has increased and their dominant application has been changed to motors. In particular, their use for motors in hybrid cars is one of the most attractive applications. Bonded magnets have also been used for small motors, and the studies of nanocomposite and Sm-Fe-N magnets have become widespread. This paper reviews the current status and future trend in the research of permanent magnets.

  5. Magnetic susceptibility of Inconel alloys 718, 625, and 600 at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ira B.; Mitchell, Michael R.; Murphy, Allan R.; Goldfarb, Ronald B.; Loughran, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    After a hydrogen fuel bleed valve problem on the Discovery Space Shuttle was traced to the strong magnetization of Inconel 718 in the armature of the linear variable differential transformer near liquid hydrogen temperatures, the ac magnetic susceptibility of three samples of Inconel 718 of slightly different compositions, one sample of Inconel 625, and on sample of Inconel 600 were measured as a function of temperature. Inconel 718 alloys are found to exhibit a spin glass state below 16 K. Inconel 600 exhibits three different magnetic phases, the lowest-temperature state (below 6 K) being somewhat similar to that of Inconel 718. The magnetic states of the Inconel alloys and their magnetic susceptibilities appear to be strongly dependent on the exact composition of the alloy.

  6. Magnetic Fields of the Earth and Mars a Comparison and Discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.

    2004-01-01

    In several aspects the magnetic fields of the Earth and Mars are similar but also different. In the past both bodies had planetary magnetic fields but while they Earth's field remains today the Martian ceased to operate, at some unknown time in the past, leaving this planet without a main or core field. This fact resulted in the interaction between the solar and interplanetary magnetic fields with the surfaces of these planets being very different. In addition, Mars has large crustal magnetic anomalies, nearly ten times larger than those on the Earth. Since crustal magnetic anomalies are the product of the thickness of the layer of magnetization, both the magnetizing material and the thickness of the layer of this material must be very different on Mars than Earth. Furthermore, the martian anomalies can only be produced by remanent or fossil magnetization, in contrast with the Earth where both induced and remanent magnetization are producing these anomalies. Crustal magnetic anomalies on the Earth are mainly produced by single-domain, irontitanium oxides, in the form of magnetite being the most common on Mars the main magnetic mineral(s) are unknown. The thickness of the martian magnetized layer in comparison with the Earth remains a major area for research. Determining the paleopole position for the Earth has been done by some of the earliest paleomagnetic researchers. Since we do not have oriented martian rock samples determining the paleopoles for Mars has been done by fitting a magnetization vector to individual magnetic anomalies. Several groups have worked on this problem with somewhat differing results.

  7. Study of soft magnetic iron cobalt based alloys processed by powder injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Aline; Lozano, Jaime A.; Machado, Ricardo; Escobar, Jairo A.; Wendhausen, Paulo A. P.

    As a near net shape process, powder injection molding (PIM) opens new possibilities to process Fe-Co alloys for magnetic applications. Due to the fact that PIM does not involve plastic deformation of the material during processing, we envisioned the possibility of eliminating vanadium (V), which is generally added to Fe-Co alloys to improve the ductility in order to enable its further shaping by conventional processes such as forging and cold rolling. In our investigation we have found out two main futures related to the elimination of V, which lead to a cost-benefit gain in manufacturing small magnetic components where high-saturation induction is needed at low frequencies. Firstly, the elimination of V enables the achievement of much better magnetic properties when alloys are processed by PIM. Secondly, a lower sintering temperature can be used when the alloy is processed starting with elemental Fe and Co powders without the addition of V.

  8. Minor-Cu doped soft magnetic Fe-based FeCoBCSiCu amorphous alloys with high saturation magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanhui; Wang, Zhenmin; Zhang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    The effects of Cu alloying on the amorphous-forming ability (AFA) and magnetic properties of the P-free Fe81Co5B11C2Si1 amorphous alloy were investigated. Addition of ≤ 1.0 at.% Cu enhances the AFA of the base alloy without significant deterioration of the soft magnetic properties. The Fe80.5Co5B11C2Si1Cu0.5 alloy with the largest critical thickness for amorphous formation of ˜35 μm possesses a high saturation magnetization (Bs) of ˜1.78 T, low coercivity of ˜14.6 A/m, and good bending ductility upon annealing in a wide temperature range of 513-553 K with maintaining the amorphous state. The fabrication of the new high-Fe-content Fe-Co-B-C-Si-Cu amorphous alloys by minor doping of Cu gives a guideline to developing high Bs amorphous alloys with excellent AFA.

  9. Effect of Nb on magnetic and mechanical properties of TbDyFe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Naijuan; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Huawei; Chen, Xiang; Li, Yanxiang

    2018-03-01

    The intrinsic brittleness in giant magnetostrictive material TbDyFe alloy has devastating influence on the machinability and properties of the alloy, thus affecting its applications. The purpose of this paper is to study the mechanical properties of the TbDyFe alloy by alloying with Nb element. The samples (Tb0.3Dy0.7)xFe2xNby (y = 0, 0.01, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1; 3x + y = 1) were melted in an arc melting furnace under high purity argon atmosphere. The microstructure, magnetostrictive properties and mechanical performance of the alloys were studied systematically. The results showed that NbFe2 phases were observed in the alloys with the addition of Nb. Moreover, both the NbFe2 phases and rare earth (RE)-rich phases were increased with the increasing of Nb element. The mechanical properties results revealed that the fracture toughness of the alloy with the addition of Nb enhanced 1.5-5 times of the Nb-free alloy. Both the NbFe2 phase and the RE-rich phase had the ability to prevent crack propagation, so that they can strengthen the REFe2 body. However, NbFe2 phase is a paramagnetic phase, which can reduce the magnetostrictive properties of the alloy by excessive precipitation.

  10. Significance of the Eccentricity of the Earth's Magnetic Field for the Magnetosphere and Ionospheric Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koochak, Z.; Fraser-Smith, A. C.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is an extension of an earlier study of the centered and eccentric dipole models of the Earth's magnetic field [Fraser-Smith, 1987]. We have used the 1980-2015 International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) Gauss coefficients to recalculate the magnetic dipole moments and magnetic pole positions for both the centered and eccentric dipoles for an additional 35 years, thus bringing them up to date. These magnetic field models play an important role in ionosphere modification, since they influence the properties of the ionosphere. However it is not widely known that the nominal origin of the Earth's magnetic field is offset from the center of the Earth by nearly 10% of the Earth's radius, which must similarly lead to an offset of some of the larger-scale modifying effects such as those associated with the magnetosphere. We describe this offset magnetic field here to help identify its effects in ionospheric modification experiments.

  11. Disturbance in the Tropical Ionosphere and Earth Magnetic Field Mensured on the Magnetic Equator Caused by Magnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Pedro; Sobral, José; Resende, Laysa; Marcos Denardini, Clezio; Carlotto Aveiro, Henrique

    The focus of the present work is to monitor the disturbances in the equatorial F region caused by magnetic storms and comparatively to observe possible effects caused by the storms in the earth magnetics field measured on the ground, aiming to establish the events time occurrence order. The motivation for this work is due to the diversity of phenomena of scientific interest, which are observed in this region and also are capable to disturbance the transionospheric communication. The monitoring on the ionospheric plasma variation in the F region during and after the magnetics storms can generate indications of magnetosphere - ionosphere coupling effects. For this study we have used F region parameters measured by digital sounder installed at the Observatório Espacial de São Lú (2.33° S; 44.20° W; -0.5° DIP): foF2 (critical frequency o a ıs of F layer), hmF2 (real height of electronic density F layer peak) and h'F (minimum virtual height of F layer). For monitoring the disturbance in the magnetic field we have studied the H- and Z-component of the Earth magnetic field measured by magnetometers installed in the same site. The results are presented and discussed.

  12. Producing Low-Oxygen Samarium/Cobalt Magnet Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Dilip K.; Kumar, Kaplesh; Frost, Robert T.; Chang, C. W.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments aimed at producing SmCo5 alloy with low oxygen contamination described in report. Two methods of alloying by melting without contact with crucible walls tested. Lowest oxygen contamination, 70 parts per million achieved by dc arc melting on water-cooled, tantalum-clad copper hearth in purified quiescent argon atmosphere. Report includes photographs of equipment, photomicrographs of alloy samples, detailed descriptions of procedures tried, and tables of oxygen contamination and intrinsic coercivities of samples produced.

  13. Magnetic Properties of Hard Magnetic Alloy Fe - 28% Cr - 13.4% Co - 2% Mo - 0.5% Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vompe, T. A.; Milyaev, I. M.; Yusupov, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    The method of regression analysis is used to obtain equations describing the dependences of magnetic hysteresis properties of magnetically hard powder alloy Fe - 28% Cr - 13.4% Co - 2% Mo - 0.5% Si on regimes of thermomagnetic treatment (the temperatures of the start of the treatment and the rates of cooling in magnetic field). The determined treatment modes make it possible to obtain in an alloy with a coercive force H c up to 40 kA/m, a residual induction B r up to 1.2 T, and a maximum energy product ( BH)max up to 25 kJ/m3. The alloy may find application in the production of rotors of synchronous hysteresis-reluctance motors.

  14. A Cost-Effective Approach to Optimizing Microstructure and Magnetic Properties in Ce17Fe78B₆ Alloys.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaohua; Li, Heyun; Xu, Hui; Han, Ke; Li, Weidan; Zhang, Fang

    2017-07-28

    Optimizing fabrication parameters for rapid solidification of Re-Fe-B (Re = Rare earth) alloys can lead to nanocrystalline products with hard magnetic properties without any heat-treatment. In this work, we enhanced the magnetic properties of Ce 17 Fe 78 B₆ ribbons by engineering both the microstructure and volume fraction of the Ce₂Fe 14 B phase through optimization of the chamber pressure and the wheel speed necessary for quenching the liquid. We explored the relationship between these two parameters (chamber pressure and wheel speed), and proposed an approach to identifying the experimental conditions most likely to yield homogenous microstructure and reproducible magnetic properties. Optimized experimental conditions resulted in a microstructure with homogeneously dispersed Ce₂Fe 14 B and CeFe₂ nanocrystals. The best magnetic properties were obtained at a chamber pressure of 0.05 MPa and a wheel speed of 15 m·s -1 . Without the conventional heat-treatment that is usually required, key magnetic properties were maximized by optimization processing parameters in rapid solidification of magnetic materials in a cost-effective manner.

  15. Cu-Ag alloy Bitter type magnet for repeating pulsed field

    SciT

    Motokawa, M.; Nojiri, H.; Mitsudo, S.

    1996-07-01

    Cu-Ag alloy is used for the repeating pulsed field magnets. It is found that fields up to 22 T or more will be available for this purpose instead of 16 T which is obtained with normal copper magnet used at present. This result is a big advantage for neutron diffraction experiments.

  16. Quantitative measurements of magnetic polaron binding on acceptors in CdMnTe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhung, Tran Hong; Planel, R.

    1983-03-01

    The acceptor binding energy is measured as a function of Temperature and composition in Cd1-x Mnx Te alloys, by time resolved spectroscopy. The Bound magnetic polaron effect is measured and compared with a theory accouting for magnetic saturation and fluctuations.

  17. Rare-earth-free high energy product manganese-based magnetic materials.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ketan; Zhang, Jingming; Ren, Shenqiang

    2018-06-14

    The constant drive to replace rare-earth metal magnets has initiated great interest in an alternative. Manganese (Mn) has emerged to be a potential candidate as a key element in rare-earth-free magnets. Its five unpaired valence electrons give it a large magnetocrystalline energy and the ability to form several intermetallic compounds. These factors have led Mn-based magnets to be a potential replacement for rare-earth permanent magnets for several applications, such as efficient power electronics, energy generators, magnetic recording and tunneling applications, and spintronics. For past few decades, Mn-based magnets have been explored in many different forms, such as bulk magnets, thin films, and nanoparticles. Here, we review the recent progress in the synthesis and structure-magnetic property relationships of Mn-based rare-earth-free magnets (MnBi, MnAl and MnGa). Furthermore, we discuss their potential to replace rare-earth magnetic materials through the control of their structure and composition to achieve the theoretically predicted magnetic properties.

  18. Magnetic properties and microstructure of melt-spun Ce17Fe78-xB6Hfx (x = 0-1.0) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qingzheng; Zhong, Minglong; Quan, Qichen; Lei, Weikai; Zeng, Qingwen; Hu, Yongfeng; Xu, Yaping; Hu, Xianjun; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Renhui; Ma, Shengcan; Zhong, Zhenchen

    2017-12-01

    Ce17Fe78-xB6Hfx (x = 0-1.0) alloys were fabricated by a melt-spinning technique in order to study their magnetic properties and microstructure. Magnetic investigations of Ce17Fe78-xB6Hfx (x = 0-1.0) alloys show that the room-temperature coercivity increases linearly from 352 kA/m at x = 0 to 420 kA/m at x = 1.0. The Curie temperature (Tc) decreases monotonically from 424.5 K to 409.1 K. The Ce L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrums reveal that there is more Ce4+ in ribbons under total electron yield (TEY) than fluorescence yield (FY). Hf addition has no effect on the weight of Ce3+ and Ce4+ in CeFeB-based alloys. The grain refinement and microstructure uniformity are essential for improving the magnetic properties of Hf-doped alloys. This paper may shed light on the further development of the Ce-based magnets and offer a feasible way for using the rare earth resources effectively.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy of rare-earth magnets calculated by SIC and OEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Ogura, Masako

    We have pointed out in our previous study that the chemical bonding between N and Sm plays an important role in the magnetic anisotropy change of Sm2Fe17 from in-plane to uniaxial ones caused by the introducing of N. This effect of N insertion was discussed in terms of change in the electronic structure calculated in the framework of LDA+SIC. The main issue here is whether the 4f states are dealt with properly in SIC. In the present study, we examine the applicability of SIC for the evaluation of the magnetic anisotropy of rare-earth (RE) magnets by comparing the results with various methods, in particular, the optimized effective potential (OEP) method. In this study, OEP is applied only on the RE sites. Admittedly, this is a drawback from the viewpoint of the consistent treatment of uncertainly inherent in the so-called KLI (Krieger-Li-Iafrate) constants. Putting this aside for the moment, we have calculated the electronic structure of RE magnets R2Fe17Nx and RCo5 (R=light RE), by OEP with exact-exchange (EXX) combined with Colle-Salvetti correlation. Our preliminary results have shown considerable differences between the SIC and OEP calculations. We will discuss the meaning of this discrepancy. This work was supported by the Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials under the outsourcing project of MEXT and by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 26400330) from MEXT.

  20. The magnetic properties of a magnetic detector using oxidized amorphous Co 95- xFe 5(BSi) x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, S. J.; Kim, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Choi, D. K.; O'Handley, R. C.

    2000-07-01

    A comparative oxidation study of several amorphous Co 75- xFe 5(BSi) 20+ x alloys was carried out. Reentrant magnetization behavior and field-induced anisotropy which are of a critical importance for a magnetic detector were obtained after oxidation of the amorphous Co-rich ribbons. During this oxidation, the ribbons develop surface oxides which are primarily nonmagnetic borosilicate or a combination of borosilicate and magnetic oxides such CoO or FeO. Beneath this lies a 100-1000 Å thick Co-rich magnetic alloy which may be either HCP or FCC in its crystal structure. The thickness of the Co-crystallized layer is determined by the type of the surface oxides. The oxidation products such as appear to affect the reentrant magnetization behavior of Co-rich amorphous alloys significantly. We have determined the amount of metalloids (a critical concentration of B and Si) which is necessary to form a continuous layer of the most thermodynamically stable oxide, in our case borosilicate, on the surface. We also observed that there is a good correlation between reentrant magnetization and the thickness of Co layer. The best reentrant M- H loop for the magnetic detector was obtained in ribbons with a surface borate-rich borosilicate since it ensures conditions such as (1) metalloid depletion in the substrate and (2) formation of oxygen impurity faults in Co grains that are required for strong reentrant magnetization behavior.

  1. Preferential magnetic orientation in amorphous alloys determined by NFS and Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procházka, Vít; Vrba, Vlastimil; Šretrová, Pavla; Smrčka, David; Miglierini, Marcel

    2016-10-01

    Amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys frequently exhibit anisotropic behavior, which is a consequence of magnetic moments preferential orientation. This study reports the results obtained from a set of nuclear forward scattering experiments and transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy experiments that we have run in order to determine the degree of crystallization and the preferential orientation of magnetic moments in the material. The nuclear forward scattering of synchrotron radiation and the transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy were performed on the nanocrystalline alloy of the composition Fe79Mo8Cu1B12. The experimental data were evaluated and magnetic texture was determined. Relevance of the results was confronted with transmission Mössbauer experiments.

  2. Chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of LaFeCoSi alloy: Surface and bulk properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lollobrigida, V.; Basso, V.; Borgatti, F.; Torelli, P.; Kuepferling, M.; Coïsson, M.; Olivetti, E. S.; Celegato, F.; Tortora, L.; Stefani, G.; Panaccione, G.; Offi, F.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric LaFeCoSi compound with bulk and surface sensitive techniques. We put in evidence that the surface retains a soft ferromagnetic behavior at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature of the bulk due to the presence of Fe clusters at the surface only. This peculiar magnetic surface effect is attributed to the exchange interaction between the ferromagnetic Fe clusters located at the surface and the bulk magnetocaloric alloy, and it is used here to monitor the magnetic properties of the alloy itself.

  3. Microstructure, hyperfine interaction and magnetic transition of Fe-25%Ni-5%Si-x%Co alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gungunes, H.

    2016-12-01

    Morphological and magnetic properties in Fe-25%Ni-5%Si-x%Co (x = 0, 10, 15) alloys are investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Mössbauer spectroscopy and AC magnetic susceptibility measurements are used to determine the physical properties of alloys. The martensite morphology changed depending on the Co content. The Mössbauer study shows that the volume fraction and hyperfine field of martensite increases while isomer shift values decrease with increasing Co content. On the other hand; AC susceptibility results showed that; Co is an effective element which can be used to control both the magnetic transition and martensitic transformation temperatures.

  4. An amorphous alloy core medium frequency magnetic-link for medium voltage photovoltaic inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiul Islam, Md.; Guo, Youguang; Wei Lin, Zhi; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-05-01

    The advanced magnetic materials with high saturation flux density and low specific core loss have led to the development of an efficient, compact, and lightweight multiple-input multiple-output medium frequency magnetic-link. It offers a new route to eliminate some critical limitations of recently proposed medium voltage photovoltaic inverters. In this paper, a medium frequency magnetic-link is developed with Metglas amorphous alloy 2605S3A. The common magnetic-link generates isolated and balanced multiple DC supplies for all of the H-bridge inverter cells of the medium voltage inverter. The design and implementation of the prototype, test platform, and the experimental test results are analyzed and discussed. The medium frequency non-sinusoidal excitation electromagnetic characteristics of alloy 2605S3A are also compared with that of alloy 2605SA1. It is expected that the proposed new technology will have great potential for future renewable power generation systems and smart grid applications.

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of FeCoC system obtained by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón Soler, A. I.; Rodríguez Jacobo, R. R.; Medina Barreto, M. H.; Cruz-Muñoz, B.

    2017-11-01

    Fe96-XCoXC4 (x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 at. %) alloys were obtained by mechanical alloying of Fe, C and Co powders using high-energy milling. The structural and magnetic properties of the alloy system were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer Spectrometry at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed a BCC-FeCoC structure phase for all samples, as well as a lattice parameter that slightly decreases with Co content. The saturation magnetization and coercive field were analyzed as a function of Co content. The Mössbauer spectra were fitted with a hyperfine magnetic field distribution showing the ferromagnetic behavior and the disordered character of the samples. The mean hyperfine magnetic field remained nearly constant (358 T) with Co content.

  6. Magnetic and electronic properties of Nd--La and Ce--La alloys

    SciT

    Petersen, T.S.

    1979-05-01

    The electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power and magnetic susceptibility on Nd single crystals and polycrystalline dhcp Nd--La and Ce--La alloys have been measured at low temperatures. The measurements on the Nd--La alloys show features at the Neel temperatures and also show additional magnetic ordering phenomena. Some of these other features are dependent on the thermal history of the sample. Magnetic field studies are needed to correlate these features with observed neutron diffraction effects. Several magnetic features are seen in the Ce--La alloy system also, although the measurements are plagued with the problem of fcc contamination. In addition, alloys containing Ce showmore » Kondo effects. The logarithmic term in the resistivity is explained well by the theory of Liu et al. which uses a mean field to approximate the 4f-4f interactions in the nondilute alloys. The large peak in the thermopower of Ce--La alloys is explained well by the theory of Bhattacharjee and Coqblin which incorporates Kondo scattering from excited crystal field levels.« less

  7. A Statistical Study of the Magnetic Structure of Magnetic Clouds Downstream of the Earth's Bow Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turc, L.; Fontaine, D.; Kilpua, E.; Escoubet, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic clouds (MCs) are large-scale solar wind transients characterized primarily by an enhanced and smoothly-rotating magnetic field over periods of the order of one day. They are the drivers of the most intense geomagnetic storms, therefore understanding their interaction with the Earth's environment is of major interest for space weather forecasting. The first steps of this complex chain of processes are their interaction with the terrestrial bow shock and the ensuing propagation in the magnetosheath. Recent studies have shown that under certain conditions the distinctive magnetic structure of MCs can be significantly altered downstream of the bow shock. In such case, the magnetic field impinging on the magnetosphere strongly differs from that in the upstream solar wind and could lead to a reconnection pattern very different from that expected from the solar wind observations. The aim of the present work is to substantiate and generalize these results, obtained from a few MC events, in performing a statistical study. For this purpose, a comprehensive database of MC events, covering about 15 years of data, from 2000 to 2014, has been compiled. It lists presently 151 MCs observed in L1 by either Wind or ACE. Using the events during which spacecraft observations in the magnetosheath are simultaneously available, we investigate the evolution of the magnetic structure of MCs from the solar wind to the magnetosheath. The influence of the upstream solar wind parameters, such as the plasma beta, the Alfven Mach number or the magnetic field strength, is examined. Using a semi-analytical model, we estimate the local shock properties encountered upon entering the magnetosheath and find that the alteration of the magnetic structure of MCs strongly depend on the shock geometry. The large dataset allows us to assess the limitations of the magnetosheath model. The consequences of our results in terms of the geoeffectivity of MCs are discussed.

  8. Influence of Weak External Magnetic Field on Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Fe-based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degmová, J.; Sitek, J.

    2010-07-01

    Nanoperm, Hitperm and Finamet amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys were measured by Mössbauer spectrometry in a weak external magnetic field of 0.5 T. It was shown that the most sensitive parameters of Mössbauer spectra are the intensities of the 2nd and the 5th lines. Rather small changes were observed also in the case of internal magnetic field values. The spectrum of nanocrystalline Nanoperm showed the increase in A23 parameter (ratio of line intensities) from 2.4 to 3.7 and decrease of internal magnetic field from 20 to 19 T for amorphous subspectrum under the influence of magnetic field. Spectrum of nanocrystalline Finemet shown decrease in A23 parameter from 3.5 to 2.6 almost without a change in the internal magnetic field value. In the case of amorphous Nanoperm and Finemet samples, the changes are almost negligible. Hitperm alloy showed the highest sensitivity to the weak magnetic field, when the A23 parameter increased from 0.4 to 2.5 in the external magnetic fields. The A23 parameter of crystalline subspectrum increased from 2.7 to 3.8 and the value of internal magnetic field corresponding to amorphous subspectrum increased from 22 to 24 T. The behavior of nanocrystalline alloys under weak external magnetic field was analyzed within the three-level relaxation model of magnetic dynamics in an assembly of single-domain particles.

  9. Continuous millennial decrease of the Earth's magnetic axial dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletti, Wilbor; Biggin, Andrew J.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Terra-Nova, Filipe

    2018-01-01

    Since the establishment of direct estimations of the Earth's magnetic field intensity in the first half of the nineteenth century, a continuous decay of the axial dipole component has been observed and variously speculated to be linked to an imminent reversal of the geomagnetic field. Furthermore, indirect estimations from anthropologically made materials and volcanic derivatives suggest that this decrease began significantly earlier than direct measurements have been available. Here, we carefully reassess the available archaeointensity dataset for the last two millennia, and show a good correspondence between direct (observatory/satellite) and indirect (archaeomagnetic) estimates of the axial dipole moment creating, in effect, a proxy to expand our analysis back in time. Our results suggest a continuous linear decay as the most parsimonious long-term description of the axial dipole variation for the last millennium. We thus suggest that a break in the symmetry of axial dipole moment advective sources occurred approximately 1100 years earlier than previously described. In addition, based on the observed dipole secular variation timescale, we speculate that the weakening of the axial dipole may end soon.

  10. Formation of bcc non-equilibrium La, Gd and Dy alloys and the magnetic structure of Mg-stabilized. beta. Gd and. beta. Dy

    SciT

    Herchenroeder, J.W.

    1989-02-01

    The high temperature bcc allotrope of a rare earth metal has the potential for substantially different magnetic properties than the room temperature hexagonal (hcp or dhcp) counterpart because of its more symmetrical crystal field. The stabilization by alloying and quenching of this bcc phase was studied for La-M alloys where M is an non-rare earth metal from Group II or III. The factors influencing the stabilization, such as size of M and quench rate, are discussed. ..gamma..La (bcc) could be retained over a composition range around the eutectoid composition by Mg or Cd alloying. A comparison of T/sub o/ curvesmore » of the various alloy systems suggest that the eutectoid temperature of the La-M system must be approximately equal to or less than a critical T/sub o/ temperature of 515/degree/C if the bcc phase is to be retained by quenching. The thermal stability of ..beta..Gd (bcc) was investigated by DTA and isothermal annealing. It was found to transform to an intermediate phase before reverting to the equilibrium phases in contrast to ..gamma..La alloys which decompose directly on heating to the equilibrium phases. 71 refs., 52 figs., 7 tabs.« less

  11. Crystal structure and equation of state of Fe-Si alloys at super-Earth core conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fratanduono, Dayne E.; Coppari, Federica; Newman, Matthew G.; Duffy, Thomas S.

    2018-01-01

    The high-pressure behavior of Fe alloys governs the interior structure and dynamics of super-Earths, rocky extrasolar planets that could be as much as 10 times more massive than Earth. In experiments reaching up to 1300 GPa, we combine laser-driven dynamic ramp compression with in situ x-ray diffraction to study the effect of composition on the crystal structure and density of Fe-Si alloys, a potential constituent of super-Earth cores. We find that Fe-Si alloy with 7 weight % (wt %) Si adopts the hexagonal close-packed structure over the measured pressure range, whereas Fe-15wt%Si is observed in a body-centered cubic structure. This study represents the first experimental determination of the density and crystal structure of Fe-Si alloys at pressures corresponding to the center of a ~3–Earth mass terrestrial planet. Our results allow for direct determination of the effects of light elements on core radius, density, and pressures for these planets. PMID:29707632

  12. Magnetic response of a disordered binary ferromagnetic alloy to an oscillating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatansever, Erol; Polat, Hamza

    2015-08-01

    By means of Monte Carlo simulation with local spin update Metropolis algorithm, we have elucidated non-equilibrium phase transition properties and stationary-state treatment of a disordered binary ferromagnetic alloy of the type ApB1-p on a square lattice. After a detailed analysis, we have found that the system shows many interesting and unusual thermal and magnetic behaviors, for instance, the locations of dynamic phase transition points change significantly depending upon amplitude and period of the external magnetic field as well as upon the active concentration of A-type components. Much effort has also been dedicated to clarify the hysteresis tools, such as coercivity, dynamic loop area as well as dynamic correlations between time dependent magnetizations and external time dependent applied field as a functions of period and amplitude of field as well as active concentration of A-type components, and outstanding physical findings have been reported in order to better understand the dynamic process underlying present system.

  13. New soft magnetic amorphous cobalt based alloys with high hysteresis loop linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, V. K.; Maslov, V. V.; Kochkubey, A. P.; Kirilchuk, V. V.

    2008-02-01

    The new amorphous Co56÷59(Fe,Ni,Mn)21÷24(Si0.2B0.8)20-based metal alloys (AMA) with high saturation induction (BS>=1T) were developed. Toroidal tape wound magnetic cores made from these AMA after heat-magnetic treatment (HMT) in a reversal field are characterized by high hysteresis loop linearity, minimum effective magnetic permeability and its high field stability in combination with low coercivity Hc (1-3 A/m, 1 kHz). For the most prospecting alloy compositions the value of effective magnetic permeability decreases compared to known alloys up to 550 - 670 units and remains constant in the wide magnetic field range 1100 - 1300 A/m. Maximum remagnetization loop linearity is achieved after optimum HMT in high Ni containing AMAs, which are characterized by the record low squareness ratio values Ks=0.002-0.02 and Hc=1.0 A/m. Magnetic cores made from the new amorphous alloys can be used both in filter chokes of switch-mode power supply units and in matching mini-transformers of telecommunication systems; at that, high efficiency and accuracy of signal transmission including high frequency pulses are ensured under conditions of long-term influence of dc magnetic bias.

  14. Magnetic Properties of Rapid Cooled FeCoB Based Alloys Produced by Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabialek, M.; Jeż, B.; Jeż, K.; Pietrusiewicz, P.; Gruszka, K.; Błoch, K.; Gondro, J.; Rzącki, J.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Sandu, A. V.; Szota, M.

    2018-06-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations of the structure and magnetic properties of massive rapid cooled Fe50-xCo20+xB20Cu1Nb9 alloys (where x = 0, 5). Massive alloys were made using the method of injecting a liquid alloy into a copper mold. Samples were obtained in the form of 0.5 mm thick plates. The structure of the obtained samples was examined using an X-ray diffractometer equipped with a CuKα lamp. The phase composition of the alloys formed was determined using the Match program. By using Sherrer’s dependence the grain sizes of the identified crystalline phases were estimated. Using the Faraday magnetic balance, the magnetization of samples as a function of temperature in the range from room temperature to 850K was measured. Magnetization of saturation and value of the coercive field for the prepared alloys were determined on the basis of magnetic hysteresis loop measurement using the LakeShore vibration magnetometer.

  15. 77 FR 51046 - Certain Sintered Rare Earth Magnets, Methods of Making Same and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2908] Certain Sintered Rare Earth Magnets, Methods of... Certain Sintered Rare Earth Magnets, Methods of Making Same and Products Containing Same, DN 2908; the... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain sintered rare earth magnets...

  16. The formation of hysteretic magnetic properties in amorphous alloys of various classes upon thermomagmetic treatment in a transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekalo, I. B.; Mogil'nikov, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we have studied the effects of the thermomagnetic treatment in a transverse magnetic field (TMaT⊥) on the permeability of the amorphous alloy Co69Fe3.7Cr3.8Si12.5B11 with such a low saturation magnetostriction ( λ s 10-7) that, in the ribbons of this alloy rolled into a toroid, a sharp longitudinal magnetic texture is observed ( K sq > 0.90). It has been revealed that the permeability μ4 ( H = 4 mOe, f = 1 kHz) as a function of the annealing temperature or time of holding at a temperature is described by a curve with a maximum. This maximum is observed at a coefficient of the squareness of the hysteresis loop K sq,m in the range of 0.2 ≤ K sq,m ≤ 0.4. The regimes of the TMaT have been determined that provide optimum values of the permeability μ4 (15000) without a loss of the ductile state of the ribbons of this alloy. Based on the example of an iron-based alloy of composition Fe57Co31Si2.9B9.1 with λs = 35 × 10-6, it has been shown that the formation of the hysteretic magnetic properties upon the TMaT⊥ depends substantially on the magnitude of the magnetostriction and the Curie temperature of the amorphous alloys.

  17. Hf--Co--B alloys as permanent magnet materials

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Michael Alan; Rios, Orlando; Ghimire, Nirmal Jeevi

    2017-01-24

    An alloy composition is composed essentially of Hf.sub.2-XZr.sub.XCo.sub.11B.sub.Y, wherein 0alloy composition is composed essentially of ferromagnetic Hf.sub.2-XZr.sub.XCo.sub.11B.sub.Y, wherein 0.ltoreq.X<2 and 0alloys can be melt-spun with in-situ and/or ex-situ annealing to produce the nanoscale crystalline structure.

  18. Computational search for rare-earth free hard-magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Livas, José A.; Sharma, Sangeeta; Dewhurst, John Kay; Gross, Eberhard; MagMat Team

    2015-03-01

    It is difficult to over state the importance of hard magnets for human life in modern times; they enter every walk of our life from medical equipments (NMR) to transport (trains, planes, cars, etc) to electronic appliances (for house hold use to computers). All the known hard magnets in use today contain rare-earth elements, extraction of which is expensive and environmentally harmful. Rare-earths are also instrumental in tipping the balance of world economy as most of them are mined in limited specific parts of the world. Hence it would be ideal to have similar characteristics as a hard magnet but without or at least with reduced amount of rare-earths. This is the main goal of our work: search for rare-earth-free magnets. To do so we employ a combination of density functional theory and crystal prediction methods. The quantities which define a hard magnet are magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) and saturation magnetization (Ms), which are the quantities we maximize in search for an ideal magnet. In my talk I will present details of the computation search algorithm together with some potential newly discovered rare-earth free hard magnet. J.A.F.L. acknowledge financial support from EU's 7th Framework Marie-Curie scholarship program within the ``ExMaMa'' Project (329386).

  19. Change of Auger-electron emission from Ni-Pd alloys under magnetic phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elovikov, S. S.; Zykova, E. Y.; Gvozdover, R. S.; Colligon, J. S.; Yurasova, V. E.

    2006-04-01

    The change of Auger-electron emission from polycrystals of disordered ferromagnetic NiPd 3 and Ni 3 Pd alloys, under ferro- to paramagnetic transition, has been studied experimentally. It has been shown that the intensity of the Auger-lines, which are formed because of transition of valent zone 3d 3/2 and 3d 5/2 electrons, has local maxima near the Curie point T C for the alloys. Thus, the sensitivity of Auger-electron emission to a magnetic state of the alloy has been established.

  20. Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co for their structural and magnetic analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhi, Kalavathy; Kumarsan, Dhanapal; Vengidusamy, Naryanan; Arumainathan, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co was carried out at different current densities from electrolytes of two different concentrations, after optimizing the electrolytic bath and operating conditions. The samples obtained were characterized using X-ray diffraction to confirm the simultaneous deposition of Ag and Co and to determine their crystallographic structure. The atomic percentage of Ag and Co contents in the granular alloy was determined by ICP-OES analysis. The XPS spectra were observed to confirm the presence of Ag and Co in the metallic form in the granular alloy samples. The micrographs observed using scanning and transmission electron microscopes threw light on the surface morphology and the size of the particles. The magnetic nature of the samples was analyzed at room temperature by a vibration sample magnetometer. Their magnetic phase transition while heating was also studied to provide further evidence for the magnetic behaviour and the structure of the deposits.

  1. Magnetic ordering in Ce-La and Nd-La alloys

    SciT

    Petersen, T.S.; Legvold, S.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1978-03-01

    Heat capacity, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical resistivity measurements have been made on a wide ranging set of Ce-La and Nd-La alloys. In the case of Ce it is found that less than 5 at. % of La will prevent the ..beta.. (dhcp) to ..cap alpha.. (collapsed fcc) transition at T9 or approx. =50 K. In the case of Nd-La only the dhcp allotrope is formed. Two magnetic ordering temperatures have been found for many of the samples. These are believed to be caused by antiferromagnetic ordering on the two different atomic sites in the dhcp structure, cubic and hexagonal. Inmore » both sets of alloys the two ordering temperatures coalesce into one for La concentrations > or approx. =30%. Additional magnetic features in Ce-La alloys are explained by the formation of the fcc phase.« less

  2. Magnetic ordering in Ce--La and Nd--La alloys

    SciT

    Petersen, T.S.; Legvold, S.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Heat capacity, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical resistivity measurements have been made on a wide ranging set of Ce--La and Nd--La alloys. In the case of Ce it is found that less than 5 at. percent of La will prevent the ..beta..(dhcp) to ..cap alpha.. (collapsed fcc) transition at T approximately less than 50K. In the case of Nd--La only the dhcp allotrope is formed. Two magnetic ordering temperatures have been found for many of the samples. These are believed to be caused by antiferromagnetic ordering on the two different atomic sites in the dhcp structure, cubic and hexagonal. In bothmore » sets of alloys the two ordering temperatures coalesce into one for La concentrations approximately greater than 30 percent. Additional magnetic features in Ce--La alloys are explained by the formation of the fcc phase.« less

  3. Design, processing and characterization of mechanically alloyed galfenol & lightly rare-earth doped FeGa alloys as smart materials for actuators and transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Parisa

    Smart materials find a wide range of application areas due to their varied response to external stimuli. The different areas of application can be in our day to day life, aerospace, civil engineering applications, and mechatronics to name a few. Magnetostrictive materials are a class of smart materials that can convert energy between the magnetic and elastic states. Galfenol is a magnetostrictive alloy comprised primarily of the elements iron (Fe) and gallium (Ga). Galfenol exhibits a unique combination of mechanical and magnetostrictive (magnetic) properties that legacy smart materials do not. Galfenol's ability to function while in tension, mechanical robustness and high Curie temperature (600 °C) is attracting interest for the alloy's use in mechanically harsh and elevated temperature environments. Applications actively being investigated include transducers for down-hole use, next-generation fuel injectors, sensing, and energy harvesting devices. Understanding correlations between microstructure, electronic structure, and functional response is key to developing novel magnetostrictive materials for sensor and actuator technologies. To this end, in the first part of this thesis we report successful fabrication and investigation of magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of mechanically alloyed Fe81Ga19 compounds. For the first time, we could measure magnetostrictive properties of mechanically alloyed FeGa compounds. A maximum saturation magnetostriction of 41 ppm was achieved which is comparable to those measured from polycrystalline FeGa alloys prepared by other processing techniques, namely gas atomization and cold rolling. Overall, this study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale production of FeGa polycrystalline alloys powders by a simple and cost-effective mechanical alloying technique. In the second part of this work, we report for the first time, experimental results pertaining to successful fabrication and advanced characterization of a series

  4. The effect of axial external magnetic field on tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Caixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jing

    2018-04-01

    The influences of axial external magnetic field on the microstructure and mechanical property of the AZ31 magnesium (Mg) alloy joints were studied. The microstructure of Mg alloy joint consisted of the weld seam, heat affected zone and base metal zone. The average grain size of weld seam welded with magnetic field is 39 μm, which is 38% smaller than that of the joint welded with absence of magnetic field. And the microhardness of weld seam increases with the help of magnetic field treatment, owing to the coarse grain refinement. With coil current of 2.0A, the maximum mechanical property of joint increases 6.7% to 255 MPa over the specimen without magnetic field treatment. Furthermore, fracture location is near heat affected area and the fracture surface is characterized with ductile fracture.

  5. Spin-Orbit Torque from a Magnetic Heterostructure of High-Entropy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tian-Yue; Chuang, Tsao-Chi; Huang, Ssu-Yen; Yen, Hung-Wei; Pai, Chi-Feng

    2017-10-01

    High-entropy alloy (HEA) is a family of metallic materials with nearly equal partitions of five or more metals, which might possess mechanical and transport properties that are different from conventional binary or tertiary alloys. In this work, we demonstrate current-induced spin-orbit torque (SOT) magnetization switching in a Ta-Nb-Hf-Zr-Ti HEA-based magnetic heterostructure with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The maximum dampinglike SOT efficiency from this particular HEA-based magnetic heterostructure is further determined to be |ζDLHEA | ≈0.033 by hysteresis-loop-shift measurements, while that for the Ta control sample is |ζDLTa | ≈0.04 . Our results indicate that HEA-based magnetic heterostructures can serve as an alternative group of potential candidates for SOT device applications due to the possibility of tuning buffer-layer properties with more than two constituent elements.

