Science.gov

Sample records for earth atoms na

  1. Flattening Earth acceleration in atomic fountains

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldi, Andrea

    2010-07-15

    A method to compensate for Earth's gravity tide over an extended axial region is reported. Flattening acceleration is important in experiments where the coupling of the dynamics of free-falling probes to the gravity gradient generates stochastic noise on the measurement. Optimized cylindrically symmetric mass distributions lower Earth's tidal effect over 10 cm by a factor 10{sup 3}. A multimass compensation system with comparable performance is devised for tall atom interferometers. Reducing the gravity gradient is essential in terrestrial experiments based on atom fountain configurations being developed to precisely test general relativity or the neutrality of matter.

  2. Laser trapping of {sup 21}Na atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zheng-Tian

    1994-09-01

    This thesis describes an experiment in which about four thousand radioactive {sup 21}Na (t{sub l/2} = 22 sec) atoms were trapped in a magneto-optical trap with laser beams. Trapped {sup 21}Na atoms can be used as a beta source in a precision measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter of the decay of {sup 21}Na {yields} {sup 21}Ne + {Beta}{sup +} + v{sub e}, which is a promising way to search for an anomalous right-handed current coupling in charged weak interactions. Although the number o trapped atoms that we have achieved is still about two orders of magnitude lower than what is needed to conduct a measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter at 1% of precision level, the result of this experiment proved the feasibility of trapping short-lived radioactive atoms. In this experiment, {sup 21}Na atoms were produced by bombarding {sup 24}Mg with protons of 25 MeV at the 88 in. Cyclotron of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A few recently developed techniques of laser manipulation of neutral atoms were applied in this experiment. The {sup 21}Na atoms emerging from a heated oven were first transversely cooled. As a result, the on-axis atomic beam intensity was increased by a factor of 16. The atoms in the beam were then slowed down from thermal speed by applying Zeeman-tuned slowing technique, and subsequently loaded into a magneto-optical trap at the end of the slowing path. The last two chapters of this thesis present two studies on the magneto-optical trap of sodium atoms. In particular, the mechanisms of magneto-optical traps at various laser frequencies and the collisional loss mechanisms of these traps were examined.

  3. Atomic Transition Probabilities for Rare Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, J. J.; Anderson, Heidi M.; den Hartog, E. A.; Wickliffe, M. E.; Lawler, J. E.

    1996-10-01

    Accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for selected neutral and singly ionized rare earth elements including Tm, Dy, and Ho are being measured. The increasing use of rare earths in high intensity discharge lamps provides motivation; the data are needed for diagnosing and modeling the lamps. Radiative lifetimes, measured using time resolved laser induced fluorescence (LIF), are combined with branching fractions, measured using a large Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities. More than 15,000 LIF decay curves from Tm and Dy atoms and ions in slow beams have been recorded and analyzed. Radiative lifetimes for 298 levels of TmI and TmII and for 450 levels of DyI and DyII are determined. Branching fractions are extracted from spectra recorded using the 1.0 m FTS at the National Solar Observatory. Branching fractions and absolute transition probabilities for 500 of the strongest TmI and TmII lines are complete. Representative lifetime and branching fraction data will be presented and discussed. Supported by Osram Sylvania Inc. and the NSF.

  4. Light-induced drift of Na atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werij, H. G. C.; Woerdman, J. P.

    1988-10-01

    Light can induce a flux of optically absorbing particles immersed in a buffer gas, when these particles have a different mobility in the ground and excited state. This paper presents a study of light-induced drift (LID) of Na atoms in noble gases, which can be regarded as the “canonical” system for experiments in this field. We have experimentally studied the LID effect in the optically thin and the optically thick regimes. Parameters which have been varied are laser frequency, laser intensity, buffer gas pressure and buffer gas species. This work gives the first critical comparison of LID experiments with realistic theory in which the multilevel complications of the Na atom have been incorporated. In the optically thick case (“optical piston”) one can distinguish the open cell and the closed cell regimes. Effects of adsorption and desorption of Na atoms at the surface of the cell wall have been incorporated into the theory. The experimental data are in excellent agreement with the results of a four-level rate-equation model for LID which incorporates the fine and hyperfine structure of the level scheme of the Na absorbers.

  5. Parity Violation Experiments with Rare Earth Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budker, Dmitry

    1997-10-01

    Since the first suggestions (V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and I. B. Khriplovich, Z. Phys. D1, 243 (1986).), (A. Gongora and P. G. H. Sandars, J. Phys. B 19, L291 (1986).) to search for parity violation in the rare earth atoms, experiments have been carried out by groups in Novosibirsk, Oxford, Hiroshima and Berkeley with Sm, Yb and Dy. The status of these experiments will be reviewed, with some details given on recent Berkeley Dy results ( A.-T. Nguyen, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, Submitted to Phys. Rev. A.). Progress of the Berkeley Yb experiment ( D. DeMille, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4165 (1995).), ( C.J. Bowers, D. Budker, E.D. Commins, D. DeMille, S.J. Freedman, A.-T. Nguyen, S.-Q. Shang, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3103-9(1996). ) will be described elsewhere at this meeting by C. J. Bowers et al.

  6. Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Rare Earth Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiatlowski, Jerlyn; Palm, Christopher; Joshi, Trinity; Montcrieffe, Caitlin; Jackson Kimball, Derek

    2013-05-01

    We discuss progress in our experimental program to employ optical-frequency-comb-based spectroscopy to understand the complex spectra of rare-earth atoms. We plan to carry out systematic measurements of atomic transitions in rare-earth atoms to elucidate the energy level structure and term assignment and determine presently unknown atomic state parameters. This spectroscopic information is important in view of the increasing interest in rare-earth atoms for atomic frequency standards, in astrophysical investigations of chemically peculiar stars, and in tests of fundamental physics (tests of parity and time-reversal invariance, searches for time variation of fundamental constants, etc.). We are presently studying the use of hollow cathode lamps as atomic sources for two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy. Supported by the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-0958749.

  7. Atomic Oxygen Protection of Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Demko, Rikako

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft polymeric materials as well as polymer-matrix carbon-fiber composites can be significantly eroded as a result of exposure to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO). Several new materials now exist, as well as modifications to conventionally used materials, that provide much more resistance to atomic oxygen attack than conventional hydrocarbon polymers. Protective coatings have also been developed which are resistant to atomic oxygen attack and provide protection of underlying materials. However, in actual spacecraft applications, the configuration, choice of materials, surface characteristics and functional requirements of quasi-durable materials or protective coatings can have great impact on the resulting performance and durability. Atomic oxygen degradation phenomena occurring on past and existing spacecraft will be presented. Issues and considerations involved in providing atomic oxygen protection for materials used on spacecraft in low Earth orbit will be addressed. Analysis of in-space results to determine the causes of successes and failures of atomic oxygen protective coatings is presented.

  8. Tuning NaYF4 Nanoparticles through Alkaline Earth Doping

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xian; Peng, Dengfeng; Wang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Phase and size of lanthanide-doped nanoparticles are the most important characteristics that dictate optical properties of these nanoparticles and affect their technological applications. Herein, we present a systematic study to examine the effect of alkaline earth doping on the formation of NaYF4 upconversion nanoparticles. We show that alkaline earth doping has a dual function of tuning particle size of hexagonal phase NaYF4 nanoparticles and stabilizing cubic phase NaYF4 nanoparticles depending on composition and concentration of the dopant ions. The study described here represents a facile and general strategy to tuning the properties of NaYF4 upconversion nanoparticles. PMID:28348353

  9. Theoretical study of Na-atom emission from NaCl (100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchin, Vladimir; Shluger, Alexander; Nakai, Yasuo; Itoh, Noriaki

    1994-04-01

    Several models for the elementary processes causing the emission of alkali atoms by electronic excitation of NaCl (100) surfaces have been investigated theoretically. First, the desorption of a Na atom neighboring an electronically excited F center on the surface is simulated using a quantum-mechanical embedded-cluster technique. It is shown that emission of a Na atom is energetically favorable. The kinetics of this process is shown to be controlled by the probability of a nonradiative transition between the two states: the excited state of the F center and that corresponding to a Na atom desorbing from the surface. The potential barrier for desorption of an excited Na atom from the excited F-center state is found to be 2.1 eV. It is also found that the energy for emission of a Na atom from a cluster of F centers (the F3 center) is considerably reduced (for a certain configuration of the defect) with respect to the similar energy for a single F center. The energy barrier for emission of a Na atom neighboring an F' center on the surface is calculated to be 1 eV. It is shown that the electronic excitation of kinklike sites, with a Na atom at the edge, can lead to a barrierless emission of a Na atom, leaving a Vk-type defect behind. The results of calculations are discussed critically on the basis of existing experimental data.

  10. Production and detection of atomic hexadecapole at Earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Acosta, V M; Auzinsh, M; Gawlik, W; Grisins, P; Higbie, J M; Jackson Kimball, D F; Krzemien, L; Ledbetter, M P; Pustelny, S; Rochester, S M; Yashchuk, V V; Budker, D

    2008-07-21

    Optical magnetometers measure magnetic fields with extremely high precision and without cryogenics. However, at geomagnetic fields, important for applications from landmine removal to archaeology, they suffer from nonlinear Zeeman splitting, leading to systematic dependence on sensor orientation. We present experimental results on a method of eliminating this systematic error, using the hexadecapole atomic polarization moment. In particular, we demonstrate selective production of the atomic hexadecapole moment at Earth's magnetic field and verify its immunity to nonlinear Zeeman splitting. This technique promises to eliminate directional errors in all-optical atomic magnetometers, potentially improving their measurement accuracy by several orders of magnitude.

  11. Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, formed in Earth s thermosphere, interacts readily with many materials on spacecraft flying in low Earth orbit (LEO). All hydrocarbon based polymers and graphite are easily oxidized upon the impact of approx.4.5 eV atomic oxygen as the spacecraft ram into the residual atmosphere. The resulting interactions can change the morphology and reduce the thickness of these materials. Directed atomic oxygen erosion will result in the development of textured surfaces on all materials with volatile oxidation products. Examples from space flight samples are provided. As a result of the erosive properties of atomic oxygen on polymers and composites, protective coatings have been developed and are used to increase the functional life of polymer films and composites that are exposed to the LEO environment. The atomic oxygen erosion yields for actual and predicted LEO exposure of numerous materials are presented. Results of in-space exposure of vacuum deposited aluminum protective coatings on polyimide Kapton indicate high rates of degradation are associated with aluminum coatings on both surfaces of the Kapton. Computational modeling predictions indicate that less trapping of the atomic oxygen occurs, with less resulting damage, if only the space-exposed surface is coated with vapor deposited aluminum rather than having both surfaces coated.

  12. Low earth orbital atomic oxygen simulation for materials durability evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1989-01-01

    The erosion yields of numerous materials have been evaluated in low earth orbital space tests. There appears to be three classes of materials: materials of high erosion yield which include most of the hydrocarbon organic materials; materials which either do not react with atomic oxygen or form self-protecting oxides which allow the underlying material to appear durable to atomic oxygen, and materials with low but nonnegligeable erosion yields, such as fluoropolymers. A NASA atomic oxygen effects test program has been established to utilize collective data from a multitude of simulation facilities to promote an understanding of mechanism and erosion yield dependencies. Atomic oxygen protective coatings for Kapton polymide solar array blankets, fiberglass-epoxy composite mast structures, and solar dynamic power system concentrator surfaces have been identified and evaluated under atomic oxygen exposure in RF plasma asher laboratory tests. The control of defect density in protective coatings appears to be the key to the assurance of long-term protection of oxidizable materials in low earth orbit.

  13. Low earth orbital atomic oxygen simulation for materials durability evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1989-01-01

    The erosion yields of numerous materials have been evaluated in low earth orbital space tests. There appears to be three classes of materials: materials of high erosion yield which include most of the hydrocarbon organic materials; materials which either do not react with atomic oxygen or form self-protecting oxides which allow the underlying material to appear durable to atomic oxygen, and materials with low but nonnegligeable erosion yields, such as fluoropolymers. A NASA atomic oxygen effects test program has been established to utilize collective data from a multitude of simulation facilities to promote an understanding of mechanism and erosion yield dependencies. Atomic oxygen protective coatings for Kapton polymide solar array blankets, fiberglass-epoxy composite mast structures, and solar dynamic power system concentrator surfaces have been identified and evaluated under atomic oxygen exposure in RF plasma asher laboratory tests. The control of defect density in protective coatings appears to be the key to the assurance of long-term protection of oxidizable materials in low earth orbit.

  14. Laboratory simulation of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, George E.; Krech, Robert H.; Oakes, David B.

    1994-01-01

    A pulsed fast oxygen atom source has been used extensively over the last 7 years to investigate the effects of ambient oxygen atoms impacting materials placed in low Earth orbit. In this period, we irradiated well over 2000 material samples with 8 km/s oxygen atoms generated in our source. Typical irradiance level is 3 x 10(exp 20) O atoms/sq cm although some materials have been irradiated to fluence levels as high as 6 x 10(exp 21) O atoms/sq cm. The operating principles and characteristics of our source are reviewed along with diagnostic and handling procedures appropriate to material testing. Representative data is presented on the velocity dependence of oxygen atom erosion rates (the PSI source provides oxygen atoms tunable over the velocity range of 5 to 12 km/s) as well as the dependence on material temperature. Specific examples of non-linear oxidative effects related to surface contamination and test duration are also be provided.

  15. Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic oxygen is formed in the low Earth orbital environment (LEO) by photo dissociation of diatomic oxygen by short wavelength (< 243 nm) solar radiation which has sufficient energy to break the 5.12 eV O2 diatomic bond in an environment where the mean free path is sufficiently long ( 108 meters) that the probability of reassociation or the formation of ozone (O3) is small. As a consequence, between the altitudes of 180 and 650 km, atomic oxygen is the most abundant species. Spacecraft impact the atomic oxygen resident in LEO with sufficient energy to break hydrocarbon polymer bonds, causing oxidation and thinning of the polymers due to loss of volatile oxidation products. Mitigation techniques, such as the development of materials with improved durability to atomic oxygen attack, as well as atomic oxygen protective coatings, have been employed with varying degrees of success to improve durability of polymers in the LEO environment. Atomic oxygen can also oxidize silicones and silicone contamination to produce non-volatile silica deposits. Such contaminants are present on most LEO missions and can be a threat to performance of optical surfaces. The LEO atomic oxygen environment, its interactions with materials, results of space testing, computational modeling, mitigation techniques, and ground laboratory simulation procedures and issues are presented.

  16. Behavior of Na atoms in the lunar exosphere during activity of meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhnoy, A. A.; Churyumov, K. I.; Shevchenko, V. V.; Buchachenko, A. A.; Baransky, O. R.; Churyumova, T. K.; Kleshchenok, V. V.; Kozlova, E. A.; Ponomarenko, V. O.; Stolyarov, A. V.; Tvorun, O. V.

    2011-12-01

    The chemical composition of gas-phase species released to the lunar exosphere during meteoroid impacts has been analyzed. Majority of impact-produced metal-containing molecules are destroyed by the solar photons because typical photolysis lifetimes are shorter than ballistic flight times. Energies of metal atoms produced via photolysis of its monoxides are estimated. The column density of impact-produced Na atoms in the exosphere during activity of main meteor shower and quiet periods are estimated. In searching for impact-produced Na atoms in the lunar exosphere, it is better to perform spectral observations during activity of the main meteor showers at altitudes of about 1000-2000 km, lunar eclipses, and during passages of the Moon through the Earth's magnetosphere.

  17. Steady-state superradiance with alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Meiser, D.; Holland, M. J.

    2010-03-15

    Alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms with ultranarrow transitions open the door to a new regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. That regime is characterized by a critical photon number that is many orders of magnitude smaller than what can be achieved in conventional systems. We show that it is possible to achieve superradiance in steady state with such systems. We discuss the basic underlying mechanisms as well as the key experimental requirements.

  18. Development of an Atom Interferometer Gravity Gradiometer for Earth Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakholia, A.; Sugarbaker, A.; Black, A.; Kasecivh, M.; Saif, B.; Luthcke, S.; Callahan, L.; Seery, B.; Feinberg, L.; Mather, J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We report progress towards a prototype atom interferometer gravity gradiometer for Earth science studies from a satellite in low Earth orbit.The terrestrial prototype has a target sensitivity of 8 x 10(exp -2) E/Hz(sup 1/2) and consists of two atom sources running simultaneous interferometers with interrogation time T = 300 ms and 12 hk photon recoils, separated by a baseline of 2 m. By employing Raman side band cooling and magnetic lensing, we will generate atomic ensembles with N = 10(exp 6) atoms at a temperature of 3 nK. The sensitivity extrapolates to 7 x 10(exp -5) E/Hz(sup 1/2) in microgravity on board a satellite. Simulations derived from this sensitivity demonstrate a monthly time-variable gravity accuracy of 1 cm equivalent water height at 200 km resolution, yielding an improvement over GRACE by 1-2 orders of magnitude. A gravity gradiometer with this sensitivity would also benefit future planetary, lunar, and asteroidal missions.

  19. Atomic oxygen effects on POSS polyimides in low earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Minton, Timothy K; Wright, Michael E; Tomczak, Sandra J; Marquez, Sara A; Shen, Linhan; Brunsvold, Amy L; Cooper, Russell; Zhang, Jianming; Vij, Vandana; Guenthner, Andrew J; Petteys, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    Kapton polyimde is extensively used in solar arrays, spacecraft thermal blankets, and space inflatable structures. Upon exposure to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO), Kapton is severely eroded. An effective approach to prevent this erosion is to incorporate polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) into the polyimide matrix by copolymerizing POSS monomers with the polyimide precursor. The copolymerization of POSS provides Si and O in the polymer matrix on the nano level. During exposure of POSS polyimide to atomic oxygen, organic material is degraded, and a silica passivation layer is formed. This silica layer protects the underlying polymer from further degradation. Laboratory and space-flight experiments have shown that POSS polyimides are highly resistant to atomic-oxygen attack, with erosion yields that may be as little as 1% those of Kapton. The results of all the studies indicate that POSS polyimide would be a space-survivable replacement for Kapton on spacecraft that operate in the LEO environment.

  20. Enhanced Magnetic Trap Loading for Alkaline-Earth Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reschovsky, Benjamin J.; Barker, Daniel S.; Pisenti, Neal C.; Campbell, Gretchen K.

    2016-05-01

    We report on a technique to improve the continuous loading of atomic strontium into a magnetic trap from a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT). This is achieved by adding a depumping laser addressing the 3P1 level. For the 3P1 -->3S1 (688-nm) transition in strontium, the depumping laser increases atom number in the magnetic trap and subsequent cooling stages by up to 65 % for the bosonic isotopes and up to 30 % for the fermionic isotope. We optimize this trap loading strategy with respect to the 688-nm laser detuning, intensity, and beam size. To understand the results, we develop a one-dimensional rate equation model of the system, which is in good agreement with the data. We discuss the use of other transitions in strontium for accelerated trap loading and the application of the technique to other alkaline-earth-like atoms.

  1. Recent advances in Rydberg physics using alkaline-earth atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this brief review, the opportunities that the alkaline-earth elements offer for studying new aspects of Rydberg physics are discussed. For example, the bosonic alkaline-earth isotopes have zero nuclear spin which eliminates many of the complexities present in alkali Rydberg atoms, permitting simpler and more direct comparison between theory and experiment. The presence of two valence electrons allows the production of singlet and triplet Rydberg states that can exhibit a variety of attractive or repulsive interactions. The availability of weak intercombination lines is advantageous for laser cooling and for applications such as Rydberg dressing. Excitation of one electron to a Rydberg state leaves behind an optically active core ion allowing, for high-L states, the optical imaging of Rydberg atoms and their (spatial) manipulation using light scattering. The second valence electron offers the possibility of engineering long-lived doubly excited states such as planetary atoms. Recent advances in both theory and experiment are highlighted together with a number of possible directions for the future.

  2. Quantum computing with alkaline-Earth-metal atoms.

    PubMed

    Daley, Andrew J; Boyd, Martin M; Ye, Jun; Zoller, Peter

    2008-10-24

    We present a complete scheme for quantum information processing using the unique features of alkaline-earth-metal atoms. We show how two completely independent lattices can be formed for the 1S0 and 3P0 states, with one used as a storage lattice for qubits encoded on the nuclear spin, and the other as a transport lattice to move qubits and perform gate operations. We discuss how the 3P2 level can be used for addressing of individual qubits, and how collisional losses from metastable states can be used to perform gates via a lossy blockade mechanism.

  3. Neutral Atom Imaging of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, A.; Plainaki, C.; Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Barabash, S.; Leoni, R.; Selci, S.; Dandouras, I.; Kallio, E.; Wurz, P.; De Angelis, A.

    2012-04-01

    In many planetary environments of the solar system (Mercury, Moon, icy satellites, and more), direct solar wind precipitation results in neutral particle release via ion-sputtering (IS) process, as well as plasma reflection and neutralization (Backscattering, BS). In particular, solar wind sputtering is one of the most important agents for the surface erosion of a near-Earth asteroid (NEA), acting together with other surface release processes, such as photon stimulated desorption, thermal desorption and micrometeoroid impact vaporization. Detection and analysis of high-energy sputtered atoms gives important information on surface-loss processes as well as on surface elemental composition. RAMON (Released Atoms and Ions MONitor) proposed as payload for the MarcoPolo-R Mission, consists of two neutral atom sensors and an ion monitor: 1) SHEAMON (Sputtered High-Energy Atoms MONitor) will investigate the ion-sputtering and backscattering process by detecting neutral atoms between ~10 eV and ~3 keV and determining their direction and velocity; 2) GASP (GAs SPectrometer) will analyse the mass of the low-energy (below 10 eV) neutral atoms released by different surface processes; 3) MIM (Miniaturized Ion Monitor) will measure the flux and energy spectra of precipitating and backscattered solar wind protons, which originate the Ion Sputtering and Backscattering processes investigated by SHEAMON. By combining the measurements made by all three units, RAMON experiment will investigate on a) the processes happening on the surface of the NEA as a result of its exposure to space environment and collisions, b) the role of the surface release processes in the body evolution, c) the surface mineralogy and chemistry, derived from the composition of the released material, d) the magnitude of the erosion due to space weathering, e) the efficiency of each process as a function of environment conditions, and f) the possible non-uniform over the surface efficiency in particle release

  4. Applications of Atom Trap Trace Analysis in the Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Jiang, W.; Bailey, K.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.

    2013-04-01

    With the successful development of the Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) method, radiokrypton dating has become available for the first time to the Earth science community at large. This novel tool is enabling new research opportunities and improved understanding in the Earth sciences, with implications in studying climate change and in water resource management. Examples of applications of ATTA in the Earth sciences are: (1) ATTA measurements of ^81Kr in the Nubian Aquifer of Africa, the Great Artesian Basin of Australia, and the Guarani Aquifer of South America have transformed our understanding of the long-term behavior of these large aquifer systems. ^81Kr dating with more extensive sampling will be carried out on major aquifer systems around the world. (2) A systematic survey of ^39Ar throughout the oceans, particularly when combined with ^14C data, will fill major gaps in our knowledge of deep ocean circulation and mixing, and will allow more accurate predictions of oceanic sequestration of atmospheric CO2. (3) The feasibility and accuracy of ^81Kr dating of old ice has been tested with the well-dated stratigraphy of Taylor Glacier in Antarctica. For more information, search for ``TANGR2012''.

  5. Applications of Atom Trap Trace Analysis in the Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Jiang, W.; Bailey, K.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.

    2013-05-01

    With the successful development of the Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) method, radiokrypton dating has become available for the first time to the Earth science community at large. This novel tool is enabling new research opportunities and improved understanding in the Earth sciences, with implications in studying climate change and in water resource management. Examples of applications of ATTA in the Earth sciences are: (1) ATTA measurements of 81Kr in the Nubian Aquifer of Africa, the Great Artesian Basin of Australia, and the Guarani Aquifer of South America have transformed our understanding of the long-term behavior of these large aquifer systems. 81Kr dating with more extensive sampling will be carried out on major aquifer systems around the world. (2) A systematic survey of 39Ar throughout the oceans, particularly when combined with 14C data, will fill major gaps in our knowledge of deep ocean circulation and mixing, and will allow more accurate predictions of oceanic sequestration of atmospheric CO2. (3) The feasibility and accuracy of 81Kr dating of old ice has been tested with the well-dated stratigraphy of Taylor Glacier in Antarctica. For more information, search for ``TANGR2012''. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  6. Using Atomic Diffraction of Na from Material Gratings to Measure Atom-Surface Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perreault, John; Cronin, Alex; Savas, Tim

    2004-05-01

    In order to explain atomic diffraction patterns from material transmission gratings one must regard the grating structure as having a complex transmission function. This is a consequence of the van der Waals interaction (V(r)=-C_3r-3) between the atoms and the grating walls which causes a velocity dependent phase shift of the de Broglie waves. We present a measurement of the van der Waals coefficient C3 = 2.7± 0.8 meV nm^3 which is consistent with theoretical predictions for an interaction between atomic sodium and a silicon nitride surface [1]. The measurement is carried out by using a sodium atom beam to illuminate a silicon nitride material grating and observing the relative intensity of the diffraction orders. The velocity dependence of the van der Waals induced phase shift is also verified. Concepts from physical optics are used to gain a more intuitive understanding of exactly how the van der Waals interaction affects atomic diffraction patterns. We are currently in the process of using our atom interferometer to perform a new measurement of C_3. [1] J.D. Perreault, A.D. Cronin, and T.A. Savas "Using Atomic Diffraction of Na from Material Gratings to Measure Atom-Surface Interactions", arXiv:physics/0312123

  7. Low energy neutral atoms in the earth's magnetosphere: Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.R.; McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Detection of low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) produced by the interaction of the Earth's geocorona with ambient space plasma has been proposed as a technique to obtain global information about the magnetosphere. Recent instrumentation advances reported previously and in these proceedings provide an opportunity for detecting LENAs in the energy range of <1 keV to {approximately}50 keV. In this paper, we present results from a numerical model which calculates line of sight LENA fluxes expected at a remote orbiting spacecraft for various magnetospheric plasma regimes. This model uses measured charge exchange cross sections, either of two neural hydrogen geocorona models, and various empirical modes of the ring current and plasma sheet to calculate the contribution to the integrated directional flux from each point along the line of sight of the instrument. We discuss implications for LENA imaging of the magnetosphere based on these simulations. 22 refs.

  8. Structure determination in 55-atom Li-Na and Na-K nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Andrés; López, José M

    2010-09-07

    The structure of 55-atom Li-Na and Na-K nanoalloys is determined through combined empirical potential (EP) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The potential energy surface generated by the EP model is extensively sampled by using the basin hopping technique, and a wide diversity of structural motifs is reoptimized at the DFT level. A composition comparison technique is applied at the DFT level in order to make a final refinement of the global minimum structures. For dilute concentrations of one of the alkali atoms, the structure of the pure metal cluster, namely, a perfect Mackay icosahedron, remains stable, with the minority component atoms entering the host cluster as substitutional impurities. At intermediate concentrations, the nanoalloys adopt instead a core-shell polyicosahedral (p-Ih) packing, where the element with smaller atomic size and larger cohesive energy segregates to the cluster core. The p-Ih structures show a marked prolate deformation, in agreement with the predictions of jelliumlike models. The electronic preference for a prolate cluster shape, which is frustrated in the 55-atom pure clusters due to the icosahedral geometrical shell closing, is therefore realized only in the 55-atom nanoalloys. An analysis of the electronic densities of states suggests that photoelectron spectroscopy would be a sufficiently sensitive technique to assess the structures of nanoalloys with fixed size and varying compositions.

  9. Materials selection for long life in low earth orbit - A critical evaluation of atomic oxygen testing with thermal atom systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Albyn, K.; Leger, L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of thermal atom test methods as a materials selection and screening technique for low-earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft is critically evaluated. The chemistry and physics of thermal atom environments are compared with the LEO environment. The relative reactivities of a number of materials determined in thermal atom environments are compared with those observed in LEO and in high-quality LEO simulations. Reaction efficiencies (cu cm/atom) measured in a new type of thermal atom apparatus are one-thousandth to one ten-thousandth those observed in LEO, and many materials showing nearly identical reactivities in LEO show relative reactivities differing by as much as a factor of eight in thermal atom systems. A simple phenomenological kinetic model for the reaction of oxygen atoms with organic materials can be used to explain the differences in reactivity in different environments. Certain speciic thermal atom test environments can be used as reliable materials screening tools.

  10. Materials selection for long life in low earth orbit - A critical evaluation of atomic oxygen testing with thermal atom systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Albyn, K.; Leger, L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of thermal atom test methods as a materials selection and screening technique for low-earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft is critically evaluated. The chemistry and physics of thermal atom environments are compared with the LEO environment. The relative reactivities of a number of materials determined in thermal atom environments are compared with those observed in LEO and in high-quality LEO simulations. Reaction efficiencies (cu cm/atom) measured in a new type of thermal atom apparatus are one-thousandth to one ten-thousandth those observed in LEO, and many materials showing nearly identical reactivities in LEO show relative reactivities differing by as much as a factor of eight in thermal atom systems. A simple phenomenological kinetic model for the reaction of oxygen atoms with organic materials can be used to explain the differences in reactivity in different environments. Certain speciic thermal atom test environments can be used as reliable materials screening tools.

  11. Studies of Inelastic Collisions of NaK and NaCs Molecules with Atomic Perturbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joshua A.

    We have investigated collisions of NaK molecules in the first excited state [2(A)1Sigma+], with Ar and He collision partners using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIF) and polarization-labeling (PL) spectroscopy in a two-step excitation scheme. Additionally, we have investigated collisions of NaCs molecules in the first excited state [2(A)1Sigma +] with Ar and He perturbers using the LIF technique. We use a pump-probe, two-step excitation process. The pump laser prepares the molecule in a particular ro-vibrational (v, J) level in the A state. The probe laser frequency is scanned over transitions to the 31Π in NaK or to the 53Π in NaCs. In addition to observing strong direct lines, we also see weak collisional satellite lines that arise from collisions in the intermediate state that take the molecule from the prepared level (v, J) to level (v, J + Delta J). The ratio of the intensity of the collisional line to the intensity of the direct line in LIF and PL yield information about population and orientation transfer. Our results show a propensity for DeltaJ=even collisions of NaK with Ar and an even stronger propensity for collisions with He. Collisions of NaCs with Ar do not show any such J=even propensity. Preliminary investigations of collisions of NaCs with He seem to indicate a slight J=even propensity. In addition, we observe that rotationally inelastic collisions of excited NaK molecules with potassium atoms destroy almost all of the orientation, while collisions with argon destroy about one third to two thirds and collisions with helium destroy only about zero to one third of the initial orientation.

  12. Adsorption of alkali, alkaline-earth, and 3d transition metal atoms on silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, H.; Peeters, F. M.

    2013-02-01

    The adsorption characteristics of alkali, alkaline-earth, and transition metal adatoms on silicene, a graphene-like monolayer structure of silicon are analyzed by means of first-principles calculations. In contrast to graphene, interaction between the metal atoms and the silicene surface is quite strong due to its highly reactive buckled hexagonal structure. In addition to structural properties, we also calculate the electronic band dispersion, net magnetic moment, charge transfer, work function, and dipole moment of the metal adsorbed silicene sheets. Alkali metals, Li, Na, and K, adsorb to hollow sites without any lattice distortion. As a consequence of the significant charge transfer from alkalis to silicene, metalization of silicene takes place. Trends directly related to atomic size, adsorption height, work function, and dipole moment of the silicene/alkali adatom system are also revealed. We found that the adsorption of alkaline-earth metals on silicene is entirely different from their adsorption on graphene. The adsorption of Be, Mg, and Ca turns silicene into a narrow gap semiconductor. Adsorption characteristics of eight transition metals Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Mo, and W are also investigated. As a result of their partially occupied d orbital, transition metals show diverse structural, electronic, and magnetic properties. Upon the adsorption of transition metals, depending on the adatom type and atomic radius, the system can exhibit metal, half-metal, and semiconducting behavior. For all metal adsorbates, the direction of the charge transfer is from adsorbate to silicene, because of its high surface reactivity. Our results indicate that the reactive crystal structure of silicene provides a rich playground for functionalization at nanoscale.

  13. Operation of the computer model for direct atomic oxygen exposure of Earth satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gruenbaum, P. E.; Gillis, J. R.; Hargraves, C. R.

    1995-01-01

    One of the primary causes of material degradation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is exposure to atomic oxygen. When atomic oxygen molecules collide with an orbiting spacecraft, the relative velocity is 7 to 8 km/sec and the collision energy is 4 to 5 eV per atom. Under these conditions, atomic oxygen may initiate a number of chemical and physical reactions with exposed materials. These reactions contribute to material degradation, surface erosion, and contamination. Interpretation of these effects on materials and the design of space hardware to withstand on-orbit conditions requires quantitative knowledge of the atomic oxygen exposure environment. Atomic oxygen flux is a function of orbit altitude, the orientation of the orbit plan to the Sun, solar and geomagnetic activity, and the angle between exposed surfaces and the spacecraft heading. We have developed a computer model to predict the atomic oxygen exposure of spacecraft in low Earth orbit. The application of this computer model is discussed.

  14. Study on earthed atomizing corona discharge enhancing the biodegradability of waste water from oil extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, S.; Xu, J.; Mi, J.; Li, N.

    2012-10-01

    This paper studies the usage of earthed atomizing corona discharge to dispose waste water from oil extraction. The I-V characteristic curves of earthed atomizing positive and negative corona discharge are compared to study the influence of water flux and inter-electrode distance (which refers to the distance between line electrode and plate electrodes) on discharge characteristics, and to measure the turbidity, pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the variation tendency of BOD5/COD in the process of dealing with waste water from oil extraction by earthed atomizing corona discharge. Ultimately, the mechanism of earthed atomizing corona discharge is analyzed. Research results indicate that when using earthed atomizing corona discharge to dispose of waste water from oil extraction, as the processing time grows there is a maximum value of turbidity, the pH level increases gradually then stabilizes, COD appears to descend, and BOD5 as well as BOD5/COD both have minimum values. When the processing time attains 300 min, waste water from oil extraction is suitable for biochemical treatment, foreshadowing that earthed atomizing corona discharge technology demonstrates energy conservation characteristic in improving the biodegradability of waste water from oil extraction and has a brilliant application prospect waiting ahead.

  15. A semiclassical study of laser-induced atomic fluorescence from Na2, K2 and NaK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, J.-M.; Bhattacharyya, D. K.; George, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    A semiclassical treatment of laser-induced atomic fluorescence for the alkali-dimer systems Na2, K2 and NaK is presented. The variation of the fluorescence intensity with the frequency of the exciting laser photon is studied and a comparison of theoretical results with a set of experimental data is presented.

  16. Inelastic and reactive collisions with polarized excited Na atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, H.; Hertel, I.V.; Lee, Y.T.

    1985-07-01

    Polarization effects in inelastic collisions of laser state-prepared Na(3/sup 2/P, M/sub J/) with Na/sup +/ leading to Na(3/sup 2/D) or Na(3/sup 2/S) are discussed for the energy range E/sub cm/ = 5-47.5eV. Studies with linearly polarized light can be explained with a simple ''locking'' model of the Na(P)-orbital. The investigations employing circularly polarized light are a very sensitive test of the models describing the nonadiabatic angular momentum coupling between electronic and nuclear motion. The dynamical effects of the electronic spin on the angular momentum transfer are discussed. Recent crossed-beam experiments on the Na + O/sub 2/ -> NaO = O reaction in the energy range E/sub cm/ = 0/3-0.8eV show a pronounced dependence on the electric electronic symmetry of Na. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Sensitive Technique Developed Using Atomic Force Microscopy to Measure the Low-Earth-Orbit Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim D.; Banks, Bruce A.; Clark, Gregory W.; Hammerstrom, Anne; Youngstrom, Erica; Kaminski, Carolyn; Fine, Elizabeth; Marx, Laura

    2001-01-01

    A recession measurement technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to determine the atomic oxygen durability of polymers exposed to the space environment for short durations. Polymers such as polyimide Kapton and Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene, DuPont) are commonly used in spacecraft because of their desirable properties, such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP, low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low- Earth-orbit environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen, resulting in erosion and potential structural loss. It is, therefore, important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield (E, the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. Because long-term space exposure data are rare and very costly, short-term exposures, such as on the space shuttles, are often relied on for atomic oxygen erosion determination. The most common technique for determining E is through mass-loss measurements. For limited-duration exposure experiments, such as shuttle flight experiments, the atomic oxygen fluence is often so small that mass-loss measurements are not sensitive enough. Therefore, a recession measurement technique has been developed at Glenn to obtain accurate erosion yields of polymers exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences.

  18. Mott insulators of ultracold fermionic alkaline Earth atoms: underconstrained magnetism and chiral spin liquid.

    PubMed

    Hermele, Michael; Gurarie, Victor; Rey, Ana Maria

    2009-09-25

    We study Mott insulators of fermionic alkaline earth atoms, described by Heisenberg spin models with enhanced SU(N) symmetry. In dramatic contrast to SU(2) magnetism, more than two spins are required to form a singlet. On the square lattice, the classical ground state is highly degenerate and magnetic order is thus unlikely. In a large-N limit, we find a chiral spin liquid ground state with topological order and Abelian fractional statistics. We discuss its experimental detection. Chiral spin liquids with non-Abelian anyons may also be realizable with alkaline earth atoms.

  19. Cold-Atom Clocks on Earth and in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemonde, Pierre; Laurent, Philippe; Santarelli, Giorgio; Abgrall, Michel; Sortais, Yvan; Bize, Sebastien; Nicolas, Christophe; Zhang, Shougang; Clairon, Andre; Dimarcq, Noel; Petit, Pierre; Mann, Antony G.; Luiten, Andre N.; Chang, Sheng; Salomon, Christophe

    We present recent progress on microwave clocks that make use of laser-cooled atoms. With an ultra-stable cryogenic sapphire oscillator as interrogation oscillator, a cesium fountain operates at the quantum projection noise limit. With 6 x10^5 detected atoms, the relative frequency stability is 4 x10^-14 &1/2circ, where τ is the integration time in seconds. This stability is comparable to that of hydrogen masers. At τ=2 x10^4s, the measured stability reaches 6 x10^-16. A 87Rb fountain has also been constructed and the 87Rb ground-state hyperfine energy has been compared to the Cs primary standard with a relative accuracy of 2.5 x10^-15. The 87Rb collisional shift is found to be at least 30 times below that of cesium. We also describe a transportable cesium fountain, which will be used for frequency comparisons with an accuracy of 10-15 or below. Finally, we present the details of a space mission for a cesium standard which has been selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) to fly on the International Space Station in 2003.

  20. Cold interactions and chemical reactions of linear polyatomic anions with alkali-metal and alkaline-earth-metal atoms.

    PubMed

    Tomza, Michał

    2017-06-28

    We consider collisional studies of linear polyatomic ions immersed in ultracold atomic gases and investigate the intermolecular interactions and chemical reactions of several molecular anions (OH(-), CN(-), NCO(-), C2H(-), C4H(-)) with alkali-metal (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) and alkaline-earth-metal (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) atoms. State-of-the-art ab initio techniques are applied to compute the potential energy surfaces (PESs) for these systems. The coupled cluster method restricted to single, double, and noniterative triple excitations, CCSD(T), is employed and the scalar relativistic effects in heavier metal atoms are modeled within the small-core energy-consistent pseudopotentials. The leading long-range isotropic and anisotropic induction and dispersion interaction coefficients are obtained within the perturbation theory. The PESs are characterized in detail and their universal similarities typical for systems dominated by the induction interaction are discussed. The two-dimensional PESs are provided for selected systems and can be employed in scattering calculations. The possible channels of chemical reactions and their control are analyzed based on the energetics of the reactants. The present study of the electronic structure is the first step towards the evaluation of prospects for sympathetic cooling and controlled chemistry of linear polyatomic ions with ultracold atoms.

  1. Techniques for Measuring Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Demko, Rikako

    2002-01-01

    Polymers such as polyimide Kapton and Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) are commonly used spacecraft materials due to their desirable properties such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP, a low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen reaction with polymers causes erosion, which is a threat to spacecraft durability. It is therefore important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield (E, the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. The most common technique for determining E is through mass loss measurements. For limited duration exposure experiments, such as shuttle experiments, where the atomic oxygen fluence is often so low that mass loss measurements can not produce acceptable uncertainties, recession measurements based on atomic force microscopy analyses can be used. Equally necessary to knowing the mass loss or recession depth for determining the erosion yield of polymers is the knowledge of the atomic oxygen fluence that the polymers were exposed to in space. This paper discusses the procedures and relevant issues for mass loss and recession depth measurements for passive atomic oxygen erosion yield characterization of polymers, along with techniques for active atomic oxygen fluence and erosion characterization. One active atomic oxygen erosion technique discussed is a new technique based on optical measurements. Details including the use of both semi-transparent and opaque polymers for active erosion measurement are reviewed.

  2. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen micrometeoroid, and debris interactions with photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Degroh, Kim K.

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide Kapton solar array blankets can be protected from atomic oxygen in low earth orbit if SiO sub x thin film coatings are applied to their surfaces. The useful lifetime of a blanket protected in this manner strongly depends on the number and size of defects in the protective coatings. Atomic oxygen degradation is dominated by undercutting at defects in protective coatings caused by substrate roughness and processing rather than micrometeoroid or debris impacts. Recent findings from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and ground based studies show that interactions between atomic oxygen and silicones may cause grazing and contamination problems which may lead to solar array degradation.

  3. Quantum phase transition of alkaline-earth fermionic atoms confined in an optical superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Valencia, J.; Franco, R.; Figueira, M. S.

    2013-03-01

    Using the density matrix renormalization group method, we evaluate the spin and charge gaps of alkaline-earth fermionic atoms in a periodic one-dimensional optical superlattice. The number of delocalized atoms is equal to the lattice size and we consider an antiferromagnetic coupling between delocalized and localized atoms. We found a quantum phase transition from a Kondo insulator spin liquid state without confining potential to a charge-gapped antiferromagnetic state with nonzero potential. For each on-site coupling, there is a critical potential point for which the spin gap vanishes and its value increases linearly with the local interaction.

  4. Distribution functions for energetic oxygen atoms in the earth's lower atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. A.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1977-01-01

    Direct photolysis of O3 and quenching of O(1D) by N2 provide abundant sources of fast oxygen atoms for earth's lower atmosphere. The concentration of atoms with energy above 0.7 eV may exceed the concentration of O(1D) for all altitudes below 18 km, and these atoms may play an important role in lower-atmospheric chemistry. Distribution functions for O(3P) are given for the energy interval 0.1-1.3 eV and a range of altitudes from 0 to 62 km.

  5. Single-stage sub-Doppler cooling of alkaline earth atoms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinye; Loftus, Thomas H; Dunn, Josh W; Greene, Chris H; Hall, John L; Gallagher, Alan; Ye, Jun

    2003-05-16

    We report the first experimental study of sub-Doppler cooling in alkaline earth atoms (87Sr) enabled by the presence of nuclear spin-originated magnetic degeneracy in the atomic ground state. Sub-Doppler cooling in a sigma(+)-sigma(-) configuration is achieved despite the presence of multiple, closely spaced excited states. This surprising result is confirmed by an expanded multilevel theory of the radiative cooling force. Detailed investigations of system performance have shed new insights into (sigma(+)-sigma(-)) cooling dynamics and will likely play an important role in the future development of neutral atom-based optical frequency standards.

  6. The Effect of Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Exposure on Phenylphosphine Oxide-Containing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of phenylphosphine oxide-containing polymers were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard a space shuttle flight (STS-85) as part of flight experiment designated Evaluation of Space Environment and Effects on Materials (ESEM). This flight experiment was a cooperative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The thin film samples described herein were part of an atomic oxygen exposure experiment (AOE) and were exposed to primarily atomic oxygen (1 X 1019 atoms/cm2). The thin film samples consisted of three phosphine oxide containing polymers (arylene ether, benzimidazole and imide). Based on post-flight analyses using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and weight loss data, it was found that atomic oxygen exposure of these materials efficiently produces a phosphate layer at the surface of the samples. This layer provides a barrier towards further attack by AO. Consequently, these materials do not exhibit linear erosion rates which is in contrast with most organic polymers. Qualitatively, the results obtained from these analyses compare favorably with those obtained from samples exposed to atomic oxygen and or oxygen plasma in ground based exposure experiments. The results of the low Earth orbit atomic oxygen exposure on these materials will be compared with those of ground based exposure to AO.

  7. Atomic hydrogen in. gamma. -irradiated hydroxides of alkaline-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Yurik, T.K.; Barsova, L.I.

    1982-04-01

    Atomic hydrogen is an important intermediate product formed in the radiolysis of compounds containing X-H bonds. H atoms have been detected in irradiated matrices of H/sub 2/ and inert gases at 4/sup 0/K, in irradiated ice and frozen solutions of acids in irradiated salts and in other systems. Here results are presented from a study of the ESR spectra of H atoms generated in polycrystalline hydroxides of alkaline-earth elements that have been ..gamma..-irradiated at 77/sup 0/K, after preliminary treatment at various temperatures. For the first time stabilization of atomic hydrogen in ..gamma..-irradiated polycrystalline alkaline-earth element hydroxides has been detected. Depending on the degree of dehydroxylation, several types of hydrogen atoms may be stabilized in the hydroxides, these hydrogen atoms having different radiospectroscopic parameters. In the magnesium-calcium-strontium-barium hydroxide series, a regular decrease has been found in the hfi constants for H atoms with the cations in the immediate surroundings. A direct proportionality has been found between the parameters ..delta..A/A/sub 0/ and the polarizability of the cation.

  8. Durability Issues for the Protection of Materials from Atomic Oxygen Attack in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce; Lenczewski, Mary; Demko, Rikako

    2002-01-01

    Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen is capable of eroding most polymeric materials typically used on spacecraft. Solar array blankets, thermal control polymers, and carbon fiber matrix composites are readily oxidized to become thinner and less capable of supporting the loads imposed upon them. Protective coatings have been developed that are durable to atomic oxygen to prevent oxidative erosion of the underlying polymers. However, the details of the surface roughness, coating defect density, and coating configuration can play a significant role as to whether or not the coating provides long duration atomic oxygen protection. Identical coatings on different surface roughness surfaces can have drastically different durability results. Examples and analysis of the causes of resultant differences in atomic oxygen protection are presented. Implications based on in-space experiences, ground laboratory testing, and computational modeling indicate that thin film vacuum-deposited aluminum protective coatings offer much less atomic oxygen protection than sputter-deposited silicon dioxide coatings.

  9. Topological Fractional Pumping with Alkaline-Earth-Like Atoms in Synthetic Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddia, Luca; Cornfeld, Eyal; Rossini, Davide; Mazza, Leonardo; Sela, Eran; Fazio, Rosario

    2017-06-01

    Alkaline-earth(-like) atoms, trapped in optical lattices and in the presence of an external gauge field, can form insulating states at given fractional fillings. We will show that, by exploiting these properties, it is possible to realize a topological fractional pump. Our analysis is based on a many-body adiabatic expansion, on simulations with time-dependent matrix product states, and, for a specific form of atom-atom interaction, on an exactly solvable model of fractional pump. The numerical simulations allow us to consider a realistic setup amenable of an experimental realization. As a further consequence, the measure of the center-of-mass shift of the atomic cloud would constitute the first measurement of a many-body Chern number in a cold-atom experiment.

  10. Low Earth orbit atomic oxygen simulation for durability evaluation of solar reflector surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the performance and durability of solar reflector surfaces in the atomic oxygen environment typical of low Earth orbit (LEO), one must expose the reflector surface either directly to LEO or to ground-laboratory atomic oxygen environments. Although actual LEO exposures are most desired, such opportunities are typically scarce, expensive, and of limited duration. As a result, ground-laboratory exposures must be relied upon as the most practical long-term durability evaluation technique. Plasma ashers are widely used as LEO simulation facilities by producing atomic oxygen environments for durability evaluation of potential spacecraft materials. Atomic oxygen arrival differs between ground and space exposure in that plasma asher exposure produces isotropic arrival and space solar tracking produces sweeping arrival. Differences in initial impact reaction probability occur, dependent upon the energy and species existing in these environments. Due to the variations in ground-laboratory and space atomic oxygen, quantification of in-space performance based on plasma asher testing is not straightforward. The various atomic oxygen interactions that can occur with reflector surfaces, such as undercutting in organic substrates at protective coating defect sites, ground-laboratory techniques recommended for evaluating the atomic oxygen durability of reflectors based on asher exposures, and computational techniques which make use of ground-laboratory atomic oxygen exposure to predict in-space LEO durability are addressed.

  11. Dispersion coefficients for H and He interactions with alkali-metal and alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroy, J.; Bromley, M.W.J.

    2003-12-01

    The van der Waals coefficients C{sub 6}, C{sub 8}, and C{sub 10} for H and He interactions with the alkali-metal (Li, Na, K, and Rb) and alkaline-earth-metal (Be, Mg, Ca, and Sr) atoms are determined from oscillator strength sum rules. The oscillator strengths were computed using a combination of ab initio and semiempirical methods. The dispersion parameters generally agree with close to exact variational calculations for Li-H and Li-He at the 0.1% level of accuracy. For larger systems, there is agreement with relativistic many-body perturbation theory estimates of C{sub 6} at the 1% level. These validations for selected systems attest to the reliability of the present dispersion parameters. About half the present parameters lie within the recommended bounds of the Standard and Certain compilation [J. Chem. Phys. 83, 3002 (1985)].

  12. Issues and Consequences of Atomic Oxygen Undercutting of Protected Polymers in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Snyder, Aaron; Miller, Sharon K.; Demko, Rikako

    2002-01-01

    Hydrocarbon based polymers that are exposed to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit are slowly oxidized which results in recession of their surface. Atomic oxygen protective coatings have been developed which are both durable to atomic oxygen and effective in protecting underlying polymers. However, scratches, pin window defects, polymer surface roughness and protective coating layer configuration can result in erosion and potential failure of protected thin polymer films even though the coatings are themselves atomic oxygen durable. This paper will present issues that cause protective coatings to become ineffective in some cases yet effective in others due to the details of their specific application. Observed in-space examples of failed and successfully protected materials using identical protective thin films will be discussed and analyzed. Proposed approaches to prevent the failures that have been observed will also be presented.

  13. Atomic oxygen effects on candidate coatings for long-term spacecraft in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, E. H.; Smith, Charles A.; Cross, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    Candidate atomic oxygen protective coatings for long-term low Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft were evaluated using the Los Alamos National Laboratory O-atom exposure facility. The coatings studied include Teflon, Al2O3, SiO2, and SWS-V-10, a silicon material. Preliminary results indicate that sputtered PTFE Teflon (0.1 micrometers) has a fluence lifetime of 10 to the 19th power O-atoms/cm (2), and sputtered silicon dioxide (0.1 micrometers), aluminum oxide (0.1 micrometers), and SWS-V-10, a silicone, (4 micrometers) have fluence lifetimes of 10 to the 20th power to 10 to the 21st power O-atoms/cm (2). There are large variations in fluence lifetime data for these coatings.

  14. First-principles study of the alkali earth metal atoms adsorption on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Minglei; Tang, Wencheng; Ren, Qingqiang; Wang, Sake; JinYu; Du, Yanhui; Zhang, Yajun

    2015-11-01

    Geometries, electronic structures, and magnetic properties for alkali earth metal atoms absorbed graphene have been studied by first-principle calculations. For Be and Mg atoms, the interactions between the adatom and graphene are weak van der Waals interactions. In comparison, Ca, Sr and Ba atoms adsorption on graphene exhibits strong ionic bonding with graphene. We found that these atoms bond to graphene at the hollow site with a significant binding energy and large electron transfer. It is intriguing that these adatoms may induce important changes in both the electronic and magnetic properties of graphene. Semimetal graphene becomes metallic and magnetic due to n-type doping. Detailed analysis shows that the s orbitals of these adatoms should be responsible for the arising of the magnetic moment. We believe that our results are suitable for experimental exploration and useful for graphene-based nanoelectronic and data storage.

  15. Using atomic diffraction of Na from material gratings to measure atom-surface interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Perreault, John D.; Cronin, Alexander D.; Savas, T.A.

    2005-05-15

    In atom optics a material structure is commonly regarded as an amplitude mask for atom waves. However, atomic diffraction patterns formed using material gratings indicate that material structures also operate as phase masks. In this study a well collimated beam of sodium atoms is used to illuminate a silicon nitride grating with a period of 100 nm. During passage through the grating slots atoms acquire a phase shift due to the van der Waals (vdW) interaction with the grating walls. As a result the relative intensities of the matter-wave diffraction peaks deviate from those expected for a purely absorbing grating. Thus a complex transmission function is required to explain the observed diffraction envelopes. An optics perspective to the theory of atomic diffraction from material gratings is put forth in the hopes of providing a more intuitive picture concerning the influence of the vdW potential. The van der Waals coefficient C{sub 3}=2.7{+-}0.8 meV nm{sup 3} is determined by fitting a modified Fresnel optical theory to the experimental data. This value of C{sub 3} is consistent with a van der Waals interaction between atomic sodium and a silicon nitride surface.

  16. Using atomic diffraction of Na from material gratings to measure atom-surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perreault, John D.; Cronin, Alexander D.; Savas, T. A.

    2005-05-01

    In atom optics a material structure is commonly regarded as an amplitude mask for atom waves. However, atomic diffraction patterns formed using material gratings indicate that material structures also operate as phase masks. In this study a well collimated beam of sodium atoms is used to illuminate a silicon nitride grating with a period of 100 nm. During passage through the grating slots atoms acquire a phase shift due to the van der Waals (vdW) interaction with the grating walls. As a result the relative intensities of the matter-wave diffraction peaks deviate from those expected for a purely absorbing grating. Thus a complex transmission function is required to explain the observed diffraction envelopes. An optics perspective to the theory of atomic diffraction from material gratings is put forth in the hopes of providing a more intuitive picture concerning the influence of the vdW potential. The van der Waals coefficient C3 =2.7±0.8 meV nm3 is determined by fitting a modified Fresnel optical theory to the experimental data. This value of C3 is consistent with a van der Waals interaction between atomic sodium and a silicon nitride surface.

  17. A Sensitive Technique Using Atomic Force Microscopy to Measure the Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Clark, Gregory W.; Hammerstrom, Anne M.; Youngstrom, Erica E.; Kaminski, Carolyn; Fine, Elizabeth S.; Marx, Laura M.

