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Sample records for earth barium cuprate

  1. Interatomic Potentials for Structure Simulation of Alkaline-Earth Cuprates

    SciTech Connect

    Eremin, N.N.; Leonyuk, L.I.; Urusov, V.S.

    2001-05-01

    A specific potential model of interionic interactions was derived in which the crystal structures of alkaline-earth cuprates were satisfactorily described and some of their physical properties were predicted. It was found that a harmonic three-particle O-Cu-O potential and some Morse-type contributions to the simple Buckingham-type Cu-O repulsive potential enable one to improve essentially the results of crystal structure modeling for cuprates. The obtained potential set seems to be well transferable for different cuprates, despite the variety in linkages of the CuO{sub 4} groups. In the present work this potential set model was applied in the crystal structure modeling for Ca{submore » 2}CuO{sub 3}, CaCuO{sub 2}, SrCuO{sub 3}, (Sr{sub 1.19}Ca{sub 0.73})Cu{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and BaCuO{sub 2}. Some elastic and energetic properties of the compounds under question were predicted.« less

  2. Heat capacity of rare-earth cuprates, orthovanadates, and aluminum garnets, gallium garnets, and iron garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, L. T.; Kargin, Yu. F.; Denisov, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    The correlation between the heat capacities of rare-earth cuprates, orthovanadates, and garnets with ionic radius R 3+ has been analyzed. It has been shown that the values of C {/p 0} change consistently depending on the radius R 3+ within the corresponding tetrads (La-Nd, Pm-Gd, Gd-Ho, Eu-Lu).

  3. Review on dielectric properties of rare earth doped barium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Fatin Adila, E-mail: fatinadilaismail@gmail.com; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat, E-mail: rozana@unimap.edu.my; Frontier Materials Research, Seriab, 01000 Kangar, Perlis

    2016-07-19

    Rare earth doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) were studied due to high permittivity, excellent electrical properties and have wide usage in various applications. This paper reviewed on the electrical properties of RE doped BaTiO{sub 3} (RE: Lanthanum (La), Erbium (Er), Samarium (Sm), Neodymium (Nd), Cerium (Ce)), processing method, phase transition occurred and solid solution range for complete study. Most of the RE doped BaTiO{sub 3} downshifted the Curie temperature (T{sub C}). Transition temperature also known as Curie temperature, T{sub C} where the ceramics had a transition from ferroelectric to a paraelectric phase. In this review, the dielectric constant of La-dopedmore » BaTiO{sub 3}, Er-doped BaTiO{sub 3}, Sm-doped BaTiO{sub 3}, Nd-doped BaTiO{sub 3} and Ce-doped BaTiO{sub 3} had been proved to increase and the transition temperature or also known as T{sub C} also lowered down to room temperature as for all the RE doped BaTiO{sub 3} except for Er-doped BaTiO{sub 3}.« less

  4. Thermoelectric Properties of Barium Plumbate Doped by Alkaline Earth Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eufrasio, Andreza; Bhatta, Rudra; Pegg, Ian; Dutta, Biprodas

    Ceramic oxides are now being considered as a new class of thermoelectric materials because of their high stability at elevated temperatures. Such materials are especially suitable for use as prospective thermoelectric power generators because high temperatures are encountered in such operations. The present investigation uses barium plumbate (BaPbO3) as the starting material, the thermoelectric properties of which have been altered by judicious cation substitutions. BaPbO3 is known to exhibit metallic properties which may turn semiconducting as a result of compositional changes without precipitating a separate phase and/or altering the basic perovskite crystal structure. Perovskite structures are noted for their large interstitial spaces which can accommodate a large variety of ``impurity'' ions. As BaPbO3 has high electrical conductivity, σ = 2.43x105Ω-1 m-1 at room temperature, its thermopower, S, is relatively low, 23 μV/K, as expected. With a thermal conductivity, k, of 4.83Wm-1K-1, the figure of merit (ZT =S2 σ Tk-1) of BaPbO3 is only 0.01 at T = 300K. The objective of this investigation is to study the variation of thermoelectric properties of BaPbO3 as Ba and Pb ions are systematically substituted by alkaline earth ions.

  5. Enhanced pinning in mixed rare earth-123 films

    DOEpatents

    Driscoll, Judith L [Los Alamos, NM; Foltyn, Stephen R [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-06-16

    An superconductive article and method of forming such an article is disclosed, the article including a substrate and a layer of a rare earth barium cuprate film upon the substrate, the rare earth barium cuprate film including two or more rare earth metals capable of yielding a superconductive composition where ion size variance between the two or more rare earth metals is characterized as greater than zero and less than about 10.times.10.sup.-4, and the rare earth barium cuprate film including two or more rare earth metals is further characterized as having an enhanced critical current density in comparison to a standard YBa.sub.2Cu.sub.3O.sub.y composition under identical testing conditions.

  6. Rare earth-doped barium gallo-germanate glasses and their near-infrared luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Pisarska, Joanna; Sołtys, Marta; Górny, Agata; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Zmojda, Jacek; Dorosz, Jan; Dorosz, Dominik; Sitarz, Maciej; Pisarski, Wojciech A

    2018-08-05

    Near-infrared luminescence properties of Nd 3+ and Ho 3+ ions in barium gallo-germanate glasses have been reported. Several spectroscopic parameters for Nd 3+ and Ho 3+ ions have been determined from the Judd-Ofelt analysis and absorption/luminescence measurements. Quite large luminescence lifetime, quantum efficiency and stimulated emission cross-section have been obtained for the main 4 F 3/2  →  4 I 11/2 (Nd 3+ ) and 5 I 7  →  5 I 8 (Ho 3+ ) laser transitions of rare earths in barium gallo-germanate glasses. It suggests that barium gallo-germanate glass is promising for near-infrared laser application at emission wavelengths 1064 nm (Nd 3+ ) and 2020 nm (Ho 3+ ). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Geophysical disturbance environment during the NASA/MPE barium release at 5 earth radii on September 21, 1971.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. N.; Stanley, G. M.; Boyd, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The geophysical disturbance environment was quiet during the NASA/MPE barium release at 5 earth radii on September 21, 1971. At the time of the release, the magnetosphere was in the late recovery phase of a principal magnetic storm, the provisional Dst value was -13 gammas, and the local horizontal disturbance at Great Whale River was near zero. Riometer and other observations indicated low-level widespread precipitation of high-energy electrons at Great Whale River before, during, and after the release. Cloudy sky at this station prevented optical observation of aurora. No magnetic or ionospheric effects attributable to the barium release were detected at Great Whale River.

  8. Barium enema

    MedlinePlus

    Lower gastrointestinal series; Lower GI series; Colorectal cancer - lower GI series; Colorectal cancer - barium enema; Crohn disease - lower GI series; Crohn disease - barium enema; Intestinal blockage - lower GI series; Intestinal ...

  9. On Characterization of Barium Rare-Earth Antimonates: Ordered Perovskites Suitable as Substrates for Superconducting Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, J. A.; Cascales, C.; García Casado, P.; Rasines, I.

    1997-02-01

    The crystal structure of the ordered perovskites Ba2(RSb)O6(R=Y, Ho) is refined from neutron powder diffraction data in the space groupFmoverline3m(No. 225),Z=4, with Ba at 8(c),Rat 4(b), Sb at 4(a), oxygen at 24(e), oxygen positional parameterx=0.2636(2) forR=Y and Ho, and unit cell dimensions ofa/Å=8.4240(3) and 8.4170(2) forR=Y and Ho, respectively. Bond-valence analysis explains how the highly covalent Sb-O bonds determine the overall structure of these perovskites in whichR-O and Ba-O bonds are under compressive and tensile stresses, respectively. The magnetic susceptibility of Ba2(HoSb)O6has been measured in the temperature range 2-350 K. From ana prioriestimation of the crystal-field parameters corresponding to the point site symmetry of the rare-earth,Oh, and using the wave functions associated with the energy levels obtained, the paramagnetic susceptibility and its evolution vs temperature is simulated according to the van Vleck formalism. The observed deviation from the Curie-Weiss behavior at low temperature, very well reproduced, reflects the splitting of the ground state of this cation under the influence of the crystal field.

  10. Melting curve of compressed barium carbonate from in situ ionic conductivity measurements: Implications for the melting behavior of alkaline earth carbonates in Earth's deep carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J.; Li, J.; Zhu, F.; Li, Z.; Farawi, R.

    2017-12-01

    The whereabouts of subducted carbonates place a major constraint on the Earth's deep carbon cycle, but the fraction of carbon retained in the slab and transported into the deep mantle, compared to that released from the slab and recycled to the surface, is still under debate. Knowledge of the stability of carbonated mantle rocks is pivotal for assessing the ability of slabs to carry carbonates into the deep mantle. Determination and systematic comparison of the melting curves of alkali and alkaline earth carbonates at high pressure can help construct thermodynamic models to predict the melting behavior of complex carbonated mantle rocks. Among alkaline earth carbonates, the melting behavior of barium carbonate (BaCO3) has not been adequately understood. The reported melting point of BaCO3at 1 bar differ by nearly 800 °C and constraints on the melting curve of BaCO3 at high pressure are not available. In this study, the melting temperatures of BaCO3 were determined up to 11 GPa from in situ ionic conductivity measurements using the multi-anvil apparatus at the University of Michigan. The solid-liquid boundary at high pressure was detected on the basis of a steep rise in conductivity through the sample upon melting. The melting point of BaCO3 was found to drop from 1797 °C at 3.3 GPa to 1600 °C at 5.5 GPa and then rise with pressure to 2180 °C at 11 GPa. The observed melting depression point at 5.5 GPa corresponds to the phase transition of BaCO3 from the aragonite structure (Pmcn) to post-aragonite structure (Pmmn) at 6.3 GPa, 877 °C and 8.0 GPa, 727 °C, determined from synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements using laser-heated DAC experiments at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. These results are also compared with ex situ falling marker experiments, and the three methods together place tight constraints on the melting curve of BaCO3 and elucidates the effect of structural phase transitions on its melting behavior.

  11. Barium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Barium cyanide ; CASRN 542 - 62 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  12. Barium Sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... and intestine using x-rays or computed tomography (CAT scan, CT scan; a type of body scan that uses a ... be clearly seen by x-ray examination or CT scan. ... more times before an x-ray examination or CT scan.If you are using a barium sulfate enema, ...

  13. Barite (Barium)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Craig A.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Miller, M. Michael; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) is vital to the oil and gas industry because it is a key constituent of the mud used to drill oil and gas wells. Elemental barium is an additive in optical glass, ceramic glazes, and other products. Within the United States, barite is produced mainly from mines in Nevada. Imports in 2011 (the latest year for which complete data were available) accounted for 78 percent of domestic consumption and came mostly from China.Barite deposits can be divided into the following four main types: bedded-sedimentary; bedded-volcanic; vein, cavity-fill, and metasomatic; and residual. Bedded-sedimentary deposits, which are found in sedimentary rocks with characteristics of high biological productivity during sediment accumulation, are the major sources of barite production and account for the majority of reserves, both in the United States and worldwide. In 2013, China and India were the leading producers of barite, and they have large identified resources that position them to be significant producers for the foreseeable future. The potential for undiscovered barite resources in the United States and in many other countries is considerable, however. The expected tight supply and rising costs in the coming years will likely be met by increased production from such countries as Kazakhstan, Mexico, Morocco, and Vietnam.Barium has limited mobility in the environment and exposed barium in the vicinity of barite mines poses minimal risk to human or ecosystem health. Of greater concern is the potential for acidic metal-bearing drainage at sites where the barite ores or waste rocks contain abundant sulfide minerals. This risk is lessened naturally if the host rocks at the site are acid-neutralizing, and the risk can also be lessened by engineering measures.