  6. Enhanced Energy Density in Permanent Magnets using Controlled High Magnetic Field during Processing

    SciT

    Rios, Orlando; Carter, Bill; Constantinides, Steve

    This ORNL Manufacturing Demonstraction Facility (MDF) technical collaboration focused on the use of high magnetic field processing (>2Tesla) using energy efficient large bore superconducting magnet technology and high frequency electromagnetics to improve magnet performance and reduce the energy budget associated with Alnico thermal processing. Alnico, alloys containing Al, Ni, Co and Fe, represent a class of functional nanostructured alloys, and show the greatest potential for supplementing or replacing commercial Nd-based rare-earth alloy magnets.

  7. Magnetic shielding in a low temperature torsion pendulum experiment. [superconducting cylinders for attenuation earth field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of ether drift experiment searches for anomalous torques on a permanent magnet. A torsion pendulum is used at liquid helium temperature, so that superconducting cylinders can be used to shield magnetic fields. Lead shields attenuate the earth's field, while Nb-Sn shields fastened to the pendulum contain the fields of the magnet. The paper describes the technique by which the earth's field can be reduced below 0.0001 G while simultaneously the moment of the magnet can be reduced by a factor 7 x 10 to the 4th.

  8. Solidification of Undercooled Melts of Al-Based Alloys on Earth and in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlach, Dieter M.; Burggraf, Stefan; Galenko, Peter; Gandin, Charles-André; Garcia-Escorial, Asuncion; Henein, Hani; Karrasch, Christian; Mullis, Andrew; Rettenmayr, Markus; Valloton, Jonas

    2017-08-01

    Containerless processing of droplets and drops by atomization and electromagnetic levitation are applied to undercool metallic melts and alloys prior to solidification. Heterogeneous nucleation on crucible walls is completely avoided giving access to large undercoolings. Experiments are performed both under terrestrial (1 g) conditions and in reduced gravity ( µg) as well. Microgravity conditions are realized by the free fall of small droplets during atomization of a spray of droplets, individual drops in a drop tube and by electromagnetic levitation of drops during parabolic flights, sounding rocket missions, and using the electro-magnetic levitator multi-user facility on board the International Space Station. The comparison of both sets of experiments in 1 g and µg leads to an estimation of the influence of forced convection on dendrite growth kinetics and microstructure evolution.

  9. Dynamic Behavior of a Rare-Earth-Containing Mg Alloy, WE43B-T5, Plate with Comparison to Conventional Alloy, AM30-F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Sean; Whittington, Wilburn; Oppedal, Andrew; El Kadiri, Haitham; Shaeffer, Matthew; Ramesh, K. T.; Bhattacharyya, Jishnu; Delorme, Rick; Davis, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of Mg alloys is an area of interest for applications such as crash-sensitive automotive components and armor. The rare-earth element-containing alloy WE43B-T5 has performed well in ballistic testing, so the quasi-static (~10-3 1/s) and dynamic (~600-5000 1/s) mechanical behaviors of two Mg alloys, rolled WE43B-T5 and extruded AM30-F, were investigated using servohydraulic and Kolsky bar testing in uniaxial tension and compression. The yield stress was surprisingly isotropic for WE43B-T5 relative to conventional Mg alloys (including extruded AM30-F). The WE43B plate was textured; however, it was not the typical basal texture of hot-rolled Mg-Al alloys. The effect of strain rate on the yield strength of WE43B-T5 is small and the strain-hardening behavior is only mildly rate sensitive (m = 0.008). The combination of high strength (~300 MPa), moderate ductility (0.07-0.20), and low density yield a material with good specific energy absorption capacity.

  10. Source Regions for the Earth's Magnetic Field During the First Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegman, D. R.; Badro, J.

    2018-05-01

    Earth's early magnetic field places a severe constraint on the thermal evolution of the mantle and core. We will present how a dynamo in a basal magma ocean can reconcile major outstanding issues with present models.

  11. Structural, Mechanical, and Magnetic Properties of W Reinforced FeCo Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Corte-Real, Michelle; Yarlagadda, Shridhar; Vaidyanathan, Ranji; Xiao, John; Unruh, Karl

    2002-03-01

    Despite their superior soft magnetic properties, the poor mechanical properties of FeCo alloys have limited their potential use in rotating machines operating at elevated temperatures. In an attempt to address this shortcoming we have prepared bulk FeCo alloys at near equiatomic compositions reinforced by a relatively small volume fraction of continuous W fibers. These materials have been assembled by consolidating individual FeCo coated W fibers at elevated temperatures and moderate pressures. The mechanical and magnetic properties of the fiber reinforced composites have been studied and correlated with results of microstructural characterization.

  12. In vitro corrosion behavior of cast iron-platinum magnetic alloys.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Hai, K; Tanaka, Y; Hisatsune, K; Atsuta, M

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of cast Fe-Pt alloys of varying compositions for use as attachment keepers and to make a comparison with the corrosion resistance of magnetic stainless steel. The corrosion behavior of cast Fe-Pt alloy keepers (Fe-40 at%Pt, Fe-38 at%Pt, Fe-37 at%Pt and Fe-36 at%Pt) was evaluated by means of an immersion test and an anodic polarization test. The solutions used were a 1.0% lactic acid aqueous solution (pH=2.3) (10 ml) and 0.9% NaCl solution (pH=7.3) (10 ml). As a control, the corrosion resistance of a magnetic stainless steel keeper (SUS 447J1: HICOREX) was also measured. Chromium and platinum ions were not detected in either the 1.0% lactic acid or 0.9% NaCl solutions. The only released ions detected were the Fe ions in the 1.0% lactic acid solution. The amounts of Fe ions released from the Fe-40 at%Pt and Fe-38 at%Pt alloys were significantly (p<0.05) lower than from the Fe-37at%Pt, Fe-36 at%Pt and SUS 447J1 alloys. In the anodic polarization test, the potentials at the beginning of passivation for the four Fe-Pt alloys were higher than for the SUS 447J1 alloy in both solutions. The Fe-Pt alloys, especially the alloys with higher Pt percentages (Fe-40 and 38 at%Pt), indicated a high corrosion resistance compared to the magnetic stainless steel keeper. A reduction in the Pt percentage may decrease the corrosion resistance in the oral environment.

  13. Magnetic Mineralogy of Troilite-Inclusions and their Fe-Ni Host Alloys in IAB Iron Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, A. M.; Kramar, U.; Luecke, W.

    2011-12-01

    Iron-nickel meteorites often contain isolated, mostly rounded troilite nodules enclosed in a bulk of Fe-Ni alloy. As sulfur has a low solubility in metal, it is excluded from the crystallization of metal during cooling. Therefore troilite nodules are interpreted to be trapped droplets of residual sulfur-enriched melts. Microscopic examinations of the interface (mm-range) between troilite inclusions and Fe-Ni alloy yield clear mineralogical differences compared to the troilite inclusion. Such rims around troilite nodules seem to occur exclusively in Fe-Ni meteorites with slow cooling rates, and therefore might provide interesting clues on segregation, fractional crystallization and reequilibration processes between the Fe-Ni alloy and the sulfide phases. These interfaces however are also highly sensitive to terrestrial weathering. We present microscopic observations in combination with temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility (k-T curves) in order to identify the magnetic mineralogy of the Morasko (Poland) and Coahuila (Mexico) meteorites, which both geochemically belong to the non-magmatic IAB or IIICD group. In the k-T curves both, rim and troilite nodule are characterized by Curie temperatures (TC) that can be related to magnetite, daubreelite (FeCr2O4), Fe-hydroxide and sometimes cohenite. Therefore the interface seems to be geochemically more similar to the troilite nodule than the Fe-Ni alloy. Optical microscopy in combination with the ferrofluid method revealed complex microstructures of intergrown magnetic (TC = 780-785 °C) and non-magnetic phases in the Fe-Ni alloy, which differ in their Ni-concentration. Towards the rim of the troilite nodule the concentration of magnetic cohenite ((Fe,Ni)3C) and especially schreibersite ((Fe,Ni)3P), which are both intergrown with the metal, increases. Cohenite is easily identified microscopically by a very characteristic stripe-like magnetic domain structure and it shows a TC at about 200 °C. The carbon-rich, dark

  14. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  15. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Schmidt, Frederick A.

    1995-08-01

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

  16. Measuring Earth's Local Magnetic Field Using a Helmholtz Coil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I present a low-cost interactive experiment for measuring the strength of Earth's local magnetic field. This activity can be done in most high schools or two-year physics laboratories with limited resources, yet will have a tremendous learning impact. This experiment solidifies the three-dimensional nature of Earth's…

  17. Can the Earth be Dated from Decay of Its Magnetic Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1983-01-01

    Thomas G. Barnes, geologist/creationist, argues that the geomagnetic field was created by unknown processes when earth was created and has been decaying (irreversibly/exponentially) with a half-life of about 1,400 years since then. Shows that Barnes' proposition is wrong and explains why the earth's age cannot be determined from magnetic-field…

  18. Study of rare earth local moment magnetism and strongly correlated phenomena in various crystal structures

    SciT

    Kong, Tai

    Benefiting from unique properties of 4f electrons, rare earth based compounds are known for offering a versatile playground for condensed matter physics research as well as industrial applications. This thesis focuses on three specific examples that further explore the rare earth local moment magnetism and strongly correlated phenomena in various crystal structures.

  19. Crystal structure and equation of state of Fe-Si alloys at super-Earth core conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Wicks, June K.; Smith, Raymond F.; Fratanduono, Dayne E.; ...

    2018-04-25

    In this paper, the high-pressure behavior of Fe alloys governs the interior structure and dynamics of super-Earths, rocky extrasolar planets that could be as much as ten times more massive than Earth. In experiments reaching up to 1300 GPa, we combine laser-driven dynamic ramp compression with in situ X-ray diffraction to study the effect of composition on the crystal structure and density of Fe-Si alloys, a potential constituent of super-Earth cores. We find that Fe-7wt.%Si adopts the hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure over the measured pressure range, whereas Fe-15wt.%Si is observed in a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure. This study representsmore » the first experimental determination of the density and crystal structure of Fe-Si alloys at pressures corresponding to the center of a ~3 Earth-mass terrestrial planet. Our results allow for direct determination of the effects of light elements on core radius, density, and pressures for such planets.« less

  20. Crystal structure and equation of state of Fe-Si alloys at super-Earth core conditions

    SciT

    Wicks, June K.; Smith, Raymond F.; Fratanduono, Dayne E.

    In this paper, the high-pressure behavior of Fe alloys governs the interior structure and dynamics of super-Earths, rocky extrasolar planets that could be as much as ten times more massive than Earth. In experiments reaching up to 1300 GPa, we combine laser-driven dynamic ramp compression with in situ X-ray diffraction to study the effect of composition on the crystal structure and density of Fe-Si alloys, a potential constituent of super-Earth cores. We find that Fe-7wt.%Si adopts the hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure over the measured pressure range, whereas Fe-15wt.%Si is observed in a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure. This study representsmore » the first experimental determination of the density and crystal structure of Fe-Si alloys at pressures corresponding to the center of a ~3 Earth-mass terrestrial planet. Our results allow for direct determination of the effects of light elements on core radius, density, and pressures for such planets.« less

  1. Large magnetic entropy change and magnetoresistance in a Ni 41Co 9Mn 40Sn 10 magnetic shape memory alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, L.; Cong, D. Y.; Ma, L.; ...

    2015-07-02

    A polycrystalline Ni 41Co 9Mn 40Sn 10 (at. %) magnetic shape memory alloy was prepared by arc melting and characterized mainly by magnetic measurements, in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), and mechanical testing. A large magnetoresistance of 53.8% (under 5 T) and a large magnetic entropy change of 31.9 J/(kg K) (under 5 T) were simultaneously achieved. Both of these values are among the highest values reported so far in Ni-Mn-Sn-based Heusler alloys. The large magnetic entropy change, closely related to the structural entropy change, is attributed to the large unit cell volume change across martensitic transformation as revealed by ourmore » in-situ HEXRD experiment. Furthermore, good compressive properties were also obtained. Lastly, the combination of large magnetoresistance, large magnetic entropy change, and good compressive properties, as well as low cost makes this alloy a promising candidate for multifunctional applications.« less

  2. Spherical Rare-Earth Magnets in Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Al

    2007-01-01

    Permanent magnets have long been used in both traditional laboratory exercises and in inquiry-based learning activities. These pedagogical applications are typically timed to correspond to the early coverage of magnetism in the second-semester sequence of introductory physics. At the initial level the concepts relate to the magnetic field of the…

  3. Shock Magnetic Field and Origin of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunyi, I.; Timko, M.; Roth, L. E.

    2001-01-01

    To the effects of impulse magnetic field in protoplanetary nebula (fast melting, cooling and magnetization of chondrules), there is added another possible effect - mechanism associated with the forces of attraction between magnetized planetesimals. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Effect of cooling rate on magnetic domain structure and magnetic properties of Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe1.95 alloys solidified in high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tie; Dong, Meng; Gao, Pengfei; Xiao, Yubao; Yuan, Yi; Wang, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    In this work, Tb0.27Dy0.73Fe1.95 alloys were solidified in a high magnetic field of 4.4 T at various cooling rates. Changes in the magnetostriction, crystal orientation, magnetization, and magnetic domain of the solidified alloys were investigated. The application of the magnetic field can induce <111> orientation of (Tb, Dy)Fe2 phase. However, the effect of the magnetic field is strongly dependent on the cooling rate. The alloy solidified at 5 °C/min shows the highest magnetostriction, strongest <111> orientation, best contrast of light and dark in the domain image, and fastest magnetization, and followed in descending order by the alloys solidified at 1.5 °C/min and 60 °C/min. The change in the magnetostriction of the alloys can be attributed to the changes in crystal orientation and magnetic domain structure caused by both the magnetic field and cooling rate.

  5. Study of magnetism in Ni-Cr hardface alloy deposit on 316LN stainless steel using magnetic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, G. V. K.; Kumar, Anish; Chakraborty, Gopa; Albert, S. K.; Rao, B. Purna Chandra; Bhaduri, A. K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2015-07-01

    Nickel base Ni-Cr alloy variants are extensively used for hardfacing of austenitic stainless steel components in sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) to avoid self-welding and galling. Considerable difference in the compositions and melting points of the substrate and the Ni-Cr alloy results in significant dilution of the hardface deposit from the substrate. Even though, both the deposit and the substrate are non-magnetic, the diluted region exhibits ferromagnetic behavior. The present paper reports a systematic study carried out on the variations in microstructures and magnetic behavior of American Welding Society (AWS) Ni Cr-C deposited layers on 316 LN austenitic stainless steels, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The phase variations of the oscillations of a Co-Cr alloy coated magnetic field sensitive cantilever is used to quantitatively study the magnetic strength of the evolved microstructure in the diluted region as a function of the distance from the deposit/substrate interface, with the spatial resolution of about 100 nm. The acquired AFM/MFM images and the magnetic property profiles have been correlated with the variations in the chemical compositions in the diluted layers obtained by the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The study indicates that both the volume fraction of the ferromagnetic phase and its ferromagnetic strength decrease with increasing distance from the deposit/substrate interface. A distinct difference is observed in the ferromagnetic strength in the first few layers and the ferromagnetism is observed only near to the precipitates in the fifth layer. The study provides a better insight of the evolution of ferromagnetism in the diluted layers of Ni-Cr alloy deposits on stainless steel.

  6. Magnetic Properties and Phase Diagram of Ni50Mn_{50-x}Ga_{x/2}In_{x/2} Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao; Yoshida, Yasuki; Omori, Toshihiro; Kanomata, Takeshi; Kainuma, Ryosuke

    2016-12-01

    Ni50Mn50- x Ga x/2In x/2 magnetic shape memory alloys were systematically prepared, and the magnetic properties as well as the phase diagram, including atomic ordering, martensitic and magnetic transitions, were investigated. The B2- L21 order-disorder transformation showed a parabolic-like curve against the Ga+In composition. The martensitic transformation temperature was found to decrease with increasing Ga+In composition and to slightly bend downwards below the Curie temperature of the parent phase. Spontaneous magnetization was investigated for both parent and martensite alloys. The magnetism of martensite phase was found to show glassy magnetic behaviors by thermomagnetization and AC susceptibility measurements.

  7. Strain-induced modification of magnetic structure and new magnetic phases in rare-earth epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, C.; Dumesnil, K.; Mangin, Ph

    2006-07-01

    Rare earths exhibit complex magnetic phase diagrams resulting from the competition between various contributions to the magnetic energy: exchange, anisotropy and magnetostriction. The epitaxy of a rare-earth film on a substrate induces (i) a clamping to the substrate and (ii) pseudomorphic strains. Both these effects are shown to lead to modifications of the magnetic properties in (0 0 1)Dy, (0 0 1)Tb and (1 1 0)Eu films. In Dy and Tb films, spectacular variations of the Curie temperature have been evidenced. Additionally, Tb films exhibit a new large wavelength magnetic modulation. In Eu films, one of the helical magnetic domains disappears at low temperature whereas the propagation vectors of the other helices are tilted. The link between structural and magnetic properties is underlined via magnetoelastic models. Moreover, molecular beam epitaxy permits the growth of Sm in a metastable dhcp phase. The magnetic structure of dhcp Sm has been elucidated for the first time. In this review, neutron scattering is shown to be a powerful technique to reveal the magnetic structures of rare-earth films.

  8. Magnetic behavior of the nanophase of YbNi2 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanshin, V. A.; Gataullin, E. M.; Sukhanov, A. A.; Ivanshin, N. A.; Rojas, D. P.; Fernández Barquín, L.

    2017-04-01

    Variations in magnetic properties of the heavy-fermion YbNi2 alloy when milled in a high energy ball milling system have been investigated. The ferromagnetic transition ( T C = 10.4 K) in the initial sample almost vanishes after milling, which leads to the appearance of a magnetic transition at T* = 3.2 K in nanocrystallites. Before milling, processes of spin-lattice relaxation of the Orbach-Aminov type with the participation of the first excited Stark sublevel of the Yb3+ ion located at 75 K are dominating in the electron spin dynamics in the paramagnetic phase of the alloy. A comparative study of the temperature dependence of the magnetic properties and spectra of electron paramagnetic resonance in poly- and nanocrystalline samples indicates the existence of a magnetic inhomogeneity of the compound arising upon milling.

  9. MR Measurement of Alloy Magnetic Susceptibility: Towards Developing Tissue-Susceptibility Matched Metals

    PubMed Central

    Astary, Garrett W.; Peprah, Marcus K.; Fisher, Charles R.; Stewart, Rachel L.; Carney, Paul R.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Meisel, Mark W.; Manuel, Michele V.; Mareci, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to relate structure to function mapped with high-temporal resolution electrophysiological recordings using metal electrodes. Additionally, MRI may be used to guide the placement of electrodes or conductive cannula in the brain. However, the magnetic susceptibility mismatch between implanted metals and surrounding brain tissue can severely distort MR images and spectra, particularly in high magnetic fields. In this study, we present a modified MR method of characterizing the magnetic susceptibility of materials that can be used to develop biocompatible, metal alloys that match the susceptibility of host tissue in order to eliminate MR distortions proximal to the implant. This method was applied at 4.7 T and 11.1 T to measure the susceptibility of a model solid-solution alloy of Cu and Sn, which is inexpensive but not biocompatible. MR-derived relative susceptibility values of four different compositions of Cu-Sn alloy deviated by less than 3.1% from SQUID magnetometry absolute susceptibility measurements performed up to 7 T. These results demonstrate that the magnetic susceptibility varies linearly with atomic percentage in these solid-solution alloys, but are not simply the weighted average of Cu and Sn magnetic susceptibilities. Therefore susceptibility measurements are necessary when developing susceptibility-matched, solid-solution alloys for the elimination of susceptibility artifacts in MR. This MR method does not require any specialized equipment and is free of geometrical constraints, such as sample shape requirements associated with SQUID magnetometry, so the method can be used at all stages of fabrication to guide the development of a susceptibility matched, biocompatible device. PMID:23727587

  10. A New Approach to Isolating External Magnetic Field Components in Spacecraft Measurements of the Earth's Magnetic Field Using Global Positioning System observables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, C.; Hajj, G.

    1994-01-01

    We review the problem of separating components of the magnetic field arising from sources in the Earth's core and lithosphere, from those contributions arising external to the Earth, namely ionospheric and magnetospheric fields, in spacecraft measurements of the Earth's magnetic field.

  11. Wireless and passive temperature indicator utilizing the large hysteresis of magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmair, Bernhard; Liu, Jian; Huber, Thomas; Gutfleisch, Oliver; Suess, Dieter

    2012-07-01

    An ultra-low cost, wireless magnetoelastic temperature indicator is presented. It comprises a magnetostrictive amorphous ribbon, a Ni-Mn-Sn-Co magnetic shape memory alloy with a highly tunable transformation temperature, and a bias magnet. It allows to remotely detect irreversible changes due to transgressions of upper or lower temperature thresholds. Therefore, the proposed temperature indicator is particularly suitable for monitoring the temperature-controlled supply chain of, e.g., deep frozen and chilled food or pharmaceuticals.

  12. Effects of orientation on the time decay of magnetization for cobalt-alloy thin film media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. P.; Alex, Michael; Tan, L. P.; Yan, M. L.

    1999-04-01

    The dependence of the time decay of magnetization on orientation ratio was investigated for longitudinal Co-alloy thin film media. The coercivity orientation ratio was controlled by the degree of mechanical texture. For oriented samples, it was found that the remanent magnetization along the circumferential direction decayed faster with time than that along the radial direction when the applied reverse magnetic field was near the remanent coercivity. However, the remanent magnetization along the circumferential direction decayed more slowly with time than that along the radial direction when the applied reverse magnetic field was less than roughly half the remanent coercivity. Anisotropic interactions and magnetic anisotropy distributions appear to be the cause for the different time decay of magnetization along the circumferential and radial directions for oriented media.

  13. Scanning Electron Microscope-Cathodoluminescence Analysis of Rare-Earth Elements in Magnets.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Susumu; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Kawai, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) analysis was performed for neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) and samarium-cobalt (Sm-Co) magnets to analyze the rare-earth elements present in the magnets. We examined the advantages of SEM-CL analysis over conventional analytical methods such as SEM-energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and SEM-wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) spectroscopy for elemental analysis of rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets. Luminescence spectra of chloride compounds of elements in the magnets were measured by the SEM-CL method. Chloride compounds were obtained by the dropwise addition of hydrochloric acid on the magnets followed by drying in vacuum. Neodymium, praseodymium, terbium, and dysprosium were separately detected in the NdFeB magnets, and samarium was detected in the Sm-Co magnet by the SEM-CL method. In contrast, it was difficult to distinguish terbium and dysprosium in the NdFeB magnet with a dysprosium concentration of 1.05 wt% by conventional SEM-EDX analysis. Terbium with a concentration of 0.02 wt% in an NdFeB magnet was detected by SEM-CL analysis, but not by conventional SEM-WDX analysis. SEM-CL analysis is advantageous over conventional SEM-EDX and SEM-WDX analyses for detecting trace rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets, particularly dysprosium and terbium.

  14. Formation of soft magnetic high entropy amorphous alloys composites containing in situ solid solution phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ran; Sun, Huan; Chen, Chen; Tao, Juan; Li, Fushan

    2018-03-01

    Fe-Co-Ni-Si-B high entropy amorphous alloys composites (HEAACs), which containing high entropy solid solution phase in amorphous matrix, show good soft magnetic properties and bending ductility even in optimal annealed state, were successfully developed by melt spinning method. The crystallization phase of the HEAACs is solid solution phase with body centered cubic (BCC) structure instead of brittle intermetallic phase. In addition, the BCC phase can transformed into face centered cubic (FCC) phase with temperature rise. Accordingly, Fe-Co-Ni-Si-B high entropy alloys (HEAs) with FCC structure and a small amount of BCC phase was prepared by copper mold casting method. The HEAs exhibit high yield strength (about 1200 MPa) and good plastic strain (about 18%). Meanwhile, soft magnetic characteristics of the HEAs are largely reserved from HEAACs. This work provides a new strategy to overcome the annealing induced brittleness of amorphous alloys and design new advanced materials with excellent comprehensive properties.

  15. Magnetic and electrical properties of several Mn-based amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obi, Y.; Morita, H.; Fujimori, H.

    1987-03-01

    Magnetic and electrical properties of amorphous Mn-Y, Mn-Zr, and Mn-Nb alloys have been investigated. All these alloys have a temperature-dependent susceptibility which is well fitted by a Curie-Weiss law. This implies the existence of localized magnetic moments associated with the Mn atoms. In addition, amorphous Mn-Y alloys exhibit spin-glass characteristics at low temperature. The experimental results of the electrical resistivity show that the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) of both Mn-Y and Mn-Zr are negative, while Mn-Nb has a positive TCR. On the other hand, the resistivity-temperature curves of Mn-Zr and Mn-Nb have nearly the same tendency but are different from that of Mn-Y.

  16. The effect of the earth's and stray magnetic fields on mobile mass spectrometer systems.

    PubMed

    Bell, Ryan J; Davey, Nicholas G; Martinsen, Morten; Short, R Timothy; Gill, Chris G; Krogh, Erik T

    2015-02-01

    Development of small, field-portable mass spectrometers has enabled a rapid growth of in-field measurements on mobile platforms. In such in-field measurements, unexpected signal variability has been observed by the authors in portable ion traps with internal electron ionization. The orientation of magnetic fields (such as the Earth's) relative to the ionization electron beam trajectory can significantly alter the electron flux into a quadrupole ion trap, resulting in significant changes in the instrumental sensitivity. Instrument simulations and experiments were performed relative to the earth's magnetic field to assess the importance of (1) nonpoint-source electron sources, (2) vertical versus horizontal electron beam orientation, and (3) secondary magnetic fields created by the instrument itself. Electron lens focus effects were explored by additional simulations, and were paralleled by experiments performed with a mass spectrometer mounted on a rotating platform. Additionally, magnetically permeable metals were used to shield (1) the entire instrument from the Earth's magnetic field, and (2) the electron beam from both the Earth's and instrument's magnetic fields. Both simulation and experimental results suggest the predominant influence on directionally dependent signal variability is the result of the summation of two magnetic vectors. As such, the most effective method for reducing this effect is the shielding of the electron beam from both magnetic vectors, thus improving electron beam alignment and removing any directional dependency. The improved ionizing electron beam alignment also allows for significant improvements in overall instrument sensitivity.

  17. Strong, non-magnetic, cube textured alloy substrates

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2011-02-01

    A warm-rolled, annealed, polycrystalline, cube-textured, {100}<100>, FCC-based alloy substrate is characterized by a yield strength greater than 200 MPa and a biaxial texture characterized by a FWHM of less than 15.degree. in all directions.

  18. Effects of cerium on the hydrogen absorption-desorption properties of rare earth-Mg-Ni hydrogen-absorbing alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, Shigekazu; Ishida, Jun; Kishida, Kyosuke; Inui, Haruyuki

    2017-04-01

    The influence of Ce addition on the phase constitution, microstructure, hydrogen absorption/desorption properties and battery performances of newly developed rare earth (RE)-Mg-Ni hydrogen-absorbing superlattice alloys for negative electrode materials in Ni-metal hydride (MH) batteries were investigated. The partial substitution of RE (La and Nd) with Ce results in a higher discharge performance and a lower cycle life in the battery. The Ce addition greatly affects the phase constitution, which is mainly characterized by increased formation of the AB2 phase (A = RE or Mg and B = Ni or Al). The existence of the AB2 phase is found to accelerate alloy pulverization and oxidation when the alloys are used as negative electrode materials in Ni-MH model cells. The accelerated pulverization and oxidation are considered to be responsible for the observed higher discharge performance and lower cycle life in the batteries, respectively.

  19. The role of rare-earth dopants in tailoring the magnetism and magnetic anisotropy in Fe4N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zirun; Mi, Wenbo; Bai, Haili

    2018-05-01

    The magnetism and magnetic anisotropy of the rare-earth (RE) atom-substituted Fe4N are investigated by first-principles calculations. It is found that the substitution of one RE atom results in an antiferromagnetic coupling with the Fe atoms. The 4f-3d exchange interaction has an important influence on the density of states of Fe near the Fermi level. PrFe3N and NdFe3N with a tetragonal structure exhibit giant magnetic anisotropy energy larger than 5 meV/atom. The magnetic anisotropy depends on the distribution of partial states of d or f orbital near the Fermi level. As Eu substitutes Fe in Fe4N, the magnetic moment of Eu3FeN even exceeds 23 μB. Our theoretical predictions point out the possibilities of tuning the magnetism and magnetic anisotropy of Fe4N upon RE doping.

  20. Determination Gradients of the Earth's Magnetic Field from the Measurements of the Satellites and Inversion of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karoly, Kis; Taylor, Patrick T.; Geza, Wittmann

    2014-01-01

    We computed magnetic field gradients at satellite altitude, over Europe with emphasis on the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA). They were calculated using the CHAMP satellite total magnetic anomalies. Our computations were done to determine how the magnetic anomaly data from the new ESA/Swarm satellites could be utilized to determine the structure of the magnetization of the Earths crust, especially in the region of the KMA. Since the ten years of 2 CHAMP data could be used to simulate the Swarm data. An initial East magnetic anomaly gradient map of Europe was computed and subsequently the North, East and Vertical magnetic gradients for the KMA region were calculated. The vertical gradient of the KMA was determined using Hilbert transforms. Inversion of the total KMA was derived using Simplex and Simulated Annealing algorithms. Our resulting inversion depth model is a horizontal quadrangle with upper 300-329 km and lower 331-339 km boundaries.

  1. Magnetic Properties of Al-Gd-TM Glass-Forming Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uporov, Sergey; Estemirova, Svetlana; Bykov, Viktor; Mitrofanov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    We report results of magnetic studies of glass-forming alloys with nominal composition of Al86Gd6TM8 (where TM = Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ti, Zr, Mo, Ta) synthesized by arc-melting. X-ray diffraction analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry were applied to characterize the prepared samples. All the alloys exhibit antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures. In some compositions, we observed metamagnetic transitions in external magnetic fields up to 3 T. Analysis of the paramagnetic susceptibility of the considered Al-Gd-TM systems has revealed non-magnetic behavior of the transition metals. We found that the magnetic properties of the studied samples can be described satisfactorily using only the Gd trivalent ions. But in some cases the magnetic moments of gadolinium are slightly larger than the theoretical values, probably, because of an additional contribution of the 5 d electrons. The obtained results are discussed in framework of the assumptions of the strong s- p- d hybridization and frustrated magnetic states of gadolinium. We argue that the hybridization might be one of the main factors improving the glass-forming ability in these ternary alloys.

  2. Synthesis, structure stability and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Ag-Ni alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhi, Kalavathy; Thirumal, E.; Karthick, S. N.; Kim, Hee-Je; Nidhin, Marimuthu; Narayanan, V.; Stephen, A.

    2012-05-01

    Silver-nickel alloy nanoparticles with an average size of 30-40 nm were synthesized by chemically reducing the mixture of silver and nickel salts using sodium borohydride. The structure and the magnetic properties of the alloy samples with different compositions were investigated. The phase stability of the material was analysed after annealing the sample in vacuum at various temperatures. The material exhibits single fcc phase which is stable up to 400 °C and Ni precipitation sets in when the sample is annealed to 500 °C. The thermal analysis using DSC was carried out to confirm the same. The alloy compositions are found to be in close correlation with the metal salt ratios in the precursors. The synthesized samples exhibit weak paramagnetic to ferromagnetic behaviour. The magnetic measurements reveal that by adjusting the precursor ratio, the Ni content in the material can be altered and hence its magnetic properties tailored to suit specific requirements. The formation of Ag-Ni alloy is confirmed by the observed Curie temperature from the magneto thermogram. Annealing the sample helps to produce significant enhancement in the magnetization of the material.

  3. First principles calculation of elastic and magnetic properties of Cr-based full-Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, Samy H.; Shabara, Reham M.

    2014-06-01

    We present an ab-initio study of the elastic and magnetic properties of Cr-based full-Heusler alloys within the first-principles density functional theory. The lattice constant, magnetic moment, bulk modulus and density of states are calculated using the full-potential nonorthogonal local-orbital minimum basis (FPLO) code in the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) scheme. Only the two alloys Co2CrSi and Fe2CrSi are half-metallic with energy gaps of 0.88 and 0.55 eV in the spin-down channel respectively. We have predicted the metallicity state for Fe2CrSb, Ni2CrIn, Cu2CrIn, and Cu2CrSi alloys. Fe2CrSb shows a strong pressure dependent, e.g. exhibits metallicity at zero pressure and turns into a half-metal at P≥10 GPa. The total and partial magnetic moments of these alloys were studied under higher pressure, e.g. in Co2CrIn, the total magnetic moment is almost unchanged under higher pressure up to 500 GPa.

  4. Study of the effect of short ranged ordering on the magnetism in FeCr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, Ambika Prasad; Sanyal, Biplab; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    For the study of magnetism in systems where the local environment plays an important role, we propose a marriage between the Monte Carlo simulation and Zunger's special quasi-random structures. We apply this technique on disordered FeCr alloys and show that our estimates of the transition temperature is in good agreement with earlier experiments.

  5. Giant magnetic anisotropy of rare-earth adatoms and dimers adsorbed by graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Yong-Feng; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Yan; Shi, Li-Bin

    2017-05-24

    Nowadays, transition-metal adatoms and dimers with giant magnetic anisotropy have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in data storage, spintronics and quantum computations. Using density-functional calculations, we investigated the magnetic anisotropy of the rare-earth adatoms and dimers adsorbed by graphene oxide. Our calculations reveal that the adatoms of Tm, Er and Sm possess giant magnetic anisotropy, typically larger than 40 meV. When the dimers of (Tm,Er,Sm)-Ir are adsorbed onto graphene oxide, the magnetic anisotropy even exceeds 200 meV. The magnetic anisotropy can be tuned by the external electric field as well as the environment.

  6. Constraints on magnetic energy and mantle conductivity from the forced nutations of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffett, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of a presence of a conducting layer at the base of the mantle, as suggested by Knittle and Jeanloz (1986, 1989), was examined using observations of the earth's nutations. Evidence favoring the presence of a conducting layer is found in the effect of ohmic dissipation, which can cause the amplitude of the earth's nutation to be out-of-phase with tidal forcings. It is shown that the earth's magnetic field can produce observable signatures in the forced nutations of the earth when a thin conducting layer is located at the base of the mantle. The present theoretical calculations are compared with VLBI determinations of forced nutations.

  7. Controlled Directional Solidification of Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Comparison Between Samples Processed on Earth and in the Microgravity Environment Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the international "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys" (MICAST) program is given. Directional solidification processing of metals and alloys is described, and why experiments conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to promote our understanding of this commercially relevant practice. Microstructural differences observed when comparing the aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloys directionally solidified on Earth to those aboard the ISS are presented and discussed.

  8. Method for preparing high cure temperature rare earth iron compound magnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yuhong; Wei, Qiang; Zheng, Haixing

    2002-01-01

    Insertion of light elements such as H,C, or N in the R.sub.2 Fe.sub.17 (R=rare earth metal) series has been found to modify the magnetic properties of these compounds, which thus become prospective candidates for high performance permanent magnets. The most spectacular changes are increases of the Curie temperature, T.sub.c, of the magnetization, M.sub.s, and of coercivity, H.sub.c, upon interstitial insertion. A preliminary product having a component R--Fe--C,N phase is produced by a chemical route. Rare earth metal and iron amides are synthesized followed by pyrolysis and sintering in an inert or reduced atmosphere, as a result of which, the R--Fe--C,N phases are formed. Fabrication of sintered rare earth iron nitride and carbonitride bulk magnet is impossible via conventional process due to the limitation of nitridation method.

  9. Evidence for magnetic field reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Paschmann, G.; Papamastorakis, I.; Sckopke, N.; Haerendel, G.; Bame, S. J.; Asbridge, J. R.; Gosling, J. T.; Russell, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven passes of the ISEE satellites through the frontside terrestrial magnetopause were identified, where the plasma velocity in the magnetopause and boundary layer was substantially larger than in the magnetosheath. The nature of the plasma flow, magnetic field, and energetic particle fluxes in these regions were examined, with a view to determining whether the velocity enhancements can be explained by magnetic field reconnection.

  10. First-Principles Study of Thermodynamic and Magnetic Properties of Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, Ivan

    The standard theoretical framework for predicting phase diagrams and other thermodynamic properties of alloys requires an adequate representation of the formation enthalpy. An important part of the formation enthalpy in size-mismatched alloys comes from atomic relaxations. The harmonic Kanzaki-Krivoglaz-Khachaturyan model of strain-induced interaction is generalized to concentrated size-mismatched alloys and adapted to first-principles calculations. The configuration dependence of both Kanzaki forces and force constants is represented by real-space cluster expansions that can be constructed based on the calculated forces. Developed configuration-dependent lattice deformation model is implemented for the fcc lattice and applied to Cu1-x Aux and Fe1-x Ptx alloys for concentrations x = 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75. The model is further adapted to concentration wave analysis and Monte Carlo. Good agreement with experiment is found for all systems except CuAu3 and FePt3. The structural and ordering energetics are studied in Au-Fe alloys by combining DFT calculations with effective Hamiltonian techniques: a cluster expansion with structural filters, and CLDM. The phase separation tendency in Au-Fe persists even if the fcc-bcc decomposition is suppressed. The relative stability of disordered bcc and fcc phases observed in nanoparticles is reproduced, but the fully ordered L10 AuFe, L12 Au3Fe, and L1 2 AuFe3 structures are unstable in DFT. Effects of magnetism on the chemical ordering are also discussed. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy is one of the key properties of a magnetic material. Understanding of its temperature and concentration dependence is a challenging theoretical problem with implications for the design of better materials for permanent magnets and other applications. The origins of the anomalous temperature dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in (Fe 1-xCox)2B alloys are elucidated using first-principles calculations within the disordered local moment model

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Distortion and Targeting Errors from Strong Rare Earth Metal Magnetic Dental Implant Requiring Revision.

    PubMed

    Seong-Cheol, Park; Chong Sik, Lee; Seok Min, Kim; Eu Jene, Choi; Do Hee, Lee; Jung Kyo, Lee

    2016-12-22

    Recently, the use of magnetic dental implants has been re-popularized with the introduction of strong rare earth metal, for example, neodymium, magnets. Unrecognized magnetic dental implants can cause critical magnetic resonance image distortions. We report a case involving surgical failure caused by a magnetic dental implant. A 62-year-old man underwent deep brain stimulation for medically insufficiently controlled Parkinson's disease. Stereotactic magnetic resonance imaging performed for the first deep brain stimulation showed that the overdenture was removed. However, a dental implant remained and contained a neodymium magnet, which was unrecognized at the time of imaging; the magnet caused localized non-linear distortions that were the largest around the dental magnets. In the magnetic field, the subthalamic area was distorted by a 4.6 mm right shift and counter clockwise rotation. However, distortions were visually subtle in the operation field and small for distant stereotactic markers, with approximately 1-2 mm distortions. The surgeon considered the distortion to be normal asymmetry or variation. Stereotactic marker distortion was calculated to be in the acceptable range in the surgical planning software. Targeting errors, approximately 5 mm on the right side and 2 mm on the left side, occurred postoperatively. Both leads were revised after the removal of dental magnets. Dental magnets may cause surgical failures and should be checked and removed before stereotactic surgery. Our findings should be considered when reviewing surgical precautions and making distortion-detection algorithm improvements.

  12. Magnetoelectric coupling characteristics in multiferroic heterostructures with different thickness of nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Yao

    2016-05-01

    Magnetoelectric(ME) coupling characteristics in multiferroic heterostructures with different thickness of nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy has been investigated at low frequency. The ME response with obvious hysteresis, self-biased and dual-peak phenomenon is observed for multiferroic heterostructures, which results from strong magnetic interactions between two ferromagnetic materials with different magnetic properties, magnetostrictions and optimum bias magnetic fields Hdc,opti. The proposed multiferroic heterostructures not only enhance ME coupling significantly, but also broaden dc magnetic bias operating range and overcomes the limitations of narrow bias range. By optimizing the thickness of nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy Tf, a significantly zero-biased ME voltage coefficient(MEVC) of 14.8mV/Oe (185 mV/cmṡ Oe) at Tf = 0.09 mm can be obtained, which is about 10.8 times as large as that of traditional PZT/Terfenol-D composite with a weak ME coupling at zero bias Hdc,zero. Furthermore, when Tf increases from 0.03 mm to 0.18 mm, the maximum MEVC increases nearly linearly with the increased Tf at Hdc,opti. Additionally, the experimental results demonstrate the ME response for multiferroic heterostructures spreads over a wide magnetic dc bias operating range. The excellent ME performance provides a promising and practicable application for both highly sensitive magnetic field sensors without bias and ME energy harvesters.