    2001-01-01

    Polymers such as polyimide Kapton and Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) are commonly used spacecraft materials due to their desirable properties such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers occurs in LEO and is a threat to spacecraft durability. It is therefore important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield (E, the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. Because long-term space exposure data is rare and very costly, short-term exposures such as on the shuttle are often relied upon for atomic oxygen erosion determination. The most common technique for determining E is through mass loss measurements. For limited duration exposure experiments, such as shuttle experiments, the atomic oxygen fluence is often so small that mass loss measurements can not produce acceptable uncertainties. Therefore, a recession measurement technique has been developed using selective protection of polymer samples, combined with postflight atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis, to obtain accurate erosion yields of polymers exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. This paper discusses the procedures used for this recession depth technique along with relevant characterization issues. In particular, a polymer is salt-sprayed prior to flight, then the salt is washed off postflight and AFM is used to determine the erosion depth from the protected plateau. A small sample was salt-sprayed for AFM erosion depth analysis and flown as part of the Limited Duration Candidate Exposure (LDCE-4,-5) shuttle flight experiment on STS-51. This sample was used to study issues such as use of contact versus non-contact mode imaging for determining recession depth measurements. Error analyses were conducted and the percent probable

  18. Issues and Effects of Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Silicone Contamination on Spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce; Rutledge, Sharon; Sechkar, Edward; Stueber, Thomas; Snyder, Aaron; deGroh, Kim; Haytas, Christy; Brinker, David

    2000-01-01

    The continued presence and use of silicones on spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) has been found to cause the deposition of contaminant films on surfaces which are also exposed to atomic oxygen. The composition and optical properties of the resulting SiO(x)- based (where x is near 2) contaminant films may be dependent upon the relative rates of arrival of atomic oxygen, silicone contaminant and hydrocarbons. This paper presents results of in-space silicone contamination tests, ground laboratory simulation tests and analytical modeling to identify controlling processes that affect contaminant characteristics.

  19. Properties of the triplet metastable states of the alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Mitroy, J.; Bromley, M.W.J.

    2004-11-01

    The static and dynamic properties of the alkaline-earth-metal atoms in their metastable state are computed in a configuration interaction approach with a semiempirical model potential for the core. Among the properties determined are the scalar and tensor polarizabilities, the quadrupole moment, some of the oscillator strengths, and the dispersion coefficients of the van der Waals interaction. A simple method for including the effect of the core on the dispersion parameters is described.

  20. The effect of atomic oxygen on polysiloxane-polyimide for spacecraft applications in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Cooper, Jill M.; Olle, Raymond M.

    1991-01-01

    Polysiloxane-polyimide films are of interest as a replacement for polyimide Kapton in the Space Station Freedom solar array blanket. The blanket provides the structural support for the solar cells as well as providing transport of heat away from the back of the cells. Polyimide Kapton would be an ideal material to use; however, its high rate of degradation due to attack by atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit, at the altitudes Space Station Freedom will fly, is of such magnitude that if left unprotected, the blanket will undergo structural failure in much less than the desired 15 year operating life. Polysiloxane-polyimide is of interest as a replacement material because it should from its own protective silicon dioxide coating upon exposure to atomic oxygen. Mass, optical, and photomicrographic data obtained in the evaluation of the durability of polysiloxane-polyimide to an atomic oxygen environment are presented.

  1. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation effects on polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.

    1991-01-01

    Because atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet radiation present in the low earth orbital (LEO) environment can alter the chemistry of polymers resulting in degradation, their effects and mechanisms of degradation must be determined in order to determine the long term durability of polymeric surfaces to be exposed on missions such as Space Station Freedom. The effects of atomic oxygen on polymers which contain protective coatings must also be explored, since unique damage mechanisms can occur in areas where the protective coatings has failed. Mechanisms can be determined by utilizing results from previous LEO missions, by performing ground based LEO simulation tests and analysis, and by carrying out focussed space experiments. A survey is presented of the interactions and possible damage mechanisms for environmental atomic oxygen and UV radiation exposure of polymers commonly used in LEO.

  2. Proceedings of the NASA Workshop on Atomic Oxygen Effects. [low earth orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    A workshop was held to address the scientific issues concerning the effects of atomic oxygen on materials in the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment. The program included 18 invited speakers plus contributed posters covering topics such as LEO spaceflight experiments, interaction mechanisms, and atomic oxygen source development. Discussion sessions were also held to organize a test program to evaluate atomic oxygen exposure facilities. The key issues raised in the workshop were: (1) the need to develop a reliable predictive model of the effects of long-term exposure of materials to the LEO environment; (2) the ability of ground-based exposure facilities to provide useful data for development of durable materials; and (3) accurate determination of the composition of the LEO environment. These proceedings include the invited papers, the abstracts for the contributed posters, and an account of the test program discussion sessions.

  3. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation effects on polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, J.A.

    1991-02-01

    Because atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet radiation present in the low earth orbital (LEO) environment can alter the chemistry of polymers resulting in degradation, their effects and mechanisms of degradation must be determined in order to determine the long term durability of polymeric surfaces to be exposed on missions such as Space Station Freedom. The effects of atomic oxygen on polymers which contain protective coatings must also be explored, since unique damage mechanisms can occur in areas where the protective coatings has failed. Mechanisms can be determined by utilizing results from previous LEO missions, by performing ground based LEO simulation tests and analysis, and by carrying out focussed space experiments. A survey is presented of the interactions and possible damage mechanisms for environmental atomic oxygen and UV radiation exposure of polymers commonly used in LEO.

  4. Hydration process of alkaline-earth metal atoms in water clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okai, Nobuhiro; Ishikawa, Haruki; Fuke, Kiyokazu

    2005-10-01

    Ionization potentials (IPs) of water clusters containing alkaline-earth metal atoms are measured by a photoionization threshold method to examine the hydration process of the metal atoms in clusters. IPs of Mg(H 2O) n and Ca(H 2O) n are found to decrease with increasing n and become constant at 3.18 eV for n ⩾ 9 and n ⩾ 8, respectively. The observed constant IP agrees with an estimated photoelectric threshold (3.2 eV) of bulk ice. From the comparison with the results on the theoretical calculations as well as the IPs for alkali atom-water clusters, the anomalous size dependence of IPs is ascribed to the formation of an ion-pair state.

  5. Consequences of Atomic Oxygen Interaction With Silicone and Silicone Contamination on Surfaces in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Haytas, Christy A.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of silicones to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit causes oxidation of the surface, resulting in conversion of silicone to silica. This chemical conversion increases the elastic modulus of the surface and initiates the development of a tensile strain. Ultimately, with sufficient exposure, tensile strain leads to cracking of the surface enabling the underlying unexposed silicone to be converted to silica resulting in additional depth and extent of cracking. The use of silicone coatings for the protection of materials from atomic oxygen attack is limited because of the eventual exposure of underlying unprotected polymeric material due to deep tensile stress cracking of the oxidized silicone. The use of moderate to high volatility silicones in low Earth orbit has resulted in a silicone contamination arrival at surfaces which are simultaneously being bombarded with atomic oxygen, thus leading to conversion of the silicone contaminant to silica. As a result of these processes, a gradual accumulation of contamination occurs leading to deposits which at times have been up to several microns thick (as in the case of a Mir solar array after 10 years in space). The contamination species typically consist of silicon, oxygen and carbon. which in the synergistic environment of atomic oxygen and UV radiation leads to increased solar absorptance and reduced solar transmittance. A comparison of the results of atomic oxygen interaction with silicones and silicone contamination will be presented based on the LDEF, EOIM-111, Offeq-3 spacecraft and Mir solar array in-space results. The design of a contamination pin-hole camera space experiment which uses atomic oxygen to produce an image of the sources of silicone contamination will also be presented.

  6. Dispersion coefficients for the interactions of the alkali-metal and alkaline-earth-metal ions and inert-gas atoms with a graphene layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Arora, Bindiya; Sahoo, B. K.

    2015-09-01

    Largely motivated by a number of applications, the van der Waals dispersion coefficients C3 of the alkali-metal ions Li+,Na+,K+, and Rb+, the alkaline-earth-metal ions Ca+,Sr+,Ba+, and Ra+, and the inert-gas atoms He, Ne, Ar, and Kr with a graphene layer are determined precisely within the framework of the Dirac model. For these calculations, we evaluate the dynamic polarizabilities of the above atomic systems very accurately by evaluating the transition matrix elements employing relativistic many-body methods and using the experimental values of the excitation energies. The dispersion coefficients are given as functions of the separation distance of an atomic system from the graphene layer and the ambiance temperature during the interactions. For easy extraction of these coefficients, we give a logistic fit to the functional forms of the dispersion coefficients in terms of the separation distances at room temperature.

  7. Electronic structures and magnetic properties of rare-earth-atom-doped BNNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Juan; Zhang, Ning-Chao; Wang, Peng; Ning, Chao; Zhang, Hong; Peng, Xiao-Juan

    2016-04-01

    Stable geometries, electronic structures, and magnetic properties of (8,0) and (4,4) single-walled BN nanotubes (BNNTs) doped with rare-earth (RE) atoms are investigated using the first-principles pseudopotential plane wave method with density functional theory (DFT). The results show that these RE atoms can be effectively doped in BNNTs with favorable energies. Because of the curvature effect, the values of binding energy for RE-atom-doped (4,4) BNNTs are larger than those of the same atoms on (8,0) BNNTs. Electron transfer between RE-5 d, 6 s, and B-2 p, N-2 p orbitals was also observed. Furthermore, electronic structures and magnetic properties of BNNTs can be modified by such doping. The results show that the adsorption of Ce, Pm, Sm, and Eu atoms can induce magnetization, while no magnetism is observed when BNNTs are doped with La. These results are useful for spintronics applications and for developing magnetic nanostructures.

  8. Cold Atom Interferometers Used In Space (CAIUS) for Measuring the Earth's Gravity Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraz, O.; Luca, M.; Siemes, C.; Haagmans, R.; Silvestrin, P.

    2016-12-01

    In the past decades, it has been shown that atomic quantum sensors are a newly emerging technology that can be used for measuring the Earth's gravity field. There are two ways of making use of that technology: One is a gravity gradiometer concept and the other is in a low-low satellite-to-satellite ranging concept. Whereas classical accelerometers typically suffer from high noise at low frequencies, Cold Atom Interferometers are highly accurate over the entire frequency range. We recently proposed a concept using cold atom interferometers for measuring all diagonal elements of the gravity gradient tensor and the full spacecraft angular velocity in order to achieve better performance than the GOCE gradiometer over a larger part of the spectrum, with the ultimate goals of determining the fine structures in the gravity field better than today. This concept relies on a high common mode rejection, which relaxes the drag free control compare to GOCE mission, and benefits from a long interaction time with the free falling clouds of atoms due to the micro gravity environment in space as opposed to the 1-g environment on-ground. Other concept is also being studied in the frame of NGGM, which relies on the hybridization between quantum and classical techniques to improve the performance of accelerometers. This could be achieved as it is realized in frequency measurements where quartz oscillators are phase locked on atomic or optical clocks. This technique could correct the spectrally colored noise of the electrostatic accelerometers in the lower frequencies. In both cases, estimation of the Earth gravity field model from the instruments has to be evaluated taking into account different system parameters such as attitude control, altitude of the satellite, time duration of the mission, etc. Miniaturization, lower consumptions and upgrading Technical Readiness Level are the key engineering challenges that have to be faced for these space quantum technologie.

  9. New Data for Modeling Hypersonic Entry into Earth's Atmosphere: Electron-impact Ionization of Atomic Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Daniel Wolf; Ciccarino, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Meteors passing through Earth’s atmosphere and space vehicles returning to Earth from beyond orbit enter the atmosphere at hypersonic velocities (greater than Mach 5). The resulting shock front generates a high temperature reactive plasma around the meteor or vehicle (with temperatures greater than 10,000 K). This intense heat is transferred to the entering object by radiative and convective processes. Modeling the processes a meteor undergoes as it passes through the atmosphere and designing vehicles to withstand these conditions requires an accurate understanding of the underlying non-equilibrium high temperature chemistry. Nitrogen chemistry is particularly important given the abundance of nitrogen in Earth's atmosphere. Line emission by atomic nitrogen is a major source of radiative heating during atomspheric entry. Our ability to accurately calculate this heating is hindered by uncertainties in the electron-impact ionization (EII) rate coefficient for atomic nitrogen.Here we present new EII calculations for atomic nitrogen. The atom is treated as a 69 level system, incorporating Rydberg values up to n=20. Level-specific cross sections are from published B-Spline R-Matrix-with-Pseudostates results for the first three levels and binary-encounter Bethe (BEB) calculations that we have carried out for the remaining 59 levels. These cross section data have been convolved into level-specific rate coefficients and fit with the commonly-used Arrhenius-Kooij formula for ease of use in hypersonic chemical models. The rate coefficient data can be readily scaled by the relevant atomic nitrogen partition function which varies in time and space around the meteor or reentry vehicle. Providing data up to n=20 also enables modelers to account for the density-dependent lowering of the continuum.

  10. Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Silicone Contamination on Spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.

    2001-01-01

    Silicones have been widely used on spacecraft as potting compounds, adhesives, seals, gaskets, hydrophobic surfaces, and atomic oxygen protective coatings. Contamination of optical and thermal control surfaces on spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) has been an ever-present problem as a result of the interaction of atomic oxygen with volatile species from silicones and hydrocarbons onboard spacecraft. These interactions can deposit a contaminant that is a risk to spacecraft performance because it can form an optically absorbing film on the surfaces of Sun sensors, star trackers, or optical components or can increase the solar absorptance of thermal control surfaces. The transmittance, absorptance, and reflectance of such contaminant films seem to vary widely from very transparent SiOx films to much more absorbing SiOx-based films that contain hydrocarbons. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, silicone contamination that was oxidized by atomic oxygen has been examined from LEO spacecraft (including the Long Duration Exposure Facility and the Mir space station solar arrays) and from ground laboratory LEO simulations. The findings resulted in the development of predictive models that may help explain the underlying issues and effects. Atomic oxygen interactions with silicone volatiles and mixtures of silicone and hydrocarbon volatiles produce glassy SiOx-based contaminant coatings. The addition of hydrocarbon volatiles in the presence of silicone volatiles appears to cause much more absorbing (and consequently less transmitting) contaminant films than when no hydrocarbon volatiles are present. On the basis of the LDEF and Mir results, conditions of high atomic oxygen flux relative to low contaminant flux appear to result in more transparent contaminant films than do conditions of low atomic oxygen flux with high contaminant flux. Modeling predictions indicate that the deposition of contaminant films early in a LEO flight should depend much more on atomic oxygen flux than

  11. New Active Optical Technique Developed for Measuring Low-Earth-Orbit Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Demko, Rikako

    2003-01-01

    Polymers such as polyimide Kapton (DuPont) and Teflon FEP (DuPont, fluorinated ethylene propylene) are commonly used spacecraft materials because of desirable properties such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP, a low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low-Earth-orbit (LEO) environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen reaction with polymers causes erosion, which is a threat to spacecraft performance and durability. It is, therefore, important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield E (the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. The most common technique for determining E is a passive technique based on mass-loss measurements of samples exposed to LEO atomic oxygen during a space flight experiment. There are certain disadvantages to this technique. First, because it is passive, data are not obtained until after the flight is completed. Also, obtaining the preflight and postflight mass measurements is complicated by the fact that many polymers absorb water and, therefore, the mass change due to water absorption can affect the E data. This is particularly true for experiments that receive low atomic oxygen exposures or for samples that have a very low E. An active atomic oxygen erosion technique based on optical measurements has been developed that has certain advantages over the mass-loss technique. This in situ technique can simultaneously provide the erosion yield data on orbit and the atomic oxygen exposure fluence, which is needed for erosion yield determination. In the optical technique, either sunlight or artificial light can be used to measure the erosion of semitransparent or opaque polymers as a result of atomic oxygen attack. The technique is simple and adaptable to a rather wide range of polymers, providing that they have a sufficiently high optical absorption coefficient. If one covers a photodiode with a

  12. Comparison of Hyperthermal Ground Laboratory Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yields With Those in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Dill, Grace C.; Loftus, Ryan J.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic oxygen erosion yields of 26 materials (all polymers except for pyrolytic graphite) were measured in two directed hyperthermal radio frequency (RF) plasma ashers operating at 30 or 35 kHz with air. The hyperthermal asher results were compared with thermal energy asher results and low Earth orbital (LEO) results from the Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 and 7 (MISSE 2 and 7) flight experiments. The hyperthermal testing was conducted to a significant portion of the atomic oxygen fluence similar polymers were exposed to during the MISSE 2 and 7 missions. Comparison of the hyperthermal asher prediction of LEO erosion yields with thermal energy asher erosion yields indicates that except for the fluorocarbon polymers of PTFE and FEP, the hyperthermal energy ashers are a much more reliable predictor of LEO erosion yield than thermal energy asher testing, by a factor of four.

  13. Effects on optical systems from interactions with oxygen atoms in low earth orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, P. N.; Swann, J. T.; Gregory, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications of material surface properties due to interactions with ambient atomic oxygen have been observed on surfaces facing the orbital direction in low earth orbits. Some effects are very damaging to surface optical properties while some are more subtle and even beneficial. Most combustible materials are heavily etched, and some coatings, such as silver and osmium, are seriously degraded or removed as volatile oxides. The growth of oxide films on metals and semiconductors considered stable in dry air was measured. Material removal, surface roughness, reflectance, and optical densities are reported. Effects of temperature, contamination, and overcoatings are noted.

  14. Neutral atomic oxygen beam produced by ion charge exchange for Low Earth Orbital (LEO) simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce; Rutledge, Sharon; Brdar, Marko; Olen, Carl; Stidham, Curt

    1987-01-01

    A low energy neutral atomic oxygen beam system was designed and is currently being assembled at the Lewis Research Center. The system utilizes a 15 cm diameter Kaufman ion source to produce positive oxygen ions which are charge exchange neutralized to produce low energy (variable from 5 to 150 eV) oxygen atoms at a flux simulating real time low Earth orbital conditions. An electromagnet is used to direct only the singly charged oxygen ions from the ion source into the charge exchange cell. A retarding potential grid is used to slow down the oxygen ions to desired energies prior to their charge exchange. Cryogenically cooled diatomic oxygen gas in the charge exchange cell is then used to transfer charge to the oxygen ions to produce a neutral atomic oxygen beam. Remaining non-charge exchanged oxygen ions are then swept from the beam by electromagnetic or electrostatic deflection depending upon the desired experiment configuration. The resulting neutral oxygen beam of 5 to 10 cm in diameter impinges upon target materials within a sample holder fixture that can also provide for simultaneous heating and UV exposure during the atomic oxygen bombardment.

  15. Adsorption of rare-earth atoms onl silicon carbide nanotube: a density-functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Zhiwei; Shen, Jiang

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the adsorption of a series of rare-earth (RE) metal atoms (La, Pr, Nd, Sm and Eu) on the pristine zigzag (8, 0) silicon carbide nanotube (SiCNT) using density functional theory (DFT). Main focuses are placed on the stable adsorption sites, the corresponding binding energies, and the modified electronic properties of the SiC nanotubes due to the adsorbates. A single RE atom prefers to adsorb strongly at the hollow site with relatively high binding energy (larger than 1.0 eV). Due to the rolling effect of single-walled SiCNTs, the inside configurations are more stable than the outside ones. For RE-adsorbed systems, the adsorption of metal atoms induces certain impurity states within the band gap of the pristine SiCNT. Furthermore, we analyze there exists hybridizations between RE-5d, 6s, C-2p and Si-3p orbitals for the RE atom adsorption on the SiCNTs.

  16. Synthesis and ab initio X-ray powder diffraction structure of the new alkali and alkali earth metal borate NaCa(BO3).

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Chen, X L; Li, X Z; Dai, L; Xu, Y P; Zhao, M

    2005-03-01

    A sodium calcium borate, NaCaBO3, has been synthesized by the solid-state reaction method and the structure solved from X-ray powder diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in space group Pmmn and has a desired structure type containing isolated planar BO3(3-) anions. Mixed occupancy is found to exist in the Ca site, with partial replacement by Na. One Ca/Na mixed atom and one Na atom are at sites with mm2 symmetry, and a second Ca/Na mixed atom, an Na atom, two B and two O atoms are on mirror planes.

  17. Watching Na atoms solvate into (Na+,e-) contact pairs: untangling the ultrafast charge-transfer-to-solvent dynamics of Na- in tetrahydrofuran (THF).

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Molly C; Larsen, Ross E; Schwartz, Benjamin J

    2007-06-21

    , which is known from radiation chemistry experiments to absorb near approximately 900 nm. There has been considerable debate as to whether this 900-nm absorbing species is better thought of as a solvated atom or a sodium cation:solvated electron contact pair, (Na+,e-). The fact that we observe the initially created neutral Na atom undergoing a chemical reaction to ultimately become the 900-nm absorbing species suggests that it is better assigned as (Na+,e-). The approximately 10-ps solvation time we observe for this species is an order of magnitude slower than any other solvation process previously observed in liquid THF, suggesting that this species interacts differently with the solvent than the large molecules that are typically used as solvation probes. Together, all of the results allow us to build the most detailed picture to date of the CTTS process of Na- in THF as well as to directly observe the solvation dynamics associated with single sodium atoms in solution.

  18. Absorption spectroscopy characterization measurements of a laser-produced Na atomic beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, C.H.; Bailey, J.E.; Lake, P.W.; Filuk, A.B.; Adams, R.G.; McKenney, J.

    1997-01-01

    A pulsed Na atomic beam source developed for spectroscopic diagnosis of a high-power ion diode is described. The goal is to produce a {approximately}10{sup 12}-cm{sup {minus}3}-density Na atomic beam that can be injected into the diode acceleration gap to measure electric and magnetic fields from the Stark and Zeeman effects through laser-induced fluorescence or absorption spectroscopy. A {approximately}10 ns full width at half-maximum (FWHM), 1.06 {mu}m, 0.6 J/cm{sup 2} laser incident through a glass slide heats a Na-bearing thin film, creating a plasma that generates a sodium vapor plume. A {approximately}1 {mu}s FWHM dye laser beam tuned to 5890 {Angstrom} is used for absorption measurement of the NaI resonant doublet by viewing parallel to the film surface. The dye laser light is coupled through a fiber to a spectrograph with a time-integrated charge-coupled-device camera. A two-dimensional mapping of the Na vapor density is obtained through absorption measurements at different spatial locations. Time-of-flight and Doppler broadening of the absorption with {approximately}0.1 {Angstrom} spectral resolution indicate that the Na neutral vapor temperature is about 0.5{endash}2 eV. Laser-induced fluorescence from {approximately}1{times}10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}3} NaI 3s-3p lines observed with a streaked spectrograph provides a signal level sufficient for {approximately}{plus_minus}0.06 {Angstrom} wavelength shift measurements in a mock-up of an ion diode experiment. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Absorption spectroscopy characterization measurements of a laser-produced Na atomic beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, C.H.; Bailey, J.E.; Lake, P.W.; Filuk, A.B.; Adams, R.G.; McKenney, J.

    1996-06-01

    This work describes a pulsed Na atomic beam source developed for spectroscopic diagnosis of a high-power ion diode on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II. The goal is to produce a {approximately} 10{sup 12}-cm{sup {minus}3}-density Na atomic beam that can be injected into the diode acceleration gap to measure electric and magnetic fields from the Stark and Zeeman effects through laser-induced-fluorescence or absorption spectroscopy. A {approximately} 10 ns fwhm, 1.06 {micro}m, 0.6 J/cm{sup 2} laser incident through a glass slide heats a Na-bearing thin film, creating a plasma that generates a sodium vapor plume. A {approximately} 1 {micro}sec fwhm dye laser beam tuned to 5,890 {angstrom} is used for absorption measurement of the Na I resonant doublet by viewing parallel to the film surface. The dye laser light is coupled through a fiber to a spectrograph with a time-integrated CCD camera. A two-dimensional mapping of the Na vapor density is obtained through absorption measurements at different spatial locations. Time-of-flight and Doppler broadening of the absorption with {approximately} 0.1 {angstrom} spectral resolution indicate that the Na neutral vapor temperature is about 0.5 to 2 eV. Laser-induced-fluorescence from {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 12}-cm{sup {minus}3} Na I 3s-3p lines observed with a streaked spectrograph provides a signal level sufficient for {approximately} 0.06 {angstrom} wavelength shift measurements in a mock-up of an ion diode experiment.

  20. Unique atom hyper-kagome order in Na4Ir3O8 and in low-symmetry spinel modifications.

    PubMed

    Talanov, V M; Shirokov, V B; Talanov, M V

    2015-05-01

    Group-theoretical and thermodynamic methods of the Landau theory of phase transitions are used to investigate the hyper-kagome atomic order in structures of ordered spinels and a spinel-like Na4Ir3O8 crystal. The formation of an atom hyper-kagome sublattice in Na4Ir3O8 is described theoretically on the basis of the archetype (hypothetical parent structure/phase) concept. The archetype structure of Na4Ir3O8 has a spinel-like structure (space group Fd\\bar 3m) and composition [Na1/2Ir3/2](16d)[Na3/2](16c)O(32e)4. The critical order parameter which induces hypothetical phase transition has been stated. It is shown that the derived structure of Na4Ir3O8 is formed as a result of the displacements of Na, Ir and O atoms, and ordering of Na, Ir and O atoms, ordering dxy, dxz, dyz orbitals as well. Ordering of all atoms takes place according to the type 1:3. Ir and Na atoms form an intriguing atom order: a network of corner-shared Ir triangles called a hyper-kagome lattice. The Ir atoms form nanoclusters which are named decagons. The existence of hyper-kagome lattices in six types of ordered spinel structures is predicted theoretically. The structure mechanisms of the formation of the predicted hyper-kagome atom order in some ordered spinel phases are established. For a number of cases typical diagrams of possible crystal phase states are built in the framework of the Landau theory of phase transitions. Thermodynamical conditions of hyper-kagome order formation are discussed by means of these diagrams. The proposed theory is in accordance with experimental data.

  1. Three-photon process for producing a degenerate gas of metastable alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, D. S.; Pisenti, N. C.; Reschovsky, B. J.; Campbell, G. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a method for creating a quantum degenerate gas of metastable alkaline-earth-metal atoms. This has yet to be achieved due to inelastic collisions that limit evaporative cooling in the metastable states. Quantum degenerate samples prepared in the 1S0 ground state can be rapidly transferred to either the 3P2 or 3P0 state via a coherent three-photon process. Numerical integration of the density-matrix evolution for the fine structure of bosonic alkaline-earth-metal atoms shows that transfer efficiencies of ≃90 % can be achieved with experimentally feasible laser parameters in both Sr and Yb. Importantly, the three-photon process can be set up such that it imparts no net momentum to the degenerate gas during the excitation, which will allow for studies of metastable samples outside the Lamb-Dicke regime. We discuss several experimental challenges to successfully realizing our scheme, including the minimization of differential ac Stark shifts between the four states connected by the three-photon transition.

  2. A 3-photon process for producing degenerate gases of metastable alkaline-earth atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Daniel S.; Pisenti, Neal C.; Reschovsky, Benjamin J.; Campbell, Gretchen K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a method for creating quantum degenerate gases of metastable alkaline-earth atoms. A degenerate gas in any of the 3 P metastable states has not previously been obtained due to large inelastic collision rates, which are unfavorable for evaporative cooling. Samples prepared in the 1S0 ground state can be rapidly transferred to either the 3P2 or 3P0 state via a coherent 3-photon process. Numerical integration of the density matrix evolution for the fine structure of bosonic alkaline-earth atoms shows that transfer efficiencies of ~= 90 % can be achieved with experimentally feasible laser parameters in both Sr and Yb. Importantly, the 3-photon process does not impart momentum to the degenerate gas during excitation, which allows studies of these metastable samples outside the Lamb-Dicke regime. We discuss several experimental challenges to the successful realization of our scheme, including the minimization of differential AC Stark shifts between the four states connected by the 3-photon transition.

  3. Lessons Learned From Atomic Oxygen Interaction With Spacecraft Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim, K.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2008-01-01

    There have been five Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) passive experiment carriers (PECs) (MISSE 1-5) to date that have been launched, exposed in space on the exterior of International Space Station (ISS) and then returned to Earth for analysis. An additional four MISSE PECs (MISSE 6A, 6B, 7A, and 7B) are in various stages of completion. The PECs are two-sided suitcase to size sample carriers that are intended to provide information on the effects of the low Earth orbital environment on a wide variety of materials and components. As a result of post retrieval analyses of the retrieved MISSE 2 experiments and numerous prior space experiments, there have been valuable lessons learned and needs identified that are worthy of being documented so that planning, design, and analysis of future space environment experiments can benefit from the experience in order to maximize the knowledge gained. Some of the lessons learned involve the techniques, concepts, and issues associated with measuring atomic oxygen erosion yields. These are presented along with several issues to be considered when designing experiments, such as the uncertainty in mission duration, scattering and contamination effects on results, and the accuracy of measuring atomic oxygen erosion.

  4. Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Prediction for Spacecraft Polymers in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Backus, Jane A.; Manno, Michael V.; Waters, Deborah L.; Cameron, Kevin C.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to predict the atomic oxygen erosion yield of polymers based on their chemistry and physical properties has been only partially successful because of a lack of reliable low Earth orbit (LEO) erosion yield data. Unfortunately, many of the early experiments did not utilize dehydrated mass loss measurements for erosion yield determination, and the resulting mass loss due to atomic oxygen exposure may have been compromised because samples were often not in consistent states of dehydration during the pre-flight and post-flight mass measurements. This is a particular problem for short duration mission exposures or low erosion yield materials. However, as a result of the retrieval of the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2), the erosion yields of 38 polymers and pyrolytic graphite were accurately measured. The experiment was exposed to the LEO environment for 3.95 years from August 16, 2001 to July 30, 2005 and was successfully retrieved during a space walk on July 30, 2005 during Discovery s STS-114 Return to Flight mission. The 40 different materials tested (including Kapton H fluence witness samples) were selected specifically to represent a variety of polymers used in space as well as a wide variety of polymer chemical structures. The MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers experiment used carefully dehydrated mass measurements, as well as accurate density measurements to obtain accurate erosion yield data for high-fluence (8.43 1021 atoms/sq cm). The resulting data was used to develop an erosion yield predictive tool with a correlation coefficient of 0.895 and uncertainty of +/-6.3 10(exp -25)cu cm/atom. The predictive tool utilizes the chemical structures and physical properties of polymers to predict in-space atomic oxygen erosion yields. A predictive tool concept (September 2009 version) is presented which represents an improvement over an earlier (December 2008) version.

  5. Oligomeric rare-earth metal cluster complexes with endohedral transition metal atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, Simon; Zimmermann, Sina; Brühmann, Matthias; Meyer, Eva; Rustige, Christian; Wolberg, Marike; Daub, Kathrin; Bell, Thomas; Meyer, Gerd

    2014-11-15

    Comproportionation reactions of rare-earth metal trihalides (RX{sub 3}) with the respective rare-earth metals (R) and transition metals (T) led to the formation of 22 oligomeric R cluster halides encapsulating T, in 19 cases for the first time. The structures of these compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and are composed of trimers ((T{sub 3}R{sub 11})X{sub 15}-type, P6{sub 3}/m), tetramers ((T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 28}(R{sub 4}) (P-43m), (T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 20} (P4{sub 2}/nnm), (T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 24}(RX{sub 3}){sub 4} (I4{sub 1}/a) and (T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 23} (C2/m) types of structure) and pentamers ((Ru{sub 5}La{sub 14}){sub 2}Br{sub 39}, Cc) of (TR{sub r}){sub n} (n=2–5) clusters. These oligomers are further enveloped by inner (X{sup i}) as well as outer (X{sup a}) halido ligands, which possess diverse functionalities and interconnect like oligomers through i–i, i–a and/or a–i bridges. The general features of the crystal structures for these new compounds are discussed and compared to literature entries as well as different structure types with oligomeric T centered R clusters. Dimers and tetramers originating from the aggregation of (TR{sub 6}) octahedra via common edges are more frequent than trimers and pentamers, in which the (TR{sub r}) clusters share common faces. - Graphical abstract: Rare earth-metal cluster complexes with endohedral transition metal atoms (TR{sub 6}) may connect via common edges or faces to form dimers, trimers, tetramers and pentamers of which the tetramers are the most prolific. Packing effects and electron counts play an important role. - Highlights: • Rare-earth metal cluster complexes encapsulate transition metal atoms. • Oligomers are built via connection of octahedral clusters via common edges or faces. • Dimers through pentamers with closed structures are known. • Tetramers including a tetrahedron of endohedral atoms are the most prolific.

  6. Sublattice identification in noncontact atomic force microscopy of the NaCl(001) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, R.; Weiner, D.; Schirmeisen, A.; Foster, A. S.

    2009-09-15

    We compare the three-dimensional force field obtained from frequency-distance measurements above the NaCl(001) surface to atomistic calculations using various tip models. In the experiments, long-range forces cause a total attractive force even on the similarly charged site. Taking force differences between two sites minimizes the influence of such long-range forces. The magnitude of the measured force differences are by a factor of 6.5-10 smaller than the calculated forces. This is an indication that for the particular tip used in this experiment several atoms of the tip interact with the surface atoms at close tip-sample distances. The interaction of these additional atoms with the surface is small at the imaging distance, because symmetric images are obtained. The force distance characteristics resemble those of a negative tip apex ion which could be explained, e.g., by a neutral Si tip.

  7. Synthesis and thermoluminescence properties of rare earth-doped NaMgBO3 phosphor.

    PubMed

    Khan, Z S; Ingale, N B; Omanwar, S K

    2016-05-01

    Rare earth (Dy(3+) and Sm(3+))-doped sodium magnesium borate (NaMgBO3) is synthesized by solution combustion synthesis method keeping their thermoluminescence properties in mind. The reaction produced very stable crystalline NaMgBO3:RE (RE = Dy(3+), Sm(3+)) phosphors. The phosphors are exposed to (60)Co gamma-ray radiations dose of varying rate from 5 to 25 Gy, and their TL characteristics with kinetic parameters are studied. NaMgBO3:Dy(3+) phosphor shows two peaks for lower doping concentration of Dy(3+) while it reduced to single peak for the higher concentrations of activator Dy(3+). NaMgBO3:Dy(3+) shows the major glow peak around 200 °C while NaMgBO3:Sm(3+) phosphors show two well-separated glow peaks at 200 and 332 °C respectively. The thermoluminescence intensity of these phosphors was compare with the commercially available TLD-100 (Harshaw) phosphor. The TL responses for gamma-ray radiations dose were found to be linear from 5 to 25 Gy for both phosphors while the fading in each case is calculated for the tenure of 45 days.

  8. Atomic layer deposition of (K,Na)(Nb,Ta)O{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sønsteby, Henrik Hovde Nilsen, Ola; Fjellvåg, Helmer

    2016-07-15

    Thin films of complex alkali oxides are frequently investigated due to the large range of electric effects that are found in this class of materials. Their piezo- and ferroelectric properties also place them as sustainable lead free alternatives in optoelectronic devices. Fully gas-based routes for deposition of such compounds are required for integration into microelectronic devices that need conformal thin films with high control of thickness- and composition. The authors here present a route for deposition of materials in the (K,Na)(Nb,Ta)O{sub 3}-system, including the four end members NaNbO{sub 3}, KNbO{sub 3}, NaTaO{sub 3}, and KTaO{sub 3}, using atomic layer deposition with emphasis on control of stoichiometry in such mixed quaternary and quinary compunds.

  9. CP(N - 1) quantum field theories with alkaline-earth atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laflamme, C.; Evans, W.; Dalmonte, M.; Gerber, U.; Mejía-Díaz, H.; Bietenholz, W.; Wiese, U.-J.; Zoller, P.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a cold atom implementation to attain the continuum limit of (1 + 1) -d CP(N - 1) quantum field theories. These theories share important features with (3 + 1) -d QCD, such as asymptotic freedom and θ-vacua. Moreover, their continuum limit can be accessed via the mechanism of dimensional reduction. In our scheme, the CP(N - 1) degrees of freedom emerge at low energies from a ladder system of SU(N) quantum spins, where the N spin states are embodied by the nuclear Zeeman states of alkaline-earth atoms, trapped in an optical lattice. Based on Monte Carlo results, we establish that the continuum limit can be demonstrated by an atomic quantum simulation by employing the feature of asymptotic freedom. We discuss a protocol for the adiabatic preparation of the ground state of the system, the real-time evolution of a false θ-vacuum state after a quench, and we propose experiments to unravel the phase diagram at non-zero density.

  10. Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Predictive Tool for Spacecraft Polymers in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bank, Bruce A.; de Groh, Kim K.; Backus, Jane A.

    2008-01-01

    A predictive tool was developed to estimate the low Earth orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen erosion yield of polymers based on the results of the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers experiment flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2). The MISSE 2 PEACE experiment accurately measured the erosion yield of a wide variety of polymers and pyrolytic graphite. The 40 different materials tested were selected specifically to represent a variety of polymers used in space as well as a wide variety of polymer chemical structures. The resulting erosion yield data was used to develop a predictive tool which utilizes chemical structure and physical properties of polymers that can be measured in ground laboratory testing to predict the in-space atomic oxygen erosion yield of a polymer. The properties include chemical structure, bonding information, density and ash content. The resulting predictive tool has a correlation coefficient of 0.914 when compared with actual MISSE 2 space data for 38 polymers and pyrolytic graphite. The intent of the predictive tool is to be able to make estimates of atomic oxygen erosion yields for new polymers without requiring expensive and time consumptive in-space testing.

  11. Simulation of the low earth orbital atomic oxygen interaction with materials by means of an oxygen ion beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Steuber, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Atomic oxygen is the predominant species in low-Earth orbit between the altitudes of 180 and 650 km. These highly reactive atoms are a result of photodissociation of diatomic oxygen molecules from solar photons having a wavelength less than or equal to 2430A. Spacecraft in low-Earth orbit collide with atomic oxygen in the 3P ground state at impact energies of approximately 4.2 to 4.5 eV. As a consequence, organic materials previously used for high altitude geosynchronous spacecraft are severely oxidized in the low-Earth orbital environment. The evaluation of materials durability to atomic oxygen requires ground simulation of this environment to cost effectively screen materials for durability. Directed broad beam oxygen sources are necessary to evaluate potential spacecraft materials performance before and after exposure to the simulated low-Earth orbital environment. This paper presents a description of a low energy, broad oxygen ion beam source used to simulate the low-Earth orbital atomic oxygen environment. The results of materials interaction with this beam and comparison with actual in-space tests of the same meterials will be discussed. Resulting surface morphologies appear to closely replicate those observed in space tests.

  12. A Comparison of Atomic Oxygen Degradation in Low Earth Orbit and in a Plasma Etcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Park, Gloria

    1997-01-01

    In low Earth orbit (LEO) significant degradation of certain materials occurs from exposure to atomic oxygen (AO). Orbital opportunities to study this degradation for specific materials are limited and expensive. While plasma etchers are commonly used in ground-based studies because of their low cost and convenience, the environment produced in an etcher chamber differs greatly from the LEO environment. Because of the differences in environment, the validity of using etcher data has remained an open question. In this paper, degradation data for 22 materials from the orbital experiment Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) are compared with data from EOIM-3 control specimens exposed in a typical plasma etcher. This comparison indicates that, when carefully considered, plasma etcher results can produce order-of-magnitude estimates of orbital degradation. This allows the etcher to be used to screen unacceptable materials from further, more expensive tests.

  13. Quantum Degenerate Mixtures of Alkali and Alkaline-Earth-Like Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Hideaki; Takasu, Yosuke; Yamaoka, Yoshifumi; Doyle, John M.; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2011-05-20

    We realize simultaneous quantum degeneracy in mixtures consisting of the alkali and alkaline-earth-like atoms Li and Yb. This is accomplished within an optical trap by sympathetic cooling of the fermionic isotope {sup 6}Li with evaporatively cooled bosonic {sup 174}Yb and, separately, fermionic {sup 173}Yb. Using cross-thermalization studies, we also measure the elastic s-wave scattering lengths of both Li-Yb combinations, |a{sub {sup 6}Li-{sup 174}Yb}|=1.0{+-}0.2 nm and |a{sub {sup 6}Li-{sup 173}Yb}|=0.9{+-}0.2 nm. The equality of these lengths is found to be consistent with mass-scaling analysis. The quantum degenerate mixtures of Li and Yb, as realized here, can be the basis for creation of ultracold molecules with electron spin degrees of freedom, studies of novel Efimov trimers, and impurity probes of superfluid systems.

  14. Role of atomic multiplets in the electronic structure of rare-earth semiconductors and semimetals.

    PubMed

    Pourovskii, Leonid V; Delaney, Kris T; Van de Walle, Chris G; Spaldin, Nicola A; Georges, Antoine

    2009-03-06

    We present a study of the effects of strong correlations in rare-earth pnictides, in which localized 4f states simultaneously retain atomiclike character and strongly influence the free-electron-like valence electron states. Using erbium arsenide as our example, we use a modern implementation of dynamical mean-field theory to obtain the atomic multiplet structure of the Er3+ 4f shell, as well as its unusually strong coupling to the electronic Fermi surfaces; these types of behavior are not correctly described within conventional electronic-structure methods. We are then able to explain the long-standing theoretical question of the quasisaturation of magnetization in an applied magnetic field, and to obtain the first quantitative agreement with experimental Shubnikov-de Haas frequencies of the Fermi-surface sheets.

  15. Effect of Irregularities in the Earth's Rotation on Relativistic Shifts in Frequency and Time of Earthbound Atomic Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateev, V. F.; Kopeikin, S. M.; Pasynok, S. L., S. L.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of irregularities in the earth's rotation (precession and nutation of the earth's axis of rotation, oscillations in the modulus of the angular velocity, periodic deviations in the line of the poles, and the angular momentum of the globe) on the frequency and time of high-stability atomic clocks are examined in terms of the theory of relativity. It is shown that the relative shift in frequency and time owing to these effects can exceed 5×10-16.

  16. Collective non-equilibrium spin exchange in cold alkaline-earth atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, Oscar Leonardo; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-05-01

    Alkaline-earth atomic (AEA) clocks have recently been shown to be reliable simulators of two-orbital SU(N) quantum magnetism. In this work, we study the non-equilibrium spin exchange dynamics during the clock interrogation of AEAs confined in a deep one-dimensional optical lattice and prepared in two nuclear levels. The two clock states act as an orbital degree of freedom. Every site in the lattice can be thought as populated by a frozen set of vibrational modes collectively interacting via predominantly p-wave collisions. Due to the exchange coupling, orbital state transfer between atoms with different nuclear states is expected to happen. At the mean field level, we observe that in addition to the expected suppression of population transfer in the presence of a large magnetic field, that makes the single particle levels off-resonance, there is also an interaction induced suppression for initial orbital population imbalance. This suppression resembles the macroscopic self-trapping mechanism seen in bosonic systems. However, by performing exact numerical solutions and also by using the so-called Truncated Wigner Approximation, we show that quantum correlations can significantly modify the mean field suppression. Our predictions should be testable in optical clock experiments. Project supported by NSF-PHY-1521080, JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, ARO, AFOSR, and MURI-AFOSR.

  17. Laboratory Studies of O-Atom Recombination Relevant to the Earth's Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Neubauer, K.; Matsiev, D.; Kalogerakis, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the details relevant to the process of three-body O-atom recombination is critical for the study and modeling of composition, energy transfer, airglow, and transport dynamics in planetary atmospheres. Significant gaps and uncertainties exist in our understanding of the above processes, and often the relevant input from laboratory measurements is missing or outdated. We are conducting laser-based laboratory experiments to investigate O + O + N2 under conditions relevant to the Earth's mesosphere. This process is responsible for the generation of oxygen airglow. In the laboratory, an ultraviolet light pulse from a laser photoinitiates O-atom recombination in N2 bath gas. Spectroscopic techniques are used to probe the O2 molecules produced following recombination and subsequent relaxation in N2. We will present our latest laboratory results and discuss their atmospheric implications. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Planetary Astronomy Program under grant AGS-1441896. Kelly J. Neubauer's participation in a Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) site at SRI International, was supported by the NSF REU program under grant PHY-1359410.

  18. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen environmental simulation facility for space materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Stidham, C.R.; Banks, B.A.; Stueber, T.J.; Dever, J.A.; Rutledge, S.K.; Bruckner, E.J.

    1993-05-01

    Simulation of low Earth orbit atomic oxygen for accelerated exposure in ground-based facilities is necessary for the durability evaluation of space power system component materials for Space Station Freedom (SSF) and future missions. A facility developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations's (NASA) Lewis Research Center provides accelerated rates of exposure to a directed or scattered oxygen beam, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, and offers in-situ optical characterization. The facility utilizes an electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source to generate a low energy oxygen beam. Total hemispherical spectral reflectance of samples can be measured in situ over the wavelength range of 250 to 2500 nm. Deuterium lamps provide VUV radiation intensity levels in the 115 to 200 nm range of three to five equivalent suns. Retarding potential analyses show distributed ion energies below 30 electron volts (eV) for the operating conditions most suited for high flux, low energy testing. Peak ion energies are below the sputter threshold energy (approximately 30 eV) of the protective coatings on polymers that are evaluated in the facility, thus allowing long duration exposure without sputter erosion. Neutral species are expected to be at thermal energies of approximately .04 eV to .1 eV. The maximum effective flux level based on polyimide Kapton mass loss is 4.4 x 10 exp 6 atoms/((sq. cm)*s), thus providing a highly accelerated testing capability.

  19. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen environmental simulation facility for space materials evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stidham, Curtis R.; Banks, Bruce A.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Dever, Joyce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Bruckner, Eric J.

    1993-01-01

    Simulation of low Earth orbit atomic oxygen for accelerated exposure in ground-based facilities is necessary for the durability evaluation of space power system component materials for Space Station Freedom (SSF) and future missions. A facility developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations's (NASA) Lewis Research Center provides accelerated rates of exposure to a directed or scattered oxygen beam, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, and offers in-situ optical characterization. The facility utilizes an electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source to generate a low energy oxygen beam. Total hemispherical spectral reflectance of samples can be measured in situ over the wavelength range of 250 to 2500 nm. Deuterium lamps provide VUV radiation intensity levels in the 115 to 200 nm range of three to five equivalent suns. Retarding potential analyses show distributed ion energies below 30 electron volts (eV) for the operating conditions most suited for high flux, low energy testing. Peak ion energies are below the sputter threshold energy (approximately 30 eV) of the protective coatings on polymers that are evaluated in the facility, thus allowing long duration exposure without sputter erosion. Neutral species are expected to be at thermal energies of approximately .04 eV to .1 eV. The maximum effective flux level based on polyimide Kapton mass loss is 4.4 x 10 exp 6 atoms/((sq. cm)*s), thus providing a highly accelerated testing capability.

  20. Towards an atomic realization of the kilogram: The measurements of NA and NAh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, P.

    2008-10-01

    An improved attempt of several national metrology institutes toreplace the present definition of the kilogram with the mass of acertain number of 12C atoms is described. This requires thedetermination of the Avogadro constant, NA, via the silicon routewith a relative uncertainty better than 2.10-8.Previously, the limiting factor is the measurement of the averagemolar mass. Consequently, a world-wide collaboration has been setup, to produce, approximately, 5 kg of ^{28}Si single-crystal withan enrichment factor greater than 99.985% to be used for animproved determination of NA. The first successful tests of alltechnological steps (enrichment of SiF4, purification and synthesisof silane, deposition of polycrystalline ^{28}Si , single crystalgrowth) for the production of high-purity ^{28}Si are described.

  1. Elastic Scattering of Ultracold 23Na and 39K Atoms in the Singlet State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiu-Bo; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Sun, Jin-Feng

    2010-02-01

    The elastic scattering properties for collisions between ultracold Na and K atoms in the singlet state are investigated. Based on the recent theoretical and experimental results, the improved hybrid potential is presented for the singlet X1 Σg+ ground state of NaK. By means of the Numerov and semiclassical methods, the values of the s-wave scattering length a for the singlet state are calculated to be 33.3757a0 and 37.9399a0, respectively. Pronounced shape resonances appear for the l = 1 partial wave for the X1 Σg+ state. In addition, the s-wave scattering cross section, total cross section and energy positions of shape resonances for the X1 Σg+ state are discussed.

  2. Adsorption of water on NaCl (100) surfaces: Role of atomic steps

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Q.; Hu, J.; Salmeron, M. |

    1997-03-13

    Using an atomic force microscope operated in contact and noncontact mode, we have studied the structures formed on the (100) cleavage surface of NaCl when exposed to water vapor. Above approximately 35% relative humidity (RH), a uniform layer of water is formed and the surface steps are observed to evolve slowly. At approximately 73% RH, the step structure becomes unstable and disappears abruptly because of dissolution (deliquescence) of the salt surface. Reversing the process by drying leads to the reappearance of new, more uniform monatomic steps. At humidity levels less than 30%, water adsorbs primarily at the step edges. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  3. High numerical aperture (NA = 092) objective lens for imaging and addressing of cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robens, Carsten; Brakhane, Stefan; Alt, Wolfgang; Kleißler, Felix; Meschede, Dieter; Moon, Geol; Ramola, Gautam; Alberti, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    We have designed, built, and characterized a high-resolution objective lens that is compatible with an ultra-high vacuum environment. The lens system exploits the principle of the Weierstrass-sphere solid immersion lens to reach a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.92. Tailored to the requirements of optical lattice experiments, the objective lens features a relatively long working distance of 150 micrometers. Our two-lens design is remarkably insensitive to mechanical tolerances in spite of the large NA. Additionally, we demonstrate the application of a tapered optical fiber tip, as used in scanning near-field optical microscopy, to measure the point spread function of a high NA optical system. From the point spread function, we infer the wavefront aberration for the entire field of view of about 75 micrometers. Pushing the NA of an optical system to its ultimate limit enables novel applications in quantum technologies such as quantum control of atoms in optical microtraps with an unprecedented spatial resolution and photon collection efficiency.

  4. Studies of Rotationally and Vibrationally Inelastic Collisions of NaK with Atomic Perturbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Kara M.

    This dissertation discusses investigations of vibrationally and rotationally inelastic collisions of NaK with argon, helium and potassium as collision partners. We have investigated collisions of NaK molecules in the 2(A) 1Sigma+, state with argon and helium collision partners in a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) experiment. The pump laser prepares the molecules in particular ro-vibrational (v, J) levels in the 2(A) 1Sigma+, state. These excited molecules then emit fluorescence as they make transitions back to the ground [2(X)1Sigma +] state, and this fluorescence is collected by a Bomem Fourier-transform spectrometer. Weak collisional satellite lines appear flanking strong, direct lines in the recorded spectra. These satellite lines are due to collisions of the NaK molecule in the 2(A)1Sigma+, state with noble gas and alkali atom perturbers, which carry population to nearby rotational levels [(v, J) →(v, J + DeltaJ)] or to various rotational levels of nearby vibrational levels, [(v, J)→ (v + Deltav, J + DeltaJ)]. Ratios of the intensity of each collisional line to the intensity of the direct line then yields information pertaining to the transfer of population in the collision. Our results show a propensity for DeltaJ = even collisions of NaK with noble gas atoms, which is slightly more pronounced for collisions with helium than with argon. Such a DeltaJ = even propensity was not observed in the vibrationally inelastic collisions. Although it would be desirable to operate in the single collision regime, practical considerations make that difficult to achieve. Therefore, we have developed a method to estimate the effects of multiple collisions on our measured rate coefficients and have obtained approximate corrected values.

  5. Optical properties and size distribution of the nanocolloids made of rare-earth ion-doped NaYF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Darayas N.; Lewis, Ashley; Wright, Donald M.; Lewis, Danielle; Valentine, Rueben; Valentine, Maucus; Wessley, Dennis; Sarkisov, Sergey; Darwish, Abdalla M.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we investigate optical properties and size distribution of the nano-colloids made of trivalent rare-earth ion doped fluorides: holmium and ytterbium, thulium and ytterbium, and erbium and ytterbium co-doped NaYF4. These materials were synthesized by using simple co-precipitation synthetic method. The initially prepared micro-crystals had very weak or no visible upconversion fluorescence signals when being pumped with a 980-nm laser. The fluorescence intensity significantly increased after the crystals were annealed at a temperature of 400°C - 600°C undergoing the transition from cubic alpha to hexagonal beta phase of the fluoride host. Nano-colloids of the crystals were made in polar solvents using the laser ablation and ball milling methods. Size analyses of the prepared nano-colloids were conducted using a dynamic light scatterometer and atomic force microscope. The nano-colloids were filled in holey PCFs and their fluorescent properties were studied and the feasibility of new a type of fiber amplifier/laser was evaluated.

  6. Origin of low sodium capacity in graphite and generally weak substrate binding of Na and Mg among alkali and alkaline earth metals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyue; Merinov, Boris V; Goddard, William A

    2016-04-05

    It is well known that graphite has a low capacity for Na but a high capacity for other alkali metals. The growing interest in alternative cation batteries beyond Li makes it particularly important to elucidate the origin of this behavior, which is not well understood. In examining this question, we find a quite general phenomenon: among the alkali and alkaline earth metals, Na and Mg generally have the weakest chemical binding to a given substrate, compared with the other elements in the same column of the periodic table. We demonstrate this with quantum mechanics calculations for a wide range of substrate materials (not limited to C) covering a variety of structures and chemical compositions. The phenomenon arises from the competition between trends in the ionization energy and the ion-substrate coupling, down the columns of the periodic table. Consequently, the cathodic voltage for Na and Mg is expected to be lower than those for other metals in the same column. This generality provides a basis for analyzing the binding of alkali and alkaline earth metal atoms over a broad range of systems.

  7. Origin of low sodium capacity in graphite and generally weak substrate binding of Na and Mg among alkali and alkaline earth metals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanyue; Merinov, Boris V.; Goddard, William A.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that graphite has a low capacity for Na but a high capacity for other alkali metals. The growing interest in alternative cation batteries beyond Li makes it particularly important to elucidate the origin of this behavior, which is not well understood. In examining this question, we find a quite general phenomenon: among the alkali and alkaline earth metals, Na and Mg generally have the weakest chemical binding to a given substrate, compared with the other elements in the same column of the periodic table. We demonstrate this with quantum mechanics calculations for a wide range of substrate materials (not limited to C) covering a variety of structures and chemical compositions. The phenomenon arises from the competition between trends in the ionization energy and the ion–substrate coupling, down the columns of the periodic table. Consequently, the cathodic voltage for Na and Mg is expected to be lower than those for other metals in the same column. This generality provides a basis for analyzing the binding of alkali and alkaline earth metal atoms over a broad range of systems. PMID:27001855

  8. Origin of low sodium capacity in graphite and generally weak substrate binding of Na and Mg among alkali and alkaline earth metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanyue; Merinov, Boris V.; Goddard, William A., III

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that graphite has a low capacity for Na but a high capacity for other alkali metals. The growing interest in alternative cation batteries beyond Li makes it particularly important to elucidate the origin of this behavior, which is not well understood. In examining this question, we find a quite general phenomenon: among the alkali and alkaline earth metals, Na and Mg generally have the weakest chemical binding to a given substrate, compared with the other elements in the same column of the periodic table. We demonstrate this with quantum mechanics calculations for a wide range of substrate materials (not limited to C) covering a variety of structures and chemical compositions. The phenomenon arises from the competition between trends in the ionization energy and the ion-substrate coupling, down the columns of the periodic table. Consequently, the cathodic voltage for Na and Mg is expected to be lower than those for other metals in the same column. This generality provides a basis for analyzing the binding of alkali and alkaline earth metal atoms over a broad range of systems.

  9. Comparison of hydrodynamic and Dirac models of dispersion interaction between graphene and H, He*, or Na atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Churkin, Yu. V.; Fedortsov, A. B.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Yurova, V. A.