  14. Plasmons in cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozovic, Ivan

    1990-08-01

    The customary way of determining the complex dielectric constant from the measured reflectance spectra suffers from large uncertainties because of the extrapolations required for the Kramers-Kronig transformation. To avoid these, a method is introduced in which reflectance and ellipsometric data on single crystals and epitaxial films are combined. Utilizing this approach, the spectral functions of YBa2Cu3O7 (Y-Ba-Cu-O) and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O) are determined with substantially improved accuracy. This enables the unambiguous identification of optic plasmons at 1.4 eV in Y-Ba-Cu-O and at 1.1 eV in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O. No other low-lying optic plasmons are detected, which likely rules out most plasmon-mediated superconductivity models. Next, the bare plasma frequency is found to be ħωp=3.2+/-0.3 eV in Y-Ba-Cu-O and ħωp=2.4+/-0.3 eV in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O. These values support ascribing the strong infrared absorption to charge carriers which, however, are not free-electron-like, but rather show characteristic polaronic behavior. Finally, in both Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O, it is found that Im(-1/ɛ)=βω2 for small ω, and this law is conjectured to be universal for all layered cuprate superconductors. It is again not Drude-like; it may be compatible with the layered electron-gas model. The latter implies existence of a broad band of acoustic plasmon branches.

  15. Studies on the Origins and Nature of Critical Current Variations in Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide Coated Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xinbo

    REBCO (REBa2Cu3O7-delta, RE=rare earth elements) coated conductor (CC) is one of the best candidates for building high-field magnets and it has been improved greatly in recent years. CC overcome the grain boundary problem by using either a rolling assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS) or ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) of a template for the REBCO. Artificial pinning centers were also introduced to increase critical current density. Despite all these improvements, one significant residual problem is lengthwise critical current (Ic) variations of the CCs. Characterizations of CCs can not only identify the variations, but also provide insight that can help improve the manufacturing process. This study focuses on cross-sectional and vortex pinning variations in CCs. With the reel-to-reel Ic and magnetization measurement system (YateStar), a systematic study has been carried out for CCs made in the last 5-6 years as this technology has rapidly developed. We found that cross-section variations exist for almost all conductors because of width variations. But this contribution to the total Ic variation is small. Vortex pinning variations are found to be the main reason for Ic variations, especially for conductors from different production runs. Even for conductors from the same run, pinning variations are often present. Microscopy studies show that the density and length of BaZrO3 (BZO) nanorods vary between different conductors even though they have nominally the same specifications. Pinning variations in one single tape are mostly attributed to the size variations of BZO nanorods and the configurations of RE2O3 precipitates. Deconstruction of magnet coils and cables were carried out to understand the reasons for in-service degradation. The prototype coil for the 32 T project was safely quenched more than 100 times but it degraded in 3 spontaneous quenches (conducted in an accelerated fatigue testing campaign at ramp rates much larger than service

  16. BARIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Blanco, R.E.

    1959-07-21

    A method of separating barium from nuclear fission products is described. In accordance with the invention, barium may be recovered from an acidic solution of neutron-irradiated fissionable material by carrying ihe barium cut of solution as a sulfate with lead as a carrier and then dissolving the barium-containing precipitate in an aqueous solution of an aliphatic diamine chelating reagent. The barium values together with certain other metallic values present in the diamine solution are then absorbed onto a cation exchange resin and the barium is selectively eluted from the resin bed with concentrated nitric acid.

  17. Barium enema (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

  18. Barium release system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A chemical system is described for releasing a good yield of free barium neutral atoms and barium ions in the upper atmosphere and interplanetary space for the study of the geophysical properties of the medium. The barium is released in the vapor phase so that it can be ionized by solar radiation and also be excited to emit resonance radiation in the visible range. The ionized luminous cloud of barium becomes a visible indication of magnetic and electrical characteristics in space and allows determination of these properties over relatively large areas at a given time.

  19. The color of polarization in cuprate superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, H. A.; Osofsky, M. S.; Lechter, W. L.; Pande, C. S.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for the identification of individual anisotropic grains in a heterogeneous and opaque material involves the observation of grain color in reflected light through crossed polarizers (color of polarization). Such colors are generally characteristic of particular phases. When grains of many members of the class of hole carrier cuprate superconductors are so viewed at room temperature with a 'daylight' source, a characteristic color of polarization is observed. This color was studied in many of these cuprate superconductors and a strong correlation was found between color and the existence of superconductivity. Two members were also examined of the electron cuprate superconductors and it was found that they possess the same color of polarization as the hole carrier cuprate superconductors so far examined. The commonality of the characteristic color regardless of charge carrier indicates that the presence of this color is independent of carrier type. The correlation of this color with the existence of superconductivity in the cuprate superconductors suggests that the origin of the color relates to the origin of superconductivity. Photometric techniques are also discussed.

  20. Ultrafast photoconductivity of undoped cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, J. Steven; Farahani, Amir; Petersen, Jesse; Liang, Ruixing; Bozovic, Ivan

    2010-03-01

    Using a visible pump-THz probe technique, we studied the ultrafast transient photoconductivity of the insulating cuprate La2CuO4, and compared it with earlier measurements of Sr2CuO2Cl2 and YBa2Cu3O6. In all these compounds, we observe a rapid onset of photoconductivity that is followed by a non-exponential relaxation on a picosecond time scales, the dynamics of which are independent of photocarrier concentration ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 percent. The photoconductivity decay is qualitatively similar to the decay of the photoinduced gap absorption in Sr2CuO2Cl2,footnotetextJ. S. Dodge, arXiv:0910.5048 indicating a common origin for the two effects. Assuming a quantum efficiency of unity, the estimated peak mobility for all three compounds is within 0.1-0.4 cm^2/V.s; this is lower than the Hall mobility in chemically doped systems with similar carrier concentrations,footnotetext Ando et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 017001 (2001) but orders of magnitude larger than earlier DC photoconductivity results.footnotetextThio et al, Phys. Rev. B 42, 10800 (1990) The similarity of the peak photoconductivity across three different compounds indicates that it is an intrinsic feature of the copper oxide plane.

  1. Electron-phonon Interactions in HTSC Cuprates

    SciTech Connect

    Egami, T.; Chung, J.-H.; McQueeny, R. J.

    Phonons have been generally considered to be irrelevant to the high-temperature superconductivity in the cuprates. However, such a bias is usually based upon the assumption of conventional electron-phonon coupling, while in the cuprates the coupling can be rather unconventional because of strong electron correlation. We present the results of our recent measurements of phonon dispersion in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} by inelastic neutron scattering. These suggest certain phonon modes interact strongly with electrons and are closely involved in the superconductivity phenomenon with possible contribution to pairing.

  2. Enhancing critical current density of cuprate superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Chaudhari, Praveen

    2015-06-16

    The present invention concerns the enhancement of critical current densities in cuprate superconductors. Such enhancement of critical current densities include using wave function symmetry and restricting movement of Abrikosov (A) vortices, Josephson (J) vortices, or Abrikosov-Josephson (A-J) vortices by using the half integer vortices associated with d-wave symmetry present in the grain boundary.

  3. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Treesearch

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  4. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  5. Hole-doped cuprate high temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, C. W.; Deng, L. Z.; Lv, B.

    2015-07-01

    Hole-doped cuprate high temperature superconductors have ushered in the modern era of high temperature superconductivity (HTS) and have continued to be at center stage in the field. Extensive studies have been made, many compounds discovered, voluminous data compiled, numerous models proposed, many review articles written, and various prototype devices made and tested with better performance than their nonsuperconducting counterparts. The field is indeed vast. We have therefore decided to focus on the major cuprate materials systems that have laid the foundation of HTS science and technology and present several simple scaling laws that show the systematic and universal simplicity amid the complexity of these material systems, while referring readers interested in the HTS physics and devices to the review articles. Developments in the field are mostly presented in chronological order, sometimes with anecdotes, in an attempt to share some of the moments of excitement and despair in the history of HTS with readers, especially the younger ones.

  6. Excess Oxygen Defects in Layered Cuprates

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lightfoot, P.; Pei, S. Y.; Jorgensen, J. D.; Manthiram, A.; Tang, X. X.; Goodenough, J. B.

    1990-09-01

    Neutron powder diffraction has been used to study the oxygen defect chemistry of two non-superconducting layered cuprates, La{sub 1. 25}Dy{sub 0.75}Cu{sub 3.75}F{sub 0.5}, having a T{sup {asterisk}}- related structure, and La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 1.15}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 6.25}, having a structure related to that of the newly discovered double-layer superconductor La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 6}. The role played by oxygen defects in determining the superconducting properties of layered cuprates is discussed.

  7. What is really extraordinary in cuprate superconductors?

    DOE PAGES

    Bozovic, I.; Wu, J.; He, X.; ...

    2018-03-07

    Over the course of three decades of intense study, apart from the exceptionally high critical temperature, many unusual properties of cuprates have been discovered, notably including resistivity linear in temperature, electronic Raman continuum and optical absorption extending throughout the infrared region, pseudogap, hour-glass spin excitation spectrum, etc. However, each of these features have been also observed in other materials, including some that are not even superconducting at all. Here, we describe an extensive experiment in which over 2,000 films of the La 2-xSr xCuO 4 have been synthesized and studied in detail over the course of the last twelve years.more » We argue here that, uniquely, in the cuprates an unusual superconducting state, that defies the standard BCS description, develops from an unusual metallic state, in which the rotational symmetry of the electron fluid is spontaneously broken.« less

  8. Visualizing electron pockets in cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tanmoy; Markiewicz, R. S.; Bansil, A.; Balatsky, A. V.

    2012-06-01

    Fingerprints of the electron pocket in cuprates have been obtained only in numerous magnetotransport measurements, but its absence in spectroscopic observations poses a long-standing mystery. We develop a theoretical tool to provide ways to detect electron pockets via spectroscopies including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) spectra, inelastic neutron scattering (INS), and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). We show that the quasiparticle-interference (QPI) pattern, measured by STM, shows an additional seven q vectors associated with the scattering on the electron pocket than that on the hole pocket. Furthermore, the Bogolyubov quasiparticle scatterings of the electron pocket lead to a second magnetic resonance mode in the INS spectra at a higher resonance energy. Finally, we reanalyze some STM, INS, and ARPES experimental data of several cuprates which dictates the direct fingerprints of electron pockets in these systems.