  13. Site-preference and valency for rare-earth sites in (R-Ce)2Fe14B [R =La,Nd] magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Aftab; Khan, Mahmud; McCallum, R. W.; Johnson, D. D.

    2013-03-01

    Rare-earth (R) permanent magnets of R2Fe14B have technological importance due to their high energy products, and they have two symmetry distinct R-sites (Wyckoff 4f and 4g) that affect chemistry and valence. Designing magnetic behavior and stability via alloying is technologically relevant to reduce critical (expensive) R-content while retaining key properties; cerium, an abundant (cheap) R-element, offers this potential. We calculate magnetic properties and Ce site preference in (R1-xCex)Fe14B [R=La,Nd] using density functional theory (DFT) methods. The Fe moments compare well with neutron scattering data - remain weakly affected by Hubbard U, but improved with spin-orbit coupling. In (La,Ce)2Fe14B, Ce alloys for 0 < x < 1 with a preference for smaller R(4f) sites, as observed, a trend we find unaffected by valence. Whereas in (Nd,Ce)2Fe14B, Ce is predicted to have limited alloying (x < 0.3) with a preference for larger R(4g) sites, resulting in weak partial ordering and segregation. Curie temperatures versus x were predicted for a typical sample processing and verified experimentally. We shall also present some initial results on the critical mixed valency of Ce in related compounds. Work at Ames Laboratory was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, ARPA-E under the REACT program (0472-1526)

  14. Change of magnetic properties of nanocrystalline alloys under influence of external factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitek, Jozef; Holková, Dominika; Dekan, Julius; Novák, Patrik

    2016-10-01

    Nanocrystalline (Fe3Ni1)81Nb7B12 alloys were irradiated using different types of radiation and subsequently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. External magnetic field of 0.5 T, electron-beam irradiation up to 4 MGy, neutron irradiation up to 1017 neutrons/cm2 and irradiation with Cu ions were applied on the samples. All types of external factors had an influence on the magnetic microstructure manifested as a change in the direction of the net magnetic moment, intensity of the internal magnetic field and volumetric fraction of the constituent phases. The direction of the net magnetic moment was the most sensitive parameter. Changes of the microscopic magnetic parameters were compared after different external influence and results of nanocrystalline samples were compared with their amorphous precursors.

  15. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    SciT

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H.; Tahara, S.

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquidmore » Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.« less

  16. High energy product permanent magnet having improved intrinsic coercivity and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Thomas, Gareth

    1990-01-01

    A high energy rare earth-ferromagnetic metal permanent magnet is disclosed which is characterized by improved intrinsic coercivity and is made by forming a particulate mixture of a permanent magnet alloy comprising one or more rare earth elements and one or more ferromagnetic metals and forming a second particulate mixture of a sintering alloy consisting essentially of 92-98 wt. % of one or more rare earth elements selected from the class consisting of Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and mixtures of two or more of such rare earth elements, and 2-8 wt. % of one or more alloying metals selected from the class consisting of Al, Nb, Zr, V, Ta, Mo, and mixtures of two or more of such metals. The permanent magnet alloy particles and sintering aid alloy are mixed together and magnetically oriented by immersing the mixture in an axially aligned magnetic field while cold pressing the mixture. The compressed mixture is then sintered at a temperature above the melting point of the sintering aid and below the melting point of the permanent magnet alloy to thereby coat the particle surfaces of the permanent magnetic alloy particles with the sintering aid while inhibiting migration of the rare earth element in the sintering aid into the permanent magnet alloy particles to thereby raise the intrinsic coercivity of the permanent magnet alloy without substantially lowering the high energy of the permanent magnet alloy.

  17. Magnetic Partitioning Nanofluid for Rare Earth Extraction from Geothermal Fluids

    SciT

    McGrail, Bernard P.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Liu, Jian

    Rare earth metals are critical materials in a wide variety of applications in generating and storing renewable energy and in designing more energy efficient devices. Extracting rare earth metals from geothermal brines is a very challenging problem due to the low concentrations of these elements and engineering challenges with traditional chemical separations methods involving packed sorbent beds or membranes that would impede large volumetric flow rates of geothermal fluids transitioning through the plant. We are demonstrating a simple and highly cost-effective nanofluid-based method for extracting rare earth metals from geothermal brines. Core-shell composite nanoparticles are produced that contain a magneticmore » iron oxide core surrounded by a shell made of silica or metal-organic framework (MOF) sorbent functionalized with chelating ligands selective for the rare earth elements. By introducing the nanoparticles at low concentration (≈0.05 wt%) into the geothermal brine after it passes through the plant heat exchanger, the brine is exposed to a very high concentration of chelating sites on the nanoparticles without need to pass through a large and costly traditional packed bed or membrane system where pressure drop and parasitic pumping power losses are significant issues. Instead, after a short residence time flowing with the brine, the particles are effectively separated out with an electromagnet and standard extraction methods are then applied to strip the rare earth metals from the nanoparticles, which are then recycled back to the geothermal plant. Recovery efficiency for the rare earths at ppm level has now been measured for both silica and MOF sorbents functionalized with a variety of chelating ligands. A detailed preliminary techno-economic performance analysis of extraction systems using both sorbents showed potential to generate a promising internal rate of return (IRR) up to 20%.« less

  18. Synergetic Effect of Dy2O3 and Ca Co-Dopants towards Enhanced Coercivity of Rare Earth Abundant RE-Fe-B Magnets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingfei; Tian, Na; Fan, Xiaodong; You, Caiyin; Pei, Wenli; Cheng, Zhenxiang

    2017-12-13

    Low coercivity is the main disadvantage of RE-Fe-B permanent magnets containing highly abundant rare earths (RE: La, Ce) from the application point of view, even though they exhibit many cost and resource advantages. In this work, an industrial mixed rare earth alloy (RE 100  = La 30.6 Ce 50.2 Pr 6.4 Nd 12.8 ) with a high amount of the more abundant elements was adopted to fabricate RE-Fe-B permanent magnets by means of mechanical alloying accompanied by post-annealing. A synergetic effect towards enhancing the coercivity was observed after co-doping with Dy 2 O 3 and Ca, with the coercivity increasing from 2.44 kOe to 11.43 kOe for co-dopant percentages of 7 wt.% Dy 2 O 3  + 2.3 wt.% Ca. Through analysis of the phase constituents and microstructure, it was determined that part of the Dy atoms entered the matrix of RE 2 Fe 14 B phase to enhance the magnetocrystalline anisotropy; due to the reductive effect of Ca on Dy 2 O 3 , nanocrystals of Dy-rich RE 2 Fe 14 B were present throughout the matrix, which could increase the resistance to domain wall movement. These are the dominant factors behind the improvement of the coercivity of the RE-Fe-B magnets with highly abundant RE elements.

  19. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of disordered Co{sub 2}FeAl Heusler alloy

    SciT

    Jain, Vishal, E-mail: vjain045@gmail.com; Jain, Vivek, E-mail: vjain045@gmail.com; Sudheesh, V. D., E-mail: vjain045@gmail.com

    The effects of disorder on the magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}FeAl alloy are reported. X-ray diffraction exhibit A2-type disordered structure. Room temperature Mössbauer studies show the presence of two sextets with hyperfine field values of 31T and 30T along with a nonmagnetic singlet. The electronic structure of ordered and disordered Co{sub 2}FeAl alloys, investigated by means of the KKR Green's-function method shows that the magnetic moment of the ordered structure is 5.08μ{sub B} and is 5.10μ{sub B} when disordered. However, a much higher magnetic moment of 5.74μ{sub B} is observed experimentally.

  20. Metal Amorphous Nanocomposite (MANC) Alloy Cores with Spatially Tuned Permeability for Advanced Power Magnetics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byerly, K.; Ohodnicki, P. R.; Moon, S. R.; Leary, A. M.; Keylin, V.; McHenry, M. E.; Simizu, S.; Beddingfield, R.; Yu, Y.; Feichter, G.; Noebe, R.; Bowman, R.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2018-04-01

    Metal amorphous nanocomposite (MANC) alloys are an emerging class of soft magnetic materials showing promise for a range of inductive components targeted for higher power density and higher efficiency power conversion applications including inductors, transformers, and rotating electrical machinery. Magnetization reversal mechanisms within these alloys are typically determined by composition optimization as well as controlled annealing treatments to generate a nanocomposite structure composed of nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous precursor. Here we demonstrate the concept of spatially varying the permeability within a given component for optimization of performance by using the strain annealing process. The concept is realized experimentally through the smoothing of the flux profile from the inner to outer core radius achieved by a monotonic variation in tension during the strain annealing process. Great potential exists for an extension of this concept to a wide range of other power magnetic components and more complex spatially varying permeability profiles through advances in strain annealing techniques and controls.

  1. Metal Amorphous Nanocomposite (MANC) Alloy Cores with Spatially Tuned Permeability for Advanced Power Magnetics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byerly, K.; Ohodnicki, P. R.; Moon, S. R.; Leary, A. M.; Keylin, V.; McHenry, M. E.; Simizu, S.; Beddingfield, R.; Yu, Y.; Feichter, G.; Noebe, R.; Bowman, R.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2018-06-01

    Metal amorphous nanocomposite (MANC) alloys are an emerging class of soft magnetic materials showing promise for a range of inductive components targeted for higher power density and higher efficiency power conversion applications including inductors, transformers, and rotating electrical machinery. Magnetization reversal mechanisms within these alloys are typically determined by composition optimization as well as controlled annealing treatments to generate a nanocomposite structure composed of nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous precursor. Here we demonstrate the concept of spatially varying the permeability within a given component for optimization of performance by using the strain annealing process. The concept is realized experimentally through the smoothing of the flux profile from the inner to outer core radius achieved by a monotonic variation in tension during the strain annealing process. Great potential exists for an extension of this concept to a wide range of other power magnetic components and more complex spatially varying permeability profiles through advances in strain annealing techniques and controls.

  2. Our life is protected by the Earth's atmosphere and magnetic field: what aurora research tells us.

    PubMed

    Kamide, Y

    2001-01-01

    Our sun is an average middle-aged star. Without the sun, there would be no atmosphere, no water, and no life on the Earth. The sun is constantly changing, providing the Earth with energy through a complicated chain of processes that occur in space surrounding the Earth. This paper demonstrates that life on Earth is protected by two barriers, i.e., the atmosphere and the magnetic field, against otherwise menacing events in space. Because of these shielding effects, we, peacefully sitting on the Earth's surface, are not aware of a number of critical and potentially dangerous episodes that are taking place only 100 km above the Earth's surface. The aurora, which dances in the polar sky also because of the two barriers, is sending us a crucial hint about what is happening in space.

  3. Localized magnetism in liquid Al80Mn20 alloys: A first-principles investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakse, N.; LeBacq, O.; Pasturel, A.

    2006-04-01

    We present first-principles investigations of the formation of magnetic moments in liquid Al80Mn20 alloys as a function of temperature. We predict the existence of large magnetic moments on Mn atoms which are close to that of the single-impurity limit. The wide distribution of moments can be understood in terms of fluctuations in the local environment. Our calculations also predict that thermal expansion effects within the single-impurity model mainly explain the striking increase of magnetism with temperature.

  4. Structural and magnetic studies of half-metallic Heusler alloy Cr2CoSi nanoparticle synthesized by mechanical-alloying method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, G.; Asvini, V.; Kalaiezhily, R. K.; Ravichandran, K.

    2018-05-01

    Heusler Alloy based Cr2CoSi nanoparticles were synthesized by using ball milling. X-ray diffractions studies were used to characterize the crystal structure of Cr2CoSi nanoparticles and magnetic properties were studied using VSM. XRD data analysis confirms the Heusler alloy phase showing the L21 structure. Magnetic properties are measured for synthesized samples having coercivity Hc = 389 Oe, with high saturation magnetization value Ms = 8.64 emu/g and remenance value Mr = 2.93 emu/g. Synthesized Heusler alloy Cr2CoSi nanoparticles can be potential materials for use in Spin polarized based spin sensors, spin devices, magnetic sensors and transducer applications.

  5. Absolute Positioning Using The Earth’s Magnetic Anomaly Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-15

    many of these limitations. We present a navigation filter which uses the Earth’s magnetic anomaly field as a navigation signal to aid an inertial...navigation system (INS) in an aircraft. The filter utilizes highly-accurate optically pumped cesium (OPC) magnetometers to make scalar intensity...measurements of the Earth’s magnetic field and compare them to a map using a marginalized particle filter approach. The accuracy of these mea- surements allows

  6. Steady state magnetic field configurations for the earth's magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hau, L.-N.; Wolf, R. A.; Voigt, G.-H.; Wu, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    A two-dimensional, force-balance magnetic field model is presented. The theoretical existence of a steady state magnetic field configuration that is force-balanced and consistent with slow, lossless, adiabatic, earthward convection within the limit of the ideal MHD is demonstrated. A numerical solution is obtained for a two-dimensional magnetosphere with a rectangular magnetopause and nonflaring tail. The results are consistent with the convection time sequences reported by Erickson (1985).

  7. Direct observation of magnetic domains by Kerr microscopy in a Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape-memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perevertov, O.; Heczko, O.; Schäfer, R.

    2017-04-01

    The magnetic domains in a magnetic shape-memory Ni-Mn-Ga alloy were observed by magneto-optical Kerr microscopy using monochromatic blue LED light. The domains were observed for both single- and multivariant ferroelastic states of modulated martensite. The multivariant state with very fine twins was spontaneously formed after transformation from high-temperature austenite. For both cases, bar domains separated by 180∘ domain walls were found and their dynamics was studied. A quasidomain model was applied to explain the domains in the multivariant state.

  8. Evaluation of AA5052 alloy anode in alkaline electrolyte with organic rare-earth complex additives for aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dapeng; Li, Heshun; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Daquan; Gao, Lixin; Tong, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Behaviours of the AA5052 aluminium alloy anode of the alkaline aluminium-air battery are studied by the hydrogen evolution test, the electrochemical measurements and the surface analysis method. The combination of amino-acid and rare earth as electrolyte additives effectively retards the self-corrosion of AA5052 aluminium alloy in 4 M NaOH solution. It shows that the combination of L-cysteine and cerium nitrate has a synergistic effect owing to the formation of a complex film on AA5052 alloy surface. The organic rare-earth complex can decrease the anodic polarisation, suppress the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  9. Method of making permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1993-09-07

    A method for making an isotropic permanent magnet comprises atomizing a melt of a rare earth-transition metal alloy (e.g., an Nd--Fe--B alloy enriched in Nd and B) under conditions to produce protectively coated, rapidly solidified, generally spherical alloy particles. Wherein a majority of the particles are produced/size classified within a given size fraction (e.g., 5 to 40 microns diameter) exhibiting optimum as-atomized magnetic properties and subjecting the particles to concurrent elevated temperature and elevated isotropic pressure for a time effective to yield a densified, magnetically isotropic magnet compact having enhanced magnetic properties and mechanical properties. 13 figures.

  10. Method of making permanent magnets

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R. William; Dennis, Kevin W.; Lograsso, Barbara K.; Anderson, Iver E.

    1993-09-07

    A method for making an isotropic permanent magnet comprises atomizing a melt of a rare earth-transition metal alloy (e.g., an Nd--Fe--B alloy enriched in Nd and B) under conditions to produce protectively coated, rapidly solidified, generally spherical alloy particles wherein a majority of the particles are produced/size classified within a given size fraction (e.g., 5 to 40 microns diameter) exhibiting optimum as-atomized magnetic properties and subjecting the particles to concurrent elevated temperature and elevated isotropic pressure for a time effective to yield a densified, magnetically isotropic magnet compact having enhanced magnetic properties and mechanical properties.

  11. Large reversible magnetocaloric effect in a Ni-Co-Mn-In magnetic shape memory alloy

    SciT

    Huang, L.; Cong, D. Y.; Ma, L.

    Reversibility of the magnetocaloric effect in materials with first-order magnetostructural transformation is of vital significance for practical magnetic refrigeration applications. Here, we report a large reversible magnetocaloric effect in a Ni49.8Co1.2Mn33.5In15.5 magnetic shape memory alloy. A large reversible magnetic entropy change of 14.6 J/(kg K) and a broad operating temperature window of 18 K under 5 T were simultaneously achieved, correlated with the low thermal hysteresis (-8 K) and large magnetic-field-induced shift of transformation temperatures (4.9 K/T) that lead to a narrow magnetic hysteresis (1.1 T) and small average magnetic hysteresis loss (48.4 J/kg under 5 T) as well. Furthermore,more » a large reversible effective refrigeration capacity (76.6 J/kg under 5 T) was obtained, as a result of the large reversible magnetic entropy change, broad operating temperature window, and small magnetic hysteresis loss. The large reversible magnetic entropy change and large reversible effective refrigeration capacity are important for improving the magnetocaloric performance, and the small magnetic hysteresis loss is beneficial to reducing energy dissipation during magnetic field cycle in potential applications.« less

  12. Predicting the Magnetic Field of Earth-Impacting CMEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, C.; Gopalswamy, N.; Reinard, A.; Opher, M.

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the impact of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and the southward component of their magnetic field is one of the key goals of space weather forecasting. We present a new model, the ForeCAT In situ Data Observer (FIDO), for predicting the in situ magnetic field of CMEs. We first simulate a CME using ForeCAT, a model for CME deflection and rotation resulting from the background solar magnetic forces. Using the CME position and orientation from ForeCAT, we then determine the passage of the CME over a simulated spacecraft. We model the CME's magnetic field using a force-free flux rope and we determine the in situ magnetic profile at the synthetic spacecraft. We show that FIDO can reproduce the general behavior of four observed CMEs. FIDO results are very sensitive to the CME's position and orientation, and we show that the uncertainty in a CME's position and orientation from coronagraph images corresponds to a wide range of in situ magnitudes and even polarities. This small range of positions and orientations also includes CMEs that entirely miss the satellite. We show that two derived parameters (the normalized angular distance between the CME nose and satellite position and the angular difference between the CME tilt and the position angle of the satellite with respect to the CME nose) can be used to reliably determine whether an impact or miss occurs. We find that the same criteria separate the impacts and misses for cases representing all four observed CMEs.

  13. Ultra-soft magnetic Co-Fe-B-Si-Nb amorphous alloys for high frequency power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackland, Karl; Masood, Ansar; Kulkarni, Santosh; Stamenov, Plamen

    2018-05-01

    With the continuous shrinkage of the footprint of inductors and transformers in modern power supplies, higher flux, while still low-loss metallic replacements of traditional ferrite materials are becoming an intriguing alternative. One candidate replacement strategy is based on amorphous CoFeBSi soft-magnetic alloys, in their metallic glass form. Here the structural and magnetic properties of two different families of CoFeBSi-based soft magnetic alloys, prepared by arc-melting and subsequent melt spinning (rapid quenching) are presented, targeting potential applications at effective frequencies of 100 kHz and beyond. The nominal alloy compositions are Co67Fe4B11Si16Mo2 representing commercial Vitrovac and Co72-xFexB28-y (where B includes non-magnetic elements such as Boron, Silicon etc. x varies between 4 and 5 % and y is varied from 0 to 2 %) denoted Alloy #1 and prepared as a possible higher performance alternative, i.e. lower power loss and lower coercivity, to commercial Vitrovac. Room temperature magnetization measurements of the arc-melted alloys reveal that compared to Vitrovac, Alloy #1 already presents a ten-fold decrease in coercivity, with Hc ˜ 1.4 Am-1 and highest figure of merit of (Ms/Hc > 96). Upon melt-spinning the alloys into thin (< 30 μm) ribbons, the alloys are essentially amorphous when analyzed by XRD. Magnetization measurements of the melt-spun ribbons demonstrate that Alloy #1 possesses a coercivity of just 2 Am-1, which represents a significant improvement compared to melt-spun ribbons of Vitrovac (17 Am-1). A set of prototype transformers of approximately 10 turns of Alloy #1 ribbon exhibits systematically Hc < 10 Am-1 at 100 kHz, without a noticeable decrease in coupled flux and saturation.

  14. Electromagnetic induced voltage signal to magnetic variation through torquing textured Fe81Ga19 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingming; Li, Jiheng; Bao, Xiaoqian; Mu, Xing; Gao, Xuexu

    2017-07-01

    The results of a study on the suitability of Fe-Ga alloys for torque sensor applications are presented. A Fe81Ga19 rod with a ⟨100⟩ preferred orientation along the length direction is prepared for the torque shaft and as the electromagnetic induction sensitive element, which is wound with three coils for signal excitation, signal pickup, and applied bias magnetic field, respectively. An apparent decrease in the induced voltage signal (peak voltage) of 3.88 mV is observed as the torque loading is 50 N m in the presence of a sine excitation signal (10 V, 1 kHz) and a bias current of 0.5 A. Meanwhile, a good repeatability and stress sensitivity are obtained, especially in the low torque range. These behaviors stem from the stress induced decrease in the magnetic permeability and the rotation of the arranged magnetic moment. Here, we use the Fe81Ga19 alloy as the shaft material; nevertheless, in practical use, the same effect can be achieved by forming a Fe-Ga layer with large magnetostriction on the surface of the torsion shaft. This work shows the prospect of Fe-Ga alloys for non-contact torque sensing, for the large magnetostriction and high sensitivity of magnetization to stress.

  15. Preparation of an Au-Pt alloy free from artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Tomonobu; Nakai, Ryusuke; Goto, Kenji; Shima, Kunihiro; Iwata, Hiroo

    2017-12-01

    When magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed on patients carrying metallic implants, artifacts can disturb the images around the implants, often making it difficult to interpret them appropriately. However, metallic materials are and will be indispensable as raw materials for medical devices because of their electric conductivity, visibility under X-ray fluoroscopy, and other favorable features. What is now desired is to develop a metallic material which causes no artifacts during MRI. In the present study, we prepared a single-phase and homogeneous Au-Pt alloys (Au; diamagnetic metal, and Pt; paramagnetic metal) by the processing of thermal treatment. Volume magnetic susceptibility was measured with a SQUID Flux Meter and MRI artifact was evaluated using a 1.5-T scanner. After final thermal treatment, an entirely recrystallized homogeneous organization was noted. The Au-35Pt alloy was shown to have a volume magnetic susceptibility of -8.8ppm, causing almost free from artifacts during MRI. We thus prepared an Au-35Pt alloy which had a magnetic susceptibility very close to that of living tissue and caused much fewer artifacts during MRI. It is promising as a material for spinal cages, intracranial electrodes, cerebral aneurysm embolization coils, markers for MRI and so on. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Topology optimization of reduced rare-earth permanent magnet arrays with finite coercivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyber, R.; Trevizoli, P. V.; Christiaanse, T. V.; Govindappa, P.; Rowe, A.

    2018-05-01

    The supply chain risk of rare-earth permanent magnets has yielded research efforts to improve both materials and magnetic circuits. While a number of magnet optimization techniques exist, literature has not incorporated the permanent magnet failure process stemming from finite coercivity. To address this, a mixed-integer topology optimization is formulated to maximize the flux density of a segmented Halbach cylinder while avoiding permanent demagnetization. The numerical framework is used to assess the efficacy of low-cost (rare-earth-free ferrite C9), medium-cost (rare-earth-free MnBi), and higher-cost (Dy-free NdFeB) permanent magnet materials. Novel magnet designs are generated that produce flux densities 70% greater than the segmented Halbach array, albeit with increased magnet mass. Three optimization formulations are then explored using ferrite C9 that demonstrates the trade-off between manufacturability and design sophistication, generating flux densities in the range of 0.366-0.483 T.

  17. Magnetic x-ray linear dichroism of ultrathin Fe-Ni alloy films

    SciT

    Schumann, F.O.; Willis, R.F.; Goodman, K.W.

    1997-04-01

    The authors have studied the magnetic structure of ultrathin Fe-Ni alloy films as a function of Fe concentration by measuring the linear dichroism of the 3p-core levels in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The alloy films, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on Cu(001) surfaces, were fcc and approximately four monolayers thick. The intensity of the Fe dichroism varied with Fe concentration, with larger dichroisms at lower Fe concentrations. The implication of these results to an ultrathin film analogue of the bulk Invar effect in Fe-Ni alloys will be discussed. These measurements were performed at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (Beamline 7.0.1) of the Advanced Lightmore » Source.« less

  18. Microstructure, soft magnetic properties and applications of amorphous Fe-Co-Si-B-Mo-P alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasiak, Mariusz; Miglierini, Marcel; Łukiewski, Mirosław; Łaszcz, Amadeusz; Bujdoš, Marek

    2018-05-01

    DC thermomagnetic properties of Fe51Co12Si16B8Mo5P8 amorphous alloy in the as-quenched and after annealing below crystallization temperature are investigated. They are related to deviations in the microstructure as revealed by Mössbauer spectrometry. Study of AC magnetic properties, i.e. hysteresis loops, relative permeability and core losses versus maximum induction was aimed at obtaining optimal initial parameters for simulation process of a resonant transformer for a rail power supply converter. The results obtained from numerical analyses including core losses, winding losses, core mass, and dimensions were compared with the same parameters calculated for Fe-Si alloy and ferrite. Moreover, Steinmetz coefficients were also calculated for the as-quenched Fe51Co12Si16B8Mo5P8 amorphous alloy.

  19. Phase relations of Fe-Si-Ni alloys at core conditions: Implications for the Earth inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiquet, G.; Boulard, E.; Auzende, A.; Antonangeli, D.; Badro, J.; Morard, G.; Siebert, J.; Perrillat, J.; Mezouar, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Earth core consists of a liquid outer core and a solid inner core, which are believed to be made predominantly of iron (Fe). Among all crystallographic structures proposed, a consensus has more or less emerged with the hexagonal closed packed structure -hcp- for iron. The question of the structure of this alloy at core conditions, in particular in vicinity of the melting line is however still largely debated. Among others, a possible thermal and chemical stabilization of body-centered cubic iron in the Earth's core has indeed been proposed with the theoretical calculations of Vocadlo et al. [Nature, 424, 536, 2003]. Recent X-ray experiments have shown the existence of such a bcc structure above 220 GPa at high-temperature for iron- nickel alloys [Dubrovinsky et al., Science, 316, 1880, 2007]. It is also known from density systematics that the Earth's core is made of iron alloyed with light elements [see Poirier, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 85, 319, 1994]. We recently proposed a compositional model for the Earth's inner core from a systematic study of the effect of light elements on sound velocities at high pressure. Our preferred core model is an inner core which contains 2.3 wt % silicon and traces of oxygen [see Badro et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 254, 233, 2007 for more details]. Recent studies, however, suggest that small amount of silicon or nickel can substantially affect the phase relations and thermodynamic properties of iron alloys. We present results from an X-ray diffraction carried out at ESRF at high-pressure and high-temperature, using a state-of-the-art double sided laser heating system. We address the question of the structure of this alloy at core conditions. Two different alloys have been synthesized for this experiment, with Fe : 92.4, Si : 3.7, Ni 3.9 and Fe: 88.4, Si: 7.3, Ni: 4.3 in wt %, so as to satisfy the core preferred compositional model described in Badro et al. [2007]. The samples were loaded in a diamond anvil cell with neon as

  20. Modelling of charged satellite motion in Earth's gravitational and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Bar, S. E.; Abd El-Salam, F. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work Lagrange's planetary equations for a charged satellite subjected to the Earth's gravitational and magnetic force fields are solved. The Earth's gravity, and magnetic and electric force components are obtained and expressed in terms of orbital elements. The variational equations of orbit with the considered model in Keplerian elements are derived. The solution of the problem in a fully analytical way is obtained. The temporal rate of changes of the orbital elements of the spacecraft are integrated via Lagrange's planetary equations and integrals of the normalized Keplerian motion obtained by Ahmed (Astron. J. 107(5):1900, 1994).

  1. Effect of Multi-Scale Thermoelectric Magnetic Convection on Solidification Microstructure in Directionally Solidified Al-Si Alloys Under a Transverse Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xi; Du, Dafan; Gagnoud, Annie; Ren, Zhongming; Fautrelle, Yves; Moreau, Rene

    2014-11-01

    The influence of a transverse magnetic field ( B < 1 T) on the solidification structure in directionally solidified Al-Si alloys was investigated. Experimental results indicate that the magnetic field caused macrosegregation, dendrite refinement, and a decrease in the length of the mushy zone in both Al-7 wt pct Si alloy and Al-7 wt pct Si-1 wt pct Fe alloys. Moreover, the application of the magnetic field is capable of separating the Fe-rich intermetallic phases from Al-7 wt pct Si-1 wt pct Fe alloy. Thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC) was numerically simulated during the directional solidification of Al-Si alloys. The results reveal that the TEMC increases to a maximum () when the magnetic field reaches a critical magnetic field strength (), and then decreases as the magnetic field strength increases further. The TEMC exhibits the multi-scales effects: the and values are different at various scales, with decreasing and increasing as the scale decreases. The modification of the solidification structure under the magnetic field should be attributed to the TEMC on the sample and dendrite scales.

  2. [Artefacts and ferromagnetism dependent on different metal alloys in magnetic resonance imaging. An experimental study].

    PubMed

    Thomsen, M; Schneider, U; Breusch, S J; Hansmann, J; Freund, M

    2001-08-01

    The authors evaluated the significance of different metal alloys used in orthopaedic surgery in producing artefacts during magnetic resonance imaging. Several MRI sequences were tested and magnetic effects evaluated. Twelve discs made of different metal alloys from three manufacturers were examined. These discs were placed in a plastic box with a defined position in ultrasound gel. Then a sensitive, standard T1 weighted gradient echo sequence (TE: 4.1 ms; TR 9.4) was carried out in a coronal plane (Matrix 128/256). A Phillips Easy Vision workstation was used for image analysis. The largest area of artefact formation, including the surface size of the disc, was calculated using a special software program. In order to minimise the measurement error all discs were measured 10 times and the average value was determined. Then eight different sequences were run and measured in the same way. In a second series, all discs were placed separately on metric paper and subjected to the magnetic field of the MRI in order to detect possible motion secondary to the magnetic field applied. The different titanium alloys showed average distortion areas of from 245 mm2 (Ti6Al4V) to 349 mm2 (Ti5Al2.5Fe). Cobalt chrome alloys yielded differences of between 600 mm2 and 651 mm2 and iron alloys of between 902 mm2 (316L or Fe18Cr10NiMo) and 950 mm2 (Fe22Cr10Ni4Mn2MoNb) on average for the standard T1 weighted gradient echo. The artefact areas were dependent on the different sequences performed. For steel, (Fe18Cr10NiMo) areas of from 411 mm2 (T1TSE) to 2027 mm2 (EPI/3D/SPIR) were measured. All sequences studied produced different artefact pictures. None of the materials tested showed changes in position secondary to ferromagnetism. The size of signal distortion by MRI depends on the alloy making up the implanted material and the sequences used. The smallest artefacts occurred with the turbo-spin-echo sequences (TSE). The alloys tested in our study seem to carry no risk for patients of

  3. Evaluation of phase transformation in ferromagnetic shape memory Fe-Pd alloy by magnetic Barkhausen noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Yasubumi; Tamoto, Shizuka; Kubota, Takeshi; Okazaki, Teiko; Hagood, Nesbitt W.; Spearing, S. Mark

    2002-07-01

    The possibility to detect the phase transformation with martensites by heating or cooling as well as stress-loading in ferromagnetic shape memory Fe-30at percent Pd alloy thin foil by using magnetic Markhausen noise sensor was studied. MBHN is caused by the irregular interactions between magnetic domain and thermally activated martensite twins during magnetization. In general, the envelope of the MBHN voltage versus time signals in Fe-29at percent Pd ribbon showed two peaks during magnetization, where secondary peak at intermediate state of magnetization process decreased with increasing temperature, while the MBHN envelopes in pure iron did not change with increasing temperature. The variety of MBHN due to the phase transformation was apt to arise at higher frequency part of spectrum during intermediate state of magnetization process and it decreased with disappearance of martensite twins. Besides, MBHN increased monotonically with increasing loading stress and then, it decreased with unloading, however MBHN showed large hysteresis between loading and unloading passes. Based on the experimental results from MBHN measurements for both thermoelastic and stress-induced martensite phase transformations in Fe-30at percent Pd ribbon samples, MBHN method seems a useful technique to non-destructive evaluation of martensite phase transformation of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy.

  4. Predicting the Magnetic Field of Earth-impacting CMEs

    SciT

    Kay, C.; Gopalswamy, N.; Reinard, A.

    Predicting the impact of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and the southward component of their magnetic field is one of the key goals of space weather forecasting. We present a new model, the ForeCAT In situ Data Observer (FIDO), for predicting the in situ magnetic field of CMEs. We first simulate a CME using ForeCAT, a model for CME deflection and rotation resulting from the background solar magnetic forces. Using the CME position and orientation from ForeCAT, we then determine the passage of the CME over a simulated spacecraft. We model the CME’s magnetic field using a force-free flux rope andmore » we determine the in situ magnetic profile at the synthetic spacecraft. We show that FIDO can reproduce the general behavior of four observed CMEs. FIDO results are very sensitive to the CME’s position and orientation, and we show that the uncertainty in a CME’s position and orientation from coronagraph images corresponds to a wide range of in situ magnitudes and even polarities. This small range of positions and orientations also includes CMEs that entirely miss the satellite. We show that two derived parameters (the normalized angular distance between the CME nose and satellite position and the angular difference between the CME tilt and the position angle of the satellite with respect to the CME nose) can be used to reliably determine whether an impact or miss occurs. We find that the same criteria separate the impacts and misses for cases representing all four observed CMEs.« less

  5. Analytical Estimation of the Scale of Earth-Like Planetary Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bologna, Mauro; Tellini, Bernardo

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we analytically estimate the magnetic field scale of planets with physical core conditions similar to that of Earth from a statistical physics point of view. We evaluate the magnetic field on the basis of the physical parameters of the center of the planet, such as density, temperature, and core size. We look at the contribution of the Seebeck effect on the magnetic field, showing that a thermally induced electrical current can exist in a rotating fluid sphere. We apply our calculations to Earth, where the currents would be driven by the temperature difference at the outer-inner core boundary, Jupiter and the Jupiter's satellite Ganymede. In each case we show that the thermal generation of currents leads to a magnetic field scale comparable to the observed fields of the considered celestial bodies.

  6. Can the earth be dated from decay of its magnetic field?.

    Dalrymple, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    Thomas G. Barnes, Emeritus Professor of Physics at the University of Texas, El Paso, and a creationist, argues that the geomagnetic field was created by unknown processes at the time of creation of the earth and has been decaying irreversibly and exponentially, with a half-life of about 1400 years, since then. He calculates that the field would have been impossibly large in 8000 BC and concludes that the earth, therefore, is less than 10,000 years old. He denies that the earth's field has reversed polarity in the past, and attempts to refute the dynamo theory of the origin of the field. Barnes' arguments and conclusions are commonly cited in creationist literature as definitive proof that the earth is very young. Barnes is wrong, and has ignored or misrepresented much of the data on the earth's magnetic field. Paleomagnetic evidence shows that the earth's field has existed for more than three billion years, and that the dipole field both fluctuates in strength and irregularly reverses polarity. There are no properties of the magnetic field that can be used to place an upper limit on the earth's age. - Author

  7. Laser surface modification of medical grade alloys for reduced heating in a magnetic resonance imaging environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benafan, O.; Chen, S.-Y.; Kar, A.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Nanoscale surface modification of medical grade metallic alloys was conducted using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-based dopant diffusion technique. The objective of this approach was to minimize the induction heating by reducing the absorbed radio frequency field. Such an approach is advantageous in that the dopant is diffused into the alloy and is not susceptible to detachment or spallation as would an externally applied coating, and is expected to not deteriorate the mechanical and electrical properties of the base alloy or device. Experiments were conducted using a controlled environment laser system with the ability to control laser properties (i.e., laser power, spot size, and irradiation time) and dopant characteristics (i.e., temperature, concentration, and pressure). The reflective and transmissive properties of both the doped and untreated samples were measured in a radio frequency (63.86 MHz) magnetic field using a system comprising a high power signal generator, a localized magnetic field source and sensor, and a signal analyzer. The results indicate an increase in the reflectivity of the laser-treated samples compared to untreated samples. The effect of reflectivity on the heating of the alloys is investigated through a mathematical model incorporating Maxwell's equations and heat conduction.

  8. Origin and tuning of the magnetic anisotropy in Fe2P-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, Ivan; Antropov, V. P.; Belashchenko, K. D.

    Fe2P-based alloys have been studied for years due to their potential magnetocaloric applications. In addition, Fe2P demonstrates record-high magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) for systems with no heavy elements. While the Curie temperature TC in pure Fe2P is too low for applications, this system appears to be highly tunable, and its TC can be greatly increased by alloying with many other d and p elements. Here we present the electronic structure analysis of magnetic properties of these alloys, searching for systems with higher TC while preserving high MCA. The microscopic origin of the dominant contribution to MCA and its concentration dependence is revealed. We further find that co-alloying with Co or Ni and Si is a promising strategy for achieving high Curie temperature and MCA, which is more favorable compared to individual alloying by Co/Ni or Si due to the compensation of their effects on the band occupation. Work at UNL supported by NSF Grants DMR-1308751 and DMR-1609776. Work at Ames Lab was supported by the Critical Materials Institute, an Energy Innovation Hub funded by the US DOE.

  9. Magnetic Behavior of Ni-Fe Core-Shell and Alloy Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Jagnyaseni; Vargas, Jose; Spinu, Leonard; Wiley, John

    2013-03-01

    Template assisted synthesis was used to fabricate a series of Ni-Fe core-shell and alloy nanowires. By controlling reaction conditions as well as pore structure, both systems could be targeted and magnetic properties followed as a function of architectures. In the core-shell structure coercivity increases with decrease in shell thickness while for the alloys, coercivity squareness improve with increase pore diameter. Details on the systematic studies of these materials will be presented in terms of hysteretic measurements, including first order reversal curves (FORC), and FMR data. Magnetic variation as a function of structure and nanowire aspect ratios will be presented and the origins of these behaviors discussed. Advanced Material Research Institute

  10. Effect of steady and time-harmonic magnetic fields on macrosegragation in alloy solidification

    SciT

    Incropera, F.P.; Prescott, P.J.

    Buoyancy-induced convection during the solidification of alloys can contribute significantly to the redistribution of alloy constituents, thereby creating large composition gradients in the final ingot. Termed macrosegregation, the condition diminishes the quality of the casting and, in the extreme, may require that the casting be remelted. The deleterious effects of buoyancy-driven flows may be suppressed through application of an external magnetic field, and in this study the effects of both steady and time-harmonic fields have been considered. For a steady magnetic field, extremely large field strengths would be required to effectively dampen convection patterns that contribute to macrosegregation. However, bymore » reducing spatial variations in temperature and composition, turbulent mixing induced by a time-harmonic field reduces the number and severity of segregates in the final casting.« less

  11. Variation of Aging Precipitates and Mechanical Strength of Al-Cu-Li Alloys Caused by Small Addition of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yun-long; Li, Jin-feng

    2017-09-01

    The effect of small rare earth (RE) addition of 0.11%Ce, 0.2%Er and 0.082%Sc on aging precipitates and mechanical strength of an Al-(3.3-4.2)Cu-1.2Li-X alloy were investigated. It is found that Cu-rich residual particles containing RE element exist in the solutionized alloy, which leads to a decrease of dissolved Cu concentration in the solutionized matrix. Like RE-free alloy, the main aging precipitate types in RE-containing alloy are T1 (Al2CuLi) and θ' (Al2Cu), but their fraction is decreased. The strength of the corresponding alloys is therefore lowered by the small RE addition. Combined with the analysis of some reported references, it is proposed that the effect of small RE addition on Al-Cu-Li alloy strength is also associated with the Cu and Li concentrations and their ratio.