    2010-10-15

    The van der Waals and Casimir-Polder interaction of different atoms with graphene is investigated using the Dirac model which assumes that the energy of quasiparticles is linear with respect to the momentum. The obtained results for the van der Waals coefficients of hydrogen atoms and molecules and atoms of metastable He* and Na as a function of separation are compared with respective results found using the hydrodynamic model of graphene. It is shown that, regardless of the value of the gap parameter, the Dirac model leads to much smaller values of the van der Waals coefficients than the hydrodynamic model. The experiment on quantum reflection of metastable He* and Na atoms on graphene is proposed which is capable to discriminate between the two models of the electronic structure of graphene. In this respect, the parameters of the phenomenological potential for both these atoms interacting with graphene described by different models are determined.

  10. Measurements of the vertical fluxes of atomic Fe and Na at the mesopause: Implications for the velocity of cosmic dust entering the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wentao; Chu, Xinzhao; Gardner, Chester S.; Carrillo-Sánchez, Juan D.; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.; Nesvorný, David

    2015-01-01

    downward fluxes of Fe and Na, measured near the mesopause with the University of Colorado lidars near Boulder, and a chemical ablation model developed at the University of Leeds, are used to constrain the velocity/mass distribution of the meteoroids entering the atmosphere and to derive an improved estimate for the global influx of cosmic dust. We find that the particles responsible for injecting a large fraction of the ablated material into the Earth's upper atmosphere enter at relatively slow speeds and originate primarily from the Jupiter Family of Comets. The global mean Na influx is 17,200 ± 2800 atoms/cm2/s, which equals 298 ± 47 kg/d for the global input of Na vapor and 150 ± 38 t/d for the global influx of cosmic dust. The global mean Fe influx is 102,000 ± 18,000 atoms/cm2/s, which equals 4.29 ± 0.75 t/d for the global input of Fe vapor.

  11. Loparite, a rare-earth ore (Ce, Na, Sr, Ca)(Ti, Nb, Ta, Fe+3)O3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, J.B.; Sinha, S.P.; Kosynkin, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    The mineral loparite (Ce, NA, Sr, Ca)(Ti, Nb, Ta, Fe+3)O3 is the principal ore of the light-group rare-earth elements (LREE) in Russia. The complex oxide has a perovskite (ABO3) structure with coupled substitutions, polymorphism, defect chemistry and a tendency to become metamict. The A site generally contains weakly bonded, easily exchanged cations of the LREE, Na and Ca. The B site generally contains smaller, highly charged cations of Ti, Nb or Fe+3. Mine production is from Russia's Kola Peninsula. Ore is beneficiated to produce a 95% loparite concentrate containing 30% rare-earth oxides. Loparite concentrate is refined by either a chlorination process or acid decomposition process to recover rare-earths, titanium, niobium and tantalum. Rare-earths are separated by solvent extraction and selective precipitation/dissolution. The concentrate is processed at plants in Russia, Estonia and Kazakstan.

  12. Loparite, a rare-earth ore (Ce, Na, Sr, Ca)(Ti, Nb, Ta, Fe+3)O3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, James B.; Sinha, Shyama P.; Kosynkin, Valery D.

    1997-01-01

    The mineral loparite (Ce, NA, Sr, Ca)(Ti, Nb, Ta, Fe+3)O3 is the principal ore of the light-group rare-earth elements (LREE) in Russia. The complex oxide has a perovskite (ABO3) structure with coupled substitutions, polymorphism, defect chemistry and a tendency to become metamict. The A site generally contains weakly bonded, easily exchanged cations of the LREE, Na and Ca. The B site generally contains smaller, highly charged cations of Ti, Nb or Fe+3. Mine production is from Russia's Kola Peninsula. Ore is beneficiated to produce a 95% loparite concentrate containing 30% rare-earth oxides. Loparite concentrate is refined by either a chlorination process or acid decomposition process to recover rare-earths, titanium, niobium and tantalum. Rare-earths are separated by solvent extraction and selective precipitation/dissolution. The concentrate is processed at plants in Russia, Estonia and Kazakstan.

  13. Measurement of Atomic and Molecular Parameters of Nitrogen for Earth, Planetary and Astrophysical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daw, A.; Calamai, A.; Brewer, S.; Estes, C.; Kanoy, J.; Myer, B.; Stamilio, R.

    2005-05-01

    For the purpose of providing accurate atomic and molecular data for applications to the Earth's ionosphere and astrophysical plasmas, this project will provide measurements of: the radiative lifetime of the 5S metastable level of N+, the dissociation rate of doubly charged molecular nitrogen ions, electron capture rates from molecular nitrogen for both these ions, and the cross section for dissociative electron impact ionization of molecular nitrogen into metastable 5S N+, which is responsible for auroral 214 nm emission. Preliminary data and results are be presented. Ions are created in a radiofrequency ion trap by electron bombardment on nitrogen gas, and the UV radiation emitted by the stored ion population is then measured as a function of time. The primary source of radiation is the decaying metastable N+ ions, which emit photons at a wavelength of 214 nm. In addition to the atomic N+, doubly charged molecular ions (dications) are created and stored. Electron capture from neutral molecules into excited states of singly charged molecular nitrogen results in emission in bands that overlap with 214 nm. The decay rate of these two sources of radiation is measured as a function of nitrogen gas pressure to determine: the electron capture rates for both ions, the radiative decay rate of the metastable N+, and the dissociation rate of the dications. The photon observations are corrected for ion losses using the technique presented in Daw, Parkinson, Smith, & Calamai, ApJ 533, L179, 2000. Limits on the cross section for dissociative electron impact ionization of molecular nitrogen into metastable 5S N+ will be determined relative to the (well-known) cross section for dication production, by comparing the photon rate at 214 nm to the photon rate generated in different bandpasses as a result of dication electron capture.

  14. NARROW Na AND K ABSORPTION LINES TOWARD T TAURI STARS: TRACING THE ATOMIC ENVELOPE OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Pascucci, I.; Simon, M. N.; Edwards, S.; Heyer, M.; Rigliaco, E.; Hillenbrand, L.; Gorti, U.; Hollenbach, D.

    2015-11-20

    We present a detailed analysis of narrow Na i and K i absorption resonance lines toward nearly 40 T Tauri stars in Taurus with the goal of clarifying their origin. The Na i λ5889.95 line is detected toward all but one source, while the weaker K i λ7698.96 line is detected in about two-thirds of the sample. The similarity in their peak centroids and the significant positive correlation between their equivalent widths demonstrate that these transitions trace the same atomic gas. The absorption lines are present toward both disk and diskless young stellar objects, which excludes cold gas within the circumstellar disk as the absorbing material. A comparison of Na i and CO detections and peak centroids demonstrates that the atomic gas and molecular gas are not co-located, the atomic gas being more extended than the molecular gas. The width of the atomic lines corroborates this finding and points to atomic gas about an order of magnitude warmer than the molecular gas. The distribution of Na i radial velocities shows a clear spatial gradient along the length of the Taurus molecular cloud filaments. This suggests that absorption is associated with the Taurus molecular cloud. Assuming that the gradient is due to cloud rotation, the rotation of the atomic gas is consistent with differential galactic rotation, whereas the rotation of the molecular gas, although with the same rotation axis, is retrograde. Our analysis shows that narrow Na i and K i absorption resonance lines are useful tracers of the atomic envelope of molecular clouds. In line with recent findings from giant molecular clouds, our results demonstrate that the velocity fields of the atomic and molecular gas are misaligned. The angular momentum of a molecular cloud is not simply inherited from the rotating Galactic disk from which it formed but may be redistributed by cloud–cloud interactions.

  15. Development and Performance of an Atomic Interferometer Gravity Gradiometer for Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthcke, S. B.; Saif, B.; Sugarbaker, A.; Rowlands, D. D.; Loomis, B.

    2016-12-01

    The wealth of multi-disciplinary science achieved from the GRACE mission, the commitment to GRACE Follow On (GRACE-FO), and Resolution 2 from the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG, 2015), highlight the importance to implement a long-term satellite gravity observational constellation. Such a constellation would measure time variable gravity (TVG) with accuracies 50 times better than the first generation missions, at spatial and temporal resolutions to support regional and sub-basin scale multi-disciplinary science. Improved TVG measurements would achieve significant societal benefits including: forecasting of floods and droughts, improved estimates of climate impacts on water cycle and ice sheets, coastal vulnerability, land management, risk assessment of natural hazards, and water management. To meet the accuracy and resolution challenge of the next generation gravity observational system, NASA GSFC and AOSense are currently developing an Atomic Interferometer Gravity Gradiometer (AIGG). This technology is capable of achieving the desired accuracy and resolution with a single instrument, exploiting the advantages of the microgravity environment. The AIGG development is funded under NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), and includes the design, build, and testing of a high-performance, single-tensor-component gravity gradiometer for TVG recovery from a satellite in low Earth orbit. The sensitivity per shot is 10-5 Eötvös (E) with a flat spectral bandwidth from 0.3 mHz - 0.03 Hz. Numerical simulations show that a single space-based AIGG in a 326 km altitude polar orbit is capable of exceeding the IUGG target requirement for monthly TVG accuracy of 1 cm equivalent water height at 200 km resolution. We discuss the current status of the AIGG IIP development and estimated instrument performance, and we present results of simulated Earth TVG recovery of the space-based AIGG. We explore the accuracy, and

  16. Atomic-scale imaging of the dissolution of NaCl islands by water at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jinbo; Guo, Jing; Ma, Runze; Meng, Xiangzhi; Jiang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    The dissolution of sodium chloride (NaCl) in water is a frequently encountered process in our daily lives. While the NaCl dissolution process in liquid water has been extensively studied, whether and how the dissolution occurs below the freezing point is still not clear. Using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM), here we were able to directly visualize the dissolution of Au-supported NaCl (0 0 1) bilayer islands by water at atomic level. We found that the single water molecule on the STM tip can assist the extraction of single Na+ from the NaCl surface even at 5 K, while leaving the Cl‑ intact. When covered with a full water monolayer, the NaCl islands started to dissolve from the step edges and also showed evidence of dissolution inside the terraces as the temperature was raised up to 145 K. At 155 K, the water molecules completely desorbed from the surface, which was accompanied with the decomposition and restructuring of the bilayer NaCl islands. Those results suggest that the dissolution of NaCl may occur well below the freezing point at the ice/NaCl interfaces and is mainly driven by the interaction between the water molecules and the Na+, which is in clear contrast with the NaCl dissolution in liquid water.

  17. Atomic-scale imaging of the dissolution of NaCl islands by water at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinbo; Guo, Jing; Ma, Runze; Meng, Xiangzhi; Jiang, Ying

    2017-03-15

    The dissolution of sodium chloride (NaCl) in water is a frequently encountered process in our daily lives. While the NaCl dissolution process in liquid water has been extensively studied, whether and how the dissolution occurs below the freezing point is still not clear. Using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM), here we were able to directly visualize the dissolution of Au-supported NaCl (0 0 1) bilayer islands by water at atomic level. We found that the single water molecule on the STM tip can assist the extraction of single Na(+) from the NaCl surface even at 5 K, while leaving the Cl(-) intact. When covered with a full water monolayer, the NaCl islands started to dissolve from the step edges and also showed evidence of dissolution inside the terraces as the temperature was raised up to 145 K. At 155 K, the water molecules completely desorbed from the surface, which was accompanied with the decomposition and restructuring of the bilayer NaCl islands. Those results suggest that the dissolution of NaCl may occur well below the freezing point at the ice/NaCl interfaces and is mainly driven by the interaction between the water molecules and the Na(+), which is in clear contrast with the NaCl dissolution in liquid water.

  18. The effect of alkaline earth metal ion dopants on photocatalytic water splitting by NaTaO(3) powder.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Akihide; Kato, Hideki; Kudo, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline earth metal ions (Ca, Sr, and Ba) are doped into a NaTaO(3) photocatalyst, yielding fine particles and surface structures with nanometer-scale "steps." The formation of the surface nanostep structure depends on the amount of doped Sr and Ba. The photocatalytic water splitting over NaTaO(3) is enhanced: NaTaO(3) doped with 0.5 and 1.0 mol % of Sr shows high activities for photocatalytic water splitting without loading of a co-catalyst, and the photocatalytic activity is further improved by loading with a NiO co-catalyst.

  19. Influence of rare earth cation size on the crystal structure in rare earth silicates, Na2RESiO4(OH) (RE = Sc, Yb) and NaRESiO4 (RE = La, Yb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latshaw, Allison M.; Wilkins, Branford O.; Chance, W. Michael; Smith, Mark D.; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2016-01-01

    Crystals of Na2ScSiO4(OH) and Na2YbSiO4(OH) were synthesized at low temperatures using a sodium hydroxide based hydroflux, while crystals of NaLaSiO4 and NaYbSiO4 were grown at high temperatures using a sodium fluoride/sodium chloride eutectic flux. Both structure types were crystallized under reaction conditions that, when used for medium sized rare earths (RE = Pr, Nd, Sm - Tm) yield the Na5RE4X[SiO4]4 structure type, where X is OH in the hydroflux conditions and F in the eutectic flux conditions. Herein, we report the synthesis, structure, size effect, and magnetic properties of these compositions and introduce the new structure type of Na2RESiO4(OH), which crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pca21, of NaLaSiO4, which crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pna21, and of NaYbSiO4, which crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma, where both NaRESiO4 compounds have one silicon structural analog.

  20. Interaction of Rydberg atoms in circular states with the alkaline-earth Ca(4s{sup 2}) and Sr(5s{sup 2}) atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Mironchuk, E. S.; Narits, A. A.; Lebedev, V. S.

    2015-11-15

    The resonant mechanism of interaction of alkaline-earth atoms having a low electron affinity to Rydberg atoms in circular (l = vertical bar m vertical bar = n–1) and near-circular states has been studied. To describe the dynamics of resonant processes accompanied by nonadiabatic transitions between ionic and Rydberg covalent terms of a quasimolecule, an approach based on the integration of coupled equations for the probability amplitudes has been developed taking into account the possibility of the decay of an anion in the Coulomb field of the positive ionic core of a highly excited atom. The approach involves the specific features of the problem associated with the structure of the wavefunction of a Rydberg electron in states with high orbital angular momenta l ∼ n–1. This approach provides a much more accurate description of the dynamics of electronic transitions at collisions between atoms than that within the modified semiclassical Landau–Zener model. In addition, this approach makes it possible to effectively take into account many channels of the problem. The cross sections for resonant quenching of Rydberg states of the Li(nlm) atom with given principal n, orbital l = n–1, and magnetic m quantum numbers at thermal collisions with the Ca(4s{sup 2}) and Sr(5s{sup 2}) atoms have been calculated. The dependences of the results on n, m, and angle α between the relative velocity of the atoms and the normal to the plane of the orbit of the Rydberg electron have been obtained. The influence of orientational effects on the efficiency of the collisional destruction of circular and near-circular states has been studied. The results indicate a higher stability of such states to their perturbations by neutral particles as compared to usually studied nl states with low values of l (l ≪ n)

  1. Spin-Orbit-Coupled Correlated Metal Phase in Kondo Lattices: An Implementation with Alkaline-Earth Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, L.; Schachenmayer, J.; Rey, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    We show that an interplay between quantum effects, strong on-site ferromagnetic exchange interaction, and antiferromagnetic correlations in Kondo lattices can give rise to an exotic spin-orbit coupled metallic state in regimes where classical treatments predict a trivial insulating behavior. This phenomenon can be simulated with ultracold alkaline-earth fermionic atoms subject to a laser-induced magnetic field by observing dynamics of spin-charge excitations in quench experiments.

  2. Influence of rare-earth ions on SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass structure.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J. A.; Benmore, C. J.; Holland, D.; Du, J.; Beuneu, B.; Mekki, A.

    2011-01-27

    Praseodymium and europium sodium silicate glasses of nominal composition (SiO{sub 2}){sub 0.70-x}(Na{sub 2}O){sub 0.30}(RE{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub x}, where RE is the rare earth and 0 {le} x {le} 0.10, were studied by neutron and high-energy x-ray scattering and classical molecular dynamics simulations. The observation of a significant x-ray intensity in doped as compared to un-doped glasses is indicative of RE-RE correlations at a distance of {approx} 3.7-3.9 {angstrom}, much shorter than would be expected for a homogeneous distribution, suggesting that clustering of the rare-earth cations occurs in both these glass systems at low concentrations. Above x = 0.075 (nominal), minimal changes in this region indicate that the RE atoms are incorporated much more randomly into the glass structure. The molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the rare-earth ions enter the sodium-rich regions in the sodium silicate glasses and act as modifiers. A cluster analysis performed on the model systems indicates that the tendency for clustering is higher in praseodymium-containing glasses than in the europium glasses.

  3. Features of an intermetallic n-ZrNiSn semiconductor heavily doped with atoms of rare-earth metals

    SciTech Connect

    Romaka, V. A.; Fruchart, D.; Hlil, E. K.; Gladyshevskii, R. E.; Gignoux, D.; Romaka, V. V.; Kuzhel, B. S.; Krayjvskii, R. V.

    2010-03-15

    The crystal structure, density of electron states, electron transport, and magnetic characteristics of an intermetallic n-ZrNiSn semiconductor heavily doped with atoms of rare-earth metals (R) have been studied in the ranges of temperatures 1.5-400 K, concentrations of rare-earth metal 9.5 x 10{sup 19}-9.5 x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}, and magnetic fields H {<=} 15 T. The regions of existence of Zr{sub 1-x}R{sub x}NiSn solid solutions are determined, criteria for solubility of atoms of rare-earth metals in ZrNiSn and for the insulator-metal transition are formulated, and the nature of 'a priori doping' of ZrNiSn is determined as a result of redistribution of Zr and Ni atoms at the crystallographic sites of Zr. Correlation between the concentration of the R impurity, the amplitude of modulation of the bands of continuous energies, and the degree of occupation of potential wells of small-scale fluctuations with charge carriers is established. The results are discussed in the context of the Shklovskii-Efros model of a heavily doped and compensated semiconductor.

  4. Phenylethynyl-butyltellurium inhibits the sulfhydryl enzyme Na+, K+ -ATPase: an effect dependent on the tellurium atom.

    PubMed

    Quines, Caroline B; Rosa, Suzan G; Neto, José S S; Zeni, Gilson; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2013-11-01

    Organotellurium compounds are known for their toxicological effects. These effects may be associated with the chemical structure of these compounds and the oxidation state of the tellurium atom. In this context, 2-phenylethynyl-butyltellurium (PEBT) inhibits the activity of the sulfhydryl enzyme, δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase. The present study investigated on the importance of the tellurium atom in the PEBT ability to oxidize mono- and dithiols of low molecular weight and sulfhydryl enzymes in vitro. PEBT, at high micromolar concentrations, oxidized dithiothreitol (DTT) and inhibited cerebral Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, but did not alter the lactate dehydrogenase activity. The inhibition of cerebral Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was completely restored by DTT. By contrast, 2-phenylethynyl-butyl, a molecule without the tellurium atom, neither oxidized DTT nor altered the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity. In conclusion, the tellurium atom of PEBT is crucial for the catalytic oxidation of sulfhydryl groups from thiols of low molecular weight and from Na(+), K(+)-ATPase.

  5. Isotropic and anisotropic shear velocity model of the NA upper mantle using EarthScope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, J.; Clouzet, P.; French, S. W.; Yuan, H.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage across the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous work, we present a new 3D isotropic, radially and azimuthally anisotropic shear wave model of the North American (NA) lithospheric mantle, using full waveform tomography and shorter-period (40 s) waveform data. Our isotropic velocity model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between major tectonic localities of the eastern NA continent, as evidenced in the geology, and seismic anomalies, suggesting recurring episodes of tectonic events not only are well exposed at the surface, but also leave persistent scars in the continental lithosphere mantle, marked by isotropic and radially anisotropic velocity anomalies that reach as deep as 100-150 km. In eastern North America, our Vs images distinguish the fast velocity cratonic NA from the deep rooted large volume high velocity blocks which are east of the continent rift margin and extend 200-300 km offshore into Atlantic. In between is a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the south and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. The lithosphere associated with this low velocity band is thinned likely due to combined effects of repeated rifting processes along the rift margin and northward extension of the Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. Deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin are proposed to represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia formation but left behind during the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The anisotropy model takes advantage of the up-to-date SKS compilation in the continent and new splitting results from Greenland. The new joint waveform and SKS splitting data inversion is carried out with a 2

  6. Cyclotron dynamics of a Kondo singlet in a spin-orbit-coupled alkaline-earth-metal atomic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bo-Nan; Lv, Hao; Wang, Wen-Li; Du, Juan; Qian, Jun; Wang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-11-01

    We propose a scheme to investigate the interplay between the Kondo-exchange interaction and the quantum spin Hall effect with ultracold fermionic alkaline-earth-metal atoms trapped in two-dimensional optical lattices using ultracold collision and laser-assisted tunneling. In the strong Kondo-coupling regime, although the loop trajectory of the mobile atom disappears, collective dynamics of an atom pair in two clock states can exhibit an unexpected spin-dependent cyclotron orbit in a plaquette, realizing the quantum spin Hall effect of the Kondo singlet. We demonstrate that the collective cyclotron dynamics of the spin-zero Kondo singlet is governed by an effective Harper-Hofstadter model in addition to second-order diagonal tunneling.

  7. Cross sections of collisional excitation transfer in collisions of rare-earth metal atoms in screened excited states with atoms of inert gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, V. A.; Gerasimov, V. V.

    2011-10-01

    We present and apply a method to determine the collisional excitation transfer (CET) cross sections in collisions of rare-earth metal (REM) atoms in the screened excited states 4fN - 15d6s2 with ground-state atoms of inert gases. The method is based on the fact that the upper laser levels are collisionally populated from the close-lying resonant levels, which are excited by electron impact, in REM vapour lasers. An experimental measurement of only one laser parameter (average lasing power) is required to determine the cross sections. The CET cross sections from the screened level 4f12(3H5)5d3/26s2, with energy E = 22 791.176 cm-1, to the unscreened 4f12(3H6)6s26p1/2 (E = 22 468.046 cm-1) and screened 4f13(2F07/2)5d6s(3D) (E = 22 559.502 cm-1) levels of thulium atoms in the collisions with helium atoms are estimated as an example.

  8. Cage-to-cage migration rates of Xe atoms in zeolite NaA from magnetization transfer experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, A. Keith; Jameson, Cynthia J.; Gerald, Rex E., II

    1994-08-01

    Xenon trapped in the alpha cages of zeolite NaA exhibits distinct NMR signals for clusters Xe1, Xe2, Xe3,..., up to Xe8. Using multisite magnetization transfer experiments, we have measured the rate constants kmn for the elementary processes that are involved in the cage-to-cage transfer of Xe atoms in the zeolite NaA, that is, for a single Xe atom leaving a cage containing Xen to appear in a neighboring cage containing Xem-1, thereby forming Xem. In a random walk simulation, these rate constants reproduce over a hundred magnetization decay/recovery curves that we have measured in four samples of Xe in zeolite NaA at room temperature, in selective inversion, and complementary experiments for all the significantly populated clusters. The simulations also lead to the correct experimental equilibrium distributions, that is, the fractions of the alpha cages containing Xe1,Xe2,...,Xe8.

  9. Simulation of the synergistic low Earth orbit effects of vacuum thermal cycling, vacuum UV radiation, and atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Stidham, Curtis R.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Dever, Therese M.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Terlep, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the low Earth orbit (LEO) durability of candidate space materials, it is necessary to use ground laboratory facilities which provide LEO environmental effects. A facility combining vacuum thermal cycling and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation has been designed and constructed at NASA Lewis Research Center for this purpose. This facility can also be operated without the VUV lamps. An additional facility can be used to provide VUV exposure only. By utilizing these facilities, followed by atomic oxygen exposure in an RF plasma asher, the effects of the individual vacuum thermal cycling and VUV environments can be compared to the effect of the combined vacuum thermal cycling/VUV environment on the atomic oxygen durability of materials. The synergistic effects of simulated LEO environmental conditions on materials were evaluated by first exposing materials to vacuum thermal cycling, VUV, and vacuum thermal cycling/VUV environments followed by exposure to atomic oxygen in an RP plasma asher. Candidate space power materials such as atomic oxygen protected polyimides and solar concentrator mirrors were evaluated using these facilities. Characteristics of the Vacuum Thermal Cycling/VUV Exposure Facility which simulates the temperature sequences and solar ultraviolet radiation exposure that would be experienced by a spacecraft surface in LEO are discussed. Results of durability evaluations of some candidate space power materials to the simulated LEO environmental conditions will also be discussed. Such results have indicated that for some materials, atomic oxygen durability is affected by previous exposure to thermal cycling and/or VUV exposure.

  10. Collisional broadening of Mg, Sr, Ca and Na resonance lines by atomic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkeni, B.; Barklem, P. S.; Spielfiedel, A.; Feautrier, N.

    2004-02-01

    This paper compares different approaches used in the calculation of the broadening of spectral lines by H-atom collisions. Firstly, the validity of the semi-classical approach for the collision versus the quantum one is discussed. It is shown that, at the temperatures typical of stellar atmospheres (from 3000 to 10 000 K), a classical approach (with the advantage of reduced computation times) is sufficient. The dependence of the broadening constants on interatomic potentials is also studied. Two different approaches were used to derive these potentials: in the first approach, the interaction energy is determined by the usual methods of quantum chemistry. The second approach, developed by Anstee, Barklem and O'Mara (ABO potentials), is based on second-order perturbation theory. In the case of Mg H, a hybrid potential obtained from ab initio values for the short distances and from the perturbation method in the asymptotic region was also tested. The results for the Na resonance line show that even significant differences in the potentials lead to relatively small changes in the calculated widths. From the comparison of the results for the Mg, Sr and Ca resonance lines, it appears that ABO potentials give results of the order of 8 20% smaller than results from ab initio and hybrid potentials. This difference is attributed to the presence of an avoided ionic crossing in the upper singlet Sgr states that coincides roughly with the Weisskopf radius.

  11. Precision muonic-atom measurements of nuclear quadrupole moments and the Sternheimer effect in rare-earth atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Y.; Steffen, R.M.; Shera, E.B.; Reuter, W.; Hoehn, M.V.; Zumbro, J.D.

    1983-10-31

    The ground-state quadrupole moments of /sup 151/Eu, /sup 153/Eu, /sup 155/Gd, /sup 157/Gd, /sup 159/Tb, /sup 163/Dy, /sup 167/Er, /sup 177/Hf, /sup 179/Hf, /sup 191/Ir, and /sup 193/Ir were determined with an uncertainty of less than one percent by measuring the quadrupole hyperfine-splitting energies of muonic M x rays. The results are used to determine experimentally Sternheimer shielding factors for the 4f, 5d, and 6p electronic states of the respective atoms. The deduced shielding factors for the 5d electronic states were found to vary considerably among these elements, presumably as a result of configuration mixing.

  12. [Indirect determination of rare earth elements in Chinese herbal medicines by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chao; Lu, Jian-Ping; Xue, Min-Hua; Tan, Fang-Wei; Wu, Xiao-Yan

    2014-07-01

    Based on their similarity in chemical properties, rare earth elements were able to form stable coordinated compounds with arsenazo III which were extractable into butanol in the presence of diphenylguanidine. The butanol was removed under reduced pressure distillation; the residue was dissolved with diluted hydrochloric acid. As was released with the assistance of KMnO4 and determined by hydrogen generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry in terms of rare earth elements. When cesium sulfate worked as standard solution, extraction conditions, KMnO4 amount, distillation temperature, arsenazo III amount, interfering ions, etc were optimized. The accuracy and precision of the method were validated using national standard certified materials, showing a good agreement. Under optimum condition, the linear relationship located in 0.2-25 microg x mL(-1) and detection limit was 0.44 microg x mL(-1). After the herbal samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, the rare earth elements were determined by this method, showing satisfactory results with relative standard deviation of 1.3%-2.5%, and recoveries of 94.4%-106.0%. The method showed the merits of convenience and rapidness, simple instrumentation and high accuracy. With the rare earths enriched into organic phase, the separation of analytes from matrix was accomplished, which eliminated the interference. With the residue dissolved by diluted hydrochloric acid after the solvent was removed, aqueous sample introduction eliminated the impact of organic phase on the tubing connected to pneumatic pump.

  13. The Production of Energetic Atomic Beams via Charge Exchange for the Simulation of the Low-Earth Orbit Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketsdever, Andrew David

    The interactions of energetic atoms with solid materials and other gases are important to a wide range of engineering disciplines. The interactions between low -Earth orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen and spacecraft surfaces, outgassed molecules, rocket exhaust plume species and other atmospheric gases are of great interest to the aerospace engineering community. The approach taken in this study was to design a facility which can be used to understand the physics of energetic gas-gas and gas-surface collisions. The type of facility needed to accomplish this requires a continuous, high energy (5-100eV) atomic beam with a low energy spread and a moderate flux. The flux of atoms from this facility, although estimated to be several orders of magnitude lower than LEO conditions, is sufficient to gain qualitative and quantitative insight into LEO environmental interactions. In the pilot scale true energy atmospheric simulator (TEAS) developed in this research, ion engine technology is incorporated to produce a beam of energetic ions. Because the ion source discharges can be operated on several gases, simulation of any atmospheric species can be achieved; however, atomic oxygen is the species of interest in this study. The ions are accelerated to the desired energy range and undergo a charge exchange process in molecular hydrogen to produce the energetic atomic beam Molecular hydrogen is chosen as the charge exchange gas because of the relatively large cross section for the reaction and the small scattering angle per collision. An electrostatic energy analyzer, a mass spectrometer and thin silver reaction films are used to diagnose the beams produced by the TEAS.

  14. High intensity 5 eV atomic oxygen source and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) simulation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. B.; Spangler, L. H.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Archuleta, F. A.; Leger, Lubert; Visentine, James

    1987-01-01

    An atomic oxygen exposure facility has been developed for studies of material degradation. The goal of these studies is to provide design criteria and information for the manufacture of long life (20 to 30 years) construction materials for use in LEO. The studies that are being undertaken using the facility will provide: absolute reaction cross sections for use in engineering design problems; formulations of reaction mechanisms; and calibration of flight hardware (mass spectrometers, etc.) in order to directly relate experiments performed in LEO to ground based investigations. The facility consists of: (1) a CW laser sustained discharge source of O atoms having a variable energy up to 5 eV and an intensity between 10(15) and 10(17) O atoms s(-1) cm(-2); (2) an atomic beam formation and diagnostics system consisting of various stages of differential pumping, a mass spectrometer detector, and a time of flight analyzer; (3) a spinning rotor viscometer for absolute O atom flux measurements; and (4) provision for using the system for calibration of actual flight instruments. Surface analysis equipment is available for the characterization of material surfaces before and after exposure to O atoms.

  15. Shifts in the ESR Spectra of Alkali-Metal Atoms (Li, Na, K, Rb) on Helium Nanodroplets

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Andreas W; Gruber, Thomas; Filatov, Michael; Ernst, Wolfgang E

    2013-01-01

    He-droplet-induced changes of the hyperfine structure constants of alkali-metal atoms are investigated by a combination of relativistically corrected ab initio methods with a simulation of the helium density distribution based on He density functional theory. Starting from an accurate description of the variation of the hyperfine structure constant in the M–He diatomic systems (M=Li, Na, K, Rb) as a function of the interatomic distance we simulate the shifts induced by droplets of up to 10 000 4He atoms. All theoretical predictions for the relative shifts in the isotropic hyperfine coupling constants of the alkali-metal atoms attached to helium droplets of different size are then tied to a single, experimentally derived parameter of Rb. PMID:23125112

  16. Density-functional calculations for rare-earth atoms and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstreuter, J.; Steinbeck, L.; Richter, M.; Eschrig, H.

    1997-04-01

    Relativistic local-spin-density (RLSD) and self-interaction-corrected (SIC) RLSD calculations were performed for the whole series of the rare-earth elements. Ionization potentials and radial expectation values with 4f wave functions were calculated. Improvement on nearly all quantities is found for SIC calculations. Comparison with other calculational methods shows that for a description of rare-earth elements SIC-RLSD competes well in accuracy with all of them, including the most accurate quantum-chemical approach. This is important since the SIC calculation has the advantage of being suited for a description of localized f states in solids with a comparatively moderate effort.

  17. Storage of images in atomic coherences in a rare-earth-ion-doped solid

    SciTech Connect

    Heinze, G.; Rudolf, A.; Beil, F.; Halfmann, T.

    2010-01-15

    We report on storage of images in atomic coherences driven by electromagnetically induced transparency in a doped solid. We demonstrate image storage times up to the regime of milliseconds (i.e., more than two orders of magnitude larger than in gaseous media). Our data also reveal an improvement in the spatial resolution of the retrieved images by a factor of 40. The long storage times become possible by applying additional radio frequency pulse sequences to drive rephasing of the atomic coherences. Moreover, the perturbing effect of atomic diffusion (which significantly limits image storage times in gases) is absent in the solid. In addition, we monitored pronounced oscillations in the intensity of the retrieved image versus the storage time. These oscillations are due to the beating of dark-state polaritons. All of these results demonstrate the superior properties of coherently driven optical data storage in solids.

  18. Atomic data for lighting and astrophysical applications: Excited-state lifetimes and transition probabilities for rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, J.J.; Anderson, H.M.; Den Hartog, E.A.; Wickliffe, M.E.; Lawler, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    Because of the extremely rich spectra of rare-earth metals, a large volume of data for these elements is sought by the lighting industry for modeling of a new generation of High-Intensity Discharge lamps. In addition, the observation of rare-earths in the atmospheres of chemically peculiar stars means that this data is also of substantial interest to the astrophysics community. The authors are currently meeting this need with a combination of two experiments: excited-state lifetimes are obtained from laser-induced fluorescence measurements on a slow atomic/ionic beam, and branching fractions are obtained with a Fourier-transform spectrometer. These two sets of data are then combined to produce absolute transition probabilities. Obtaining high-quality data of this nature has involved the development of an appropriate atomic beam source, as well as a careful understanding and elimination of a variety of systematic effects. Current work has yielded preliminary lifetime measurements on more than 400 levels of neutral and singly-ionized Dysprosium, and will eventually continue with Holmium.

  19. Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  20. Pressure effects on hydrogen atoms near the metal plane in the HCP phase of rare-earth metal trihydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunghathaithip, N.; Pakornchote, T.; Phaisangittisakul, N.; Bovornratanaraks, T.; Pinsook, U.

    2016-04-01

    Rare-earth metal trihydrides, REH3 (RE=Sc, Y, La), in the hcp phase were investigated under high pressure by the ab initio method. We concentrated on the behavior of hydrogen atoms which is affected by pressure. Two-thirds of the hydrogen atoms near the metal plane (Hm) were found to displace away from the metal plane as pressure increases. The trajectory of these squeezed hydrogen atoms is from a site near the metal plane, and moves past the plane of the tetragonal sites, and heads toward the nearest octahedral site. However, the rate of displacement depends on the local environment. LaH3 exhibits the least impediment on the Hm displacement while YH3 and ScH3 exhibit stronger impediment. Furthermore, our calculated Raman and IR active modes are in general agreement with the experimental data. The displacement of Hm can be used to explain the behavior of the Ov peak in Raman spectra, where it exists at low pressure and disappears at higher pressure in YH3 and ScH3.

  1. Laboratory simulations of energetic atom interactions occurring in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, G. E.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle flights provided the first significant data base on the environment experienced by a large space structure operating in LEO. A number of interesting and unanticipated effects were observed, including material erosion induced by ambient oxygen atoms, the visible Shuttle glow occurring above surfaces exposed to the ram flow, and large near-field perturbations and variability in the gaseous neutral and plasma environment about the Shuttle. This paper provides a brief overview of these observations and their phenomenological interpretation, and then discusses laboratory approaches to their investigation. The emphasis is on the state of the art in the development of energetic oxygen atoms sources and the variety of experiments presently being performed with such devices.

  2. Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of polymeric carboxyl phthalocyanine coordinated with rare earth atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Wang, Zonghua; Chen, Jishi; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Fushi

    2017-04-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of the polymeric carboxyl phthalocyanine with lanthanum (LaPPc.COOH), holmium (HoPPc.COOH) and ytterbium (YbPPc.COOH) as centric atom, were investigated by the Z-scan method using a picosecond 532 nm laser. The synthesized phthalocyanines had steric polymeric structure and dissolved well in aqueous solution. The nonlinear optical response of them was attributed to the reverse saturable absorption and self-focus refraction. The nonlinear absorption properties decreased with the centric atoms changing from La, Ho to Yb. The largest second-order hyperpolarizability and optical limiting response threshold of LaPPc.COOH were 3.89 × 10-29 esu and 0.32 J/cm2, respectively. The reverse saturable absorption was explained by a three level mode of singlet excited state under the picosecond irradiation. The result indicates the steric structure presented additive stability of these polymeric phthalocyanines for their application as potential optical limiting materials.

  3. Efficient emission of positronium atoms from an Na-coated polycrystalline tungsten surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terabe, H.; Iida, S.; Wada, K.; Hyodo, T.; Yagishita, A.; Nagashima, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Time-of-flight spectra for the ortho-positronium emitted from clean and Na-coated tungsten surfaces have been measured using the pulsed slow positron beam at KEK-IMSS slow positron facility. Emission efficiency of positronium from the Na-coated sample was found to be several times greater than that from uncoated tungsten surfaces.

  4. Cold Atom Interferometers Used in Space (CAIUS) for Measuring the Earth's Gravity Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraz, Olivier; Siemes, Christian; Massotti, Luca; Haagmans, Roger; Silvestrin, Pierluigi

    2016-08-01

    The scope of the paper is to propose different concepts for future space gravity missions using Cold Atom Interferometers (CAI) for measuring the diagonal elements of the gravity gradient tensor, the spacecraft angular velocity and the spacecraft acceleration. The aim is to achieve better performance than previous space gravity missions due to a very low white noise spectral behaviour of the CAI instrument and a very high common mode rejection, with the ultimate goals of determining the fine structures of the gravity field with higher accuracy than GOCE and detecting time-variable signals in the gravity field.

  5. Adiabatic loading of one-dimensional SU(N) alkaline-earth-atom fermions in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Bonnes, Lars; Hazzard, Kaden R A; Manmana, Salvatore R; Rey, Ana Maria; Wessel, Stefan

    2012-11-16

    Ultracold fermionic alkaline earth atoms confined in optical lattices realize Hubbard models with internal SU(N) symmetries, where N can be as large as ten. Such systems are expected to harbor exotic magnetic physics at temperatures below the superexchange energy scale. Employing quantum Monte Carlo simulations to access the low-temperature regime of one-dimensional chains, we show that after adiabatically loading a weakly interacting gas into the strongly interacting regime of an optical lattice, the final temperature decreases with increasing N. Furthermore, we estimate the temperature scale required to probe correlations associated with low-temperature SU(N) magnetism. Our findings are encouraging for the exploration of exotic large-N magnetic states in ongoing experiments.

  6. Muonium in Stishovite: Implications for the Possible Existence of Neutral Atomic Hydrogen in the Earth's Deep Mantle

    PubMed Central

    Funamori, Nobumasa; Kojima, Kenji M.; Wakabayashi, Daisuke; Sato, Tomoko; Taniguchi, Takashi; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Irifune, Tetsuo; Tomono, Dai; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro; Miyazaki, Masanori; Hiraishi, Masatoshi; Koda, Akihiro; Kadono, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen in the Earth's deep interior has been thought to exist as a hydroxyl group in high-pressure minerals. We present Muon Spin Rotation experiments on SiO2 stishovite, which is an archetypal high-pressure mineral. Positive muon (which can be considered as a light isotope of proton) implanted in stishovite was found to capture electron to form muonium (corresponding to neutral hydrogen). The hyperfine-coupling parameter and the relaxation rate of spin polarization of muonium in stishovite were measured to be very large, suggesting that muonium is squeezed in small and anisotropic interstitial voids without binding to silicon or oxygen. These results imply that hydrogen may also exist in the form of neutral atomic hydrogen in the deep mantle. PMID:25675890

  7. Muonium in Stishovite: Implications for the Possible Existence of Neutral Atomic Hydrogen in the Earth's Deep Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funamori, Nobumasa; Kojima, Kenji M.; Wakabayashi, Daisuke; Sato, Tomoko; Taniguchi, Takashi; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Irifune, Tetsuo; Tomono, Dai; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro; Miyazaki, Masanori; Hiraishi, Masatoshi; Koda, Akihiro; Kadono, Ryosuke

    2015-02-01

    Hydrogen in the Earth's deep interior has been thought to exist as a hydroxyl group in high-pressure minerals. We present Muon Spin Rotation experiments on SiO2 stishovite, which is an archetypal high-pressure mineral. Positive muon (which can be considered as a light isotope of proton) implanted in stishovite was found to capture electron to form muonium (corresponding to neutral hydrogen). The hyperfine-coupling parameter and the relaxation rate of spin polarization of muonium in stishovite were measured to be very large, suggesting that muonium is squeezed in small and anisotropic interstitial voids without binding to silicon or oxygen. These results imply that hydrogen may also exist in the form of neutral atomic hydrogen in the deep mantle.

  8. Muonium in stishovite: implications for the possible existence of neutral atomic hydrogen in the earth's deep mantle.

    PubMed

    Funamori, Nobumasa; Kojima, Kenji M; Wakabayashi, Daisuke; Sato, Tomoko; Taniguchi, Takashi; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Irifune, Tetsuo; Tomono, Dai; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro; Miyazaki, Masanori; Hiraishi, Masatoshi; Koda, Akihiro; Kadono, Ryosuke

    2015-02-13

    Hydrogen in the Earth's deep interior has been thought to exist as a hydroxyl group in high-pressure minerals. We present Muon Spin Rotation experiments on SiO2 stishovite, which is an archetypal high-pressure mineral. Positive muon (which can be considered as a light isotope of proton) implanted in stishovite was found to capture electron to form muonium (corresponding to neutral hydrogen). The hyperfine-coupling parameter and the relaxation rate of spin polarization of muonium in stishovite were measured to be very large, suggesting that muonium is squeezed in small and anisotropic interstitial voids without binding to silicon or oxygen. These results imply that hydrogen may also exist in the form of neutral atomic hydrogen in the deep mantle.

  9. Topological Fulde-Ferrell states in alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms near an orbital Feshbach resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Su; Pan, Jian-Song; Cui, Xiaoling; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei

    2017-04-01

    We study the effects of synthetic spin-orbit coupling on the pairing physics in quasi-one-dimensional ultracold Fermi gases of alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms near an orbital Feshbach resonance (OFR). The interplay between spin-orbit coupling and pairing interactions near the OFR leads to an interesting topological Fulde-Ferrell state, where the nontrivial topology of the state is solely encoded in the closed channel with a topologically trivial Fulde-Ferrell pairing in the open channel. We confirm the topological property of the system by characterizing the Zak phase and the edge states. The topological Fulde-Ferrell state can be identified by the momentum-space density distribution obtained from time-of-flight images.

  10. Synthesis, structure and properties of bimetallic sodium rare-earth (RE) borohydrides, NaRE(BH4)4, RE = Ce, Pr, Er or Gd.

    PubMed

    Payandeh GharibDoust, SeyedHosein; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B; Černý, Radovan; Jensen, Torben R

    2017-09-26

    Formation, stability and properties of new metal borohydrides within RE(BH4)3-NaBH4, RE = Ce, Pr, Er or Gd is investigated. Three new bimetallic sodium rare-earth borohydrides, NaCe(BH4)4, NaPr(BH4)4 and NaEr(BH4)4 are formed based on an addition reaction between NaBH4 and halide free rare-earth metal borohydrides RE(BH4)3, RE = Ce, Pr, Er. All the new compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic crystal system. NaCe(BH4)4 has unit cell parameters of a = 6.8028(5), b = 17.5181(13), c = 7.2841(5) Å and space group Pbcn. NaPr(BH4)4 is isostructural to NaCe(BH4)4 with unit cell parameters of a = 6.7617(2), b = 17.4678(7), c = 7.2522(3) Å. NaEr(BH4)4 crystallizes in space group Cmcm with unit cell parameters of a = 8.5379(2), b = 12.1570(4), c = 9.1652(3) Å. The structural relationships, also to the known RE(BH4)3, are discussed in detail and related to the stability and synthesis conditions. Heat treatment of NaBH4-Gd(BH4)3 mixture forms an unstable amorphous phase, which decomposes after one day at RT. NaCe(BH4)4 and NaPr(BH4)4 show reversible hydrogen storage capacity of 1.65 and 1.04 wt% in the fourth H2 release, whereas that of NaEr(BH4)4 continuously decreases. This is mainly assigned to formation of metal hydrides and possibly slower formation of sodium borohydride. The dehydrogenated state clearly contains rare-earth metal borides, which stabilize boron in the dehydrogenated state.

  11. Oligomeric rare-earth metal cluster complexes with endohedral transition metal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Simon; Zimmermann, Sina; Brühmann, Matthias; Meyer, Eva; Rustige, Christian; Wolberg, Marike; Daub, Kathrin; Bell, Thomas; Meyer, Gerd

    2014-11-01

    Comproportionation reactions of rare-earth metal trihalides (RX3) with the respective rare-earth metals (R) and transition metals (T) led to the formation of 22 oligomeric R cluster halides encapsulating T, in 19 cases for the first time. The structures of these compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and are composed of trimers ({T3R11}X15-type, P63/m), tetramers ({T4R16}X28{R4} (P-43m), {T4R16}X20 (P42/nnm), {T4R16}X24(RX3)4 (I41/a) and {T4R16}X23 (C2/m) types of structure) and pentamers ({Ru5La14}2Br39, Cc) of {TRr}n (n=2-5) clusters. These oligomers are further enveloped by inner (Xi) as well as outer (Xa) halido ligands, which possess diverse functionalities and interconnect like oligomers through i-i, i-a and/or a-i bridges. The general features of the crystal structures for these new compounds are discussed and compared to literature entries as well as different structure types with oligomeric T centered R clusters. Dimers and tetramers originating from the aggregation of {TR6} octahedra via common edges are more frequent than trimers and pentamers, in which the {TRr} clusters share common faces.

  12. On the thermal process of atomic hydrogen escape from the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudovkin, M. I.; Golovchanskaia, I. V.

    1983-10-01

    The authors' approach to the problem of the escape of gases from the planetary gravitational field is close to the consideration by Biutner (1958, 1959) which generalizes results obtained by Jones (1923) for the particular cases of the dense and rarefied atmosphere. The choice of the escape layer, the height distribution of the escape probability as well as escape intensity, have been investigated carefully by Biutner when considering the helium isotope escape from the atmosphere. The objects of the present paper include: (1) to take into account the escape of atomic hydrogen from the bulk atmospheric layer (h approximately 100-1000 km) using present-day data on the composition and temperature distribution in the upper atmosphere (Jacchia, 1977), (2) to find the perturbation of the velocity distribution function in energy space under escape conditions when it is not assumed to be Maxwellian or close to it in the whole dissipation layer and (3) to compare the escape rates obtained under such consideration with the production rates of atomic hydrogen in the atmosphere as well as with local values of the fluxes that are observed. The difference between the results obtained and those of Monte Carlo calculations is attributed to the placing of the lower boundary surface at a lower atmospheric level in the present model.

  13. Mental models or methodological artefacts? Adults' 'naïve' responses to a test of children's conceptions of the earth.

    PubMed

    Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2009-05-01

    Vosniadou and Brewer (1992) claim that children's drawings and answers to questions show that they have naive, theory-like 'mental models' of the earth; for example, they believe it to be flat, or hollow with people inside. However, recent studies that have used different methods have found little or no evidence of these misconceptions. The contrasting accounts, and possible reasons for the inconsistent findings, were tested by giving adults (N = 484) either the original task (designed for 5-year olds) or a new version in which the same drawing instructions and questions were rephrased and clarified. Many adults' responses to the original version were identical to children's 'naïve' drawings and answers. The new version elicited substantially fewer non-scientific responses. These findings indicate that even adults find the original instructions and questions ambiguous and confusing, and that this is the principal reason for their non-scientific drawings and answers. Since children must find the task even more confusing than adults, this explanation very probably applies to many of their non-scientific responses, too, and therefore accounts for the discrepant findings of previous research. 'Naïve' responses result largely from misinterpretation of Vosniadou and Brewer's apparently simple task, rather than from mental models of the earth.

  14. P2-type Na(x)[Fe(1/2)Mn(1/2)]O2 made from earth-abundant elements for rechargeable Na batteries.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kajiyama, Masataka; Iwatate, Junichi; Nishikawa, Heisuke; Hitomi, Shuji; Okuyama, Ryoichi; Usui, Ryo; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Komaba, Shinichi

    2012-04-29

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have risen to prominence as key devices for green and sustainable energy development. Electric vehicles, which are not equipped with an internal combustion engine, have been launched in the market. Manganese- and iron-based positive-electrode materials, such as LiMn(2)O(4) and LiFePO(4), are used in large-scale batteries for electric vehicles. Manganese and iron are abundant elements in the Earth's crust, but lithium is not. In contrast to lithium, sodium is an attractive charge carrier on the basis of elemental abundance. Recently, some layered materials, where sodium can be electrochemically and reversibly extracted/inserted, have been reported. However, their reversible capacity is typically limited to 100 mAh g(-1). Herein, we report a new electrode material, P2-Na(2/3)[Fe(1/2)Mn(1/2)]O(2), that delivers 190 mAh g(-1) of reversible capacity in the sodium cells with the electrochemically active Fe(3+)/Fe(4+) redox. These results will contribute to the development of rechargeable batteries from the earth-abundant elements operable at room temperature.

  15. Investigations of the ground-state hyperfine atomic structure and beta decay measurement prospects of 21Na with improved laser trapping techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Mary Anderson

    1999-05-01

    This thesis describes an experiment in which a neutral atom laser trap loaded with radioactive 21Na was improved and then used for measurements. The sodium isotope (half-life=22 sec) is produced on line at the 88 in. cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The author developed an effective magnesium oxide target system which is crucial to deliver a substantive beam of 21Na to the experiment. Efficient manipulation of the 21Na beam with lasers allowed 30,000 atoms to be contained in a magneto-optical trap. Using the cold trapped atoms, the author measured to high precision the hyperfine splitting of the atomic ground state of 21Na. She measured the 3S1/2(F=1,m=0)-3S1/2(F=2,m=0) atomic level splitting of 21Na to be 1,906,471,870±200 Hz. Additionally, she achieved initial detection of beta decay from the trap and evaluated the prospects of precision beta decay correlation studies with trapped atoms.

  16. Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging of the Earth's Magnetosphere: NASA/POLAR Spacecraft Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Harlan; Blake, J. Bernard; Henderson, Michael; Jorgensen, Anders; Reeves, Geoff

    1998-11-01

    The NASA POLAR spacecraft has been routinely measuring energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) on a global scale from its high apogee (9 R_E), polar orbit. POLAR can identify ENAs when it is in a region of low ion flux. This occurs during large portions of its orbit when it dwells in the high latitude magnetospheric lobes. We find that significant ENA signals from the inner magnetosphere are recorded even during periods of magnetic quiesence when the main source of ENAs, the ring current, is nearly in a resting state. While the ENA data stream is not strictly continuous (it is interrupted when POLAR passes through hot ion populations), we have compiled a comprehensive data base from which long term trends may be tracked. We show that the recently-described ENA metric (Jorgensen et al., 1997), the Global Energetic Neutral Index (GENI), can be used to gauge storm activity over extended periods. We shall present the GENI index and associated ENA images for several events and demonstrate both the temporal and spatial information provided by this novel magnetospheric imaging technique

  17. An Experiment to Study Sporadic Atom Layers in the Earth's Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (SAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Michael C.

    1999-01-01

    The Sudden Atom Layer (SAL) Rocket was successfully launched in February 1998. All instruments worked well except those supplied by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. (A dummy weight was launched for the neutral mass spectrometer and the ion version died shortly after lift-off.) A paper has already been published in GRL concerning the dust layer detected by an on board instrument and compared to ground-based observations made at the Arecibo Observatory by Cornell graduate student S. Collins (lidar) and Q. Zhou (radar). Collins presented a comparison of the sodium lidar data and onboard observations with a theoretical model by Plane and Cox at the Fan AGU Meeting. In addition Gelinas and Kelley presented a review paper dealing with the entire SAL instrument complement at the same meeting. An unexpected new explanation for the outer scale of E region plasma irregularities has come out of the data set. We anticipate at least a total of four papers will be published within a year of launch.

  18. An Experiment to Study Sporadic Atom Layers in the Earth's Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (SAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Michael C.

    1999-01-01

    The Sudden Atom Layer (SAL) Rocket was successfully launched in February 1998. All instruments worked well except those supplied by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. (A dummy weight was launched for the neutral mass spectrometer and the ion version died shortly after lift-off.) A paper has already been published in GRL concerning the dust layer detected by an on board instrument and compared to ground-based observations made at the Arecibo Observatory by Cornell graduate student S. Collins (lidar) and Q. Zhou (radar). Collins presented a comparison of the sodium lidar data and onboard observations with a theoretical model by Plane and Cox at the Fan AGU Meeting. In addition Gelinas and Kelley presented a review paper dealing with the entire SAL instrument complement at the same meeting. An unexpected new explanation for the outer scale of E region plasma irregularities has come out of the data set. We anticipate at least a total of four papers will be published within a year of launch.

  19. Earth Science Project Office (ESPO) Field Experiences During ORACLES, ATom, KORUS and POSIDON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, Vidal; Zavaleta, Jhony

    2017-01-01

    Very often, scientific field campaigns entail years of planning and incur substantial cost, especially if they involve the operation of large research aircraft in remote locations. Deploying and operating these aircrafts even for short periods of time poses challenges that, if not addressed properly, can have significant negative consequences and potentially jeopardize the success of a scientific campaign. Challenges vary from country to country and range from safety, health, and security risks to differences in cultural and social norms. Our presentation will focus on sharing experiences on the ESPO 2016 conducted field campaigns ORACLES, ATom, KORUS and POSIDON. We will focus on the best practices, lessons learned, international relations and coordination aspects of the country-specific experiences. This presentation will be part of the ICARE Conference (2nd International Conference on Airborne Research for the Environment (ICARE 2017) that will focus on "Developing the infrastructure to meet future scientific challenges". This unique conference and gathering of facility support experts will not only allow for dissemination and sharing of knowledge but also promote collaboration and networking among groups that support scientific research using airborne platforms around the globe.

  20. Rare earth doped glass-ceramics containing NaLaF4 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsts, E.; Krieke, G.; Rogulis, U.; Smits, K.; Zolotarjovs, A.; Jansons, J.; Sarakovskis, A.; Kundzins, K.

    2016-09-01

    Oxyfluoride glasses 16Na2O-9NaF-5LaF3-7Al2O3-63SiO2 (mol%) activated with 3% terbium, dysprosium, praseodymium and neodymium fluorides have been prepared and studied by differential thermal analysis, cathodoluminescence, X-ray induced luminescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We found out that the presence of crystalline phase enhances the X-ray induced luminescence intensity. X-ray induced luminescence is the most intense for the sample activated with terbium and treated at 700 °C, whereas the praseodymium and neodymium activated samples have the fastest decay times.

  1. A valence-bond diatomics-in-molecules model for the formation of Na + and Na 2+ ions from the interaction of excited sodium atoms with a tungsten surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, Philip J.