  9. Barium and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 05 / 001 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF BARIUM AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 39 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) March 1998 Minor revisions January 1999 Reference dose revised June 2005 U.S . Environmental Protec

  10. Tailored Barium Swallow Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... sweetened and flavored. Special foods and containers, for example your child’s own cup, may be helpful in getting your child to drink in a more natural manner. What should you do after the test? Barium rarely causes any problems. It passes through ...

  11. Competing Quantum Orderings in Cuprate Superconductors:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, I.; Ortiz, G.; Balatsky, A. V.; Bishop, A. R.

    We present a minimal model for cuprate superconductors. At the unrestricted mean-field level, the model produces homogeneous superconductivity at large doping, striped superconductivity in the underdoped regime and various antiferromagnetic phases at low doping and for high temperatures. On the underdoped side, the superconductor is intrinsically inhomogeneous and global phase coherence is achieved through Josephson-like coupling of the superconducting stripes. The model is applied to calculate experimentally measurable ARPES spectra.

  12. The influence of A-site rare-earth for barium substitution on the chemical structure and ferroelectric properties of BZT thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostos, C.; Martínez-Sarrión, M. L.; Mestres, L.; Delgado, E.; Prieto, P.

    2009-10-01

    Rare-earth ( RE) doped Ba(Zr,Ti)O 3 (BZT) thin films were prepared by rf-magnetron sputtering from a Ba 0.90Ln0.067Zr 0.09Ti 0.91O 3 ( Ln=La, Nd) target. The films were deposited at a substrate temperature of 600 °C in a high oxygen pressure atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of RE-BZT films revealed a <001> epitaxial crystal growth on Nb-doped SrTiO 3, <001> and <011> growth on single-crystal Si, and a <111>-preferred orientation on Pt-coated Si substrates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed uniform growth of the films deposited, along with the presence of crystals of about half-micron size on the film's surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evidenced high crystalline films with thicknesses of about 100 nm for 30 min of sputtering. Electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) corroborated the growth rate (3.0-3.5 nm/min) of films deposited on Pt-coated Si substrates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in depth profile mode, showed variations in photoelectron Ti 2 p doublet positions at lower energies with spin-orbital distances characteristic of BaTiO 3-based compounds. The XPS analysis revealed that lanthanide ions positioned onto the A-site of the BZT-perovskite structure increasing the MO 6-octahedra distortion ( M=Ti, Zr) and, thereby, modifying the Ti-O binding length. Polarization-electric field hysteresis loops on Ag/ RE-doped BZT/Pt capacitor showed good ferroelectric behavior and higher remanent polarization values than corresponding non-doped system.

  13. Sr 2IrO 4: Gateway to cuprate superconductivity?

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J. F.

    High temperature superconductivity in cuprates remains a defining challenge in condensed matter physics. Recently, a new set of related compounds based on Ir rather than Cu has been discovered that may be on the verge of superconductivity themselves or be able to shed new light on the underlying interactions responsible for superconductivity in the cuprates.

  14. Silicosis in barium miners.

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, A; Ruckley, V A; Addison, J; Brown, W R

    1986-01-01

    Four men who mined barytes in Scotland and who developed pneumoconiosis are described. Three developed progressive massive fibrosis, from which two died; and one developed a nodular simple pneumoconiosis after leaving the industry. The radiological and pathological features of the men's lungs were those of silicosis and high proportions of quartz were found in two of them post mortem. The quartz was inhaled from rocks associated with the barytes in the mines. The features of silicosis in barium miners are contrasted with the benign pneumoconiosis, baritosis, that occurs in workers exposed to crushed and ground insoluble barium salts. Diagnostic difficulties arise when silicosis develops in workers mining minerals known to cause a separate and benign pneumoconiosis. These difficulties are compounded when, as not infrequently happens, the silicotic lesions develop or progress after exposure to quartz has ceased. Images PMID:3787542

  15. Barium Stars: Theoretical Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husti, Laura; Gallino, Roberto; Bisterzo, Sara; Straniero, Oscar; Cristallo, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    Barium stars are extrinsic Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars. They present the s-enhancement characteristic for AGB and post-AGB stars, but are in an earlier evolutionary stage (main sequence dwarfs, subgiants, red giants). They are believed to form in binary systems, where a more massive companion evolved faster, produced the s-elements during its AGB phase, polluted the present barium star through stellar winds and became a white dwarf. The samples of barium stars of Allen & Barbuy (2006) and of Smiljanic et al. (2007) are analysed here. Spectra of both samples were obtained at high-resolution and high S/N. We compare these observations with AGB nucleosynthesis models using different initial masses and a spread of 13C-pocket efficiencies. Once a consistent solution is found for the whole elemental distribution of abundances, a proper dilution factor is applied. This dilution is explained by the fact that the s-rich material transferred from the AGB to the nowadays observed stars is mixed with the envelope of the accretor. We also analyse the mass transfer process, and obtain the wind velocity for giants and subgiants with known orbital period. We find evidence that thermohaline mixing is acting inside main sequence dwarfs and we present a method for estimating its depth.

  16. Fatal barium chloride poisoning: four cases report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ananda, Sunnassee; Shaohua, Zhu; Liang, Liu

    2013-06-01

    Barium is an alkaline earth metal which has a variety of uses including in the manufacturing industry and in medicine. However, adverse health effects and fatalities occur due to absorption of soluble barium compounds, notably the chloride, nitrate, and hydroxide, which are toxic to humans. Although rare, accidental and suicidal modes of poisoning are sporadically reported in the literature.We describe 4 cases of poisoning due to barium chloride in China. In witnessed cases, severe gastrointestinal symptoms, hypokalemia leading to muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmias, and respiratory failure were noted. Autopsy showed some nonspecific but common findings, such as subendocardial hemorrhage in the ventricles, visceral petechiae, and fatty changes in the liver. Interestingly, microscopic examination showed degenerative changes and amorphous, flocculent foamy materials in the renal tubules. Toxicology was relevant for barium in blood and tissues. Three of the cases were accidental and 1 homicidal in nature. A round-up of relevant literature on fatal barium compounds poisoning is also provided. Forensic pathologists should be aware of the clinical presentations of barium compound poisoning and especially look for any evidence of hypokalemia. Still, postmortem toxicological and histological studies are essential for an accurate identification of the cause of death.

  17. NMR studies of spin dynamics in cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takigawa, M.; Mitzi, D. B.

    1994-04-01

    We report recent NMR results in cuprates. The oxygen Knight shift and the Cu nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in Bi2.1Sr1.94Ca0.88Cu2.07O8+δ single crystals revealed a gapless superconducting state, which can be most naturally explained by a d-wave pairing state and the intrinsic disorder in this material. The Cu nuclear spin-spin relaxation rate in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6.63 shows distinct temperature dependence from the spin-lattice relaxation rate, providing direct evidence for a pseudo spin-gap near the antiferromagnetic wave vector.

  18. Superconducting gap in cuprate high temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Sanjeev K.; Kumari, Anita; Gupta, Anushri; Indu, B. D.

    2018-05-01

    The many body quantum dynamical evaluation of double time thermodynamic electron Green's functions followed by generalized electron density of states (EDOS) is used to study the superconducting gap (SG). The dependence of EDOS on defects, anharmonicity and electron-phonon interactions makes the problem quite complicated and challenging but furnishes the more realistic grounds to study the SG both in conventional and high temperature superconductors (HTS). For simplicity, only electron-phonon interaction has been taken up to evaluate the intricate integral to enumerate the SG for representative cuprate HTS: YBa2Cu3O7-δ and results show 2Δ/kBTc ⋍ 7.2.

  19. Barium Peritonitis in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    KO, Jae Jin; MANN, F. A. (Tony)

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Barium peritonitis is extremely rare, but is difficult to treat and may be life-threatening. Barium suspension leakage from the gastrointestinal tract into the abdominal cavity has a time-dependent and synergistically deleterious effect in patients who have generalized bacterial peritonitis. The severity of barium peritonitis is dependent on the quantity of barium in the abdominal cavity. Barium sulfate leakage results in hypovolemia and hypoproteinemia by worsening the exudation of extracellular fluid and albumin. Abdominal fluid analysis is a useful and efficient method to diagnose barium peritonitis. Serial radiographs may not be a reliable or timely diagnostic technique. Initial aggressive fluid resuscitation and empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment should be instituted promptly, followed quickly by celiotomy. During exploratory surgical intervention, copious irrigation and direct wiping with gauze are employed to remove as much barium as possible. Omentectomy should be considered when needed to expedite barium removal. Despite aggressive medical and surgical treatments, postoperative prognosis is guarded to poor due to complications, such as acute vascular shock, sepsis, diffuse peritonitis, hypoproteninemia, electrolyte imbalance, cardiac arrest, small bowel obstruction related to progression of granulomas and adhesions in the abdominal cavity. Therefore, intensive postoperative monitoring and prompt intervention are necessary to maximize chances for a positive outcome. For those that do survive, small bowel obstruction is a potential consequence due to progression of abdominal adhesions. PMID:24430662

  20. Barium toxicosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Adam, Fiona H; Noble, Peter J M; Swift, Simon T; Higgins, Brent M; Sieniawska, Christine E

    2010-09-01

    A 2-year-old 14.9-kg (32.8-lb) neutered female Shetland Sheepdog was admitted to the University of Liverpool Small Animal Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute collapse. At admission, the dog was tachypneic and had reduced limb reflexes and muscle tone in all limbs consistent with diffuse lower motor neuron dysfunction. The dog was severely hypokalemic (1.7 mEq/L; reference range, 3.5 to 5.8 mEq/L). Clinical status of the dog deteriorated; there was muscle twitching, flaccid paralysis, and respiratory failure, which was considered a result of respiratory muscle weakness. Ventricular arrhythmias and severe acidemia (pH, 7.18; reference range, 7.35 to 7.45) developed. Intoxication was suspected, and plasma and urine samples submitted for barium analysis had barium concentrations comparable with those reported in humans with barium toxicosis. Analysis of barium concentrations in 5 control dogs supported the diagnosis of barium toxicosis in the dog. Fluids and potassium supplementation were administered IV. The dog recovered rapidly. Electrolyte concentrations measured after recovery were consistently unremarkable. Quantification of plasma barium concentration 56 days after the presumed episode of intoxication revealed a large decrease; however, the plasma barium concentration remained elevated, compared with that in control dogs. To our knowledge, this case represented the first description of barium toxicosis in the veterinary literature. Barium toxicosis can cause life-threatening hypokalemia; however, prompt supportive treatment can yield excellent outcomes. Barium toxicosis is a rare but important differential diagnosis in animals with hypokalemia and appropriate clinical signs.