  12. Feedforward-Feedback Hybrid Control for Magnetic Shape Memory Alloy Actuators Based on the Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Miaolei; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Jingyuan

    2014-01-01

    As a new type of smart material, magnetic shape memory alloy has the advantages of a fast response frequency and outstanding strain capability in the field of microdrive and microposition actuators. The hysteresis nonlinearity in magnetic shape memory alloy actuators, however, limits system performance and further application. Here we propose a feedforward-feedback hybrid control method to improve control precision and mitigate the effects of the hysteresis nonlinearity of magnetic shape memory alloy actuators. First, hysteresis nonlinearity compensation for the magnetic shape memory alloy actuator is implemented by establishing a feedforward controller which is an inverse hysteresis model based on Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii operator. Secondly, the paper employs the classical Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control with feedforward control to comprise the hybrid control system, and for further enhancing the adaptive performance of the system and improving the control accuracy, the Radial Basis Function neural network self-tuning Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control replaces the classical Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control. Utilizing self-learning ability of the Radial Basis Function neural network obtains Jacobian information of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator for the on-line adjustment of parameters in Proportion Integration Differentiation controller. Finally, simulation results show that the hybrid control method proposed in this paper can greatly improve the control precision of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator and the maximum tracking error is reduced from 1.1% in the open-loop system to 0.43% in the hybrid control system. PMID:24828010

  13. Feedforward-feedback hybrid control for magnetic shape memory alloy actuators based on the Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Miaolei; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Jingyuan

    2014-01-01

    As a new type of smart material, magnetic shape memory alloy has the advantages of a fast response frequency and outstanding strain capability in the field of microdrive and microposition actuators. The hysteresis nonlinearity in magnetic shape memory alloy actuators, however, limits system performance and further application. Here we propose a feedforward-feedback hybrid control method to improve control precision and mitigate the effects of the hysteresis nonlinearity of magnetic shape memory alloy actuators. First, hysteresis nonlinearity compensation for the magnetic shape memory alloy actuator is implemented by establishing a feedforward controller which is an inverse hysteresis model based on Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii operator. Secondly, the paper employs the classical Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control with feedforward control to comprise the hybrid control system, and for further enhancing the adaptive performance of the system and improving the control accuracy, the Radial Basis Function neural network self-tuning Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control replaces the classical Proportion Integration Differentiation feedback control. Utilizing self-learning ability of the Radial Basis Function neural network obtains Jacobian information of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator for the on-line adjustment of parameters in Proportion Integration Differentiation controller. Finally, simulation results show that the hybrid control method proposed in this paper can greatly improve the control precision of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator and the maximum tracking error is reduced from 1.1% in the open-loop system to 0.43% in the hybrid control system.

  14. An improved Overhauser magnetometer for Earth's magnetic field observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shifang; Chen, Shudong; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Xin; Cao, Qiong

    2016-09-01

    Overhauser magnetometer is a kind of high-precision devices for magnetostatic field measurement. It is widely used in geological survey, earth field variations, UXO detection etc. However, the original Overhauser magnetometer JOM-2 shows great shortcomings of low signal to noise ratio (SNR) and high power consumption, which directly affect the performance of the device. In order to increase the sensitivity and reduce power consumption, we present an improved Overhauser magnetometer. Firstly, compared with the original power board which suffers from heavy noise for improper EMC design, an improved power broad with 20mV peak to peak noise is presented in this paper. Then, the junction field effect transistor (JFET) is used as pre-amplifier in our new design, to overcome the higher current noise produced by the original instrumentation amplifier. By adjusting the parameters carefully low noise factor down to 0.5 dB can be obtained. Finally, the new architecture of ARM + CPLD is adopted to replace the original one with DSP+CPLD. So lower power consumption and greater flash memory can be realized. With these measures, an improved Overhauser magnetometer with higher sensitivity and lower power consumption is design here. The experimental results indicate that the sensitivity of the improved Overhauser magnetometer is 0.071nT, which confirms that the new magnetometer is sensitive to earth field measurement.

  15. [Relationship between Copenhagen and Göttingen regarding earth magnetism].

    PubMed

    Reich, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Hans Christian Oersted is mostly known as the discoverer of electromagnetism and for being one of the physicists who were deeply influenced and fascinated by the romantic natural philosophy. In this article another side of Oersted is presented. What is underestimated until now is Oersted's contribution to the research of geomagnetism. Oersted stood in close contact with Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Weber, whom he visited in 1834 in Göttingen. Oersted's aim was to learn the new developments in geomagnetism. Afterwards he was crucial in the building of a new magnetic observatory in Copenhagen as well as a second one with better equipment. Oersted formed a huge team for magnetic observations and the gathered data were sent to Gauss and Weber who published them. The correspondence between Oersted, Gauss and Weber was mostly dedicated to the transmission of these data, details about instruments and the best way of building a magnetic observatory. Unfortunately, Gauss and Weber had to stop their very successful collaboration in 1843, because Weber belonged to the Göttingen Seven and later on Oersted stopped his observations, because he had lost his partners in this research project.

  16. Magnetism and atomic short-range order in Ni-Rh alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnegie, D. W., Jr.; Claus, H.

    1984-07-01

    Low-field ac susceptibility measurements of Ni-Rh samples of various concentrations are presented. Giant effects of the metallurgical state on the magnetic ordering temperature are associated with changes in the degree of atomic short-range order. By careful control of this degree of short-range order, it is possible to demonstrate the existence of a spin-glass state in Ni-Rh alloys.

  17. Magnetic properties of the CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Friák, Martin; Dudová, Marie; ...

    2017-07-28

    In this paper, we present experimental data showing that the equiatomic CrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy undergoes two magnetic transformations at temperatures below 100 K while maintaining its fcc structure down to 3 K. The first transition, paramagnetic to spin glass, was detected at 93 K and the second transition of the ferromagnetic type occurred at 38 K. Field-assisted cooling below 38 K resulted in a systematic vertical shift of the hysteresis curves. Strength and direction of the associated magnetization bias was proportional to the strength and direction of the cooling field and shows a linear dependence with a slope of 0.006more » ± 0.001 emu T. The local magnetic moments of individual atoms in the CrMnFeCoNi quinary fcc random solid solution were investigated by ab initio (electronic density functional theory) calculations. Results of the numerical analysis suggest that, irrespective of the initial configuration of local magnetic moments, the magnetic moments associated with Cr atoms align antiferromagnetically with respect to a cumulative magnetic moment of their first coordination shell. The ab initio calculations further showed that the magnetic moments of Fe and Mn atoms remain strong (between 1.5 and 2 μ B), while the local moments of Ni atoms effectively vanish. Finally, these results indicate that interactions of Mn- and/or Fe-located moments with the surrounding magnetic structure account for the observed macroscopic magnetization bias.« less

  18. The distribution alloying elements in alnico 8 and 9 magnets: Site preference of ternary Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni additions in DO 3 Fe 3Al, Co 3Al, and Ni 3Al based intermetallic phases

    SciT

    Samolyuk, G. D.; Újfalussy, B.; Stocks, G. M.

    Recently, interest in alnico magnetic alloys has been rekindled due to their potential to substitute for rare-earth based permanent magnets provided modest improvements in their coercivity can be achieved without loss of saturation magnetization. Recent experimental studies have indicated that atomic and magnetic structure of the two phases (one AlNi-based, the other FeCo-based) that comprise these spinodally decomposed alloy is not as simple as previously thought. A key issue that arises is the distribution of Fe, Co and Ti within the AlNi-based matrix phase. In our paper we report the results of first-principles calculations of the site preference of ternarymore » alloying additions in DO 3 Fe 3Al, Co 3Al and Ni 3Al alloys, as models for the aluminide phase. For compound compositions that are Al rich, which corresponds to experimental situation, Ti and Fe are found to occupy the sites, while Co and Ni prefer the sites of the DO 3 lattice. Finally, an important finding is that the magnetic moments of transition metals in Fe 3Al and Co 3Al are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas the Ni3Al were found to be nonmagnetic unless the Fe or Co are added as a ternary element.« less

  19. The distribution alloying elements in alnico 8 and 9 magnets: Site preference of ternary Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni additions in DO 3 Fe 3Al, Co 3Al, and Ni 3Al based intermetallic phases

    DOE PAGES

    Samolyuk, G. D.; Újfalussy, B.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-11-07

    Recently, interest in alnico magnetic alloys has been rekindled due to their potential to substitute for rare-earth based permanent magnets provided modest improvements in their coercivity can be achieved without loss of saturation magnetization. Recent experimental studies have indicated that atomic and magnetic structure of the two phases (one AlNi-based, the other FeCo-based) that comprise these spinodally decomposed alloy is not as simple as previously thought. A key issue that arises is the distribution of Fe, Co and Ti within the AlNi-based matrix phase. In our paper we report the results of first-principles calculations of the site preference of ternarymore » alloying additions in DO 3 Fe 3Al, Co 3Al and Ni 3Al alloys, as models for the aluminide phase. For compound compositions that are Al rich, which corresponds to experimental situation, Ti and Fe are found to occupy the sites, while Co and Ni prefer the sites of the DO 3 lattice. Finally, an important finding is that the magnetic moments of transition metals in Fe 3Al and Co 3Al are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas the Ni3Al were found to be nonmagnetic unless the Fe or Co are added as a ternary element.« less

  20. Magnetic Reconnection at a Thin Current Sheet Separating Two Interlaced Flux Tubes at the Earth's Magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacem, I.; Jacquey, C.; Génot, V.; Lavraud, B.; Vernisse, Y.; Marchaudon, A.; Le Contel, O.; Breuillard, H.; Phan, T. D.; Hasegawa, H.; Oka, M.; Trattner, K. J.; Farrugia, C. J.; Paulson, K.; Eastwood, J. P.; Fuselier, S. A.; Turner, D.; Eriksson, S.; Wilder, F.; Russell, C. T.; Øieroset, M.; Burch, J.; Graham, D. B.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Avanov, L.; Chandler, M.; Coffey, V.; Dorelli, J.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Saito, Y.; Chen, L.-J.; Penou, E.

    2018-03-01

    The occurrence of spatially and temporally variable reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause leads to the complex interaction of magnetic fields from the magnetosphere and magnetosheath. Flux transfer events (FTEs) constitute one such type of interaction. Their main characteristics are (1) an enhanced core magnetic field magnitude and (2) a bipolar magnetic field signature in the component normal to the magnetopause, reminiscent of a large-scale helicoidal flux tube magnetic configuration. However, other geometrical configurations which do not fit this classical picture have also been observed. Using high-resolution measurements from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, we investigate an event in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetopause on 7 November 2015. Despite signatures that, at first glance, appear consistent with a classic FTE, based on detailed geometrical and dynamical analyses as well as on topological signatures revealed by suprathermal electron properties, we demonstrate that this event is not consistent with a single, homogenous helicoidal structure. Our analysis rather suggests that it consists of the interaction of two separate sets of magnetic field lines with different connectivities. This complex three-dimensional interaction constructively conspires to produce signatures partially consistent with that of an FTE. We also show that, at the interface between the two sets of field lines, where the observed magnetic pileup occurs, a thin and strong current sheet forms with a large ion jet, which may be consistent with magnetic flux dissipation through magnetic reconnection in the interaction region.

  1. Rare-earth magnet ingestion-related injuries among children, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Ana C; Thompson, Meghan C; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Xiang, Huiyun; Cowles, Nancy A; Shmuylovskaya, Liliya; Smith, Gary A

    2013-11-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of rare-earth magnet ingestion by children by retrospectively analyzing 72 cases of magnet ingestion collected from Saferproducts.gov and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission from 2000 through 2012. The mean child age was 6.4 years. Patients ingested between 1 and 40 magnets, most often 1 to 4 magnets. Unique circumstances of ingestion included faux piercing (19.4%) and mistaking magnets for candy (6.9%). Surgery was required in 69.7% of cases where treatment was reported. Fifty-three patients were hospitalized (73.6%), and the length of hospital stay was reported in 58.5% of those cases, ranging from 1 to 54 days. Approximately half (50.7%) of the magnets causing injury were products intended for use by adults. Study findings demonstrate that pediatric ingestion of rare-earth magnets can cause serious gastrointestinal injury. Establishing a performance standard that limits the attraction force of these magnets offers the best prevention solution to this important pediatric public health problem.

  2. Determination of rare earth and concomitant elements in magnesium alloys by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fariñas, Juan C; Rucandio, Isabel; Pomares-Alfonso, Mario S; Villanueva-Tagle, Margarita E; Larrea, María T

    2016-07-01

    An Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, In, Mn, Ni, Si, Sr, Y, Zn, Zr and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) in magnesium alloys, including the new rare earth elements-alloyed magnesium, has been developed. Robust conditions have been established as nebulizer argon flow rate of 0.5mLmin(-1) and RF incident power of 1500W, in which matrix effects were significantly reduced around 10%. Three acid digestion procedures were performed at 110°C in closed PFA vessels heated in an oven, in closed TFM vessels heated in a microwave furnace, and in open polypropylene tubes with reflux caps heated in a graphite block. The three digestion procedures are suitable to put into solution the magnesium alloys samples. From the most sensitive lines, one analytical line with lack or low spectral interferences has been selected for each element. Mg, Rh and Sc have been studied as internal standards. Among them, Rh was selected as the best one by using Rh I 343.488nm and Rh II 249.078nm lines as a function of the analytical lines. The trueness and precision have been established by using the Certified Reference Material BCS 316, as well as by means of recovery studies. Quantification limits were between 0.1 and 9mgkg(-1) for Lu and Pr, respectively, in a 2gL(-1) magnesium matrix solution. The method developed has been applied to the commercial alloys AM60, AZ80, ZK30, AJ62, WE54 and AE44. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microstructure and magnetic behavior studies of processing-controlled and composition-modified Fe-Ni and Mn-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Yunlong

    L10-type (Space group P4/mmm) magnetic compounds, including FeNi and MnAl, possess promising technical magnetic properties of both high magnetization and large magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy, and thus offer potential in replacing rare earth permanent magnets in some applications. In equiatomic Fe-Ni, the disorder-order transformation from fcc structure to the L10 structure is a diffusional transformation, but is inhibited by the low ordering temperature. The transformation could be enhanced through the creation of vacancies. Thus, mechanical alloying was employed to generate more open-volume defects. A decrease in grain size and concomitant increase in grain boundary area resulted from the mechanical alloying, while an initial increase in internal strain (manifested through an increase in dislocation density) was followed by a subsequent decrease with further alloying. However, a decrease in the net defect concentration was determined by Doppler broadening positron annihilation spectroscopy, as open volume defects utilized dislocations and grain boundaries as sinks. An alloy, Fe32Ni52Zr3B13, formed an amorphous structure after rapid solidification, with a higher defect concentration than crystalline materials. Mechanical milling was utilized in an attempt to generate even more defects. However, it was observed that Fe32Ni52Zr3B13 underwent crystallization during the milling process, which appears to be related to enhanced vacancy-type defect concentrations allowing growth of pre-existing Fe(Ni) nuclei. The milling and enhanced vacancy concentration also de-stabilizes the glass, leading to decreased crystallization temperatures, and ultimately leading to complete crystallization. In Mn-Al, the L10 structure forms from the parent hcp phase. However, this phase is slightly hyperstoichiometric relative to Mn, and the excess Mn occupies Al sites and couples antiparallel to the other Mn atoms. In this study, the Zr substituted preferentially for the Mn atoms in the

  4. Cold rolled Fe-6.5 wt. % Si alloy foils with high magnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X. S.; Liang, Y. F.; Ye, F.; Lin, J. P.

    2012-05-01

    Fe-6.5 wt. % Si alloy foils with 95 mm in width and 0.30 mm in thickness were successfully fabricated by cold rolling process. Excellent magnetic properties (Hc = 20.4 A/m, µm = 22 200, and Bs = 1.69 T) were obtained after annealing at the temperature of 1273 K for 1.5 h. This high magnetic induction is considered to be due to the formation of {hk0}<001> textures. Cut cores from this material have a very low iron loss at frequencies from 400 Hz to 10 kHz.

  5. Effect of Heat-Treatment on the Phases of Ni-Mn-Ga Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    SciT

    Huq, Ashfia; Ari-Gur, Pnina; Kimmel, Giora

    2009-01-01

    The Heusler alloys Ni50Mn25+xGa25-x display magnetic shape memory effect (MSM) with very fast and large reversible strain under magnetic fields. This large strain and the speed of reaction make MSM alloys attractive as smart materials. Our crystallographic investigation of these alloys, focused on non-stoichiometric composition with excess of manganese. Using neutron diffraction, we revealed the necessary processing parameters to achieve and preserve the homogeneous metastable one-phase martensitic structure that is needed for an MSM effect at room temperature.

  6. High-entropy Alloys with High Saturation Magnetization, Electrical Resistivity, and Malleability

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Zuo, TingTing; Cheng, YongQiang; Liaw, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Soft magnetic materials (SMMs) find important applications in a number of areas. The diverse requirements for these applications are often demanding and challenging for the design and fabrication of SMMs. Here we report a new class of FeCoNi(AlSi)x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 in molar ratio) SMMs based on high-entropy alloys (HEAs). It is found that with the compositional and structural changes, the optimal balance of magnetic, electrical, and mechanical properties is achieved at x = 0.2, for which the combination of saturation magnetization (1.15 T), coercivity (1,400 A/m), electrical resistivity (69.5 μΩ·cm), yield strength (342 MPa), and strain without fracture (50%) makes the alloy an excellent SMM. Ab initio calculations are used to explain the high magnetic saturation of the present HEAs and the effects of compositional structures on magnetic characteristics. The HEA-based SMMs point to new directions in both the application of HEAs and the search for novel SMMs. PMID:23492734

  7. Structural health monitoring for DOT using magnetic shape memory alloy cables in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Allen; Mirsayar, Mirmilad; Sheahan, Emery; Hartl, Darren

    2018-03-01

    Embedding shape memory alloy (SMA) wires in concrete components offers the potential to monitor their structural health via external magnetic field sensing. Currently, structural health monitoring (SHM) is dominated by acoustic emission and vibration-based methods. Thus, it is attractive to pursue alternative damage sensing techniques that may lower the cost or increase the accuracy of SHM. In this work, SHM via magnetic field detection applied to embedded magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) is demonstrated both experimentally and using computational models. A concrete beam containing iron-based MSMA wire is subjected to a 3-point bend test where structural damage is induced, thereby resulting in a localized phase change of the MSMA wire. Magnetic field lines passing through the embedded MSMA domain are altered by this phase change and can thus be used to detect damage within the structure. A good correlation is observed between the computational and experimental results. Additionally, the implementation of stranded MSMA cables in place of the MSMA wire is assessed through similar computational models. The combination of these computational models and their subsequent experimental validation provide sufficient support for the feasibility of SHM using magnetic field sensing via MSMA embedded components.

  8. Simultaneous enhancement of magnetic and mechanical properties in Ni-Mn-Sn alloy by Fe doping

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Changlong; Tai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Kun; Tian, Xiaohua; Cai, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Both magnetic-field-induced reverse martensitic transformation (MFIRMT) and mechanical properties are crucial for application of Ni-Mn-Sn magnetic shape memory alloys. Here, we demonstrate that substitution of Fe for Ni can simultaneously enhance the MFIRMT and mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Sn, which are advantageous for its applications. The austenite in Ni44Fe6Mn39Sn11 shows the typical ferromagnetic magnetization with the highest saturation magnetization of 69 emu/g at 223 K. The result shows that an appropriate amount of Fe substitution can really enhance the ferromagnetism of Ni50Mn39Sn11 alloy in austenite, which directly leads to the enhancement of MFIRMT. Meanwhile, the mechanical property significantly improves with Fe doping. When there is 4 at.% Fe added, the compressive and maximum strain reach the maximum value (approximately 725.4 MPa and 9.3%). Furthermore, using first-principles calculations, we clarify the origin of Fe doping on martensitic transformation and magnetic properties. PMID:28230152

  9. Structure and magnetic properties of mechanically alloyed Co and Co-Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guessasma, S.; Fenineche, N.

    The influence of milling process on magnetic properties of Co and Co-Ni materials is studied. Coercivity, squareness ratio and crystallite size of mechanically alloyed Co-Ni material were related to milling time. For Co material, coercivity, cubic phase ratio and crystallite size were related to milling energy considering the vial and plateau rotation velocities. An artificial neural network (ANN) combining the parameters for both materials is used to predict magnetic and structure results versus milling conditions. Predicted results showed that milling energy is mostly dependent on the ratio vial to plateau rotation velocities and that milling times larger than 40 h do not add significant change to both structure and magnetic responses. Magnetic parameters were correlated to crystallite size and the D 6 law was only valid for small sizes.

  10. The structural and magnetic properties of Fe2-xNiGa1+x Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang (张玉洁), Y. J.; Xi (郗学奎), X. K.; Meng (孟凡斌), F. B.; Wang (王文洪), W. H.; Liu (刘恩克), E. K.; Chen (陈京兰), J. L.; Wu (吴光恒), G. H.

    2015-04-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Fe2-xNiGa1+x (x=0~1) Heusler alloys have been investigated by experimental observation and calculation. In this system, a structural transition is found as a function of composition. A higher Ga content leads to an atomic-order transformation from Hg2CuTi to B2. The magnetization decreases due to the dilution effect and the competition between the magnetic interactions and enhanced covalent bonding. The calculation of electronic structure indicates that adding Ga enhances the p-d orbital hybridization between the transition-metal and main-group-element atoms at nearest-neighbor distance. A magnetic and a structural phase diagram have been obtained in which the composition dependences of the lattice constant, the ordering temperature and the Curie temperature show cusps at a critical composition of x=0.32.

  11. Magnetic properties of the ternary alloy with a structure of Prussian blue analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dely, J.; Bobák, A.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties (phase diagram, compensation temperature, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization) of the ABpC1-p ternary alloy in the presence of a single-ion anisotropy on the B ions only are investigated by the use of a mean-field theory. Depending on the values of the parameters in the model Hamiltonian, the present system may exhibit one, two or even three compensation temperatures Tk. It is shown that the total magnetic susceptibility of the ferrimagnetic system can generally take a finite value at transition temperature Tc only if the relation Tc=Tk is exactly satisfied. Also, by using this model, some characteristics observed in the Prussian blue analog of the type (FepIIMn1-pII)1.5[CrIII(CN)6]·nH2O are quantitatively or qualitatively well reproduced.

  12. Amorphous Slater-Pauling like behaviour in magnetic nanoparticles alloys synthesized in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Paul; Ménard, David; Meunier, Michel

    2012-09-01

    Nanoparticles of Fe, Co, Ni, and their alloys, with an average diameter of 12 nm were synthesized in liquids using a laser. Their saturation magnetization exhibited a Slater-Pauling-like behaviour with two main differences compared to that expected in bulk materials. First, the amplitude of the magnetization was found to be roughly 5 times smaller. Second, the disappearance of the ferromagnetic (FM) behaviour occurred at Ni instead of the expected Ni0.6Cu0.4. The behaviour can be explained by the presence of non-magnetic oxidized shells which reduced the fraction of ferromagnetic atoms and induce through strain an amorphous structure in the metallic core. Annealing at 500 K leads to some crystallization of the particles and thus to a partial recovery of the expected magnetization.

  13. [Earth magnetism research in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Schröder, W; Wiederkehr, K H

    2000-01-01

    Even before the discovery of the electromagnetism by Oersted, and before Ampère, who attributed all magnetism to the flux of electrical currents, A. v. Humboldt and Hansteen had turned to geomagnetism. With the help of the "Göttinger Magnetische Verein", a worldwide cooperation under the leadership of Gauss game into existence. Even today, Gauss' theory of the geomagnetism is one of the pillars for geomagnetical research work. Thereafter, J. v. Lamont, Prof. in Munich, took over the leadership in Germany. In England, the Magnetic Crusade was started by the initiative of John Herschel and E. Sabine. At the beginning of the forties, James Clarke Ross advanced to the Antarctic Continent, which was then quite unknown. Ten years later, Sabine was able to gather solar-terrestrial relations from the data of the colonical observatories. In the eighties, Arthur Schuster, following Balfour Stewart's ideas, succeeded in interpreting the daily variations of the electrical process in the high atmosphere. The geomagnetic research work in Germany was given a fresh impetus by the First Polar Year 1882-1883. Georg Neumayer, director of the "Deutsche Seewarte" in Hamburg, had been one of the initiators of the Polar Year. He had a close cooperation with the newly founded "Kaiserliches Marineobservatorium" in Wilhelmshaven, and he also managed to gain the collaboration of the "Gauss-Observatorium für Erdmagnetismus" in Göttingen under E. Schering. In the Polar Year, the first automatic recording magnetometers (Kew-Model) were used in a German observatory in Wilhelmshaven. Here M. Eschenhagen, who later became director of the geomagnetic section in the new Meterological-Magnetic Observatory in Potsdam, gained special merit. The treatise considers preceding hypotheses of geomagnetism as well as the palaeomagnetic studies. The essential seismological investigations at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century are briefly treated. They represent one of the keystones for the modern

  14. Rare Earth Extraction from NdFeB Magnet Using a Closed-Loop Acid Process.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Jiro; Uemura, Ryohei

    2017-08-14

    There is considerable interest in extraction of rare earth elements from NdFeB magnets to enable recycling of these elements. In practical extraction methods using wet processes, the acid waste solution discharge is a problem that must be resolved to reduce the environmental impact of the process. Here, we present an encouraging demonstration of rare earth element extraction from a NdFeB magnet using a closed-loop hydrochloric acid (HCl)-based process. The extraction method is based on corrosion of the magnet in a pretreatment stage and a subsequent ionic liquid technique for Fe extraction from the HCl solution. The rare earth elements are then precipitated using oxalic acid. Triple extraction has been conducted and the recovery ratio of the rare earth elements from the solution is approximately 50% for each extraction process, as compared to almost 100% recovery when using a one-shot extraction process without the ionic liquid but with sufficient oxalic acid. Despite its reduced extraction efficiency, the proposed method with its small number of procedures at almost room temperature is still highly advantageous in terms of both cost and environmental friendliness. This study represents an initial step towards realization of a closed-loop acid process for recycling of rare earth elements.

  15. The magnetic field of the equatorial magnetotail from 10 to 40 earth radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairfield, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    A statistical study of IMP 6, 7, and 8 magnetotail magnetic field measurements near the equatorial plane reveals new information about various aspects of magnetospheric structure. More magnetic flux crosses the equatorial plane on the dawn and dusk flanks of the tail than near midnight, but no evidence is found for a dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field sector polarity. Field magnitudes within 3 earth radii of the equatorial plane near dawn are more than twice as large as those near dusk for Xsm = -20 to -10 earth radii. The frequency of occurrence of southward fields is greatest near midnight, and such fields are seen almost twice as often for Xsm = -20 to -10 earth radii as for Xsm beyond -20 earth radii. This latter result supports the idea that the midnight region of the tail between 10 and 20 is a special location where neutral lines are particularly apt to form. Such a neutral line will approach nearest the earth in the midnight and premidnight region, where substorms are thought to have their onset.

  16. Successful treatment of rare-earth magnet ingestion via minimally invasive techniques: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kosut, Jessica S; Johnson, Sidney M; King, Jeremy L; Garnett, Gwendolyn; Woo, Russell K

    2013-04-01

    Cases of rare-earth magnet ingestions have been increasingly reported in the literature. However, these descriptions have focused on the severity of the injuries, rather than the clinical presentation and/or therapeutic approach. We report a series of eight children, ranging in age from 2 to 10 years, who ingested powerful rare-earth magnets. The rare-earth magnets were marketed in 2009 under the trade name Buckyballs(®) (Maxfield & Oberton, New York, NY). They are about 5 mm in size, spherical, and brightly colored, making them appealing for young children to play with and place in their mouths. Three children presented within hours of ingestion, and the magnets were successfully removed via endoscopy in two, whereas the third child required laparoscopy. No fistulas were found in these children. A fourth child presented 2 days after ingestion with evidence of bowel wall erosion, but without fistula formation; the magnets were removed via laparoscopy. A fifth child ingested nine magnets in a ring formation, which were removed via colonoscopy without evidence of injury or fistula formation. The three remaining children presented late (5-8 days after ingestion) and were found to have associated fistulas. They were treated successfully with a combination of endoscopy and laparoscopy with fluoroscopy. None of the children in our series required an open surgical procedure. All children were discharged home without complications. This case series highlights the potential dangers of rare-earth magnet ingestion in children. Our experience suggests that prompt intervention using minimally invasive approaches can lead to successful outcomes.

  17. 78 FR 42974 - Certain Sintered Rare Earth Magnets, Methods of Making Same and Products Containing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... rare earth magnets, methods of making same and products containing same by reason of infringement of..., Methods of Making Same and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial Determination Granting an Unopposed Motion by Complainants; Termination of the Investigation AGENCY: U.S...

  18. Texture formation mechanism and constitutive equation for anisotropic thermorheological rare-earth permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Minggang; Li, Wei

    2017-05-01

    The study investigates the mechanism and constitutive equations describing oriented texture formation in anisotropic thermorheological rare-earth permanent magnets. The thermorheological process cannot be considered as creep, since the related phenomena are not suitably explained by the diffusion creep model. A mathematical model describing the relationship between the rheological deformation rate and texture orientation was established, and a theoretical expression was obtained for the orientation factor of thermorheological magnets. In addition, nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets were fabricated, with intrinsic coercivity Hcj=760.1 kA/m, remanence Br=1.469 T, and maximum energy product (BH)max=427.1 kJ/m3.

  19. Existence of a component corotating with the earth in high-latitude disturbance magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, A.; Kim, J. S.; Sugiura, M.

    1982-01-01

    A study of the data from the high-latitude North American IMS network of magnetic stations suggests that there is a component in substorm perturbations that corotates with the earth. It is as yet not certain whether the existence of this component stems from the corotation of a part of the magnetospheric plasma involved in the substorm mechanism or if it is a 'phase change' resulting from the control of the substorm manifestations by the earth's main magnetic field which is not axially symmetric. There are other geophysical phenomena showing a persistence of longitudinal variations corotating with the earth. These phenomena are of significance for a better understanding of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling.

  20. The melting curve of Ni to 125 GPa: implications for Earth's Fe rich core alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, O. T.; Wood, I. G.; Dobson, D. P.; Vocadlo, L.; Thomson, A. R.; Wann, E.; Wang, W.; Edgington, A.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, N.; Walter, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The melting curve of Ni has been determined to 125 GPa using laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) experiments and two melting criteria: the appearance of liquid diffuse scattering (LDS) during in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and simultaneous plateaux in temperature vs. laser power functions [1]. Our melting curve (Fig. 1) is in good agreement with most theoretical studies [e.g. 2] and the available shock wave data (Fig. 2). It is, however, dramatically steeper than the previous off-line LH-DAC studies in which the determination of melting was based on the visual observation of motion aided by the laser speckle method [e.g. 3]. We estimate the melting point of Ni at the inner-core boundary (ICB; 330 GPa) to be 5800±700 K (2σ), ~2500 K higher than the estimate based on the laser speckle method [3] and within error of Fe (6230±500 K) as determined in a similar in situ LH-DAC study [4]. We find that laser speckle based melting curves coincide with the onset of rapid sub-solidus recrystallization, suggesting that visual observations of motion may have misinterpreted dynamic recrystallization as melt convection. Our new melting curve suggests that the reduction in ICB temperature due to the alloying of Ni with Fe is likely to be significantly smaller than would be expected had the earlier experimental Ni melting studies been correct. We have applied our methodology to a range of other transition metals (Mo, Ti, V, Cu). In the case of Mo, Ti and V the melting curves are in good agreement with the shock compression and theoretical melting studies but hotter and steeper than those based on the laser speckle method, as with Ni. Cu is an exception in which all studies agree, including those employing the laser speckle method. These results go a long way toward resolving the the long-standing controversy over the phase diagrams of the transition metals as determined from static LH-DAC studies on the one hand, and theoretical and dynamic compression studies on the other

  1. Microstructure and Properties of Cobalt-and Zinc-Containing Magnetic Magnesium Alloys Processed by High-Pressure Die Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Christian; Demminger, Christian; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    The inherent magnetic properties of lightweight alloys based on magnesium and cobalt offer a novel way in order to measure mechanical loads throughout the entire structural component using the magnetoelastic effect. Because the solubility of cobalt in the magnesium matrix is negligible, the magnetic properties mainly originate from Co-rich precipitates. Thus, the size and distribution of Co-containing phases within the alloy's microstructure wields a major influence on the amplitude of the load-sensitive properties which can be measured by employing the harmonic analysis of eddy-current signals. In this study, Mg-Co-based alloys are produced by several casting methods which allow the application of different cooling rates, e.g. gravity die casting and high-pressure die casting. The differences between the manufactured alloys' micro- and phase structures are compared depending on the applied cooling rate and the superior magnetic and mechanical properties of the high-pressure die cast material are demonstrated.

  2. Predicting the magnetic vectors within coronal mass ejections arriving at Earth: 1. Initial architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savani, N. P.; Vourlidas, A.; Szabo, A.; Mays, M. L.; Richardson, I. G.; Thompson, B. J.; Pulkkinen, A.; Evans, R.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.

    2015-06-01

    The process by which the Sun affects the terrestrial environment on short timescales is predominately driven by the amount of magnetic reconnection between the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere. Reconnection occurs most efficiently when the solar wind magnetic field has a southward component. The most severe impacts are during the arrival of a coronal mass ejection (CME) when the magnetosphere is both compressed and magnetically connected to the heliospheric environment. Unfortunately, forecasting magnetic vectors within coronal mass ejections remain elusive. Here we report how, by combining a statistically robust helicity rule for a CME's solar origin with a simplified flux rope topology, the magnetic vectors within the Earth-directed segment of a CME can be predicted. In order to test the validity of this proof-of-concept architecture for estimating the magnetic vectors within CMEs, a total of eight CME events (between 2010 and 2014) have been investigated. With a focus on the large false alarm of January 2014, this work highlights the importance of including the early evolutionary effects of a CME for forecasting purposes. The angular rotation in the predicted magnetic field closely follows the broad rotational structure seen within the in situ data. This time-varying field estimate is implemented into a process to quantitatively predict a time-varying Kp index that is described in detail in paper II. Future statistical work, quantifying the uncertainties in this process, may improve the more heuristic approach used by early forecasting systems.

  3. Particle-in-cell simulations of Earth-like magnetosphere during a magnetic field reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, M. V. G.; Alves, M. V.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Schmitz, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    The geologic record shows that hundreds of pole reversals have occurred throughout Earth's history. The mean interval between the poles reversals is roughly 200 to 300 thousand years and the last reversal occurred around 780 thousand years ago. Pole reversal is a slow process, during which the strength of the magnetic field decreases, become more complex, with the appearance of more than two poles for some time and then the field strength increases, changing polarity. Along the process, the magnetic field configuration changes, leaving the Earth-like planet vulnerable to the harmful effects of the Sun. Understanding what happens with the magnetosphere during these pole reversals is an open topic of investigation. Only recently PIC codes are used to modeling magnetospheres. Here we use the particle code iPIC3D [Markidis et al, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 2010] to simulate an Earth-like magnetosphere at three different times along the pole reversal process. The code was modified, so the Earth-like magnetic field is generated using an expansion in spherical harmonics with the Gauss coefficients given by a MHD simulation of the Earth's core [Glatzmaier et al, Nature, 1995; 1999; private communication to L.E.A.V.]. Simulations show the qualitative behavior of the magnetosphere, such as the current structures. Only the planet magnetic field was changed in the runs. The solar wind is the same for all runs. Preliminary results show the formation of the Chapman-Ferraro current in the front of the magnetosphere in all the cases. Run for the middle of the reversal process, the low intensity magnetic field and its asymmetrical configuration the current structure changes and the presence of multiple poles can be observed. In all simulations, a structure similar to the radiation belts was found. Simulations of more severe solar wind conditions are necessary to determine the real impact of the reversal in the magnetosphere.

  4. Recent changes of the Earth's core derived from satellite observations of magnetic and gravity fields.

    PubMed

    Mandea, Mioara; Panet, Isabelle; Lesur, Vincent; de Viron, Olivier; Diament, Michel; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis

    2012-11-20

    To understand the dynamics of the Earth's fluid, iron-rich outer core, only indirect observations are available. The Earth's magnetic field, originating mainly within the core, and its temporal variations can be used to infer the fluid motion at the top of the core, on a decadal and subdecadal time-scale. Gravity variations resulting from changes in the mass distribution within the Earth may also occur on the same time-scales. Such variations include the signature of the flow inside the core, though they are largely dominated by the water cycle contributions. Our study is based on 8 y of high-resolution, high-accuracy magnetic and gravity satellite data, provided by the CHAMP and GRACE missions. From the newly derived geomagnetic models we have computed the core magnetic field, its temporal variations, and the core flow evolution. From the GRACE CNES/GRGS series of time variable geoid models, we have obtained interannual gravity models by using specifically designed postprocessing techniques. A correlation analysis between the magnetic and gravity series has demonstrated that the interannual changes in the second time derivative of the core magnetic field under a region from the Atlantic to Indian Ocean coincide in phase with changes in the gravity field. The order of magnitude of these changes and proposed correlation are plausible, compatible with a core origin; however, a complete theoretical model remains to be built. Our new results and their broad geophysical significance could be considered when planning new Earth observation space missions and devising more sophisticated Earth's interior models.

  5. Evidence for magnetic field reconnection at the earth's magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Paschmann, G.; Papamastorakis, I.; Sckopke, N.; Haerendel, G.; Bame, S. J.; Asbridge, J. R.; Gosling, J. T.; Russell, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven Northern Hemisphere crossings of the dayside magnetopause by the ISEE spacecraft are examined to test the hypothesis that the large plasma flow speeds observed in the magnetopause and boundary layer are the result of the plasma acceleration intrinsic to the magnetic field reconnection process. In several cases energetic magnetospheric particles with the proper flow anisotropy, and in one case, reflected magnetosheath particles, were observed outside the magnetopause but adjacent to it. All results support the reconnection hypothesis. The energetic particles were also used to identify the outer separatrix surface, in one case of which is was possible to conclude from its location relative to the magnetopause that the reconnection site was in the vicinity of the equatorial plane rather than in the cusp. The electric field tangential to the magnetopause is inferred to be in the 0.4-2.8 mV/m range.

  6. Elementary Theoretical Forms for the Spatial Power Spectrum of Earth's Crustal Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, C.

    1998-01-01

    The magnetic field produced by magnetization in Earth's crust and lithosphere can be distinguished from the field produced by electric currents in Earth's core because the spatial magnetic power spectrum of the crustal field differs from that of the core field. Theoretical forms for the spectrum of the crustal field are derived by treating each magnetic domain in the crust as the point source of a dipole field. The geologic null-hypothesis that such moments are uncorrelated is used to obtain the magnetic spectrum expected from a randomly magnetized, or unstructured, spherical crust of negligible thickness. This simplest spectral form is modified to allow for uniform crustal thickness, ellipsoidality, and the polarization of domains by an periodically reversing, geocentric axial dipole field from Earth's core. Such spectra are intended to describe the background crustal field. Magnetic anomalies due to correlated magnetization within coherent geologic structures may well be superimposed upon this background; yet representing each such anomaly with a single point dipole may lead to similar spectral forms. Results from attempts to fit these forms to observational spectra, determined via spherical harmonic analysis of MAGSAT data, are summarized in terms of amplitude, source depth, and misfit. Each theoretical spectrum reduces to a source factor multiplied by the usual exponential function of spherical harmonic degree n due to geometric attenuation with attitude above the source layer. The source factors always vary with n and are approximately proportional to n(exp 3) for degrees 12 through 120. The theoretical spectra are therefore not directly proportional to an exponential function of spherical harmonic degree n. There is no radius at which these spectra are flat, level, or otherwise independent of n.