    1985-04-01

    Potential energy surfaces for Na( 2S, 2P) interacting with a partially covered tungsten surface are computed within the framework of the method of diatomics-in-molecules (DIM). Only two sodium atoms are considered explicitly but the effect of all of the adsorbed sodium is taken into account through its influence on the fragment matrix elements in the DIM formulation. Na 2+ wavefunctions are approximated by valence-bond calculations for the 2Σ g+ and 2Σ u+ manifolds. The three lowest potential energy surfaces of the polyatomic system suggest plausible pathways for the production of Na + and Na 2+ ions from the interaction of Na( 2P) atoms with the metal surface as observed by Auschwitz and Lacmann.

  2. Electronic absorption spectra of rare earth (III) species in NaCl-2CsCl eutectic based melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkovich, V. A.; Ivanov, A. B.; Yakimov, S. M.; Tsarevskii, D. V.; Golovanova, O. A.; Sukhikh, V. V.; Griffiths, T. R.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic absorption spectra of ions of trivalent rare earth elements were measured in the melts based on NaCl-2CsCl eutectic in the wavelength ranges of 190-1350 and 1450-1700 nm. The measurements were performed at 550-850 °C. The EAS of Y, La, Ce and Lu containing melts have no absorption bands in the studied regions. For the remaining REEs (Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) the absorption bands in the EAS were assigned to the corresponding f-f electron transitions. The Stark effect was observed for Yb(III) F5/2 excited state. Increasing temperature leads to decreasing intensity of the absorption bands, except for the bands resulting from hypersensitive transitions. Beer's law was confirmed up to 0.4 M solutions of REE.

  3. Rare earth-modified kaolin/NaY-supported Pd-Pt bimetallic catalyst for the catalytic combustion of benzene.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shufeng; Sun, Xuejie; Lv, Ningning; Qi, Chenze

    2014-08-13

    A new type of porous kaolin/NaY composite (KL-NY) with a large specific surface area and large pore sizes was synthesized through a one-step crystallization process, and rare earth-modified KL-NY-supported Pd-Pt catalysts were studied for benzene combustion. The results indicated that the pore volume and specific surface area of KL-NY after calcination and crystallization were 0.298 cm(3)/g and 365 m(2)/g, respectively, exhibiting appropriate pore structure and good thermal stability. Catalysts with rare earth metals greatly enhanced the activity of Pd/KL-NY, and the addition of Pt and Ce into the Pd catalyst improved the catalytic activity as well as the stability. The catalyst with an optimal Ce content and Pt/Pd molar ratio (0.2%Pd-Pt (6:1)/6%Ce/KL-NY) demonstrated the best activity for the complete oxidation of benzene at 230 °C, and the catalyst above maintained the 100% benzene conversion for 960 h.

  4. The long-range non-additive three-body dispersion interactions for the rare gases, alkali, and alkaline-earth atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Li-Yan; Yan, Zong-Chao; Shi, Ting-Yun; Babb, James F.; Mitroy, J.

    2012-03-01

    The long-range non-additive three-body dispersion interaction coefficients Z111, Z112, Z113, and Z122 are computed for many atomic combinations using standard expressions. The atoms considered include hydrogen, the rare gases, the alkali atoms (up to Rb), and the alkaline-earth atoms (up to Sr). The term Z111 arising from three mutual dipole interactions is known as the Axilrod-Teller-Muto coefficient or the DDD (dipole-dipole-dipole) coefficient. Similarly, the terms Z112, Z113, and Z122 arise from the mutual combinations of dipole (1), quadrupole (2), and octupole (3) interactions between atoms and they are sometimes known, respectively, as dipole-dipole-quadrupole, dipole-dipole-octupole, and dipole-quadrupole-quadrupole coefficients. Results for the four Z coefficients are given for the homonuclear trimers, for the trimers involving two like-rare-gas atoms, and for the trimers with all combinations of the H, He, and Li atoms. An exhaustive compilation of all coefficients between all possible atomic combinations is presented as supplementary data.

  5. The long-range non-additive three-body dispersion interactions for the rare gases, alkali, and alkaline-earth atoms.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li-Yan; Yan, Zong-Chao; Shi, Ting-Yun; Babb, James F; Mitroy, J

    2012-03-14

    The long-range non-additive three-body dispersion interaction coefficients Z(111), Z(112), Z(113), and Z(122) are computed for many atomic combinations using standard expressions. The atoms considered include hydrogen, the rare gases, the alkali atoms (up to Rb), and the alkaline-earth atoms (up to Sr). The term Z(111) arising from three mutual dipole interactions is known as the Axilrod-Teller-Muto coefficient or the DDD (dipole-dipole-dipole) coefficient. Similarly, the terms Z(112), Z(113), and Z(122) arise from the mutual combinations of dipole (1), quadrupole (2), and octupole (3) interactions between atoms and they are sometimes known, respectively, as dipole-dipole-quadrupole, dipole-dipole-octupole, and dipole-quadrupole-quadrupole coefficients. Results for the four Z coefficients are given for the homonuclear trimers, for the trimers involving two like-rare-gas atoms, and for the trimers with all combinations of the H, He, and Li atoms. An exhaustive compilation of all coefficients between all possible atomic combinations is presented as supplementary data.

  6. Erosion effects of atomic oxygen on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-polyimide hybrid films in low earth orbit space environment.

    PubMed

    Duo, Shuwang; Song, Mimi; Liu, Tingzhi; Hu, Changyuan; Li, Meishuan

    2013-02-01

    A novel polyimide (PI) hybrid nanocomposite containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) had been prepared by copolymerization of trisilanolphenyl-POSS, 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA), and pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA). The AO resistance of these PI/POSS hybrid films was tested in the ground-based AO simulation facility. Exposed and unexposed surfaces were characterized by SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. SEM images showed that the surface of the 20 wt% PI/POSS became much less rough than that of the pristine polyimide. Mass measurements of the samples showed that the erosion yield of the PI/POSS (20 wt.%) hybrid film was 1.2 x 10(-25) cm3/atom, and reduced to 4% of the polyimide film. The XPS data indicated that the carbon content of the near-surface region was decreased from 60.1 to 13.2 at% after AO exposure. The oxygen and silicon concentrations in the near-surface region increased to 1.96 after AO exposure. The nanometer-sized structure of POSS, with its large surface area, had led AO-irradiated samples to form a SiO2 passivation layer, which protected the underlying polymer from further AO attack. The incorporation of POSS into the polyimide could dramatically improve the AO resistance of polyimide films in low earth orbit environment.

  7. The Correlation of the NA Measurements by Counting 28Si Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mana, G.; Massa, E.; Sasso, C. P.; Stock, M.; Fujii, K.; Kuramoto, N.; Mizushima, S.; Narukawa, T.; Borys, M.; Busch, I.; Nicolaus, A.; Pramann, A.

    2015-09-01

    An additional value of the Avogadro constant was obtained by counting the atoms in isotopically enriched Si spheres. With respect to the previous determination, the spheres were etched and repolished to eliminate metal contaminations and to improve the roundness. In addition, all the input quantities—molar mass, lattice parameter, mass, and volume—were remeasured aiming at a smaller uncertainty. In order to make the values given in Andreas et al. [Metrologia 48, S1 (2011)] and Azuma et al. [Metrologia 52, 360 (2015)] usable for a least squares adjustment, we report about the estimate of their correlation.

  8. Synthesis of uniform rare earth fluoride (NaMF4) nanotubes by in situ ion exchange from their hydroxide [M(OH)3] parents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2009-01-27

    In this article, we demonstrate the production of uniform hexagonal sodium rare earth fluoride (beta-NaMF(4)) nanotubes through a hydrothermal in situ ion-exchange reaction by using rare earth hydroxides [M(OH)(3)] as a parent. The trivalent rare earth hydroxides were hydrothermally prepared at 120 degrees C and possessed a quasi-layered structure, which could be formed to be nanotubal morphology through a rolling up process from 2-D sheets. Moreover, the hexagonal structure of rare earth hydroxides [M(OH)(3)] displays a noticeable similarity with beta-NaMF(4). This similarity makes the formation of beta-NaMF(4) with nonlayered structure possible through in situ chemical transformation from M(OH)(3) with a layered structure. The single-crystal beta-NaMF(4) nanotubes were synthesized with well-controlled diameter (80-500 nm), aspect ratio (6-30), wall thickness (25-80 nm), and contents (such as M = Pr, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, as well as lanthanide-doped rare earth NaMF(4)). The multicolor upconversion fluorescence has also been successfully realized in the Yb(3+)/Er(3+) (green) and Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) (blue) co-doped beta-NaMF(4) nanotubes by UC excitation in the NIR region. The various UC emission ratios of the samples were investigated as a function of hydrothermal reaction time to research the UC properties of the products and to further demonstrate the hydrothermal in situ ion-exchange process.

  9. Reactions of silver atoms and clusters in Ag-NaA zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waşowicz, Tomasz; Michalik, Jacek

    The agglomeration of silver in hydrated and dehydrated Ag-NaA zeolites gamma irradiated at 77 K has been studied by ESR. The agglomeration process is radiation-induced in hydrated samples whereas in dehydrated ones is initiated by thermal autoreduction. In the result different silver clusters are stabilized at room temperature, Ag 2+3…Ag + becomes stabilized in hydrated zeolites and Ag n+ 6 in dehydrated ones. Silver hexamers have been reacted with various molecular adsorbates. The reaction rate depends on molecular size and nucleophilic character of adsorbate. In the presence of water and small alcohols silver hexamers are transformed to the elongated tetramers.

  10. Spin exchange in the excitation of spin-polarized Na atoms by Ne/sup +/-ion impact

    SciTech Connect

    Jitschin, W.; Osimitsch, S.; Reihl, H.; Mueller, D.W.; Kleinpoppen, H.; Lutz, H.O.

    1986-11-01

    The 3s-3p excitation of spin-polarized Na atoms by Ne/sup +/ ions has been studied for impact energies E/sub lab/ = 200 eV to 6 keV, i.e., in the adiabatic regime. The total excitation cross section and the three Stokes polarization parameters of the fluorescence light have been measured. The linear polarization of the light shows a preferential excitation of the chemically bondm/sub l/chemically bond = 1 magnetic substates. The circular polarization probes the spin orientation of the excited 3p state. At the highest impact energies investigated the experimental data are compatible with conservation of spin orientation during the collision. With decreasing impact energy, the spin polarization of the final 3p state becomes smaller than the spin polarization of the initial 3s state. This apparent spin depolarization is attributed to the exchange interaction between the Na valence electron and the unfilled Ne/sup +/ 2p/sup 5/ core in the quasimolecule formed during the collision.

  11. Visualization of the atomic structure of solid solutions with the NaCl structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babanov, Yu. A.; Ponomarev, D. A.; Ustinov, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown how an atomic cluster for a solid solution with a rock salt structure can be constructed using the Pauling model. Simulation has been performed for 343000 ions of Ni x Zn1 - x O3 ( x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0) oxide substitutional solid solutions. Coordinates of all cluster ions are obtained and distribution functions of ion pairs (Ni-O, Ni-Ni, Ni-Zn, Zn-Zn, Zn-O, O-O) are constructed as functions of distance. The shape of the normal distribution indicates the existence of bounded chaos in the system of oxide solid solutions. The width of the Gaussian distribution function is determined by the difference of metal ionic radii. The results are in agreement with both X-ray diffraction and EXAFS spectroscopy data.

  12. Multiple doping structures of the rare-earth atoms in β-SiAlON:Ce phosphors and their effects on luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lin; Xu, Fang-Fang; Zeng, Xiong-Hui; Li, Zuo-Sheng; Mao, Zhi-Yong; Lu, Ping; Zhu, Ying-Chun; Liu, Xue-Jian; Zhang, Lin-Lin

    2015-07-14

    The critical doping structures of rare-earth atoms in the promising β-SiAlON phosphors have long been argued owing to the lack of direct evidence. Here, the exact locations and coordination of the Ce rare-earth atoms in the β-SiAlON structure have been examined using an atom-resolved Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. Three different occupation sites for the Ce atoms have been directly observed: two of them are in the structural channel coordinated with six and nine N(O) atoms, respectively; the other one is the unexpected substitution site for Si(Al). The chemical valences and stabilities of the doping Ce ions at the different occupation sites have been evaluated using density functional calculations. Correlation of the different doping structures with the luminescence properties has been investigated by the aid of cathodoluminescence (CL) microanalysis, which verifies the different contribution of the interstitial trivalent Ce ions to the light emission while no luminescence is observed for the substitutional doping of quadrivalent Ce.

  13. Atomic and electronic structure of metals and alloys: Rare earths, ultrathin films and surface alloys. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The project has been productive: 47 refereed publications in about 5 years. While confined to the area of surfaces and thin films, the project has covered a wide range of physical properties and different materials: rare earths, bulk and surface alloys, metal surfaces, magnetism, and (especially) atomic and electronic structure of ultrathin films. Notable achievements include quantitative studies of atomic structure of clean rare-earth surfaces: Tb(0001), Tb(11{ovr 2}0), Gd(0001), and Gd(11{ovr 2}0). Surface alloys studied included Cu{l_brace}001{r_brace}c(2 {times} 2)-Au and Cu{l_brace}001{r_brace}c(2 {times} 2)-Pd. The most important achievement of the project lies in the application of quantitative low-energy electron diffraction to ultrathin films, particularly magnetic metals on nonmagnetic substrates (e.g., Fe on Ag{l_brace}001{r_brace}, etc.) (No data given.)

  14. Modeling the near-Earth interaction between ring current ions and exospheric neutrals: escape through energetic neutral atoms (ENAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LLera, K.; Goldstein, J.; McComas, D. J.; Valek, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    The two major loss processes for ring current decay are precipitation and energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). Since the exospheric neutral density increases with decreasing altitudes, precipitating ring current ions (reaching down to 200 - 800 km in altitude) also produce low-altitude ENA signatures that can be stronger than the ring current emission at equatorial distances ( 2 - 9 Re). The higher density results in multiple collisions between the ring current ions and exospheric oxygen. The affect on hydrogen ions is the focus of this study. Since the H particle sustains energy loss ( 36 eV) at each neutralizing or re-ionizing interaction, the escaped ENAs do not directly reflect the ring current properties. We model the energy loss due to multiple charge exchange and electron stripping interactions of 1 - 100 keV precipitating ring current ions undergo before emerging as low-altitude ENAs. The H particle is either an ion or an ENA throughout the simulation. Their lifetime is analytically determined by the length of one mean free path. We track the ion state with Lorentz motion while the ENA travels ballistically across the geomagnetic field. Our simulations show the energy loss is greater than 20% for hydrogen ring current ions below 30 keV (60 keV for the simulations that wander equatorward). This is the first quantification of the energy loss associated with the creation of low-altitude ENAs. Our model (currently constrained in the meridional plane) has revealed characteristics on how precipitation is affected by the near-Earth neutral exosphere. This ion-neutral interaction removes particles from the loss cone but promotes loss through ENA generation. These findings should be implemented in models predicting the ring current decay and used as an analysis tool to reconstruct the ring current population from observed low-altitude ENAs.

  15. Atomic layer deposited cobalt oxide: An efficient catalyst for NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, Dip K.; Manna, Joydev; Dhara, Arpan; Sharma, Pratibha; Sarkar, Shaibal K.

    2016-01-15

    Thin films of cobalt oxide are deposited by atomic layer deposition using dicobalt octacarbonyl [Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}] and ozone (O{sub 3}) at 50 °C on microscope glass substrates and polished Si(111) wafers. Self-saturated growth mechanism is verified by x-ray reflectivity measurements. As-deposited films consist of both the crystalline phases; CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} that gets converted to pure cubic-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase upon annealing at 500 °C under ambient condition. Elemental composition and uniformity of the films is examined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion-mass spectroscopy. Both as-deposited and the annealed films have been successfully tested as a catalyst for hydrogen evolution from sodium borohydride hydrolysis. The activation energy of the hydrolysis reaction in the presence of the as-grown catalyst is found to be ca. 38 kJ mol{sup −1}. Further implementation of multiwalled carbon nanotube, as a scaffold layer, improves the hydrogen generation rate by providing higher surface area of the deposited catalyst.

  16. Comparison of Martian meteorites with earth composition: Study of effective atomic numbers in the energy range 1 keV-100 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ün, Adem; Han, Ibrahim; Ün, Mümine

    2016-04-01

    Effective atomic (Zeff) and electron numbers (Neff) for 24 Martian meteorites have been determined in the energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV and also for sixteen significant energies of commonly used radioactive sources. The values of Zeff and Neff for all sample were obtained from the DirectZeff program. The obtained results for Martian meteorites have been compared with the results for Earth composition and similarities or differences also evaluated.

  17. Enhancement of single particle rare earth doped NaYF4: Yb, Er emission with a gold shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Green, Kory; Hallen, Hans; Lim, Shuang Fang

    2015-01-01

    Upconversion of infrared light to visible light has important implications for bioimaging. However, the small absorption cross-section of rare earth dopants has limited the efficiency of these anti-Stokes nanomaterials. We present enhanced excitation absorption and single particle fluorescent emission of sodium yttrium fluoride, NaYF4: Yb, Er based upconverting nanoparticles coated with a gold nanoshell through surface plasmon resonance. The single gold-shell coated nanoparticles show enhanced absorption in the near infrared, enhanced total emission intensity, and increased green relative to red emission. We also show differences in enhancement between single and aggregated gold shell nanoparticles. The surface plasmon resonance of the gold-shell coated nanoparticle is shown to be dependent on the shell thickness. In contrast to other reported results, our single particle experimental observations are corroborated by finite element calculations that show where the green/red emission enhancement occurs, and what portion of the enhancement is due to electromagnetic effects. We find that the excitation enhancement and green/red emission ratio enhancement occurs at the corners and edges of the doped emissive core.

  18. Scintillation properties of rare-earth doped NaPO3-Al(PO3)3 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuro, Tomoaki; Okada, Go; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Masai, Hirokazu; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2016-12-01

    We systematically investigated photoluminescence (PL), scintillation and dosimeter properties of rare-earth (RE) doped NaPO3-Al(PO3)3 (NAP) glasses. The NAP glasses doped with a series of RE ions (La-Yb, except Pm) with a consistent concentration (0.3 wt%) were prepared by the conventional melt-quenching method. The PL and scintillation decay time profiles showed fast (ns) and slow (μs or ms) components: the fast components from 15 to 100 ns were due to the host or 5d-4f transition emission, and the slow components from 15 μs to 5 ms were due to the 4f-4f transitions of RE. The thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) was evaluated as a dosimeter property, and glow peaks appeared around 400 °C in all the samples. The TSL dose response function was examined in the dose range from 10 mGy to 10 Gy. Among the samples tested, Nd and Tb doped glasses showed higher signal by at least one order of magnitude than those of non-doped and other RE-doped samples. Over the dose range tested, the TSL signals are linearly related with the incident X-ray dose, showing a potential for practical applications.

  19. An electrically conductive thermal control surface for spacecraft encountering Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen indium tin oxide-coated thermal blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    An organic black thermal blanket material was coated with indium tin oxide (ITO) to prevent blanket degradation in the low Earth orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen environment. The blankets were designed for the Galileo spacecraft. Galileo was initially intended for space shuttle launch and would, therefore, have been exposed to atomic oxygen in LEO for between 10 and 25 hours. Two processes for depositing ITO are described. Thermooptical, electrical, and chemical properties of the ITO film are presented as a function of the deposition process. Results of exposure of the ITO film to atomic oxygen (from a shuttle flight) and radiation exposure (simulated Jovian environment) are also presented. It is shown that the ITO-protected thermal blankets would resist the anticipated LEO oxygen and Jovian radiation yet provide adequate thermooptical and electrical resistance. Reference is made to the ESA Ulysses spacecraft, which also used ITO protection on thermal control surfaces.

  20. Adsorption of alkali, alkaline-earth, simple and 3d transition metal, and nonmetal atoms on monolayer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. D.; Fang, Y. M.; Wu, S. Q. E-mail: wsq@xmu.edu.cn; Zhu, Z. Z. E-mail: wsq@xmu.edu.cn

    2015-05-15

    Single adsorption of different atoms on pristine two-dimensional monolayer MoS{sub 2} have been systematically investigated by using density functional calculations with van der Waals correction. The adatoms cover alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, main group metal, 3d-transition metals, coinage metal and nonmetal atoms. Depending on the adatom type, metallic, semimetallic or semiconducting behavior can be found in direct bandgap monolayer MoS{sub 2}. Additionally, local or long-range magnetic moments of two-dimensional MoS{sub 2} sheet can also attained through the adsorption. The detailed atomic-scale knowledge of single adsorption on MoS{sub 2} monolayer is important not only for the sake of a theoretical understanding, but also device level deposition technological application.

  1. Microstructural and ferroelectric properties of rare earth (Ce, Pr, and Tb)-doped Na0.5Bi4.5Ti3O15 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Chinnambedu Murugesan; Kim, Jin Won; Song, Tae Kwon; Kim, Sang Su

    2015-11-01

    Pure Na0.5Bi4.5Ti4O15 and rare earth-doped Na0.5Bi4RE0.5Ti4O15 (RE = Ce, Pr, and Tb) thin films were prepared on Pt(1 1 1)/Ti/SiO2/Si(1 0 0) substrates by using a chemical solution deposition method. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering spectroscopy studies revealed that the thin films are crystallized in a single-phase Aurivillius structure with no additional phases. The rare earth-doped Na0.5Bi4RE0.5Ti4O15 thin films exhibited improved electrical and ferroelectric properties. Among the studied rare earth metal ions, the Tb3+ ion leads to a remarkable improvement in the ferroelectric properties. The use of the Tb3+ ion for doping resulted in a well-saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loop with a large remnant polarization (2Pr) of 40 μC/cm2 and a low coercive electric field (2Ec) of 176 kV/cm, measured at an applied electric field of 475 kV in the Na0.5Bi4Tb0.5Ti4O15 thin film. Furthermore, the leakage current density of the Na0.5Bi4Tb0.5Ti4O15 thin film was one order of magnitude lower than that of the Na0.5Bi4.5Ti4O15 thin film.

  2. Kramers' turnover theory for diffusion of Na atoms on a Cu(001) surface measured by He scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guantes, R.; Vega, J. L.; Miret-Artés, S.; Pollak, Eli

    2003-08-01

    The diffusion of adatoms and molecules on a surface at low coverage can be measured by helium scattering. The experimental observable is the dynamic structure factor. In this article, we show how Kramers' turnover theory can be used to infer physical properties of the diffusing particle from the experiment. Previously, Chudley and Elliot showed, under reasonable assumptions, that the dynamic structure factor is determined by the hopping distribution of the adsorbed particle. Kramers' theory determines the hopping distribution in terms of two parameters only. These are an effective frequency and the energy loss of the particle to the bath as it traverses from one barrier to the next. Kramers' theory, including finite barrier corrections, is tested successfully against numerical Langevin equation simulations, using both separable and nonseparable interaction potentials. Kramers' approach, which really is a steepest descent estimate for the rate, based on the Langevin equation, involves closed analytical expressions and so is relatively easy to implement. Diffusion of Na atoms on a Cu(001) surface has been chosen as an example to illustrate the application of Kramers' theory.

  3. A facility to produce an energetic, ground state atomic oxygen beam for the simulation of the Low-Earth Orbit environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketsdever, Andrew D.; Weaver, David P.; Muntz, E. P.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the continuing commitment to activity in low-Earth orbit (LEO), a facility is under development to produce energetic atmospheric species, particularly atomic oxygen, with energies ranging from 5 to 80 eV. This relatively high flux facility incorporates an ion engine to produce the corresponding specie ion which is charge exchanged to produce a neutral atomic beam. Ion fluxes of around 10(exp 15) sec(exp -1) with energies of 20-70 eV have been achieved. A geometrically augmented inertially tethered charge exchanger (GAITCE) was designed to provide a large column depth of charge exchange gas while reducing the gas load to the low pressure portion of the atomic beam facility. This is accomplished using opposed containment jets which act as collisional barriers to the escape of the dense gas region formed between the jets. Leak rate gains to the pumping system on the order of 10 were achieved for moderate jet mass flows. This system provides an attractive means for the charge exchange of atomic ions with a variety of gases to produce energetic atomic beams.

  4. First-principles study of ternary graphite compounds cointercalated with alkali atoms (Li, Na, and K) and alkylamines towards alkali ion battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ri, Gum-Chol; Yu, Chol-Jun; Kim, Jin-Song; Hong, Song-Nam; Jong, Un-Gi; Ri, Mun-Hyok

    2016-08-01

    First-principles calculations were carried out to investigate the structural, energetic, and electronic properties of ternary graphite compounds cointercalated with alkali atoms (AM = Li, Na, and K) and normal alkylamine molecules (nCx; x = 1, 2, 3, 4), denoted as AM-nCx-GICs. From the optimization of the orthorhombic unit cells for the crystalline compounds, it was found that, with the increase in the atomic number of alkali atoms, the layer separations decrease in contrast to AM-GICs, while the bond lengths between alkali atoms and graphene layer, and nitrogen atom of alkylamine increase. The calculated formation energies and interlayer binding energies of AM-nC3-GICs indicate that the compounds is increasingly stabilized from Li to K, and the energy barriers for migration of alkali atoms suggest that alkali cation with larger ionic radius diffuses more smoothly in graphite, being similar to AM-GICs. Through the analysis of electronic properties, it was established that more extent of electronic charge is transferred from more electropositive alkali atom to the carbon ring of graphene layer, and the hybridization of valence electron orbitals between alkylamine molecules and graphene layer is occurred.

  5. Stability of Post-Perovskite in MgSiO3 analogy NaMgF3 and its Implication for the Mantle Dynamics of Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocholski, B.; Shim, S.; Prakapenka, V.

    2010-12-01

    Newly discovered super-Earth type extrasolar planets have brought up questions about their mantle structure and the stability of magnesium silicates at the extreme high pressures in these objects. Computer simulations by Umemoto et al. (2006) indicate a breakdown of MgSiO3 into MgO + SiO2 with a large negative Clayepron slope at a pressure achieved in the interiors of 10 Earth-mass super-Earths (~1000 GPa). The large and negative Clapeyron slope of the decomposition in super-Earths would result in a basal oxide layer with quasi-periodic upwellings or even an impermeable boundary (van der Berg et al., 2010). Our current static compression techniques are not capable of reaching the predicted breakdown pressure. However, we can investigate analog materials which undergo the same sequence of phase transitions but at much lower pressures. Umemoto et al. (2006) predicted that silicate perovskite analog mineral neighborite NaMgF3 (MgSiO3 analog) dissociates into NaF (MgO analog) and MgF2 (SiO2 analog) at 40 GPa. We have conducted in situ X-ray diffraction measurements on neighborite and MgF2 in the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell at the GSECARS sector of Advanced Photon Source. We do not observe the breakdown of NaMgF3 up to 70 GPa and 2500 K, much higher than the predicted breakdown pressure. This is in part due to the assumption that SiO2 and MgF2 transitions from the pyrite-type to the cotunnite-type phase, with an increase in the Si--O coordination number from six to nine. We find a new phase of MgF2 whose stability field exists between these two structures. This new phase appears to be one (or more) of the several possible distorted pyrite types with seven-fold coordination. SiO2 likely has a similar high pressure phase, expanding the stability field of MgSiO3 post-perovskite to pressures in excess of those found in the rocky mantle fraction of super-Earths. Our experimental results suggest that mantle silicates are stable to the highest pressures found in super-Earths

  6. Atomic Motions in Ionic Hydrides: MgH2, NaMg3H3, and LiBH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradi, Mark

    2009-03-01

    In hydrogen storage, rapid hydrogen diffusion is a key component for rapid reaction rates of dehydriding and rehydriding. In metallic systems, the light interstitial H atoms typically do display rapid diffusion. However, recent interest has focused on ionic and complex hydrides of light metal-atoms because of their high weight fractions of reversible hydrogen. These ionic complex hydrides generally reveal slow hydrogen diffusion and resultingly slow reaction kinetics. We report here studies of H diffusion using NMR in several such hydrides. In MgH2, the rate φH of H hopping remains too slow to narrow the H NMR up to 400 ^oC. T1D measurements, however, can detect the motion and find an activation energy of 1.72 eV, the first reported direct measurement of diffusion in MgH2. In ball-milled (bm) material with Nb2O5 catalyst additive, a fraction of the resonance intensity is narrowed starting at 50 ^oC, with the narrow fraction growing to 30% by 400 ^oC. A model for continuous growth of the narrow line, based on a wide distribution of motion rates, is presented. Ball-milling also greatly increases the laboratory-frame relaxation rates, T1-1, from paramagnetic defects created by the mechanical process. In bm NaMgH3, an even larger fraction of the resonance is motionally-narrowed, growing to nearly 100% by 300 ^oC. Clearly, ball-milling has a much more profound effect on ionic hydrides than the simple reduction of grain sizes and diffusion distances. In coarse-grain LiBH4 (with 13.8 weight% reversible hydrogen), an orientationally disordered solid phase occurs above 110 ^oC. Above the transition, the rate of Li ion diffusion increases remarkably. H diffusion starts to narrow the H NMR line around 170 ^oC, continuing to narrow up to the melt near 280 ^oC. To distinguish diffusion of (already rapidly rotating) BH4 units from H exchange between neighboring BH4, the ^11B resonance was studied. The boron line central transition becomes much narrower (400 Hz) than the width

  7. Optical properties of NaLuF4: Yb3+: Tm3+/Ho3+ rare earth nanocrystals in microstructure hollow fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yundong; Li, Hui; Li, Hanyang; Wu, Yongfeng; Yu, Changqiu; Zhang, Tuo; Yuan, Ping

    2016-11-01

    In the present paper, we first demonstrate NaLuF4: Yb3+: Tm3+/Ho3+ rare earth nanocrystals in microstructure hollow fiber. An analysis of the intense blue upconversion emission at 450 and 475 nm in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped NaLuF4 under excitation power 0.65W available from solid laser emitting at 980nm, has been undertaken. Fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) variation of temperature-sensitive blue upconversion emission at 450and 475 nm in this material was recorded in the temperature range from 300 to 345 K. The maximum sensitivity derived from the FIR technique of the blue upconversion emission is approximately 0.005 K-1. The results imply that Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped NaLuF4 is a potential candidate for the optical temperature sensor.

  8. Comparison of Martian meteorites with earth composition: Study of effective atomic numbers in the energy range 1 keV-100 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ün, Adem Han, İbrahim; Ün, Mümine

    2016-04-18

    Effective atomic (Z{sub eff}) and electron numbers (N{sub eff}) for 24 Martian meteorites have been determined in the energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV and also for sixteen significant energies of commonly used radioactive sources. The values of Z{sub eff} and N{sub eff} for all sample were obtained from the DirectZeff program. The obtained results for Martian meteorites have been compared with the results for Earth composition and similarities or differences also evaluated.

  9. Neutron diffraction study of the atomic structure of cubic sodium-tungsten bronze (Na{sub 0.69}WO{sub 3}) single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Isakov, I. V. Kalyukanov, A. I.; Volkov, V. L.; Ozerov, R. P.; Fykin, L. E.

    2011-05-15

    The atomic structure of a single crystal of one of four Na{sub 0.69}WO{sub 3} phases, which exist below 293 K, has been refined from neutron diffraction data (WWR-c reactor at the Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, Obninsk Branch; {lambda} = 1.168 Angstrom-Sign ; {lambda}/2 contribution < 0.8%; sin{theta}/{lambda} {<=} 0.810; T = 288 K; crystal sphere Empty-Set = 4.4 mm; cubic unit cell with a = 7.672 Angstrom-Sign , sp. gr. Im3, z = 8, {mu} = 1.9 mm{sup -1}). The Na{sub 0.69}WO{sub 3} atomic structure has been refined (198 independent reflections) taking into account the anisotropy of thermal vibrations (R{sub w} = 4.0%). The stoichiometric coefficient Na(0.69) is also refined. A structural distortion is revealed, which is characterized by the displacement of oxygen atoms (0, 0.2609(2), 0.2391(2)) from the ideal perovskite positions (0, 1/4, 1/4); this displacement doubles the ideal perovskite lattice period. The oxygen displacements can be described as rotations of oxygen octahedra by 3.58 Degree-Sign around the [111] direction. The structure remains cubic because the octahedra rotations with respect to all three perovskite cubic axes are identical.

  10. High-pressure synthesis and structural characterization of the type II clathrate compound Na(30.5)Si(136) encapsulating two sodium atoms in the same silicon polyhedral cages.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Shoji; Komatsu, Masaya; Tanaka, Masashi; Sawa, Hiroshi; Inumaru, Kei

    2014-05-28

    Single crystals of sodium containing silicon clathrate compounds Na8Si46 (type I) and NaxSi136 (type II) were prepared from the mixtures of NaSi and Si under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of 5 GPa at 600-1000 °C. The type II crystals were obtained at relatively low-temperature conditions of 700-800 °C, which were found to have a Na excess composition Na30.5Si136 in comparison with the compounds NaxSi136 (x ≤ 24) obtained by a thermal decomposition of NaSi under vacuum. The single crystal study revealed that the Na excess type II compound crystallizes in space group Fd3̅m with a lattice parameter of a = 14.796(1) Å, slightly larger than that of the ambient phase (Na24Si136), and the large silicon hexakaidecahedral cages (@Si28) are occupied by two sodium atoms disordered in the two 32e sites around the center of the @Si28 cages. At temperatures <90 K, the crystal symmetry of the compound changes from the face-centered to the primitive cell with space group P213, and the Na atoms in the @Si28 cages are aligned as Na2 pairs. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of Na30.5Si136 suggests that the two Na ions (2 Na(+)) in the cage are changed to a Na2 molecule. The Na atoms of Na30.5Si136 can be deintercalated from the cages topochemically by evacuation at elevated temperatures. The single crystal study of the deintercalated phases NaxSi136 (x = 25.5 and 5.5) revealed that only excess Na atoms have disordered arrangements.

  11. Prediction of Setschenow constants of N-heteroaromatics in NaCl solutions based on the partial charge on the heterocyclic nitrogen atom.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng; Sun, Feifei; Zhu, Jingke

    2016-02-01

    The solubilities of 19 different kinds of N-heteroaromatic compounds in aqueous solutions with different concentrations of NaCl were determined at 298.15 K with a UV-vis spectrophotometry and titration method, respectively. Setschenow constants, Ks, were employed to describe the solubility behavior, and it is found that the higher ring numbers of N-heteroaromatics gave rise to the lower values of Ks. Moreover, Ks showed a good linear relationship with the partial charge on the nitrogen atom (QN) for either QN > 0 or QN < 0 N-heteroaromatics. It further revealed that QN was well-matched in the prediction of salting-out effect for N-heteroaromatics compared to the conventional descriptors such as molar volume (VH) and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow). The heterocyclic N in N-heteroaromatics may interact with Na(+) ions in NaCl solution for QN < 0 and with Cl(-) for QN > 0.

  12. Determination of yttrium and rare-earth elements in rocks by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gupta, J G

    1981-01-01

    With use of synthetic solutions and several international standard reference materials a method has been developed for determining traces of Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in rocks by electrothermal atomization in a pyrolytically-coated graphite furnace. Depending on the element, the sensitivity is of the order of 10(-9)-10(-12) g at 2500 degrees . To avoid matrix interferences the lanthanides are separated from the common elements by co-precipitation with calcium and iron as carriers. The data for Canadian reference rock SY-2 (syenite), U.S.G.S. reference rocks W-2 (diabase), DNC-1 (diabase) and BIR-1 (basalt), and South African reference rock NIM-18/69 (carbonatite) obtained by graphite-furnace atomization are compared with the values obtained by flame atomic-absorption. The results are in good agreement with literature values.

  13. Possibility of formation of rare-earth negative ions by attachment of [ital f] electrons to the atomic ground state

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, D.; Beck, D.R. )

    1993-06-01

    Some recent experiments indicate that certain rare-earth negative ions exist. Some local-density calculations indicate that attachment of [ital f] electrons is most favorable for Tm and Md. Here we investigate by means of relativistic configuration-interaction methods whether Tm[sup [minus

  14. Following electron impact excitation of single (N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si) atom L subshells ionization cross section calculations by using Lotz's equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydinol, Mahmut

    2017-02-01

    L shell and L subshells ionization cross sections σL and σLi (i = 1, 2, 3) following electron impact on (N,O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si) atoms calculated. By using Lotz' equation for nonrelativistic cases in Matlab σL and σLi cross section values obtained for ten electron impact(Eo) values in the range of ELiNa 8ELi) for each atom. Starting from Eo=ELi(each subshell ionization threshold energy), σL and σLi are increasing rapidly with Eo. For a fixed Eo value(≈3.ELi), while Z value increases from 7≤Z≤14 σL and σLi decrease. Results show that for smaller values of Eo(close to ELi), x-ray yields formation of Li(i=1,2,3) subshells decreases while competing other yields are increase. Results may help to understand similar findings which obtained from other electron impact excitation of L shell σL and subshells σLi studies for single atoms.

  15. Stability of the MgSiO[supscript 3] analog NaMgF[subscript 3] and its implication for mantle structure in super-Earths

    SciTech Connect

    Grocholski, B.; Shim, S.-H.; Prakapenka, V.B.

    2010-08-27

    First-principles calculations on MgSiO{sub 3} suggested a breakdown into MgO + SiO{sub 2} at pressure above 1000 GPa with an extremely large negative Clapeyron slope, isolating the lowermost mantles of larger super-Earths ({approx}10M{direct_sum}) from convection. Similar calculations predicted the same type of breakdown in NaMgF{sub 3} to NaF + MgF{sub 2} at 40 GPa, allowing for experimental examination. We found that NaMgF{sub 3} is stable to at least 70 GPa and 2500 K. In our measurements on MgF{sub 2} (an SiO{sub 2} analog), we found a previously unidentified phase ('phase X') between the stability fields of pyrite-type and cotunnite-type (49-53 GPa and 1500-2500 K). A very small density increase (1%) at the pyrite-type {yields} phase X transition would extend the stability of NaMgF{sub 3} relative to the breakdown products. Furthermore, because phase X appears to have a cation coordination number intermediate between pyrite-type (6) and cotunnite-type (9), entropy change ({Delta}S) would be smaller at the breakdown boundary, making the Clapeyron slope (dP/dT = {Delta}S/{Delta}V) much smaller than the prediction. If similar trend occurs in MgSiO{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}, the breakdown of MgSiO{sub 3} may occur at higher pressure and have much smaller negative Clapeyron slope than the prediction, allowing for large-scale convection in the mantles of super-Earth exoplanets.

  16. Local atomic structure of K{sub x}Na{sub (1−x)}NbO{sub 3} by total x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Shashaank; Priya, Shashank; Petkov, Valeri

    2014-12-08

    Local atomic structure of K{sub x}Na{sub (1−x)}NbO{sub 3} with 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0 was studied using atomic Pair Distribution Function analysis based on x-ray diffraction. Powdered crystals were found to exhibit a re-entrant behavior by being orthorhombic (Amm2) for x < 0.42, monoclinic (Pm) for 0.42 ≤ x ≤ 0.63 and again orthorhombic (Amm2) for x > 0.63. Non-centrosymmetric structure of NaNbO{sub 3} (Amm2) was also evident in the piezoresponse force microscopy analysis revealing the presence of the ferroelectric domains and switching behavior. Lowering of the crystallographic symmetry for 0.42 ≤ x ≤ 0.63 is discussed in terms of differences in the sizes of Na{sup +} and K{sup +} ions and Na–O and K–O bond lengths. Besides being a bridging phase, as suggested by the previous studies on lead-based compositions, present study suggests that lower symmetry monoclinic phase of compositionally disordered perovskite solid solutions could also be a manifestation of the difference in the sizes of constituent ions and bond lengths.

  17. Interactions of atomic oxygen with material surfaces in low Earth orbit: Preliminary results from experiment A0114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.; Christl, L.; Raikar, G. N.; Weimer, J. J.; Wiser, R.; Peters, P. N.

    1991-01-01

    The University of Alabama at Huntsville atomic oxygen experiment consisted of two trays of 64 one inch diameter solid samples. One tray was placed on the leading edge and one on the trailing edge of the spacecraft. Half of each sample was covered to provide a control. Thus it was intended that the effects of atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet radiation on the surface properties of each material could be distinguised from each other and from the effects of aging. Sixteen of the samples were placed on a thermally isolated plate of highly polished aluminum, while the main plate was coated with the thermal control coating S13-GLO. Though the experiment was entirely passive, it was hoped that the effects of thermal activation might be observed, if present. The plates were expected to stabilize at temperatures differing by 20 to 30 C. The experiment also carried a device to measure the spacecraft altitude and several oxygen atom reflectometers which have not been analyzed to date. The samples included thin films of metals Os, Ir, Pt, Ni, W, Mo, and Al coated onto fused silica optical flats; metal carbides (WC, SiC), solid carbons of various types, eight polymers and some other coatings of various types.

  18. Interactions of atomic oxygen with material surfaces in low Earth orbit: Preliminary results from experiment A0114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.; Christl, L.; Raikar, G. N.; Weimer, J. J.; Wiser, R.; Peters, P. N.

    1991-01-01

    The University of Alabama at Huntsville atomic oxygen experiment consisted of two trays of 64 one inch diameter solid samples. One tray was placed on the leading edge and one on the trailing edge of the spacecraft. Half of each sample was covered to provide a control. Thus it was intended that the effects of atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet radiation on the surface properties of each material could be distinguised from each other and from the effects of aging. Sixteen of the samples were placed on a thermally isolated plate of highly polished aluminum, while the main plate was coated with the thermal control coating S13-GLO. Though the experiment was entirely passive, it was hoped that the effects of thermal activation might be observed, if present. The plates were expected to stabilize at temperatures differing by 20 to 30 C. The experiment also carried a device to measure the spacecraft altitude and several oxygen atom reflectometers which have not been analyzed to date. The samples included thin films of metals Os, Ir, Pt, Ni, W, Mo, and Al coated onto fused silica optical flats; metal carbides (WC, SiC), solid carbons of various types, eight polymers and some other coatings of various types.

  19. Absorption spectroscopy of heavy alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in rare gas matrices—CCSD(T) calculations and atomic site occupancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Barry M.; McCaffrey, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of the heavier alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in the solid rare gases (RGs) Ar, Kr, and Xe is analysed with absorption spectroscopy and interpreted partly with the assistance of ab initio calculations of the diatomic M ṡ RG ground state interaction potentials. The y1P←a1S resonance transitions in the visible spectral region are used to compare the isolation conditions of these two metal atom systems and calcium. Complex absorption bands were recorded in all three metal atom systems even after extensive sample annealing. Coupled cluster calculations conducted on the ground states of the nine M ṡ RG diatomics (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba; RG = Ar, Kr, and Xe) at the coupled cluster single, double, and non-iterative triple level of theory revealed long bond lengths (>5 Å) and shallow bound regions (<130 cm-1). All of the M ṡ RG diatomics have bond lengths considerably longer than those of the rare gas dimers, with the consequence that isolation of these metal atoms in a single substitutional site of the solid rare gas is unlikely, with the possible exception of Ca/Xe. The luminescence of metal dimer bands has been recorded for Ba and Sr revealing very different behaviours. Resonance fluorescence with a lifetime of 15 ns is observed for the lowest energy transition of Sr2 while this transition is quenched in Ba2. This behaviour is consistent with the absence of vibrational structure on the dimer absorption band in Ba2 indicating lifetime broadening arising from efficient relaxation to low-lying molecular states. More extensive 2D excitation-emission data recorded for the complex site structures present on the absorption bands of the atomic Ba and Sr systems will be presented in future publications.

  20. Absorption spectroscopy of heavy alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in rare gas matrices—CCSD(T) calculations and atomic site occupancies

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Barry M.; McCaffrey, John G.

    2016-01-28

    Isolation of the heavier alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in the solid rare gases (RGs) Ar, Kr, and Xe is analysed with absorption spectroscopy and interpreted partly with the assistance of ab initio calculations of the diatomic M ⋅ RG ground state interaction potentials. The y{sup 1}P←a{sup 1}S resonance transitions in the visible spectral region are used to compare the isolation conditions of these two metal atom systems and calcium. Complex absorption bands were recorded in all three metal atom systems even after extensive sample annealing. Coupled cluster calculations conducted on the ground states of the nine M ⋅ RG diatomics (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba; RG = Ar, Kr, and Xe) at the coupled cluster single, double, and non-iterative triple level of theory revealed long bond lengths (>5 Å) and shallow bound regions (<130 cm{sup −1}). All of the M ⋅ RG diatomics have bond lengths considerably longer than those of the rare gas dimers, with the consequence that isolation of these metal atoms in a single substitutional site of the solid rare gas is unlikely, with the possible exception of Ca/Xe. The luminescence of metal dimer bands has been recorded for Ba and Sr revealing very different behaviours. Resonance fluorescence with a lifetime of 15 ns is observed for the lowest energy transition of Sr{sub 2} while this transition is quenched in Ba{sub 2}. This behaviour is consistent with the absence of vibrational structure on the dimer absorption band in Ba{sub 2} indicating lifetime broadening arising from efficient relaxation to low-lying molecular states. More extensive 2D excitation-emission data recorded for the complex site structures present on the absorption bands of the atomic Ba and Sr systems will be presented in future publications.

  1. Absorption spectroscopy of heavy alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in rare gas matrices--CCSD(T) calculations and atomic site occupancies.

    PubMed

    Davis, Barry M; McCaffrey, John G

    2016-01-28

    Isolation of the heavier alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in the solid rare gases (RGs) Ar, Kr, and Xe is analysed with absorption spectroscopy and interpreted partly with the assistance of ab initio calculations of the diatomic M ⋅ RG ground state interaction potentials. The y(1)P ← a(1)S resonance transitions in the visible spectral region are used to compare the isolation conditions of these two metal atom systems and calcium. Complex absorption bands were recorded in all three metal atom systems even after extensive sample annealing. Coupled cluster calculations conducted on the ground states of the nine M ⋅ RG diatomics (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba; RG = Ar, Kr, and Xe) at the coupled cluster single, double, and non-iterative triple level of theory revealed long bond lengths (>5 Å) and shallow bound regions (<130 cm(-1)). All of the M ⋅ RG diatomics have bond lengths considerably longer than those of the rare gas dimers, with the consequence that isolation of these metal atoms in a single substitutional site of the solid rare gas is unlikely, with the possible exception of Ca/Xe. The luminescence of metal dimer bands has been recorded for Ba and Sr revealing very different behaviours. Resonance fluorescence with a lifetime of 15 ns is observed for the lowest energy transition of Sr2 while this transition is quenched in Ba2. This behaviour is consistent with the absence of vibrational structure on the dimer absorption band in Ba2 indicating lifetime broadening arising from efficient relaxation to low-lying molecular states. More extensive 2D excitation-emission data recorded for the complex site structures present on the absorption bands of the atomic Ba and Sr systems will be presented in future publications.

  2. Interactions of atomic oxygen with material surfaces in low Earth orbit: Preliminary results from experiment A0114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.; Christl, Ligia C.; Raikar, Ganesh N.; Weimer, J. J.; Wiser, R.; Peters, Palmer N.

    1992-01-01

    The atomic oxygen experiment consisted of two trays (one-sixth of a Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray each) of 64 one inch diameter solid samples. It was intended that the effects of atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet irradiation on the surface properties of each material could be distinguished from each other and from the effects of aging. Sixteen of the samples were placed on a thermally isolated plate of highly polished aluminum, while the main plate was coated with the thermal control coating S13-GLO. Though the experiment was entirely passive, it was hoped that the effects of thermal activation might be observed, if present. The plates were expected to stabilize at temperatures differing by 20-30 C. The samples included thin films of metals Os, Ir, Pt, Ni, Mo, and Al coated onto silica optical flats, metal carbides (WC, SiC), solid carbons of various types, eight polymers, and some other coatings of various types. Analysis is essentially complete using stylus profilometry with high sensitivity Talystep and lower sensitivity Talysurf machines. Though the integrated fluence of O atoms on the LDEF was 30 times that of previous missions, etch depths of the polymers such as the polyimide Kapton show excellent agreement with extrapolations from previous flight data. However, some new effects were observed. We demonstrated on a previous experiment on STS-8 that profilometry of this kind can show steps of 50 A (for example those due to oxide film growth on metals) and this is now the preferred method for estimating etch depth (or mass loss) of erodible substances.

  3. Interactions of atomic oxygen with material surfaces in low Earth orbit: Preliminary results from experiment A0114

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, John C.; Christl, Ligia C.; Raikar, Ganesh N.; Weimer, J. J.; Wiser, R.; Peters, Palmer N.

    1992-01-01

    The atomic oxygen experiment consisted of two trays (one-sixth of a Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray each) of 64 one inch diameter solid samples. It was intended that the effects of atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet irradiation on the surface properties of each material could be distinguished from each other and from the effects of aging. Sixteen of the samples were placed on a thermally isolated plate of highly polished aluminum, while the main plate was coated with the thermal control coating S13-GLO. Though the experiment was entirely passive, it was hoped that the effects of thermal activation might be observed, if present. The plates were expected to stabilize at temperatures differing by 20-30 C. The samples included thin films of metals Os, Ir, Pt, Ni, Mo, and Al coated onto silica optical flats, metal carbides (WC, SiC), solid carbons of various types, eight polymers, and some other coatings of various types. Analysis is essentially complete using stylus profilometry with high sensitivity Talystep and lower sensitivity Talysurf machines. Though the integrated fluence of O atoms on the LDEF was 30 times that of previous missions, etch depths of the polymers such as the polyimide Kapton show excellent agreement with extrapolations from previous flight data. However, some new effects were observed. We demonstrated on a previous experiment on STS-8 that profilometry of this kind can show steps of 50 A (for example those due to oxide film growth on metals) and this is now the preferred method for estimating etch depth (or mass loss) of erodible substances.

  4. Atomic resolution for non-equilibrium structures in the steady state and for structural transformations at the interface between NaCl(c) and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Masanori

    1996-07-01

    Observations of both nanoscale and microscale images were carried out on a NaCl(001) surface in water using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The observed higher density of steps and the observed convex and concave steps in water result from the forward motion of monatomic steps and crystal growth of the so-called step-flow mode. The non-equilibrium structure having a unit cell of 0953-8984/8/27/003/img1 structure has been observed for the first time on terraces. Since every 0953-8984/8/27/003/img2 on terraces is located at the same height as 0953-8984/8/27/003/img3, each 0953-8984/8/27/003/img2 as well as each 0953-8984/8/27/003/img3 have been observed as protrusions by AFM. The metastable configuration at the interface between the NaCl(001) surface and water was transformed, at steps, into the equilibrium structure of NaCl(c), about 3 h after the NaCl(001) surface had been covered with its own saturated water. After about 30 min, however, 0953-8984/8/27/003/img2 still remains at the same height as 0953-8984/8/27/003/img3 at steps, or sodium ions leave the surface at steps. The reason why the forward motion of monatomic steps takes place at the interface between the NaCl(001) surface and water is the decrease of about 0.05 nm in the distance of like nearest neighbours in the non-equilibrium structure having a unit cell of 0953-8984/8/27/003/img1 structure on terraces after its structural transformation to the equilibrium structure of NaCl(c) with the aid of water molecules.

  5. Reversible uptake of water on NaCl nanoparticles at relative humidity below deliquescence point observed by noncontact environmental atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bruzewicz, Derek A; Checco, Antonio; Ocko, Benjamin M; Lewis, Ernie R; McGraw, Robert L; Schwartz, Stephen E

    2011-01-28

    The behavior of NaCl nanoparticles as a function of relative humidity (RH) has been characterized using non-contact environmental atomic force microscopy (e-AFM) to measure the heights of particles deposited on a prepared hydrophobic surface. Cubic NaCl nanoparticles with sides of 35 and 80 nm were found to take up water reversibly with increasing RH well below the bulk deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of 75% at 23(∘)C, and to form a liquid-like surface layer of thickness 2 to 5 nm, with measurable uptake (>2 nm increase in particle height) beginning at 70% RH. The maximum thickness of the layer increased with increasing RH and increasing particle size over the range studied. The liquid-like behavior of the layer was indicated by a reversible rounding at the upper surface of the particles, fit to a parabolic cross-section, where the ratio of particle height to maximum radius of curvature increases from zero (flat top) at 68% RH to 0.7 ± 0.3 at 74% RH. These observations, which are consistent with a reorganization of mass on the solid NaCl nanocrystal at RH below the DRH, suggest that the deliquescence of NaCl nanoparticles is more complex than an abrupt first-order phase transition. The height measurements are consistent with a phenomenological model that assumes favorable contributions to the free energy of formation of a liquid layer on solid NaCl due both to van der Waals interactions, which depend partly upon the Hamaker constant, A(film), of the interaction between the thin liquid film and the solid NaCl, and to a longer-range electrostatic interaction over a characteristic length of persistence, ξ; the best fit to the data corresponded to A(film)= 1 kT and ξ = 2.33 nm.

  6. Full-potential linear-muffin-tin-orbital calculations of the magnetic properties of rare-earth-transition-metal intermetallics. I. Description of the formalism and application to the series RCo5 (R=rare-earth atom)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummler, K.; Fähnle, M.

    1996-02-01

    For the series RCo5 (R=rare-earth atom) various parameters occurring in the two-sublattice model of rare-earth-transition-metal intermetallics (local magnetic moments, intersublattice exchange fields, crystal field parameters, as well as magnetic hyperfine fields and electric field gradients) are calculated within the framework of the local-spin-density approximation (LSDA) and the full-potential linear-muffin-tin-orbital theory. Special emphasis is given to a determination of the crystal field parameter A02. It is shown that it is absolutely indispensable to include the 5p states at the R site into the valence band and to avoid any spherical approximation for the effective potential. The quantity A02 depends on the orientation of the aspherical 4f charge density, in contrast to a basic assumption of the two-sublattice model. As a result, the experiments in general yield some kind of average effective values which are different for different experiments. Application of the LSDA introduces rather large uncertainties for A02 which cannot be totally removed but at least drastically reduced by physically motivated measures.

  7. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic determination of rare earth elements in geological samples after preconcentration by countercurrent chromatography—I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukhovskaya, V. M.; Maryutina, T. A.; Grebneva, O. N.; Kuz'min, N. M.; Spivakov, B. Ya.

    1993-09-01

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) was applied to group pre-separation of rare earth elements (REE) in rocks. A 0.5 mol/l solution of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) in n-decane as stationary phase, and aqueous HC1 solution as mobile phase were used. Experimental conditions were found for quantitative separation of REE from the rock constituents that interfere with their inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) determination. The complete preseparation procedure takes 40 min at a mobile phase pumping rate of 2 ml/min. Interelement and off-peak background corrections were applied to compensate for the contributions of mutual spectral interferences to the analyte line and background intensities. Standard reference rock materials and samples of different composition with well known REE contents were analysed. The data obtained are in good agreement with certified and previously determined values, except for "heavy" REE such as Tm, Yb and Lu.