  1. Topics in electronic structure and spectroscopy of cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsin

    I have applied first-principles calculations to investigate several interrelated problems concerned with the electronic structure and spectroscopy of cuprates. The specific topics addressed in this thesis are as follows. 1. By properly including doping effects beyond rigid band filling, a longstanding problem of the missing Bi-O pocket in the electronic structure of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (Bi2212) is solved. The doping effect is explained in terms of Coulombic effect between layers and is a generic property of all cuprates. 2. A systematic study for Pb/O and rare-earth doping in Bi2212 is carried out to explain the experimental phase diagrams, and a possible new electron doped Bi2212 is predicted. 3. To investigate how the Mott insulators evolve into superconductors with the addition of holes, an analysis of angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) data of La2-xSr xCuO4 is carried out over a wide doping range of x = 0.03 - 0.30. The spectrum displays the presence of the van Hove singularity (VHS) whose location in energy and three-dimensionality are in accord with the band theory predictions. A nascent metallic state is found in the lightly doped Mott insulator and develops spectral weight as doping increases. This metallic spectrum is 'universal' in the sense that its dispersion depends weakly on doping, in sharp contrast to the common expectation that dispersion is renormalized to zero at half-filling. This finding challenges existing theoretical scenarios for cuprates. 4. Self-consistent mean-field three- and four-band Hubbard models are used to study the Mott gap in electron-doped cuprates. The Hubbard terms are decomposed into a Mott-like term which describes the lifting of Cu bands due to energy cost U and a Slater-like term which describes an additional splitting of Cu bands due to antiferromagnetic (AFM) order. While no set of doping-independent parameters can explain the observed gaps for the entire doping range, the experimental results are consistent with a weakly

  2. Charge and spin in low-dimensional cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, Sadamichi; Tohyama, Takami

    2001-03-01

    One of the central issues in the study of high-temperature superconducting cuprates which are composed of two-dimensional (2D) CuO2 planes is whether the 2D systems with strong electron correlation behave as a Fermi liquid or a non-Fermi-liquid-like one-dimensional (1D) system with electron correlation. In this article, we start with the detailed examination of the electronic structure in cuprates and study theoretically the spin and charge dynamics in 1D and 2D cuprates. The theoretical background of spin-charge separation in the 1D model systems including the Hubbard and t-J models is presented. The first direct observation of collective modes of spin and charge excitations in a 1D cuprate, which are called spinons and holons respectively, in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments is reviewed in the light of the theoretical results based on the numerically exact-diagonalization method. The charge and spin dynamics in 1D insulating cuprates is also discussed in connection with the spin-charge separation. The arguments are extended to the 2D cuprates, and the unique aspects of the electronic properties of high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the d-wave-like excitations in insulating 2D cuprates observed in ARPES experiments. We explain how the excitations are caused by the spin-charge separation. The charge stripes observed in the underdoped cuprates are examined in connection with spin-charge separation in real space.

  3. Probing optically silent superfluid stripes in cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekaran, S.; Okamoto, J.; Mathey, L.; Fechner, M.; Thampy, V.; Gu, G. D.; Cavalleri, A.

    2018-02-01

    Unconventional superconductivity in the cuprates coexists with other types of electronic order. However, some of these orders are invisible to most experimental probes because of their symmetry. For example, the possible existence of superfluid stripes is not easily validated with linear optics, because the stripe alignment causes interlayer superconducting tunneling to vanish on average. Here we show that this frustration is removed in the nonlinear optical response. A giant terahertz third harmonic, characteristic of nonlinear Josephson tunneling, is observed in La1.885Ba0.115CuO4 above the transition temperature Tc = 13 kelvin and up to the charge-ordering temperature Tco = 55 kelvin. We model these results by hypothesizing the presence of a pair density wave condensate, in which nonlinear mixing of optically silent tunneling modes drives large dipole-carrying supercurrents.

  4. Probing optically silent superfluid stripes in cuprates

    SciTech Connect

    Rajasekaran, S.; Okamoto, J.; Mathey, L.

    Unconventional superconductivity in the cuprates coexists with other types of electronic order. However, some of these orders are invisible to most experimental probes because of their symmetry. For example, the possible existence of superfluid stripes is not easily validated with linear optics, because the stripe alignment causes interlayer superconducting tunneling to vanish on average. In this paper, we show that this frustration is removed in the nonlinear optical response. A giant terahertz third harmonic, characteristic of nonlinear Josephson tunneling, is observed in La 1.885Ba 0.115CuO 4 above the transition temperature T c = 13 kelvin and up to the charge-orderingmore » temperature T co = 55 kelvin. We model these results by hypothesizing the presence of a pair density wave condensate, in which nonlinear mixing of optically silent tunneling modes drives large dipole-carrying supercurrents.« less

  5. Probing optically silent superfluid stripes in cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Rajasekaran, S.; Okamoto, J.; Mathey, L.; ...

    2018-02-02

    Unconventional superconductivity in the cuprates coexists with other types of electronic order. However, some of these orders are invisible to most experimental probes because of their symmetry. For example, the possible existence of superfluid stripes is not easily validated with linear optics, because the stripe alignment causes interlayer superconducting tunneling to vanish on average. In this paper, we show that this frustration is removed in the nonlinear optical response. A giant terahertz third harmonic, characteristic of nonlinear Josephson tunneling, is observed in La 1.885Ba 0.115CuO 4 above the transition temperature T c = 13 kelvin and up to the charge-orderingmore » temperature T co = 55 kelvin. We model these results by hypothesizing the presence of a pair density wave condensate, in which nonlinear mixing of optically silent tunneling modes drives large dipole-carrying supercurrents.« less

  6. Two band model for the cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shiu; White, Steven

    2009-03-01

    We use a numerical canonical transformation approach to derive an effective two-band model for the hole-doped cuprates, which keeps both oxygen and copper orbitals but removes double occupancy from each. A similar model was considered previously by Frenkel, Gooding, Shraiman, and Siggia (PRB 41, number 1, page 350). We compare the numerically derived model with previously obtained analytical results. In addition to the usual hopping terms between oxygens tpp and Cu-Cu exchange terms Jdd, the model also includes a strong copper-oxygen exchange interaction Jpd and a Kondo-like spin-flip oxygen-oxygen hopping term Kpdp. We use the density matrix renormalization group to study the charge, spin, and pairing properties of the derived model on ladder systems.

  7. Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  8. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be asked to change position several times to evenly coat the large intestine with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast lower GI series, the radiologist will inject air through the tube ...

  9. Barium light source method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, John J. (Inventor); MacDonagh-Dumler, Jeffrey (Inventor); Anderson, Heidi M. (Inventor); Lawler, James E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Visible light emission is obtained from a plasma containing elemental barium including neutral barium atoms and barium ion species. Neutral barium provides a strong green light emission in the center of the visible spectrum with a highly efficient conversion of electrical energy into visible light. By the selective excitation of barium ionic species, emission of visible light at longer and shorter wavelengths can be obtained simultaneously with the green emission from neutral barium, effectively providing light that is visually perceived as white. A discharge vessel contains the elemental barium and a buffer gas fill therein, and a discharge inducer is utilized to induce a desired discharge temperature and barium vapor pressure therein to produce from the barium vapor a visible light emission. The discharge can be induced utilizing a glow discharge between electrodes in the discharge vessel as well as by inductively or capacitively coupling RF energy into the plasma within the discharge vessel.

  10. What is strange about high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Božović, I.; He, X.; Wu, J.; Bollinger, A. T.

    2017-10-01

    Cuprate superconductors exhibit many features, but the ultimate question is why the critical temperature (Tc) is so high. The fundamental dichotomy is between the weak-pairing, Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) scenario, and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of strongly-bound pairs. While for underdoped cuprates it is hotly debated which of these pictures is appropriate, it is commonly believed that on the overdoped side strongly-correlated fermion physics evolves smoothly into the conventional BCS behavior. Here, we test this dogma by studying the dependence of key superconducting parameters on doping, temperature, and external fields, in thousands of cuprate samples. The findings do not conform to BCS predictions anywhere in the phase diagram.

  11. Barium Stars and Thermohaline Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Husti, Laura

    2008-01-24

    Barium stars are formed in binary systems through mass transfer from the carbon and s-element rich primary in the AGB phase, to the secondary star which is in a less evolved evolutionary stage. The mixing of the accreted material from the AGB donor with the envelope of the secondary results in a dilution of the s-element abundances. Dilution in red giants is explained by the occurence of the first dredge up, while in case of dwarfs thermohaline mixing would determine it. A comparison between the theoretical predictions of the AGB stellar models and the spectroscopical observations of a large samplemore » of barium stars has been made. Dilution due to thermohaline mixing was taken into account when searching for best fits of the observational data. The importance of thermohaline mixing in barium dwarfs is discussed.« less

  12. Ultrafast studies of coexisting electronic order in cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, James; Thewalt, Eric; Alpichshev, Zhanybek; Sternbach, Aaron; McLeod, Alex; Ji, L.; Veit, Mike; Dorrow, Chelsey; Koralek, Jake; Xhao, Xudong; Barisic, Neven; Kemper, Alexander; Gedik, Nuh; Greven, Martin; Basov, Dimitri; Orenstein, Joe

    The cuprate family of high temperature superconductors displays a variety of electronic phases which emerge when charge carriers are added to the antiferromagnetic parent compound. These electronic phases are characterized by subtle differences in the low energy electronic excitations. Ultrafast time-resolved reflectivity (TRR) provides an ideal tool for investigating the cuprate phase diagram, as small changes in the electronic structure can produce significant contrast in the non-equilibrium reflectivity. Here we present TRR measurements of cuprate superconductors, focusing on the model single-layer cuprate HgBa2CuO4+δ. We observe a cusp-like feature in the quasiparticle lifetime near the superconducting transition temperature Tc. This feature can be understood using a model of coherently-mixed charge-density wave and superconducting pairing. We propose extending this technique to the nanoscale using ultrafast scattering scanning near-field microscopy (u-SNOM). This will allow us to explore how these electronic phases coexist and compete in real-space.

  13. Insights on the Cuprate High Energy Anomaly Observed in ARPES

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, Brian

    2011-08-16

    Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been used to highlight an anomalously large band renormalization at high binding energies in cuprate superconductors: the high energy 'waterfall' or high energy anomaly (HEA). The anomaly is present for both hole- and electron-doped cuprates as well as the half-filled parent insulators with different energy scales arising on either side of the phase diagram. While photoemission matrix elements clearly play a role in changing the aesthetic appearance of the band dispersion, i.e. creating a 'waterfall'-like appearance, they provide an inadequate description for the physics that underlies the strong band renormalization giving rise to the HEA.more » Model calculations of the single-band Hubbard Hamiltonian showcase the role played by correlations in the formation of the HEA and uncover significant differences in the HEA energy scale for hole- and electron-doped cuprates. In addition, this approach properly captures the transfer of spectral weight accompanying doping in a correlated material and provides a unifying description of the HEA across both sides of the cuprate phase diagram. We find that the anomaly demarcates a transition, or cross-over, from a quasiparticle band at low binding energies near the Fermi level to valence bands at higher binding energy, assumed to be of strong oxygen character.« less

  14. Theory of superconductivity and spin excitations in cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plakida, Nikolay M.

    2018-06-01

    A microscopic theory of high-temperature superconductivity in strongly correlated systems as cuprates is presented. The two-subband extended Hubbard model is considered where the intersite Coulomb repulsion and electron-phonon interaction are taken into account. The low-energy spin excitations are considered within the t-J model.