  7. Effect of rare earth metal on the spin-orbit torque in magnetic heterostructures

    SciT

    Ueda, Kohei; Pai, Chi-Feng; Tan, Aik Jun

    2016-06-06

    We report the effect of the rare earth metal Gd on current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in perpendicularly magnetized Pt/Co/Gd heterostructures, characterized using harmonic measurements and spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR). By varying the Gd metal layer thickness from 0 nm to 8 nm, harmonic measurements reveal a significant enhancement of the effective fields generated from the Slonczewski-like and field-like torques. ST-FMR measurements confirm an enhanced effective spin Hall angle and show a corresponding increase in the magnetic damping constant with increasing Gd thickness. These results suggest that Gd plays an active role in generating SOTs in these heterostructures. Our finding may lead tomore » spin-orbitronics device application such as non-volatile magnetic random access memory, based on rare earth metals.« less

  8. NMR at earth's magnetic field using para-hydrogen induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Hamans, Bob C; Andreychenko, Anna; Heerschap, Arend; Wijmenga, Sybren S; Tessari, Marco

    2011-09-01

    A method to achieve NMR of dilute samples in the earth's magnetic field by applying para-hydrogen induced polarization is presented. Maximum achievable polarization enhancements were calculated by numerically simulating the experiment and compared to the experimental results and to the thermal equilibrium in the earth's magnetic field. Simultaneous 19F and 1H NMR detection on a sub-milliliter sample of a fluorinated alkyne at millimolar concentration (∼10(18) nuclear spins) was realized with just one single scan. A highly resolved spectrum with a signal/noise ratio higher than 50:1 was obtained without using an auxiliary magnet or any form of radio frequency shielding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plateau on temperature dependence of magnetization of nanostructured rare earth titanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkevich, A. B.; Korolev, A. V.; Samoylovich, M. I.; Demokritov, S. O.; Perov, D. V.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic properties of nanocomposite materials containing particles of rare earth titanates of R2Ti2O7 type, where R is a rare earth ion, including "spin ice" materials are investigated. The descending branches of hysteresis loop have been studied in detail in temperature range from 2 to 50 K. It has been shown that nanocomposites with Yb2Ti2O7, Dy2Ti2O7 and Er2Ti2O7 particles have one intersection point of the descending branches in some temperature range unlike many other nanocomposites. It is shown that magnetization has only weak temperature dependence near this point. It has been obtained that nanocomposites with Pr2Ti2O7 and Nd2Ti2O7 particles have no hysteresis loop. All above findings point out to unusual magnetic structures of the studied samples.

  10. Mapping the earth's magnetic and gravity fields from space Current status and future prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settle, M.; Taranik, J. V.

    1983-01-01

    The principal magnetic fields encountered by earth orbiting spacecraft include the main (core) field, external fields produced by electrical currents within the ionosphere and magnetosphere, and the crustal (anomaly) field generated by variations in the magnetization of the outermost portions of the earth. The first orbital field measurements which proved to be of use for global studies of crustal magnetization were obtained by a series of three satellites launched and operated from 1965 to 1971. Each of the satellites, known as a Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), carried a rubidium vapor magnetometer. Attention is also given to Magsat launched in 1979, the scalar anomaly field derived from the Magsat measurements, satellite tracking studies in connection with gravity field surveys, radar altimetry, the belt of positive free air gravity anomalies situated along the edge of the Pacific Ocean basin, future technological capabilities, and information concerning data availability.

  11. Rates of change of the earth's magnetic field measured by recent analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, C. G. A.; Huang, Qilin

    1990-01-01

    Typical rates of change of the earth's magnetic field are presented as a function of the earth's spherical harmonics. Harmonics up to the eight degree are analyzed. With the increase in the degree of the harmonics an increase in the relative rate of change can be observed. For higher degrees, the rate of change can be predicted. This enables a differentiation between harmonics originating in the core and harmonics caused by crustal magnetization. The westward drift of the magnetic field depends on the longitudinal gradient of the field. In order to determine the longitudinal motions, harmonics up to degree 20 can be utilized. The average rate of secular acceleration increases with the degree of harmonics from 0.001 deg/sq yr for a dipole term to an average of 0.05 deg/sq yr for degree eight harmonics.

  12. Double-reconnected magnetic structures driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices at the Earth's magnetosphere

    SciT

    Borgogno, D.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.

    2015-03-15

    In an almost collisionless magnetohydrodynamic plasma in a relatively strong magnetic field, stresses can be conveyed far from the region where they are exerted, e.g., through the propagation of Alfvèn waves. The forced dynamics of line-tied magnetic structures in solar and stellar coronae (see, e.g., A. F. Rappazzo and E. N. Parker, Astrophys. J. 773, L2 (2013) and references therein) is a paradigmatic case. Here, we investigate how this action at a distance develops from the equatorial region of the Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable flanks of the Earth's magnetosphere leading to the onset, at mid latitude in both hemispheres, of correlated doublemore » magnetic field line reconnection events that can allow the solar wind plasma to enter the Earth's magnetosphere.« less

  13. Double-reconnected magnetic structures driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices at the Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faganello, Matteo; Borgogno, Dario; Califano, Francesco; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    In an almost collisionless MagnetoHydrodynamic plasma in a relatively strong magnetic field, stresses can be conveyed far from the region where they are exerted e.g., through the propagation of Alfvèn waves. The forced dynamics of line-tied magnetic structures in solar and stellar coronae is a paradigmatic case. We investigate how this action at a distance develops from the equatorial region of the Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable flanks of the Earth's magnetosphere leading to the onset, at mid latitude in both hemispheres, of correlated double magnetic field line reconnection events that can allow the solar wind plasma to enter the Earth's magnetosphere. This mid-latitude double reconnection process, first investigated in, has been confirmed here by following a large set of individual field lines using a method similar to a Poincarè map.

  14. Calculating the Magnetic Anisotropy of Rare-Earth-Transition-Metal Ferrimagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Christopher E.; Kumar, Santosh; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Edwards, Rachel S.; Lees, Martin R.; Petit, Leon; Staunton, Julie B.

    2018-03-01

    Magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the microscopic origin of permanent magnetism, is often explained in terms of ferromagnets. However, the best performing permanent magnets based on rare earths and transition metals (RE-TM) are in fact ferrimagnets, consisting of a number of magnetic sublattices. Here we show how a naive calculation of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the classic RE-TM ferrimagnet GdCo5 gives numbers that are too large at 0 K and exhibit the wrong temperature dependence. We solve this problem by introducing a first-principles approach to calculate temperature-dependent magnetization versus field (FPMVB) curves, mirroring the experiments actually used to determine the anisotropy. We pair our calculations with measurements on a recently grown single crystal of GdCo5 , and find excellent agreement. The FPMVB approach demonstrates a new level of sophistication in the use of first-principles calculations to understand RE-TM magnets.

  15. Calculating the Magnetic Anisotropy of Rare-Earth-Transition-Metal Ferrimagnets.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher E; Kumar, Santosh; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Edwards, Rachel S; Lees, Martin R; Petit, Leon; Staunton, Julie B

    2018-03-02

    Magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the microscopic origin of permanent magnetism, is often explained in terms of ferromagnets. However, the best performing permanent magnets based on rare earths and transition metals (RE-TM) are in fact ferrimagnets, consisting of a number of magnetic sublattices. Here we show how a naive calculation of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the classic RE-TM ferrimagnet GdCo_{5} gives numbers that are too large at 0 K and exhibit the wrong temperature dependence. We solve this problem by introducing a first-principles approach to calculate temperature-dependent magnetization versus field (FPMVB) curves, mirroring the experiments actually used to determine the anisotropy. We pair our calculations with measurements on a recently grown single crystal of GdCo_{5}, and find excellent agreement. The FPMVB approach demonstrates a new level of sophistication in the use of first-principles calculations to understand RE-TM magnets.

  16. Rare earth doped M-type hexaferrites; ferromagnetic resonance and magnetization dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vipul; Kumari, Shweta; Kuanr, Bijoy K.

    2018-05-01

    M-type hexagonal barium ferrites come in the category of magnetic material that plays a key role in electromagnetic wave propagation in various microwave devices. Due to their large magnetic anisotropy and large magnetization, their operating frequency exceeds above 50 GHz. Doping is a way to vary its magnetic properties to such an extent that its ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) response can be tuned over a broad frequency band. We have done a complete FMR study of rare earth elements neodymium (Nd) and samarium (Sm), with cobalt (Co) as base, doped hexaferrite nanoparticles (NPs). X-ray diffractometry, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) techniques were used to characterize the microstructure and magnetic properties of doped hexaferrite nanoparticles. Using proper theoretical electromagnetic models, various parameters are extracted from FMR data which play important role in designing and fabricating high-frequency microwave devices.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of rare earth elements in La-RE-Ga-In alloys (RE = Nd, Y)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raguzina, Ekaterina V.; Maltsev, Dmitry S.; Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Yamshchikov, Leonid F.; Chukin, Andrey V.

    2017-09-01

    Thermodynamic properties of La, Nd, and Y were studied in pseudo-quaternary systems La-Nd-(Ga-In)eut and La-Y-(Ga-In)eut. Temperature dependences of lanthanum, neodymium, and yttrium activity in the alloys were determined at 300-800 °C employing the e.m.f. method. Partial thermodynamic functions of lanthanum in the alloys studied were calculated on the basis of the experimental data.

  18. The magnetic state of the Earth (according to the magnetic maps for 1880.0 published by the German Naval Office)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Icilius, G. V. Q.

    1982-01-01

    Publication of the magnetic maps in 1880 has made it possible to make the first continuation of the foundations for the Earth's magnetism established by Gauss in the general theory of Earth magnetism. A new calculation based on the maps valid for 1880, makes it possible to express the changes which have occurred over the last 50 years in numbers and only within the liability limits of the maps themselves.

  19. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in granular multilayers of CoPd alloyed nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas, L. G.; Rubín, J.; Figueroa, A. I.; Bartolomé, F.; García, L. M.; Deranlot, C.; Petroff, F.; Ruiz, L.; González-Calbet, J. M.; Pascarelli, S.; Brookes, N. B.; Wilhelm, F.; Chorro, M.; Rogalev, A.; Bartolomé, J.

    2016-05-01

    Co-Pd multilayers obtained by Pd capping of pre-deposited Co nanoparticles on amorphous alumina are systematically studied by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, SQUID-based magnetometry, and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The films are formed by CoPd alloyed nanoparticles self-organized across the layers, with the interspace between the nanoparticles filled by the non-alloyed Pd metal. The nanoparticles show atomic arrangements compatible with short-range chemical order of L 10 strucure type. The collective magnetic behavior is that of ferromagnetically coupled particles with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, irrespective of the amount of deposited Pd. For increasing temperature three magnetic phases are identified: hard ferromagnetic with strong coercive field, soft-ferromagnetic as in an amorphous asperomagnet, and superparamagnetic. Increasing the amount of Pd in the system leads to both magnetic hardness increment and higher transition temperatures. Magnetic total moments of 1.77(4) μB and 0.45(4) μB are found at Co and Pd sites, respectively, where the orbital moment of Co, 0.40(2) μB, is high, while that of Pd is negligible. The effective magnetic anisotropy is the largest in the capping metal series (Pd, Pt, W, Cu, Ag, Au), which is attributed to the interparticle interaction between de nanoparticles, in addition to the intraparticle anisotropy arising from hybridization between the 3 d -4 d bands associated to the Co and Pd chemical arrangement in a L 10 structure type.

  20. Phase transition temperatures and magnetic entropy change in Ni-Mn-In-B based Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Arjun; Gautam, Bhoj; Dubenko, Igor; Ali, Naushad

    2008-03-01

    One of the aspects of great attention of Heusler alloys is the large value of magnetic entropy change (δSM) and their possible application as a working material in magnetocaloric effect based magnetic refrigerators. It was reported earlier that Ni50Mn34.8In15.2 has first order martensitic transition temperature TM 212K, Curie temperature of austenitic phase TC 328K and δSM value associated with TM and TC are respectively 13 and -7 J/kg K [1]. In the present study, we are reporting the effect of partial substitution of In by B in Ni50Mn34.8In15.2 by AC susceptibility, thermal expansion, and magnetization measurements. We observed that substitution of boron sharply increase TM, and significantly enhance the δSM peak value higher than 30 J/kg K at TM 296K; however the δSM value remains almost same at TC. Therefore, the Ni-Mn-In-B based Heusler alloys will be potential material for the study of room temperature magnetic refrigerator materials. Reference: [1] A. K. Pathak, M. Khan, I. Dubenko, S. Stadler, and N. Ali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 262504 (2007).

  1. [Studies on reduction of repellent force of rare earth magnets--concerning tooth intrusion].

    PubMed

    Kitsugi, A

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the sealing effect of the repelling force of the magnets with ferromagnetic stainless steel and also to examine the reduction pattern along with the change of the relative position of the magnets. The Nd-Fe-B magnet as rare earth magnet, and SUSXM 27, YEP-3, SUS 416 as ferromagnetic stainless steel were used in this experiment. The findings were as follows: 1. There was a little decrease of the repelling force of the magnets sealed with ferromagnetic stainless steel. On the other hand, no significant differences in the repelling force sealed with any kind of ferromagnetic stainless steel were found. 2. Direct contact of the repelling force of the phi 4.0 x 1.5 mm magnets sealed with SUSXM 27 of 0.2 mm in thickness was 242 gf. According to relative horizontal 1.2 mm movement keeping direct contact, the vertical and horizontal components of the repelling force were of the same value. 3. The repelling force of the phi 10.0 x 1.8 mm magnets sealed with SUSXM 27 of 0.2 mm in thickness was 815 gf. It showed more than 300 gf of vertical component of the repelling force when the magnets shifted to 3.0 mm horizontally when in contact. 4. It is suggested that the repelling force of the Nd-Fe-B magnets will be clinically useful for the intrusion of molar teeth.

  2. Paleomagnetic Study of a Reversal of the Earth's Magnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Dunn, J R; Fuller, M; Ito, H; Schmidt, V A

    1971-05-21

    A detailed record of a field reversal has been obtained from the natural remanent magnetization of the Tatoosh intrusion in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. The reversal took place at 14.7 +/- 1 million years and is interpreted to be from reverse to normal. A decrease in the intensity of the field of about an order of magnitude occurs immediately before the reversal, while its orientation remains substantially unchanged. The onset of the reversal is marked by abrupt swinging of the virtual geomagnetic pole along an arc of a great circle. During the reversal the pole traces a path across the Pacific. In the last stage of the process recorded in the sections, the succession of virtual geomagnetic poles is very similar to those generated by secular variation in the recent past. Although the cooling rate of the intrusion is not sufficiently well known to permit a useful calculation of the duration of the reversal process, an estimate based on the length of the supposed secular variation cycles gives 1 to 4 x 103 years for the reversal of field direction and approximately 1 x 104 years for the time scale of the intensity changes.

  3. Microemulsion synthesis and magnetic properties of FexNi(1-x) alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beygi, H.; Babakhani, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates synthesis of FexNi(1-x) bimetallic nanoparticles by microemulsion method. Through studying the mechanism of nanoparticles formation, it is indicated that synthesis of nanoparticles took placed by simultaneous reduction of metal ions and so nanoparticles structure is homogeneous alloy. FexNi(1-x) nanoparticles with different sizes, morphologies and compositions were synthesized by changing the microemulsion parameters such as water/surfactant/oil ratio, presence of co-surfactant and NiCl2·6H2O to FeCl2·4H2O molar ratio. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption and thermogravimetric analyses. The results indicated that, presence of butanol as co-surfactant led to chain-like arrangement of nanoparticles. Also, finer nanoparticles were synthesized by decreasing the amount of oil and water and increasing the amount of CTAB. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer suggested that magnetic properties of FexNi(1-x) alloy nanoparticles were affected by composition, size and morphology of the particles. Spherical and chain-like FexNi(1-x) alloy nanoparticles were superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic, respectively. Furthermore, higher iron in the composition of nanoparticles increases the magnetic properties.

  4. Continuous-annealing method for producing a flexible, curved, soft magnetic amorphous alloy ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francoeur, Bruno; Couture, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    A method has been developed for continuous annealing of an amorphous alloy ribbon moving forward at several meters per second, giving a curved shape to the ribbon that remains flexible afterward and can be easily wound into a toroidal core with excellent soft magnetic properties. A heat pulse was applied by a compact system on a Metglas 2605HB1 ribbon moving forward at 5 m/s to initiate a thermal treatment at 460 °C, near crystallization onset. The treatment duration was less than 0.1 s, and the heating and cooling rates were above 10 000 °C/s, which helped preserve most of the alloy as-cast ductility state. Such high temperature rates were achieved by forcing a static contact between the moving ribbon and a temperature-controlled roller. A tensile stress and a series of bending configurations were applied on the moving ribbon during the treatment to induce the development of magnetic anisotropy and to obtain the desired natural curvature radius. The core losses at 60 Hz of a toroidal test core wound with the resulting ribbon are lower than the specific values reported by the alloy manufacturer. This method can be implemented at the casting plant for supplying a low-cost, ready-to-use ribbon, easy to handle and cut, for mass production of toroidal cores for distribution transformer kernels (core and coil only), pulse power cores, etc.

  5. Equation of state and phase diagram of Fe-16Si alloy as a candidate component of Earth's core

    SciT

    Fischer, Rebecca A; Campbell, Andrew J; Caracas, Razvan

    2016-07-29

    The outer core of the Earth contains several weight percent of one or more unknown light elements, which may include silicon. Therefore it is critical to understand the high pressure–temperature properties and behavior of an iron–silicon alloy with a geophysically relevant composition (16 wt% silicon). We experimentally determined the melting curve, subsolidus phase diagram, and equations of state of all phases of Fe–16 wt%Si to 140 GPa, finding a conversion from the D0 3 crystal structure to a B2+hcp mixture at high pressures. The melting curve implies that 3520 K is a minimum temperature for the Earth's outer core, ifmore » it consists solely of Fe–Si alloy, and that the eutectic composition in the Fe–Si system is less than 16 wt% silicon at core–mantle boundary conditions. Comparing our new equation of state to that of iron and the density of the core, we find that for an Fe–Ni–Si outer core, 11.3±1.5 wt% silicon would be required to match the core's observed density at the core–mantle boundary. We have also performed first-principles calculations of the equations of state of Fe 3Si with the D0 3 structure, hcp iron, and FeSi with the B2 structure using density-functional theory.« less

  6. Equation of state and phase diagram of Fe-16Si alloy as a candidate component of Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Rebecca A.; Campbell, Andrew J.; Caracas, Razvan; Reaman, Daniel M.; Dera, Przymyslaw; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2012-12-01

    The outer core of the Earth contains several weight percent of one or more unknown light elements, which may include silicon. Therefore it is critical to understand the high pressure-temperature properties and behavior of an iron-silicon alloy with a geophysically relevant composition (16 wt% silicon). We experimentally determined the melting curve, subsolidus phase diagram, and equations of state of all phases of Fe-16 wt%Si to 140 GPa, finding a conversion from the D03 crystal structure to a B2+hcp mixture at high pressures. The melting curve implies that 3520 K is a minimum temperature for the Earth's outer core, if it consists solely of Fe-Si alloy, and that the eutectic composition in the Fe-Si system is less than 16 wt% silicon at core-mantle boundary conditions. Comparing our new equation of state to that of iron and the density of the core, we find that for an Fe-Ni-Si outer core, 11.3±1.5 wt% silicon would be required to match the core's observed density at the core-mantle boundary. We have also performed first-principles calculations of the equations of state of Fe3Si with the D03 structure, hcp iron, and FeSi with the B2 structure using density-functional theory.

  7. Influence of Sn on the magnetic ordering of Ni-Sn alloy synthesized using chemical reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanapal, K.; Narayanan, V.; Stephen, A.

    2016-05-01

    The Ni-Sn alloy was synthesized using borohydride assisted chemical reduction method. The composition of the synthesized alloy was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy which revealed that the observed composition of Sn is high when compared to the initial composition. The ultrafine particles are clearly observed from field emission scanning electron microscope for all the sample. The X-ray diffraction measurement confirmed that the as-synthesized samples are of amorphous like nature while the samples annealed at 773 K showed crystalline nature. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed metallic bond stretching in the alloy samples. The crystallization and phase transition temperature was observed from differential scanning calorimetry. The shift in the crystallization temperature of Ni with increasing percentage of Sn was observed. The vibrating sample magnetometer was employed to understand the magnetic behavior of the Ni-Sn alloy. As-synthesized alloy samples showed paramagnetic nature while the annealed ones exhibit the soft ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic nature. The saturation magnetization value and magnetic ordering in the Ni-Sn alloys depend on the percentage of Sn present in the alloy.

  8. Crystal-field splittings in rare-earth-based hard magnets: An ab initio approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delange, Pascal; Biermann, Silke; Miyake, Takashi; Pourovskii, Leonid

    2017-10-01

    We apply the first-principles density functional theory + dynamical mean-field theory framework to evaluate the crystal-field splitting on rare-earth sites in hard magnetic intermetallics. An atomic (Hubbard-I) approximation is employed for local correlations on the rare-earth 4 f shell and self-consistency in the charge density is implemented. We reduce the density functional theory self-interaction contribution to the crystal-field splitting by properly averaging the 4 f charge density before recalculating the one-electron Kohn-Sham potential. Our approach is shown to reproduce the experimental crystal-field splitting in the prototypical rare-earth hard magnet SmCo5. Applying it to R Fe12 and R Fe12X hard magnets (R =Nd , Sm and X =N , Li), we obtain in particular a large positive value of the crystal-field parameter A20〈r2〉 in NdFe12N resulting in a strong out-of-plane anisotropy observed experimentally. The sign of A20〈r2〉 is predicted to be reversed by substituting N with Li, leading to a strong out-of-plane anisotropy in SmFe12Li . We discuss the origin of this strong impact of N and Li interstitials on the crystal-field splitting on rare-earth sites.

  9. Correlation between valence electronic structure and magnetic properties in RCo5 (R = rare earth) intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi-Qin, Xue; Yong-Quan, Guo

    2016-06-01

    The magnetisms of RCo5 (R = rare earth) intermetallics are systematically studied with the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET). The theoretical moments and Curie temperatures agree well with experimental ones. The calculated results show strong correlations between the valence electronic structure and the magnetic properties in RCo5 intermetallic compounds. The moments of RCo5 intermetallics originate mainly from the 3d electrons of Co atoms and 4f electrons of rare earth, and the s electrons also affect the magnetic moments by the hybridization of d and s electrons. It is found that moment of Co atom at 2c site is higher than that at 3g site due to the fact that the bonding effect between R and Co is associated with an electron transformation from 3d electrons into covalence electrons. In the heavy rare-earth-based RCo5 intermetallics, the contribution to magnetic moment originates from the 3d and 4f electrons. The covalence electrons and lattice electrons also affect the Curie temperature, which is proportional to the average moment along the various bonds. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274110).

  10. Biocompatibility enhancement of rare earth magnesium alloy by laser surface processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Shilin; Wang, Yuqing; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Yingchun

    2018-01-01

    Although magnesium and magnesium alloys are considered biocompatible and biodegradable, insufficient biocompatibility in body fluid environment is still the major drawback of magnesium alloys for their successful applications as biodegradable orthopaedic implants. In this work, magnesium alloy surface with both enhanced corrosion resistance and better cell adhesion property was directly fabricated by laser surface processing. Laser surface melting was used to improve corrosion resistance of Mg-6Gd-0.6Ca alloy. After laser surface melting, laser surface texturing was utilized on melted surface for better cell adhesion property. The corrosion resistance of laser-treated and as-received samples were evaluated using electrochemical technique. The effect of laser surface treatment on phase and microstructure evolution was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. This work investigated the effect of laser treatment on cell distribution across the surface of magnesium alloy substrates. Osteoblast was cultured on the laser-treated surface and as-received surface. Cell morphology was observed with a scanning electron microscopy, and cell viability was evaluated by optical density measurement.

  11. Lattice dynamics, elasticity and magnetic abnormality in ordered crystalline alloys Fe3Pt at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tai-min; Yu, Guo-Liang; Su, Yong; Ge, Chong-Yuan; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Zhu, Lin; Li, Lin

    2018-05-01

    The ordered crystalline Invar alloy Fe3Pt is in a special magnetic critical state, under which the lattice dynamic stability of the system is extremely sensitive to external pressures. We studied the pressure dependence of enthalpy and magnetism of Fe3Pt in different crystalline alloys by using the first-principles projector augmented-wave method based on the density functional theory. Results show that the P4/mbm structure is the ground state structure and is more stable relative to other structures at pressures below 18.54 GPa. The total magnetic moments of L12, I4/mmm and DO22 structures decrease rapidly with pressure and oscillate near the ferromagnetic collapse critical pressure. At the pressure of 43 GPa, the ferrimagnetic property in DO22 structure becomes apparently strengthened and its volume increases rapidly. The lattice dynamics calculation for L12 structures at high pressures shows that the spontaneous magnetization of the system in ferromagnetic states induces the softening of the transverse acoustic phonon TA1 (M), and there exists a strong spontaneous volume magnetostriction at pressures below 26.95 GPa. Especially, the lattice dynamics stability is sensitive to pressure, in the pressure range between the ferromagnetic collapse critical pressure (41.9 GPa) and the magnetism completely disappearing pressure (57.25 GPa), and near the pressure of phase transition from L12 to P4/mbm structure (27.27 GPa). Moreover, the instability of magnetic structure leads to a prominent elastic modulus oscillation, and the spin polarizability of electrons near the Fermi level is very sensitive to pressures in that the pressure range. The pressure induces the stability of the phonon spectra of the system at pressures above 57.25 GPa.

  12. Search for the elusive magnetic state of hexagonal iron: The antiferromagnetic Fe71Ru29 hcp alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, C.; Postorino, P.; Orecchini, A.; Sacchetti, F.

    2018-03-01

    The magnetic states of iron and their dependence on crystal structure represent an important case study for the physics of magnetism and its role in fundamental and applied science, including geophysical sciences. hcp iron is the most elusive structure as it exists only at high pressure but, at the same time, it is expected to be stable up to very high temperature. Exploring the magnetic state of pure Fe at high pressure is difficult and no conclusive results have been obtained. Simple binary alloys where the hexagonal phase of Fe is stabilized, offer a more controllable alternative to investigate iron magnetism. We carried out a neutron diffraction experiment on hcp Fe71Ru29 disordered alloy as a function of temperature. Fe in the hexagonal lattice of this specific alloy results to be antiferromagnetically aligned with a rather complex structure and a small magnetic moment. The temperature dependence suggests a Néel temperature TN = 124 ± 10 K, a value consistent with the low magnetic moment of 1.04 ± 0.10 μB obtained from the diffraction data that also suggest a non-commensurate magnetic structure with magnetic moments probably aligned along the c axis. The present data provide evidence for magnetic ordering in hcp Fe and support the theoretical description of magnetism of pure Fe at high pressure.

  13. Imposing long-range ferromagnetic order in rare-earth-doped magnetic topological-insulator heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, L. B.; Frisk, A.; Burn, D. M.; Steinke, N.-J.; Herrero-Martin, J.; Ernst, A.; van der Laan, G.; Hesjedal, T.

    2018-05-01

    The combination of topological properties and magnetic order can lead to new quantum states and exotic physical phenomena, such as the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. The size of the magnetic gap in the topological surface states, key for the robust observation of the QAH state, scales with the magnetic moment of the doped three-dimensional topological insulator (TI). The pioneering transition-metal doped (Sb,Bi ) 2(Se,Te ) 3 thin films only allow for the observation of the QAH effect up to some 100 mK, despite the much higher magnetic ordering temperatures. On the other hand, high magnetic moment materials, such as rare-earth-doped (Sb,Bi ) 2(Se,Te ) 3 thin films, show large moments but no long-range magnetic order. Proximity coupling and interfacial effects, multiplied in artificial heterostructures, allow for the engineering of the electronic and magnetic properties. Here, we show the successful growth of high-quality Dy:Bi2Te3 /Cr:Sb2Te3 thin film heterostructures. Using x-ray magnetic spectroscopy we demonstrate that high transition temperature Cr:Sb2Te3 can introduce long-range magnetic order in high-moment Dy:Bi2Te3 —up to a temperature of 17 K—in excellent agreement with first-principles calculations, which reveal the origin of the long-range magnetic order in a strong antiferromagnetic coupling between Dy and Cr magnetic moments at the interface extending over several layers. Engineered magnetic TI heterostructures may be an ideal materials platform for observing the QAH effect at liquid He temperatures and above.

  14. Properties of Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu Solder Alloy with Trace Rare Earth Element Y Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, H.; Tian, J.; Shi, Y. W.; Lei, Y. P.; Xia, Z. D.

    2007-07-01

    In the current research, trace rare earth (RE) element Y was incorporated into a promising lead-free solder, Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu, in an effort to improve the comprehensive properties of Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu solder. The range of Y content in Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu solder alloys varied from 0 wt.% to 1.0 wt.%. As an illustration of the advantage of Y doping, the melting temperature, wettability, mechanical properties, and microstructures of Sn3.8Ag0.7CuY solder were studied. Trace Y additions had little influence on the melting behavior, but the solder showed better wettability and mechanical properties, as well as finer microstructures, than found in Y-free Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu solder. The Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu0.15Y solder alloy exhibited the best comprehensive properties compared to other solders with different Y content. Furthermore, interfacial and microstructural studies were conducted on Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu0.15Y solder alloys, and notable changes in microstructure were found compared to the Y-free alloy. The thickness of an intermetallic compound layer (IML) was decreased during soldering, and the growth of the IML was suppressed during aging. At the same time, the growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) inside the solder was reduced. In particular, some bigger IMC plates were replaced by fine, granular IMCs.

  15. Bandgap engineering through nanocrystalline magnetic alloy grafting on reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    De, D; Chakraborty, M; Majumdar, S; Giri, S

    2014-09-28

    High conductivity and the absence of ferromagnetism in pristine graphene fail to satisfy primary criteria for possible technological application in spintronics. Opening of the bandgap in graphene is primarily desirable for such applications. We report a simplified and novel approach of controlled grafting of a magnetic alloy on reduced graphene oxide. This eventually leads to ferromagnetism of the stable hybrid material at room temperature, with a large moment (∼1.2 μB) and a remarkable decrease in conductivity (∼10 times) compared to highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. Our model band-structure calculation indicates that the combined effect of controlled vacancies and impurities attributed to the nanocrystalline alloy grafting leads to a promising step toward band gap engineering.

  16. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Pd-Co alloy films and related multilayers

    SciT

    Tsunashima, S.; Nagase, K.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-09-01

    Magnetic anisotropy of Pd/sub x/Co/sub 1-x/alloy films and Pd/sub 67/Co/sub 33/, Pd/sub 67/Co/sub 33/, Pd/sub 67/Co/sub 33//Cu multilayers are investigated. Vacuum deposited PdCo alloy films exhibit uniaxial anisotropy Ku with the easy axis perpendicular to the film plane. The maximum Ku is about 5X10/sup 6/erg/cm/sup 3/ for x=0.35 to 0.50. Compositional dependence of Ku is similar to that of the magnetostriction constant {lambda}/sub 111/, which suggests magnetostrictive origin. In multilayer films, PdCo/Pt and PdCo/Pd showed positive Ku while PdCo/Cu showed negative.

  17. Magnetic and transport properties of amorphous Ce-Al alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amakai, Yusuke; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Momono, Naoki; Takano, Hideaki; Kuwai, Tomohiko

    2018-05-01

    Amorphous (a-)Ce50Al50 has been prepared by DC high-rate sputter method. The structure of the obtained sample has been confirmed to have an amorphous structure because there are no Bragg peaks in the X-ray diffraction measurement and have a clear exothermic peak by the differential scanning calorimetry measurement. We have measured the resistivity ρ, magnetic susceptibility χ, specific heat Cp and thermoelectric power S for a-Ce50Al50. The temperature dependence of ρ exhibits a small temperature dependence less than 10% in the whole temperature region. χ follows a Curie-Weiss behavior in the high-temperature region of T>90 K. The effective paramagnetic moment peff, estimated from C is 2.18 μB/Ce-atom. The low-temperature Cp/T increases rapidly with decreasing temperature and tends to a saturation. S(T) exhibits negative values in a wide temperature region. A minimum of S appear at around 60 K, and S decreases linearly with decreasing temperature down to 10 K. The low-temperature S is almost 0 μV/K down to 2 K. From these results, we have pointed out that present a-Ce50Al50 would be an incoherent Kondo material.

  18. Impact of Ion Bombardment on the Structure and Magnetic Properties of Fe78Si13B9 Amorphous Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingwei; Peng, Kun

    2018-06-01

    Amorphous Fe78Si13B9 alloy ribbons were bombarded by ion beams with different incident angles ( θ ). The evolution of the microstructure and magnetic properties of ribbons caused by ion beam bombardment was investigated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer analysis. Low-incident-angle bombardment led to atomic migration in the short range, and high-incident-angle bombardment resulted in the crystallization of amorphous alloys. Ion bombardment induces magnetic anisotropy and affects magnetic properties. The effective magnetic anisotropy was determined by applying the law of approach to saturation, and it increased with the increase of the ion bombardment angle. The introduction of effective magnetic anisotropy will reduce the permeability and increase the relaxation frequency. Excellent high-frequency magnetic properties can be obtained by selecting suitable ion bombardment parameters.

  19. Magnetism and exchange interaction of small rare-earth clusters; Tb as a representative

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Lars; Ghosh, Saurabh; Sanyal, Biplab; van Dijk, Chris; Bowlan, John; de Heer, Walt; Delin, Anna; Di Marco, Igor; Eriksson, Olle; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Johansson, Börje; Kirilyuk, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Here we follow, both experimentally and theoretically, the development of magnetism in Tb clusters from the atomic limit, adding one atom at a time. The exchange interaction is, surprisingly, observed to drastically increase compared to that of bulk, and to exhibit irregular oscillations as a function of the interatomic distance. From electronic structure theory we find that the theoretical magnetic moments oscillate with cluster size in exact agreement with experimental data. Unlike the bulk, the oscillation is not caused by the RKKY mechanism. Instead, the inter-atomic exchange is shown to be driven by a competition between wave-function overlap of the 5d shell and the on-site exchange interaction, which leads to a competition between ferromagnetic double-exchange and antiferromagnetic super-exchange. This understanding opens up new ways to tune the magnetic properties of rare-earth based magnets with nano-sized building blocks. PMID:26795239

  20. Association between magnetic field fluctuations and energetic particle bursts in the earth's magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Krimigis, S. M.; Armstrong, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    The association between energetic protons (0.29-0.50 MeV) and simultaneous local fluctuations of magnetic field at 35 to 45 earth radii in the magnetotail is examined statistically with data from APL/JHU particle telescopes aboard IMP 7 and IMP 8. About four satellite years of 5.5 min averaged measurements are used in this study. In addition to confirming that the level of magnetic field fluctuations generally increases with the presence of energetic protons and their streaming anisotropy, it is found that increases in occurrence frequency of streaming of energetic protons are ordered far better by magnetic field fluctuations than by proximity to the neutral sheet. However, the presence of large magnetic field fluctuations (delta B greater than 5 nT or delta B/B greater than 50%) is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the detection of large streaming in energetic protons.

  1. Annealing and thickness effects on magnetic properties of Co2FeAl alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Xu, Zhan; Ling, Fujin; Wang, Yahong; Dong, Shuo

    2018-03-01

    Co2FeAl (CFA) films in a wide thickness range between 2 and 100 nm are sputtered at room temperature. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is achieved in the annealed structure of Pd/CFA/MgO with CFA thickness ranging between 2.3 and 4.9 nm. PMA as high as 2 × 106 erg/cm3 is demonstrated in the structures annealed in the temperature range between 300 and 350 °C. Positive contributions to the PMA made by the interfaces of Pd/CFA and CFA/MgO are identified. For the as-deposited structure of MgO/CFA/Ta with thick CFA alloy up to 5 nm or above a high effective saturation magnetization of 983.9 ± 30.1 emu/cc is derived from the fitting and an in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of 104 erg/cm3 in magnitude is revealed by angular dependent magnetic measurements. In addition to the increase in saturation magnetization, a fourfold cubic magnetic anisotropy is found to develop with annealing, in line with the improvement of the crystalline structure confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Out results provide some useful information for the design of the CFA-based magnetoelectronic devices.

  2. A corotation electric field model of the Earth derived from Swarm satellite magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maus, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Rotation of the Earth in its own geomagnetic field sets up a primary corotation electric field, compensated by a secondary electric field of induced electrical charges. For the geomagnetic field measured by the Swarm constellation of satellites, a derivation of the global corotation electric field inside and outside of the corotation region is provided here, in both inertial and corotating reference frames. The Earth is assumed an electrical conductor, the lower atmosphere an insulator, followed by the corotating ionospheric E region again as a conductor. Outside of the Earth's core, the induced charge is immediately accessible from the spherical harmonic Gauss coefficients of the geomagnetic field. The charge density is positive at high northern and southern latitudes, negative at midlatitudes, and increases strongly toward the Earth's center. Small vertical electric fields of about 0.3 mV/m in the insulating atmospheric gap are caused by the corotation charges located in the ionosphere above and the Earth below. The corotation charges also flow outward into the region of closed magnetic field lines, forcing the plasmasphere to corotate. The electric field of the corotation charges further extends outside of the corotating regions, contributing radial outward electric fields of about 10 mV/m in the northern and southern polar caps. Depending on how the magnetosphere responds to these fields, the Earth may carry a net electric charge.

  3. Structure and Magnetic Properties in Ruthenium-Based Full-Heusler Alloys: AB INITIO Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlouli, S.; Aarizou, Z.; Elchikh, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present ab initio calculations within density functional theory (DFT) to investigate structure, electronic and magnetic properties of Ru2CrZ (Z = Si, Ge and Sn) full-Heusler alloys. We have used the developed full-potential linearized muffin tin orbitals (FP-LMTO) based on the local spin density approximation (LSDA) with the PLane Wave expansion (PLW). In particular, we found that these Ruthenium-based Heusler alloys have the antiferromagnetic (AFM) type II as ground state. Then, we studied and discussed the magnetic properties belonging to our different magnetic structures: AFM type II, AFM type I and ferromagnetic (FM) phase. We also found that Ru2CrSi and Ru2CrGe exhibit a semiconducting behavior whereas Ru2CrSn has a semimetallic-like behavior as it is experimentally found. We made an estimation of Néel temperatures (TN) in the framework of the mean-field theory and used the energy differences approach to deduce the relevant short-range nearest-neighbor (J1) and next-nearest-neighbor (J2) interactions. The calculated TN are somewhat overestimated to the available experimental ones.

  4. Magnetic and thermal properties of amorphous TbFeCo alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Dong, Shuo; Huang, Ya; Qiu, Yuzhen

    2017-07-01

    Amorphous TbFeCo material with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is currently attracting more attention for potential applications in spintronic devices and logic memories. We systematically investigate magnetic, structural, thermal, optical and electrical properties of TbFeCo alloy films. It shows out-of-plane easy axis of the films turns into in-plane orientation after annealing. Significant increase in saturation magnetization in the temperature range between 400 and 450 °C is revealed by thermomagnetic measurements. The occurrence of crystallization and oxidation at high temperatures is confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Pronounced changes in optical reflectance and sheet resistance are observed with temperature, in line with structural relaxation and change. The activation barriers for crystallization and oxidation are determined to be 1.01 eV and 0.83 eV, respectively, for FeCo-rich and Tb-rich samples. Better thermal stability against crystallization and oxidation is demonstrated in the FeCo-rich sample than the Tb-rich type. Our results provide some useful information for the alloy used in device fabrication.

  5. Near-Earth Magnetic Field Effects of Large-Scale Magnetospheric Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lühr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Olsen, Nils; Le, Guan

    2017-03-01

    Magnetospheric currents play an important role in the electrodynamics of near-Earth space. This has been the topic of many space science studies. Here we focus on the magnetic fields they cause close to Earth. Their contribution to the geomagnetic field is the second largest after the core field. Significant progress in interpreting the magnetic fields from the different sources has been achieved thanks to magnetic satellite missions like Ørsted, CHAMP and now Swarm. Of particular interest for this article is a proper representation of the magnetospheric ring current effect. Uncertainties in modelling its effect still produce the largest residuals between observations and present-day geomagnetic field models. A lot of progress has been achieved so far, but there are still open issues like the characteristics of the partial ring current. Other currents discussed are those flowing in the magnetospheric tail. Also their magnetic contribution at LEO orbits is non-negligible. Treating them as an independent source is a more recent development, which has cured some of the problems in geomagnetic field modelling. Unfortunately there is no index available for characterising the tail current intensity. Here we propose an approach that may help to properly quantify the magnetic contribution from the tail current for geomagnetic field modelling. Some open questions that require further investigation are mentioned at the end.