  8. ESCA study of Kapton exposed to atomic oxygen in low earth orbit or downstream from a radio-frequency oxygen plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Wydeven, Theodore; Cormia, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    The ESCA spectra of Kapton polyimide film exposed to atomic oxygen O(3P), either in low earth orbit (LEO) on the STS-8 Space Shuttle or downstream from a radio-frequency oxygen plasma, were compared. The major difference in surface chemistry induced by the two types of exposure to O(3P), both of which caused surface recession (etching), was a much larger uptake of oxygen by Kapton etched in the O2 plasma than in LEO. This difference is attributed to the presence of molecular oxygen in the plasma reactor and its absence in LEO: in the former case, O2 can react with radicals generated in the Kapton molecule as it etches, become incorporated in the etched polymer, and thereby yield a higher steady-state 'surface oxidation' level than in LEO.

  9. Evaluation of interactive forces between alkaline earth metal fluoride particles and single crystal substrate using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yi-Yang; Nalladega, Vijay; Sathish, Shamachary; Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2004-07-01

    Interactive forces between particles play an important role in diverse fields of science and technology. With the advent of Atomic Force Microscopy, investigation of interactive forces has been extended to micro and nano-scale particles with new applications. These forces are known to vary with the dimension of the particles and with the different levels of humidity. In the present paper we have investigated the interactive forces between a spherical particle probes of eutectic BaF2-CaF2 and a single crystal surface of CaF2 using an Atomic Force Microscope. The effect of humidity on the interactive forces has been examined by analyzing the force-displacement curves at controlled levels of humidity. Force distance curves obtained with two different probes, 5 μm and 17 μm in diameter, and have been examined to investigate the effect of probe dimensions. The results are discussed in view of the application of eutectic BaF2-CaF2 particles in self-lubricating coatings for aerospace applications.

  10. Evolution of the atomic order and valence state of rare-earth atoms and uranium in a new carbon-metal composite—diphthalocyanine pyrolysate C64H32N16 Me ( Me = Y, La, Ce, Eu, and U)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovestnov, A. E.; Kapustin, V. K.; Tikhonov, V. I.; Fomin, E. V.; Chernenkov, Yu. P.

    2014-08-01

    The structure of a metal-carbon composite formed by the pyrolysis of diphthalocyanine of some rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Eu) and uranium in the temperature range T ann = 800-1700°C has been investigated for the first time by the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis and X-ray line shift. It has been shown that, in the general case, the studied pyrolysates consist of three phases. One phase corresponds to the structure of graphite. The second phase corresponds to nitrides, carbides, and oxides of basic metal elements with a crystallite size ranging from 5 to 100 nm. The third phase is amorphous or consisting of crystallites with a size of ˜1 nm. It has been found that all the basic elements (Y, La, Ce, Eu, U) and incorporated iodine atoms in the third phase are in a chemically bound state. The previously unobserved electronic configurations have been revealed for europium. The possibility of including not only atoms of elements forming diphthalocyanine but also other elements (for example, iodine) in the composite structure is of interest, in particular, for the creation of a thermally, chemically, and radiation resistant metal-carbon matrix for the radioactive waste storage.

  11. Vibronic transitions in the alkali-metal (Li, Na, K, Rb) - alkaline-earth-metal (Ca, Sr) series: A systematic analysis of de-excitation mechanisms based on the graphical mapping of Frank-Condon integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pototschnig, Johann V.; Meyer, Ralf; Hauser, Andreas W.; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2017-02-01

    Research on ultracold molecules has seen a growing interest recently in the context of high-resolution spectroscopy and quantum computation. After forming weakly bound molecules from atoms in cold collisions, the preparation of molecules in low vibrational levels of the ground state is experimentally challenging, and typically achieved by population transfer using excited electronic states. Accurate potential energy surfaces are needed for a correct description of processes such as the coherent de-excitation from the highest and therefore weakly bound vibrational levels in the electronic ground state via couplings to electronically excited states. This paper is dedicated to the vibrational analysis of potentially relevant electronically excited states in the alkali-metal (Li, Na, K, Rb)- alkaline-earth metal (Ca,Sr) diatomic series. Graphical maps of Frank-Condon overlap integrals are presented for all molecules of the group. By comparison to overlap graphics produced for idealized potential surfaces, we judge the usability of the selected states for future experiments on laser-enhanced molecular formation from mixtures of quantum degenerate gases.

  12. Solar conversion of CO2 to CO using Earth-abundant electrocatalysts prepared by atomic layer modification of CuO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Marcel; Héroguel, Florent; Steier, Ludmilla; Ahmad, Shahzada; Luterbacher, Jeremy S.; Mayer, Matthew T.; Luo, Jingshan; Grätzel, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The solar-driven electrochemical reduction of CO2 to fuels and chemicals provides a promising way for closing the anthropogenic carbon cycle. However, the lack of selective and Earth-abundant catalysts able to achieve the desired transformation reactions in an aqueous matrix presents a substantial impediment as of today. Here we introduce atomic layer deposition of SnO2 on CuO nanowires as a means for changing the wide product distribution of CuO-derived CO2 reduction electrocatalysts to yield predominantly CO. The activity of this catalyst towards oxygen evolution enables us to use it both as the cathode and anode for complete CO2 electrolysis. In the resulting device, the electrodes are separated by a bipolar membrane, allowing each half-reaction to run in its optimal electrolyte environment. Using a GaInP/GaInAs/Ge photovoltaic we achieve the solar-driven splitting of CO2 into CO and oxygen with a bifunctional, sustainable and all Earth-abundant system at an efficiency of 13.4%.

  13. Determination of rare earth elements in geological materials by inductively coupled argon plasma/atomic emission spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Lichte, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    Inductively coupled argon plasma/optical emission spectrometery (ICAP/OES) is useful as a simultaneous, multielement analytical technique for the determination of trace elements in geological materials. A method for the determination of trace-level rare earth elements (REE) in geological materials using an ICAP 63-channel emission spectrometer is described. Separation and preconcentration of the REE and yttrium from a sample digest are achieved by a nitric acid gradient cation exchange and hydrochloric acid anion exchange. Precision of 1-4% relative standard deviation and comparable accuracy are demonstrated by the triplicate analysis of three splits of BCR-1 and BHVO-1. Analyses of other geological materials including coals, soils, and rocks show comparable precision and accuracy.

  14. The use of plasma ashers and Monte Carlo modeling for the projection of atomic oxygen durability of protected polymers in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Auer, Bruce M.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Degroh, Kim K.; Gebauer, Linda

    1992-01-01

    The results of ground laboratory and in-space exposure of polymeric materials to atomic oxygen has enabled the development of a Monte Carlo computational model which simulates the oxidation processes of both environments. The cost effective projection of long-term low-Earth-orbital durability of protected polymeric materials such as SiO(x)-coated polyimide Kapton photovoltaic array blankets will require ground-based testing to assure power system reliability. Although silicon dioxide thin film protective coatings can greatly extend the useful life of polymeric materials in ground-based testing, the projection of in-space durability based on these results can be made more reliable through the use of modeling which simulates the mechanistic properties of atomic oxygen interaction, and replicates test results in both environments. Techniques to project long-term performance of protected materials, such as the Space Station Freedom solar array blankets, are developed based on ground laboratory experiments, in-space experiments, and computational modeling.

  15. Soft x-ray emission of galliumlike rare-earth atoms produced by high-temperature low-density tokamak and high-density laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K.B.; Goldstein, W.H.; Osterheld, A. ); Finkenthal, M.; Lippmann, S.; Huang, L.K.; Moos, H.W. ); Spector, N. )

    1994-09-01

    Spectra of rare-earth atoms praseodymium, [ital Z]=59, to ytterbium, [ital Z]=70, emitted from the high-temperature (1 keV) low-density (10[sup 13] cm[sup [minus]3]) TEXT tokamak (at the Fusion Research Center, University of Texas, Austin) and high-density (10[sup 20] cm[sup [minus]3]) laser plasmas have been recorded in the soft-x-ray range of 50--200 A with an image intensifier detector and on photographic plates. The brightest [ital n]=4 to [ital n]=4 transitions of galliumlike ions have been identified and their emission patterns have been studied by comparison with [ital ab] [ital initio] atomic structure calculations and collisional radiative models under the respective plasma conditions. We have investigated the use of the ratios of the intensities of 4-4 transitions as indicators of plasma densities. This is possible owing to the doublet structure of the galliumlike ground state, which leads to a strong density dependence for ratios of transitions between low-lying levels. We have also used semiempirical ionization balance calculations to characterize the charge state distribution of the tokamak plasmas, in preparation for an investigation of the use of ratios of galliumlike to zinclike and copperlike emission features as indicators of whether the impurities are in coronal equilibrium or undergoing ionization.

  16. Covering the optical spectrum through collective rare-earth doping of NaGdF4 nanoparticles: 806 and 980 nm excitation routes.

    PubMed

    Skripka, A; Marin, R; Benayas, A; Canton, P; Hemmer, E; Vetrone, F

    2017-05-17

    Today, at the frontier of biomedical research, the need has been clearly established for integrating disease detection and therapeutic function in one single theranostic system. Light-emitting nanoparticles are being intensively investigated to fulfil this demand, by continuously developing nanoparticle systems simultaneously emitting in both the UV/visible (light-triggered release and activation of drugs) and the near-infrared (imaging and tracking) spectral regions. In this work, rare-earth (RE) doped nanoparticles (RENPs) were synthesized via a thermal decomposition process and spectroscopically investigated as potential candidates as all-in-one optical imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic agents. These core/shell/shell nanoparticles (NaGdF4:Er(3+),Ho(3+),Yb(3+)/NaGdF4:Nd(3+),Yb(3+)/NaGdF4) are optically excited by heating-free 806 nm light that, aside from minimizing the local thermal load, also allows to obtain a deeper sub-tissue penetration with respect to the still widely used 980 nm light. Moreover, these water-dispersed nanoplatforms offer interesting assets as triggers/probes for biomedical applications, by virtue of a plethora of emission bands (spanning the 380-1600 nm range). Our results pave the way to use these RENPs for UV/visible-triggered photodynamic therapy/drug release, while simultaneously tracking the nanoparticle biodistribution and monitoring their therapeutic action through the near-infrared signal that overlaps with biological transparency windows.

  17. Microstructual investigation of mixed rar earth iron boron processed vis melt-spinning and high-pressure gas-atomization for isotrophic bonded permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Buelow, Nicholas Lee

    2005-01-01

    A solid solution of three rare earths (RE) in the RE2Fe14B structure have been combined to create the novel mixed rare earth iron boron (MRE2Fe14B) alloy family. MRE2Fe14B exhibits reduced temperature dependent magnetic properties; remanence and coercivity. The desired form of MRE2Fe14B is a powder that can be blended with a polymer binder and compression or injection molded to form an isotropic polymer bonded permanent magnet (PBM). Commercially, Nd2Fe14B is the alloy of choice for PBMs. Powders of Nd2Fe14B are made via melt-spinning as can be MRE2Fe14B which allows for direct comparisons. MRE2Fe14B made using melt-spinning at high wheel speeds is overquenched and must be annealed to an optimal hard magnetic state. Due to the rare earth content in the MRE2Fe14B powders, they must be protected from the environment in which they operate. This protection is accomplished by using a modified fluidized bed process to grow a protective fluoride coating nominally 15nm thick, to reduce air oxidation. MRE2Fe14B has demonstrated reduced temperature dependent magnetic properties in ribbon and PBM form. The real challenge has been modifying alloy designs that were successfully melt-spun to be compatible with high-pressure gas-atomization (HPGA). The cooling rates in HPGA are lower than melt-spinning, as the powders are quenched via convective cooling, compared to melt-spinning, which quenches initially by conductive cooling. Early alloy designs, in gas atomized and melt-spun form, did not have similar phase compositions or microstructures. Alloy additions, such as the addition of zirconium as a nucleation catalyst, were successful in creating similar phases and microstructures in the HPGA powders and melt-spun ribbon of the same MRE2Fe14

  18. Atomically thin Co3O4 nanosheet-coated stainless steel mesh with enhanced capacitive Na+ storage for high-performance sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Yuhai; Wang, Yunxiao; Tian, Dongliang; Xu, Jiantie; Zhang, Zhijia; Liu, Qiannan; Ruan, Boyang; Ma, Jianmin; Sun, Ziqi; Xue Dou, Shi

    2017-03-01

    Capacitive storage (e.g., double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance) with Na+ stored mainly at the surface or interface of the active materials rather than inserted into the bulk crystal is an effective approach to achieve high rate capability and long cycle life in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Herein, atomically thin Co3O4 nanosheets are successfully synthesized and grown directly on the stainless steel mesh as an anode material for SIBs. This anode delivers a high average capacity of 509.2 mAh g-1 for the initial 20 cycles (excluding the first cycle) at 50 mA g-1, presents excellent rate capability with an average capacity of 427.0 mAh g-1 at 500 mA g-1, and exhibits high cycling stability, which significantly outperforms the electrode prepared from conventional Co3O4 nanostructures, the electrode prepared by conventional casting method, and previously reported Co3O4 electrodes. The superior electrochemical performance is mainly attributable to the atomic thickness of the Co3O4 nanosheets and the direct growth method in electrode processing, which lead to remarkably enhanced surface redox pseudocapacitance and interfacial double layer capacitance. This Na+ capacitive storage mechanism provides a promising strategy for the development of electrode materials with high energy and power densities and ultralong cycle life for SIBs.

  19. Determination of Ca, Mg, Na, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Li and Zn in acid mine and reference water samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Meier, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometric (ICP-AFS) method was used for the determination of nine elements in natural water. Reference and acid mine water samples were analysed by this method to demonstrate its usefulness for hydrogeochemical exploration. The elements were determined in two groups based on the compatibility of operating conditions and consideration of element abundance levels in natural water. Ca, Mg and Na were determined as a group using one set of instrumental conditions and a 1 + 99 dilution of the sample, and Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Li and Zn were determined using another set of conditions and the undiluted sample. The detection limits for the elements are as follows: Ca, 1.4; Mg, 1.7; Na, 2.0; Cd, 1.8; Cu, 6.2; Fe, 15.8; K, 3.5; Li, 0.3; and Zn, 1.2 ng m1-1. Each element has a linear range spanning about four orders of magnitude. The method has good precision and accuracy, as shown by statistics on replicate analyses and by the agreement between values obtained and those recommended for the reference water samples, and also those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry for the acid mine water samples.

  20. Reflectance spectroscopy of low atomic weight and Na-rich minerals: Borates, hydroxides, nitrates, nitrites, and peroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, E.; Berg, B.; Mann, P.; Applin, D.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured reflectance spectra (0.35-20 μm) of a suite of minerals and synthetic compounds that contain low-Z (⩽Na) elements as the major cation and/or the major anion in oxides/oxyhydroxides, and are relevant to planetary geology and astrobiology. The suite comprises Na-borates, Na-, K-, Ca-hydroxides, nitrates, nitrites, and peroxides. Na-borate spectra exhibit B-O fundamental vibrations between 7 and 14 μm, and overtones/combinations of these bands in the 1.55, 1.75, 2.15, and 2.25 μm regions. Na-, K-, and Ca-hydroxide reflectance spectra are characterized by OH and metal-OH fundamental vibrations near 3, 8, and 18 μm, and a number of overtone and combination absorption bands at shorter wavelengths, and a characteristic metal-OH band near 2.35 μm. The nitrate and nitrite spectra exhibit fundamental N-O vibrations in the 7-14 μm region and numerous combinations and overtones that are still detectable to as low as ∼1.8 μm. Na-peroxide is largely spectrally featureless below 24 μm, making its detection problematic, while H-peroxide has many OH-related absorption features below 2.5 μm that differ in position from those of H2O ice and liquid. The results of this study indicate that the borates, hydroxides, nitrates, nitrite, and hydrogen peroxide can all be uniquely identified using characteristic absorption features that are present below 2.5 μm. However, some of these features are weak, and their detectability will depend on the types and abundances of any accessory phases that may be present.

  1. Rare-earth free yellow-green emitting NaZnPO4:Mn phosphor for lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haranath, D.; Mishra, S.; Yadav, S.; Sharma, R. K.; Kandpal, L. M.; Vijayan, N.; Dalai, M. K.; Sehgal, G.; Shanker, V.

    2012-11-01

    Manganese-doped sodium zinc phosphate (NaZnPO4:Mn) phosphor with exceptional features having ultra-violet (UV) to visible absorption (300-470 nm), yellow-green (˜543 nm) broad-band photoluminescence (PL), and appreciable color co-ordinates (x = 0.39, y = 0.58) is reported. It has a crystal structure consisting of discrete PO4 tetrahedra linked by ZnO4 and NaO4 distorted tetrahedral such that three tetrahedra, one of each kind, share one corner. The presence of UV sensitive Zn-O-Zn bonds and their efficient energy transfer to Mn2+ ions resulted in brightest PL and external quantum yield of 63% at 418 nm. Our experiment demonstrated the possibility of producing inexpensive white-light emitting devices for future.

  2. Controlled synthesis of racemic indenyl rare-earth metal complexes via the cooperation between the intramolecular coordination of donor atoms and a bridge.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuangliu; Wu, Zhangshuan; Zhou, Lingmin; Wang, Shaowu; Zhang, Lijun; Zhu, Xiancui; Wei, Yun; Zhai, Jinhua; Wu, Jie

    2013-06-03

    The reactions of Me2Si(C9H6CH2CH2-DG)2 (DG = NMe2 (1), CH2NMe2 (2), OMe (3), and N(CH2CH2)2O (4)) with [(Me3Si)2N]3RE(μ-Cl)Li(THF)3 in toluene afforded a series of racemic divalent rare-earth metal complexes: {η(5):η(1):η(5):η(1)-Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2-DG)2}RE (DG = NMe2, RE = Yb (6) and Eu (7); DG = CH2NMe2, RE = Yb (8), Eu (9), and Sm (10); DG = OMe, RE = Yb (11) and Eu (12); DG = N(CH2CH2)2O, RE = Yb (13) and Eu (14)). Similarly, the racemic divalent rare-earth metal complexes {η(5):η(1):η(5):η(1)-Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2CH2NMe2)(C9H5CH2CH2OMe)}RE (RE = Yb (15) and Eu (16)) were also obtained. The reaction of Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2OMe)2Li2 with NdCl3 gave a racemic dimeric neodymium chloride {η(5):η(1):η(5)-Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2OMe)2NdCl}2 (17), whereas the reaction of Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2NMe2)2Li2 with SmCl3 afforded a racemic dinuclear samarium chloride bridged by lithium chloride {η(5):η(1):η(5):η(1)-Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2NMe2)2SmCl}2(μ-LiCl) (18). Further reaction of complex 18 with LiCH2SiMe3 provided an unexpected rare-earth metal alkyl complex {η(5):η(1):η(5):η(1):σ-Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2NMe2)[(C9H5CH2CH2N(CH2)Me]}Sm (19) through the activation of an sp(3) C-H bond α-adjacent to the nitrogen atom. Complexes 19 and {η(5):η(1):η(5):η(1):σ-Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2NMe2)[(C9H5CH2CH2N(CH2)Me]}Y (20) were also obtained by one-pot reactions of Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2NMe2)2Li2 with RECl3 followed by treatment with LiCH2SiMe3. All compounds were fully characterized by spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis. Complexes 6-10 and 14-20 were further characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All of the prepared rare-earth metal complexes were racemic, suggesting that racemic organo rare-earth metal complexes could be controllably synthesized by the cooperation between a bridge and the intramolecular coordination of donor atoms.

  3. Melting depths and mantle heterogeneity beneath Hawaii and the East Pacific Rise: Constraints from Na/Ti and rare earth element ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Putirka, K.

    1999-02-01

    Mantle melting calculations are presented that place constraints on the mineralogy of the basalt source region and partial melting depths for oceanic basalts. Melting depths are obtained from pressure-sensitive mineral-melt partition coefficients for Na, Ti, Hf, and the rare earth elements (REE). Melting depths are estimated by comparing model aggregate melt compositions to natural basalts from Hawaii and the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Variations in melting depths in a peridotite mantle are sufficient to yield observed differences in Na/Ti, Lu/Hf, and Sm/Yb between Hawaii and the EPR. Initial melting depths of 95{endash}120 km are calculated for EPR basalts, while melting depths of 200{endash}400 km are calculated for Hawaii, indicating a mantle that is 300&hthinsp;{degree}C hotter at Hawaii. Some isotope ratios at Hawaii are correlated with Na/Ti, indicating vertical stratification to isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle; similar comparisons involving EPR lavas support a layered mantle model. Abundances of Na, Ti, and REE indicate that garnet pyroxenite and eclogite are unlikely source components at Hawaii and may be unnecessary at the EPR. The result that some geochemical features of oceanic lavas appear to require only minor variations in mantle mineral proportions (2{percent} or less) may have important implications regarding the efficiency of mantle mixing. Heterogeneity required by isotopic studies might be accompanied by only subtle differences in bulk composition, and material that is recycled at subduction zones might not persist as mineralogically distinct mantle components. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

  4. Luminescence properties of Eu-activated alkaline and alkaline-earth silicate Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 16}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Huang, Yanlin; Wang, Xigang; Qin, Lin; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • A novel yellow-emitting alkaline and alkaline-earth silicate Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 2+} was first developed. • Under excitation with UV or near UV light the silicate presents broad emission band centered at 580 nm. - Abstract: Yellow-emitting phosphors of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 2+} was prepared by wet chemistry sol–gel method. X-ray powder diffraction and SEM measurements were applied to characterize the structure and morphology, respectively. The luminescence properties were investigated by the photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra, decay curve (lifetimes), CIE coordinates and the internal quantum efficiencies. The excitation spectra can match well with the emission light of near UV-LED chips (360–400 nm). Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 2+} presents a symmetric emission band from 4f{sup 6}5d{sup 1} ⟶ 4f{sup 7}({sup 8}S{sub 7/2}) transitions of Eu{sup 2+} ions on doping below 3.0 mol%. On increasing Eu-doping levels, the sample contains two kinds of emission centers, i.e., Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions, which present the characteristic broad band (5d ⟶ 4f) and narrower (4f ⟶ 4f) luminescence lines, respectively. The energy transfer, the luminescence thermal stability (activation energy ΔE for thermal quenching) and luminescence mechanism of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors were discussed by analyzing the relationship between the luminescence characteristics and the crystal structure.

  5. A technique coupling the analyte electrodeposition followed by in-situ stripping with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for analysis of samples with high NaCl contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čánský, Zdeněk; Rychlovský, Petr; Petrová, Zuzana; Matousek, J. P.

    2007-03-01

    A technique coupling the analyte electrodeposition followed by in-situ stripping with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry has been developed for determination of lead and cadmium in samples with high salt contents. To separate the analyte from the sample matrix, the analyte was in-situ quantitatively electrodeposited on a platinum sampling capillary serving as the cathode (sample volume, 20 μL). The spent electrolyte containing the sample matrix was then withdrawn, the capillary with the analyte deposited was washed with deionized water and the analyte was stripped into a chemically simple electrolyte (5 g/L NH 4H 2PO 4) by reversing the polarity of the electrodeposition circuit. Electrothermal atomization using a suitable optimized temperature program followed. A fully automated manifold was designed for this coupled technique and the appropriate control software was developed. The operating conditions for determination of Pb and Cd in samples with high contents of inorganic salts were optimized, the determination was characterized by principal analytical parameters and its applicability was verified on analyses of urine reference samples. The absolute limits of detection for lead and cadmium (3 σ criterion) in a sample containing 30 g/L NaCl were 8.5 pg and 2.3 pg, respectively (peak absorbance) and the RSD values amounted to 1.6% and 1.9% for lead (at the 40 ng mL - 1 level) and cadmium (at the 4.0 ng mL - 1 level), respectively. These values (and also the measuring sensitivity) are superior to the results attained in conventional electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Pb and Cd in pure solutions (5 g/L NH 4H 2PO 4). The sensitivity of the Pb and Cd determination is not affected by the NaCl concentration up to a value of 100 g/L, demonstrating an efficient matrix removal during the electrodeposition step.

  6. Interaction of wide-band-gap single crystals with 248-nm excimer laser irradiation. IX. Photoinduced atomic desorption from cleaved NaCl(100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nwe, K.H.; Langford, S.C.; Dickinson, J.T.

    2005-07-01

    Neutral atomic sodium and chlorine emissions from cleaved, single-crystal NaCl(100) surfaces due to pulsed, 248-nm excimer laser irradiation have been characterized by time-resolved, quadrupole mass spectroscopy. At laser fluences below the threshold for optical breakdown, the resulting time-of-flight signals are consistent with particles emitted in thermal equilibrium with a laser-heated surface. Activation energy measurements made by varying the substrate temperature are consistent with F-H pair formation under UV excitation. By varying the laser fluence and estimating the effective surface temperature from the time-of-flight signals, additional activation energy measurements were made. The corresponding rate-limiting step is attributed to a thermally assisted, photoelectronic process involving atomic steps. Atomic force microscope images of surfaces irradiated at low fluences show monolayer islands that are created by the aggregation of material desorbed from steps. At somewhat higher fluences, monolayer pits due to F-center aggregation are also observed.

  7. Improvement of the Cathode Electrolyte Interphase on P2-Na2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2 by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Judith; Ma, Chuze; Wang, Shen; Nguyen, Kimberly; Kodur, Moses; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2017-08-09

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a commonly used coating technique for lithium ion battery electrodes. Recently, it has been applied to sodium ion battery anode materials. ALD is known to improve the cycling performance, Coulombic efficiency of batteries, and maintain electrode integrity. Here, the electrochemical performance of uncoated P2-Na2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2 electrodes is compared to that of ALD-coated Al2O3 P2-Na2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2 electrodes. Given that ALD coatings are in the early stage of development for NIB cathode materials, little is known about how ALD coatings, in particular aluminum oxide (Al2O3), affect the electrode-electrolyte interface. Therefore, full characterizations of its effects are presented in this work. For the first time, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to elucidate the cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) on ALD-coated electrodes. It contains less carbonate species and more inorganic species, which allows for fast Na kinetics, resulting in significant increase in Coulombic efficiency and decrease in cathode impedance. The effectiveness of Al2O3 ALD coating is also surprisingly reflected in the enhanced mechanical stability of the particle which prevents particle exfoliation.

  8. Comparison between Earth-based Na observations of Mercury's exosphere by THEMIS and in-situ magnetic field measurements by MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangano, Valeria; Massetti, Stefano; Milillo, Anna; Plainaki, Christina; Orsini, Stefano; Rispoli, Rosanna; Leblanc, Francois

    2015-04-01

    The Na exosphere of Mercury is being studied since its discovery in mid '80s from Earth-based telescopes, and it has revealed a high dynamicity and variability. Though the processes and inter-relations at the basis of the Hermean exosphere dynamics are not still clearly understood, there is no doubt that a connection exists among the surface, the exosphere, the intrinsic magnetic field of the body and the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF), which drives the Solar Wind ions into the Mercury's magnetosphere and surface, via the magnetic reconnection. In this work we analyze our dataset of images of the exospheric Na emission, collected from 2009 to 2013 by the THEMIS ground-based telescope, to perform a comprehensive statistical study of the recurrent patterns, and their relationship with the variability of the IMF. For this purpose, we take advantage of a subset (years 2011-2013) of contemporary in situ measurements of the IMF obtained by the MAG instrument onboard the MESSENGER spacecraft. We found that the mid-high latitude double peaks is the most common Na emission pattern, supporting the view that the solar wind ion precipitation through the polar cusps has an important role in the generation of the observed Na exospheric emission. Moreover, the lack of a statistically significant North-South asymmetry seems to disfavour the idea of an asymmetric and/or shifted magnetic dipole. By analysing a subset of quasi-full disk images, we found that most of the Na emission patterns seems to occur in the pre-noon sector (53%), about 1/3 is roughly aligned along the noon meridian (36%), while only 11% takes place in the post-noon sector. Finally, the comparison with the IMF data indicates that the contribution of the IMF Bx component to the magnetic reconnection is generally weak, even if we found a noticeable correlation between positive IMB Bx and symmetric double peaks pattern. Negative IMF Bz values are usually connected with double peaks emission (likely by widening

  9. Synergism of Rare Earth Ce(III) Ion with Cysteine against Corrosion of P110 Carbon Steel in 3% NaCl Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xia; Yang, Jianshu; Liu, Yongping; Ji, Xiangyun; Lu, Ying; Yuan, Yizhi

    The synergism of CeCl3 (Ce) with cysteine (Cys) on the corrosion of P110 carbon steel in 3% NaCl solutions was investigated by electrochemical methods and surface analysis. The results showed that CeCl3 and cysteine do little to inhibit the corrosion of carbon steel, but the combination of CeCl3 with cysteine has obvious synergistic effect on the corrosion of carbon steel and the corrosion inhibition efficiency was improved significantly. The potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the mixture of CeCl3 and cysteine acts as a cathodic inhibitor. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Infrared (IR) reflection spectra showed the synergistic inhibition effect was formed by the complexes between rare earth Ce(III) ion and amino acid.

  10. Size resolved infrared spectroscopy of Na(CH3OH)n (n = 4-7) clusters in the OH stretching region: unravelling the interaction of methanol clusters with a sodium atom and the emergence of the solvated electron.

    PubMed

    Forck, Richard M; Pradzynski, Christoph C; Wolff, Sabine; Ončák, Milan; Slavíček, Petr; Zeuch, Thomas

    2012-03-07

    Size resolved IR action spectra of neutral sodium doped methanol clusters have been measured using IR excitation modulated photoionisation mass spectroscopy. The Na(CH(3)OH)(n) clusters were generated in a supersonic He seeded expansion of methanol by subsequent Na doping in a pick-up cell. A combined analysis of IR action spectra, IP evolutions and harmonic predictions of IR spectra (using density functional theory) of the most stable structures revealed that for n = 4, 5 structures with an exterior Na atom showing high ionisation potentials (IPs) of ~4 eV dominate, while for n = 6, 7 clusters with lower IPs (~3.2 eV) featuring fully solvated Na atoms and solvated electrons emerge and dominate the IR action spectra. For n = 4 simulations of photoionisation spectra using an ab initio MD approach confirm the dominance of exterior structures and explain the previously reported appearance IP of 3.48 eV by small fractions of clusters with partly solvated Na atoms. Only for this cluster size a shift in the isomer composition with cluster temperature has been observed, which may be related to kinetic stabilisation of less Na solvated clusters at low temperatures. Features of slow fragmentation dynamics of cationic Na(+)(CH(3)OH)(6) clusters have been observed for the photoionisation near the adiabatic limit. This finding points to the relevance of previously proposed non-vertical photoionisation dynamics of this system.

  11. Measuring cation transport by Na,K- and H,K-ATPase in Xenopus oocytes by atomic absorption spectrophotometry: an alternative to radioisotope assays.

    PubMed

    Dürr, Katharina L; Tavraz, Neslihan N; Spiller, Susan; Friedrich, Thomas

    2013-02-19

    Whereas cation transport by the electrogenic membrane transporter Na(+),K(+)-ATPase can be measured by electrophysiology, the electroneutrally operating gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase is more difficult to investigate. Many transport assays utilize radioisotopes to achieve a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, however, the necessary security measures impose severe restrictions regarding human exposure or assay design. Furthermore, ion transport across cell membranes is critically influenced by the membrane potential, which is not straightforwardly controlled in cell culture or in proteoliposome preparations. Here, we make use of the outstanding sensitivity of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) towards trace amounts of chemical elements to measure Rb(+) or Li(+) transport by Na(+),K(+)- or gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase in single cells. Using Xenopus oocytes as expression system, we determine the amount of Rb(+) (Li(+)) transported into the cells by measuring samples of single-oocyte homogenates in an AAS device equipped with a transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) furnace, which is loaded from an autosampler. Since the background of unspecific Rb(+) uptake into control oocytes or during application of ATPase-specific inhibitors is very small, it is possible to implement complex kinetic assay schemes involving a large number of experimental conditions simultaneously, or to compare the transport capacity and kinetics of site-specifically mutated transporters with high precision. Furthermore, since cation uptake is determined on single cells, the flux experiments can be carried out in combination with two-electrode voltage-clamping (TEVC) to achieve accurate control of the membrane potential and current. This allowed e.g. to quantitatively determine the 3Na(+)/2K(+) transport stoichiometry of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and enabled for the first time to investigate the voltage dependence of cation transport by the electroneutrally operating gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase. In

  12. Measuring Cation Transport by Na,K- and H,K-ATPase in Xenopus Oocytes by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry: An Alternative to Radioisotope Assays

    PubMed Central

    Dürr, Katharina L.; Tavraz, Neslihan N.; Spiller, Susan; Friedrich, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Whereas cation transport by the electrogenic membrane transporter Na+,K+-ATPase can be measured by electrophysiology, the electroneutrally operating gastric H+,K+-ATPase is more difficult to investigate. Many transport assays utilize radioisotopes to achieve a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, however, the necessary security measures impose severe restrictions regarding human exposure or assay design. Furthermore, ion transport across cell membranes is critically influenced by the membrane potential, which is not straightforwardly controlled in cell culture or in proteoliposome preparations. Here, we make use of the outstanding sensitivity of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) towards trace amounts of chemical elements to measure Rb+ or Li+ transport by Na+,K+- or gastric H+,K+-ATPase in single cells. Using Xenopus oocytes as expression system, we determine the amount of Rb+ (Li+) transported into the cells by measuring samples of single-oocyte homogenates in an AAS device equipped with a transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) furnace, which is loaded from an autosampler. Since the background of unspecific Rb+ uptake into control oocytes or during application of ATPase-specific inhibitors is very small, it is possible to implement complex kinetic assay schemes involving a large number of experimental conditions simultaneously, or to compare the transport capacity and kinetics of site-specifically mutated transporters with high precision. Furthermore, since cation uptake is determined on single cells, the flux experiments can be carried out in combination with two-electrode voltage-clamping (TEVC) to achieve accurate control of the membrane potential and current. This allowed e.g. to quantitatively determine the 3Na+/2K+ transport stoichiometry of the Na+,K+-ATPase and enabled for the first time to investigate the voltage dependence of cation transport by the electroneutrally operating gastric H+,K+-ATPase. In principle, the assay is not limited to K

  13. Determination of rare earth elements in geological samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry with flow injection liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhifang; Liu, Congqiang; Zhang, Hongxiang; Ma, Yingjun; Lin, Soulin

    2003-12-01

    A direct sampling with organic solvent extracts for simultaneous multi-element determination implemented with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) associated with a flow injection liquid-liquid extraction (FI-LLE) sample preconcentration method was studied. The "robustness" of the plasma discharge with tributyl phosphate (TBP) loading was diagnosed by using the Mg II 279.55 nm and Mg I 285.21 nm lines intensity ratio. A FI-LLE preconcentration system for rare earth elements (REEs)-nitrate-TBP was established by using a laboratory-designed phase separator. For these elements, an average sensitivity enhancement factor of 64 was obtained with respect to ICP-AES sampling with aqueous solutions. The precision of the method was characterized by a relative standard deviation (%RSD) of 1.8 - 5.2%. A throughput of 27 samples per hour can be achieved with an organic solvent consumption of less than 200 microl per determination. Good results were obtained for the analysis of standard reference materials.

  14. Demonstration of ultra-low NA rare-earth doped step index fiber for applications in high power fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepak; Jung, Yongmin; Barua, Pranabesh; Alam, Shaiful; Sahu, Jayanta K

    2015-03-23

    In this paper, we report the mode area scaling of a rare-earth doped step index fiber by using low numerical aperture. Numerical simulations show the possibility of achieving an effective area of ~700 um² (including bend induced effective area reduction) at a bend diameter of 32 cm from a 35 μm core fiber with a numerical aperture of 0.038. An effective single mode operation is ensured following the criterion of the fundamental mode loss to be lower than 0.1 dB/m while ensuring the higher order modes loss to be higher than 10 dB/m at a wavelength of 1060 nm. Our optimized modified chemical vapor deposition process in conjunction with solution doping process allows fabrication of an Yb-doped step index fiber having an ultra-low numerical aperture of ~0.038. Experimental results confirm a Gaussian output beam from a 35 μm core fiber validating our simulation results. Fiber shows an excellent laser efficiency of ~81%and aM² less than 1.1.

  15. Benchmarking a modified version of the civ3 nonrelativistic atomic-structure code within Na-like-tungsten R -matrix calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkington, M. D.; Ballance, C. P.; Hibbert, A.; Ramsbottom, C. A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work we explore the validity of employing a modified version of the nonrelativistic structure code civ3 for heavy, highly charged systems, using Na-like tungsten as a simple benchmark. Consequently, we present radiative and subsequent collisional atomic data compared with corresponding results from a fully relativistic structure and collisional model. Our motivation for this line of study is to benchmark civ3 against the relativistic grasp0 structure code. This is an important study as civ3 wave functions in nonrelativistic R -matrix calculations are computationally less expensive than their Dirac counterparts. There are very few existing data for the W LXIV ion in the literature with which we can compare except for an incomplete set of energy levels available from the NIST database. The overall accuracy of the present results is thus determined by the comparison between the civ3 and grasp0 structure codes alongside collisional atomic data computed by the R -matrix Breit-Pauli and Dirac codes. It is found that the electron-impact collision strengths and effective collision strengths computed by these differing methods are in good general agreement for the majority of the transitions considered, across a broad range of electron temperatures.

  16. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  17. Reviews Opera: Doctor Atomic DVD: Doctor Atomic Equipment: Digital stopclock with external trigger Book: I Cyborg Book: Flat Earth: The History of an Infamous Idea Book: Mere Thermodynamics Book: CGP revision guides Book: Hiding the Elephant: How Magicians Invented the Impossible Book: Back of the Envelope Physics Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Doctor Atomic The new Doctor Atomic opera provkes discussion on ethics I Cyborg The world's first human cyborg shares his life story in I Cyborg Flat Earth: The History of an Infamous Idea Flat Earth gives us a different perspective on creationism Mere Thermodynamics An introductory text on the three laws CGP revision guides This revision guide suits all courses and every pocket Hiding the Elephant: How Magicians Invented the Impossible The mystery of many illusions are solved in this book Back of the Envelope Physics This reference deserves a place on your bookshelf WORTH A LOOK Doctor Atomic The DVD doesn't do justice to the live performance Digital stopclock with external trigger Use these stopclocks when you need an external trigger WEB WATCH Webcasts reach out to an online audience

  18. Atomic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Connatser, Robert; Cothren, Bobby; Johnson, R. B.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed by the University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Center for Applied Optics (CAO) entitled Atomic Research is documented. Atomic oxygen (AO) effects on materials have long been a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure to the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The objective of this research effort was to provide technical expertise in the design of instrumentation and experimental techniques for analyzing materials exposed to atomic oxygen in accelerated testing at NASA/MSFC. Such testing was required to answer fundamental questions concerning Space Station Freedom (SSF) candidate materials and materials exposed to atomic oxygen aboard the Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The primary UAH task was to provide technical design, review, and analysis to MSFC in the development of a state-of-the-art 5eV atomic oxygen beam facility required to simulate the RAM-induced low earth orbit (LEO) AO environment. This development was to be accomplished primarily at NASA/MSFC. In support of this task, contamination effects and ultraviolet (UV) simulation testing was also to be carried out using NASA/MSFC facilities. Any materials analysis of LDEF samples was to be accomplished at UAH.

  19. Dipole polarizability of alkali-metal (Na, K, Rb)–alkaline-earth-metal (Ca, Sr) polar molecules: Prospects for alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Gopakumar, Geetha Abe, Minori; Hada, Masahiko; Kajita, Masatoshi

    2014-06-14

    Electronic open-shell ground-state properties of selected alkali-metal–alkaline-earth-metal polar molecules are investigated. We determine potential energy curves of the {sup 2}Σ{sup +} ground state at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with partial triples (CCSD(T)) level of electron correlation. Calculated spectroscopic constants for the isotopes ({sup 23}Na, {sup 39}K, {sup 85}Rb)–({sup 40}Ca, {sup 88}Sr) are compared with available theoretical and experimental results. The variation of the permanent dipole moment (PDM), average dipole polarizability, and polarizability anisotropy with internuclear distance is determined using finite-field perturbation theory at the CCSD(T) level. Owing to moderate PDM (KCa: 1.67 D, RbCa: 1.75 D, KSr: 1.27 D, RbSr: 1.41 D) and large polarizability anisotropy (KCa: 566 a.u., RbCa: 604 a.u., KSr: 574 a.u., RbSr: 615 a.u.), KCa, RbCa, KSr, and RbSr are potential candidates for alignment and orientation in combined intense laser and external static electric fields.

  20. P2-type Nax[Fe1/2Mn1/2]O2 made from earth-abundant elements for rechargeable Na batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kajiyama, Masataka; Iwatate, Junichi; Nishikawa, Heisuke; Hitomi, Shuji; Okuyama, Ryoichi; Usui, Ryo; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Komaba, Shinichi

    2012-06-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have risen to prominence as key devices for green and sustainable energy development. Electric vehicles, which are not equipped with an internal combustion engine, have been launched in the market. Manganese- and iron-based positive-electrode materials, such as LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4, are used in large-scale batteries for electric vehicles. Manganese and iron are abundant elements in the Earth’s crust, but lithium is not. In contrast to lithium, sodium is an attractive charge carrier on the basis of elemental abundance. Recently, some layered materials, where sodium can be electrochemically and reversibly extracted/inserted, have been reported. However, their reversible capacity is typically limited to 100 mAh g-1. Herein, we report a new electrode material, P2-Na2/3[Fe1/2Mn1/2]O2, that delivers 190 mAh g-1 of reversible capacity in the sodium cells with the electrochemically active Fe3+/Fe4+ redox. These results will contribute to the development of rechargeable batteries from the earth-abundant elements operable at room temperature.

  1. Charge Compensation in RE3+ (RE = Eu, Gd) and M+ (M = Li, Na, K) Co-Doped Alkaline Earth Nanofluorides Obtained by Microwave Reaction with Reactive Ionic Liquids Leading to Improved Optical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lorbeer, C; Behrends, F; Cybinska, J; Eckert, H; Mudring, Anja -V

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline earth fluorides are extraordinarily promising host matrices for phosphor materials with regard to rare earth doping. In particular, quantum cutting materials, which might considerably enhance the efficiency of mercury-free fluorescent lamps or SC solar cells, are often based on rare earth containing crystalline fluorides such as NaGdF4, GdF3 or LaF3. Substituting most of the precious rare earth ions and simultaneously retaining the efficiency of the phosphor is a major goal. Alkaline earth fluoride nanoparticles doped with trivalent lanthanide ions (which are required for the quantum cutting phenomenon) were prepared via a microwave assisted method in ionic liquids. As doping trivalent ions into a host with divalent cations requires charge compensation, this effect was thoroughly studied by powder X-ray and electron diffraction, luminescence spectroscopy and 23Na, 139La and 19F solid state NMR spectroscopy. Monovalent alkali ions were codoped with the trivalent lanthanide ions to relieve stress and achieve a better crystallinity and higher quantum cutting abilities of the prepared material. 19F-magic angle spinning (MAS)-NMR-spectra, assisted by 19F{23Na} rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) studies, reveal distinct local fluoride environments, the populations of which are discussed in relation to spatial distribution and clustering models. In the co-doped samples, fluoride species having both Na+ and La3+ ions within their coordination sphere can be identified and quantified. This interplay of mono- and trivalent ions in the CaF2 lattice appears to be an efficient charge compensation mechanism that allows for improved performance characteristics of such co-doped phosphor materials.

  2. Atomizing nozzle and process

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Figliola, R.S.; Molnar, H.M.

    1993-07-20

    High pressure atomizing nozzle includes a high pressure gas manifold having a divergent expansion chamber between a gas inlet and arcuate manifold segment to minimize standing shock wave patterns in the manifold and thereby improve filling of the manifold with high pressure gas for improved melt atomization. The atomizing nozzle is especially useful in atomizing rare earth-transition metal alloys to form fine powder particles wherein a majority of the powder particles exhibit particle sizes having near-optimum magnetic properties.

  3. Atomizing nozzle and process

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Figliola, Richard S.; Molnar, Holly M.

    1993-07-20

    High pressure atomizing nozzle includes a high pressure gas manifold having a divergent expansion chamber between a gas inlet and arcuate manifold segment to minimize standing shock wave patterns in the manifold and thereby improve filling of the manifold with high pressure gas for improved melt atomization. The atomizing nozzle is especially useful in atomizing rare earth-transition metal alloys to form fine powder particles wherein a majority of the powder particles exhibit particle sizes having near-optimum magnetic properties.

  4. Atomizing nozzle and process

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Figliola, Richard S.; Molnar, Holly M.

    1992-06-30

    High pressure atomizing nozzle includes a high pressure gas manifold having a divergent expansion chamber between a gas inlet and arcuate manifold segment to minimize standing shock wave patterns in the manifold and thereby improve filling of the manifold with high pressure gas for improved melt atomization. The atomizing nozzle is especially useful in atomizing rare earth-transition metal alloys to form fine powder particles wherein a majority of the powder particles exhibit particle sizes having near-optimum magnetic properties.

  5. Rapid leaching of Cr(VI) in soil with Na3PO4 in the determination of hexavalent chromium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mandiwana, Khakhathi L

    2008-01-15

    A method has been developed that leaches Cr(VI) selectively from soil samples. Hexavalent chromium was leached completely from soil with 0.01molL(-1) Na(3)PO(4). This was achieved by boiling the soil-reagent solution mixture for a period of 5min. The leached Cr(VI) was then quantified by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS) after filtration of the sample solutions through Hydrophilic Millipore PVDF 0.45microm filter. Statistical evaluations indicated that the new developed method is reliable since neither its comparison with the established method nor the comparison of the sum of the concentrations of chromium species to that of the total concentration of chromium show any difference at 95% level of confidence. The spiking of soil samples with Cr(III) standards before pretreatment show that Cr(III) was not oxidized to Cr(VI) during leaching as the Cr(VI) content never increased. The detection limit established was 0.07microg g(-1), which is an improvement to that of the US EPA method 3060A by a factor of more than 500. The maximum concentrations of Cr(VI) found in soil samples collected around the new chromium mine was 8.0microg g(-1) and falls within acceptable level of 15microg g(-1) in accordance with the Italian Guidelines.

  6. Excitation of Na D-line radiation in collisions of sodium atoms with internally excited H2, D2, and N2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, H. F.; Fricke, J.; Fite, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    Excitation of D-line radiation in collisions of Na atoms with vibrationally excited N2, H2 and D2 was studied in two modulated crossed beam experiments. In both experiments, the vibrational excitation of the molecules was provided by heating the molecular beam source to temperatures in the range of 2000 to 3000 K, which was assumed to give populations according to the Boltzmann expression. In the first experiment, a total rate coefficient was measured as a function of molecular beam temperature, with absolute calibration of the photon detector being made using the black body radiation from the heated molecular beam source. Since heating affects both the internal energy and the collisional kinetic energy, the first experiment could not determine the relative contributions of internal energy transfer versus collisional excitation. The second experiment achieved partial separation of internal versus kinetic energy transfer effects by using a velocity-selected molecular beam. Using two simple models for the kinetic energy dependence of the transfer cross section for a given change in vibrational quantum number, the data from both experiments were used to determine parameters in the models.

  7. Structural and electronic properties of AB- and AA-stacking bilayer-graphene intercalated by Li, Na, Ca, B, Al, Si, Ge, Ag, and Au atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayran, Ceren; Aydin, Sezgin; Çakmak, Mehmet; Ellialtıoğlu, Şinasi

    2016-04-01

    The structural and electronic properties of X (=Li, Na, Ca, B, Al, Si, Ge, Ag, and Au)-intercalated AB- and AA-stacking bilayer-graphene have been investigated by using ab initio density functional theory. It is shown that Boron (Lithium)-intercalated system is energetically more stable than the others for the AB (AA) stacking bilayer-graphene systems. The structural parameters, electronic band structures, and orbital nature of actual interactions are studied for the relaxed stable geometries. It is seen that the higher the binding energy, the smaller is the distance between the layers, in these systems. The electronic band structures for these systems show that different intercalated atoms can change the properties of bilayer-graphene differently. For qualitative description of the electronic properties, the metallicities of the systems are also calculated and compared with each other. The Mulliken analysis and electron density maps clearly indicate that the interactions inside a single layer (intralayer interactions) are strong and highly covalent, while the interactions between the two layers (interlayer interactions) are much weaker.

  8. Effects of weakly coupled and dense quantum plasmas environments on charge exchange and ionization processes in Na+ + Rb(5s) atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Mukesh Kumar; Lin, Yen-Chang; Ho, Yew Kam

    2017-02-01

    The effects of weakly coupled or classical and dense quantum plasmas environment on charge exchange and ionization processes in Na+ + Rb(5s) atom collision at keV energy range have been investigated using classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method. The interaction of three charged particles are described by the Debye-Hückel screen potential for weakly coupled plasma, whereas exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potential have been used for dense quantum plasma environment and the effects of both conditions on the cross sections are compared. It is found that screening effects on cross sections in high Debye length condition is quite small in both plasma environments. However, enhanced screening effects on cross sections are observed in dense quantum plasmas for low Debye length condition, which becomes more effective while decreasing the Debye length. Also, we have found that our calculated results for plasma-free case are comparable with the available theoretical results. These results are analyzed in light of available theoretical data with the choice of model potentials.

  9. Luminescence quenching versus enhancement in WO3-NaPO3 glasses doped with trivalent rare earth ions and containing silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dousti, M. Reza; Poirier, Gael Y.; Amjad, Raja J.; de Camargo, Andrea S. S.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the influence of silver nanoparticles (NPs) on the luminescence behavior of trivalent rare earth (RE) ion doped tungsten-phosphate glasses. In order to induce the growth of NPs, the as-prepared glass samples containing silver atoms, are exposed to heat-treatment above the glass transition temperature. The surface plasmon resonance band of the Ag NPs is observed in the visible range around 420 and 537 nm in the glasses with low and high tungsten content, respectively. Such difference in spectral shift of the plasmon band is attributed to the difference in the refractive index of the two studied glass compositions. Heat-treatment results in the general increase in number of NPs, while in the case of glasses with low tungsten content, it also imposes a shift to the Ag plasmon band. The NPs size distribution (4-10 nm) was determined in good agreement with the values obtained by using Mie theory and by transmission electron microscopy. The observed quenching in the visible luminescence of glasses doped with Eu3+, Tb3+ or Er3+is attributed to energy transfer from the RE ions to Ag species, while an enhanced near-infrared emission in Er3+ doped glasses is discussed in terms of the chemical contribution of silver, rather than the most commonly claimed enhancement of localized field or energy transfer from silver species to Er3+. The results are supported by the lifetime measurements. We believe that this study gives further insight and in-depth exploration of the somewhat controversial discussions on the influence of metallic NPs plasmonic effects in RE-doped glasses.

  10. Development of a high flow source of energetic oxygen atoms for material degradation studies. [of Space Shuttles in low earth orbit environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, G. E.; Krech, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for the generation, in the laboratory, of thermally 'cold', high flux of energetic oxygen atoms is presented. The flux of nearly mono-energetic oxygen atoms is obtained after a laser-induced breakdown of oxygen molecules followed by a rapid expansion of the recombining plasma. The experimental apparatus, the optical and spectral measurements, the O-atom source characterization, and the material degradation studies are discussed. Average oxygen atom velocities of about 5 to 13 km/s are measured with an estimated flux of 10 to the 18th per pulse, over pulse durations of several microseconds. The flow of the O2 gas for about 200 microseconds before applying the laser pulse is found to give best results. It is also found that the energetic O-atom irradiation of sample targets such as Al, Fe, and polyethylene, induces mass removal. In addition, spectral scans of the radiation reveals the existence of two main spectral subsets.

  11. Development of a high flow source of energetic oxygen atoms for material degradation studies. [of Space Shuttles in low earth orbit environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, G. E.; Krech, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for the generation, in the laboratory, of thermally 'cold', high flux of energetic oxygen atoms is presented. The flux of nearly mono-energetic oxygen atoms is obtained after a laser-induced breakdown of oxygen molecules followed by a rapid expansion of the recombining plasma. The experimental apparatus, the optical and spectral measurements, the O-atom source characterization, and the material degradation studies are discussed. Average oxygen atom velocities of about 5 to 13 km/s are measured with an estimated flux of 10 to the 18th per pulse, over pulse durations of several microseconds. The flow of the O2 gas for about 200 microseconds before applying the laser pulse is found to give best results. It is also found that the energetic O-atom irradiation of sample targets such as Al, Fe, and polyethylene, induces mass removal. In addition, spectral scans of the radiation reveals the existence of two main spectral subsets.

  12. (Super)alkali atoms interacting with the σ electron cloud: a novel interaction mode triggers large nonlinear optical response of M@P₄ and M@C₃H₆ (M=Li, Na, K and Li₃O).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xingang; Yu, Guangtao; Huang, Xuri; Chen, Wei; Niu, Min

    2013-12-01

    Under high-level ab initio calculations, the geometrical structures and nonlinear optical properties of M@P₄ (M=Li, Na, K and Li₃O) and M@C₃H₆ (M=Li and Li₃O) were investigated; all were found to exhibit considerable first hyperpolarizabilities (18110, 1440, 22490, 50487, 2757 and 31776 au, respectively). The computational results revealed that when doping the (super)alkali atom M into the tetrahedral P₄ molecule, the original dual spherical aromaticity of the P₄ moiety is broken and new σ electron cloud is formed on the face of P₄ part interacting with the M atom. It was found that interaction of the (super)alkali atom with the σ electron cloud is a novel mode to produce diffuse excess electrons effectively to achieve a considerable β₀ value. Further, beyond the alkali atom, employing the superalkali unit can be a more effective approach to significantly enhance the first hyperpolarizability of the systems, due to the much lower vertical ionization potential. These results were further supported by the case of the (super)alkali atom interacting with the cyclopropane C₃H₆ molecule with its typical σ aromatic electron cloud. Moreover, the β₀ values of the M@P₄ series are nonmonotonic dependent on alkali atomic number, namely, 1440 au (M = Na) < 18110 au (Li) < 22490 au (K), inferring that the distance between the alkali atom and the interacting surface with the σ electron cloud in P4 is a crucial geometrical factor in determining their first hyperpolarizabilities. These intriguing findings will be advantageous for promoting the design of novel high-performance nonlinear optical materials.

  13. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-15

    ISS028-E-017123 (16 July 2011) --- Separate atmospheric optical phenomena were captured in this electronic still photograph from the Inernational Space Station. The thin greenish band stretching along the Earth's horizon is airglow; light emitted by the atmosphere from a layer about 30 kilometers thick and about 100 kilometers in altitude. The predominant emission in airglow is the green 5577 Angstrom wavelength light from atomic oxygen atoms. Airglow is always and everywhere present in the atmosphere; it results from the recombination of molecules that have been broken apart by solar radiation during the day. But airglow is so faint that it can only be seen at night by looking "edge on" at the emission layer, such as the view astronauts and cosmonauts have in orbit. The second phenomenon is the appearnce of Aurora Australis.