  15. Model of electron pairs in electron-doped cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. J.; Khan, Shakeel

    2016-07-01

    In the order parameter of hole-doped cuprate superconductors in the pseudogap phase, two holes enter the order parameter from opposite sides and pass through various CuO2 cells jumping from one O2- to the other under the influence of magnetic field offered by the Cu2+ ions in that CuO2 cell and thus forming hole pairs. In the pseudogap phase of electron-doped cuprates, two electrons enter the order parameter at Cu2+ sites from opposite ends and pass from one Cu2+ site to the diagonally opposite Cu2+ site. Following this type of path, they are subjected to high magnetic fields from various Cu2+ ions in that cell. They do not travel from one Cu2+ site to the other along straight path but by helical path. As they pass through the diagonal, they face high to low to very high magnetic field. Therefore, frequency of helical motion and pitch goes on changing with the magnetic field. Just before reaching the Cu2+ ions at the exit points of all the cells, the pitch of the helical motion is enormously decreased and thus charge density at these sites is increased. So the velocity of electrons along the diagonal path is decreased. Consequently, transition temperature of electron-doped cuprates becomes less than that of hole-doped cuprates. Symmetry of the order parameter of the electron-doped cuprates has been found to be of 3dx2-y2 + iS type. It has been inferred that internal magnetic field inside the order parameter reconstructs the Fermi surface, which is requisite for superconductivity to take place. Electron pairs formed in the pseudogap phase are the precursors of superconducting order parameter when cooled below Tc.

  16. High H⁻ ionic conductivity in barium hydride.

    PubMed

    Verbraeken, Maarten C; Cheung, Chaksum; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T S

    2015-01-01

    With hydrogen being seen as a key renewable energy vector, the search for materials exhibiting fast hydrogen transport becomes ever more important. Not only do hydrogen storage materials require high mobility of hydrogen in the solid state, but the efficiency of electrochemical devices is also largely determined by fast ionic transport. Although the heavy alkaline-earth hydrides are of limited interest for their hydrogen storage potential, owing to low gravimetric densities, their ionic nature may prove useful in new electrochemical applications, especially as an ionically conducting electrolyte material. Here we show that barium hydride shows fast pure ionic transport of hydride ions (H(-)) in the high-temperature, high-symmetry phase. Although some conductivity studies have been reported on related materials previously, the nature of the charge carriers has not been determined. BaH2 gives rise to hydride ion conductivity of 0.2 S cm(-1) at 630 °C. This is an order of magnitude larger than that of state-of-the-art proton-conducting perovskites or oxide ion conductors at this temperature. These results suggest that the alkaline-earth hydrides form an important new family of materials, with potential use in a number of applications, such as separation membranes, electrochemical reactors and so on.

  17. Chiral plaquette polaron theory of cuprate superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir-Kheli, Jamil; Goddard, William A., III

    2007-07-01

    Ab initio density functional calculations on explicitly doped La2-xSrxCuO4 find that doping creates localized holes in out-of-plane orbitals. A model for cuprate superconductivity is developed based on the assumption that doping leads to the formation of holes on a four-site Cu plaquette composed of the out-of-plane A1 orbitals apical Opz , planar Cud3z2-r2 , and planar Opσ . This is in contrast to the assumption of hole doping into planar Cudx2-y2 and Opσ orbitals as in the t-J model. Allowing these holes to interact with the d9 spin background leads to chiral polarons with either a clockwise or anticlockwise charge current. When the polaron plaquettes percolate through the crystal at x≈0.05 for La2-xSrxCuO4 , a Cudx2-y2 and planar Opσ band is formed. The computed percolation doping of x≈0.05 equals the observed transition to the “metallic” and superconducting phase for La2-xSrxCuO4 . Spin exchange Coulomb repulsion with chiral polarons leads to d -wave superconducting pairing. The equivalent of the Debye energy in phonon superconductivity is the maximum energy separation between a chiral polaron and its time-reversed partner. This energy separation is on the order of the antiferromagnetic spin coupling energy, Jdd˜0.1eV , suggesting a higher critical temperature. An additive skew-scattering contribution to the Hall effect is induced by chiral polarons and leads to a temperature dependent Hall effect that fits the measured values for La2-xSrxCuO4 . The integrated imaginary susceptibility, observed by neutron spin scattering, satisfies ω/T scaling due to chirality and spin-flip scattering of polarons along with a uniform distribution of polaron energy splittings. The derived functional form is compatible with experiments. The static spin structure factor for chiral spin coupling of the polarons to the undoped antiferromagnetic Cud9 spins is computed for classical spins on large two-dimensional lattices and is found to be incommensurate with a

  18. The problem of the barium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, E.; Nemec, J.; Proffitt, C.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of barium stars and other cool stars with peculiar element abundances are reported. Those observations attempted to find hot white dwarf companions. Among six real barium stars studied, only Zeta Cap was found to have a white dwarf companion. Among seven mild, or marginal, barium stars studied, at least three were found to have hot subluminous companions. It is likely that all of them have white dwarf companions.

  19. BARIUM AND STRONTIUM CONCENTRATIONS IN EYE TISSUE

    SciTech Connect

    Sowden, E.; Pirie, A.

    1958-12-01

    The stroniium and barium conient of the differeni parts of the eye has been estimated by the method of activation analysis in cattie, rabbit, and man. The pigmented parts of the eye coatain more stroatium and barium than the other parts, and barium in particular is concentrated in the choroid of the cow. These results are discussed in relation to the presence of high concentrations of zinc in the choroidal tapetum lucidum of other animals. (auth)

  20. Nernst effect from fluctuating pairs in the pseudogap phase of the cuprates.

    SciTech Connect

    Levchenko, A.; Norman, M. R.; Varlamov, A. A.

    2011-01-31

    The observation of a large Nernst signal in cuprates above the superconducting transition temperature has attracted much attention. A potential explanation is that it originates from superconducting fluctuations. Although the Nernst signal is indeed consistent with Gaussian fluctuations for overdoped cuprates, Gaussian theory fails to describe the temperature dependence seen for underdoped cuprates. Here, we consider the vertex correction to Gaussian theory resulting from the pseudogap. This yields a Nernst signal in good agreement with the data.

  1. Superconductivity-insensitive order at q~1/4 in electron doped cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jun -Sik; Jang, H.; Asano, S.; ...

    2017-12-15

    One of the central questions in the cuprate research is the nature of the ‘normal state’ which develops into high temperature superconductivity (HTSC). In the normal state of hole-doped cuprates, the existence of charge density wave (CDW) is expected to shed light on the mechanism of HTSC. With evidence emerging for CDW order in the electron-doped cuprates, the CDW would be thought to be a universal phenomenon in high-T c cuprates. However, the CDW phenomena in electron-doped cuprate are quite different than those in hole-doped cuprates. Here we study the nature of the putative CDW in an electron-doped cuprate throughmore » direct comparisons between as-grown and post-annealed Nd 1.86Ce 0.14CuO 4 (NCCO) single crystals using Cu L 3-edge resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSXS) and angleresolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). The RSXS result reveals that the non-superconducting NCCO shows the same reflections at the wavevector (~1/4, 0, l) as like the reported superconducting NCCO. This superconductivity-insensitivesignal is quite different with the characteristics of the CDW reflection in hole-doped cuprates. Moreover, the ARPES result suggests that the fermiology cannot account for such wavevector. Furthermore, these results call into question the universality of CDW phenomenon in the cuprates.« less

  2. Competing quantum orderings in cuprate superconductors: A minimal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, I.; Ortiz, G.; Balatsky, A. V.; Bishop, A. R.

    2001-02-01

    We present a minimal model for cuprate superconductors. At the unrestricted mean-field level, the model produces homogeneous superconductivity at large doping, striped superconductivity in the underdoped regime and various antiferromagnetic phases at low doping and for high temperatures. On the underdoped side, the superconductor is intrinsically inhomogeneous and global phase coherence is achieved through Josephson-like coupling of the superconducting stripes. The model is applied to calculate experimentally measurable ARPES spectra.

  3. Competing Quantum Orderings in Cuprate Superconductors: A Minimal Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Ivar; Ortiz, Gerardo; Balatsky, A. V.; Bishop, A. R.

    2001-03-01

    We present a minimal model for cuprate superconductors. At the unrestricted mean-field level, the model produces homogeneous superconductivity at large doping, striped superconductivity in the underdoped regime and various antiferromagnetic phases at low doping and for high temperatures. On the underdoped side, the superconductor is intrinsically inhomogeneous and global phase coherence is achieved through Josephson-like coupling of the superconducting stripes. The model is applied to calculate experimentally measurable ARPES spectra, and local density of states measurable by STM.

  4. Fermi-surface reconstruction by stripe order in cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laliberté, Francis

    2012-02-01

    The origin of pairing in a superconductor resides in the underlying normal state. In the cuprate high-temperature superconductor YBCO, application of a magnetic field to suppress superconductivity reveals a ground state that appears to break the translational symmetry of the lattice, pointing to some density-wave order [1,2,3]. In another cuprate, Eu-LSCO, the onset of stripe order - a modulation of spin and charge densities - at low temperature is well established [4]. By a comparative study of thermoelectric transport in the cuprates YBCO and Eu-LSCO, we show that the two materials exhibit a very similar process of Fermi-surface reconstruction as a function of temperature and doping [5,6]. This strongly suggests that Fermi-surface reconstruction is caused by stripe order in both cases, compelling evidence that stripe order is a generic tendency of hole-doped cuprates.[4pt] Work done in collaboration with J. Chang, N. Doiron-Leyraud, E. Hassinger, R. Daou, D. LeBoeuf, M. Rondeau, B. J. Ramshaw, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, W. N. Hardy, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, I. Sheikin, L. Malone, C. Proust, K. Behnia and L. Taillefer.[4pt] [1] N. Doiron-Leyraud et al., Nature 447, 565 (2007).[0pt] [2] D. LeBoeuf et al., Nature 450, 533 (2007).[0pt] [3] D. LeBoeuf et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 054506 (2011).[0pt] [4] J. Fink et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 092503 (2011).[0pt] [5] J. Chang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 057005 (2010).[0pt] [6] F. Lalibert'e et al., Nat. Commun. 2, 432 (2011).

  5. Tordo 1 polar cusp barium plasma injection experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, E.M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.C.; Davis, T.N.