  6. Near-Earth Magnetic Field Effects of Large-Scale Magnetospheric Currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luehr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Olsen, Nils; Le, Guan

    2016-01-01

    Magnetospheric currents play an important role in the electrodynamics of near- Earth space. This has been the topic of many space science studies. Here we focus on the magnetic fields they cause close to Earth. Their contribution to the geomagnetic field is the second largest after the core field. Significant progress in interpreting the magnetic fields from the different sources has been achieved thanks to magnetic satellite missions like Ørsted, CHAMP and now Swarm. Of particular interest for this article is a proper representation of the magnetospheric ring current effect. Uncertainties in modelling its effect still produce the largest residuals between observations and present-day geomagnetic field models. A lot of progress has been achieved so far, but there are still open issues like the characteristics of the partial ring current. Other currents discussed are those flowing in the magnetospheric tail. Also their magnetic contribution at LEO orbits is non-negligible. Treating them as an independent source is a more recent development, which has cured some of the problems in geomagnetic field modelling. Unfortunately there is no index available for characterizing the tail current intensity. Here we propose an approach that may help to properly quantify the magnetic contribution from the tail current for geomagnetic field modelling. Some open questions that require further investigation are mentioned at the end.

  7. Method of making active magnetic refrigerant, colossal magnetostriction and giant magnetoresistive materials based on Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Alexandra O.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2003-07-08

    Method of making an active magnetic refrigerant represented by Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4 alloy for 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.0 comprising placing amounts of the commercially pure Gd, Si, and Ge charge components in a crucible, heating the charge contents under subambient pressure to a melting temperature of the alloy for a time sufficient to homogenize the alloy and oxidize carbon with oxygen present in the Gd charge component to reduce carbon, rapidly solidifying the alloy in the crucible, and heat treating the solidified alloy at a temperature below the melting temperature for a time effective to homogenize a microstructure of the solidified material, and then cooling sufficiently fast to prevent the eutectoid decomposition and improve magnetocaloric and/or the magnetostrictive and/or the magnetoresistive properties thereof.

  8. Ionospheric Longitude Storm Dependence Upon the Magnitude of the Earth's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, J. J.; David, M.; Schunk, R. W.

    2007-12-01

    The Earth's magnetic field in the ionosphere is understood to be non-dipolar with significant deviations in magnitude and orientation across the globe. This study models the mid-latitude ionospheric response to a geomagnetic storm for different idealizations of the Earth's magnetic field strength. In so doing the study addresses the question whether or not a longitude dependence in ionospheric storm responses could exist due to the longitude dependence of the magnetic field [ Huang et al., 2005], and if so, how significant is the effect? The mechanism by which the magnetic field magnitude has a first order effect is through the E x B plasma drift that has a vertical components, i.e., usually described as a meridional plasma drift caused by the zonal electric field. This vertical drift is inversely proportional to the magnitude of the magnetic field. A vertical drift raises or lowers the F-region into regions of lesser or greater recombination rates respectively, hence, directly affecting the plasma density. The Utah State University (USU) Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM) uses a tilted dipole magnetic field model to represent the Earth's field. The magnitude of magnetic field is specified by the dipole moment, in fact, the magnetic field strength on the surface of the Earth at the magnetic equator. Changing this one parameter enables studies to be made under identical storm conditions of the effect of different magnetic field magnitudes. For this study the normal 0.31 Gauss surface magnetic field is replaced by 0.24 Gauss and 0.41 Gauss. These two numbers represent the magnitude of the minimum and maximum observed field strength around the Earth equatorial region. The TDIM results are shown for a storm simulation that occurred on 5-6 November 2001. For otherwise identical model conditions and drivers, the difference in magnetic field strength results in a factor of 2 difference in TEC, NmF2, etc. Since the magnetic field magnitude is weakest in the Atlantic

  9. Streaming energetic electrons in earth's magnetotail - Evidence for substorm-associated magnetic reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieber, J. W.; Stone, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    This letter reports the results of a systematic study of streaming greater than 200 keV electrons observed in the magnetotail with the Caltech Electron/Isotope Spectrometers aboard IMP-7 and IMP-8. A clear statistical association of streaming events with southward magnetic fields, often of steep inclination, and with substorms as evidenced by the AE index is demonstrated. These results support the interpretation that streaming energetic electrons are indicative of substorm-associated magnetic reconnection in the near-earth plasma sheet.

  10. Anisotropy and Microstructure of High Coercivity Rare Earth Iron Permanent Magnets, List of Papers Published

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    EARTH IRON PERMANENT MAGNETS. LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED 1986 - 1989 Contract No.: DAJA45-86-C-0010 Report No.: R/D-5295-MS-01 NOV 0 � A = LIST OF...R.Gr~ssinger - ’-Does a Co substitution really improve the temperature dependence of Nd-Fe-B based permanent magnets" .’ Proc. of 91h Int. Workshop...in NdzFe,4-4-iZx B (Z=A1,Si,Co, Ga) compounds", J. de Physique 49 (1988) CS-599. (16) R.Gr8ssinger, R.Krewenka, H.Buchn~r, H.Harada " A new analysis of

  11. Comprehensive evaluation of attitude and orbit estimation using real earth magnetic field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack

    1997-01-01

    A single, augmented extended Kalman filter (EKF) which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft attitude and orbit was developed and tested with simulated and real magnetometer and rate data. Since the earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is accurately known, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft's orbit, are a function of orbit and attitude errors. These differences can be used to estimate the orbit and attitude. The test results of the EKF with magnetometer and gyro data from three NASA satellites are presented and evaluated.

  12. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF RARE EARTH ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS WITH MgCu$sub 2$ STRUCTURE

    SciT

    Williams, H.J.; Wernick, J.H.; Nesbitt, E.A.

    1962-03-01

    The magnetic moments of some RAl/sub 2/ (R = rare earth element) cubic Laves phase compounds were measured at temperatures from 1.4 to 300 deg K. The measurements indicate that the spin moments of the rare earth ions are coupled ferromagnetically. The Curie points of the RAl/sub 2/ compounds are found to be uniformly higher than the corresponding Laves compounds, ROs/sub 2/, Rlr/sub 2/ and RRu/sub 2/. Solid solutions of some of the compounds were also investigated. For example, in the Gd/sub x/Pr/sub (1-x)/Al/sub 2/ compounds, the magnetic moments of the Gd ions are antiparallel to those of the Prmore » ions because J is antiparallel to S in the ground state of the Pr ion. Compensation points were observed in this system. (auth)« less

  13. A method to detect ultra high energy electrons using earth's magnetic field as a radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, S. A.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the detection of electrons with energies exceeding a few TeV, which lose energy rapidly through synchrotron and inverse Compton processes, would provide valuable information on the distribution of sources and on the propagation of cosmic rays in the solar neighborhood. However, it would not be possible to measure the energy spectrum beyond a few TeV with any of the existing experimental techniques. The present investigation is, therefore concerned with the possibility of detecting electrons with energies exceeding a few TeV on the basis of the photons emitted through synchrotron radiation in the earth's magnetic field. Attention is given to the synchrotron radiation of electrons in the earth's magnetic field, detector response and energy estimation, and the characteristics of an ideal detector, capable of detecting photons with energies equal to or greater than 20 keV.

  14. Magnetic Local Time Dependant Low Energy Electron Flux Models at Geostationary Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, R.; Balikhin, M. A.; Walker, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    The low energy electron fluxes in the outer radiation belts at Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) can vary widely in Magnetic Local Time (MLT). This spatial variation is due to the convective and substorm-associated electric fields and can take place on short time scales. This makes it difficult to deduce a data based model of the low energy electrons. For higher energies, where there is negligible spatial variation at a particular L-star, data based models employ averaged fluxes over the orbit. This removes the diurnal variation as GEO passes through various L-star due to the structure of Earth's magnetic field. This study develops a number of models for the low energy electron fluxes measured by GOES 13 and 15 for different MLT to capture the dynamics of the spatial variations.

  15. A problem in representing the core magnetic field of the earth using spherical harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, H. M.; Harrison, C. G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Although there are computational advantages to the representation of the earth's magnetic field by spherical harmonic coefficients of the magnetic potential, up to the thirteenth degree and order, the following disadvantages emerge: (1) the use of spherical harmonics of up to a certain degree does not remove wavelengths greater than a certain value from the surface fields, and (2) the total field magnitudes represented by spherical harmonics up to a certain degree have minimum wavelengths equal to the circumference of the earth divided by twice the maximum degree of the harmonic used. The implications of the ways in which surface fields are separated into core and crustal components are discussed, and it is concluded that since field signals are generated in the core, the representation of the core field by spherical harmonics of potential does not adequately represent all core field components.

  16. Phase stability and magnetic behavior of FeCrCoNiGe high-entropy alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shuo; Vida, Ádám; Molnár, Dávid; Kádas, Krisztina; Varga, Lajos Károly; Holmström, Erik; Vitos, Levente

    2015-12-01

    We report an alternative FeCrCoNiGe magnetic material based on FeCrCoNi high-entropy alloy with Curie point far below the room temperature. Investigations are done using first-principles calculations and key experimental measurements. Results show that the equimolar FeCrCoNiGe system is decomposed into a mixture of face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic solid solution phases. The increased stability of the ferromagnetic order in the as-cast FeCrCoNiGe composite, with measured Curie temperature of 640 K, is explained using the exchange interactions.

  17. The electronic and magnetic properties of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnGe

    SciT

    Seema, K.

    2016-05-23

    We present study of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnGe using density functional theory. The compound is half-metallic with half-metallic gap of 0.13 eV. The total magnetic moment of this compound is 3.96 μ{sub B} which is in close agreement with Slater-Pauling rule. The effect of lattice compression and expansion shows the robustness of half-metallicity. A large value of half-metallic gap and 100% spin-polarization makes this material interesting for spin dependent applications.

  18. Method of making active magnetic refrigerant materials based on Gd-Si-Ge alloys

    DOEpatents

    Pecharsky, Alexandra O.; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2006-10-03

    An alloy made of heat treated material represented by Gd.sub.5(Si.sub.xGe.sub.1-x).sub.4 where 0.47.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.56 that exhibits a magnetic entropy change (-.DELTA.S.sub.m) of at least 16 J/kg K, a magnetostriction of at least 2000 parts per million, and a magnetoresistance of at least 5 percent at a temperature of about 300K and below, and method of heat treating the material between 800 to 1600 degrees C. for a time to this end.

  19. Elastic Constants of Ni-Mn-Ga Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys

    SciT

    Stipcich, M.; Manosa, L.; Planes, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have measured the adiabatic second order elastic constants of two Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory crystals with different martensitic transition temperatures, using ultrasonic methods. The temperature dependence of the elastic constants has been followed across the ferromagnetic transition and down to the martensitic transition temperature. Within experimental errors no noticeable change in any of the elastic constants has been observed at the Curie point. The temperature dependence of the shear elastic constant C' has been found to be very different for the two alloys. Such a different behavior is in agreement with recent theoretical predictions for systems undergoing multi-stage structuralmore » transitions.« less

  20. MFE/Magnolia - A joint CNES/NASA mission for the earth magnetic field investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runavot, Josette; Ousley, Gilbert W.

    1988-01-01

    The joint phase B study in the CNES/NASA MFE/Magnolia mission to study the earth's magnetic field are reported. The scientific objectives are summarized and the respective responsibilities of NASA and CNES are outlined. The MFE/Magnolia structure and power systems, mass and power budgets, attitude control system, instrument platform and boom, tape recorders, rf system, propellant system, and scientific instruments are described.

  1. EMAG2: A 2-arc min resolution Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid compiled from satellite, airborne, and marine magnetic measurements

    Maus, S.; Barckhausen, U.; Berkenbosch, H.; Bournas, N.; Brozena, J.; Childers, V.; Dostaler, F.; Fairhead, J.D.; Finn, C.; von Frese, R.R.B; Gaina, C.; Golynsky, S.; Kucks, R.; Lu, Hai; Milligan, P.; Mogren, S.; Muller, R.D.; Olesen, O.; Pilkington, M.; Saltus, R.; Schreckenberger, B.; Thebault, E.; Tontini, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    A global Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2) has been compiled from satellite, ship, and airborne magnetic measurements. EMAG2 is a significant update of our previous candidate grid for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map. The resolution has been improved from 3 arc min to 2 arc min, and the altitude has been reduced from 5 km to 4 km above the geoid. Additional grid and track line data have been included, both over land and the oceans. Wherever available, the original shipborne and airborne data were used instead of precompiled oceanic magnetic grids. Interpolation between sparse track lines in the oceans was improved by directional gridding and extrapolation, based on an oceanic crustal age model. The longest wavelengths (>330 km) were replaced with the latest CHAMP satellite magnetic field model MF6. EMAG2 is available at http://geomag.org/models/EMAG2 and for permanent archive at http://earthref.org/ cgi-bin/er.cgi?s=erda.cgi?n=970. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. A family of rare earth molybdenum bronzes: Oxides consisting of periodic arrays of interacting magnetic units

    DOE PAGES

    Schneemeyer, L. F.; Siegrist, T.; Besara, T.; ...

    2015-04-06

    The family of rare earth molybdenum bronzes, reduced ternary molybdates of composition LnMo 16O 44, was synthesized and a detailed structural study carried out. Bond valence sum (BVS) calculations clearly show that the molybdenum ions in tetrahedral coordination are hexavalent while the electron count in the primitive unit cell is odd. Yet, measurements show that the phases are semiconductors. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of samples containing several different rare earth elements was measured. These measurements verified the presence of a 6.5 K magnetic phase transition not arising from the rare earth constituent, but likely associated with themore » unique isolated ReO 3-type Mo 8O 36 structural subunits in this phase. To better understand the behavior of these materials, electronic structure calculations were performed within density functional theory. Results suggest a magnetic state in which these structural moieties have an internal ferromagnetic arrangement, with small ~1/8 μ B moments on each Mo. We suggest that the Mo 8O 36 units behave like pseudoatoms with spin ½ derived from a single hole distributed over the eight Mo atoms that are strongly hybridized with the O atoms of the subunit. As a result, while the compound is antiferromagnetic, our calculations suggest that a field-stabilized ferromagnetic state, if achievable, will be a narrow band half-metal.« less

  3. Pole-strength of the earth from Magsat and magnetic determination of the core radius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, G. V.; Benton, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    A model based on two days of Magsat data is used to numerically evaluate the unsigned magnetic flux linking the earth's surface, and a comparison of the 16.054 GWb value calculated with values from earlier geomagnetic field models reveals a smooth, monotonic, and recently-accelerating decrease in the earth's pole strength at a 50-year average rate of 8.3 MWb, or 0.052%/year. Hide's (1978) magnetic technique for determining the radius of the earth's electrically-conducting core is tested by (1) extrapolating main field models for 1960 and 1965 downward through the nearly-insulating mantle, and then separately comparing them to equivalent, extrapolated models of Magsat data. The two unsigned fluxes are found to equal the Magsat values at a radius which is within 2% of the core radius; and (2) the 1960 main field and secular variation and acceleration coefficients are used to derive models of 1930, 1940 and 1950. The same core magnetic radius value, within 2% of the seismic value, is obtained. It is concluded that the mantle is a nearly-perfect insulator, while the core is a perfect conductor, on the decade time scale.

  4. Multi-centennial fluctuations of radionuclide production rates are modulated by the Earth's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavon-Carrasco, J.; Gomez-Paccard, M.; A Campuzano, S.; González-Rouco, F. J.; Osete, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    The production of 14C and 10Be cosmogenic isotopes offer a unique way to reconstruct solar activity during the Holocene. This production is influenced by both solar and Earth magnetic fields and thus their combined effect needs to be disentangled to reconstruct past solar irradiance. Nowadays, it assumes that the long-term variations of production is modulated by the geomagnetic field and the solar field dominates shorter wavelengths. In this process, the effect of the wandering of the Earth's magnetic poles is considered negligible. Here we revaluate these assumptions and demonstrate that the geomagnetic field exerts a strong modulation of multi-centennial to millennial wavelengths (periods of 800 and 2200 yr) that have so far been wrongly assigned to solar activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the motion of the Earth's magnetic poles produce differences of up to 35% in production at mid-latitudes. The results are supported by the identification, for the first time, of robust coherence between the production derived from geomagnetic reconstructions and that from natural archives. Our results imply a revision of the past solar forcing, with implications both for the assessment of solar-climate relationships and for the forcing conditions used in the present and future generation of paleoclimate models.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging without field cycling at less than earth's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seong-Joo; Shim, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Kiwoong; Yu, Kwon Kyu; Hwang, Seong-min

    2015-03-01

    A strong pre-polarization field, usually tenths of a milli-tesla in magnitude, is used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in ordinary superconducting quantum interference device-based nuclear magnetic resonance/magnetic resonance imaging experiments. Here, we introduce an experimental approach using two techniques to remove the need for the pre-polarization field. A dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) technique enables us to measure an enhanced resonance signal. In combination with a π / 2 pulse to avoid the Bloch-Siegert effect in a micro-tesla field, we obtained an enhanced magnetic resonance image by using DNP technique with a 34.5 μT static external magnetic field without field cycling. In this approach, the problems of eddy current and flux trapping in the superconducting pickup coil, both due to the strong pre-polarization field, become negligible.

  6. Thermal and magnetic hysteresis associated with martensitic and magnetic phase transformations in Ni52Mn25In16Co7 Heusler alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiligama, A. S. B.; Ari-Gur, P.; Ren, Y.; Koledov, V. V.; Dilmieva, E. T.; Kamantsev, A. P.; Mashirov, A. V.; Shavrov, V. G.; Gonzalez-Legarreta, L.; Grande, B. H.

    2017-11-01

    Ni-Mn-In-Co Heusler alloys demonstrate promising magnetocaloric performance for use as refrigerants in magnetic cooling systems with the goal of replacing the lower efficiency, eco-adverse fluid-compression technology. The largest change in entropy occurs when the applied magnetic field causes a merged structural and magnetic transformation and the associated entropy changes of the two transformations works constructively. In this study, magnetic and crystalline phase transformations were each treated separately and the effects of the application of magnetic field on thermal hystereses associated with both structural and magnetic transformations of the Ni52Mn25In16Co7 were studied. From the analysis of synchrotron diffraction data and thermomagnetic measurements, it was revealed that the alloy undergoes both structural (from cubic austenite to a mixture of 7M &5M modulated martensite) and magnetic (ferromagnetic to a low-magnetization phase) phase transformations. Thermal hysteresis is associated with both transformations, and the variation of the thermal hystereses of the magnetic and structural transformations with applied magnetic field is significantly different. Because of the differences between the hystereses loops of the two transformations, they merge only upon heating under a certain magnetic field.

  7. Magnetic field gradients and their uses in the study of the earth's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, C. G. A.; Southam, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic field gradients are discussed from the standpoint of their usefulness in modeling crustal magnetizations. The fact that gradients enhance shorter wavelength features helps reduce both the core signal and the signal from external fields in comparison with the crustal signal. If the gradient device can be oriented, then directions of lineation can be determined from single profiles, and anomalies caused by unlineated sources can be identified.

  8. Premartensitic transition and relevant magnetic effects in Ni50Mn34In15.5Al0.5 alloy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuqin; Guo, Shaopu; Yu, Shuyun; Cheng, Hui; Wang, Ruilong; Xiao, Haibo; Xu, Lingfang; Xiong, Rui; Liu, Yong; Xia, Zhengcai; Yang, Changping

    2016-01-01

    Resistance measurement, in situ optical microscopic observation, thermal and magnetic measurements have been carried out on Ni50Mn34In15.5Al0.5 alloy. The existence of a pronounced premartensitic transition prior to martensitic transition can be characterized by microstructure evolution as well as exothermic peak and smooth decrease of resistance and magnetization with obvious hysteresis over a wide temperature range upon cooling. Consequently, the alloy undergoes two successive magneto-structural transitions consisting of premartensitic and martensitic transitions. Magnetoelastic coupling between magnetic and structural degrees of freedom would be responsible for the appearance of premartensitic transition, as evinced by the distinct shift of transitions temperatures to lower temperature with external applied field of 50 kOe. The inverse premartensitic transition induced by magnetic field results in large magnetoresistance, and contributes to the enhanced inverse magnetocaloric effect through enlarging the peak value and temperature interval of magnetic entropy change ΔSm. PMID:27183331

  9. Temperature Dependence of the Magnetization of the Ni52Mn24Ga24 Alloy in Various Structural States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musabirov, I. I.; Sharipov, I. Z.; Mulyukov, R. R.

    2015-10-01

    are presented of a study of the temperature dependence of the magnetization σ(Т) of the polycrystalline Ni52Mn24Ga24 alloy in various structural states: in the initial coarse-grained state, after severe plastic deformation by high pressure torsion, and after stepped annealing of the deformed specimen at temperatures from 200 to 700°С for 30 min. As a study of the σ(Т) curve shows, in an alloy possessing a coarse-grained initial structure, a martensitic phase transition and a magnetic phase transition are observed in the room temperature interval. The martensitic transformation takes place in the ferromagnetic state of the alloy. This transformation is accompanied by an abrupt lowering of the magnetization of the material, associated with a lowering of the symmetry of the crystalline lattice and a high value of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant of the alloy in the martensitic phase. It is shown that as a result of plastic deformation there takes place a destruction of ferromagnetic order and a suppression of the martensitic transformation. Consecutive annealing after deformation leads to a gradual recovery of ferromagnetic order and growth of the magnetization of the material. Recovery of the martensitic transformation begins to be manifested only after annealing of the alloy at a temperature of 500°C, when the mean grain size in the recrystallized structure reaches a value around 1 μm.

  10. Laminated composite of magnetic alloy powder and ceramic powder and process for making same

    DOEpatents

    Moorhead, Arthur J.; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    1999-01-01

    A laminated composite structure of alternating metal powder layers, and layers formed of an inorganic bonding media powder, and a method for manufacturing same are discosed. The method includes the steps of assembling in a cavity alternating layers of a metal powder and an inorganic bonding media of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. Heat, with or without pressure, is applied to the alternating layers until the particles of the metal powder are sintered together and bonded into the laminated composite structure by the layers of sintered inorganic bonding media to form a strong composite structure. The method finds particular application in the manufacture of high performance magnets wherein the metal powder is a magnetic alloy powder.

  11. Laminated composite of magnetic alloy powder and ceramic powder and process for making same

    DOEpatents

    Moorhead, A.J.; Kim, H.

    1999-08-10

    A laminated composite structure of alternating metal powder layers, and layers formed of an inorganic bonding media powder, and a method for manufacturing same are disclosed. The method includes the steps of assembling in a cavity alternating layers of a metal powder and an inorganic bonding media of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. Heat, with or without pressure, is applied to the alternating layers until the particles of the metal powder are sintered together and bonded into the laminated composite structure by the layers of sintered inorganic bonding media to form a strong composite structure. The method finds particular application in the manufacture of high performance magnets wherein the metal powder is a magnetic alloy powder. 9 figs.

  12. Relation between the magnetization and the electrical properties of alloy GaSb-MnSb films

    SciT

    Koplak, O. V.; Polyakov, A. A.; Davydov, A. B.

    2015-06-15

    The influence of the charge carrier concentration on the magnetic properties of GaSb-MnSb alloys is studied. The ferromagnetism of GaSb-MnSb films is caused by the presence of MnSb granules and manifests itself in both magnetometric measurements and the presence of an anisotropic magnetoresistance and the anomalous Hall effect. Electric conduction is executed by charge carriers (holes) in a GaSb matrix. The magnetization of clusters depends on stoichiometry and the concentration of Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} ions, which is specified by the film growth conditions. At high film growth temperatures, ferromagnetic clusters containing Mn{sup 2+} ions mainly form. At lowmore » growth temperatures, an antiferromagnetic phase containing Mn{sup 3+} ions forms.« less

  13. Heat Treatment of Iron-Carbon Alloys in a Magnetic Field (Phase 2)

    SciT

    Ludtka, Gerard Michael

    Thermomagnetic processing was shown to shift the phase transformation temperatures and therefore microstructural evolution in the high performance engine valve spring 9254 steel alloy by applying a high magnetic field during cooling. These effects would be anticipated to improve performance such as high cycle fatigue as demonstrated in prior projects. Thermomagnetic processing of gears and crank shafts was constrained by the size of the prototype equipment currently available at ORNL. However, the commercial procurement viability of production scale 9-Tesla, 16-inch diameter bore thermomagnetic processing equipment for truck idler gears up to ~11-inch diameter and potential crank shaft applications was shown,more » as multiple superconducting magnet manufacturing companies (in conjunction with an induction heat treating company, AjaxTOCCO Magnethermic) offered cryogen-free or cryocooler equipment designs to Cummins.« less

  14. Improving soft magnetic properties of Mn-Zn ferrite by rare earth ions doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, X. C.; Guo, X. J.; Zou, S. Y.; Yu, H. Y.; Liu, Z. W.; Zhang, Y. F.; Wang, K. X.

    2018-04-01

    Mn-Zn ferrites doped with different Sm2O3, Gd2O3, Ce2O3 or Y2O3 were prepared by traditional ceramic technology using industrial pre-sintered powders. A small amount of Sm2O3, Gd2O3, Ce2O3 or Y2O3 can significantly improve the microstructure and magnetic properties. The single spinel phase structure can be maintained with the doping amount up to 0.07 wt.%. A refined grain structure and uniform grain size distribution can be obtained by doping. For all rare earth oxides, a small amount of doping can significantly increase the permeability and reduce the coercivity and magnetic core loss. The optimized doping amount for Sm2O3 or Gd2O3 is 0.01 wt.%, while for Ce2O3 or Y2O3 is 0.03 wt.%. A further increase of the doping content will lead to reduced soft magnetic properties. The ferrite sample with 0.01 wt.% Sm2O3 exhibits the good magnetic properties with permeability, loss, and coercivity of 2586, 316 W/kg, and 24A/m, respectively, at 200 mT and 100 kHz. The present results indicate that rare earth doping can be suggested to be one of the effective ways to improve the performance of soft ferrites.

  15. Magnetic reconnection in Earth's magnetotail: Energy conversion and its earthward-tailward asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, San; Pritchett, P. L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Artemyev, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection, a fundamental plasma process, releases magnetic energy and converts it to particle energy, by accelerating and heating ions and electrons. This energy conversion plays an important role in the Earth's magnetotail. A two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation is performed to study such a conversion in a magnetotail topology, one with a nonzero Bz, and the energy conversion is found to be more efficient in the earthward outflow than in the tailward outflow. Such earthward-tailward asymmetry is manifested not only in j .E but also in Poynting flux, Hall electromagnetic fields, bulk kinetic energy flux, enthalpy flux, heat flux, bulk acceleration, heating, and suprathermal particle energization, all of which are more prevalent on the earthward side. Such asymmetries are consistent with spacecraft observations reported in the literature. Our study shows that in the magnetotail, most of the energy converted by reconnection flows predominantly toward the Earth and has the potential of being geoeffective, rather than being expelled to the solar wind by the tailward flow. The energy conversion asymmetry arises from the presence of the non-zero normal magnetic field, the stronger lobe magnetic field, and the stronger cross-tail current earthward of the reconnection site in the pre-reconnecting thin current sheet.

  16. Magnetic fields in Earth-like exoplanets and implications for habitability around M-dwarfs.

    PubMed

    López-Morales, Mercedes; Gómez-Pérez, Natalia; Ruedas, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    We present estimations of dipolar magnetic moments for terrestrial exoplanets using the Olson & Christiansen (EPS Lett 250:561-571, 2006) scaling law and assuming their interior structure is similar to Earth. We find that the dipolar moment of fast rotating planets (where the Coriolis force dominates convection in the core), may amount up to ~80 times the magnetic moment of Earth, M ⊕, for at least part of the planets' lifetime. For slow rotating planets (where the force of inertia dominates), the dipolar magnetic moment only reaches up to ~1.5 M [symbol in text]. Applying our calculations to confirmed rocky exoplanets, we find that CoRoT-7b, Kepler-10b and 55 Cnc e can sustain dynamos up to ~18, 15 and 13 M [symbol in text], respectively. Our results also indicate that the magnetic moment of rocky exoplanets not only depends on rotation rate, but also on their formation history, thermal state, age, composition, and the geometry of the field. These results apply to all rocky planets, but have important implications for the particular case of planets in the Habitable Zone of M-dwarfs.

  17. Magnetic interactions in new fluorite-related rare earth oxides LnLn’{sub 2}RuO{sub 7} (Ln, Ln’=rare earths)

    SciT

    Hinatsu, Yukio, E-mail: hinatsu@sci.hokudai.ac.jp; Doi, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-15

    New fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} and La{sub 2}TbRuO{sub 7} have been prepared. They crystallize in an orthorhombic superstructure of cubic fluorite with space group Cmcm. Through magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements, Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 27 K, which is considerably lowered compared with that for Pr{sub 3}RuO{sub 7}. Analysis of the magnetic specific heat indicates that the magnetic behavior observed at 27 K for Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} is predominantly due to the magnetic interactions between Ru ions, and that the interactions between the Pr{sup 3+} and Ru{sup 5+} ions are alsomore » important. La{sub 2}TbRuO{sub 7} shows magnetic ordering at 9.0 K, which is ascribed to the magnetic ordering between Ru{sup 5+} ions from the analysis of the magnetic specific heat data. - Graphical abstract: New fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} and La{sub 2}TbRuO{sub 7} have been prepared. Through magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements, Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} and La{sub 2}TbRuO{sub 7} show an antiferromagnetic transition at 27 and 9.0 K, respectively. Display Omitted - Highlights: • New fluorite-related quaternary rare earth oxides LnLn’{sub 2}RuO{sub 7} have been prepared. • Pr{sub 2}YRuO{sub 7} shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 27 K. • La{sub 2}TbRuO{sub 7} shows magnetic ordering at 9.0 K. • Their magnetic exchange mechanism has been elucidated by the magnetic entropy change.« less

  18. The influence of high heat input and inclusions control for rare earth on welding in low alloy high strength steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Rensheng; Mu, Shukun; Liu, Jingang; Li, Zhanjun

    2017-09-01

    In the current paper, it is analyzed for the influence of high heat input and inclusions control for rare earth on welding in low alloy high strength steel. It is observed for the structure for different heat input of the coarse-grained area. It is finest for the coarse grain with the high heat input of 200 kJ / cm and the coarse grain area with 400 kJ / cm is the largest. The performance with the heat input of 200 kJ / cm for -20 °C V-shaped notch oscillatory power is better than the heat input of 400 kJ / cm. The grain structure is the ferrite and bainite for different holding time. The grain structure for 5s holding time has a grain size of 82.9 μm with heat input of 200 kJ/cm and grain size of 97.9 μm for 10s holding time. For the inclusions for HSLA steel with adding rare earth, they are Al2O3-CaS inclusions in the Al2O3-CaS-CaO ternary phase diagram. At the same time, it can not be found for low melting calcium aluminate inclusions compared to the inclusions for the HSLA steel without rare earth. Most of the size for the inclusions is between 1 ~ 10μm. The overall grain structure is smaller and the welding performance is more excellent for adding rare earth.

  19. A statistical spatial power spectrum of the Earth's lithospheric magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébault, E.; Vervelidou, F.

    2015-05-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth's lithosphere arises from rock magnetization contrasts that were shaped over geological times. The field can be described mathematically in spherical harmonics or with distributions of magnetization. We exploit this dual representation and assume that the lithospheric field is induced by spatially varying susceptibility values within a shell of constant thickness. By introducing a statistical assumption about the power spectrum of the susceptibility, we then derive a statistical expression for the spatial power spectrum of the crustal magnetic field for the spatial scales ranging from 60 to 2500 km. This expression depends on the mean induced magnetization, the thickness of the shell, and a power law exponent for the power spectrum of the susceptibility. We test the relevance of this form with a misfit analysis to the observational NGDC-720 lithospheric magnetic field model power spectrum. This allows us to estimate a mean global apparent induced magnetization value between 0.3 and 0.6 A m-1, a mean magnetic crustal thickness value between 23 and 30 km, and a root mean square for the field value between 190 and 205 nT at 95 per cent. These estimates are in good agreement with independent models of the crustal magnetization and of the seismic crustal thickness. We carry out the same analysis in the continental and oceanic domains separately. We complement the misfit analyses with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test and we conclude that the observed power spectrum can be each time a sample of the statistical one.

  20. Spherical-earth Gravity and Magnetic Anomaly Modeling by Gauss-legendre Quadrature Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Luca, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The anomalous potential of gravity and magnetic fields and their spatial derivatives on a spherical Earth for an arbitrary body represented by an equivalent point source distribution of gravity poles or magnetic dipoles were calculated. The distribution of equivalent point sources was determined directly from the coordinate limits of the source volume. Variable integration limits for an arbitrarily shaped body are derived from interpolation of points which approximate the body's surface envelope. The versatility of the method is enhanced by the ability to treat physical property variations within the source volume and to consider variable magnetic fields over the source and observation surface. A number of examples verify and illustrate the capabilities of the technique, including preliminary modeling of potential field signatures for Mississippi embayment crustal structure at satellite elevations.

  1. Spherical-earth gravity and magnetic anomaly modeling by Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Frese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Luca, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration is used to calculate the anomalous potential of gravity and magnetic fields and their spatial derivatives on a spherical earth. The procedure involves representation of the anomalous source as a distribution of equivalent point gravity poles or point magnetic dipoles. The distribution of equivalent point sources is determined directly from the volume limits of the anomalous body. The variable limits of integration for an arbitrarily shaped body are obtained from interpolations performed on a set of body points which approximate the body's surface envelope. The versatility of the method is shown by its ability to treat physical property variations within the source volume as well as variable magnetic fields over the source and observation surface. Examples are provided which illustrate the capabilities of the technique, including a preliminary modeling of potential field signatures for the Mississippi embayment crustal structure at 450 km.

  2. The elastic properties of hcp-Fe alloys under the conditions of the Earth's inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunguo; Vočadlo, Lidunka; Brodholt, John P.

    2018-07-01

    Geophysical and cosmochemical constraints suggest the inner-core is mainly composed of iron with a few percent of light elements. However, despite extensive studies over many years, no single alloying light-element has been found that is able to simultaneously match the observed inner-core density and both seismic velocities. This has motivated a number of suggestions of other mechanism to lower velocities, such as anelasticity or premelting. However, an unexplored possibility is that a combination of two or more light-elements might produce the desired reduction in velocities and densities of the inner core. In order to test this, we use ab initio molecular dynamics calculations to map the elastic property space of hcp-Fe alloyed with S, Si and C at 360 GPa up to the melting temperature. Based on a mixing solid solution model together with direct simulations on the ternaries, we found a number of compositions which are able to match the observed properties of the inner core. This is the first time that the density, VP, Vs and the Poisson's ratio of the inner core have been matched directly with an hcp-Fe alloy.

  3. Pre-Melting in Iron and Iron Alloys at Earth's Core Conditions: Results from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocadlo, L.; Martorell, B.; Brodholt, J. P.; Wood, I. G.

    2014-12-01

    Seismically determined S-wave velocities in the Earth's inner core are observed to be much lower (10-30%) than those generally inferred from mineral physics. This is a remarkably large discrepancy - mineralogical models for the mantle and the outer core match the observed velocities to around 1%. In no other large volume of the Earth does such a difference exist. There have been a number of arguments put forward over the years to account for the difference, but none have been universally accepted and our inability to explain the seismic velocities of the inner core remains an uncomfortable truth. Here, we present results from ab initio molecular dynamics calculations performed at 360 GPa and core temperatures on hcp and fcc iron, and on fcc-Fe alloyed with nickel and hcp-Fe alloyed with silicon. The calculated shear modulus, and therefore seismic velocities, of pure hcp-Fe reduces dramatically just prior to melting, providing an elegant explanation for the observed velocities. Calculations on fcc-Fe show no such strong reduction in VS, with a transformation to an hcp-type structure prior to melting; addition of 6.5 atm% and 13 atm% Ni to fcc-Fe raises the temperature of this transition. When silicon is added to hcp-Fe, the pre-melting behaviour is found to be very similar to that of pure hcp-Fe with a strong nonlinear shear weakening just before melting and a corresponding reduction in VS. Because temperatures range from T/Tm = 1 at the inner-outer core boundary to T/Tm ≈ 0.99 at the centre, this strong nonlinear effect on VS should occur in the inner core, providing a compelling explanation for the low VS observed.

  4. Fabrication of magnetic nano liquid metal fluid through loading of Ni nanoparticles into gallium or its alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Mingfeng; Gao, Yunxia; Liu, Jing

    2014-03-01

    In this study, Ni nanoparticles were loaded into the partially oxidized gallium and its alloys to fabricate desired magnetic nanofluid. It was disclosed that the Ni nanoparticles sharply increased the freezing temperature and latent heat of the obtained magnetic nano liquid metal fluid, while the melting process was less affected. For the gallium sample added with 10 vol% coated Ni particles, a hysteresis loop was observed and the magnetization intensity decreased with the increase of the temperature. The slope for the magnetization-temperature curve within 10-30 K was about 20 times of that from 40 K to 400 K. Further, the dynamic impact experiments of striking magnetic liquid metal droplets on the magnet revealed that the regurgitating of the leading edge of the liquid disk and the subsequent wave that often occurred in the gallium-indium droplets would disappear for the magnetic fluids case due to attraction force of the magnet.

  5. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    SciT

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal Dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to extreme conditions of pressure to 69 GPa and temperature to 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were only able to track magnetic ordering temperature till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed ( hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. Thismore » is followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hexagonal close packed phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Lastly, our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remain localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.« less

  6. Influence of magnetic field configuration on magnetohydrodynamic waves in Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Nicholas; Buffett, Bruce

    2018-04-01

    We develop a numerical model to study magnetohydrodynamic waves in a thin layer of stratified fluid near the surface of Earth's core. Past studies have been limited to using simple background magnetic field configurations. However, the choice of field distribution can dramatically affect the structure and frequency of the waves. To permit a more general treatment of background magnetic field and layer stratification, we combine finite volume and Fourier methods to describe the wave motions. We validate our model by comparisons to previous studies and examine the influence of background magnetic field configuration on two types of magnetohydrodynamic waves. We show that the structure of zonal Magnetic-Archimedes-Coriolis (MAC) waves for a dipole background field is unstable to small perturbations of the field strength in the equatorial region. Modifications to the wave structures are computed for a range of field configurations. In addition, we show that non-zonal MAC waves are trapped near the equator for realistic magnetic field distributions, and that their latitudinal extent depends upon the distribution of magnetic field strength at the CMB.

  7. Control of Earth-like magnetic fields on the transformation of ferrihydrite to hematite and goethite

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José; Roberts, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Hematite and goethite are the two most abundant iron oxides in natural environments. Their formation is controlled by multiple environmental factors; therefore, their relative concentration has been used widely to indicate climatic variations. In this study, we aimed to test whether hematite and goethite growth is influenced by ambient magnetic fields of Earth-like values. Ferrihydrite was aged at 95 °C in magnetic fields ranging from ~0 to ~100 μT. Our results indicate a large influence of the applied magnetic field on hematite and goethite growth from ferrihydrite. The synthesized products are a mixture of hematite and goethite for field intensities <~60 μT. Higher fields favour hematite formation by accelerating ferrimagnetic ferrihydrite aggregation. Additionally, hematite particles growing in a controlled magnetic field of ~100 μT appear to be arranged in chains, which may be reduced to magnetite keeping its original configuration, therefore, the presence of magnetic particles in chains in natural sediments cannot be used as an exclusive indicator of biogenic magnetite. Hematite vs. goethite formation in our experiments is influenced by field intensity values within the range of geomagnetic field variability. Thus, geomagnetic field intensity could be a source of variation when using iron (oxyhydr-)oxide concentrations in environmental magnetism. PMID:27458091

  8. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    DOE PAGES

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; ...