  14. Free Energetics of Carbon Nanotube Association in Aqueous Inorganic NaI Salt Solutions: Temperature Effects using All-Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shu-Ching; Cui, Di; Wezowicz, Matthew; Taufer, Michela; Patel, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the temperature dependence of free energetics of nanotube association by using GPU-enabled all-atom molecular dynamics simulations (FEN ZI) with two (10,10) single-walled carbon nanotubes in 3 m NaI aqueous salt solution. Results suggest that the free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes for the association process are all reduced at the high temperature, in agreement with previous investigations using other hydrophobes. Via the decomposition of free energy into individual components, we found that solvent contribution (including water, anion and cation contributions) is correlated with the spatial distribution of the corresponding species and is influenced distinctly by the temperature. We studied the spatial distribution and the structure of the solvent in different regions: intertube, intra-tube and the bulk solvent. By calculating the fluctuation of coarse-grained tube-solvent surfaces, we found that tube-water interfacial fluctuation exhibits the strongest temperature dependence. By taking ions to be a solvent-like medium in the absence of water, tube-anion interfacial fluctuation also shows similar but weaker dependence on temperature, while tube-cation interfacial fluctuation shows no dependence in general. These characteristics are discussed via the malleability of their corresponding solvation shells relative to the nanotube surface. Hydrogen bonding profiles and tetrahedrality of water arrangement are also computed to compare the structure of solvent in the solvent bulk and intertube region. The hydrophobic confinement induces a relatively lower concentration environment in the intertube region, therefore causing different intertube solvent structures which depend on the tube separation. This study is relevant in the continuing discourse on hydrophobic interactions (as they impact generally a broad class of phenomena in biology, biochemistry, and materials science and soft condensed matter research), and interpretations of

  15. Free energetics of carbon nanotube association in aqueous inorganic NaI salt solutions: Temperature effects using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Ou, Shu-Ching; Cui, Di; Wezowicz, Matthew; Taufer, Michela; Patel, Sandeep

    2015-06-15

    In this study, we examine the temperature dependence of free energetics of nanotube association using graphical processing unit-enabled all-atom molecular dynamics simulations (FEN ZI) with two (10,10) single-walled carbon nanotubes in 3 m NaI aqueous salt solution. Results suggest that the free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes for the association process are all reduced at the high temperature, in agreement with previous investigations using other hydrophobes. Via the decomposition of free energy into individual components, we found that solvent contribution (including water, anion, and cation contributions) is correlated with the spatial distribution of the corresponding species and is influenced distinctly by the temperature. We studied the spatial distribution and the structure of the solvent in different regions: intertube, intratube and the bulk solvent. By calculating the fluctuation of coarse-grained tube-solvent surfaces, we found that tube-water interfacial fluctuation exhibits the strongest temperature dependence. By taking ions to be a solvent-like medium in the absence of water, tube-anion interfacial fluctuation shows similar but weaker dependence on temperature, while tube-cation interfacial fluctuation shows no dependence in general. These characteristics are discussed via the malleability of their corresponding solvation shells relative to the nanotube surface. Hydrogen bonding profiles and tetrahedrality of water arrangement are also computed to compare the structure of solvent in the solvent bulk and intertube region. The hydrophobic confinement induces a relatively lower concentration environment in the intertube region, therefore causing different intertube solvent structures which depend on the tube separation. This study is relevant in the continuing discourse on hydrophobic interactions (as they impact generally a broad class of phenomena in biology, biochemistry, and materials science and soft condensed matter research), and

  16. A novel methodology for rapid digestion of rare earth element ores and determination by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and dynamic reaction cell-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Helmeczi, Erick; Wang, Yong; Brindle, Ian D

    2016-11-01

    Short-wavelength infrared radiation has been successfully applied to accelerate the acid digestion of refractory rare-earth ore samples. Determinations were achieved with microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES) and dynamic reaction cell - inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS). The digestion method developed was able to tackle high iron-oxide and silicate matrices using only phosphoric acid in a time frame of only 8min, and did not require perchloric or hydrofluoric acid. Additionally, excellent recoveries and reproducibilities of the rare earth elements, as well as uranium and thorium, were achieved. Digestions of the certified reference materials OREAS-465 and REE-1, with radically different mineralogies, delivered results that mirror those obtained by fusion processes. For the rare-earth CRM OKA-2, whose REE data are provisional, experimental data for the rare-earth elements were generally higher than the provisional values, often exceeding z-values of +2. Determined values for Th and U in this reference material, for which certified values are available, were in excellent agreement.

  17. Atomic Oxygen Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, which is the most predominant species in low Earth orbit, is highly reactive and can break chemical bonds on the surface of a wide variety of materials leading to volatilization or surface oxidation which can result in failure of spacecraft materials and components. This presentation will give an overview of how atomic oxygen reacts with spacecraft materials, results of space exposure testing of a variety of materials, and examples of failures caused by atomic oxygen.

  18. A Comparison of Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yields of Carbon and Selected Polymers Exposed in Ground Based Facilities and in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

    1994-01-01

    A comparison of the relative erosion yields (volume of material removed per oxygen atom arriving) for FEP Teflon, polyethylene, and pyrolytic graphite with respect to Kapton HN was performed in an atomic oxygen directed beam system, in a plasma asher, and in space on the EOIM-III (Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials-III) flight experiment. This comparison was performed to determine the sensitivity of material reaction to atomic oxygen flux, atomic oxygen fluence, and vacuum ultraviolet radiation for enabling accurate estimates of durability in ground based facilities. The relative erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite was found not to be sensitive to these factors, that for FEP was sensitive slightly to fluence and possibly ions, and that for polyethylene was found to be partially VUV and flux sensitive but more sensitive to an unknown factor. Results indicate that the ability to use these facilities for material relative durability prediction is great as long as the sensitivity of particular materials to conditions such as VUV, and atomic oxygen flux and fluence are taken into account. When testing materials of a particular group such as teflon, it may be best to use a witness sample made of a similar material that has some available space data on it. This would enable one to predict an equivalent exposure in the ground based facility.

  19. On-line collection/concentration and determination of transition and rare-earth metals in water samples using Multi-Auto-Pret system coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Katarina, Rosi Ketrin; Oshima, Mitsuko; Motomizu, Shoji

    2009-05-15

    On-line preconcentration and determination of transition and rare-earth metals in water samples was performed using a Multi-Auto-Pret system coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Multi-Auto-Pret AES system proposed here consists of three Auto-Pret systems with mini-columns that can be used for the preconcentration of trace metals sequentially or simultaneously, and can reduce analysis time to one-third and running cost of argon gas and labor. A newly synthesized chelating resin, ethylenediamine-N,N,N'-triacetate-type chitosan (EDTriA-type chitosan), was employed in the Multi-Auto-Pret system for the collection of trace metals prior to their measurement by ICP-AES. The proposed resin showed very good adsorption ability for transition and rare-earth metal ions without any interference from alkali and alkaline-earth metal ions in an acidic media. For the best result, pH 5 was adopted for the collection of metal ions. Only 5 mL of samples could be used for the determination of transition metals, while 20 mL of samples was necessary for the determination of rare-earth metals. Metal ions adsorbed on the resin were eluted using 1.5 M nitric acid, and were measured by ICP-AES. The proposed method was evaluated by the analysis of SLRS-4 river water reference materials for trace metals. Good agreement with certified and reference values was obtained for most of the metals examined; it indicates that the proposed method using the newly synthesized resin could be favorably used for the determination of transition and rare-earth metals in water samples by ICP-AES.

  20. Photoluminescence properties of rare earths (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}) activated NaInW{sub 2}O{sub 8} wolframite host lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Asiri Naidu, S.; Boudin, S.; Varadaraju, U.V.; Raveau, B.

    2012-01-15

    The photoluminescence (PL) studies on NaIn{sub 1-x}RE{sub x}W{sub 2}O{sub 8}, with RE=Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} phases have shown that the relative contribution of the host lattice and of the intra-f-f emission of the activators to the PL varies with the nature of the rare earth cation. In the case of Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} activators, with yellow and blue emission, respectively, the energy transfer from host to the activator plays a major role. In contrast for Eu{sup 3+}, with intense red emission, the host absorption is less pronounced and the intra-f-f transitions of the Eu{sup 3+} ions play a major role, whereas for Tb{sup 3+} intra-f-f transitions are only observed, giving rise to green emission. - Graphical abstract: NaInW{sub 2}O{sub 8} double tungstate doped with Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}and Tm{sup 3+} shows characteristic emission of intense red for Eu{sup 3+}, yellow for Dy{sup 3+}, green for Tb{sup 3+} and blue for Tm{sup 3+}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic emissions of rare earths (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}) are observed NaInW{sub 2}O{sub 8} wolframite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy transfer from host to the activators (Eu{sup 3+} Dy{sup 3+} Tm{sup 3+} is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL properties of rare earth ions depend on minor structural variations in the host lattice.

  1. Vapor-liquid partitioning of alkaline earth and transition metals in NaCl-dominated hydrothermal fluids: An experimental study from 360 to 465 °C, near-critical to halite saturated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pester, Nicholas J.; Ding, Kang; Seyfried, William E.

    2015-11-01

    Multi-phase fluid flow is a common occurrence in magmatic hydrothermal systems; and extensive modeling efforts using currently established P-V-T-x properties of the NaCl-H2O system are impending. We have therefore performed hydrothermal flow experiments (360-465 °C) to observe vapor-liquid partitioning of alkaline earth and first row transition metals in NaCl-dominated source solutions. The data allow extraction of partition coefficients related to the intrinsic changes in both chlorinity and density along the two-phase solvus. The coefficients yield an overall decrease in vapor affinity in the order Cu(I) > Na > Fe(II) > Zn > Ni(II) ⩾ Mg ⩾ Mn(II) > Co(II) > Ca > Sr > Ba, distinguished with 95% confidence for vapor densities greater than ∼0.2 g/cm3. The alkaline earth metals are limited to purely electrostatic interactions with Cl ligands, resulting in an excellent linear correlation (R2 > 0.99) between their partition coefficients and respective ionic radii. Though broadly consistent with this relationship, relative behavior of the transition metals is not well resolved, being likely obscured by complex bonding processes and the potential participation of Na in the formation of tetra-chloro species. At lower densities (at/near halite saturation) partitioning behavior of all metals becomes highly non-linear, where M/Cl ratios in the vapor begin to increase despite continued decreases in chlorinity and density. We refer to this phenomenon as "volatility", which is broadly associated with substantial increases in the HCl/NaCl ratio (eventually to >1) due to hydrolysis of NaCl. Some transition metals (e.g., Fe, Zn) exhibit volatility prior to halite stability, suggesting a potential shift in vapor speciation relative to nearer critical regions of the vapor-liquid solvus. The chemistry of deep-sea hydrothermal fluids appears affected by this process during magmatic events, however, our results do not support suggestions of subseafloor halite precipitation

  2. Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation enables a means for actively measuring atomic oxygen fluence (accumulated atoms of atomic oxygen per area) that has impinged upon spacecraft surfaces. Telemetered data from the device provides spacecraft designers, researchers, and mission managers with real-time measurement of atomic oxygen fluence, which is useful for prediction of the durability of spacecraft materials and components. The innovation is a compact fluence measuring device that allows in-space measurement and transmittance of measured atomic oxygen fluence as a function of time based on atomic oxygen erosion yields (the erosion yield of a material is the volume of material that is oxidized per incident oxygen atom) of materials that have been measured in low Earth orbit. It has a linear electrical response to atomic oxygen fluence, and is capable of measuring high atomic oxygen fluences (up to >10(exp 22) atoms/sq cm), which are representative of multi-year low-Earth orbital missions (such as the International Space Station). The durability or remaining structural lifetime of solar arrays that consist of polymer blankets on which the solar cells are attached can be predicted if one knows the atomic oxygen fluence that the solar array blanket has been exposed to. In addition, numerous organizations that launch space experiments into low-Earth orbit want to know the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence that their materials or components have been exposed to. The device is based on the erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite. It uses two 12deg inclined wedges of graphite that are over a grit-blasted fused silica window covering a photodiode. As the wedges erode, a greater area of solar illumination reaches the photodiode. A reference photodiode is also used that receives unobstructed solar illumination and is oriented in the same direction as the pyrolytic graphite covered photodiode. The short-circuit current from the photodiodes is measured and either sent to an onboard data logger, or

  3. Search of the Na in the Region of the Sublimation of the Near-Sun Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delone, A. B.; Divlekeev, M. I.; Suchanov, E. A.; Gulyaev, R. A.; Yakunina, G. V.; Porfir'eva, G. A.

    An evaluation of the Na number in the sublimation zone of the near-Sun interplanetary dust, based on a comparison with the intensity of the radiation of the Na in the Earth atmosphere, has been obtained. The abundance of the Na in the column along the line of sight is less than 2 x 108atom cm-2. This result is compared with the values, determined on the base of the brightness of the zodiacal light, F-corona and by direct measurements of the dust density with space experiments.

  4. Tunable electronic and magnetic properties in germanene by alkali, alkaline-earth, group III and 3d transition metal atom adsorption.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-shi; Zhang, Chang-wen; Ji, Wei-xiao; Li, Feng; Wang, Pei-ji; Hu, Shu-jun; Yan, Shi-shen; Liu, Yu-shen

    2014-08-14

    We performed first-principles calculations to study the adsorption characteristics of alkali, alkali-earth, group III, and 3d transition-metal (TM) adatoms on germanene. We find that the adsorption of alkali or alkali-earth adatoms on germanene has minimal effects on geometry of germanene. The significant charge transfer from alkali adatoms to germanene leads to metallization of germanene, whereas alkali-earth adatom adsorption, whose interaction is a mixture of ionic and covalent, results in semiconducting behavior with an energy gap of 17-29 meV. For group III adatoms, they also bind germanene with mixed covalent and ionic bonding character. Adsorption characteristics of the transition metals (TMs) are rather complicated, though all TM adsorptions on germanene exhibit strong covalent bonding with germanene. The main contributions to the strong bonding are from the hybridization between the TM 3d and Ge pz orbitals. Depending on the induced-TM type, the adsorbed systems can exhibit metallic, half-metallic, or semiconducting behavior. Also, the variation trends of the dipole moment and work function with the adsorption energy across the different adatoms are discussed. These findings may provide a potential avenue to design new germanene-based devices in nanoelectronics.

  5. Studies on some ternary oxyborates of the Na 2O- Me2O 3-B 2O 3 ( Me=rare earth or aluminum) systems: Synthesis, structure and crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshev, P.; Pechev, S.; Nikolov, V.; Gravereau, P.; Chaminade, J.-P.; Binev, D.; Ivanova, D.

    2006-09-01

    Sodium rare-earth oxyborates Na 2RE2O(BO 3) 2 ( RE=Y, Nd, Er) were prepared for the first time in the present study. They were found to be isostructural with phases of the same composition containing Sm, Eu or Gd and reported by Corbel et al. [J. Solid State Chem.144 (1999) 35-44]. It was shown that the yttrium and erbium compounds could be synthesized at 900-1000 °C by a solid-state reaction between oxides in an equimolecular ratio. With both oxyborates melting led to decomposition into a mixture of Y(Er)BO 3, Y 2(Er 2)O 3 and Na 2B 4O 7. Just the opposite was observed during thermal treatment of the oxide mixture containing Nd 2O 3, from which a practically pure phase of Na 2Nd 2O(BO 3) 2 was only obtained after melting. The attempts to synthesize the oxyborate Na 2La 2O(BO 3) 2 showed it to be unstable, this leading to the formation of a mixture containing, in addition to Na 2La 2O(BO 3) 2, also other already known stable phases of the system Na 2O-La 2O 3-B 2O 3 along with an unknown ternary oxide phase. This phase was found to represent a new oxyborate of sodium and lanthanum with the formula Na 3La 9O 3(BO 3) 8, whose single crystals were obtained by flux growth. It was established that synthesis of a polycrystalline material with the same composition was also possible using solid-state interaction between Na 2CO 3, La 2O 3 and H 3BO 3 at 1000-1100 °C. X-ray diffraction experiments on single crystals were used to solve the structure of Na 3La 9O 3(BO 3) 8. The unit cell was found to be hexagonal, space group P62 m (No. 189) with Z=1. The compound can be regarded as the forefather of a second group of oxyborates representing a new family of isostructural compounds, Na 3RE9O 3(BO 3) 8. Such phases were obtained with RE=Nd, Sm and Eu whereas with RE=Y and Gd, the synthesis experiments failed. The concentration and temperature regions of crystallization of the double-oxyborate Na 2Al 2O(BO 3) 2 in the ternary system Na 2O-Al 2O 3-B 2O 3 were determined. This

  6. Studies on some ternary oxyborates of the Na{sub 2}O-Me{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Me=rare earth or aluminum) systems: Synthesis, structure and crystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Peshev, P. . E-mail: ppeshev@svr.igic.bas.bg; Pechev, S.; Nikolov, V.; Gravereau, P.; Chaminade, J.-P.; Binev, D.; Ivanova, D.

    2006-09-15

    Sodium rare-earth oxyborates Na{sub 2}RE{sub 2}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (RE=Y, Nd, Er) were prepared for the first time in the present study. They were found to be isostructural with phases of the same composition containing Sm, Eu or Gd and reported by Corbel et al. [J. Solid State Chem.144 (1999) 35-44]. It was shown that the yttrium and erbium compounds could be synthesized at 900-1000deg. C by a solid-state reaction between oxides in an equimolecular ratio. With both oxyborates melting led to decomposition into a mixture of Y(Er)BO{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}(Er{sub 2})O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}. Just the opposite was observed during thermal treatment of the oxide mixture containing Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, from which a practically pure phase of Na{sub 2}Nd{sub 2}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} was only obtained after melting. The attempts to synthesize the oxyborate Na{sub 2}La{sub 2}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} showed it to be unstable, this leading to the formation of a mixture containing, in addition to Na{sub 2}La{sub 2}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, also other already known stable phases of the system Na{sub 2}O-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} along with an unknown ternary oxide phase. This phase was found to represent a new oxyborate of sodium and lanthanum with the formula Na{sub 3}La{sub 9}O{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 8}, whose single crystals were obtained by flux growth. It was established that synthesis of a polycrystalline material with the same composition was also possible using solid-state interaction between Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} at 1000-1100 deg. C. X-ray diffraction experiments on single crystals were used to solve the structure of Na{sub 3}La{sub 9}O{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 8}. The unit cell was found to be hexagonal, space group P62m (No. 189) with Z=1. The compound can be regarded as the forefather of a second group of oxyborates representing a new family of isostructural compounds, Na{sub 3}RE{sub 9}O{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 8}. Such phases were

  7. Density matrices of the excited atomic states produced in He{sup 2+} -Na(3s) collisions at 2-50 keV/amu in the coupled-Sturmian-pseudostate approach

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.; Winter, T.G.

    1996-05-01

    The authors have determined full density matrices of excited He{sup +} (2 and 3) and Na (3p and 3d) atoms produced in He{sup 2+} - Na(3s) collisions at 2-50 keV/amu. A two-center coupled-Sturmian-pseudostate approach is employed to determine the corresponding amplitudes for the electron transfer and target excitation channels. Various cross sections for charge transfer and target excitation compare very well with experimental data. From the on- and off-diagonal density matrix elements, several physical parameters, corresponding to s-p and p coherences, have been determined and compared with available experimental data and recent theoretical calculations. In particular, the authors have studied the behavior of dipole moment, velocity vector, orientation, and alignment quantities with respect to the projectile velocity and impact parameter.

  8. Crystal structure of sodium rare earth oxyborates Na{sub 2}Ln{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}O (Ln = Sm, Eu, and Gd) and optical analysis of Na{sub 2}Gd{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}O:Eu{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect

    Corbel, G.; Leblanc, M.; Antic-Fidancev, E.; Lemaitre-Blaise, M.

    1999-04-01

    A new structural family of rare earth oxyborates Na{sub 2}Ln{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}O (Ln = Sm, Eu and Gd) is evidenced. The structure, determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, is monoclinic, space group P2{sub 1}/c, Z = 4, with a = 10.695(6) {angstrom}, b = 6.320(4) {angstrom}, c = 10.3228(6) {angstrom}, {beta} = 117.80(4){degree}, V = 617.5(9) {angstrom}{sup 3}, R{sub 1} = 0.039, wR{sub 2} = 0.101 for Na{sub 2}Gd{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}O. The three-dimensional network is built up from infinite sheets of LnO{sub 8} polyhedra in the (b,c) plane, which are separated by sodium ions. The luminescence of trivalent europium in polycrystalline Na{sub 2}Gd{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}O:Eu{sup 3+} is analyzed at 77K. The low symmetry of the rare earth sites, deduced from the X-ray diffraction study, is confirmed. The crystal field strength is high for both europium sites.

  9. {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO{sub 2} selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Arevalo-Hidalgo, Ana G.; Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.

    2012-07-15

    The location of extraframework cations in Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO{sub 2} adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium. - Graphical abstract: MAS NMR was used to elucidate the position the cationic species in alkaline earth metal exchanged silicoaluminophosphates. These species played a significant role during the ion exchange process and, therefore, the materials ultimate CO{sub 2} adsorption performance. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Location of extraframework Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} cations was estimated by means of {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} ion exchanged SAPOs are outstanding CO{sub 2} adsorbents.

  10. Synthesis, structure and X-ray excited luminescence of Ce{sup 3+}-doped AREP{sub 2}O{sub 7}-type alkali rare earth diphosphates (A=Na, K, Rb, Cs; RE=Y, Lu)

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Junlin; Zhang Hui; Chen Haohong; Yang Xinxin; Zhao Jingtai Gu, Mu

    2007-12-15

    The crystal structures of five new alkali rare earth diphosphates were obtained by Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles, including four alkali lutetium diphosphates ALuP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=Na, K, Rb, Cs) and the low temperature phase of KYP{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The scintillation properties of Ce{sup 3+}-doped AREP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=Na, K, Rb, Cs; RE=Y, Lu) powder samples were studied under static and pulsed X-ray excitations, and featured outstanding scintillation properties with light yields 1-2 times of that of Bi{sub 4}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 3} and relatively short decay time of 20-28 ns. Considering the suitable emission wavelength range, large light yield, short decay time, and non-hygroscopic nature, Ce{sup 3+}-doped AREP{sub 2}O{sub 7}-type alkali rare earth diphosphates are potential candidates for high-counting-rate scintillation applications. - Graphical abstract: The perspective view of KLuP{sub 2}O{sub 7} unit cell. The crystal structures of five AREP{sub 2}O{sub 7} diphosphates were obtained from Rietveld refinement. Under the excitation of hard X-ray, the Ce{sup 3+}-activated AREP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A=Na-Cs; RE=Y, Lu) feature strong Ce{sup 3+} 5d-4f emission with high light yield (1-2 times of that of Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}) and fast decay time within 20-28 ns.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis, structure, and property characterization of rare earth silicate compounds: NaBa3Ln3Si6O20 (Ln = Y, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjeewa, Liurukara D.; Fulle, Kyle; McMillen, Colin D.; Wang, Fenglin; Liu, Yufei; He, Jian; Anker, Jeffrey N.; Kolis, Joseph W.

    2015-10-01

    A series of new lanthanide (Ln) silicates have been synthesized using high temperature hydrothermal techniques, and structurally characterized using single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. The compounds have the general formula NaBa3Ln3Si6O20 (Ln = Y, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd), and crystallize in the space group Ama2 (No.40). As a representative example, the unit cell parameters of NaBa3Gd3Si6O20 are a = 14.731(3) Å, b = 23.864(5) Å, c = 5.5449(11) Å and Z = 4. The title compounds adopt a three dimensional polar acentric framework made of Ln-O-Si bonding. The framework is comprised of LnO8 and LnO7 units forming edge-sharing infinite chains along the c-axis. These oxy-bridged infinite chains are also linked by [Si4O13] tetrasilicate and [Si2O7] disilicate units to form the three-dimensional framework structure, with Ba2+ and Na+ cations residing inside channels of the framework. The polarity in the structure is imparted by the unusual tetrasilicate arrangement. The luminescence and magnetic properties were investigated on selected compounds. The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements on the Nd, Sm, and Gd derivatives reveal a Curie-Weiss behavior with an antiferromagnetic coupling parameter. For the Eu-derivative, the temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility deviates significantly from Curie-Weiss behavior. Luminescence properties of NaBa3Eu3Si6O20 and NaBa3Sm3Si6O20 compounds exhibited the characteristic transitions of Eu3+ (5D0 → 7FJ, J = 0-4) and Sm3+ (4G5/2 → 6HJ, J = 5/2, 7/2), respectively, leading to strong visible red and orange emissions, respectively.

  12. Binding to Redox-Inactive Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal Ions Strongly Deactivates the C-H Bonds of Tertiary Amides toward Hydrogen Atom Transfer to Reactive Oxygen Centered Radicals.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Michela; Carboni, Giulia; Mangiacapra, Livia; Bietti, Massimo

    2015-09-18

    The effect of alkali and alkaline earth metal ions on the reactions of the cumyloxyl radical (CumO(•)) with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) was studied by laser flash photolysis. In acetonitrile, a >2 order of magnitude decrease in the rate constant for hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) from the C-H bonds of these substrates (kH) was measured after addition of Li(+). This behavior was explained in terms of a strong interaction between Li(+) and the oxygen atom of both DMF and DMA that increases the extent of positive charge on the amide, leading to C-H bond deactivation toward HAT to the electrophilic radical CumO(•). Similar effects were observed after addition of Ca(2+), which was shown to strongly bind up to four equivalents of the amide substrates. With Mg(2+), weak C-H deactivation was observed for the first two substrate equivalents followed by stronger deactivation for two additional equivalents. No C-H deactivation was observed in DMSO after addition of Li(+) and Mg(2+). These results point toward the important role played by metal ion Lewis acidity and solvent Lewis basicity, indicating that C-H deactivation can be modulated by varying the nature of the metal cation and solvent and allowing for careful control over the HAT reactivity of amide substrates.

  13. Experimental response function of a 3 in×3 in NaI(Tl) detector by inverse matrix method and effective atomic number of composite materials by gamma backscattering technique.

    PubMed

    Kiran, K U; Ravindraswami, K; Eshwarappa, K M; Somashekarappa, H M

    2016-05-01

    Response function of a widely used 3in×3in NaI(Tl) detector is constructed to correct the observed pulse height distribution. A 10×10 inverse matrix is constructed using 7 mono-energetic gamma sources ((57)Co, (203)Hg, (133)Ba, (22)Na, (137)Cs, (54)Mn and (65)Zn) which are evenly spaced in energy scale to unscramble the observed pulse height distribution. Bin widths (E)(1/2) of 0.01 (MeV)(1/2) are used to construct the matrix. Backscattered photons for an angle of 110° are obtained from a well-collimated 0.2146GBq (5.8mCi) (137)Cs gamma source for carbon, aluminium, iron, copper, granite and Portland cement. For each observed spectrum, single scattered spectrum is constructed analytically using detector parameters like FWHM, photo-peak efficiency and peak counts. Response corrected multiple scattered photons are extracted from the observed pulse height distribution by dividing the spectrum into a 10 ×1 matrix. Saturation thicknesses of carbon, aluminium, iron, copper, granite and Portland cement are found out. Variation of multiple scattered photons as a function of target thickness are simulated using MCNP code. A relationship between experimental and simulated saturation thicknesses of carbon, aluminium, iron and copper is obtained as a function of atomic number. Using this relation, effective atomic numbers of granite and Portland cement are obtained from interpolation method. Effective atomic numbers of granite and Portland cement are also obtained by theoretical equation using their elemental composition and comparing with the experimental and simulated results.

  14. Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.

    2015-05-01

    Earth has continents, subduction and mobile lid plate tectonics, but details of the early evolution are poorly understood. Here I summarize the Hadean-Archean record, review evidence for a hotter Earth and consider geodynamic models for early Earth.

  15. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic determination of rare earth elements in geological samples after preconcentration by countercurrent chromatography—Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukhovskaya, V. M.; Grebneva, O. N.; Maryutina, T. A.; Kuz'min, N. M.; Spivakov, B. Ya.

    1995-01-01

    This paper directly links up with Part I [ Spectrochim. Acta48B, 1365 (1993)] which treats the first application of countercurrent chromatography (CCC) for pre-separation of rare earth elements (REE) in rocks. The rapid and reliable separation and pre-concentration of "light" REE and Y can be achieved using a system of 0.5 mol/l di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) in n-decane-hydrochloric acid of different concentrations and a planetary centrifuge as a CCC device. However, Tm, Yb and Lu are partially retained in the stationary phase. Comparative data is presented on three other two-phase liquid systems containing trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO); D2EHPA and TOPO mixtures and diphenyl(dibutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine)oxide (Ph 2-Bu 2) as extractants in terms of their ability for whole REE group complete isolation from the rock constituents. The partial losses of "light" REE (La and Ce) occurred in the system of 0.1 mol/l solution of TOPO in isobutylmethylketone (IBMK) (stationary phase)-1 mol/l NH 4NO 3-6 mol/l HCl aqueous solutions (mobile phase). Complete isolution of the entire REE group can be reached in two systems: 0.3 mol/l D2EHPA + 0.02 ml/l TOPO in the solvents mixture (3:1) of n-decane + IBMK, respectively (stationary phase)-1 mol/l NH 4NO 3-6 mol/l HCl aqueous solution (mobile phase), and 1.0 mol/l Ph 2-Bu 2 solution in chloroform (stationary phase)-3 mol/l HNO 3 aqueous solution (mobile phase). The D2EHPA + TOPO mixture is recommended as more economic and accessible.

  16. Collisions of excited Na atoms with H2 molecules. I. Ab initio potential energy surfaces and qualitative discussion of the quenching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botschwina, Peter; Meyer, Wilfried; Hertel, Ingolf V.; Reiland, W.

    1981-12-01

    Potential energy surfaces have been calculated for the four lowest electronic states of Na (3 2S, 3 2P)+H2(1Σ+g) by means of the RHF-SCF and PNO-CEPA methods. For the so-called quenching process of Na (3 2P) by H2 at low initial translational energies (E-VRT energy transfer) the energetically most favorable path occurs in C2v symmetry, since—at intermediate Na-H2 separation—the ? 2B2 potential energy surface is attractive. From the CEPA calculations, the crossing point of minimal energy between the ? 2A1 and ? 2B2 surfaces is obtained at Rc = 3.57 a.u. and rc = 2.17 a.u. with an energy difference to the asymptotic limit (R = ∞, r = re) of -0.06 eV. It is thus classically accessible without any initial translational energy, but at low initial translational energies (˜0.1 eV) quenching will be efficient only for arrangements of collision partners close to C2v symmetry. There is little indication of an avoiding crossing with an ionic intermediate correlating asymptotically with Na+ and H2- as was assumed in previous discussions of the quenching process. The dependence of the total quenching cross sections on the initial translational energy is discussed by means of the ''absorbing sphere'' model, taking the initial zero-point vibrational energy of the hydrogen molecule into account. New experimental data of the product channel distribution in H2 for center-of-mass forward scattering are presented. The final vibrational states v' = 3, 2, 1, and 0 of H2 are populated to about 26%, 61%, 13%, and 0%, respectively. The observed distributions in H2 (and D2) may be rationalized by simple dynamic considerations on the basis of the calculated surfaces.

  17. Electronic structure of alkali-metal/alkaline-earth-metal fluorine beryllium borate NaSr3Be3B3O9F4 single crystal: DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshak, A. H.; Kamarudin, H.; Auluck, S.

    2015-10-01

    The electronic band structure, total and angular momentum resolved projected density of states for NaSr3Be3B3O9F4 are calculated using the all-electron full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-LAPW + lo) method. The calculations are performed within four exchange correlations namely; local density approximation (LDA), general gradient approximation (PBE-GGA), Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation (EVGGA) and the recently modified Becke-Johnson potential (mBJ). Calculations suggest that NaSr3Be3B3O9F4 is a direct wide band gap semiconductor. The exchange correlations potentials exhibit significant influence on the value of the energy gap being about 4.82 eV (LDA), 5.16 eV (GGA), 6.20 (EVGGA) and 7.20 eV (mBJ). The mBJ approach succeed by large amount in bringing the calculated energy gap closer to the experimental one (7.28 eV). The angular momentum resolved projected density of states shows the existence of a strong hybridization between the various orbitals. In additional we have calculated the electronic charge density distribution in two crystallographic planes namely (1 0 1) and (0 0 -1) to visualized the chemical bonding characters.

  18. Atoms in Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Paul A.

    This booklet is part of an American Astronomical Society curriculum project designed to provide teaching materials to teachers of secondary school chemistry, physics, and earth science. A Basic Topics section discusses atomic structure, emphasizing states of matter at high temperature and spectroscopic analysis of light from the stars. A section…

  19. Spin-Spin Interactions in the Oxides A(3)M'MO(6) (M = Rh, Ir; A = Ca, Sr; M' = Alkaline Earth, Zn, Cd, Na) of the K(4)CdCl(6) Structure Type Examined by Electronic Structure Calculations.

    PubMed

    Lee, K.-S.; Koo, H.-J.; Whangbo, M.-H.

    1999-05-03

    The oxides A(3)M'MO(6) (M = Rh, Ir; A = Ca, Sr; M' = alkaline earth, Zn, Cd) of the K(4)CdCl(6) structure type consist of isolated (MO(6))(8)(-) octahedral anions and exhibit an antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures. The spin-spin interactions in these oxides, Ca(3)NaMO(6) (M = Ir, Ru), and Sr(3)NaRuO(6) were examined by calculating how strongly the t(2g)-block levels of adjacent (MO(6))((6+)(n)()())(-) (n = 1, 2) anions interact in the presence and absence of the intervening cations A(2+) and M' (n)()(+) (n = 1, 2). Our calculations show that the spin-spin interactions in these oxides are three-dimensional, and the superexchange interactions occur mainly through the short intrachain and interchain M-O.O-M linkages. When the M(n)()(+) cation is very small compared with the A(2+) cation, the intrachain interaction is substantially stronger than the interchain interaction. The opposite is found when the sizes of the M(n)()(+) and A(2+) cations become similar.

  20. NaPr 6Cl 12[SiO 4][PO 4] and La 6.333Cl 12[SiO 4][PO 4]: Two chloride silicate phosphates of rare-earth metals with cation-filled channel structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartenbach, Ingo; Sieke, Corinna; Schleid, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    The lanthanum chloride silicate phosphate La 6.333Cl 12[SiO 4][PO 4] ( a=1249.68(9), c=413.56(3) pm) and the sodium praseodymium chloride silicate phosphate NaPr 6Cl 12[SiO 4][PO 4] ( a=1247.87(9), c=401.13(2) pm) both crystallize hexagonally with the space group P6/m and one formula unit per unit cell. In an attempt to synthesize chloride derivatized lanthanide oxophosphates using Pr 6O 11, Pr, and P 2O 5 with an excess of NaCl as flux, pale green lath-shaped single crystals of NaPr 6Cl 12[SiO 4][PO 4] were obtained from silica vessels. Also lath-shaped, but colourless single crystals of La 6.333Cl 12[SiO 4][PO 4] emerged from the reaction of La[PO 4] with a fivefold excess of LaCl 3 again carried out in evacuated, torch-sealed silica ampoules. Obviously, the container material SiO 2 did participate in both cases, most probably activated by the chloride fluxes or traces of moisture. The lanthanide trications (Pr 3+ and (La2) 3+) are situated at the Wyckoff position 6 h showing a coordination number of ten (7 Cl and 3 O atoms) with a coordination polyhedron of tetracapped trigonal prismatic shape. The sodium cations in NaPr 6Cl 12[SiO 4][PO 4] as well as the second type of lanthanum cations (La1) 3+ in La 6.333Cl 12[SiO 4][PO 4] are located in the channel running along [001] which is built up by chloride anions exclusively. While the Na + cations occupy the Wyckoff positions 2 a ( CN=3+6) and 2 b ( CN=6) with a ratio of 1/3:2/3, the (La1) 3+ cations reside exclusively in 2 a ( CN=9) with an occupancy of 1/3. The [SiO 4] 4-/[PO 4] 3- tetrahedra seem to be arranged in strands along [ 1/3 2/3 1] and [ 2/3 1/3 1] forming apical vertex-shared trigonal bipyramids (≡ face-shared tetrahedra) in which of course only one of the two oxygen tetrahedra can be centred by a P 5+ or a Si 4+ cation statistically.

  1. Collisions of excited Na atoms with H/sub 2/ molecules. I. Ab initio potential energy surfaces and qualitative discussion of the quenching process

    SciTech Connect

    Botschwina, P.; Meyer, W.; Hertel, I.V.; Reiland, W.

    1981-12-01

    Potential energy surfaces have been calculated for the four lowest electronic states of Na (3 /sup 2/S, 3 /sup 2/P)+H/sub 2/(/sup 1/..sigma../sup +//sub g/) by means of the RHF--SCF and PNO--CEPA methods. For the so-called quenching process of Na (3 /sup 2/P) by H/sub 2/ at low initial translational energies (E--VRT energy transfer) the energetically most favorable path occurs in C/sub 2v/ symmetry, since: at intermediate Na--H/sub 2/ separation: the A /sup 2/B/sub 2/ potential energy surface is attractive. From the CEPA calculations, the crossing point of minimal energy between the X /sup 2/A/sub 1/ and A /sup 2/B/sub 2/ surfaces is obtained at R/sub c/ = 3.57 a.u. and r/sub c/ = 2.17 a.u. with an energy difference to the asymptotic limit (R = infinity, r = r/sub e/) of -0.06 eV. It is thus classically accessible without any initial translational energy, but at low initial translational energies (approx.0.1 eV) quenching will be efficient only for arrangements of collision partners close to C/sub 2v/ symmetry. There is little indication of an avoiding crossing with an ionic intermediate correlating asymptotically with Na/sup +/ and H/sub 2//sup -/ as was assumed in previous discussions of the quenching process. The dependence of the total quenching cross sections on the initial translational energy is discussed by means of the ''absorbing sphere'' model, taking the initial zero-point vibrational energy of the hydrogen molecule into account. New experimental data of the product channel distribution in H/sub 2/ for center-of-mass forward scattering are presented. The final vibrational states v' = 3, 2, 1, and 0 of H/sub 2/ are populated to about 26%, 61%, 13%, and 0%, respectively. The observed distributions in H/sub 2/ (and D/sub 2/) may be rationalized by simple dynamic considerations on the basis of the calculated surfaces.

  2. China's rare-earth industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tse, Pui-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction China's dominant position as the producer of over 95 percent of the world output of rare-earth minerals and rapid increases in the consumption of rare earths owing to the emergence of new clean-energy and defense-related technologies, combined with China's decisions to restrict exports of rare earths, have resulted in heightened concerns about the future availability of rare earths. As a result, industrial countries such as Japan, the United States, and countries of the European Union face tighter supplies and higher prices for rare earths. This paper briefly reviews China's rare-earth production, consumption, and reserves and the important policies and regulations regarding the production and trade of rare earths, including recently announced export quotas. The 15 lanthanide elements-lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium (atomic numbers 57-71)-were originally known as the rare earths from their occurrence in oxides mixtures. Recently, some researchers have included two other elements-scandium and yttrium-in their discussion of rare earths. Yttrium (atomic number 39), which lies above lanthanum in transition group III of the periodic table and has a similar 3+ ion with a noble gas core, has both atomic and ionic radii similar in size to those of terbium and dysprosium and is generally found in nature with lanthanides. Scandium (atomic number 21) has a smaller ionic radius than yttrium and the lanthanides, and its chemical behavior is intermediate between that of aluminum and the lanthanides. It is found in nature with the lanthanides and yttrium. Rare earths are used widely in high-technology and clean-energy products because they impart special properties of magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are also used in weapon systems to obtain the same properties.

  3. Effect of NaCl and KCl on phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipid membranes: insight from atomic-scale simulations for understanding salt-induced effects in the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Gurtovenko, Andrey A; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2008-02-21

    To gain a better understanding of how monovalent salt under physiological conditions affects plasma membranes, we have performed 200 ns atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipid bilayers. These two systems provide representative models for the outer and inner leaflets of the plasma membrane, respectively. The implications of cation-lipid interactions in these lipid systems have been considered in two different aqueous salt solutions, namely NaCl and KCl, and the sensitivity of the results on the details of interactions used for ions is determined by repeating the simulations with two distinctly different force fields. We demonstrate that the main effect of monovalent salt on a phospholipid membrane is determined by cations binding to the carbonyl region of a membrane, while chloride anions mostly stay in the water phase. It turns out that the strength and character of the cation-lipid interactions are quite different for different types of lipids and cations. PC membranes and Na+ ions demonstrate strongest interactions, leading to notable membrane compression. This finding was confirmed by both force fields (Gromacs and Charmm) employed for the ions. The binding of potassium ions to PC membranes (and the overall effect of KCl), in turn, was found to be much weaker mainly due to the larger size of a K+ ion compared to Na+. Furthermore, the effect of KCl on PC membranes was found to be force-field sensitive: The binding of a potassium ion was not observed at all in simulations performed with the Gromacs force-field, which seems to exaggerate the size of a K+ ion. As far as PE lipid bilayers are concerned, they are found to be influenced by monovalent salt to a significantly lesser extent compared to PC bilayers, which is a direct consequence of the ability of PE lipids to form both intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds and hence to adopt a more densely packed bilayer structure. Whereas for Na

  4. The monomer-to-dimer transition and bimodal growth of Co-salen on NaCl(001): a high resolution atomic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Fremy, S; Schwarz, A; Lämmle, K; Prosenc, M; Wiesendanger, R

    2009-10-07

    Molecules of Co-salen, a paramagnetic metal-organic Schiff base complex, self-assemble into two different well ordered morphologies on a NaCl(001) substrate: nanowires, which form networks, and compact nanocrystallites. Their growth can be controlled by adjusting the deposition parameters. It turns out that the nanowires are metastable. Molecular resolution images suggest that the packing in both morphologies is the same as in bulk Co-salen single crystals. Only the orientation of the c-axis with respect to the substrate is different. The origin of this intriguing bimodal growth is associated with a monomer-to-dimer transition, which probably takes place during initial nucleation at step edges.

  5. Earth Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Tom

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some of the more concerted, large-scale efforts in the earth resources areas" in order to help the computer community obtain insights into the activities it can jointly particpate in withthe earth resources community." (Author)

  6. Multistep pH-peak-focusing countercurrent chromatography with a polyethylene glycol-Na2SO4 aqueous two phase system for separation and enrichment of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kohei; Kuribayashi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Haruna; Shimasaki, Tomomi; Azuma, Kenzaburo; Horie, Yohei; Saitoh, Kazunori; Saito, Shingo; Shibukawa, Masami

    2013-01-15

    Multistep pH-peak-focusing countercurrent chromatography was developed for separation and enrichment of rare earth metal ions using a polyethylene glycol-Na(2)SO(4) aqueous two phase system (ATPS) and pH stepwise gradient elution. Metal ions in a sample solution are chromatographically extracted in a basic stationary phase (polymer-rich phase of the ATPS) containing a complexation ligand such as acetylacetone at the top of the countercurrent chromatography (CCC) column. After the sample solution is introduced, the mobile phases of which the pH values have been adjusted with buffer reagents are delivered into the column by stepwise gradient elution in order of decreasing pH. Each metal ion is concentrated at a pH border formed between the zones of different pH in the CCC column through extraction with a complexing agent into the stationary phase at the front side of the border (basic region) and back extraction into the mobile phase at the back side of the border (acidic region), moving toward the outlet of the column with the pH border. Mutual separations of La(III), Ce(III), Nd(III), Yb(III), and Sc(III) were achieved by the present method using five step pH gradient elution, and each rare earth metal ion was effectively enriched at each of the five pH borders. The mechanism for formation of pH profile of the column effluent and the potential of this technique for preparative scale separation are also discussed.

  7. Alkali-metal/alkaline-earth-metal fluorine beryllium borate NaSr3Be3B3O9F4 with large nonlinear optical properties in the deep-ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshak, A. H.; Huang, Hongwei; Kamarudin, H.; Auluck, S.

    2015-02-01

    The linear optical response and second harmonic generation (SHG) in alkali-metal/alkaline-earth-metal fluorine beryllium borate NaSr3Be3B3O9F4 are investigated by means of density functional theory. Calculations are performed using four types of exchange correlations: Ceperley-Alder local density approximation, Perdew Burke and Ernzerhof general gradient approximation, Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation, and the recently modified Becke-Johnson potential (mBJ). The mBJ approach brings the calculated band gap (7.20 eV) in excellent agreement with the experimental one (7.28 eV). The calculated values of the uniaxial anisotropy δɛ=-0.076 and the birefringence Δn (0 ) =0.052 indicate considerable anisotropy in the linear optical properties, which makes it favorable for the second harmonic generation. The dominant component of the second harmonic generation is χ111(2)(ω) . The value of |χ111(2)(ω) | is about 1.2 pm/V at λ = 1064 nm in agreement with previous calculations. To analyze the origin of the high SHG of NaSr3Be3B3O9F4 single crystals, we have correlated the features of |χ111(2)(ω) | spectra with the features of ɛ2(ω) spectra as a function of ω/2 and ω. From the calculated dominant component |χ111(2)(ω) | , we find that the microscopic first hyperpolarizability, β111 , the vector components along the dipole moment direction is 0.5 × 10-30 esu at static limit and 0.6 × 10-30 esu at λ = 1064 nm.

  8. Pulsed Source Of Energetic Oxygen Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, George; Krech, Robert; Green, David; Pirri, Anthony

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus developed that generates high-flux pulses of oxygen atoms to bombard specimens in experiments on aging and degradation of materials in low Earth-orbit environment. Preliminary studies of specimens irradiated with atomic oxygen provided spectral evidence of erosion, in addition to measurable mass loss. Intense atomic oxygen pulses also useful in studies of microfabrication techniques.

  9. Trapped-atom interferometer with ultracold Sr atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian; del Aguila, Ruben Pablo; Mazzoni, Tommaso; Poli, Nicola; Tino, Guglielmo M.

    2016-10-01

    We report on a trapped atom interferometer based on Bragg diffraction and Bloch oscillations with alkaline-earth-metal atoms. We use a Ramsey-Bordé Bragg interferometer with 88Sr atoms combined with Bloch oscillations to extend the interferometer time. Thanks to a long coherence time for Bloch oscillations of 88Sr atoms, we observed interference up to 1 s evolution time in the lattice. A detailed study of decoherence sources during the Bloch phase is also presented. While still limited in sensitivity by lattice lifetime and beam inhomogeneity this result opens the way to high contrast trapped interferometers with extended interrogation time.

  10. Atomic research. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadaway, J.B.; Connatser, R.; Cothren, B.; Johnson, R.B.

    1993-07-01

    Work performed by the University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Center for Applied Optics (CAO) entitled Atomic Research is documented. Atomic oxygen (AO) effects on materials have long been a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure to the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The objective of this research effort was to provide technical expertise in the design of instrumentation and experimental techniques for analyzing materials exposed to atomic oxygen in accelerated testing at NASA/MSFC. Such testing was required to answer fundamental questions concerning Space Station Freedom (SSF) candidate materials and materials exposed to atomic oxygen aboard the Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The primary UAH task was to provide technical design, review, and analysis to MSFC in the development of a state-of-the-art 5eV atomic oxygen beam facility required to simulate the RAM-induced low earth orbit (LEO) AO environment. This development was to be accomplished primarily at NASA/MSFC. In support of this task, contamination effects and ultraviolet (UV) simulation testing was also to be carried out using NASA/MSFC facilities. Any materials analysis of LDEF samples was to be accomplished at UAH.

  11. The equilibrium of atmospheric sodium. [in atmospheres of Earth, Io, Mercury and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunten, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    We now have four examples of planetary objects with detectable sodium (and potassium) in their atmospheres: Earth, Io, Mercury and the moon. After a summary of the observational data, this survey discusses proposed sources and sinks. It appears that Io's surface material is rich in frozen SO2, but with around 1 percent of some sodium compound. The Io plasma torus contains ions of S, O and Na, also with at least one molecular ion containing Na. In turn, impact by these ions probably sustains the torus, as well as an extended neutral corona. A primary source for the Earth, Mercury and the moon is meteoroidal bombardment; at Mercury and perhaps the moon it may be supplemented by degassing of atoms from the regolith. Photoionization is important everywhere, although hot electrons are dominant at Io.

  12. Electron- and Photon-stimulated Desorption of Alkali Atoms from Lunar Sample and a Model Mineral Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakshinskiy, B. V.; Madey, T. E.

    2003-01-01

    We report recent results on an investigation of source mechanisms for the origin of alkali atoms in the tenuous planetary atmospheres, with focus on non-thermal processes (photon stimulated desorption (PSD), electron stimulated desorption (ESD), and ion sputtering). Whereas alkaline earth oxides (MgO, CaO) are far more abundant in lunar samples than alkali oxides (Na2O, K2O), the atmosphere of the Moon contains easily measurable concentrations of Na and K, while Ca and Mg are undetected there; traces of Ca have recently been seen in the Moon's atmosphere (10-3 of Na). The experiments have included ESD, PSD and ion sputtering of alkali atoms from model mineral surface (amorphous SiO2) and from a lunar basalt sample obtained from NASA. The comparison is made between ESD and PSD efficiency of monovalent alkalis (Na, K) and divalent alkaline earths (Ba, Ca).The ultrahigh vacuum measurement scheme for ESD and PSD of Na atoms includes a highly sensitive alkali metal detector based on surface ionization, and a time-of-flight technique. For PSD measurements, a mercury arc light source (filtered and chopped) is used. We find that bombardment of the alkali covered surfaces by ultraviolet photons or by low energy electrons (E>4 eV) causes desorption of hot alkali atoms. This results are consistent with the model developed to explain our previous measurements of sodium desorption from a silica surface and from water ice: electron- or photon-induced charge transfer from the substrate to the ionic adsorbate causes formation of a neutral alkali atom in a repulsive configuration, from which desorption occurs. The two-electron charge transfer to cause desorption of divalent alkaline eath ions is a less likely process.The data support the suggestion that PSD by UV solar photons is a dominant source process for alkalis in the tenuous lunar atmosphere.

  13. Electron- and Photon-stimulated Desorption of Alkali Atoms from Lunar Sample and a Model Mineral Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakshinskiy, B. V.; Madey, T. E.

    2003-01-01

    We report recent results on an investigation of source mechanisms for the origin of alkali atoms in the tenuous planetary atmospheres, with focus on non-thermal processes (photon stimulated desorption (PSD), electron stimulated desorption (ESD), and ion sputtering). Whereas alkaline earth oxides (MgO, CaO) are far more abundant in lunar samples than alkali oxides (Na2O, K2O), the atmosphere of the Moon contains easily measurable concentrations of Na and K, while Ca and Mg are undetected there; traces of Ca have recently been seen in the Moon's atmosphere (10-3 of Na). The experiments have included ESD, PSD and ion sputtering of alkali atoms from model mineral surface (amorphous SiO2) and from a lunar basalt sample obtained from NASA. The comparison is made between ESD and PSD efficiency of monovalent alkalis (Na, K) and divalent alkaline earths (Ba, Ca).The ultrahigh vacuum measurement scheme for ESD and PSD of Na atoms includes a highly sensitive alkali metal detector based on surface ionization, and a time-of-flight technique. For PSD measurements, a mercury arc light source (filtered and chopped) is used. We find that bombardment of the alkali covered surfaces by ultraviolet photons or by low energy electrons (E>4 eV) causes desorption of hot alkali atoms. This results are consistent with the model developed to explain our previous measurements of sodium desorption from a silica surface and from water ice: electron- or photon-induced charge transfer from the substrate to the ionic adsorbate causes formation of a neutral alkali atom in a repulsive configuration, from which desorption occurs. The two-electron charge transfer to cause desorption of divalent alkaline eath ions is a less likely process.The data support the suggestion that PSD by UV solar photons is a dominant source process for alkalis in the tenuous lunar atmosphere.

  14. First hyperpolarizability of cyclooctatetraene modulated by alkali and alkaline earth metals.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ria Sinha; Mondal, Avijit; Nandi, Prasanta K

    2017-03-01

    In the present investigation, the first hyperpolarizability of alkali and alkaline earth metal derivatives of cyclooctatetraene (COT) has been calculated using BHHLYP and CAM-B3LYP functional for 6-311++G(d,p), 6-311++G(3df,3pd), and aug-pc 2 basis sets. Introduction of Na/K atoms at the axial position of COT and Li, Na, K/Be, Mg, Ca metal atoms and cyanide groups at the equatorial sites leads to lager enhancement of first hyperpolarizability. The ring charge density can account for the variation of first hyperpolarizability. The two state model has been invoked to explain the variation of first hyperpolarizability.

  15. Applications to particle transport in the Earth`s aurora

    SciTech Connect

    Jasperse, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The visual display of light called the aurora borealis occurs when energetic (1 to 100-keV) electrons, protons, and hydrogen atoms from the Earth`s magnetosphere enter the Earth`s upper atmosphere and collide with the ambient neutral particles. Two kinds of auroras occur in nature: those excited by incident electrons and those excited by incident protons and hydrogen atoms. In this paper, we consider only the latter. The proton-hydrogen aurora may be divided into two altitude regions: high altitudes ({approximately}250 to {approximately}600 km) where charge-changing collisions dominate and energy-loss collisions may be neglected and low altitudes ({approximately}100 to {approximately}250 km) where energy-loss collisions also become important and cause rapid energy degradation. The focus of this review is on the high-altitude region where the one-group approximation is valid.

  16. The hydrogen storage properties of Na decorated small boron cluster B6Na8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chunmei; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xue; Wen, Ninghua

    2016-09-01

    The binding energy of the Na atoms to the hollow sites of the B6 cage is larger than the experimental cohesive energy of bulk Na, so the clustering of Na atoms can be avoided. The polarization interaction dominates the adsorption of H2 by the B6Na8 cluster. The Na-coated B6Na8sbnd B8sbnd B6Na8 complex with the dispersive Na atoms and four H2 molecules adsorbed per Na can serve as better building blocks of polymers than the (B6Na8)2 dimer. These findings suggest a new route to design cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials based on sp2-terminated boron chains.

  17. Highly stable Na2/3 (Mn0.54 Ni0.13 Co0.13 )O2 cathode modified by atomic layer deposition for sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kaliyappan, Karthikeyan; Liu, Jian; Lushington, Andrew; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2015-08-10

    For the first time, atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2 O3 was adopted to enhance the cyclic stability of layered P2-type Na2/3 (Mn0.54 Ni0.13 Co0.13 )O2 (MNC) cathodes for use in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Discharge capacities of approximately 120, 123, 113, and 105 mA h g(-1) were obtained for the pristine electrode and electrodes coated with 2, 5, and 10 ALD cycles, respectively. All electrodes were cycled at the 1C discharge current rate for voltages between 2 and 4.5 V in 1 M NaClO4 electrolyte. Among the electrodes tested, the Al2 O3 coating from 2 ALD cycles (MNC-2) exhibited the best electrochemical stability and rate capability, whereas the electrode coated by 10 ALD cycles (MNC-10) displayed the highest columbic efficiency (CE), which exceeded 97 % after 100 cycles. The enhanced electrochemical stability observed for ALD-coated electrodes could be a result of the protection effects and high band-gap energy (Eg =9.00 eV) of the Al2 O3 coating layer. Additionally, the metal-oxide coating provides structural stability against mechanical stresses occurring during the cycling process. The capacity, cyclic stability, and rate performance achieved for the MNC electrode coated with 2 ALD cycles of Al2 O3 reveal the best results for SIBs. This study provides a promising route toward increasing the stability and CE of electrode materials for SIB application.