    1978-04-01

    In January 1975, two barium plasma injection experiments were carried out with rockets launched from Cape Parry, Northwest Territories, Canada, into the upper atmosphere where field lines from the dayside cusp region intersect the ionosphere. One experiment, Tordo 1, took place near the beginning of a worldwide magnetic storm. It became a polar cap experiment almost immediately as convection perpendicular to B moved the fluorescent plasma jet away from the cusp across the polar cap in an antisunward direction. Convection across the polar cap with an average velocity of more than 1 km/s was observed for nearly 40 min untilmore » the barium flux tubes encountered large E fields associated with a poleward bulge of the auroral oval near Greenland. Prior to the encounter with the aurora near Greenland there is evidence of upward acceleration of the barium ions while they were in the polar cap. The three-dimensional observations of the plasma orientation and motion give an insight into convection from the cusp region across the polar cap, the orientation of the polar cap magnetic field lines out to several earth radii, the causes of polar cap magnetic perturbations, and parallel acceleration processes.« less

  6. The Tordo 1 polar cusp barium plasma injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Jeffries, R. A.; Roach, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In January 1975, two barium plasma injection experiments were carried out with rockets launched into the upper atmosphere where field lines from the dayside cusp region intersect the ionosphere. The Tordo 1 experiment took place near the beginning of a worldwide magnetic storm. It became a polar cap experiment almost immediately as convection perpendicular to the magnetic field moved the fluorescent plasma jet away from the cusp across the polar cap in an antisunward direction. Convection across the polar cap with an average velocity of more than 1 km/s was observed for nearly 40 min until the barium flux tubes encountered large electron fields associated with a poleward bulge of the auroral oval near Greenland. Prior to the encounter with the aurora near Greenland there is evidence of upward acceleration of the barium ions while they were in the polar cap. The three-dimensional observations of the plasma orientation and motion give an insight into convection from the cusp region across the polar cap, the orientation of the polar cap magnetic field lines out to several earth radii, the causes of polar cap magnetic perturbations, and parallel acceleration processes.

  7. Persistent-current switch for pancake coils of rare earth-barium-copper-oxide high-temperature superconductor: Design and test results of a double-pancake coil operated in liquid nitrogen (77–65 K) and in solid nitrogen (60–57 K)

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Timing; Michael, Philip C.; Bascuñán, Juan

    2016-08-22

    We present design and test results of a superconducting persistent current switch (PCS) for pancake coils of rare-earth-barium-copper-oxide, REBCO, high-temperature superconductor (HTS). Here, a REBCO double-pancake (DP) coil, 152-mm ID, 168-mm OD, 12-mm high, was wound with a no-insulation technique. We converted a ∼10-cm long section in the outermost layer of each pancake to a PCS. The DP coil was operated in liquid nitrogen (77–65 K) and in solid nitrogen (60–57 K). Over the operating temperature ranges of this experiment, the normal-state PCS enabled the DP coil to be energized; thereupon, the PCS resumed the superconducting state and the DP coil fieldmore » decayed with a time constant of 100 h, which would have been nearly infinite, i.e., persistent-mode operation, were the joint across the coil terminals superconducting.« less

  8. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  9. Meteorological support to the West German-United States Barium Ion Cloud Project.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westfall, R. R.; Chamberlain, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    The objective of the Barium Ion Cloud Project was to study a barium ionized cloud released at an altitude of 5 earth radii. Accurate forecasting of weather conditions to prevail during the experiment period was critical to the project success. Good seeing conditions were required at all optical sites during the experiment. All meteorological support was the responsibility of the National Weather Service at Wallops Station, Virginia. Preliminary results confirm the scientists' theories of the magnetic fields and the existence of electric fields in the magnetosphere.

  10. Praseodymium Cuprate Thin Film Cathodes for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Roles of Doping, Orientation, and Crystal Structure.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Kunal; Hayamizu, Yoshiaki; Kim, Chang Sub; Kolchina, Liudmila M; Mazo, Galina N; Istomin, Sergey Ya; Bishop, Sean R; Tuller, Harry L

    2016-12-21

    Highly textured thin films of undoped, Ce-doped, and Sr-doped Pr 2 CuO 4 were synthesized on single crystal YSZ substrates using pulsed laser deposition to investigate their area-specific resistance (ASR) as cathodes in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The effects of T' and T* crystal structures, donor and acceptor doping, and a-axis and c-axis orientation on ASR were systematically studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on half cells. The addition of both Ce and Sr dopants resulted in improvements in ASR in c-axis oriented films, as did the T* crystal structure with the a-axis orientation. Pr 1.6 Sr 0.4 CuO 4 is identified as a potential cathode material with nearly an order of magnitude faster oxygen reduction reaction kinetics at 600 °C compared to thin films of the commonly studied cathode material La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.8 Fe 0.2 O 3-δ . Orientation control of the cuprate films on YSZ was achieved using seed layers, and the anisotropy in the ASR was found to be less than an order of magnitude. The rare-earth doped cuprate was found to be a versatile system for study of relationships between bulk properties and the oxygen reduction reaction, critical for improving SOFC performance.

  11. A spatial interpretation of emerging superconductivity in lightly doped cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutscher, Guy; de Gennes, Pierre-Gilles

    The formation of domains comprising alternating 'hole rich' and 'hole poor' ladders recently observed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy by Kohsaka et al., on lightly hole doped cuprates, is interpreted in terms of an attractive mechanism which favors the presence of doped holes on Cu sites located each on one side of an oxygen atom. This mechanism leads to a geometrical pattern of alternating hole-rich and hole-poor ladders with a periodicity equal to 4 times the lattice spacing in the CuO plane, as observed experimentally. Cuprates supraconducteurs peu dopés : une interprétation des structures spatiales. Des arrangements électroniques réguliers ont été détectés récemment par Kohsaka et al. dans des cuprates sous dopés (via une sonde tunnel locale). Certaines paires Cu-O-Cu sont « actives », et forment une échelle. Les autres sites sont peu actifs. Pour expliquer ces structures, nous postulons que, lorsqu'une liaison Cu-O-Cu est occupée par deux trous, la distance (Cu-Cu) rétrécit et l'intégrale de transfert (t) est fortement augmentée. Ceci peut engendrer des paires localisées (réelles ou virtuelles). Aux taux de dopage étudiés, la période de répétition vaudrait 4 mailles élémentaires.

  12. Ong construction for the reconstructed Fermi surface of underdoped cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P.; Hussey, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Using the Ong construction for a two-dimensional metal, we show that the sign change in the Hall coefficient RH of underdoped hole-doped cuprates at low temperature is consistent with the emergence of biaxial charge order recently proposed to explain the observation of low-frequency quantum oscillations. The sharp evolution of RH with temperature, however, can only be reconciled by incorporating a highly anisotropic quasiparticle scattering rate. The magnitude and form of the scattering rate extracted from the fitting imply that those quasiparticles at the vertices of the reconstructed pocket(s) approach the boundary of incoherence at the onset of charge order.

  13. Towards the design of novel cuprate-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Chuck-Hou

    The rapid maturation of materials databases combined with recent development of theories seeking to quantitatively link chemical properties to superconductivity in the cuprates provide the context to design novel superconductors. In this talk, we describe a framework designed to search for new superconductors, which combines chemical rules-of-thumb, insights of transition temperatures from dynamical mean-field theory, first-principles electronic structure tools, materials databases and structure prediction via evolutionary algorithms. We apply the framework to design a family of copper oxysulfides and evaluate the prospects of superconductivity.

  14. Barium appendicitis after upper gastrointestinal imaging.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Nathan M; Lillemoe, Keith D; Falimirski, Mark E

    2010-02-01

    Barium appendicitis (BA) is a rarely seen entity with fewer than 30 reports in the literature. However, it is a known complication of barium imaging. To report a case of BA in a patient whose computed tomography (CT) scan was initially read as foreign body ingestion. An 18-year-old man presented with right lower quadrant pain after upper gastrointestinal imaging 2 weeks prior. A CT scan was obtained of his abdomen and pelvis that revealed a finding that was interpreted as a foreign body at the area of the terminal ileum. A plain X-ray study of the abdomen revealed radiopaque appendicoliths. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of barium appendicitis. BA is a rare entity and the pathogenesis is unclear. Shorter intervals between barium study and presentation with appendicitis usually correlate with fewer complications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2001-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Superconductivity in interacting interfaces of cuprate-based heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Castro, Daniele; Balestrino, Giuseppe

    2018-07-01

    Low dimensional superconducting systems have been the subject of numerous studies in the recent past, with the aim of achieving a higher and higher critical temperature (T c ). The recent improvement in film deposition techniques has allowed the realization of artificial heterostructures, with atomically flat surfaces and interfaces, where novel properties appear that are not present in the single constituent. For instance, quasi-2D superconductivity was found at the interface between different oxides. In this review we analyze, in particular, the quasi-2D superconductivity occurring at the interface between two non-superconducting oxides, mostly cuprates. Throughout a comparison of the superconducting properties of different oxide heterostructures and superlattices, we propose a phenomenological explanation of the behavior of the T c as a function of the number of conducting CuO2 planes. This is achieved by introducing two different interactions between the superconducting 2D sheets. This interpretation is finally extended also to standard high T c cuprates, contributing to the solution of the long-standing question of the dependence of T c on the number of CuO2 planes in these systems.

  17. Hybrid crystals of cuprates and iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dai; Cong-Cong, Le; Xian-Xin, Wu; Jiang-Ping, Hu

    2016-07-01

    We propose two possible new compounds, Ba2CuO2Fe2As2 and K2CuO2Fe2Se2, which hybridize the building blocks of two high temperature superconductors, cuprates and iron-based superconductors. These compounds consist of square CuO2 layers and antifluorite-type Fe2 X 2 (X = As, Se) layers separated by Ba/K. The calculations of binding energies and phonon spectra indicate that they are dynamically stable, which ensures that they may be experimentally synthesized. The Fermi surfaces and electronic structures of the two compounds inherit the characteristics of both cuprates and iron-based superconductors. These compounds can be superconductors with intriguing physical properties to help to determine the pairing mechanisms of high T c superconductivity. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB921300), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 1190020 and 11334012), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07000000).

  18. Phenomenological view at the two-component physics of cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teitel'baum, G. B.

    2017-08-01

    In the search for mechanisms of high- T c superconductivity it is critical to know the electronic spectrum in the pseudogap phase from which superconductivity evolves. The lack of ARPES data for every cuprate family precludes an agreement as to its structure, doping and temperature dependence and the role of charge ordering. No approach has been developed yet to address the issue theoretically, and we limit ourselves by the phenomenological analysis of the experimental data. We argue that, in the Fermi-liquid-like regime ubiquitous in underdoped cuprates, the spectrum consists of holes on the Fermi arcs and an electronic pocket in contrast to the idea of the Fermi surface reconstruction via charge ordering. At high temperatures, the electrons are dragged by holes while at lower temperatures they get decoupled. The longstanding issue of the origin of the negative Hall coefficient in YBCO and Hg1201 at low temperature is resolved: the electronic contribution prevails, as its mobility becomes temperature independent, while the mobility of holes, scattered by the shortwavelength charge density waves, decreases.