    2014-04-03

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal Dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to extreme conditions of pressure to 69 GPa and temperature to 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were only able to track magnetic ordering temperature till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed ( hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. Thismore » is followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hexagonal close packed phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Lastly, our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remain localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.« less

  9. Control of Earth-like magnetic fields on the transformation of ferrihydrite to hematite and goethite.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Dekkers, Mark J; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José; Roberts, Andrew P

    2016-07-26

    Hematite and goethite are the two most abundant iron oxides in natural environments. Their formation is controlled by multiple environmental factors; therefore, their relative concentration has been used widely to indicate climatic variations. In this study, we aimed to test whether hematite and goethite growth is influenced by ambient magnetic fields of Earth-like values. Ferrihydrite was aged at 95 °C in magnetic fields ranging from ~0 to ~100 μT. Our results indicate a large influence of the applied magnetic field on hematite and goethite growth from ferrihydrite. The synthesized products are a mixture of hematite and goethite for field intensities <~60 μT. Higher fields favour hematite formation by accelerating ferrimagnetic ferrihydrite aggregation. Additionally, hematite particles growing in a controlled magnetic field of ~100 μT appear to be arranged in chains, which may be reduced to magnetite keeping its original configuration, therefore, the presence of magnetic particles in chains in natural sediments cannot be used as an exclusive indicator of biogenic magnetite. Hematite vs. goethite formation in our experiments is influenced by field intensity values within the range of geomagnetic field variability. Thus, geomagnetic field intensity could be a source of variation when using iron (oxyhydr-)oxide concentrations in environmental magnetism.

  10. Lattice dynamics in magnetic superelastic Ni-Mn-In alloys. Neutron scattering and ultrasonic experiments

    SciT

    Moya, Xavier; Gonzalez-Alonso, David; Manosa, Lluis

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering and ultrasonic methods have been used to study the lattice dynamics of two single crystals of Ni-Mn-In Heusler alloys close to Ni50Mn34In16 magnetic superelastic composition. The paper reports the experimental determination of the low-lying phonon dispersion curves and the elastic constants for this alloy system. We found that the frequencies of the TA2 branch are relatively low and it exhibits a small dip anomaly at a wave number n= 1/3, which softens with decreasing temperature. Associated with the softening of this phonon, we also observed the softening of the shear elastic constant C0 = (C11 C12)=2. Both temperaturemore » softenings are typical for bcc based solids which undergo martensitic transformations and re ect the dynamical instability of the cubic lattice against shearing of f110g planes along h1 10i directions. Additionally, we measured low-lying phonon dispersion branches and elastic constants in applied magnetic fields aimed to characterize the magnetoelastic coupling.« less

  11. Characteristics of 5M modulated martensite in Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćakır, A.; Acet, M.; Righi, L.; Albertini, F.; Farle, M.

    2015-09-01

    The applicability of the magnetic shape memory effect in Ni-Mn-based martensitic Heusler alloys is closely related to the nature of the crystallographically modulated martensite phase in these materials. We study the properties of modulated phases as a function of temperature and composition in three magnetic shape memory alloys Ni49.8Mn25.0Ga25.2, Ni49.8Mn27.1Ga23.1 and Ni49.5Mn28.6Ga21.9. The effect of substituting Ga for Mn leads to an anisotropic expansion of the lattice, where the b-parameter of the 5M modulated structure increases and the a and c-parameters decrease with increasing Ga concentration. The modulation vector is found to be both temperature and composition dependent. The size of the modulation vector corresponds to an incommensurate structure for Ni49.8Mn25.0Ga25.2 at all temperatures. For the other samples the modulation is incommensurate at low temperatures but reaches a commensurate value of q ≈ 0.400 close to room temperature. The results show that commensurateness of the 5M modulated structure is a special case of incommensurate 5M at a particular temperature.

  12. Satellite Tidal Magnetic Signals Constrain Oceanic Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary Earth Tomography with Tidal Magnetic Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayver, Alexander V.; Schnepf, Neesha R.; Kuvshinov, Alexey V.; Sabaka, Terence J.; Chandrasekharan, Manoj; Olsen, Niles

    2016-01-01

    The tidal flow of electrically conductive oceans through the geomagnetic field results in the generation of secondary magnetic signals, which provide information on the subsurface structure. Data from the new generation of satellites were shown to contain magnetic signals due to tidal flow; however, there are no reports that these signals have been used to infer subsurface structure. Here we use satellite-detected tidal magnetic fields to image the global electrical structure of the oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle down to a depth of about 250 km. The model derived from more than 12 years of satellite data reveals an Approximately 72 km thick upper resistive layer followed by a sharp increase in electrical conductivity likely associated with the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, which separates colder rigid oceanic plates from the ductile and hotter asthenosphere.

  13. Enhancing Magnetic Functionality with Scandium: Breaking Stereotypes in the Design of Rare Earth Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Mudryk, Yaroslav; Paudyal, Durga; Liu, Jing; ...

    2017-04-11

    Replacement of strongly magnetic gadolinium with weakly magnetic scandium unexpectedly enhances ferromagnetic interactions in (Gd 1–xSc x) 5Ge 4. Based upon this counterintuitive experimental finding we demonstrate the unique role 3d 1 electrons of scandium atoms play in mediating magnetic interactions between the gadolinium atoms from the neighboring layers in the Sm 5Ge 4-type crystal lattice. Scandium substitutions at and below 20% rapidly increase the Curie temperature, TC, of the Gd 5Ge 4 parent, eliminate both the kinetic arrest and hysteresis, and drastically improve reversibility of the first-order magnetostructural transformation at T C. In agreement with first-principles predictions, higher thanmore » 20% Sc leads to the formation of a closely related Pu 5Rh 4-type structure where the first-order magnetostructural transformation is replaced by a conventional second-order ferromagnetic ordering that remains accompanied by a continuous rearrangement of the crystal lattice. In conclusion, comparison of two materials with similar structures and compositions shows that significantly stronger magnetocaloric effect occurs in the first-order material, which also shows very small hysteresis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a behavior of a specific interatomic distance can predict anomalous physical properties in a series of alloys where compositional dependence of lattice parameters suggests a rather trivial solid solubility and uninteresting magnetism.« less

  14. Roald Amundsen's contributions to our knowledge of the magnetic fields of the Earth and the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, A.; Deehr, C. S.

    2011-12-01

    Roald Amundsen (1872-1928) was known as one of the premier polar explorers in the golden age of polar exploration. His accomplishments clearly document that he has contributed to knowledge in fields as diverse as ethnography, meteorology and geophysics. In this paper we will concentrate on his studies of the Earth's magnetic field. With his unique observations at the polar station Gjøahavn (geographic coordinates 68°37'10'' N; 95°53'25'' W), Amundsen was first to demonstrate, without doubt, that the north magnetic dip-pole does not have a permanent location, but steadily moves its position in a regular manner. In addition, his carefully calibrated measurements at high latitudes were the first and only observations of the Earth's magnetic field in the polar regions for decades until modern polar observatories were established. After a short review of earlier measurements of the geomagnetic field, we tabulate the facts regarding his measurements at the observatories and the eight field stations associated with the Gjøa expedition. The quality of his magnetic observations may be seen to be equal to that of the late 20th century observations by subjecting them to analytical techniques showing the newly discovered relationship between the diurnal variation of high latitude magnetic observations and the direction of the horizontal component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF By). Indeed, the observations at Gjøahavn offer a glimpse of the character of the solar wind 50 yr before it was known to exist. Our motivation for this paper is to illuminate the contributions of Amundsen as a scientist and to celebrate his attainment of the South Pole as an explorer 100 yr ago.

  15. Electrical and thermal conductivity of Fe-C alloy at high pressure: implications for effects of carbon on the geodynamo of the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Lin, J. F.; Liu, Y.; Feng, S.; Jin, C.; Yoshino, T.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal conductivity of iron alloy in the Earth's core plays a crucial role in constraining the energetics of the geodynamo and the thermal evolution of the planet. Studies on the thermal conductivity of iron reveal the importance of the effects of light elements and high temperature. Carbon has been proposed to be a candidate light element in Earth's core for its meteoritic abundance and high-pressure velocity-density profiles of iron carbides (e.g., Fe7C3). In this study, we employed four-probe van der Pauw method in a diamond anvil cell to measure the electrical resistivity of pure iron, iron carbon alloy, and iron carbides at high pressures. These studies were complimented with synchrotron X-ray diffraction and focused ion beam (FIB) analyses. Our results show significant changes in the electrical conductivity of these iron-carbon alloys that are consistent previous reports with structural and electronic transitions at high pressures, indicating that these transitions should be taken into account in evaluating the electrical and thermal conductivity at high pressure. To apply our results to understand the thermal conduction in the Earth's core, we have compared our results with literature values for the electrical and thermal conductivity of iron alloyed with light elements (C, Si) at high pressures. These comparisons permit the validity of the Wiedemann-Franz law and Matthiessen's rule for the effects of light elements on the thermal conductivity of the Earth's core. We found that an addition of a light element such as carbon has an strong effect on the reducing the thermal conductivity of Earth's core, but the magnitude of the alloying effect strongly depends on the identity of the light element and the crystal and electronic structures. Based on our results and literature values, we have modelled the electrical and thermal conductivity of iron-carbon alloy at Earth's core pressure-temperature conditions to the effects on the heat flux in the Earth's core. In

  16. Transient Weakening of Earth's Magnetic Shield Probed by a Cosmic Ray Burst.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, P K; Arunbabu, K P; Aziz, T; Dugad, S R; Gupta, S K; Hariharan, B; Jagadeesan, P; Jain, A; Morris, S D; Rao, B S; Hayashi, Y; Kawakami, S; Oshima, A; Shibata, S; Raha, S; Subramanian, P; Kojima, H

    2016-10-21

    The GRAPES-3 tracking muon telescope in Ooty, India measures muon intensity at high cutoff rigidities (15-24 GV) along nine independent directions covering 2.3 sr. The arrival of a coronal mass ejection on 22 June 2015 18:40 UT had triggered a severe G4-class geomagnetic storm (storm). Starting 19:00 UT, the GRAPES-3 muon telescope recorded a 2 h high-energy (∼20  GeV) burst of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) that was strongly correlated with a 40 nT surge in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Simulations have shown that a large (17×) compression of the IMF to 680 nT, followed by reconnection with the geomagnetic field (GMF) leading to lower cutoff rigidities could generate this burst. Here, 680 nT represents a short-term change in GMF around Earth, averaged over 7 times its volume. The GCRs, due to lowering of cutoff rigidities, were deflected from Earth's day side by ∼210° in longitude, offering a natural explanation of its night-time detection by the GRAPES-3. The simultaneous occurrence of the burst in all nine directions suggests its origin close to Earth. It also indicates a transient weakening of Earth's magnetic shield, and may hold clues for a better understanding of future superstorms that could cripple modern technological infrastructure on Earth, and endanger the lives of the astronauts in space.

  17. Structural, electronic, magnetic, and transport properties of the equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloy CoRhMnGe: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Deepika; Enamullah, Suresh, K. G.; Yadav, A. K.; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Varma, Manoj Raama; Alam, Aftab

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we present structural, electronic, magnetic, mechanical, and transport properties of equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloy, CoRhMnGe, using theoretical and experimental techniques. A detailed structural analysis is performed using x-ray diffraction and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The alloy is found to crystallize in Y -type structure having space group F 4 ¯3 m (no. 216). The ab initio simulation predicts half-metallic ferromagnetic characteristics leading to large spin polarization. The calculated magnetization is found to be in fair agreement with experiment as well as those predicted by the Slater-Pauling rule, which is a prerequisite for half-metallicity. The magnetic transition temperature (TC) is found to be ˜760 K. Measured electrical resistivity in the temperature range 2-400 K also gives an indication of half-metallic behavior. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on electronic structure, magnetic, and mechanical properties are investigated in detail. The alloy is found to preserve half-metallic characteristics up to 30.27 GPa, beyond which it transits to metallic phase. No magnetic phase transition is found to occur in the whole range of pressure. The system also satisfies the Born-Huang criteria for mechanical stability up to a limited range of pressure. All these properties make the CoRhMnGe alloy promising for spintronics devices.

  18. The Effects of the Addition of Dy, Nb, and Ga on Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe Nanocomposite Permanent Magnetic Alloys.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kezhi; Tan, Xiaohua; Li, Heyun; Xu, Hui; Han, Ke

    2017-04-01

    We study the effects of Dy, Nb, and Ga additions on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposites. Dy, Nb, and Ga additions inhibit the growth of the soft magnetic α-Fe phase. Dy and Nb additions are able to refine the microstructure, whereas Ga addition plays only a minor role in prohibiting crystal growth. The magnetic properties are sensitive to Dy, Nb, and Ga additions. The Dy-containing alloy enhances the intrinsic coercivity of 872 kA/m because Dy partially replaces Nd, forming (Nd, Dy)2Fe14B. Nb addition refines the microstructure, and consequently increases the exchange coupling between magnetic grains. The Nd9.5Fe75.4Co5Zr3B6.5Ga0.6 alloy exhibits the highest remanence (0.92 T) due to Ga addition.

  19. The observation of resistivity change on the ultrasonic treated Fe-Cr ODS sinter alloy under magnetic field influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silalahi, Marzuki; Purwanto, Setyo; Mujamilah; Dimyati, Arbi

    2018-03-01

    About the observation of resistivity change on the ultrasonic treated Fe-Cr ODS sinter alloy under magnetic field influence. This paper reported about the observation of the resistivity change in the ultrasonic pre-treated Fe-Cr ODS sinter alloy under the influence of magnetic field at the Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Material, Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia. Fe-Cr ODS alloy were sinthesized by vacuum sintering of Fe- and Cr-powder dispersed Y2O3. However, before sintering the powder mixture was subjected to the irradiation process by ultrasonic for 50 hours at 20 kHz and then isostatic pressed up to 50.91 MPa to form a coin of 10 mm in diameter. LCR meassurement revealed the decreasing of resistivity about 3 times by increasing of applied magnetic field from 0 to 70 mT. In addition, VSM meassurement was performed on both as powder material and as sintered sample. The results showed increasing the magnetization with increasing magnetic field and the curve exhibits almost exact symmetry S-form with small hysterese indicating fast changing magnetization and demagnetization capability without energy loss. This opens strong speculations about the existence of magnetoresistant property of the material which is important for many application in field of sensors or electro magnetic valves.

  20. Magnetic ageing study of high and medium permeability nanocrystalline FeSiCuNbB alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekdim, Atef; Morel, Laurent; Raulet, Marie-Ange

    2017-04-01

    increasing the energy efficiency is one of the most important issues in modern power electronic systems. In aircraft applications, the energy efficiency must be associated with a maximum reduction of mass and volume, so a high components compactness. A consequence from this compactness is the increase of operating temperature. Thus, the magnetic materials used in these applications, have to work at high temperature. It raises the question of the thermal ageing problem. The reliability of these components operating at this condition becomes a real problem which deserves serious interest. Our work takes part in this context by studying the magnetic material thermal ageing. The nanocrystalline materials are getting more and more used in power electronic applications. Main advantages of nanocrystalline materials compared to ferrite are: high saturation flux density of almost 1.25 T and low dynamic losses for low and medium frequencies. The nanocrystalline Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si15.5B7 alloys have been chosen in our aging study. This study is based on monitoring the magnetic characteristics for several continuous thermal ageing (100, 150, 200 and 240 °C). An important experimental work of magnetic characterization is being done following a specific monitoring protocol. Elsewhere, X-Ray Diffraction and magnetostriction measurements were carried out to support the study of the anisotropy energies evolution with ageing. This latter is discussed in this paper to explain and give hypothesis about the ageing phenomena.

  1. Growth dependent magnetization reversal in Co2MnAl full Heusler alloy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barwal, Vineet; Husain, Sajid; Behera, Nilamani; Goyat, Ekta; Chaudhary, Sujeet

    2018-02-01

    Angular dependent magnetization reversal has been investigated in Co2MnAl (CMA) full Heusler alloy thin films grown on Si(100) at different growth temperatures (Ts) by DC-magnetron sputtering. An M -shaped curve is observed in the in-plane angular (0°-360°) dependent coercivity (ADC) by magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements. The dependence of the magnetization reversal on Ts is investigated in detail to bring out the structure-property correlation with regards to ADC in these polycrystalline CMA thin films. This magnetization reversal ( M -shaped ADC behavior) is well described by the two-phase model, which is a combination of Kondorsky (domain wall motion) and Stoner Wohlfarth (coherent rotation) models. In this model, magnetization reversal starts with depinning of domain walls, with their gradual displacement explained by the Kondorsky model, and at a higher field (when the domain walls merge), the system follows coherent rotation before reaching its saturation following the Stoner Wohlfarth model. Further, the analysis of angular dependent squareness ratio (Mr/Ms) indicates that our films clearly exhibited twofold uniaxial anisotropy, which is related to self-steering effect arising due to the obliquely incident flux during the film-growth.

  2. Compaction and sintering behaviors of a Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet alloy

    SciT

    Chin, T.; Hung, M.; Tsai, D.

    1988-11-15

    Extensive x-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic measurements were done on Nd/sub 15/ Fe/sub 77/ B/sub 8/ magnet alloy green compacts after cold isostatic pressing following a pulsed 2-T field (CIP) and die-pressing under a static 1.2-T perpendicular field (DP1) or parallel field (DP2), and on those after sintering. An alignment factor F, through the calculation of the integrated diffraction intensity ratio of the XRD patterns, was adopted as the effectiveness of magnetic alignment. At the green compact state, DP1 has the best alignment while CIP the worst. However, after sintering the alignment factor was such that CIP>DPI>DP2, the same ordermore » as the magnetic properties. Three mechanisms were proposed for the evolution of the alignment factor at different stages of sintering, i.e., that both the appearance of a liquid phase at low temperatures and preferred grain growth at high temperatures enhance F, while recrystallization at intermediate temperatures deteriorates F. CIP results in less-defect green compact, hence less recrystallization, leading to better resultant alignment« less

  3. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Co2-xFexVGa Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, K.; Waybright, J.; Kharel, P.; Zhang, W.; Valloppilly, S.; Herran, J.; Lukashev, P.; Huh, Y.; Skomski, R.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of iron-substituted Co2VGa alloys, Co2-xFexVGa (x = 0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3), were investigated. The Fe-substituted samples, prepared by arc melting, melt spinning, and annealing, crystallized in the L21 Heusler structure, without any secondary phases. The Curie temperature and high-field magnetization at 50 K decreased from 345 K and 44 emu/g (1.90 μB/f.u.) for Co2VGa to 275 K and 39 emu/g (1.66 μB/f.u.) for Co1.7Fe0.3VGa, respectively, but the maximum entropy change remained almost insensitive to Fe concentration for x ≤ 0.2, the highest value being 3.3 J/kgK at 7 T for Co1.85Fe0.15VGa. First-principle calculations show that Co2VGa retains its half-metallic band structure until at least 30% of the cobalt atoms are replaced by Fe atoms. The wide operating temperature window near room temperature and the lack of thermal and magnetic hysteresis are the interesting features of these materials for application in room-temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  4. Fe-Al alloy single-crystal thin film preparation for basic magnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Tatsuya; Kawai, Tetsuroh; Futamoto, Masaaki; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Inaba, Nobuyuki

    2018-04-01

    Fe100-xAlx (x = 0, 4, 10, 20, 30 at. %) alloy films of 40 nm thickness are prepared on MgO(001) single-crystal substrates by varying substrate temperature from room temperature to 600 °C. Single-crystal films of (001) orientation with bcc-based disordered A2 structure are obtained for the Al content range of x = 0 - 20 at. %. An ordered phase of DO3 structure is observed in Fe70Al30 films prepared at temperatures higher than 200 °C, whereas (001) oriented single-crystal films of A2 structure are obtained when prepared at room temperature. The film surface profile does not depend much on the film composition, while the surface roughness increases with increasing substrate temperature. Island-like crystals are observed for films prepared at 600°C for all compositions. Difference in lattice spacing measured parallel and perpendicular to the substrate is noted for the single-crystal thin films and it increases with increasing Al content. The lattice strain in single-crystal film is caused possibly to accommodate the lattice mismatch with the MgO substrate. The (001)-oriented single-crystal films with A2 structure show four-fold symmetries in in-plane magnetic anisotropy with the easy magnetization axis A2[100] and the hard magnetization axis A2[110], whereas the films with DO3 ordered structure show almost isotropic magnetic properties.

  5. East Meets West on "Double Star", a Joint Mission to Explore Earth's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    Cluster instruments has a number of advantages for both European and Chinese scientists. "By flying experiments identical to those on Cluster, we can reduce costs and development time," explained Alberto Gianolio, ESA Project Manager for Double Star. "This will minimise risk and help us to ensure that we are able to meet the spacecraft development schedule." ESA has agreed to contribute 8 million euros to the Double Star programme. This funding will be used for refurbishment and pre-integration of the European instruments, acquisition of data for 4 hours per day and coordination of scientific operations. Notes for Editors: Double Star will be the first mission launched by China to explore the Earth's magnetosphere - the magnetic bubble that surrounds our planet. As its name suggests, Double Star will involve two satellites - each designed, developed, launched and operated by the CNSA - flying in complementary orbits around the Earth. This orbital configuration will enable scientists to obtain simultaneous data on the changing magnetic field and population of electrified particles in different regions of the magnetosphere. The duo is expected to be launched by Chinese Long March 2C rockets in December 2002 and March 2003. This schedule may enable them to operate alongside ESA's Cluster mission - a mini-flotilla of four identical spacecraft launched into elliptical orbits around the Earth last summer. The "equatorial" spacecraft (DSP-1) will be launched into an elliptical orbit of 550 x 60,000 km, inclined at 28.5 degrees to the equator. This will enable it to investigate the Earth's huge magnetic tail, the region where particles are accelerated towards the planet's magnetic poles by a process known as reconnection. The "polar" satellite (DSP-2) will concentrate on physical processes taking place over the magnetic poles and the development of aurorae. It will have a 350 x 25,000 km orbit taking it round the Earth once every 7.3 hours.

  6. Towards magnetic sounding of the Earth's core by an adjoint method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Jackson, A.; Livermore, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    Earth's magnetic field is generated and sustained by the so called geodynamo system in the core. Measurements of the geomagnetic field taken at the surface, downwards continued through the electrically insulating mantle to the core-mantle boundary (CMB), provide important constraints on the time evolution of the velocity, magnetic field and temperature anomaly in the fluid outer core. The aim of any study in data assimilation applied to the Earth's core is to produce a time-dependent model consistent with these observations [1]. Snapshots of these ``tuned" models provide a window through which the inner workings of the Earth's core, usually hidden from view, can be probed. We apply a variational data assimilation framework to an inertia-free magnetohydrodynamic system (MHD) [2]. Such a model is close to magnetostrophic balance [3], to which we have added viscosity to the dominant forces of Coriolis, pressure, Lorentz and buoyancy, believed to be a good approximation of the Earth's dynamo in the convective time scale. We chose to study the MHD system driven by a static temperature anomaly to mimic the actual inner working of Earth's dynamo system, avoiding at this stage the further complication of solving for the time dependent temperature field. At the heart of the models is a time-dependent magnetic field to which the core-flow is enslaved. In previous work we laid the foundation of the adjoint methodology, applied to a subset of the full equations [4]. As an intermediate step towards our ultimate vision of applying the techniques to a fully dynamic mode of the Earth's core tuned to geomagnetic observations, we present the intermediate step of applying the adjoint technique to the inertia-free Navier-Stokes equation in continuous form. We use synthetic observations derived from evolving a geophysically-reasonable magnetic field profile as the initial condition of our MHD system. Based on our study, we also propose several different strategies for accurately

  7. Investigation of a less rare-earth permanent-magnet machine with the consequent pole rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jingang; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Mingqiao; Zheng, Ping; Liu, Yong; Gao, Haibo; Xiao, Lijun

    2018-05-01

    Due to the rising price of rare-earth materials, permanent-magnet (PM) machines in different applications have a trend of reducing the use of rare-earth materials. Since iron-core poles replace half of PM poles in the consequent pole (CP) rotor, the PM machine with CP rotor can be a promising candidate for less rare-earth PM machine. Additionally, the investigation of CP rotor in special electrical machines, like hybrid excitation permanent-magnet PM machine, bearingless motor, etc., has verified the application feasibility of CP rotor. Therefore, this paper focuses on design and performance of PM machines when traditional PM machine uses the CP rotor. In the CP rotor, all the PMs are of the same polarity and they are inserted into the rotor core. Since the fundamental PM flux density depends on the ratio of PM pole to iron-core pole, the combination rule between them is investigated by analytical and finite-element methods. On this basis, to comprehensively analyze and evaluate PM machine with CP rotor, four typical schemes, i.e., integer-slot machines with CP rotor and surface-mounted PM (SPM) rotor, fractional-slot machines with CP rotor and SPM rotor, are designed to investigate the performance of PM machine with CP rotor, including electromagnetic performance, anti-demagnetization capacity and cost.

  8. Structure and soft magnetic properties of Fe-Si-B-P-Cu nanocrystalline alloys with minor Mn addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xingjie; Li, Yanhui; Wu, Licheng; Zhang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Addition of minor Mn effectively improves the amorphous-forming ability and thermal stability of the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy. With increasing the Mn content from 0 to 3 at.%, the critical thickness for amorphous formation and onset temperature of the primary crystallization increase from 14 μm and 659 K to 27 μm and 668 K, respectively. The fine nanocrystalline structure with α-Fe grains in size (D) of < 20 nm was obtained for the annealed amorphous alloys, which show excellent soft magnetic properties. The alloying of Mn reduces the coercivity (Hc) by decreasing the D value and widens the optimum annealing temperature range for obtaining low Hc, although the saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) is decreased slightly. The Fe83Mn2Si2B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloy possesses fine structure with a D of ˜17.5 nm, and exhibits a high Bs of ˜1.75 T and a low Hc of ˜5.9 A/m. The mechanism related to the alloying effects on the structure and magnetic properties was discussed in term of the crystallization activation energy.

  9. Fluxing purification and its effect on magnetic properties of high-Bs FeBPSiC amorphous alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Jing; Wang, Anding; Yue, Shiqiang; Kong, Fengyu; Qiu, Keqiang; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin; Liu, Chain-Tsuan

    2017-07-01

    A high-Bs amorphous alloy with the base composition Fe83B11P3Si2C1 was used to study the effects of fluxing purification on amorphous forming ability and magnetic properties of the alloy prepared with raw materials in industrialization. By using fluxing purification, the surface crystallization was suppressed and fully amorphous Fe83B11P3Si2C1 ribbons with a maximum thickness of 48 μm were successfully achieved by using an industrial process and materials. The amorphous ribbons made with industrial-purified alloys exhibit excellent magnetic properties, containing high-Bs of 1.65 T, low Hc of 2.0 A/m, and high μe of 9.7 × 103 at 1 kHz. Impurities in the melting alloys exist in three forms and have different effluences on magnetic properties. The surface crystallization was triggered by the impurities which exist as high melting point inclusions serving as nuclei. Thus, fluxing purification is a feasible way for industrialization of high-Bs FeBPSiC amorphous alloys.

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of FexNi100-x alloys synthesized using Al as a reducing metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srakaew, N.; Jantaratana, P.; Nipakul, P.; Sirisathitkul, C.

    2017-08-01

    Iron-nickel (Fe-Ni) alloys comprising nine different compositions were rapidly synthesized from the redox reaction using aluminum foils as the reducing metal. Compared with conventional chemical syntheses, this simple approach is relatively safe and allows control over the alloy morphology and magnetic behavior as a function of the alloy composition with minimal oxidation. For alloys having low (10%-30%) Fe content the single face-centered cubic (FCC) FeNi3 phase was formed with nanorods aligned in the (1 1 1) crystalline direction on the cluster surface. This highly anisotropic morphology gradually disappeared as the Fe content was raised to 40%-70% with the alloy structure possessing a mixture of FCC FeNi3 and body-centered cubic (BCC) Fe7Ni3. The FCC phase was entirely replaced by the BCC structure upon further increase the Fe content to 80%-90%. The substitution of Ni by Fe in the crystals and the dominance of the BCC phase over the FCC structure gave rise to enhanced magnetization. By contrast, the coercive field decreased as a function of increasing Fe because of the reduction in shape anisotropy and the rise of saturation magnetization.

  11. Evolution of magnetic properties and microstructure of Hf2Co11B alloys

    DOE PAGES

    McGuire, Michael A.; Rios, Orlando

    2015-02-05

    Amorphous Hf 2Co 11B alloys produced by melt-spinning have been crystallized by annealing at 500-800 °C, and the products have been investigated using magnetization measurements, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal the evolution of the phase fractions, microstructure, and magnetic properties with both annealing temperature and time. Crystallization of the phase denoted HfCo 7, which is associated with the development of coercivity, occurs slowly at 500 °C. Annealing at intermediate temperatures produces mixed phase samples containing some of the HfCo 7 phase with the highest values of remanent magnetization and coercivity. The equilibrium structure at 800 °Cmore » contains HfCo3B 2, Hf 6Co 23 and Co, and displays soft ferromagnetism. Maximum values for the remanent magnetization, intrinsic coercivity, and magnetic energy product among the samples are approximately 5.2 kG, 2.0 kOe, and 3.1 MGOe, respectively, which indicates that the significantly higher values observed in crystalline, melt-spun Hf 2Co 11B ribbons are a consequence of the non-equilibrium solidification during the melt-spinning process. Application of high magnetic fields during annealing is observed to strongly affect the microstructural evolution, which may provide access to higher performance materials in Zr/Hf-Co hard ferromagnets. The crystal structure of HfCo 7 and the related Zr analogues is unknown, and without knowledge of atomic positions powder diffraction cannot distinguish among proposed unit cells and symmetries found in the literature.« less

  12. Directionally Solidified Aluminum - 7 wt% Silicon Alloys: Comparison of Earth and International Space Station Processed Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N,; Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, R. S.; Erdman, Robert; Poirier, David

    2012-01-01

    Primary dendrite arm spacings of Al-7 wt% Si alloy directionally solidified in low gravity environment of space (MICAST-6 and MICAST-7: Thermal gradient approx. 19 to 26 K/cm, Growth speeds varying from 5 to 50 microns/s show good agreement with the Hunt-Lu model. Primary dendrite trunk diameters of the ISS processed samples show a good fit with a simple analytical model based on Kirkwood s approach, proposed here. Natural convection, a) decreases primary dendrite arm spacing. b) appears to increase primary dendrite trunk diameter.

  13. Investigation of structural and magnetic properties of rapidly-solidified iron-silicon alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures

    SciT

    Jayaraman, T. V.; Meka, V. M.; Jiang, X.

    In this work, we investigated the ambient temperature structural properties (~300 K) and the ambient and high temperature (up to 900 K) direct current (DC) magnetic properties of melt-spun Fe-x wt.% Si (x = 3, 5, & 8) alloys. The wheel surface speeds selected for the study were 30 m/s and 40 m/s. The thickness, width, lattice parameter, saturation magnetization (MS), and intrinsic coercivity (HCI) of the melt spun ribbons are presented and compared with data in the literature. The ribbons produced at the lower wheel surface speed (30 m/s) were continuous having relatively uniform edges compared to the ribbonsmore » produced at the higher wheel surface speed. The thickness and the width of the melt-spun ribbons ranged between ~15-60 μm and 500-800 μm, respectively. The x-ray diffraction spectra of the melt-spun ribbons indicated the presence of disordered α-phase, irrespective of the composition, and the wheel-surface speed. The lattice parameter decreased gradually as a function of increasing silicon content from ~0.2862 nm (Fe-3 wt.% Si) to ~0.2847 nm (Fe-8 wt.% Si). Wheel surface speed was not shown to have a significant effect on the magnetization, but primarily impacted the ribbon structure. A decreasing trend in the saturation magnetization was observed as a function of increased silicon content. The intrinsic coercivity of the melt-spun alloys ranged between ~50 to 200 A/m. Elevated temperature evaluation of the magnetization in the case of Fe-3 & 5 wt.% Si alloy ribbons was distinctly different from the Fe-8 wt.% Si alloy ribbons. The curves of the as-prepared Fe-3 wt.% Si and Fe-5 wt.% Si alloy ribbons were irreversible while that of Fe-8 wt.% Si was reversible. The MS for any of the combinations of wheel surface speed and composition decreased monotonically with the increase in temperature (from 300 – 900 K). The percentage decrease in MS from 300 K to 900 K for the Fe-3 wt.% Si and Fe-5 wt.% Si alloys was ~19-22 %, while the percentage decrease in

  14. Size effects on magnetic actuation in Ni-Mn-Ga shape-memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Dunand, David C; Müllner, Peter

    2011-01-11

    The off-stoichiometric Ni(2)MnGa Heusler alloy is a magnetic shape-memory alloy capable of reversible magnetic-field-induced strains (MFIS). These are generated by twin boundaries moving under the influence of an internal stress produced by a magnetic field through the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. While MFIS are very large (up to 10%) for monocrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga, they are near zero (<0.01%) in fine-grained polycrystals due to incompatibilities during twinning of neighboring grains and the resulting internal geometrical constraints. By growing the grains and/or shrinking the sample, the grain size becomes comparable to one or more characteristic sample sizes (film thickness, wire or strut diameter, ribbon width, particle diameter, etc), and the grains become surrounded by free space. This reduces the incompatibilities between neighboring grains and can favor twinning and thus increase the MFIS. This approach was validated recently with very large MFIS (0.2-8%) measured in Ni-Mn-Ga fibers and foams with bamboo grains with dimensions similar to the fiber or strut diameters and in thin plates where grain diameters are comparable to plate thickness. Here, we review processing, micro- and macrostructure, and magneto-mechanical properties of (i) Ni-Mn-Ga powders, fibers, ribbons and films with one or more small dimension, which are amenable to the growth of bamboo grains leading to large MFIS, and (ii) "constructs" from these structural elements (e.g., mats, laminates, textiles, foams and composites). Various strategies are proposed to accentuate this geometric effect which enables large MFIS in polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga by matching grain and sample sizes.

  15. A half-metallic half-Heusler alloy having the largest atomic-like magnetic moment at optimized lattice constant

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, R. L.; Damewood, L.; Fong, C. Y.; ...

    2016-11-02

    For half-Heusler alloys, the general formula is XYZ, where X can be a transition or alkali metal element, Y is another transition metal element, typically Mn or Cr, and Z is a group IV element or a pnicitide. The atomic arrangements within a unit-cell show three configurations. Before this study, most of the predictions of half-metallic properties of half-Heusler alloys at the lattice constants differing from their optimized lattice constant. Based on the electropositivity of X and electronegativity of Z for half-Heusler alloys, we found that one of the configurations of LiCrS exhibits half-metallic properties at its optimized lattice constantmore » of 5.803Å, and has the maximum atomic-like magnetic moment of 5μ B. In conclusion, the challenges of its growth and the effects of the spin-orbit effect in this alloy will be discussed.« less

  16. Environmental optimization and shielding for NMR experiments and imaging in the earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Favre, B; Bonche, J P; Meheir, H; Peyrin, J O

    1990-02-01

    For many years, a number of laboratories have been working on the applications of very low field NMR. In 1985, our laboratory presented the first NMR images using the earth's magnetic field. However, the use of this technique was limited by the weakness of the signal and the disturbing effects of the environment on the signal-to-noise ratio and on the homogeneity of the static magnetic field. Therefore experiments has to be performed in places with low environmental disturbances, such as open country or large parks. In 1986, we installed a new station in Lyon, in the town's hostile environment. Good NMR signals can now be obtained (with a signal-to-noise ratio better than 200 and a time constant T2 better than 3s for 200-mnl water samples and at a temperature of about 40 degrees C). We report the terrace roof of our faculty building. Gradient coils were used to correct the local inhomogeneities of the earth's magnetic field. We show FIDs and MR images of water-filled tubes made with or without these improvements.

  17. Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission Observations of Magnetic Flux Ropes in the Earth's Plasma Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, J. A.; Akhavan-Tafti, M.; Poh, G.; Le, G.; Russell, C. T.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Torbert, R. B.; Gershman, D. J.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Burch, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    A major discovery by the Cluster mission and the previous generation of science missions is the presence of earthward and tailward moving magnetic flux ropes in the Earth's plasma sheet. However, the lack of high-time resolution plasma measurements severely limited progress concerning the formation and evolution of these reconnection generated structures. We use high-time resolution magnetic and electric field and plasma measurements from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission's first tail season to investigate: 1) the distribution of flux rope diameters relative to the local ion and electron inertial lengths; 2) the internal force balance sustaining these structures; and 3) the magnetic connectivity of the flux ropes to the Earth and/or the interplanetary medium; 4) the specific entropy of earthward moving flux ropes and the possible effect of "buoyancy" on how deep they penetrate into the inner magnetosphere; and 5) evidence for coalescence of adjacent flux ropes and/or the division of existing flux ropes through the formation of secondary X-lines. The results of these initial analyses will be discussed in terms of their implications for reconnection-driven magnetospheric dynamics and substorms.

  18. Modeling the Value Recovery of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets at End-of-Life

    DOE PAGES

    Cong, Liang; Jin, Hongyue; Fitsos, Pete; ...

    2015-05-21

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g. ferrite or AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge ofmore » collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.« less

  19. Steady state toroidal magnetic field at earth's core-mantle boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Eugene H.; Pearce, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the dc electrical potential near the top of earth's mantle have been extrapolated into the deep mantle in order to estimate the strength of the toroidal magnetic field component at the core-mantle interface. Recent measurements have been interpreted as indicating that at the core-mantle interface, the magnetic toroidal and poloidal field components are approximately equal in magnitude. A motivation for such measurements is to obtain an estimate of the strength of the toroidal magnetic field in the core, a quantity important to our understanding of the geomagnetic field's dynamo generation. Through the use of several simple and idealized calculation, this paper discusses the theoretical relationship between the amplitude of the toroidal magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary and the actual amplitude within the core. Even with a very low inferred value of the toroidal field amplitude at the core-mantle boundary, (a few gauss), the toroidal field amplitude within the core could be consistent with a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo dominated by nonuniform rotation and having a strong toroidal magnetic field.

  20. The heavy ion diffusion region in magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. H.; Mouikis, C. G.; Kistler, L. M.; Wang, S.; Roytershteyn, V.; Karimabadi, H.

    2015-05-01

    While the plasma in the Earth's magnetotail predominantly consists of protons and electrons, there are times when a significant amount of oxygen is present. When magnetic reconnection occurs, the behavior of these heavy ions can be significantly different from that of the protons, due to their larger gyroradius. In this study, we investigate the heavy ion distribution functions in the reconnection ion diffusion region from a 2.5D three-species particle-in-cell numerical simulation and compare those with Cluster observations from the near-Earth magnetotail. From the simulation results, we find that the heavy ions are demagnetized and accelerated in a larger diffusion region, the heavy ion diffusion region. The ion velocity distribution functions show that, inside the heavy ion diffusion region, heavy ions appear as counterstreaming beams along z in the GSM x-z plane, while drifting in y, carrying cross-tail current. We compare this result with Cluster observations in the vicinity of reconnection regions in the near-Earth magnetotail and find that the simulation predictions are consistent with the observed ion distribution functions in the ion diffusion region, as well as the inflow, exhaust, and separatrix regions. Based on the simulation and observation results, the presence of a multiscale diffusion region model, for O+ abundant reconnection events in the Earth's magnetotail, is demonstrated. A test particle simulation shows that in the diffusion region, the H+ gains energy mainly through Ex, while the O+ energy gain comes equally from Ex and Ey.

  1. Magneto-optical detection of the relaxation dynamics of alloy nanoparticles with a high-stability magnetic circular dichroism setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavigli, L.; de Julián Fernández, C.; Gatteschi, D.; Gurioli, M.; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Mazzoldi, P.; Bogani, L.