  18. Esperanzaite, NaCa2Al2(As5+O4)2F4(OH)*2H2O, a new mineral species from the La Esperanza mine, Mexico: descriptive mineralogy and atomic arrangement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Hughes, J.M.; Cureton, F.; Maxwell, C.H.; Falster, A.U.; Sommer, A.J.; Hlava, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Esperanzaite, ideally NaCa2Al2(As5+O4)2F4(OH)??2H2O, Z = 2, is a new mineral species from the La Esperanza mine, Durango State, Mexico. The mineral occurs as blue-green botryoidal crystalline masses on rhyolite, with separate spheres up to 1.5 mm in diameter. The Mohs hardness is 4 1/2 , and the specific gravity, 3.24 (obs.) and 3.36(3) (calc.). Optical properties were measured in 589 nm light. Esperanzaite is biaxial (-), X = Y = Z = colorless, ?? 1.580(1), ?? 1.588(1), and ?? 1.593(1); 2V(obs) is 74(1)??and 2V(calc) is 76.3??. The dispersion is medium, r < v, and the optic axes are oriented according to a ?? Z = +50.5??, b = Y, c ?? X = +35??. The strongest five X-ray-diffraction maxima in the powder pattern [d in A??(I)(hkl)] are: 2.966(100)(131, 311, 031), 3.527(90)(220), 2.700(90)(221,002,040), 5.364(80)(001,020) and 4.796(80)(011). Esperanzaite is monoclinic, a 9.687(5), b 10.7379(6), c 5.5523(7) A??, ?? 105.32(1)??, space group P21/m. The atomic arrangement of esperanzaite was solved by direct methods and Fourier analysis (R = 0.032). The Fundamental Building Block (FBB) is formed of [001] stacks of heteropolyhedral tetramers; the tetramers are formed of two arsenate tetrahedra and two Al octahedra, corner-linked in four-member rings. The FBBs are linked by irregular Na??5 and Ca??8 polyhedra.

  19. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  20. Solidification of NaCl-NaF eutectic in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yu, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous NaF fibers, embedded in a NaCl matrix, have been produced in space and on earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convection current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of NaF fibers along the ingot axis.

  1. Can atom-surface potential measurements test atomic structure models?

    PubMed

    Lonij, Vincent P A; Klauss, Catherine E; Holmgren, William F; Cronin, Alexander D

    2011-06-30

    van der Waals (vdW) atom-surface potentials can be excellent benchmarks for atomic structure calculations. This is especially true if measurements are made with two different types of atoms interacting with the same surface sample. Here we show theoretically how ratios of vdW potential strengths (e.g., C₃(K)/C₃(Na)) depend sensitively on the properties of each atom, yet these ratios are relatively insensitive to properties of the surface. We discuss how C₃ ratios depend on atomic core electrons by using a two-oscillator model to represent the contribution from atomic valence electrons and core electrons separately. We explain why certain pairs of atoms are preferable to study for future experimental tests of atomic structure calculations. A well chosen pair of atoms (e.g., K and Na) will have a C₃ ratio that is insensitive to the permittivity of the surface, whereas a poorly chosen pair (e.g., K and He) will have a ratio of C₃ values that depends more strongly on the permittivity of the surface.

  2. Atomic Resolution Interfacial Structure of Lead-free Ferroelectric K0.5Na0.5NbO3 Thin films Deposited on SrTiO3.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Wang, Lingyan; Wang, Zhao; Yang, Yaodong; Ren, Wei; Yang, Guang

    2016-11-25

    Oxide interface engineering has attracted considerable attention since the discovery of its exotic properties induced by lattice strain, dislocation and composition change at the interface. In this paper, the atomic resolution structure and composition of the interface between the lead-free piezoelectric (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) thin films and single-crystalline SrTiO3 substrate were investigated by means of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combining with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). A sharp epitaxial interface was observed to be a monolayer composed of Nb and Ti cations with a ratio of 3/1. The First-Principles Calculations indicated the interface monolayer showed different electronic structure and played the vital role in the asymmetric charge distribution of KNN thin films near the interface. We also observed the gradual relaxation process for the relatively large lattice strains near the KNN/STO interface, which remarks a good structure modulation behavior of KNN thin films via strain engineering.

  3. Atomic Resolution Interfacial Structure of Lead-free Ferroelectric K0.5Na0.5NbO3 Thin films Deposited on SrTiO3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Wang, Lingyan; Wang, Zhao; Yang, Yaodong; Ren, Wei; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Oxide interface engineering has attracted considerable attention since the discovery of its exotic properties induced by lattice strain, dislocation and composition change at the interface. In this paper, the atomic resolution structure and composition of the interface between the lead-free piezoelectric (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) thin films and single-crystalline SrTiO3 substrate were investigated by means of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combining with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). A sharp epitaxial interface was observed to be a monolayer composed of Nb and Ti cations with a ratio of 3/1. The First-Principles Calculations indicated the interface monolayer showed different electronic structure and played the vital role in the asymmetric charge distribution of KNN thin films near the interface. We also observed the gradual relaxation process for the relatively large lattice strains near the KNN/STO interface, which remarks a good structure modulation behavior of KNN thin films via strain engineering. PMID:27886259

  4. Atomic Resolution Interfacial Structure of Lead-free Ferroelectric K0.5Na0.5NbO3 Thin films Deposited on SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Wang, Lingyan; Wang, Zhao; Yang, Yaodong; Ren, Wei; Yang, Guang

    2016-11-01

    Oxide interface engineering has attracted considerable attention since the discovery of its exotic properties induced by lattice strain, dislocation and composition change at the interface. In this paper, the atomic resolution structure and composition of the interface between the lead-free piezoelectric (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) thin films and single-crystalline SrTiO3 substrate were investigated by means of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combining with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). A sharp epitaxial interface was observed to be a monolayer composed of Nb and Ti cations with a ratio of 3/1. The First-Principles Calculations indicated the interface monolayer showed different electronic structure and played the vital role in the asymmetric charge distribution of KNN thin films near the interface. We also observed the gradual relaxation process for the relatively large lattice strains near the KNN/STO interface, which remarks a good structure modulation behavior of KNN thin films via strain engineering.

  5. Structure determination of KLaS2, KPrS2, KEuS2, KGdS2, KLuS2, KYS2, RbYS2, NaLaS2 and crystal-chemical analysis of the group 1 and thallium(I) rare-earth sulfide series.

    PubMed

    Fábry, Jan; Havlák, Lubomír; Dušek, Michal; Vaněk, Přemysl; Drahokoupil, Jan; Jurek, Karel

    2014-04-01

    One of the purposes of this work is to provide a crystallographic review of group 1 and thallium rare-earth ternary sulfides M(+)Ln(3+)S2. We have therefore determined crystal structures of KLaS2, KPrS2, KEuS2, KGdS2, KLuS2, KYS2, RbYS2, which belong to the α-NaFeO2 structural family (R3m), as well as NaLaS2, which is derived from the disordered NaCl structural type (Fm3m). The determined structures were compared with known members of the group 1 as well as thallium(I) rare-earth sulfides by the standard tools of crystal-chemical analysis such as comparison of bond-valences, analysis of interatomic distances and comparison of the unit-cell parameters. The results indicate why the cubic structural type is limited to Li(+) and Na(+) members of the series only. The analysis has also revealed frequent problems in the reported crystal structures, especially in the determination of the K(+) compounds, probably due to severe absorption and different accuracy and sensitivity of various instruments. Intense diffuse scattering has been discovered in NaLaS2, which will be the subject of further investigation. The newly determined as well as already known structures are summarized, together with critical comments about possible errors in the previous structure determinations.

  6. Cold Light from Hot Atoms and Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, Graeme; Curry, John J.

    2011-05-11

    The introduction of rare earth atoms and molecules into lighting discharges led to great advances in efficacy of these lamps. Atoms such as Dy, Ho and Ce provide excellent radiation sources for lighting applications, with rich visible spectra, such that a suitable combination of these elements can provide high quality white light. Rare earth molecules have also proved important in enhancing the radiation spectrum from phosphors in fluorescent lamps. This paper reviews some of the current aspects of lighting research, particularly rare earth chemistry and radiation, and the associated fundamental atomic and molecular data.

  7. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0103191

  8. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0100120.

  9. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0103191

  10. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0100120.

  11. Atomic polarizabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, M. S.; Mitroy, J.; Clark, Charles W.; Kozlov, M. G.

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  12. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1976-01-01

    The LAGEOS I (Laser Geodynamics Satellite) was developed and launched by the Marshall Space Flight Center on May 4, 1976 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California . The two-foot diameter satellite orbited the Earth from pole to pole and measured the movements of the Earth's surface.

  13. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-19

    ISS048e002082 (06/19/2016) --- Crew members aboard the International Space Station take numerous images of the Earth, both day and night to record the images that provide NASA scientists with data to gain a deeper understanding of our Planet. Sometimes Science joins with Art when the images are so meaningful that the crew pauses to reflect on our Earths beauty.

  14. Rainbow Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

    The environment is a great concern in the 1990s, and everyone needs to work at maintaining our planet. The 1992 Arizona State Library Reading Program, "Rainbow Earth," provides children with many techniques they can use to help the Earth. This reading program guide provides information on the following: goals, objectives, and evaluation;…

  15. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-14

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: HDR night series (New Zealand pass). The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) arm is visible. Aurora visible over Earth limb.

  16. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-25

    ISS042E015787 (11/25/2014) --- NASA astronaut Terry Virts captured this beautiful sunset on board the International Space Station. Astronauts, and cosmonauts are treated to many changing views of the Earth and stars as the station carries them around the Earth.

  17. Earth tides

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

  18. Retrieval of metal atom and ion number densities in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langowski, Martin; Von Savigny, Christian; Burrows, John

    2016-07-01

    When meteoroids enter the Earth's atmosphere with velocities of several 10 km/s, they heat up due to frictional heating and meteoric material is ablated in the upper atmosphere at around 100 km. A certain part of this ablated material are metal atoms and ions, which form layers of about 10 km width at altitudes between 80 to 110 km. The metal atoms and ions are strong emitters of dayglow coming from resonance fluorescence. From satellite observations of these emission signature, densities of the metal atom and ion layers can be retrieved. From the densities of the metal layers in combination with model simulations the input rate of meteoric material can be estimated, which still shows a large uncertainty range between 1 to 300 tons per day. We will present results of the number density retrievals from the SCIAMACHY limb mesosphere and lower thermosphere measurements from 2008 to 2012 for Mg, Mg^{+} and Na.

  19. Communication: Angular momentum alignment and fluorescence polarization of alkali atoms photodetached from helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Hernando, Alberto; Beswick, J. Alberto; Halberstadt, Nadine

    2013-12-14

    The theory of photofragments angular momentum polarization is applied to the photodetachment of an electronically excited alkali atom from a helium nanocluster (N = 200). The alignment of the electronic angular momentum of the bare excited alkali atoms produced is calculated quantum mechanically by solving the excited states coupled equations with potentials determined by density functional theory (DFT). Pronounced oscillations as a function of excitation energy are predicted for the case of Na@(He){sub 200}, in marked contrast with the absorption cross-section and angular distribution of the ejected atoms which are smooth functions of the energy. These oscillations are due to quantum interference between different coherently excited photodetachment pathways. Experimentally, these oscillations should be reflected in the fluorescence polarization and polarization-resolved photoelectron yield of the ejected atoms, which are proportional to the electronic angular momentum alignment. In addition, this result is much more general than the test case of NaHe{sub 200} studied here. It should be observable for larger droplets, for higher excited electronic states, and for other alkali as well as for alkali-earth atoms. Detection of these oscillations would show that the widely used pseudo-diatomic model can be valid beyond the prediction of absorption spectra and could help in interpreting parts of the dynamics, as already hinted by some experimental results on angular anisotropy of bare alkali fragments.

  20. Communication: angular momentum alignment and fluorescence polarization of alkali atoms photodetached from helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Hernando, Alberto; Beswick, J Alberto; Halberstadt, Nadine

    2013-12-14

    The theory of photofragments angular momentum polarization is applied to the photodetachment of an electronically excited alkali atom from a helium nanocluster (N = 200). The alignment of the electronic angular momentum of the bare excited alkali atoms produced is calculated quantum mechanically by solving the excited states coupled equations with potentials determined by density functional theory (DFT). Pronounced oscillations as a function of excitation energy are predicted for the case of Na@(He)200, in marked contrast with the absorption cross-section and angular distribution of the ejected atoms which are smooth functions of the energy. These oscillations are due to quantum interference between different coherently excited photodetachment pathways. Experimentally, these oscillations should be reflected in the fluorescence polarization and polarization-resolved photoelectron yield of the ejected atoms, which are proportional to the electronic angular momentum alignment. In addition, this result is much more general than the test case of NaHe200 studied here. It should be observable for larger droplets, for higher excited electronic states, and for other alkali as well as for alkali-earth atoms. Detection of these oscillations would show that the widely used pseudo-diatomic model can be valid beyond the prediction of absorption spectra and could help in interpreting parts of the dynamics, as already hinted by some experimental results on angular anisotropy of bare alkali fragments.

  1. Communication: Angular momentum alignment and fluorescence polarization of alkali atoms photodetached from helium nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernando, Alberto; Beswick, J. Alberto; Halberstadt, Nadine

    2013-12-01

    The theory of photofragments angular momentum polarization is applied to the photodetachment of an electronically excited alkali atom from a helium nanocluster (N = 200). The alignment of the electronic angular momentum of the bare excited alkali atoms produced is calculated quantum mechanically by solving the excited states coupled equations with potentials determined by density functional theory (DFT). Pronounced oscillations as a function of excitation energy are predicted for the case of Na@(He)200, in marked contrast with the absorption cross-section and angular distribution of the ejected atoms which are smooth functions of the energy. These oscillations are due to quantum interference between different coherently excited photodetachment pathways. Experimentally, these oscillations should be reflected in the fluorescence polarization and polarization-resolved photoelectron yield of the ejected atoms, which are proportional to the electronic angular momentum alignment. In addition, this result is much more general than the test case of NaHe200 studied here. It should be observable for larger droplets, for higher excited electronic states, and for other alkali as well as for alkali-earth atoms. Detection of these oscillations would show that the widely used pseudo-diatomic model can be valid beyond the prediction of absorption spectra and could help in interpreting parts of the dynamics, as already hinted by some experimental results on angular anisotropy of bare alkali fragments.

  2. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Panelists pose for a group photo at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  3. Rare earths

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayan, S.; Melnyk, A.J.; Singh, R.D.; Nuttall, K.

    1989-01-01

    For conventional applications, there is limited demand for rare earth elements as well as yttrium and scandium. But the emergence of new high technology applications such as supermagnets, lasers, and superconductors should result in significant demand for some of these elements. This article examines the anticipated applications and demands for rare earth elements over the next decade. It also looks at the implications on the use of available resources. In the context of a growing demand, process methods are reviewed for the recovery of rare earth elements from conventional and unconventional resources. And the article also discusses the challenges facing the mining industry in meeting this opportunity.

  4. O-atom degradation mechanisms of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Daniel R.; Liang, Ranty H.; Chung, Shirley Y.; Smith, Keri Oda; Gupta, Amitava

    1987-01-01

    The low Earth orbit environment is described and the critical issues relating to oxygen atom degradation are discussed. Some analytic techniques for studying the problem and preliminary results on the underlying degradation mechanisms are presented.

  5. Ab Initio Study of Chemical Reactions of Cold SrF and CaF Molecules with Alkali-Metal and Alkaline-Earth-Metal Atoms: The Implications for Sympathetic Cooling.

    PubMed

    Kosicki, Maciej Bartosz; Kędziera, Dariusz; Żuchowski, Piotr Szymon

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the energetics of the atom exchange reaction in the SrF + alkali-metal atom and CaF + alkali-metal atom systems. Such reactions are possible only for collisions of SrF and CaF with the lithium atoms, while they are energetically forbidden for other alkali-metal atoms. Specifically, we focus on SrF interacting with Li, Rb, and Sr atoms and use ab initio methods to demonstrate that the SrF + Li and SrF + Sr reactions are barrierless. We present potential energy surfaces for the interaction of the SrF molecule with the Li, Rb, and Sr atoms in their energetically lowest-lying electronic spin states. The obtained potential energy surfaces are deep and exhibit profound interaction anisotropies. We predict that the collisions of SrF molecules in the rotational or Zeeman excited states most likely have a strong inelastic character. We discuss the prospects for the sympathetic cooling of SrF and CaF molecules using ultracold alkali-metal atoms.

  6. Esperanzaite, NaCa(2)Al(2)(As(5+)O(4))[As(5+)O(3)(OH)](OH)(2)F(4)(H(2)O), A New Mineral From Mina La Esperanza, Mexico: Descriptive Mineralogy and Atomic Arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Cureton, F.; Falster, A.U.; Foord, E.E.; Hlava, P.F.; Hughes, J.M.; Maxwell, C.H.

    1998-11-09

    Esperanzaite, ideally NaCazA12(As5+0.i)[As5+03 (OH)] (OH)2FJH20), Z =2, is a new mineral from the Mina h Esperarq Durango State, Mexico. The mineral occurs as blue-green botryoidal crystalline masses on rhyolite, with separate spheres up to 1.5 mm Y Deceased in diameter. Mobs hardness is 4.5, specific gravity 3.240h, and 3.36( 3)C.IC. Optical properties were measured in 589 nm light. Esperanzaite is biaxial (-), .Y= Y = Z= colorless, a 1.580(1), ~ 1.588( 1), and y 1.593(1 ); 2V0hs is 74(1 ~ and 2 }'CUIC is 76.3". Dispersion is medium, r < v, and optic axes are oriented as a A Z = +50.5o, b = Y, c P. X = +35". The five strongest X-ray diffraction maxima in the powder pattern are (~ /, hk~: 2.966,100, 13 i, 31 i, 031 ; 3.527,90, 220; 2.700,90,221,002, 040; 5.364>80, 001, 020; 4.796,80,011. Esperanzaite is monoclinic, u 9.687(5), b 10.7379(6), c 5.5523(7)& ~ 105.32( 1 )", space group P21/nz. The atomic arrangement of esperanzaite was solved by Direct Methods and Fourier analysis (R= 0.03 1). The Fundamental Building Block is formed of stacks of heteropolyhedral tetramers; the tetramers are formed of two arsenate tetrahedral and two Al octahedra, comer-linked in 4-member rings. The Fundamental Building Blocks are linked by irregular lda~j and Ca@ polyhedra.

  7. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-14

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Eastern half of US, sun glint, Texas, Maryland, Mississippi river, Great Lakes.

  8. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-19

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Amazing Aurora. A docked Soyuz spacecrat is also visible in foreground.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-09

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Middle East. Docked Soyuz and Progress spacecraft also visible.

  10. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-09

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Middle East. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) arm is also visible.

  11. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-14

    Earth observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Phenomenon over Northern Russia - 4 (plus Europe pass). Distant and hazy Moon is visible.

  12. Earth observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-27

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Aurora. Part of Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) arm is visible.

  13. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of a solar array is also visible.

  14. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-27

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Part of Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is visible. Folder lists this as: the Middle East, Israel.

  15. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-03

    Earth Observation (sunrise over horizon) taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Docked Soyuz and Progress spacecraft are visible in foreground.

  16. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-14

    Earth observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Phenomenon over Northern Russia - 1 of 2. Hazy and distant Moon is visible.

  17. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-25

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: United States - possible poor camera settings. Docked Soyuz spacecraft is also visible in foreground.

  18. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-18

    Workers at Launch Complex 17 Pad A, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) encapsulate the Geomagnetic Tail (GEOTAIL) spacecraft (upper) and attached payload Assist Module-D upper stage (lower) in the protective payload fairing. GEOTAIL project was designed to study the effects of Earth's magnetic field. The solar wind draws the Earth's magnetic field into a long tail on the night side of the Earth and stores energy in the stretched field lines of the magnetotail. During active periods, the tail couples with the near-Earth magnetosphere, sometimes releasing energy stored in the tail and activating auroras in the polar ionosphere. GEOTAIL measures the flow of energy and its transformation in the magnetotail and will help clarify the mechanisms that control the imput, transport, storage, release, and conversion of mass, momentum, and energy in the magnetotail.

  19. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  20. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-31

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: CEO - Arena de Sao Paolo. View used for Twitter message: Cloudy skies over São Paulo Brazil

  1. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Perhaps a dandelion losing its seeds in the wind? Love clouds!

  2. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-10-24

    Solar Vector Magnetograph is used to predict solar flares, and other activities associated with sun spots. This research provides new understanding about weather on the Earth, and solar-related conditions in orbit.

  3. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-26

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Never tire of finding shapes in the clouds! These look very botanical to me. Simply perfect.

  4. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-20

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Looking southwest over northern Africa. Libya, Algeria, Niger.

  5. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-12

    ISS040-E-010889 (12 June 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this image of the Strait of Gibraltar, showing parts of Morocco and Spain, on June 12, 2014.

  6. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-14

    ISS040-E-011996 (14 June 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this image of the Strait of Gibraltar, showing parts of Morocco and Spain, on June 14, 2014.

  7. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-01

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). File lists this as: tropical storm over Atlantic. Docked Soyuz spacecraft is also visible.

  8. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-02

    ISS040-E-030568 (2 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, some 227 nautical miles above Earth, photographed this image of Tropical Storm Arthur in the afternoon of July 2, 2014. Arthur was churning in Atlantic waters off the coast of Florida and slowly moving northward at the time the photo was taken. Much of the Florida peninsula can be seen at left.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-27

    S134-E-009505 (27 May 2011) --- This is a view of the night sky of the Southern Hemisphere just off the port wing of Endeavour as the shuttle/space station tandem track northeastward over the South Atlantic Ocean about 1400 miles southeast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The faint ?airglow? of the Earth?s atmosphere is visible just left of the wing. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  11. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-16

    ISS024-E-006136 (16 June 2010) --- Polar mesospheric clouds, illuminated by an orbital sunrise, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. Polar mesospheric, or noctilucent (?night shining?), clouds are observed from both Earth?s surface and in orbit by crew members aboard the space station. They are called night-shining clouds as they are usually seen at twilight. Following the setting of the sun below the horizon and darkening of Earth?s surface, these high clouds are still briefly illuminated by sunlight. Occasionally the ISS orbital track becomes nearly parallel to Earth?s day/night terminator for a time, allowing polar mesospheric clouds to be visible to the crew at times other than the usual twilight due to the space station altitude. This unusual photograph shows polar mesospheric clouds illuminated by the rising, rather than setting, sun at center right. Low clouds on the horizon appear yellow and orange, while higher clouds and aerosols are illuminated a brilliant white. Polar mesospheric clouds appear as light blue ribbons extending across the top of the image. These clouds typically occur at high latitudes of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and at fairly high altitudes of 76?85 kilometers (near the boundary between the mesosphere and thermosphere atmospheric layers). The ISS was located over the Greek island of Kos in the Aegean Sea (near the southwestern coastline of Turkey) when the image was taken at approximately midnight local time. The orbital complex was tracking northeastward, nearly parallel to the terminator, making it possible to observe an apparent ?sunrise? located almost due north. A similar unusual alignment of the ISS orbit track, terminator position, and seasonal position of Earth?s orbit around the sun allowed for striking imagery of polar mesospheric clouds over the Southern Hemisphere earlier this year.

  12. Structure and ionic diffusion of alkaline-earth ions in mixed cation glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinou, Konstantinos; Sushko, Petr; Duffy, Dorothy M.

    2015-08-15

    A series of mixed cation silicate glasses of the composition A2O – 2MO – 4SiO2, with A=Li,Na,K and M=Ca,Sr,Ba has been investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations in order to understand the effect of the nature of the cations on the mobility of the alkaline-earth ions within the glass network. The size of the alkaline-earth cation was found to affect the inter-atomic distances, the coordination number distributions and the bond angle distributions , whereas the medium-range order was almost unaffected by the type of the cation. All the alkaline-earth cations contribute to lower vibrational frequencies but it is observed that that there is a shift to smaller frequencies and the vibrational density of states distribution gets narrower as the size of the alkaline-earth increases. The results from our modeling for the ionic diffusion of the alkaline-earth cations are in a qualitative agreement with the experimental observations in that there is a distinct correlation between the activation energy for diffusion of alkaline earth-ions and the cation radii ratio. An asymmetrical linear behavior in the diffusion activation energy with increasing size difference is observed. The results can be described on the basis of a theoretical model that relates the diffusion activation energy to the electrostatic interactions of the cations with the oxygens and the elastic deformation of the silicate network.

  13. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T.

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  14. Digital Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Beaujardiere, J.

    2001-05-01

    Digital Earth (DE) seeks to make geospatial information broadly and easily available. Vast amounts of natural and cultural information are gathered about the Earth, but it is often difficult to find needed data, to share knowledge across disciplines, and to combine information from several sources. DE defines a framework for interoperability by selecting relevant open standards from the information technology community. These standards specify the technical means by which publishers can provide or sell their data, and by which client applications can find and access data in an automated fashion. The standardized DE framework enables many types of clients--from web browsers to museum kiosks to research-grade virtual environments--to use a common geospatial information infrastructure. Digital Earth can benefit Earth system education in general, and DLESE in particular, in several ways. First, educators, students and creators of instructional material will benefit from standardized access to georeferenced data. Secondly, educational lesson plans that focus on a region or aspect of the Earth can themselves be considered geospatial information resources that could be cataloged and retrieved through DE. Finally, general public knowledge about our planet will by increased by Digital Earth.

  15. NASA Benefits Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several ways in which NASA research has benefited Earth and made life on Earth better. These innovations include: solar panels, recycled pavement, thermometer pill, invisible braces for straightening teeth, LASIK, aerodynamic helmets and tires for bicycles, cataract detection, technology that was used to remove Anthrax spores from mail handling facilities, study of atomic oxygen erosion of materials has informed the restoration of artwork, macroencapsulation (a potential mechanism to deliver anti cancer drugs to specific sites), and research on a salmonella vaccine. With research on the International Space Station just beginning, there will be opportunities for entrepreneurs and other government agencies to access space for their research and development. As well as NASA continuing its own research on human health and technology development.

  16. Rare earth thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G.D.

    1997-09-01

    The author reviews the thermoelectric properties of metallic compounds which contain rare-earth atoms. They are the group of metals with the largest value ever reported of the Seebeck coefficient. An increase by 50% of the Seebeck would make these compounds useful for thermoelectric devices. The largest Seebeck coefficient is found for compounds of cerium (e.g., CePd{sub 3}) and ytterbium (e.g., YbAl{sub 3}). Theoretical predictions are in agreement with the maximum observed Seebeck. The author discusses the theoretical model which has been used to calculate the Seebeck coefficient. He is solving this model for other configurations (4f){sup n} of rare-earth ground states.

  17. Venus - Lessons for earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunten, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    The old idea that Venus might possess surface conditions to those of an overcast earth has been thoroughly refuted by space-age measurements. Instead, the two planets may have started out similar, but diverged because of the greater solar flux at Venus. This cannot be proved, but is consistent with everything known. A runaway greenhouse effect could have evaporated an 'ocean'. The hydrogen would escape, and most of the oxygen would be incorporated into the crust. Without liquid water, CO2 would remain in the atmosphere. Chlorine atoms would catalyze the recombination of any free oxygen back to CO2. The same theories apply to the future of the earth, and to the explanation of the polar ozone holes; the analogies are striking. There is no likelihood that the earth will actually come to resemble Venus, but Venus serves both as a warning that major environmental effects can flow from seemingly small causes, and as a testbed for the predictive models of the earth.

  18. Atomic Calligraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imboden, Matthias; Pardo, Flavio; Bolle, Cristian; Han, Han; Tareen, Ammar; Chang, Jackson; Christopher, Jason; Corman, Benjamin; Bishop, David

    2013-03-01

    Here we present a MEMS based method to fabricate devices with a small number of atoms. In standard semiconductor fabrication, a large amount of material is deposited, after which etching removes what is not wanted. This technique breaks down for structures that approach the single atom limit, as it is inconceivable to etch away all but one atom. What is needed is a bottom up method with single or near single atom precision. We demonstrate a MEMS device that enables nanometer position controlled deposition of gold atoms. A digitally driven plate is swept as a flux of gold atoms passes through an aperture. Appling voltages on four comb capacitors connected to the central plate by tethers enable nanometer lateral precision in the xy plane over 15x15 sq. microns. Typical MEMS structures have manufacturing resolutions on the order of a micron. Using a FIB it is possible to mill apertures as small as 10 nm in diameter. Assuming a low incident atomic flux, as well as an integrated MEMS based shutter with microsecond response time, it becomes possible to deposit single atoms. Due to their small size and low power consumption, such nano-printers can be mounted directly in a cryogenic system at ultrahigh vacuum to deposit clean quench condensed metallic structures.

  19. Atomic supersymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostelecky, V. Alan

    1993-01-01

    Atomic supersymmetry is a quantum-mechanical supersymmetry connecting the properties of different atoms and ions. A short description of some established results in the subject are provided and a few recent developments are discussed including the extension to parabolic coordinates and the calculation of Stark maps using supersymmetry-based models.

  20. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  1. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  2. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Panelists discuss how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  3. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist, Planetary Science Institute, moderates a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  4. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    An audience member asks the panelists a question at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  5. Vertical and horizontal transport of mesospheric Na: Implications for the mass influx of cosmic dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Chester S.; Liu, Alan Z.; Guo, Yafang

    2017-09-01

    The mesospheric metal layers are formed by the vaporization of high-speed cosmic dust particles as they enter the Earth's upper atmosphere. We show that the downward fluxes of these metal atoms, induced locally by waves and turbulence, are related in a straightforward way to the meteoric influxes of the metals, their chemical losses and their advective transport by the large-scale vertical and horizontal motions associated with the meridional circulation system. Above the peak of the metal layers where chemical losses and large-scale vertical motions are small, the wave-induced flux is insensitive to changes in local wave activity. If the downward transport velocity increases, because wave activity increases, then in response, the metal densities will decrease to maintain a constant vertical flux. By fitting the theoretical Na flux profile to the annual mean vertical flux profile measured during the night at the Starfire Optical Range, NM, we derive improved estimates for the global influxes of both Na and cosmic dust. The mean Na influx is 22,500±1050 atoms/cm2/s, which equals 389±18 kg/d for the global input of Na vapor. If the Na composition of the dust particles is identical to CI chondritic meteorites (4990 ppm by mass), then the global influx of cosmic dust is 176±38 t/d. If the composition is identical to ordinary chondrites (7680 ppm), the global dust influx is 107±22 t/d.

  6. A synchrotron study of Na2.27Ho7.73(SiO4)6O0.72

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Ivonne; Orozco, Eligio; Bucio, Lauro; Fuentes, Maria E.; Fuentes, Luis

    2009-01-01

    A well crystallized powder sample of sodium holmium orthosilicate oxyapatite, Na2.27Ho7.73(SiO4)6O0.72, was obtained after mechanical milling and thermal treatment at 1123 K. Crystal structure analysis was performed from the results of Rietveld refinement of the synchrotron diffraction data. As in other rare-earth orthosilicate apatites, sodium cations appear located sharing with holmium the 4f Wyckoff position at the center of a tricapped trigonal prism. In its turn, holmium almost fully occupies the 6h position at the center of a seven-coordinated penta­gonal bipyramid. A small quantity of Na atoms was found at this site. No vacancies are present in the two independent crystallographic sites available for Ho and Na atoms. PMID:21583725

  7. Pulsed source of energetic atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, George E.; Krech, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    A large area, high flux beam of energetic oxygen atoms, E about 5 eV, has been developed to study the interaction of atomic oxygen with materials appropriate for spacecraft in low earth orbit. A description of the operating conditions and characteristics of the beam along with typical sample irradiation results are provided.

  8. Pulsed source of energetic atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, George E.; Krech, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    A large area, high flux beam of energetic oxygen atoms, E about 5 eV, has been developed to study the interaction of atomic oxygen with materials appropriate for spacecraft in low earth orbit. A description of the operating conditions and characteristics of the beam along with typical sample irradiation results are provided.

  9. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-03-08

    Workers at the Astrotech processing facility in Titusville prepared for a news media showing of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-1 (GOES-1). GOES-1 was the first in a new generation of weather satellites deployed above Earth. It was the first 3-axis, body-stabilized meteorological satellite to be used by the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA. These features allowed GOES-1 to continuously monitor the Earth, rather than viewing it just five percent of the time as was the case with spin-stabilized meteorological satellites. GOES-1 also has independent imaging and sounding instruments which can operate simultaneously yet independently. As a result, observations provided by each instrument will not be interrupted. The imager produces visual and infrared images of the Earth's surface, oceans, cloud cover and severe storm development, while the prime sounding products include vertical temperature and moisture profiles, and layer mean moisture.

  10. Photolysis of metal oxides as a source of atoms in planetary exospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, R. R.; Berezhnoy, A. A.; Sidorenko, A. D.; Merzlikin, B. S.; Cherepanov, V. N.

    2017-10-01

    The cross sections of photolysis of LiO, NaO, KO, MgO, and CaO molecules have been calculated by the use of quantum chemistry methods. The maximal values for photolysis cross sections of alkali metal monoxides have the order of 10-17 cm2, and for alkaline earth metal monoxides these values are less on 1-2 orders of the magnitude. The lifetimes of photolysis at 1 astronomical unit are estimated as 5, 3, 60, 70, and 3,000 s for LiO, NaO, KO, MgO, and CaO, respectively. Typical kinetic energies of main peaks of photolysis-generated metal atoms are determined. Impact-produced LiO, NaO, KO, and MgO molecules are destroyed in the lunar and Hermean exospheres almost completely during the first ballistic flight while CaO molecule is more stable against destruction by photolysis. Photolysis-generated metal atoms in planetary exospheres can be detected by performing high-resolution spectral observations of velocity distribution of exospheric metal atoms.

  11. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-02

    This image depicts a full view of the Earth, taken by the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES-8). The red and green charnels represent visible data, while the blue channel represents inverted 11 micron infrared data. The north and south poles were not actually observed by GOES-8. To produce this image, poles were taken from a GOES-7 image. Owned and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), GOES satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. They circle the Earth in a geosynchronous orbit, which means they orbit the equatorial plane of the Earth at a speed matching the Earth's rotation. This allows them to hover continuously over one position on the surface. The geosynchronous plane is about 35,800 km (22,300 miles) above the Earth, high enough to allow the satellites a full-disc view of the Earth. Because they stay above a fixed spot on the surface, they provide a constant vigil for the atmospheric triggers for severe weather conditions such as tornadoes, flash floods, hail storms, and hurricanes. When these conditions develop, the GOES satellites are able to monitor storm development and track their movements. NASA manages the design and launch of the spacecraft. NASA launched the first GOES for NOAA in 1975 and followed it with another in 1977. Currently, the United States is operating GOES-8, positioned at 75 west longitude and the equator, and GOES-10, which is positioned at 135 west longitude and the equator. (GOES-9, which malfunctioned in 1998, is being stored in orbit as an emergency backup should either GOES-8 or GOES-10 fail. GOES-11 was launched on May 3, 2000 and GOES-12 on July 23, 2001. Both are being stored in orbit as a fully functioning replacement for GOES-8 or GOES-10 on failure.

  12. Competition Effect in Atomic-Molecular System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Suotang; Qin, Lijuan; Qian, Zuliang; Wang, Zugeng; Wang, Gang; Zhou, Guosheng

    1996-01-01

    The competition effects among the processes of atomic ionization, optical pumped stimulated radiation (OPSR), four-wave frequency mixing (FWFM) and molecular stimulated diffuse band radiation at the atomic two-photon resonance of 3S approaches 4D in Na2 - Na mixture were observed. The dip at the two-photon resonance in the excitation spectrum for the diffuse-band radiation was interpreted as suppression of population in 4D state.

  13. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-11

    This image hosts a look at the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm topped the western Caribbean Sea on Saturday, September 11, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, the category 5 storm sustained winds in the eye of the wall that were reported at about 160 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  14. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-15

    Except for a small portion of the International Space Station (ISS) in the foreground, Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, fills this image over the northern Gulf of Mexico. As the downgraded category 4 storm approached landfall on the Alabama coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the ISS at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  15. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-08-13

    This panoramic view of Hurricane Charley was photographed by the Expedition 9 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) on August 13, 2004, at a vantage point just north of Tampa, Florida. The small eye was not visible in this view, but the raised cloud tops near the center coincide roughly with the time that the storm began to rapidly strengthen. The category 2 hurricane was moving north-northwest at 18 mph packing winds of 105 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  16. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-15

    This image hosts a look into the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm approached landfall on the central Gulf coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph as the downgraded category 4 storm approached the Alabama coast. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  17. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070412 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 panorama featuring wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. (Note: south is at the top of the frame). The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above Earth at the time of the photo. Parts of Oregon and Washington are included in the scene. Mt. Jefferson, Three Sisters and Mt. St. Helens are all snow-capped and visible in the photo, and the Columbia River can also be delineated.

  18. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070424 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 image of wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above Earth at the time of the photo. Lightning has been given as the cause of the Ochoco Complex fires in the Ochoco National Forest in central Oregon. The complex has gotten larger since this photo was taken.

  19. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-23

    ISS024-E-016042 (23 Aug. 2010) --- This night time view captured by one of the Expedition 24 crew members aboard the International Space Station some 220 miles above Earth is looking southward from central Romania over the Aegean Sea toward Greece and it includes Thessaloniki (near center), the larger bright mass of Athens (left center), and the Macedonian capital of Skopje (lower right). Center point coordinates of the area pictured are 46.4 degrees north latitude and 25.5 degrees east longitude. The picture was taken in August and was physically brought back to Earth on a disk with the return of the Expedition 25 crew in November 2010.

  20. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-02

    ISS040-E-030559 (2 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, some 227 nautical miles above Earth, photographed this image of Tropical Storm Arthur in the afternoon of July 2, 2014. Arthur was churning in Atlantic waters off the coast of Florida and slowly moving northward at the time the photo was taken. The robotic arm of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System or Canadarm2 is seen at upper center, and the tip of one of the orbital outpost's solar array panels is in upper right.

  1. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  2. Atomic Oxygen Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.

    1997-01-01

    This report details work performed by the Center for Applied Optics (CAO) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) on the contract entitled 'Atomic Oxygen Task' for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (contract NAS8-38609, Delivery Order 109, modification number 1). Atomic oxygen effects on exposed materials remain a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The basic objective of atomic oxygen research in NASA's Materials & Processes (M&P) Laboratory is to provide the solutions to material problems facing present and future space missions. The objective of this work was to provide the necessary research for the design of specialized experimental test configurations and development of techniques for evaluating in-situ space environmental effects, including the effects of atomic oxygen and electromagnetic radiation on candidate materials. Specific tasks were performed to address materials issues concerning accelerated environmental testing as well as specifically addressing materials issues of particular concern for LDEF analysis and Space Station materials selection.

  3. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  4. Kinetic Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David B.

    1981-01-01

    Surveys the research of scientists like Joule, Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann as it comments on the basic conceptual issues involved in the development of a more precise kinetic theory and the idea of a kinetic atom. (Author/SK)

  5. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  6. Kinetic Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David B.

    1981-01-01

    Surveys the research of scientists like Joule, Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann as it comments on the basic conceptual issues involved in the development of a more precise kinetic theory and the idea of a kinetic atom. (Author/SK)

  7. Earth Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-08

    NASA Galileo spacecraft took this image of Earth moon on December 7, 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. The distinct bright ray crater at the bottom of the image is the Tycho impact basin. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00405

  8. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-21

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Uruguay Argentina sun glint coastlines. Also sent down via Twitter message: This was the Argentina coastline a few hours ago.

  9. Rare earths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

  10. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015355 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires near the Manicouagan Reservoir (seen at bottom center) were recorded in a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  11. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-29

    ISS036-E-038117 (29 Aug. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed massive smoke plumes from the California wildfires. When this image was exposed on Aug. 29, the orbital outpost was approximately 220 miles above a point located at 38.6 degrees north latitude and 123.2 degrees west longitude.

  12. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015354 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires near the Manicouagan Reservoir (seen at lower left) were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  13. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015342 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  14. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-29

    ISS036-E-038114 (29 Aug. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed massive smoke plumes from the California wildfires. When this image was exposed on Aug. 29, the orbital outpost was approximately 220 miles above a point located at 38.6 degrees north latitude and 123.3 degrees west longitude.

  15. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015335 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  16. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-03

    ISS036-E-015292 (3 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 3-4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station. This image was recorded on July 3.

  17. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-22

    ISS040-E-016629 (22 June 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this panorama of part of Europe on June 22, 2014. Italy's long coastlines (of the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas) all the way down to the "Boot" dominate the scene. Parts of the Mediterranean and Ionian Seas are also visible.

  18. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of the U.S. Lab and PMM are also visible.

  19. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-01

    ISS040-E-087275 (1 Aug. 2014) --- Much of the Italian island/province of Sicily is visible in this nighttime nadir image photographed from 221 nautical miles above Earth by one of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the International Space Station. The tip of the "toe" of Italy's "boot" is barely visible in the upper right corner.

  20. Think Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred; Ice, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Describes a series of environmental education instructional units for grades K-6 developed by the Think Earth Consortium that cover topics such as conservation, pollution control, and waste reduction. Provides testimony from one sixth-grade teacher that field tested the second-grade unit. (MDH)

  1. Earth Sky

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-63256 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Cap Blanc and Levrier Bay on the coast of Spanish Sahara and Mauritania, as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 15th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  2. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-03-29

    Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) is a tethered date collecting satellite and is intended to demonstrate a versatile and economical way of delivering smaller payloads to higher orbits or downward toward Earth's atmosphere. 19th Navstar Global Positioning System Satellite mission joined with previously launched satellites used for navigational purposes and geodite studies. These satellites are used commercially as well as by the military.

  3. Think Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred; Ice, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Describes a series of environmental education instructional units for grades K-6 developed by the Think Earth Consortium that cover topics such as conservation, pollution control, and waste reduction. Provides testimony from one sixth-grade teacher that field tested the second-grade unit. (MDH)

  4. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-19

    ISS048e002079 (06/19/2016) --- A new day dawns for the crew of Expedition 48 on board the International Space Station on June 19, 2016. This inspiring image shows the golden rays of the the Sun streaming through the multiple layers of clouds to touch the Earth giving it abundant life.

  5. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-21

    Earth observation taken during night pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message this is labeled as : Tehran, Iran. Lights along the coast of the Caspian Sea visible through clouds. July 21.

  6. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-20

    ISS040-E-016324 (20 June 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this oblique panorama of the Strait of Gibraltar, showing parts of Morocco and Spain, on June 20, 2014.

  7. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-18

    ISS042E006751 (11/08/2014) --- Earth observation taken from the International Space Station of the coastline of the United Arab Emirates. The large wheel along the coast center left is "Jumeirah" Palm Island, with a conference center, hotels, recreation areas and a large marine zoo.

  8. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-10

    ISS040-E-091156 (10 Aug. 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members 225 nautical miles above Earth aboard the International Space Station used a 200mm lens to record this image of Hawke's Bay, New Zealand on Aug. 10, 2014. Napier and the bay area's most populous area are just out of frame at lower right.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-10

    ISS040-E-091158 (10 Aug. 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members 225 nautical miles above Earth onboard the International Space Station used a 200mm lens to record this image of Hawke's Bay, New Zealand on Aug. 10, 2014. Napier and the bay area's most populous area are at bottom center of the frame.

  10. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-09

    ISS024-E-014071 (9 Sept. 2010) --- This striking panoramic view of the southwestern USA and Pacific Ocean is an oblique image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member looking outwards at an angle from the International Space Station (ISS). While most unmanned orbital satellites view Earth from a nadir perspective?in other words, collecting data with a ?straight down? viewing geometry?crew members onboard the space station can acquire imagery at a wide range of viewing angles using handheld digital cameras. The ISS nadir point (the point on Earth?s surface directly below the spacecraft) was located in northwestern Arizona, approximately 260 kilometers to the east-southeast, when this image was taken. The image includes parts of the States of Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and California together with a small segment of the Baja California, Mexico coastline at center left. Several landmarks and physiographic features are readily visible. The Las Vegas, NV metropolitan area appears as a gray region adjacent to the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range (both covered by white clouds). The Grand Canyon, located on the Colorado Plateau in Arizona, is visible (lower left) to the east of Las Vegas with the blue waters of Lake Mead in between. The image also includes the Mojave Desert, stretching north from the Salton Sea (left) to the Sierra Nevada mountain range. The Sierra Nevada range is roughly 640 kilometers long (north-south) and forms the boundary between the Central Valley of California and the adjacent Basin and Range. The Basin and Range is so called due to the pattern of long linear valleys separated by parallel linear mountain ranges ? this landscape, formed by extension and thinning of Earth?s crust, is particularly visible at right.

  11. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Timothy Lyons, Professor of Biogeochemistry, UC Riverside, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  12. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Shawn Domagal-Goldman, Research Space Scientist, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  13. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Christopher House, Professor of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  14. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Phoebe Cohen, Professor of Geosciences, Williams College, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  15. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Dawn Sumner, Professor of Geology, UC Davis, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  16. Earth meandering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone

  17. Electronic structure of atoms: atomic spectroscopy information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, V. V.; Kazakov, V. G.; Kovalev, V. S.; Meshkov, O. I.; Yatsenko, A. S.

    2017-10-01

    The article presents a Russian atomic spectroscopy, information system electronic structure of atoms (IS ESA) (http://grotrian.nsu.ru), and describes its main features and options to support research and training. The database contains over 234 000 records, great attention paid to experimental data and uniform filling of the database for all atomic numbers Z, including classified levels and transitions of rare earth and transuranic elements and their ions. Original means of visualization of scientific data in the form of spectrograms and Grotrian diagrams have been proposed. Presentation of spectral data in the form of interactive color charts facilitates understanding and analysis of properties of atomic systems. The use of the spectral data of the IS ESA together with its functionality is effective for solving various scientific problems and training of specialists.

  18. Coherent Transient Effect Studies of Rydberg Atoms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    occurs in a Rydberg gas at the densities requil for transient experiments (NA1.2 atoms/cmut). The-decay process was studied using ion collection and...rather than in the visible. Although experiments with (visible) tunable dye lasers are therefore not possible, one can use powerful, stable cw...construction of atomic Rydberg lasers, the use of Rydberg atoms as high-sensitivity microwave detectors (already demonstrated by Figger et al), 14 and

  19. Hydrogen storage of a novel combined system of LiNH2-NaMgH3: synergistic effects of in situ formed alkali and alkaline-earth metal hydrides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongtao; Fang, Fang; Song, Yun; Li, Yuesheng; Sun, Dalin; Zheng, Shiyou; Bendersky, Leonid A; Zhang, Qingan; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Zhu, Min

    2013-02-07

    Bimetallic hydride NaMgH(3) is used for the first time as a vehicle to enhance hydrogen release and uptake from LiNH(2). The combination of NaMgH(3) with LiNH(2) at a molar ratio of 1 : 2 can release about 4.0 wt% of hydrogen without detectable NH(3) emission in the temperature range of 45 °C to 325 °C and exhibiting superior dehydrogenation as compared to individual NaH and/or MgH(2) combined with LiNH(2). A high capacity retention of about 75% resulting from the introduction of NaMgH(3) is also achieved in LiNH(2) as well as re-hydrogenation under milder conditions of 180 °C and 5 MPa H(2) pressure. These significant improvements are attributed to synergistic effects of in situ formed NaH and MgH(2)via the decomposition of NaMgH(3) where a succession of competing reactions from the cyclic consumption/recovery of NaH are involved and serve as a "carrier" for the ultra-rapid conveyance of the N-containing species between the [NH(2)](-) amide and the resulting [NH](2-) imide complexes.

  20. The Earth's Plamasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's plasmasphere is an inner part of the magneteosphere. It is located just outside the upper ionosphere located in Earth's atmosphere. It is a region of dense, cold plasma that surrounds the Earth. Although plasma is found throughout the magnetosphere, the plasmasphere usually contains the coldest plasma. Here's how it works: The upper reaches of our planet's atmosphere are exposed to ultraviolet light from the Sun, and they are ionized with electrons that are freed from neutral atmospheric particles. The results are electrically charged negative and positive particles. The negative particles are electrons, and the positive particles are now called ions (formerly atoms and molecules). If the density of these particles is low enough, this electrically charged gas behaves differently than it would if it were neutral. Now this gas is called plasma. The atmospheric gas density becomes low enough to support the conditions for a plasma around earth at about 90 kilometers above Earth's surface. The electrons in plasma gain more energy, and they are very low in mass. They move along Earth's magnetic field lines and their increased energy is enough to escape Earth's gravity. Because electrons are very light, they don't have to gain too much kinetic energy from the Sun's ultraviolet light before gravity loses its grip on them. Gravity is not all that holds them back, however. As more and more electrons begin to escape outward, they leave behind a growing net positive electric charge in the ionosphere and create a growing net negative electric charge above the ionosphere; an electric field begins to develop (the Pannekoek-Rosseland E-field). Thus, these different interacting charges result in a positively charged ionosphere and negatively charged region of space above it. Very quickly this resulting electric field opposed upward movement of the electrons out of the ionosphere. The electrons still have this increased energy, however, so the electric field doesn't just

  1. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070439 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 image of wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above a point on Earth located at 48.0 degrees north latitude and 116.9 degrees west longitude when the image was exposed. The state of Washington is especially affected by the fires, many of which have been blamed on lightning. This particular fire was part of the Carlton Complex Fire, located near the city of Brewster in north central Washington. The reservoir visible near the center of the image is Banks Lake.

  2. Earth's Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherron, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Earth's magnetic tail (magnetotail) was discovered 50 years ago by the first spacecraft to fly downstream of Earth. The magnetotail is a complex structure created by the solar wind. The tail is in fact a very dynamic structure with many internal processes and rapid changes. The magnetospheric substorm is the name given to the collection of phenomena that occur throughout the magnetosphere at the time of an expansion of the aurora and westward electrojet near midnight. Convection bays are characterized by continuous southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Sawtooth events occur during stronger driving where it appears that no steady state is possible. Pseudo breakups tend to occur in the growth phase of substorms and precede its main onset. The phenomenon named poleward boundary intensification (PBI) is a brightening of aurora at the poleward edge of the auroral oval.

  3. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-27

    ISS024-E-016051 (27 Aug. 2010) --- This night time view captured by one of the Expedition 24 crew members aboard the International Space Station some 220 miles above Earth is looking down upon New York City. The actual nadir estimate is 39.1 degrees north latitude and 71.2 degrees west longitude or about 170 miles southeast of the city over the Atlantic. Philadelphia is also visible to the right. Long Island and the Connecticut coastal cities mark Long Island Sound. Atlantic City is that small bright spot in the upper right corner. The image was exposed in August and was physically brought back to Earth on a disk with the return of the Expedition 25 crew in November 2010.

  4. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-15

    ISS040-E-063578 (15 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, flying some 225 nautical miles above the Caribbean Sea in the early morning hours of July 15, photographed this north-looking panorama that includes parts of Cuba, the Bahamas and Florida, and even runs into several other areas in the southeastern U.S. The long stretch of lights to the left of center frame gives the shape of Miami.

  5. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-25

    ISS040-E-081008 (25 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the International Space Station, flying 225 nautical miles above Earth, photographed this image of the Tifernine dunes and the Tassili Najjer Mountains in Algeria. The area is about 800 miles south, southeast of Algiers, the capital of Algeria. The dunes are in excess of 1,000 feet in height.

  6. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-06

    ISS045E048653 (10/06/2015) --- The International Space Station crew witness nightly scenes of our Earths beauty after performing their duties. Here on Oct. 6, 2015, framed by the edge of a huge Station solar panel, the city of Moscow Russia sparkles in the night with spoke streets streaming out across the land while an aurora of blue white and purple contrast the star filled sky.

  7. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-28

    ISS028-E-006059 (28 May 2011) --- One of the Expedition 28 crew members, photographing Earth images onboard the International Space Station while docked with the space shuttle Endeavour and flying at an altitude of just under 220 miles, captured this frame of the Salton Sea. The body of water, easily identifiable from low orbit spacecraft, is a saline, endorheic rift lake located directly on the San Andreas Fault. The agricultural area is within the Coachella Valley.

  8. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-31

    ISS040-E-114379 (31 Aug. 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, flying at an altitude of approximately 225 nautical miles, photographed this image of California's Salton Sea on Aug. 31, 2014. The body of water is actually a shallow, saline, endorheic rift lake located directly on the San Andreas Fault, predominantly in the Imperial and Coachella Valleys.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-27

    ISS028-E-009979 (27 June 2011) --- The Massachusetts coastline is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 28 crew member on the International Space Station. The Crew Earth Observations team at NASA Johnson Space Center sends specific ground targets for photography up to the station crew on a daily basis, but sometimes the crew takes imagery on their own of striking displays visible from orbit. One such display, often visible to the ISS crew due to their ability to look outwards at angles between 0 and 90 degrees, is sunglint on the waters of Earth. Sunglint is caused by sunlight reflecting off of a water surface?much as light reflects from a mirror?directly towards the observer. Roughness variations of the water surface scatter the light, blurring the reflection and producing the typical silvery sheen of the sunglint area. The point of maximum sunglint is centered within Cape Cod Bay, the body of water partially enclosed by the ?hook? of Cape Cod in Massachusetts (bottom). Cape Cod was formally designated a National Seashore in 1966. Sunglint off the water provides sharp contrast with the coastline and the nearby islands of Martha?s Vineyard and Nantucket (lower left), both popular destinations for tourists and summer residents. To the north, rocky Cape Ann extends out into the Atlantic Ocean; the border with New Hampshire is located approximately 30 kilometers up the coast. Further to the west, the eastern half of Long Island, New York is visible emerging from extensive cloud cover over the mid-Atlantic and Midwestern States. Persistent storm tracks had been contributing to record flooding along rivers in the Midwest at the time this image was taken in late June 2011. Thin blue layers of the atmosphere, contrasted against the darkness of space, are visible extending along the Earth?s curvature at top.

  10. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    In July 1990, the Marshall Space Flight Center, in a joint project with the Department of Defense/Air Force Space Test Program, launched the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) using an Atlas I launch vehicle. The mission was designed to study the effects of artificial ion clouds produced by chemical releases on the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere, and to monitor the effects of space radiation environment on sophisticated electronics.

  11. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-28

    ISS037-E-022125 (28 Oct. 2013) --- The interesting color contrasts of the water surrounding the atolls of Pinaki (bottom) and Nukutavake in French Polynesia caught the eye of one of the Expedition 37 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station on Oct. 28. At first glance to a pair of sleepy eyes, the atolls might look somewhat like a bottle cap and a bottle opener.