  19. Dynamics of correlation-frozen antinodal quasiparticles in superconducting cuprates

    PubMed Central

    Cilento, Federico; Manzoni, Giulia; Sterzi, Andrea; Peli, Simone; Ronchi, Andrea; Crepaldi, Alberto; Boschini, Fabio; Cacho, Cephise; Chapman, Richard; Springate, Emma; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Greven, Martin; Berciu, Mona; Kemper, Alexander F.; Damascelli, Andrea; Capone, Massimo; Giannetti, Claudio; Parmigiani, Fulvio

    2018-01-01

    Many puzzling properties of high–critical temperature (Tc) superconducting (HTSC) copper oxides have deep roots in the nature of the antinodal quasiparticles, the elementary excitations with wave vector parallel to the Cu–O bonds. These electronic states are most affected by the onset of antiferromagnetic correlations and charge instabilities, and they host the maximum of the anisotropic superconducting gap and pseudogap. We use time-resolved extreme-ultraviolet photoemission with proper photon energy (18 eV) and time resolution (50 fs) to disclose the ultrafast dynamics of the antinodal states in a prototypical HTSC cuprate. After photoinducing a nonthermal charge redistribution within the Cu and O orbitals, we reveal a dramatic momentum-space differentiation of the transient electron dynamics. Whereas the nodal quasiparticle distribution is heated up as in a conventional metal, new quasiparticle states transiently emerge at the antinodes, similarly to what is expected for a photoexcited Mott insulator, where the frozen charges can be released by an impulsive excitation. This transient antinodal metallicity is mapped into the dynamics of the O-2p bands, thus directly demonstrating the intertwining between the low- and high-energy scales that is typical of correlated materials. Our results suggest that the correlation-driven freezing of the electrons moving along the Cu–O bonds, analogous to the Mott localization mechanism, constitutes the starting point for any model of high-Tc superconductivity and other exotic phases of HTSC cuprates. PMID:29507885

  20. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.

  1. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    PubMed

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  2. Pseudogap temperature T* of cuprate superconductors from the Nernst effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyr-Choinière, O.; Daou, R.; Laliberté, F.; Collignon, C.; Badoux, S.; LeBoeuf, D.; Chang, J.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Liang, R.; Yan, J.-Q.; Cheng, J.-G.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J. B.; Pyon, S.; Takayama, T.; Takagi, H.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Taillefer, Louis

    2018-02-01

    We use the Nernst effect to delineate the boundary of the pseudogap phase in the temperature-doping phase diagram of hole-doped cuprate superconductors. New data for the Nernst coefficient ν (T ) of YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO), La1.8 -xEu0.2SrxCuO4 (Eu-LSCO), and La1.6 -xNd0.4SrxCuO4 (Nd-LSCO) are presented and compared with previously published data on YBCO, Eu-LSCO, Nd-LSCO, and La2 -xSrxCuO4 (LSCO). The temperature Tν at which ν /T deviates from its high-temperature linear behavior is found to coincide with the temperature at which the resistivity ρ (T ) deviates from its linear-T dependence, which we take as the definition of the pseudogap temperature T★—in agreement with the temperature at which the antinodal spectral gap detected in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) opens. We track T★ as a function of doping and find that it decreases linearly vs p in all four materials, having the same value in the three LSCO-based cuprates, irrespective of their different crystal structures. At low p ,T★ is higher than the onset temperature of the various orders observed in underdoped cuprates, suggesting that these orders are secondary instabilities of the pseudogap phase. A linear extrapolation of T★(p ) to p =0 yields T★(p →0 ) ≃TN (0), the Néel temperature for the onset of antiferromagnetic order at p =0 , suggesting that there is a link between pseudogap and antiferromagnetism. With increasing p ,T★(p ) extrapolates linearly to zero at p ≃pc 2 , the critical doping below which superconductivity emerges at high doping, suggesting that the conditions which favor pseudogap formation also favor pairing. We also use the Nernst effect to investigate how far superconducting fluctuations extend above the critical temperature Tc, as a function of doping, and find that a narrow fluctuation regime tracks Tc, and not T★. This confirms that the pseudogap phase is not a form of precursor superconductivity, and fluctuations in the phase of the

  3. Quantum percolation in cuprate high-temperature superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is now generally acknowledged that electron–phonon interactions cause cuprate superconductivity with Tc values ≈100 K, the complexities of atomic arrangements in these marginally stable multilayer materials have frustrated both experimental analysis and theoretical modeling of the remarkably rich data obtained both by angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) and high-resolution, large-area scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Here, we analyze the theoretical background in terms of our original (1989) model of dopant-assisted quantum percolation (DAQP), as developed further in some two dozen articles, and apply these ideas to recent STM data. We conclude that despite all of the many difficulties, with improved data analysis it may yet be possible to identify quantum percolative paths. PMID:18626024

  4. Nonequilibrium phase transitions in cuprates observed by ultrafast electron crystallography.

    PubMed

    Gedik, Nuh; Yang, Ding-Shyue; Logvenov, Gennady; Bozovic, Ivan; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2007-04-20

    Nonequilibrium phase transitions, which are defined by the formation of macroscopic transient domains, are optically dark and cannot be observed through conventional temperature- or pressure-change studies. We have directly determined the structural dynamics of such a nonequilibrium phase transition in a cuprate superconductor. Ultrafast electron crystallography with the use of a tilted optical geometry technique afforded the necessary atomic-scale spatial and temporal resolutions. The observed transient behavior displays a notable "structural isosbestic" point and a threshold effect for the dependence of c-axis expansion (Deltac) on fluence (F), with Deltac/F = 0.02 angstrom/(millijoule per square centimeter). This threshold for photon doping occurs at approximately 0.12 photons per copper site, which is unexpectedly close to the density (per site) of chemically doped carriers needed to induce superconductivity.

  5. Sr 2 IrO 4 : Gateway to cuprate superconductivity?

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J. F.

    2015-06-01

    To understand the varied magnetic and electronic properties of 3d transition metal oxides (TMO), we routinely invoke a separability among charge-, spin- and orbital degrees of freedom, tightly coupled yet distinct sectors that can be identified, measured, and understood individually. But something interesting happens on the way down the Periodic Table—relativistic spin-orbit coupling (SOC) grows progressively stronger, blurring the lines among these spin, charge, and orbital sectors. SOC forces us to consider a different conceptual framework for 4d, and particularly 5d TMO systems, than has been sufficient for our present day understanding of 3d analogs. Ironically, this rethinking needed formore » 5d oxides may turn out to be critical to our understanding of one of 3d TMO’s greatest treasures – cuprate superconductivity — and in the process may lead us on a pathway to discovery of a new class of high-Tc materials.« less

  6. Theory of asymmetric tunneling in the cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, P. W.; Ong, N. P.

    2006-01-01

    We explain quantitatively, within the Gutzwiller-Resonating Valence Bond theory, the puzzling observation of tunneling conductivity between a metallic point and a cuprate high-Tc superconductor which is markedly asymmetric between positive and negative voltage biases. The asymmetric part does not have a ‘coherence peak’ but does show structure due to the gap. The fit to data is satisfactory within the over-simplifications of the theory; in particular, it explains the marked ‘peak-dip-hump’ structure observed on the hole side and a number of other qualitative observations. This asymmetry is strong evidence for the projective nature of the ground state and hence for ‘t-J’ physics.

  7. Dynamics of the CRRES barium releases in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Mende, S. B.; Geller, S. P.; Miller, M.; Hoffman, R. A.; Wygant, J. R.; Pongratz, M.; Meredith, N. P.; Anderson, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) G-2, G-3, and G-4 ionized and neutral barium cloud positions are triangulated from ground-based optical data. From the time history of the ionized cloud motion perpendicular to the magnetic field, the late time coupling of the ionized cloud with the collisionless ambient plasma in the magnetosphere is investigated for each of the releases. The coupling of the ionized clouds with the ambient medium is quantitatively consistent with predictions from theory in that the coupling time increases with increasing distance from the Earth. Quantitative comparison with simple theory for the couping time also yields reasonable agreement. Other effects not predicted by the theory are discussed in the context of the observations.

  8. Method for harvesting rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Todt, Volker R.; Sengupta, Suvankar; Shi, Donglu

    1996-01-01

    A method of preparing high temperature superconductor single crystals. The method of preparation involves preparing precursor materials of a particular composition, heating the precursor material to achieve a peritectic mixture of peritectic liquid and crystals of the high temperature superconductor, cooling the peritectic mixture to quench directly the mixture on a porous, wettable inert substrate to wick off the peritectic liquid, leaving single crystals of the high temperature superconductor on the porous substrate. Alternatively, the peritectic mixture can be cooled to a solid mass and reheated on a porous, inert substrate to melt the matrix of peritectic fluid while leaving the crystals melted, allowing the wicking away of the peritectic liquid.

  9. Method for harvesting rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Todt, V.R.; Sengupta, S.; Shi, D.

    1996-04-02

    A method of preparing high temperature superconductor single crystals is disclosed. The method of preparation involves preparing precursor materials of a particular composition, heating the precursor material to achieve a peritectic mixture of peritectic liquid and crystals of the high temperature superconductor, cooling the peritectic mixture to quench directly the mixture on a porous, wettable inert substrate to wick off the peritectic liquid, leaving single crystals of the high temperature superconductor on the porous substrate. Alternatively, the peritectic mixture can be cooled to a solid mass and reheated on a porous, inert substrate to melt the matrix of peritectic fluid while leaving the crystals melted, allowing the wicking away of the peritectic liquid. 2 figs.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium calcium...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium calcium...

  12. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission determination... China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review pursuant to... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  13. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Sherman (202-205-3289...

  14. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the... contained in USITC Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731...

  15. The negative ions of strontium and barium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garwan, M. A.; Kilius, L. R.; Litherland, A. E.; Nadeau, M.-J.; Zhao, X.-L.

    1990-12-01

    Recent theoretical calculations have predicted a tendency toward higher electron affinities for heavier alkaline elements. Experimental evidence has been obtained for the existence of strontium and barium negative ions created from pure elements in a caesium sputter ion source. Accelerator mass spectrometric techniques were employed to resolve the above elemental negative ions from the interfering molecular species.