    2007-09-01

    We present a versatile high-stability and high-sensitivity magneto-optical setup that allows transmission and reflection measurements at high fields and low temperatures. We apply the technique to measure the decay in time of the magnetization of highly monodisperse 3.3 nm Co33Ni67 alloy nanoparticles embedded in a silica host. We demonstrate the possibility of observing the dynamics of the magnetization over a macroscopic timescale in dilute samples, where other techniques are unavailable.

  2. Isotropic rare earth based hard magnets through non-equilibrium processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, Dilara

    The aim of this thesis was to understand better the relationship of hard magnetic properties to the microstructure and use this knowledge to design a better magnet. The first project was focused on the development of isotropic Pr 9Fe85B6 ribbons with enhanced remanence, high coercivity and high (BH)max. The optimization was achieved by adjusting the composition, controlling the microstructure and processing parameters. The crystal structure in all the samples studied was found to consist of a fine mixture of hard phase 2:14:1 and soft alpha-Fe phase. In all the samples the optimum (BH)max obtained was in the optimally quenched ribbons. Annealing did improve the magnetic properties but did not exceed the highest (BH)max value obtained in the optimally quenched ribbons. Small additions of Tb and Co were found to improve the magnetic properties. The properties were optimized by first adjusting the wheel speed and then the ejection temperature of melt. A maximum (BH)max 21 MGOe and a remanence of 117 emu/g were obtained in the ribbons spun at 18 m/s and ejected at a temperature of 1360°C with a average grain size of 20 nm. This investigation suggests that a proper combination of composition and processing parameters is essential for the optimum (BH)max value for the Pr-Fe-B magnets. The second project was focused on the development of a single phase nanocrystalline Sm2(Co, Fe)17 magnets. The magnetic properties such as coercivity and energy product were optimized via the design of composition, control of melt-spinning parameters and heat treatment. The effect of non magnetic elements like Si, B, addition on the Sm(Co, Fe, M)z alloys were investigated. The effect of C addition on the Smx(Co 1-yMy)100-x-zCz series alloys where, M= Fe or Fe+Mn , X=10-15, Y= 0-0.375, Z= 0-6 were studied thoroughly. It is observed that the crystal structure of Sm(Co0.75Fe0.25) 7, Sm(Co0.65Fe0.25Si0.1)7 and Sm(Co0.65Fe0.25Si0.05B0.05 )8 alloy ribbons spun at low wheel speed shows the

  3. Earth

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  4. The dependence of magnetosphere-ionosphere system on the Earth's magnetic dipole moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwira, C. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Rastaetter, L.

    2017-12-01

    Space weather is increasingly recognized as an international problem affecting several different man-made technologies. The ability to understand, monitor and forecast Earth-directed space weather is of paramount importance for our highly technology-dependent society and for the current rapid developments in awareness and exploration within the heliosphere. It is well known that the strength of the Earth's magnetic field changes over long time scales. We use physics-based simulations with the University of Michigan Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to examine how the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and ground geomagnetic field perturbations respond as the geomagnetic dipole moment changes. We discuss the implication of these results for our community and the end-users of space weather information.

  5. A statistical study of magnetic field magnitude changes during substorms in the near earth tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, R. E.; Lui, A. T. Y.; Mcentire, R. W.; Potemra, T. A.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    Using AMPTE/CCE data taken in 1985 and 1986 when the CCE apogee (8.8 earth radii) was within 4.5 hours of midnight, 167 injection events in the near-earth magnetotail have been cataloged. These events are exactly or nearly dispersionless on a 72-sec time scale from 25 keV to 285 keV. The changes in the field magnitude are found to be consistent with the expected effects of the diversion/disruption of the cross-tail current during a substorm, and the latitudinal position of the current sheet is highly variable within the orbit of CCE. The local time variation of the magnetic-field changes implies that the substorm current wedge is composed of longitudinally broad Birkeland currents.

  6. Spherical earth gravity and magnetic anomaly analysis by equivalent point source inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Frese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.

    1981-01-01

    To facilitate geologic interpretation of satellite elevation potential field data, analysis techniques are developed and verified in the spherical domain that are commensurate with conventional flat earth methods of potential field interpretation. A powerful approach to the spherical earth problem relates potential field anomalies to a distribution of equivalent point sources by least squares matrix inversion. Linear transformations of the equivalent source field lead to corresponding geoidal anomalies, pseudo-anomalies, vector anomaly components, spatial derivatives, continuations, and differential magnetic pole reductions. A number of examples using 1 deg-averaged surface free-air gravity anomalies of POGO satellite magnetometer data for the United States, Mexico, and Central America illustrate the capabilities of the method.

  7. Debye temperatures and magnetic structures of UFe xAl 12- x (3.6⩽ x⩽5) intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rećko, K.; Dobrzyński, L.; Szymański, K.; Hoser, A.

    2000-03-01

    Uranium ternary compounds UFe xAl 12- x crystallize in a body-centred tetragonal structure ThMn 12 (I 4/mmm No.139). The neutron powder diffraction, magnetization measurements as well as Mössbauer investigations clearly indicate the magnetic ordering within the iron sites. The rearrangement of iron magnetic moments from uncompensated antiferromagnetic system in UFe xAl 12- x with x<4, through coexistence of antiferro- and ferromagnetic iron components (4⩽ x<5) to pure ferromagnetic ordering for alloy with x=5 is observed. The neutron diffraction studies of magnetic structures of the aforementioned powder samples show a very rich world of possible uranium-iron magnetic interactions. For all these alloys the magnetic neutron scattering is generally weak in comparison to the nuclear one. Because of identical chemical and magnetic unit cells there are no pure magnetic reflections. Therefore, in order to extract magnetic part of the scattering one should be particularly careful in taking proper account of the thermal vibration effects.

  8. Radio studies of the magnetic connection between solar particle acceleration sites and the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Karl-Ludwig

    The magnetic connection from the Sun to the Earth is a crucial problem of SEP propagation in space. While the Parker spiral often provides a plausible configuration, there are also examples where simple impulsive SEP events are observed at Earth even when the parent active region is several tens of degrees in heliographic longitude away from the root of the nominal Parker spiral. In previous work radio spectrography and imaging, together with PFSS magnetic field extrapolations from photospheric measurements, have been shown to provide a consistent ex-planation of this observation in terms of open flux tubes that rapidly fan out with inceasing height and connect the root of the Parker spiral at the source surface to the remote solar active region. Other work, however, has challenged this view and concluded that PFSS models often do not provide adequate connections. The problem is re-examined in this contribution. It is shown that at least in several cases the claimed failure of the PFSS model is in fact due to the assumption that high-latitude active regions must connect to the Parker spiral in the ecliptic plane in order that the SEP be able to reach Earth. This means that the PFSS field lines have to care for the particle transport from high to low heliographic latitudes in these events. However, this contribution presents evidence from radio observations from metre to kilometre wavelengths that even when particles leave the Sun towards high ecliptic latitudes, interplan-etary field lines may bend down to the ecliptic between a few solar radii and 1 AU and guide the particles to the vicinity of the Earth.

  9. Tidal Heating of Earth-like Exoplanets around M Stars: Thermal, Magnetic, and Orbital Evolutions.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, P E; Barnes, R

    2015-09-01

    The internal thermal and magnetic evolution of rocky exoplanets is critical to their habitability. We focus on the thermal-orbital evolution of Earth-mass planets around low-mass M stars whose radiative habitable zone overlaps with the "tidal zone," where tidal dissipation is expected to be a significant heat source in the interior. We develop a thermal-orbital evolution model calibrated to Earth that couples tidal dissipation, with a temperature-dependent Maxwell rheology, to orbital circularization and migration. We illustrate thermal-orbital steady states where surface heat flow is balanced by tidal dissipation and cooling can be stalled for billions of years until circularization occurs. Orbital energy dissipated as tidal heat in the interior drives both inward migration and circularization, with a circularization time that is inversely proportional to the dissipation rate. We identify a peak in the internal dissipation rate as the mantle passes through a viscoelastic state at mantle temperatures near 1800 K. Planets orbiting a 0.1 solar-mass star within 0.07 AU circularize before 10 Gyr, independent of initial eccentricity. Once circular, these planets cool monotonically and maintain dynamos similar to that of Earth. Planets forced into eccentric orbits can experience a super-cooling of the core and rapid core solidification, inhibiting dynamo action for planets in the habitable zone. We find that tidal heating is insignificant in the habitable zone around 0.45 (or larger) solar-mass stars because tidal dissipation is a stronger function of orbital distance than stellar mass, and the habitable zone is farther from larger stars. Suppression of the planetary magnetic field exposes the atmosphere to stellar wind erosion and the surface to harmful radiation. In addition to weak magnetic fields, massive melt eruption rates and prolonged magma oceans may render eccentric planets in the habitable zone of low-mass stars inhospitable for life.

  10. Static compression of Fe 0.83Ni 0.09Si 0.08 alloy to 374 GPa and Fe 0.93Si 0.07 alloy to 252 GPa: Implications for the Earth's inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, Hidetoshi; Ohtani, Eiji; Sakai, Takeshi; Terasaki, Hidenori; Kamada, Seiji; Hirao, Naohisa; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2011-10-01

    The pressure-volume equations of state of iron-nickel-silicon alloy Fe 0.83Ni 0.09Si 0.08 (Fe-9.8 wt.% Ni-4.0 wt.% Si) and iron-silicon alloy Fe 0.93Si 0.07 (Fe-3.4 wt.% Si) have been investigated up to 374 GPa and 252 GPa, respectively. The present compression data covered pressures of the Earth's core. We confirmed that both Fe 0.83Ni 0.09Si 0.08 and Fe 0.93Si 0.07 alloys remain in the hexagonal close packed structure at all pressures studied. We obtained the density of these alloys at the pressure of the inner core boundary (ICB), 330 GPa at 300 K by fitting the compression data to the third order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. Using these density values combined with the previous data for hcp-Fe, hcp-Fe 0.8Ni 0.2, and hcp-Fe 0.84Si 0.16 alloys and comparing with the density of the PREM inner core, we estimated the Ni and Si contents of the inner core. The Si content of the inner core estimated here is slightly greater than that estimated previously based on the sound velocity measurement of the hcp-Fe-Ni-Si alloy at high pressure.

  11. Variations of the earth's magnetic field and rapid climatic cooling: A possible link through changes in global ice volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    A possible relationship between large scale changes in global ice volume, variations in the earth's magnetic field, and short term climatic cooling is investigated through a study of the geomagnetic and climatic records of the past 300,000 years. The calculations suggest that redistribution of the Earth's water mass can cause rotational instabilities which lead to geomagnetic excursions; these magnetic variations in turn may lead to short-term coolings through upper atmosphere effects. Such double coincidences of magnetic excursions and sudden coolings at times of ice volume changes have occurred at 13,500, 30,000, 110,000, and 135,000 YBP.

  12. Intramaxillary and intermaxillary absolute anchorage with an endosseous dental implant and rare-earth magnets.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Flavio; Nanda, Ravindra

    2009-07-01

    This case report describes the management of a partially edentulous adult with a severe deepbite malocclusion and a collapsed buccal segment because of supraeruption of the maxillary second and third molars. The treatment involved placement of an endosseous dental implant to achieve absolute intermaxillary and intramaxillary anchorage. Rare-earth magnets embedded in acrylic bite-blocks were used to intrude the supraerupted maxillary molars on the right side. After use as an anchorage device, the implant was restored and brought into occlusion. Good occlusal and esthetic results were achieved with this cost-effective treatment.

  13. Electric and magnetic drift of non-adiabatic ions in the earth's geomagnetic tail current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, D. B.; Cowley, S. W. H.

    1985-01-01

    It has been shown recently that nonadiabatic particles in the earth's magnetotail drift across the tail roughly as predicted for adiabatic particles with 90 deg pitch angles. In this paper it is shown that this result implies the existence of an approximate invariant of the motion. Adding the effect of convection associated electric fields, the approximate bounce averaged motion of nonadiabatic particles in the magnetotail can be obtained. Thus the particle motion and energization due to combined magnetic and electric drifts in the magnetotail are easily predicted.

  14. Magnetic field controlled single crystal growth and surface modification of titanium alloys exposed for biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Regina; Uhlemann, Margitta; Wendrock, Horst; Gerbeth, Gunter; Büchner, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work is growth and characterisation of Ti55Nb45 (wt%) single crystals by floating-zone single crystal growth of intermetallic compounds using two-phase radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic heating. Thereby, the process and, in particular, the flow field in the molten zone is influenced by additional magnetic fields. The growth of massive intermetallic single crystals is very often unsuccessful due to an unfavourable solid-liquid interface geometry enclosing concave fringes. It is generally known that the crystallization process stability is enhanced if the crystallization interface is convex. For this, a tailored magnetic two-phase stirrer system has been developed, which enables a controlled influence on the melt ranging from intensive inwards to outwards flows. Since Ti is favourably light, strong and biocompatible, it is one of the few materials that naturally match the requirements for implantation in the human body. Therefore, the magnetic system was applied to crystal growth of Ti alloys. The grown crystals were oriented and cut to cubes with the desired crystallographic orientations [1 0 0] and [1 0 1] normally on a plane. The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique was applied to clearly determine crystal orientation and to localize grain boundaries. The formation of oxidic nanotubes on Ti surfaces in dependence of the grain orientation was investigated, performed electrochemically by anodic oxidation from fluoride containing electrolyte.

  15. Magnetism and Solid Solution Effects in NiAI (40% AI) Alloys

    SciT

    Liu, Chain T; Fu, Chong Long; Chisholm, Matthew F

    2007-01-01

    The solid solution effects of ternary additions of transition elements in intermetallic Ni-40% Al were investigated by both experimental studies and theoretical calculations. Co solute atoms when sitting at Ni sublattice sites do not affect the lattice parameter and hardening behavior of Ni-40Al. On the other hand, Fe, Mn, and Cr solutes, which are mainly on Al sublattice sites, substantially expand the lattice parameter and produce an unusual solid solution softening effect. First-principles calculations predict that these solute atoms with large unfilled d-band electrons develop large magnetic moments and effectively expand the lattice parameter when occupying Al sublattice sites. Themore » theoretical predictions were verified by both electron loss-energy spectroscopy (EELS) analyses and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The observed softening behavior can be explained quantitatively by the replacement of Ni anti-site defects (potent hardeners) by Fe, Mn, and Cr anti-site defects with smaller atom size mismatch between solute and Al atoms. This study has led to the identification of magnetic interaction as an important physical parameter affecting the solid solution hardening in intermetallic alloys containing transition elements.« less

  16. Thickness dependencies of structural and magnetic properties of cubic and tetragonal Heusler alloy bilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, R.; Suzuki, K. Z.; Sugihara, A.; Ando, Y.; Miyazaki, T.; Mizukami, S.

    2017-07-01

    The thickness dependencies of the structural and magnetic properties for bilayers of cubic Co-based Heusler alloys (CCHAs: Co2FeAl (CFA), Co2FeSi (CFS), Co2MnAl (CMA), and Co2MnSi (CMS)) and D022-MnGa were investigated. Epitaxy of the B2 structure of CCHAs on a MnGa film was achieved; the smallest thickness with the B2 structure was found for 3-nm-thick CMS and CFS. The interfacial exchange coupling (Jex) was antiferromagnetic (AFM) for all of the CCHAs/MnGa bilayers except for unannealed CFA/MnGa samples. A critical thickness (tcrit) at which perpendicular magnetization appears of approximately 4-10 nm for the CMA/MnGa and CMS/MnGa bilayers was observed, whereas this thickness was 1-3 nm for the CFA/MnGa and CFS/MnGa films. The critical thickness for different CCHAs materials is discussed in terms of saturation magnetization (Ms) and the Jex .

  17. Bridgman Growth of GeSi Alloys in a Static Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Szofran, F. R.; Vujisic, L.; Motakef, S.

    1998-01-01

    Ge(0.95)Si(0.050 alloy crystals have been grown by the vertical Bridgman technique, both with and without an axial 5 Tesla magnetic field. The crystals were processed in a constant axial thermal gradient and the effects of graphite, hot pressed boron nitride, and pyrolitic boron nitride ampoule materials on interface shapes and macrosegregation profiles were investigated. The sample grown in a graphite ampoule at 5 Tesla exhibited a macroscopic axial concentration profile close to that of complete mixing and strong striation patterns. In samples grown in boron nitride ampoules, both with and without a 5 Tesla magnetic field applied, measured macroscopic axial concentration profiles were intermediate between those expected for a completely mixed melt and diffusion-controlled growth, and striation patterns were also observed. Possible explanations for the apparent inability of the magnetic field to reduce the flow velocities to below the growth velocities are discussed, and results of growth experiments in pyrolitic boron nitride ampoules are also described.

  18. Electronic and magnetic properties of Zn1-xFexSe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatta, Swati; Tripathi, S. K.; Prakash, Satya

    2017-12-01

    The spin polarized density functional theory along with self consistent plane wave pseudopotential method is used to investigate electronic and magnetic properties of ternary Zn1-xFexSe alloys with x = 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75. The exchange-correlation potential treated within generalized gradient approximation is used. The calculated spin-polarized band structures, partial and total density of states reveal that Zn0.875Fe0.125Se and Zn0.75Fe0.25Se exhibit half metallic ferromagnetic characteristics and Zn0.50Fe0.50Se is nearly half metallic in nature. The half metallic band gaps for x = 0.125 and 0.25 are 0.69 and 0.39 eV respectively, while the corresponding band gaps are 0.86 and 0.81 eV. The p-d hybridization reduces the magnetic moment of Fe atoms from its free space charge value of 4 μB and induces the small magnetic moments on Zn and Se sites. The results are compared with available experimental data.

  19. Local magnetic moments in iron and nickel at ambient and Earth's core conditions.

    PubMed

    Hausoel, A; Karolak, M; Şaşιoğlu, E; Lichtenstein, A; Held, K; Katanin, A; Toschi, A; Sangiovanni, G

    2017-07-12

    Some Bravais lattices have a particular geometry that can slow down the motion of Bloch electrons by pre-localization due to the band-structure properties. Another known source of electronic localization in solids is the Coulomb repulsion in partially filled d or f orbitals, which leads to the formation of local magnetic moments. The combination of these two effects is usually considered of little relevance to strongly correlated materials. Here we show that it represents, instead, the underlying physical mechanism in two of the most important ferromagnets: nickel and iron. In nickel, the van Hove singularity has an unexpected impact on the magnetism. As a result, the electron-electron scattering rate is linear in temperature, in violation of the conventional Landau theory of metals. This is true even at Earth's core pressures, at which iron is instead a good Fermi liquid. The importance of nickel in models of geomagnetism may have therefore to be reconsidered.

  20. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis, Microstructure, and Magnetic Properties of Rare-Earth Cobaltites.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Seijas, Julia; Prado-Gonjal, Jesús; Ávila Brande, David; Terry, Ian; Morán, Emilio; Schmidt, Rainer

    2017-01-03

    The series of perovskite rare-earth (RE) doped cobaltites (RE)CoO 3 (RE = La-Dy) was prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. The crystal structure undergoes a change of symmetry depending on the size of the RE cation. LaCoO 3 is rhombohedral, S.G. R3̅c (No. 167), while, for the rest of the RE series (Pr-Dy), the symmetry is orthorhombic, S.G. Pnma (No. 62). The crystal structure obtained by X-ray diffraction was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, which yielded a good match between experimental and simulated images. It is further shown that the well-known magnetism in LaCoO 3 , which involves a thermally induced Co 3+ (d 6 ) low spin to intermediate or high spin state transition, is strongly modified by the RE cation, and a rich variety of magnetic order has been detected across the series.

  1. A low-cost spectrometer for NMR measurements in the Earth's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michal, Carl A.

    2010-10-01

    We describe and demonstrate an inexpensive, easy-to-build, portable spectrometer for nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in the Earth's magnetic field. The spectrometer is based upon a widely available inexpensive microcontroller, which acts as a pulse programmer, audio-frequency synthesizer and digitizer, replacing what are typically the most expensive specialized components of the system. The microcontroller provides the capability to execute arbitrarily long and complicated sequences of phase-coherent, phase-modulated excitation pulses and acquire data sets of unlimited duration. Suitably packaged, the spectrometer is amenable to measurements in the research lab, in the field or in the teaching lab. The choice of components was heavily weighted by cost and availability, but required no significant sacrifice in performance. Using an existing personal computer, the resulting design can be assembled for as little as US200. The spectrometer performance is demonstrated with spin-echo and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequences on a water sample.

  2. Comprehensive Evaluation of Attitude and Orbit Estimation Using Actual Earth Magnetic Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie K.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2000-01-01

    A single, augmented Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft attitude and orbit has been developed and successfully tested with real magnetometer and gyro data only. Because the earth magnetic field is a function of time and position, and because time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of both orbit and attitude errors. Thus, conceivably these differences could be used to estimate both orbit and attitude; an observability study validated this assumption. The results of testing the EKF with actual magnetometer and gyro data, from four satellites supported by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center, are presented and evaluated. They confirm the assumption that a single EKF can estimate both attitude and orbit when using gyros and magnetometers only.

  3. The Geopotential Research Mission - Mapping the near earth gravity and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, P. T.; Keating, T.; Smith, D. E.; Langel, R. A.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Kahn, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    The Geopotential Research Mission (GRM), NASA's low-level satellite system designed to measure the gravity and magnetic fields of the earth, and its objectives are described. The GRM will consist of two, Shuttle launched, satellite systems (300 km apart) that will operate simultaneously at a 160 km circular-polar orbit for six months. Current mission goals include mapping the global geoid to 10 cm, measuring gravity-field anomalies to 2 mgal with a spatial resolution of 100 km, detecting crustal magnetic anomalies of 100 km wavelength with 1 nT accuracy, measuring the vectors components to + or - 5 arc sec and 5 nT, and computing the main dipole or core field to 5 nT with a 2 nT/year secular variation detection. Resource analysis and exploration geology are additional applications considered.

  4. Electrical conductivity of the Earth's mantle from the first Swarm magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civet, F.; Thébault, E.; Verhoeven, O.; Langlais, B.; Saturnino, D.

    2015-05-01

    We present a 1-D electrical conductivity profile of the Earth's mantle down to 2000 km derived from L1b Swarm satellite magnetic field measurements from November 2013 to September 2014. We first derive a model for the main magnetic field, correct the data for a lithospheric field model, and additionally select the data to reduce the contributions of the ionospheric field. We then model the primary and induced magnetospheric fields for periods between 2 and 256 days and perform a Bayesian inversion to obtain the probability density function for the electrical conductivity as function of depth. The conductivity increases by 3 orders of magnitude in the 400-900 km depth range. Assuming a pyrolitic mantle composition, this profile is interpreted in terms of temperature variations leading to a temperature gradient in the lower mantle that is close to adiabatic.

  5. Micro structural analysis and magnetic characteristics of rare earth substituted cobalt ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapdiya, Swati; Singh, Sarika; Kulshrestha, Shobha; Shrivastava, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    A series of ultrafine nanoparticles of Gd3+ doped Co-ferrites CoGdxFe2-xO4 (x=0.0, 0.05 and 0.10) were prepared by wet chemical co-precipitation method using nitrates of respective metal ions. Structural and morphology studies were performed using XRD, SEM and EDAX. Indexed XRD patterns confirm the formation of cubic spinel phase. Average crystallite sizes found to be decreases with trivalent rare earth ion substitution. Lattice constant (a) and lattice strain increases with increase in Gd3+ concentration due to large ionic radii (0.94nm) of Gd3+ replacing Fe3+ (0.64nm). SEM images show the spherical morphology and uniform growth of nanoparticles. Magnetic studies show that magnetization (Ms), decreases with increase in Gd3+ concentration from 50.16 emu/gm to 31.26 emu/gm.

  6. Nonthermal ions and associated magnetic field behavior at a quasi-parallel earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, W. P.; Pardaens, A. K.; Schwartz, S. J.; Burgess, D.; Luehr, H.; Kessel, R. L.; Dunlop, M.; Farrugia, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to ion and magnetic field measurements at the earth's bow shock from the AMPTE-UKS and -IRM spacecraft, which were examined in high time resolution during a 45-min interval when the field remained closely aligned with the model bow shock normal. Dense ion beams were detected almost exclusively in the midst of short-duration periods of turbulent magnetic field wave activity. Many examples of propagation at large elevation angles relative to the ecliptic plane, which is inconsistent with reflection in the standard model shock configuration, were discovered. The associated waves are elliptically polarized and are preferentially left-handed in the observer's frame of reference, but are less confined to the maximum variance plane than other previously studied foreshock waves. The association of the wave activity with the ion beams suggests that the former may be triggered by an ion-driven instability, and possible candidates are discussed.

  7. Preparation of Trivalent Chromium and Rare Earth Composite Conversion Coating on Aluminum Alloy Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianzhen

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the surface conversion film on 6063 aluminum alloy was prepared by chemical plating process with chromium sulfate, lanthanum sulfate and sodium phosphate as film forming agent. The corrosion resistance and surface morphology of the conversion film were analyzed by pitting corrosion test of copper sulfate and SEM. The results show that when Cr2(SO4)3 is 10 g/L, La2(SO4)3 is 2 g/L, Na3PO4 is 8 g/L, pH value is 3, temperature is 40 °C, reaction time is 10 min, the corrosion resistance of the surface conversion film is the best. The conversion coating is light green, composed of Cr, La, P, Al, O and other elements.

  8. SOME RARE-EARTH ALLOY SYSTEMS. I. La-Gd, La-Y, Gd-Y

    SciT

    Spedding, F.H.; Valletta, R.M.; Daane, A.H.

    The La-Y, La--Gd, and Gd--Y alloy systems were examined by conventional metallurgical research techniques. As would be expected from the similarity of the parent metals, the Gd--Y system exhibits complete solid solubility across the system in both the alpha and beta regions, with nearly perfect behavior indicated by the essentially linear plots of lattice constants and other related data, The La--Y and La--Gd systems show complete solid solubility in the high temperature bcc region, with limited solubility in the room temperature forms. In the central region of these two systems at room temperature, an ordered phase with the samarium structuremore » is observed, Some correlation of structure and lattice constants of this phase with the properties of the related pure metals is observed. (auth)« less

  9. Magnetic and structural characterization of high anisotropy cobalt-rich alloys: Thin films and patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zana, Iulica

    In this dissertation the structural and magnetic characterization of high anisotropy Co-rich alloys for magnetic recording and MEMS applications has been carried out. The potential of Co78Sm22 as an ultra-high density recording medium was explored through comprehensive static and dynamic magnetic measurements. It was found out that hard magnetic properties (Hc = 4.5 kOe) can be achieved when CoSm is sputter-deposited on Cr80V 20 underlayer, comparable with those reported for state-of-the-art media at the end of 2002. Furthermore, the chemical stability and reliability of CoSm thin films was studied through combined accelerated aging and electrochemical methods. It was found out that CoSm thin films are more reactive than current recording media (CoPt), and a layer of Si3N4 of at least 6 nm provides satisfactory protection. Electrodeposition of Co80Pt20 onto highly textured Cu seed layer with either {100} or {111} orientation was studied. The influence of Cu texture and plating current density (cd) on the growth, morphology, microstructure, and magnetic properties of the CoPt films was investigated. Epitaxial CoPt thin films with uniform composition across the film thickness were deposited. The microstructure consists in fcc matrix and hcp matrix when plated on Cu(100) and Cu(111), respectively. CoPt hcp single phase films with c-axis normal to the substrate were grown on Cu(111) when plated at cd = 50 mA/cm2. As opposed to the films plated on Cu(100) which show a mostly in-plane magnetic anisotropy, the films plated on Cu(111) develop a well defined perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) due to the hcp phase with the c-axis normal to the substrate, which yields coercivities as high as 6.1 kOe. The origin of the high PMA was found to lie in the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. CoPt micromagnets have been successfully fabricated by the electrodeposition-through-mask method, which despite the small aspect ratio show a definite PMA. The PMA, together with the hard

  10. Cluster finds giant gas vortices at the edge of Earth's magnetic bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    12 August 2004 ESA’s quartet of space-weather watchers, Cluster, has discovered vortices of ejected solar material high above the Earth. The superheated gases trapped in these structures are probably tunnelling their way into the Earth’s magnetic ‘bubble’, the magnetosphere. This discovery possibly solves a 17-year-mystery of how the magnetosphere is constantly topped up with electrified gases when it should be acting as a barrier. hi-res Size hi-res: 1446 Kb Credits: H. Hasegawa (Dartmouth College) Three-dimensional cut-away view of Earth's magnetosphere This figure shows a three-dimensional cut-away view of Earth' s magnetosphere. The curly features sketched on the boundary layer are the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices discovered by Cluster. They originate where two adjacent flows travel with different speed. In this case, one of the flows is the heated gas inside the boundary layer of the magnetosphere, the other the solar wind just outside it. The arrows show the direction of the magnetic field, in red that associated with the solar wind and in green the one inside Earth’s magnetosphere. The white dashed arrow shows the trajectory followed by Cluster. High resolution version (JPG format) 1446 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 15 365 Kb hi-res Size hi-res: 22 Kb Credits: H. Hasegawa (Dartmouth College) Electrified gas varies across the vortices along Cluster’s trajectory This computer simulation shows how the density of the electrified gas is expected to vary across the vortices along Cluster’s trajectory (white dashed line). The density is lower inside the boundary layer (blue region) and higher outside, in the region dominated by the solar wind (shown in red). The density variations measured by the instruments on board Cluster match those predicted by this model. Low resolution version (JPG format) 22 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 3438 Kb The Earth’s magnetic field is our planet’s first line of defence against the bombardment of

  11. Transport properties in magnetic field of Pb1-xSnxTe alloys doped with Indium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovovic, V.; Joottu-Thiagaraj, S.; West, J.; Heremans, J. P.; Khokhlov, D.

    2007-03-01

    The galvanomagnetic and thermomagnetic transport properties of single-crystal In-doped Pb1-xSnxTe are presented as a function of Sn (10 to 30%) and In (0 to 10%) concentrations. The concept is that the In level might pin the Fermi energy in a position with and enhanced density of states, which might increase the thermoelectric figure of merit. The transport properties were measured in a transverse magnetic field and at temperatures varying from 80 to 380K. Depending on the Sn concentrations, the prepared samples are p and n type semiconductors. The measurements of the electrical conductivity, Hall, Seebeck and transverse Nernst-Ettingshausen effects yield the carrier density and mobility, the density of states effective mass, and the scattering exponent, following the method of the four coefficients. The transport properties are interpreted in terms of hybridization of the In levels and density of state of the host alloy and observations are discussed in terms of Mahan-Sofo theory. The model provides an explanation for unexpected variation in thermoelectric and thermomagnetic properties of these alloys.

  12. Magnetic, Optical and Magneto-optical Properties of Ni2MnGe Alloy Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, R. J.; Kudryavtsev, Y. V.; Kim, K. W.

    2005-03-01

    The influence of atomic ordering on the magnetic, the optical and the magneto-optical (MO) properties of Ni2MnGe Heusler alloy (HA) films was investigated. The bulk Ni2MnGe HA was prepared by arc melting, and the films were deposited by flash evaporation onto glass substrates at several substrate temperatures from 150 to 730 K. The bulk Ni2MnGe HA exhibits the cubic L21 structure with a = b = c = 0.5761 nm, and the annealed (at 573 K) bulk alloy is in the tetragonal structure with a = b = 0.5720 nm and c = 0.5865 nm. While the films deposited at 720 K show a well-ordered L21 structure, the deposition at 150 K < T < 710 K results in the formation of a nanocrystalline or an amorphous microstructure. It was found the structural disorder in Ni2MnGe films induces lack of the ferromagnetic order and noticeable changes in the optical and MO response.

  13. Structure and magnetic properties of Heusler alloy Co2RuSi melt-spun ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yuepeng; Ma, Yuexing; Hao, Hongyue; Luo, Hongzhi; Meng, Fanbin; Liu, Heyan; Liu, Enke; Wu, Guangheng

    2017-08-01

    Heusler alloy Co2RuSi has been synthesized by melt-spinning technology successfully. Co2RuSi bulk sample after annealing is composed of an HCP Co-rich phase and a BCC Ru-Si phase, but melt-spinning can suppress the precipitation of the HCP phase and produce a single Co2RuSi Heusler phase. In the XRD pattern, it is found that Ru has a strong preference for the (A, C) sites, though it has fewer valence electrons compared with Co. This site preference is different from the case in Heusler alloys containing only 3d elements and is supported further by first-principles calculations. Melt-spun Co2RuSi has a Ms of 2.67 μB/f.u. at 5 K and a Tc of 491 K. An exothermic peak is observed at 871 K in the DTA curve, corresponding to the decomposition of the Heusler phase. Finally, the site preference and magnetic properties of Co2RuSi were discussed based on electronic structure calculation and charge density difference.

  14. Am phases in the matrix of a U–Pu–Zr alloy with Np, Am, and rare-earth elements

    SciT

    Janney, Dawn E.; Kennedy, J. Rory; Madden, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Phases and microstructures in the matrix of an as-cast U-Pu-Zr alloy with 3 wt% Am, 2% Np, and 8% rare-earth elements were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The matrix consists primarily of two phases, both of which contain Am: ζ-(U, Np, Pu, Am) (~70 at% U, 5% Np, 14% Pu, 1% Am, and 10% Zr) and δ-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr 2 (~25% U, 2% Np, 10-15% Pu, 1-2% Am, and 55-60 at% Zr). These phases are similar to those in U-Pu-Zr alloys, although the Zr content in ζ-(U, Np, Pu, Am) is higher than that in ζ-(U, Pu)more » and the Zr content in δ-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr 2 is lower than that in δ-UZr 2. Nanocrystalline actinide oxides with structures similar to UO2 occurred in some areas, but may have formed by reactions with the atmosphere during sample handling. Planar features consisting of a central zone of ζ-(U, Np, Pu, Am) bracketed by zones of δ-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr 2 bound irregular polygons ranging in size from a few micrometers to a few tens of micrometers across. The rest of the matrix consists of elongated domains of ζ-(U, Np, Pu, Am) and δ-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr 2. Each of these domains is a few tens of nanometers across and a few hundred nanometers long. The domains display strong preferred orientations involving areas a few hundred nanometers to a few micrometers across.« less

  15. Structure and magnetic properties of Co-Ni-Mn alloy coatings (part 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, V. V.; Zhikhareva, I. G.; Smirnova, N. V.; Shchipanov, V. P.

    2018-03-01

    Using the method of high-frequency alternating current (HFAC), based on the preliminary model forecasting of the ratio of metal ions in the electrolyte and the phase composition of the coating, Co-Ni-Mn alloy precipitates with the specified magnetic properties are obtained. It is shown that precipitation with a hexagonal close-packed α-Co phase has the highest coercive force. The presence of a free phase in a small amount (2.1 - 2.6% of weight) of Mn increases the ferromagnetic properties of films due to the domain structures with a poorly defecting α-Mn crystal lattice. The adjustable amount of the amorphous Co(OH)2 phase provides the nanostructure dimensions of the crystals.

  16. Costs, Substitution, and Material Use: The Case of Rare Earth Magnets.

    PubMed

    Smith, Braeton J; Eggert, Roderick G

    2018-03-20

    Environmental technologies depend on raw materials, some of which are subject to volatile costs and availability concerns. One way to address these concerns is through substitution, of which there are many types. An important form of substitution in the short term is adopting an alternative production process, yielding a material with the same functional properties with less material input. In effect, technology substitutes for material. This study elucidates the role increased and uncertain material costs play in inducing different substitution types in the short to medium term. Specifically, this paper uses an expert survey to determine the relative importance of eight specific industry responses taken by magnet and wind turbine manufacturers in response to the 2010/2011 rare-earth price spike through 2016. Statistical tests show adopting an existing production process for magnets was the most important response, followed by cost passthrough, using an alternate magnet grade in a redesigned generator system, and using alternate systems altogether. The paper also provides specific findings for the magnet and wind turbine industries with respect to each substitution type.

  17. Self-diffusion imaging by spin echo in Earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Mohoric, A; Stepisnik, J; Kos, M; Planinsi

    1999-01-01

    The NMR of the Earth's magnetic field is used for diffusion-weighted imaging of phantoms. Due to a weak Larmor field, care needs to be taken regarding the use of the usual high field assumption in calculating the effect of the applied inhomogeneous magnetic field. The usual definition of the magnetic field gradient must be replaced by a generalized formula valid when the strength of a nonuniform magnetic field and a Larmor field are comparable (J. Stepisnik, Z. Phys. Chem. 190, 51-62 (1995)). It turns out that the expression for spin echo attenuation is identical to the well-known Torrey formula only when the applied nonuniform field has a proper symmetry. This kind of problem may occur in a strong Larmor field as well as when the slow diffusion rate of particles needs an extremely strong gradient to be applied. The measurements of the geomagnetic field NMR demonstrate the usefulness of the method for diffusion and flow-weighted imaging. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. The steady part of the secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloxham, Jeremy

    1992-01-01

    The secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field results from the effects of magnetic induction in the fluid outer core and from the effects of magnetic diffusion in the core and the mantle. Adequate observations to map the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary extend back over three centuries, providing a model of the secular variation at the core-mantle boundary. Here we consider how best to analyze this time-dependent part of the field. To calculate steady core flow over long time periods, we introduce an adaptation of our earlier method of calculating the flow in order to achieve greater numerical stability. We perform this procedure for the periods 1840-1990 and 1690-1840 and find that well over 90 percent of the variance of the time-dependent field can be explained by simple steady core flow. The core flows obtained for the two intervals are broadly similar to each other and to flows determined over much shorter recent intervals.

  19. Magnetism and electronic structure of CoFeCrX (X = Si, Ge) Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Kharel, P.; Lukashev, P.; Valloppilly, S.; Staten, B.; Herran, J.; Tutic, I.; Mitrakumar, M.; Bhusal, B.; O'Connell, A.; Yang, K.; Huh, Y.; Skomski, R.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2016-08-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of CoFeCrX (X = Si, Ge) Heusler alloys have been investigated. Experimentally, the alloys were synthesized in the cubic L21 structure with small disorder. The cubic phase of CoFeCrSi was found to be highly stable against heat treatment, but CoFeCrGe disintegrated into other new compounds when the temperature reached 402 °C (675 K). Although the first-principle calculation predicted the possibility of tetragonal phase in CoFeCrGe, the tetragonal phase could not be stabilized experimentally. Both CoFeCrSi and CoFeCrGe compounds showed ferrimagnetic spin order at room temperature and have Curie temperatures (TC) significantly above room temperature. The measured TC for CoFeCrSi is 790 K but that of CoFeCrGe could not be measured due to its dissociation into new compounds at 675 K. The saturation magnetizations of CoFeCrSi and CoFeCrGe are 2.82 μB/f.u. and 2.78 μB/f.u., respectively, which are close to the theoretically predicted value of 3 μB/f.u. for their half-metallic phases. The calculated band gaps for CoFeCrSi and CoFeCrGe are, respectively, 1 eV and 0.5 eV. These materials have potential for spintronic device applications, as they exhibit half-metallic electronic structures with large band gaps, and Curie temperatures significantly above room temperature.

  20. Surface modification and its role in the preparation of FeSi gradient alloys with good magnetic property and ductility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haiyuan; Bi, Xiaofang

    2018-04-01

    Realization of the effective Si penetration at a lower processing temperature is a challenge, but of significance in reducing the strict requirements for the equipment and realizing cost-cutting in production. In this work, we have modified the surface microstructure of Fe-3 wt%Si alloy by using surface mechanical attrition treatment. The modified surface microstructure is characteristic of nanocrystalline, which is found to significantly enhance the efficiency of subsequent Si penetration into the alloy, and successively leading to the decrease of penetration temperature up to 200 °C. As a consequence, the Si gradient distribution across thickness can be readily controlled by changing penetration time, and FeSi alloys with various gradients are prepared by chemical vapor deposition along with subsequent annealing process. The dependence of magnetic and mechanical properties on Si gradient for demonstrates that the increase of Si gradient reduces core losses, especially at higher frequencies, and meanwhile improves ductility of FeSi alloys as well. The mechanism underlying the effect of Si gradient is clarified by combining magnetostriction measurement and domain structure observations. This work provides a facile and effective way for achieving gradient FeSi alloys with good magnetic property and ductility.