  12. Cloudy Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Decades of satellite observations and astronaut photographs show that clouds dominate space-based views of Earth. One study based on nearly a decade of satellite data estimated that about 67 percent of Earth’s surface is typically covered by clouds. This is especially the case over the oceans, where other research shows less than 10 percent of the sky is completely clear of clouds at any one time. Over land, 30 percent of skies are completely cloud free. Earth’s cloudy nature is unmistakable in this global cloud fraction map, based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite. While MODIS collects enough data to make a new global map of cloudiness every day, this version of the map shows an average of all of the satellite’s cloud observations between July 2002 and April 2015. Colors range from dark blue (no clouds) to light blue (some clouds) to white (frequent clouds). Read more here: 1.usa.gov/1P6lbMU Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  13. Atom Interferometry

    ScienceCinema

    Mark Kasevich

    2016-07-12

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton’s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  14. Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Kasevich

    2008-05-07

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton’s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  15. Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, Mark

    2008-05-08

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton's constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gyroscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be used to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  16. Spectroscopic characterization of alkaline earth uranyl carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amayri, Samer; Reich, Tobias; Arnold, Thuro; Geipel, Gerhard; Bernhard, Gert

    2005-02-01

    A series of alkaline uranyl carbonates, M[UO 2(CO 3) 3]· nH 2O ( M=Mg 2, Ca 2, Sr 2, Ba 2, Na 2Ca, and CaMg) was synthesized and characterized by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after nitric acid digestion, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The molecular structure of these compounds was characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Crystalline Ba 2[UO 2(CO 3) 3]·6H 2O was obtained for the first time. The EXAFS analysis showed that this compound consists of (UO 2)(CO 3) 3 clusters similar to the other alkaline earth uranyl carbonates. The average U-Ba distance is 3.90±0.02 Å.Fluorescence wavelengths and life times were measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The U-O bond distances determined by EXAFS, TRLFS, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy agree within the experimental uncertainties. The spectroscopic signatures observed could be useful for identifying uranyl carbonate species adsorbed on mineral surfaces.

  17. Effective oscillator strength distributions of spherically symmetric atoms for calculating polarizabilities and long-range atom–atom interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Jun; Mitroy, J.; Cheng, Yongjun; Bromley, M.W.J.

    2015-01-15

    Effective oscillator strength distributions are systematically generated and tabulated for the alkali atoms, the alkaline-earth atoms, the alkaline-earth ions, the rare gases and some miscellaneous atoms. These effective distributions are used to compute the dipole, quadrupole and octupole static polarizabilities, and are then applied to the calculation of the dynamic polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies. These polarizabilities can be used to determine the long-range C{sub 6}, C{sub 8} and C{sub 10} atom–atom interactions for the dimers formed from any of these atoms and ions, and we present tables covering all of these combinations.

  18. The manipulated left-handedness in a rare-earth-ion-doped optical fiber by the incoherent pumping field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shun-Cai; Guo, Hong-Wei; Wei, Xiao-Jing

    2017-10-01

    The left-handedness was demonstrated by the simulation with a three-level quantum system in an Er3+ -dopped ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3- AlF3-NaF (ZBLAFN) optical fiber. And the left-handedness can be regulated by the incoherent pumping field. Our scheme may provide a solid candidate other than the coherent atomic vapor for left-handedness, and may extend the application of the rare-earth-ion-doped optical fiber in metamaterials and of the incoherent pumping light field in quantum optics.

  19. Atomic oxygen effects on materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Brady, Joyce A.; Merrow, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Understanding of the basic processes of atomic oxygen interaction is currently at a very elementary level. However, measurement of erosion yields, surface morphology, and optical properties for low fluences have brought about much progress in the past decade. Understanding the mechanisms and those factors that are important for proper simulation of low Earth orbit is at a much lower level of understanding. The ability to use laboratory simulations with confidence to quantifiably address the functional performance and durability of materials in low Earth orbit will be necessary to assure long-term survivability to the natural space environment.

  20. Impact of the Interstellar Medium on Processes on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, N. G.

    2017-05-01

    The paper discusses possible impacts of the interstellar matter (ISM) on processes on Earth, first of all those, which may affect the Earth biosphere. ISM parameters, determining the degree of penetration of galactic cosmic rays, interstellar atoms and ions into the Solar system and their impact on Earth varies considerably as the Sun moves through different ISM regions. In some cases the impact may provoke severe environment changes substantial for the life on Earth.

  1. High-capacity chitosan-based chelating resin for on-line collection of transition and rare-earth metals prior to inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry measurement.

    PubMed

    Katarina, Rosi Ketrin; Oshima, Mitsuko; Motomizu, Shoji

    2009-10-15

    High-capacity chitosan-based chelating resin, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine-type chitosan, was synthesized using chloromethyloxirane (CMO) as a cross-linker and a coupling arms and hydroxylethylamine and bromoacetic acid as a synthesizer for the N-(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine chelating moiety. The CMO could bind with both of hydroxyl and amino group of the chitosan resin, and then couple with the chelating moiety. Increasing the amounts of chelating moiety could increase the capacity of the resin toward metal ions. Most transition and rare-earth metals could adsorb quantitatively on the resin at wide pH ranges and could be separated from alkaline and alkaline-earth metals. The resin was packed in a mini-column (40 mm length x 2 mm i.d.) which was installed in a Multi-Auto-Pret system. The Multi-Auto-Pret system coupled with ICP-AES was successfully applied to the determination of transition and rare-earth metals in river water samples.

  2. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-11

    ISS024-E-014233 (11 Sept. 2010) --- A smoke plume near the northern Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. This broad view of the north coast of the Caspian Sea shows a smoke plume (left) and two river deltas (bottom and lower right). The larger delta is that of the Volga River which appears prominently here in sunglint (light reflected off a water surface back towards the observer), and the smaller less prominent delta is that of the Ural River. Wide angle, oblique views ? taken looking outward at an angle, rather than straight down towards Earth ? such as this give an excellent impression of how crew members onboard the space station view Earth. For a sense of scale, the Caucasus Mts. (across the Caspian, top right) are approximately 1,100 kilometers to the southwest of the International Space Station?s nadir point location ? the point on Earth directly underneath the spacecraft ? at the time this image was taken. The smoke plume appears to be sourced in the dark-toned coastal marsh vegetation along the outer fringe of the Ural River delta, rather than in a city or at some oil storage facility. Although even small fires produce plumes that are long and bright and thus easily visible from space, the density of the smoke in this plume, and its 350-kilometer length across the entire north lobe of the Caspian Sea, suggest it was a significant fire. The smoke was thick enough nearer the source to cast shadows on the sea surface below. Lines mark three separate pulses of smoke, the most recent, nearest the source, extending directly south away from the coastline (lower left). With time, plumes become progressively more diffuse. The oldest pulse appears to be the thinnest, casting no obvious shadows (center left).

  3. Systematic variation of rare-earth elements in cerium-earth minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murata, K.J.; Rose, H.J.; Carron, M.K.; Glass, J.J.

    1957-01-01

    In a continuation of a study reported previously, rare-earth elements and thorium have been determined in monazite, allanite, cerite, bastnaesite, and a number of miscellaneous cerium-earth minerals. A quantity called sigma (???), which is the sum of the atomic percentages of La, Ce, and Pr, is proposed as an index of composition of all cerium-earth minerals with respect to the rare-earth elements. The value of ??? for all of the minerals analysed falls between 58 and 92 atomic per cent. Monazites, allanites, and cerites cover the entire observed range, whereas bastnaesites are sharply restricted to the range between 80 and 92 atomic per cent. The minimum value of ??? for a cerium-earth mineral corresponds to the smallest possible unit-cell size of the mineral. In monazite, this structurally controlled minimum value of ??? is estimated to be around 30 atomic per cent. Neodymium, because of its abundance, and yttrium, because of its small size, have dominant roles in contraction of the structure. In the other direction, the limit of variation in composition will be reached when lanthanum becomes the sole rare-earth element in a cerium-earth mineral. Cerium-earth minerals from alkalic rocks are all characterized by values of ??? greater than 80 atomic per cent, indicating that the processes that formed these rocks were unusually efficient in fractionating the rare-earth elements-efficient in the sense that a highly selected assemblage is produced without eliminating the bulk of these elements. Analyses of inner and outer parts of two large crystals of monazite from different deposits show no difference in ??? in one crystal and a slightly smaller value of ??? in the outer part of the other crystal compared to the inner part. The ??? of monazites from pegmatites that intrude genetically related granitic rocks in North Carolina is found to be either higher or lower than the ??? of monazites in the intruded host rock. These results indicate that the fractionation of the

  4. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-24

    A Delta II rocket carrying the Geomagnetic Tail Lab (GEOTAIL) spacecraft lifts off at Launch Complex 17, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) into a cloud-dappled sky. This liftoff marks the first Delta launch under the medium expendable launch vehicle services contract between NASA and McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Co. The GEOTAIL mission, a joint US/Japanese project, is the first in a series of five satellites to study the interactions between the Sun, the Earth's magnetic field, and the Van Allen radiation belts.

  5. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-20

    ISS047e069406 (04/20/2016) ---Earth observation image taken by the Expedition 47 crew aboard the International Space Station. This is an oblique south-looking view of the main Bahama island chain. Cuba is across the entire top of the image, the Florida Peninsula on the right margin. In the Bahamas, the main Andros island is just distinguishable under cloud upper left of center. Under less cloud is the Abaco Islands in the foreground (middle of pic nearest camera left of center.)

  6. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-29

    ISS040-E-005979 (29 May 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the International Space Station used a 200mm lens to photograph this image from 222 nautical miles above Earth showing Harris County and Galveston County, Texas plus several other surrounding counties, including a long stretch along the Gulf of Mexico (bottom left). The entirety of Galveston Bay is visible at bottom center. Just below center lies the 1625-acre site of NASA's Johnson Space Center, one of the training venues for all space station crew members and the nearby long-time area of residence for NASA astronauts.

  7. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-31

    ISS036-E-027014 (31 July 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, as it was passing over Eastern Europe on July 31, 2013, took this night picture looking toward the Mediterranean Sea, which almost blends into the horizon. Also visible are the Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Parts of the following countries are among those visible as well: Greece, Italy, Sicily, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia and Albania. The high oblique 50mm lens shot includes a number of stars in the late July sky. A solar array panel is visible in the darkness on the right side of the frame.

  8. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-31

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft embarks on a journey that will culminate in a close encounter with an asteroid. The launch of NEAR inaugurates NASA's irnovative Discovery program of small-scale planetary missions with rapid, lower-cost development cycles and focused science objectives. NEAR will rendezvous in 1999 with the asteroid 433 Eros to begin the first long-term, close-up look at an asteroid's surface composition and physical properties. NEAR's science payload includes an x-ray/gamma ray spectrometer, an near-infrared spectrograph, a laser rangefinder, a magnetometer, a radio science experiment and a multi-spectral imager.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-25

    ISS040-E-081001 (25 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station was aiming his camera almost straight down when he recorded this view of parts of Spain (top), Morocco (bottom) and the Strait of Gibraltar (center) at 08:04:35 GMT on July 25, 2014. Gibraltar and the Alboran Sea are on the right side of the frame. Cadiz, Spain is almost under clouds on the Bay of Cadiz above and to the left of frame center.

  10. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-24

    ISS045E028447 (09/25/2015) --- Sunlight shines on the International Space Station as it flies approximately 250 miles over the Earth’s surface. One of the station’s massive solar arrays is visible left, responsible for generating power for all of the various station systems. The Japanese Exposed Facility is visible at the top of the image where experiments are exposed to the vacuum and environment of space. The Japanese HTV-5 cargo vehicle is seen on the right while still docked to the Earth-facing port of the Harmony module; the vehicle was unberthed and released on Sept. 28, 2015.

  11. Tetrahedral-Atom 3-Ring Groupings in One-Dimensional Inorganic Chains: Be2AsO4OH-4H2O and Na2ZnPO4OH-7H2O

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-15

    connections. Adjacent stacks are interconnected vio a complex arrangement of sodium cations and water molecules. I&. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES...rings which include Zn-(OH)-Zn connections. Adjacent stacks are interconnected via a complex arrangement of sodium cations and water molecules. MTrC...above paragraph, we describe the preparations, structures and properties of two new phases; a zincophosphate , Na2ZnPO 4OH-7H 20 (NaZnPO), and a

  12. Measurement of atomic diffraction phases induced by material gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Perreault, John D.; Cronin, Alexander D.

    2006-03-15

    Atom-surface interactions can significantly modify the intensity and phase of atom de Broglie waves diffracted by a silicon nitride grating. This affects the operation of a material grating as a coherent beam splitter. The phase shifts induced by diffraction are measured by comparing the relative phases of several interfering paths in a Mach-Zehnder Na atom interferometer formed by three material gratings. The values of the diffraction phases are consistent with a simple model which includes a van der Waals atom-surface interaction between the Na atoms and the silicon nitride grating bars.

  13. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-06

    ISS028-E-014782 (6 July 2011) --- The Shoemaker (formerly Teague) Impact Structure, located in Western Australia in a drainage basin south of the Waldburg Range, presents an other-worldly appearance in this detailed photograph recorded from onboard the International Space Station on July 6. The Shoemaker impact site is approximately 30 kilometers in diameter, and is clearly defined by concentric ring structures formed in sedimentary rocks (brown to dark brown, image center) that were deformed by the impact event approximately 1630 million years ago, according to the Earth Impact Database. Several saline and ephemeral lakes?Nabberu, Teague, Shoemaker, and numerous smaller ponds?occupy the land surface between the concentric ring structures. Differences in color result from both water depth and suspended sediments, with some bright salt crusts visible around the edges of smaller ponds (image center The Teague Impact Structure was renamed Shoemaker in honor of the late Dr. Eugene M. Shoemaker, a pioneer in the field of impact crater studies and planetary geology, and founder of the Astrogeology Branch of the United States Geological Survey. The image was recorded with a digital still camera using a 200 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  14. Herbal Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Subtle vegetation changes are visible in this year-long visualization. Large-scale patterns vary with seasons, but the local variations in green are also sensitive precipitation, drought and fire. High values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, represent dense green functioning vegetation and low NDVI values represent sparse green vegetation or vegetation under stress from limiting conditions, such as drought. The visualization was created from a year’s worth of data from April 2012 to April 2013. The information was sent back to Earth from the Visible-Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership or Suomi NPP satellite, a partnership between NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA. Credit: NASA/NOAA To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NPP/news/vegetation.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  15. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-17

    ISS036-E-009405 (17 June 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station, some 240 miles above Earth, used a 50mm lens to record this oblique nighttime image of a large part of the nation’s second largest state in area, including the four largest metropolitan areas in population. The extent of the metropolitan areas is easily visible at night due to city and highway lights. The largest metro area, Dallas-Fort Worth, often referred to informally as the Metroplex, is the heavily cloud-covered area at the top center of the photo. Neighboring Oklahoma, on the north side of the Red River, less than 100 miles to the north of the Metroplex, appears to be experiencing thunderstorms. The Houston metropolitan area, including the coastal city of Galveston, is at lower right. To the east near the Texas border with Louisiana, the metropolitan area of Beaumont-Port Arthur appears as a smaller blotch of light, also hugging the coast of the Texas Gulf. Moving inland to the left side of the picture one can delineate the San Antonio metro area. The capital city of Austin can be seen to the northeast of San Antonio. This and hundreds of thousands of other Earth photos taken by astronauts and cosmonauts over the past 50 years are available on http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov

  16. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-01

    A NASA team studying the causes of electrical storms and their effects on our home planet achieved a milestone on August 21, 2002, completing the study's longest-duration research flight and monitoring four thunderstorms in succession. Based at the Naval Air Station Key West, Florida, researchers with the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) used the Altus II remotely piloted aircraft to study thunderstorms in the Atlantic Ocean off Key West and the west of the Everglades. The ACES lightning study used the Altus II twin turbo uninhabited aerial vehicle, built by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. of San Diego. The Altus II was chosen for its slow flight speed of 75 to 100 knots (80 to 115 mph), long endurance, and high-altitude flight (up to 65,000 feet). These qualities gave the Altus II the ability to fly near and around thunderstorms for long periods of time, allowing investigations to be conducted over the entire life cycle of storms. The vehicle has a wing span of 55 feet and a payload capacity of over 300 lbs. With dual goals of gathering weather data safely and testing the adaptability of the uninhabited aircraft, the ACES study is a collaboration among the Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Pernsylvania State University in University Park, and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc.

  17. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-01

    A NASA team studying the causes of electrical storms and their effects on our home planet achieved a milestone on August 21, 2002, completing the study's longest-duration research flight and monitoring four thunderstorms in succession. Based at the Naval Air Station Key West, Florida, researchers with the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) used the Altus II remotely-piloted aircraft to study thunderstorms in the Atlantic Ocean off Key West and the west of the Everglades. The ACES lightning study used the Altus II twin turbo uninhabited aerial vehicle, built by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. of San Diego. The Altus II was chosen for its slow flight speed of 75 to 100 knots (80 to 115 mph), long endurance, and high-altitude flight (up to 65,000 feet). These qualities gave the Altus II the ability to fly near and around thunderstorms for long periods of time, allowing investigations to be to be conducted over the entire life cycle of storms. The vehicle has a wing span of 55 feet and a payload capacity of over 300 lbs. With dual goals of gathering weather data safely and testing the adaptability of the uninhabited aircraft, the ACES study is a collaboration among the Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, NASA,s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Pernsylvania State University in University Park, and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc.

  18. Effect of energetic oxygen atoms on neutral density models.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrbaugh, R. P.; Nisbet, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The dissociative recombination of O2(+) and NO(+) in the F region results in the production of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen with substantially greater kinetic energy than the ambient atoms. In the exosphere these energetic atoms have long free paths. They can ascend to altitudes of several thousand kilometers and can travel horizontally to distances of the order of the earth's radius. The distribution of energetic oxygen atoms is derived by means of models of the ion and neutral densities for quiet and disturbed solar conditions. A distribution technique is used to study the motion of the atoms in the collision-dominated region. Ballistic trajectories are calculated in the spherical gravitational field of the earth. The present calculations show that the number densities of energetic oxygen atoms predominate over the ambient atomic oxygen densities above 1000 km under quiet solar conditions and above 1600 km under disturbed solar conditions.

  19. Atomic arias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    The American composer John Adams uses opera to dramatize controversial current events. His 1987 work Nixon in China was about the landmark meeting in 1972 between US President Richard Nixon and Chairman Mao Zedong of China; The Death of Klinghoffer (1991) was a musical re-enactment of an incident in 1985 when Palestinian terrorists kidnapped and murdered a wheelchair-bound Jewish tourist on a cruise ship. Adams's latest opera, Doctor Atomic, is also tied to a controversial event: the first atomic-bomb test in Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 June 1945. The opera premièred in San Francisco in 2005, had a highly publicized debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York in 2008, and will have another debut on 25 February - with essentially the same cast - at the English National Opera in London.

  20. Atomic rivals

    SciTech Connect

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a memoir of rivalries among the Allies over the bomb, by a participant and observer. Nuclear proliferation began in the uneasy wartime collaboration of the United States, England, Canada, and Free France to produce the atom bomb. Through the changes of history, a young French chemist had a role in almost every act of this international drama. This memoir is based on Goldschmidt's own recollections, interviews with other leading figures, and 3,000 pages of newly declassified documents in Allied archives. From his own start as Marie Curie's lab assistant, Goldschmidt's career was closely intertwined with Frances complicated rise to membership in the nuclear club. As a refugee from the Nazis, he became part of the wartime nuclear energy project in Canada and found himself the only French scientist to work (although briefly) on the American atom bomb project.

  1. Atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.E.; Kukla, K.; Cheng, S.

    1995-08-01

    In a collaboration with the Atomic Physics group at Argonne and the University of Toledo, the Atomic Physics group at the University of Notre Dame is measuring the fine structure transition energies in highly-charged lithium-like and helium-like ions using beam-foil spectroscopy. Precise measurements of 2s-2p transition energies in simple (few-electron) atomic systems provide stringent tests of several classes of current atomic- structure calculations. Analyses of measurements in helium-like Ar{sup 16+} have been completed, and the results submitted for publication. A current goal is to measure the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} - 1s2p{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition wavelength in helium-like Ni{sup 26+}. Measurements of the 1s2s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} - 1s2p{sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2} transition wavelengths in lithium-like Kr{sup 33+} is planned. Wavelength and lifetime measurements in copper-like U{sup 63+} are also expected to be initiated. The group is also participating in measurements of forbidden transitions in helium-like ions. A measurement of the lifetime of the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} state in Kr{sup 34+} was published recently. In a collaboration including P. Mokler of GSI, Darmstadt, measurements have been made of the spectral distribution of the 2E1 decay continuum in helium-like Kr{sup 34+}. Initial results have been reported and further measurements are planned.

  2. Sulfur Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  3. Atomic Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Claudio

    2000-10-01

    Atomic and molecular data are required in a variety of fields ranging from the traditional astronomy, atmospherics and fusion research to fast growing technologies such as lasers, lighting, low-temperature plasmas, plasma assisted etching and radiotherapy. In this context, there are some research groups, both theoretical and experimental, scattered round the world that attend to most of this data demand, but the implementation of atomic databases has grown independently out of sheer necessity. In some cases the latter has been associated with the data production process or with data centers involved in data collection and evaluation; but sometimes it has been the result of individual initiatives that have been quite successful. In any case, the development and maintenance of atomic databases call for a number of skills and an entrepreneurial spirit that are not usually associated with most physics researchers. In the present report we present some of the highlights in this area in the past five years and discuss what we think are some of the main issues that have to be addressed.

  4. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-22

    ISS042E007131 (11/22/2014) — Astronauts aboard the International Space Station captured this image of a huge crater in Africa on Nov. 22, 2014. This is the Richat Structure in northwestern Mauritania, otherwise known as the “Eye of the Sahara.” Scientists are still deciding whether this was formed by a subterranean volcano or impact from a large meteor. Deep in the Sahara Desert it is nearly a perfect circle, it is 1.2 miles (1.9 kilometers) wide, and sports a rim 330 feet (100 meters) tall. The crater sits in a vast plain of rocks so ancient they were deposited hundreds of millions of years before the first dinosaurs walked the Earth.

  5. Cloudy Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-08

    Decades of satellite observations and astronaut photographs show that clouds dominate space-based views of Earth. One study based on nearly a decade of satellite data estimated that about 67 percent of Earth’s surface is typically covered by clouds. This is especially the case over the oceans, where other research shows less than 10 percent of the sky is completely clear of clouds at any one time. Over land, 30 percent of skies are completely cloud free. Earth’s cloudy nature is unmistakable in this global cloud fraction map, based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite. While MODIS collects enough data to make a new global map of cloudiness every day, this version of the map shows an average of all of the satellite’s cloud observations between July 2002 and April 2015. Colors range from dark blue (no clouds) to light blue (some clouds) to white (frequent clouds).

  6. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-13

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft undergoing preflight preparation in the Spacecraft Assembly Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). NEAR will perform two critical mission events - Mathilde flyby and the Deep-Space maneuver. NEAR will fly-by Mathilde, a 38-mile (61-km) diameter C-type asteroid, making use of its imaging system to obtain useful optical navigation images. The primary science instrument will be the camera, but measurements of magnetic fields and mass also will be made. The Deep-Space Maneuver (DSM) will be executed about a week after the Mathilde fly-by. The DSM represents the first of two major burns during the NEAR mission of the 100-pound bi-propellant (Hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide) thruster. This maneuver is necessary to lower the perihelion distance of NEAR's trajectory. The DSM will be conducted in two segments to minimize the possibility of an overburn situation.

  7. Earth observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-31

    ISS040-E-113700 (31 Aug. 2014) --- This panorama view, photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station, shows tan-colored dust of a major dust storm obscuring the Persian Gulf and the its northern shoreline. Strong north winds often blow in summer, churning up dust from the entire length of the desert surfaces of the Tigris and Euphrates valleys (top left). Dust partly obscures the hundreds of kilometers of Iraq’s light-green agricultural lands along these rivers (left). A line of thunderstorms is being set off by the Zagros Mountains of Iran (right), with the setting sun casting long shadows from the thunderheads. Space station crews see sixteen sunrises and sunsets every day from low Earth orbit. Here the crew captured dusk in a darkening Iranian landscape (right).

  8. Asymmetric Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doglioni, Carlo; Carminati, Eugenio; Crespi, Mattia; Cuffaro, Marco; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Levshin, Anatoli; Panza, Giuliano F.; Riguzzi, Federica

    2010-05-01

    The net rotation, or so-called W-ward drift of the lithosphere, implies a decoupling of the plates relative to the underlying asthenosphere, and a relative "E-ward" mantle flow. This polarized flow can account for a number of asymmetries. When comparing the W-directed versus the E- to NE-directed subduction zones, as a general observation, they have the subduction hinge diverging versus converging relative to the upper plate; low versus high topography and structural elevation respectively; deep versus shallow trenches and foreland basins; shallow versus deep decollement; low versus high basement involvement; high versus low heat flow and gravity anomaly; shallow versus deep asthenosphere; etc. The western limbs of rift zones show S-waves faster in the lithosphere and slower in the asthenosphere with respect to the eastern limb. The asymmetry can be recognized when moving along the "tectonic equator", which describes the fastest flow of plates relative to the mantle, and it undulates relative to the geographic equator. In our reconstructions, the best fit for the tectonic equator has a pole of rotation at latitude -56.4° and longitude 136.7°, with an angular velocity of 1.2036°/Ma. Shear-wave splitting alignments tend to parallel the tectonic flow, apart along the subduction zones where they become orthogonal, as a flow encountering an obstacle. The tectonic equator lies close to the revolution plane of the Moon about the Earth. All these data and interpretations point for an asymmetric Earth, whose nature appears to be related to the rotation and its tidal despinning, combined with the thermal cooling of the planet. However, this model has been questioned on the basis of the high viscosity so far inferred in the asthenosphere. Preliminary modelling shows that the tidal oscillation can generate gravitational wave propagation in the lithosphere, and the wave velocity can increase with the decrease of the asthenospheric viscosity.

  9. Avoid Earth Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2012-11-01

    In 2011, the author supposes: the dark hole will take the dark comet to impact our solar system in 20 years. (see Dayong Cao, BAPS.2011.DFD.LA.24, BAPS.2012.APR.K1.78 and BAPS.2011.APR.K1.17) Asteroid 2011 AG5 will impact on Earth in 2040. (See Donald K. Yoemans, ``Asteroid 2011 AG5 - A Reality Check,'' NASA-JPL, 2012) The dark Asteroid 2011 AG5 (as a dark comet) is made of the dark matte. Sun and its companion-dark hole are a binary system (Their systemic model- SDS for short there in after). The dark hole has a dark comet belt. The dark hole and dark comet are made of the dark matter which has a space-time (as frequence-amplitude square) center- a different systemic model from solar systemic model. Because it absorb the space-time and wave. So it is ``dark.'' When the dark hole goes near the sun every 25-27 million years, it will take its dark comet belt to go into the solar system to impact our earth. In a other hand, it can change all of our systemic model and code which are controled by the SDS, such as the orbit both of the asteroid belt and planet (such as Jupiter), our atomic structure and our genetic code. It can trigger periodic Mass Extinction. We will use the dark matter to change the SDS to avoid forthcoming extinction.

  10. Positron-alkali atom scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.; Ward, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron-alkali atom scattering was recently investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the energy range from a few eV up to 100 eV. On the theoretical side calculations of the integrated elastic and excitation cross sections as well as total cross sections for Li, Na and K were based upon either the close-coupling method or the modified Glauber approximation. These theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the total cross section for both Na and K. Resonance structures were also found in the L = 0, 1 and 2 partial waves for positron scattering from the alkalis. The structure of these resonances appears to be quite complex and, as expected, they occur in conjunction with the atomic excitation thresholds. Currently both theoretical and experimental work is in progress on positron-Rb scattering in the same energy range.

  11. Attenuation of Scattered Thermal Energy Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce a.; Seroka, Katelyn T.; McPhate, Jason B.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    The attenuation of scattered thermal energy atomic oxygen is relevant to the potential damage that can occur within a spacecraft which sweeps through atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO). Although there can be significant oxidation and resulting degradation of polymers and some metals on the external surfaces of spacecraft, there are often openings on a spacecraft such as telescope apertures, vents, and microwave cavities that can allow atomic oxygen to enter and scatter internally to the spacecraft. Atomic oxygen that enters a spacecraft can thermally accommodate and scatter to ultimately react or recombine on surfaces. The atomic oxygen that does enter a spacecraft can be scavenged by use of high erosion yield polymers to reduce its reaction on critical surfaces and materials. Polyoxymethylene and polyethylene can be used as effective atomic oxygen scavenging polymers.

  12. Attenuation of Scattered Thermal Energy Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Seroka, Katelyn T.; McPhate, Jason B.; Miller, Sharon K.

    The attenuation of scattered thermal energy atomic oxygen is relevant to the potential damage that can occur within a spacecraft which sweeps through atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO). Although there can be significant oxidation and resulting degradation of polymers and some metals on the external surfaces of spacecraft, there are often openings on a spacecraft such as telescope apertures, vents, and microwave cavities that can allow atomic oxygen to enter and scatter internally to the spacecraft. Atomic oxygen that enters a spacecraft can thermally accommodate and scatter to ultimately react or recombine on surfaces. The atomic oxygen that does enter a spacecraft can be scavenged by use of high erosion yield polymers to reduce its reaction on critical surfaces and materials. Polyoxymethylene and polyethylene can be used as effective atomic oxygen scavenging polymers.

  13. The NASA atomic oxygen effects test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Brady, Joyce A.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Atomic Oxygen Effects Test Program was established to compare the low earth orbital simulation characteristics of existing atomic oxygen test facilities and utilize the collective data from a multitude of simulation facilities to promote understanding of mechanisms and erosion yield dependence upon energy, flux, metastables, charge, and environmental species. Four materials chosen for this evaluation include Kapton HN polyimide, FEP Teflon, polyethylene, and graphite single crystals. The conditions and results of atomic oxygen exposure of these materials is reported by the participating organizations and then assembled to identify degrees of dependency of erosion yields that may not be observable from any single atomic oxygen low earth orbital simulation facility. To date, the program includes 30 test facilities. Characteristics of the participating test facilities and results to date are reported.

  14. Atoms in astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Aspects of electromagnetic radiation and atomic physics needed for an understanding of astronomical applications are explored. Although intended primarily for teachers, this brochure is written so that it can be distributed to students if desired. The first section, Basic Topics, is suitable for a ninth-grade general science class; the style is simple and repetitive, and no mathematics or physics background is required. The second section, Intermediate and Advanced Topics, requires a knowledge of the material in the first section and assumes a generally higher level of achievement and motivation on the part of the student. These latter topics might fit well into junior-level physics, chemistry, or earth-science courses. Also included are a glossary, a list of references and teaching aids, class exercises, and a question and answer section.

  15. Absolute Geodetic Rotation Measurement Using Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, J. K.; Takase, K.; Kasevich, M. A.

    2011-09-23

    We demonstrate a cold-atom interferometer gyroscope which overcomes accuracy and dynamic range limitations of previous atom interferometer gyroscopes. We show how the instrument can be used for precise determination of latitude, azimuth (true north), and Earth's rotation rate. Spurious noise terms related to multiple-path interferences are suppressed by employing a novel time-skewed pulse sequence. Extended versions of this instrument appear capable of meeting the stringent requirements for inertial navigation, geodetic applications of Earth's rotation rate determination, and tests of general relativity.

  16. Interactions between Rydberg atoms and ultracold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Haruza, Marek; Bigelow, Nicholas P.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate dipolar interactions arising in a hybrid system containing both ultracold polar molecules and atomic Rydberg states. Ultracold NaCs molecules are produced by photoassociation from laser cooled mixtures of sodium and cesium atoms and detected through resonant multi-photon ionization (REMPI). Rydberg atoms with large dipole moments are excited in the atomic cloud using a multi-photon process and detected via field-ionization. We look for evidence of the interactions in the observed spectra.

  17. Phase transition and conduction mechanism in Pb2Na0.8R0.2Nb4.8Fe0.2O15 material (R=rare earth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouziane, M.; Taibi, M.; Boukhari, A.

    2013-11-01

    Electrical properties of Pb2Na0.8Eu0.2Nb4.8Fe0.2O15 tungsten bronze compound were investigated. Ferroelectric phase transition of diffuse type is observed at 395 °C. Conductivity study as a function of temperature (RT-600 °C) and at three different frequencies (10, 100 and 1000 kHz) suggests the existence of dominant ionic conduction. The rise of ac conductivity on increasing temperature supports the NTCR (negative temperature coefficient of resistance) behaviour of the material. The activation energies have been evaluated from ac conductivity using Arrhenius equation and discussed. Different conduction mechanisms were identified. For comparison, the conducting properties of Pb2Na0.8R0.2Nb4.8Fe0.2O15 (R=Dy, Nd, La) were also investigated.

  18. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-05

    ISS040-E-088891 (5 Aug. 2014) --- Thunderheads near Borneo, Indonesia are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station. Late afternoon sun casts long shadows from high thunderhead anvils over southern Borneo. Crews aboard the space station have recently concentrated on panoramic views of clouds?taken with lenses similar to the focal length of the human eye. These images reveal the kinds of views crews see -- huge areas of the planet, with a strong three-dimensional sense of what it is like to fly 350 kilometers above Earth. Winds usually blow in different directions at different altitudes. High-altitude winds are clearly sweeping the tops off the many tallest thunderclouds, generating long anvils of diffuse cirrus plumes that trail south. At low levels, ?streets? of white dots -- fair-weather cumulus clouds -- are aligned with west-moving winds (lower left). Small smoke plumes from forest fires onshore are also aligned west. Storm formation near the horizon -- more than 1,000 kilometers away (center) -- is assisted by air currents rising over the central mountains of Borneo.

  19. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-20

    ISS024-E-015121 (20 Sept. 2010) --- Twitchell Canyon Fire in central Utah is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station (ISS). The Twitchell Canyon Fire near central Utah?s Fishlake National Forest is reported to have an area of approximately 13,383 hectares (approximately 134 square kilometers, or 33,071 acres). This detailed image shows smoke plumes generated by several fire spots close to the southwestern edge of the burned area. The fire was started by a lightning strike on July 20, 2010. Whereas many of the space station images of Earth are looking straight down (nadir), this photograph was exposed at an angle. The space station was located over a point approximately 509 kilometers (316 miles) to the northeast, near the Colorado/Wyoming border, at the time the image was taken on Sept. 20. Southwesterly winds were continuing to extend smoke plumes from the fire to the northeast. While the Twitchell Canyon region is sparsely populated, Interstate Highway 15 is visible at upper left.

  20. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-30

    ISS040-E-006271 (31 May 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station captured this panoramic image of South Africa on May 31, 2014. A combination of contrails and a bit of winter mist appears to have formed alphabetic and/or numeric characters in the upper right near the horizon. Sun glint off the south coast is slightly confusing as it is similar in brightness to the west-coast cloud cover, where an Atlantic storm rolls in. The Cape Fold Mountains cross the center of the view, going east from the Cape Town region (clouds obscure the Cape peninsula which normally serves as an icon for this part of Africa). A popular winegrowing region attributable to the Mediterranean climate is the area around Cape Town near lower left. Witwatersrand lies at the top of the picture obscured by the seemingly ever-present winter smoke and smog. The Orange River valley appears as a dark, nearly horizontal line at left.

  1. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-30

    ISS040E112662 (08/30/2014) ---- Cancún, Mexico. A long lens was used by astronauts aboard the International Space Station to take this image, and it highlights many natural and built features. The street pattern of Mexico’s tourist mecca, Cancún, contrasts with the waterways of the marinas that open into the bay and the lagoons. Brilliant blue water over coral reefs contrast with the dark waters of inland lagoons. The reefs are the second largest reef system on Earth, and draw tourists from all over the world. The wide, well developed beach on the gulf coast (image upper right) is the result of vigorous wave energy; the white sand makes the beach easily visible from space. But wave energy is reduced along Cancún’s protected shoreline (image center) and the beaches are thin or non-existant. Fair-weather cumulus clouds are scattered across the image top left. To shoot crisp mages with long lenses, astronaut photographers must learn to brace themselves against the ISS bulkhead to prevent any slight shaking that would blur or “smear” the picture. Counterintuitively, they then need to move the camera carefully retaining the target at the same point in the viewfinder (the landscape moves across the viewfinder quickly with long lenses). This is called tracking the target and requires good coordination by the photographer—again, to prevent blurring. Shorter lenses do not require this skill because the image appears to pass more slowly across the viewfinder.

  2. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-14

    ISS037-E-011470 (14 Oct. 2013) --- Man-made archipelagos near Dubai, United Arab Emirates, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 37 crew member on the International Space Station, flying at approximately 220 miles above Earth. The municipality of Dubai is the largest city of the Persian Gulf emirate of the same name, and has built a global reputation for large-scale developments and architectural works. Among the most visible of these developments -- particularly from the perspective of astronauts onboard the space station -- are three man-made archipelagos. The two Palm Islands -- Palm Jumeirah (right) and Palm Jebel Ali (out of frame further to the right) -- appear as stylized palm trees when viewed from above. The World Islands (center frame) evoke a rough map of the world from an air- or space-borne perspective. The Palm Jumeirah project began in 2001 and required more than 50 million cubic meters of dredged sand to raise the islands above the Persian Gulf sea level. Construction of the Palm Jumeirah islands was completed in 2006; for several years now they have been developed for residential and commercial housing and infrastructure. Creation of the World Islands was begun in 2003 and completed in 2008, using 320 million cubic meters of sand and 37 million tons of rock for the surrounding 27 kilometer-long protective breakwater.

  3. Clouds Composition in Super-Earth Atmospheres: Chemical Equilibrium Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Mbarek, Rostom

    2015-12-01

    Attempts to determine the composition of super-Earth atmospheres have so far been plagued by the presence of clouds. Yet the theoretical framework to understand these clouds is still in its infancy. For the super-Earth archetype GJ 1214b, KCl, Na2S, and ZnS have been proposed as condensates that would form under the condition of chemical equilibrium, if the planet’s atmosphere has a bulk composition near solar. Condensation chemistry calculations have not been presented for a wider range of atmospheric bulk composition that is to be expected for super-Earth exoplanets. Here we provide a theoretical context for the formation of super-Earth clouds in atmospheres of varied composition by determining which condensates are likely to form, under the assumption of chemical equilibrium. We model super-Earth atmospheres assuming they are formed by degassing of volatiles from a solid planetary core of chondritic material. Given the atomic makeup of these atmospheres, we minimize the global Gibbs free energy of over 550 gases and condensates to obtain the molecular composition of the atmospheres over a temperature range of 350-3,000 K. Clouds should form along the temperature-pressure boundaries where the condensed species appear in our calculations. The super-Earth atmospheres that we study range from highly reducing to oxidizing and have carbon to oxygen (C:O) ratios that are both sub-solar and super-solar, thereby spanning a diverse range of atmospheric composition that is appropriate for low-mass exoplanets. Some condensates appear across all of our models. However, the majority of condensed species appear only over specific ranges of H:O and C:O ratios. We find that for GJ 1214b, KCl is the primary cloud-forming condensate at solar composition, in agreement with previous work. However, for oxidizing atmospheres, where H:O is less than unity, K2SO4 clouds form instead. For carbon-rich atmospheres with super-solar C:O ratios, graphite clouds additionally appear. At

  4. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-01

    A NASA team studying the causes of electrical storms and their effects on our home planet achieved a milestone on August 21, 2002, completing the study's longest-duration research flight and monitoring four thunderstorms in succession. Based at the Naval Air Station Key West, Florida, researchers with the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) used the Altus II remotely-piloted aircraft to study thunderstorms in the Atlantic Ocean off Key West and the west of the Everglades. Data obtained through sensors mounted to the aircraft will allow researchers in ACES to gauge elements such as lightning activity and the electrical environment in and around storms. By learning more about individual storms, scientists hope to better understand the global water and energy cycle, as well as climate variability. Contained in one portion of the aircraft is a three-axis magnetic search coil, which measures the AC magnetic field; a three-axis electric field change sensor; an accelerometer; and a three-axis magnetometer, which measures the DC magnetic field. With dual goals of gathering weather data safely and testing the adaptability of the uninhabited aircraft, the ACES study is a collaboration among the Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Pernsylvania State University in University Park, and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc.

  5. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-01

    A NASA team studying the causes of electrical storms and their effects on our home planet achieved a milestone on August 21, 2002, completing the study's longest-duration research flight and monitoring four thunderstorms in succession. Radio news media can talk with Dr. Richard Blakeslee, the project's principal investigator, and Tony Kim, project manager at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), about their results and how their work will help improve future weather forecasting ability. Based at the Naval Air Station Key West, Florida, researchers with the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) used the Altus II remotely- piloted aircraft to study a thunderstorm in the Atlantic Ocean off Key West, two storms at the western edge of the Everglades, and a large storm over the northwestern corner of the Everglades. This photograph shows Tony Kim And Dr. Richard Blakeslee of MSFC testing aircraft sensors that would be used to measure the electric fields produced by thunderstorm as part of NASA's ACES. With dual goals of gathering weather data safely and testing the adaptability of the uninhabited aircraft, the ACES study is a collaboration among the MSFC, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Pernsylvania State University in University Park, and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc.

  6. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-01

    A NASA team studying the causes of electrical storms and their effects on our home planet achieved a milestone on August 21, 2002, completing the study's longest-duration research flight and monitoring four thunderstorms in succession. Based at the Naval Air Station Key West, Florida, researchers with the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) used the Altus II remotely-piloted aircraft to study thunderstorms in the Atlantic Ocean off Key West and the west of the Everglades. Using special equipment aboard the Altus II, scientists in ACES will gather electric, magnetic, and optical measurements of the thunderstorms, gauging elements such as lightning activity and the electrical environment in and around the storms. With dual goals of gathering weather data safely and testing the adaptability of the uninhabited aircraft, the ACES study is a collaboration among the Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Pernsylvania State University in University Park, and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc.

  7. Laser Trapping of Radioactive Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian

    2013-04-01

    Stuart Freedman conceived the idea of laser trapping radioactive atoms for the purpose of studying beta correlation effects. ``This is really the theorist's view of a radioactive source,'' as he fondly claimed. It is ideal because the atoms form a point source, compressed in both position and momentum space, with no material walls nearby. The Berkeley group succeeded in trapping ^21Na (half-life = 22 s) atoms [Lu et al., PRL 72, 3791 (1994)], and determined its beta-neutrino correlation coefficient a=0.5502(60) to be in agreement with the Standard Model [Vetter et al., PRC 77, 035502 (2008)]. Other groups have joined this effort with searches for scalar or tensor couplings in the weak interaction. Moreover, the technique has been extended to trap very short lived ^8He (0.1 s) to study its halo structure or the very long lived ^81Kr (230,000 yr) to map the movement of groundwater.

  8. Collisions of sodium atoms with liquid glycerol: insights into solvation and ionization.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Justin P; Nathanson, Gilbert M; Alexander, William A; Minton, Timothy K; Lakshmi, Sankaran; Schatz, George C

    2014-02-26

    The reactive uptake and ionization of sodium atoms in glycerol were investigated by gas-liquid scattering experiments and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. A nearly effusive beam of Na atoms at 670 K was directed at liquid glycerol in vacuum, and the scattered Na atoms were detected by a rotatable mass spectrometer. The Na velocity and angular distributions imply that all impinging Na atoms that thermally equilibrate on the surface remain behind, likely ionizing to e(-) and Na(+). The reactive uptake of Na atoms into glycerol was determined to be greater than 75%. Complementary AIMD simulations of Na striking a 17-molecule glycerol cluster indicate that the glycerol hydroxyl groups reorient around the Na atom as it makes contact with the cluster and begins to ionize. Although complete ionization did not occur during the 10 ps simulation, distinct correlations among the extent of ionization, separation between Na(+) and e(-), solvent coordination, and binding energies of the Na atom and electron were observed. The combination of experiments and simulations indicates that Na-atom deposition provides a low-energy pathway for generating solvated electrons in the near-interfacial region of protic liquids.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-10

    ISS032-E-006129 (10 July 2012) --- Flooding in Krymsk in the Krasnodar region of southern Russia is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 32 crew member on the International Space Station. On the night of July 7, 2012 a major storm dumped more than a foot of water on the southern Russian area of Krasnodar, near the Black Sea. The resulting flood was likened to a tsunami, and to date, more than 170 people died, most from the city of Krymsk. The Moscow times reports that more than 19,000 people lost everything. This image taken by cosmonauts aboard the space station shows the city of Krymsk. The tan-colored areas indicate some of the regions that were flooded; the color is probably due to the mud and debris that were left by the floodwaters. Krymsk is located in the western foothills on the northern slope of the Caucasus Mountains?a range that stretches between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. The vast amount of rain quickly overwhelmed the small river channels that flow northward from the mountains to the Russian lowlands and the Kuban River; Krymsk, located on one of those tributaries, was directly in the pathway of the flash flood. As part of the international partner agreement to use the International Space Station to benefit humanity, crew members and other Earth observing instruments provide best-effort support to the International Disaster Charter (IDC) when it is activated by collecting imagery of areas on the ground impacted by natural events such as the flooding in Krymsk. This image was acquired July 10, 2012 in response to the IDC activation.

  10. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-21

    ISS036-E-011034 (21 June 2013) --- The Salton Trough is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member on the International Space Station. The Imperial and Coachella Valleys of southern California – and the corresponding Mexicali Valley and Colorado River Delta in Mexico – are part of the Salton Trough, a large geologic structure known to geologists as a graben or rift valley that extends into the Gulf of California. The trough is a geologically complex zone formed by interaction of the San Andreas transform fault system that is, broadly speaking, moving southern California towards Alaska; and the northward motion of the Gulf of California segment of the East Pacific Rise that continues to widen the Gulf of California by sea-floor spreading. According to scientists, sediments deposited by the Colorado River have been filling the northern rift valley (the Salton Trough) for the past several million years, excluding the waters of the Gulf of California and providing a fertile environment – together with irrigation—for the development of extensive agriculture in the region (visible as green and yellow-brown fields at center). The Salton Sea, a favorite landmark of astronauts in low Earth orbit, was formed by an irrigation canal rupture in 1905, and today is sustained by agricultural runoff water. A wide array of varying landforms and land uses in the Salton Trough are visible from space. In addition to the agricultural fields and Salton Sea, easily visible metropolitan areas include Yuma, AZ (lower left); Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico (center); and the San Diego-Tijuana conurbation on the Pacific Coast (right). The approximately 72-kilometer-long Algodones Dunefield is visible at lower left.

  11. Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    For pipeline companies, mapping, facilities inventory, pipe inspections, environmental reporting, etc. is a monumental task. An Automated Mapping/Facilities Management/Geographic Information Systems (AM/FM/GIS) is the solution. However, this is costly and time consuming. James W. Sewall Company, an AM/FM/GIS consulting firm proposed an EOCAP project to Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a computerized system for storage and retrieval of digital aerial photography. This would provide its customer, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, with an accurate inventory of rights-of-way locations and pipeline surroundings. The project took four years to complete and an important byproduct was SSC's Digital Aerial Rights-of-Way Monitoring System (DARMS). DARMS saves substantial time and money. EOCAP enabled Sewall to develop new products and expand its customer base. Algonquin now manages regulatory requirements more efficiently and accurately. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology. Because changes on Earth's surface are accelerating, planners and resource managers must assess the consequences of change as quickly and accurately as possible. Pacific Meridian Resources and NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed a system for monitoring changes in land cover and use, which incorporated the latest change detection technologies. The goal of this EOCAP project was to tailor existing technologies to a system that could be commercialized. Landsat imagery enabled Pacific Meridian to identify areas that had sustained substantial vegetation loss. The project was successful and Pacific Meridian's annual revenues have substantially increased. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology.

  12. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-02

    ISS028-E-006687 (2 June 2011) --- Estuaries on the northwestern coast of Madagascar are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 28 crew member on the International Space Station. Regions where fresh water flowing in rivers and salt water from the seas and oceans mix are called estuaries, and they are among the most biologically productive ecosystems on Earth. This photograph highlights two estuaries located along the northwestern coastline of the island of Madagascar. The Mozambique Channel (top) separates Madagascar from the southeastern coast of Africa. Bombetoka Bay (upper left) is fed by the Betsiboka River and is a frequent subject of astronaut photography due to its striking red floodplain sediments. Mahajamba Bay (right) is fed by several rivers including the Mahajamba and Sofia Rivers; like the Betsiboka, the floodplains of these rivers also contain reddish sediments eroded from their basins upstream. The brackish (mix of fresh and salty water) conditions found in most estuaries host unique plant and animal species adapted to live in such environments. Mangroves in particular are a common plant species found in and around Madagascar estuaries, and Bombetoka Bay contains some of the largest remaining stands. Estuaries also host abundant fish and shellfish species ? many of which need access to freshwater for a portion of their life cycles ? and these in turn support local and migratory bird species that prey on them. However, human activities such as urban development, overfishing, and increased sediment loading from erosion of upriver highlands threaten the ecosystem health of the estuaries. In particular, the silt deposits in Bombetoka Bay at the mouth of the Betsiboka River have been filling in the bay.

  13. Atomic memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, R. G.; Hahn, E. L.

    1984-12-01

    The fundamental principles of atomic-memory effects related to the Loschmidt paradox in the second law of thermodynamics are introduced and illustrated with simple analogies, photographs, and diagrams; and the results of RF and laser experiments are summarized. Nuclear-spin echoes in response to RF pulses and the NMR free-induction decay phenomenon are described, and the extension of these concepts to the visible spectrum in laser-frequency-switching and multipulsed-laser experiments is examined with an emphasis on studies of free-induction decay in LaF3 crystals containing Pr impurities (DeVoe and Brewster). The laser-induced phenomena can be applied to studies of intramolecular and intermolecular interactions, and an improved understanding of the RF effects is needed to enhance the performance of medical NMR imaging systems.

  14. Atomic magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Schwindt, Peter [Albuquerque, NM; Johnson, Cort N [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-03

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which uses a pump light beam at a D1 or D2 transition of an alkali metal vapor to magnetically polarize the vapor in a heated cell, and a probe light beam at a different D2 or D1 transition to sense the magnetic field via a polarization rotation of the probe light beam. The pump and probe light beams are both directed along substantially the same optical path through an optical waveplate and through the heated cell to an optical filter which blocks the pump light beam while transmitting the probe light beam to one or more photodetectors which generate electrical signals to sense the magnetic field. The optical waveplate functions as a quarter waveplate to circularly polarize the pump light beam, and as a half waveplate to maintain the probe light beam linearly polarized.

  15. Local Atomic Structure Deviation from Average Structure of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3: Combined X-ray and Neutron Total Scattering Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-27

    calcination of the particles, and after sintering and densification of polycrystalline materials) to examine the possible influences of strain, grain...and Na2CO3 (99.5% purity, Alfa Aesar) were first calcined at 800 ◦C for 2 h and some powder was retained for structural characterization after this...synthesis step (hereafter referred to as “ calcined ”). Samples were then also sintered and densified into pellets at 1100 ◦C for 1 h. The sintered pellets

  16. T cells of atomic bomb survivors respond poorly to stimulation by Staphylococcus aureus toxins in vitro: does this stem from their peripheral lymphocyte populations having a diminished naïve CD4 T-cell content?

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Yamaoka, Mika; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Koyama, Kazuaki; Kodama, Kazunori; MacPhee, Donald G; Kyoizumi, Seishi

    2002-12-01

    We found previously that the peripheral CD4 T-cell populations of heavily exposed A-bomb survivors contained fewer naïve T cells than we detected in the corresponding unexposed controls. To determine whether this demonstrable impairment of the CD4 T-cell immunity of A-bomb survivors was likely to affect the responsiveness of their immune systems to infection by common pathogens, we tested the T cells of 723 survivors for their ability to proliferate in vitro after a challenge by each of the Staphylococcus aureus toxins SEB, SEC-2, SEC-3, SEE and TSST-1. The results presented here reveal that the proliferative responses of T cells of A-bomb survivors became progressively weaker as the radiation dose increased and did so in a manner that correlated well with the decreasing CD45RA-positive (naïve) [but not CD45RA-negative (memory)] CD4 T-cell percentages that we found in their peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) populations. We also noted that the T cells of survivors with a history of myocardial infarction tended to respond poorly to several (or even all) of the S. aureus toxins, and that these same individuals had proportionally fewer CD45RA-positive (naïve) CD4 T cells in their PBL populations than we detected in survivors with no myocardial infarction in their history. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that A-bomb irradiation led to an impairment of the ability of exposed individuals to maintain their naïve T-cell pools. This may explain why A-bomb survivors tend to respond poorly to toxins encoded by the common pathogenic bacterium S. aureus.

  17. Theoretical Studies of Rydberg Atom Collisions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-28

    capture cross section shoved considerable enhancement if the Rydberg electron was oriented in a plane parallel to the direction of the incident...Astronomy Rice Univesity Theoretical approaches to low-energy collisions of Rydberg atoms with atoms and Ions A. P. HICKMAN, R. E. OLSON, AND J. PASCALE... parallel to the direction of the incident projectile. Laser-assisted charge-transfer collisions: K~ + Na T. P. an. K. Kimura ad 1. E. Olson Dept. of

  18. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011843 (24 June 2013) --- Gravity waves and sunglint on Lake Superior are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member on the International Space Station. From the vantage point of the space station, crew members frequently observe Earth atmospheric and surface phenomena in ways impossible to view from the ground. Two such phenomena?gravity waves and sunglint?are illustrated in this photograph of northeastern Lake Superior. The Canadian Shield of southern Ontario (bottom) is covered with extensive green forest canopy typical of early summer. Offshore, and to the west and southwest of Pukaskwa National Park several distinct sets of parallel cloud bands are visible. Gravity waves are produced when moisture-laden air encounters imbalances in air density, such as might be expected when cool air flows over warmer air; this can cause the flowing air to oscillate up and down as it moves, causing clouds to condense as the air rises (cools) and evaporate away as the air sinks (warms). This produces parallel bands of clouds oriented perpendicular to the wind direction. The orientation of the cloud bands visible in this image, parallel to the coastlines, suggests that air flowing off of the land surfaces to the north is interacting with moist, stable air over the lake surface, creating gravity waves. The second phenomenon?sunglint?effects the water surface around and to the northeast of Isle Royale (upper right). Sunglint is caused by light reflection off a water surface; some of the reflected light travels directly back towards the observer, resulting in a bright mirror-like appearance over large expanses of water. Water currents and changes in surface tension (typically caused by presence of oils or surfactants) alter the reflective properties of the water, and can be highlighted by sunglint. For example, surface water currents are visible to the east of Isle Royale that are oriented similarly to the gravity waves ? suggesting that they too

  19. Atomic Oxygen Cleaning of Unpainted Plaster Sculptures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers has been found to be a threat to spacecraft in low Earth orbit. As a result ground facilities have been developed to identify coatings to protect polymers such as used for solar array blankets. As a result of extensive laboratory testing, it was discovered that soot and other organic contamination on paintings could be readily removed by atomic oxygen interactions with minimal damage to the artwork. No method, other than dusting, has been found to be effective in the cleaning of unpainted plaster sculptures This presentation discusses the atomic oxygen interaction processes and how effective they are for cleaning soot damaged unpainted plaster sculptures.

  20. Earth environment and Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities.

    PubMed

    Nitta, K

    1994-07-01

    The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities, CEEF, one of the Environmental Time Machine, is now planning to be constructed in the northern part of Japan with an eye to study the effect of atomic power industries on the local environment. This CEEF can be used not only for investigating the environmental problems related with atomic power industries but also for various environmental problems such as the habitation in lunar & Mars bases and the development of mathematical model to predict the change and change rate of earth parameters. Researches on earth environment and earth system science are discussed with use of CEEF. Preliminary experiments using a small growth chamber showed different results from those estimated by Simple Biosphere Model being used in the climate estimation.