  16. Modified Barium Swallow for Evaluation of Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Deglutition, or the act of swallowing, allows food and fluids to move through the upper gastrointestinal tract. Difficulty swallowing, known as dysphagia, causes a host of complications for patients. Fluoroscopic evaluation of dysphagia enables appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This evaluation commonly is accomplished with a swallowing dysfunction study, also known as a modified barium swallow procedure. © 2018 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  17. Comprehensive Study of the Model Mercury-Based Cuprate Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Greven, Martin

    This is the Final Report on DE-SC0006858, which opened 15 August 2011 and closed 14 August 2017. The Principal Investigator is Martin Greven, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 555455 (email: greven@umn.edu). The Administrative Point of Contact is Patricia Jondahl, phone: 612-624-5599, email: awards@umn.edu. The DOE Program is the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Program manager is Dr. P. Thiyagarajan, Neutron Scattering SC-22.2/ Germantown Bldg. (email: Thiyagarajan@science.doe.gov). The chief activity was the crystal growth, characterization, neutron and X-ray scattering study of the mercury-based cuprates, arguably the most desirable high-Tc superconductors for experimental study due to theirmore » record values of Tc and their relatively simple crystal structures. It is thought that the unusual magnetic and charge degrees of freedom of the copper-oxygen sheets that form the fundamental building block of all cuprate superconductors give rise to the high Tc and to many other unusual properties exhibited by the class of quantum materials. Neutron scattering experiments were performed to reveal the nature of the magnetic degrees of freedom of the copper-oxygen sheets, whereas X-ray scattering experiments and complementary charge-transport experiments were performed to reveal the nature of the charge degrees of freedom. In addition, collaborations were initiated with experts in the use of complementary experimental techniques. The primary products are (i) scientific articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, (ii) scientific presentations at national and international conferences, and (iii) education of postdoctoral researchers, PhD graduate students and undergraduate researchers by providing a research experience in crystal growth, characterization and scattering. Twenty scientific papers were published in peer-reviewed journals, thirty-one invited talks were presented at national or international conferences

  18. Quasiparticle Coherence, Collective Modes, and Competing Order in Cuprate Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, James Patrick

    In recent years, the study of cuprate superconductors has been dominated by the investigation of normal state properties. Of particular interest is the nature of interactions between superconductivity and other incipient orders which emerge above the superconducting transition temperature, Tc. The discovery of charge density wave (CDW) correlations in YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO) and HgBa2CuO 4+d (Hg-1201) has established that some form of charge order is ubiquitous in the cuprates. In this work, we explore the non-equilibrium dynamics of systems which sit near the boundary between superconductivity and competing orders. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy is ideally suited to the study of competing order. Exciting the sample with an optical pulse perturbs the system from equilibrium, altering the balance between the co-existing orders. The return to equilibrium is then monitored by a time-delayed probe pulse, revealing multiple decay processes as well as collective excitations. We first apply this technique to Hg-1201, conducting a detailed study of the phase diagram. At temperatures near Tc, the pump pulse induces a non-equilibrium quasiparticle population. At Tc we observe a doping-dependent peak in the relaxation time of these quasiparticles which we associate with a divergence in the coherence time of the fluctuating CDW. Using heterodyne probing in the transient grating geometry, we are able to disentangle the transient reflectivity components associated with superconductivity and the pseudogap, domonstrating competition across the phase diagram. We also discuss the observation of a sharp transition in the nature of the pseudogap signal at ˜ 11% doping. In YBCO, we explore the temperature and doping dependence of coherent oscillations excited by the pump pulse. We associate these oscillations with the excitation of the CDW amplitude mode, and model their temperature dependence within the framework of a Landau model of competing orders. We conclude with an investigation

  19. Incommensurate Phonon Anomaly and the Nature of Charge Density Waves in Cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Miao, H.; Ishikawa, D.; Heid, R.; ...

    2018-01-18

    While charge density wave (CDW) instabilities are ubiquitous to superconducting cuprates, the different ordering wave vectors in various cuprate families have hampered a unified description of the CDW formation mechanism. Here, we investigate the temperature dependence of the low-energy phonons in the canonical CDW-ordered cuprate La 1.875Ba 0.125CuO 4. We discover that the phonon softening wave vector associated with CDW correlations becomes temperature dependent in the high-temperature precursor phase and changes from a wave vector of 0.238 reciprocal lattice units (r.l.u.) below the ordering transition temperature to 0.3 r.l.u. at 300 K. This high-temperature behavior also shows that “214”-type cupratesmore » can host CDW correlations at a similar wave vector to previously reported CDW correlations in non-214-type cuprates such as YBa 2Cu 3O 6+δ. This indicates that cuprate CDWs may arise from the same underlying instability despite their apparently different low-temperature ordering wave vectors.« less

  20. Ultrasonic and elastic properties of Tl- and Hg-Based cuprate superconductors: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Shukor, R.

    2018-01-01

    This review is regarding the ultrasonic and elastic properties of Tl- and Hg-based cuprate superconductors. The objectives of this paper were to review the ultrasonic attenuation above the transition temperature ?, and sound velocity and elastic anomalies at ? in the Tl- and Hg-based cuprate superconductors. A discontinuity in the sound velocity and elastic moduli is observed near ? for the Hg-based and other cuprate high temperature superconductor but not the Tl-based superconductor. Ultrasonic attenuation peaks are observed between 200 and 250 K in almost all Tl- and Hg-based cuprate superconductors reported. These peaks were attributed to lattice stepping and oxygen ordering in the Tl-O and Hg-O layers. Some Tl- and Hg-based superconductors show attenuation peak near ?. However, this is not a common feature for the cuprate superconductors. The ultrasonic attenuation decrease rate below ? is slower than that expected from a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and pseudo-gapped superconductor.

  1. Incommensurate Phonon Anomaly and the Nature of Charge Density Waves in Cuprates

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, H.; Ishikawa, D.; Heid, R.

    While charge density wave (CDW) instabilities are ubiquitous to superconducting cuprates, the different ordering wave vectors in various cuprate families have hampered a unified description of the CDW formation mechanism. Here, we investigate the temperature dependence of the low-energy phonons in the canonical CDW-ordered cuprate La 1.875Ba 0.125CuO 4. We discover that the phonon softening wave vector associated with CDW correlations becomes temperature dependent in the high-temperature precursor phase and changes from a wave vector of 0.238 reciprocal lattice units (r.l.u.) below the ordering transition temperature to 0.3 r.l.u. at 300 K. This high-temperature behavior also shows that “214”-type cupratesmore » can host CDW correlations at a similar wave vector to previously reported CDW correlations in non-214-type cuprates such as YBa 2Cu 3O 6+δ. This indicates that cuprate CDWs may arise from the same underlying instability despite their apparently different low-temperature ordering wave vectors.« less

  2. Phase diagram of the underdoped cuprates at high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Debmalya; Morice, Corentin; Pépin, Catherine

    2018-06-01

    The experimentally measured phase diagram of cuprate superconductors in the temperature-applied magnetic field plane illuminates key issues in understanding the physics of these materials. At low temperature, the superconducting state gives way to a long-range charge order with increasing magnetic field; both the orders coexist in a small intermediate region. The charge order transition is strikingly insensitive to temperature and quickly reaches a transition temperature close to the zero-field superconducting Tc. We argue that such a transition along with the presence of the coexisting phase is difficult to obtain in a weak coupling competing orders formalism. We demonstrate that for some range of parameters there is an enlarged symmetry of the strongly coupled charge and superconducting orders in the system depending on their relative masses and the coupling strength of the two orders. We establish that this sharp switch from the superconducting phase to the charge order phase can be understood in the framework of a composite SU(2) order parameter comprising the charge and superconducting orders. Finally, we illustrate that there is a possibility of the coexisting phase of the competing charge and superconducting orders only when the SU(2) symmetry between them is weakly broken due to biquadratic terms in the free energy. The relation of this sharp transition to the proximity to the pseudogap quantum critical doping is also discussed.

  3. Transport properties of stripe-ordered high T c cuprates

    SciTech Connect

    Jie, Qing; Han, Su Jung; Dimitrov, Ivo

    Transport measurements provide important characterizations of the nature of stripe order in the cuprates. Initial studies of systems such as La 1.6-xNd 0.4Sr xCuO₄ demonstrated the strong anisotropy between in-plane and c-axis resistivities, but also suggested that stripe order results in a tendency towards insulating behavior within the planes at low temperature. More recent work on La 2-xBa xCuO₄ with x = 1/8 has revealed the occurrence of quasi-two-dimensional superconductivity that onsets with spin-stripe order. The suppression of three-dimensional superconductivity indicates a frustration of the interlayer Josephson coupling, motivating a proposal that superconductivity and stripe order are intertwined in amore » pair-density-wave state. Complementary characterizations of the low-energy states near the Fermi level are provided by measurements of the Hall and Nernst effects, each revealing intriguing signatures of stripe correlations and ordering. We review and discuss this work.« less

  4. Sun Oven Grown Cuprates Superconductivity and Periodic Lattice Distortions PLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acrivos, Juana V.; Chidvinadze, J. G.; Gulanova, D. D.; Loy, D.

    2011-03-01

    Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O4 + 2 n + δ identified by the layer heavy element composition with substitution, s (2 s :2:n-1:n > 2) cuprates grown by green chemistry, transition temperatures to superconductivity Tc = 87 to 150K are related to their structure. Enhanced XRD at energies near but below the Cu K, and Pb and Bi L3-edges for pure n=2, 3 phases show Darwin shaped preferred [HKL] reflections that identify the magnitude of the allowed transition moment from the core state to extended unoccupied states determined by the electron density symmetry in that plane, confirmed by XAS of 3 μ m thick films. Weak PLD are still detected, but the stability gained by substitution of Bi by Pb is the formation of nearly symmetric Pb8 cubes in (2s : 2 : 1 : 2)13 and (2s < formula > < ? TeX super-lattices. The preferred 2D [HKL] reflection planes play the same role in the chemical activity of 3D solids as the linear bonds do in molecular reactions, governed by scattering dependent on the electron density symmetry in their highest and lowest unoccupied states. Supported by US NSF, Dreyfus, DOE Laboratories SSRL-SLAC, STUC-Ukraine and Georgia NSF.

  5. Electronic excitations in electron-doped cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, P.; Fulde, P.

    1995-04-01

    We calculate the electronic single-particle spectrum of an electron-doped cuprate superconductor such as Nd2-xCexCuO4-y. The dynamics of holes in the Cu-O planes is described by the extended Hubbard or Emery model. We consider the system at half-filling (one hole per unit cell, nh=1) and in the case of electron doping where the ground state is paramagnetic. The projection technique of Mori and Zwanzig is applied to derive the equations of motion for the Green's functions of Cu and O holes. These equations are solved self-consistently as in a previous calculation, where we considered the case of hole doping. At half-filling the system exhibits a charge-transfer gap bounded by Zhang-Rice singlet states and the upper Hubbard band. Upon electron doping the upper Hubbard band crosses the Fermi level and the system becomes metallic. With increasing electron doping the singlet band loses intensity and finally vanishes for nh=0. The corresponding spectral weight is transferred to the upper Hubbard band, which becomes a usual tight-binding band for zero hole concentration. The shape of the flat band crossing the Fermi level fits well to angle-resolved photoemission spectra of Nd2-xCexCuO4-y for x=0.15 and 0.22. Furthermore, our findings are in excellent agreement with exact diagonalization studies of 2×2 CuO2 cluster with periodic boundary conditions.

  6. Revealing the Coulomb interaction strength in a cuprate superconductor

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, S. -L.; Sobota, J. A.; He, Y.; ...

    2017-12-08

    Here, we study optimally doped Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 0.92 Y 0.08 Cu 2 O 8 + δ (Bi2212) using angle-resolved two-photon photoemission spectroscopy. Three spectral features are resolved near 1.5, 2.7, and 3.6 eV above the Fermi level. By tuning the photon energy, we determine that the 2.7-eV feature arises predominantly from unoccupied states. The 1.5- and 3.6-eV features reflect unoccupied states whose spectral intensities are strongly modulated by the corresponding occupied states. These unoccupied states are thus consistent with the prediction from a cluster perturbation theory based on the single-band Hubbard model. Through this comparison, amore » Coulomb interaction strength U of 2.7 eV is extracted. Our study complements equilibrium photoemission spectroscopy and provides a direct spectroscopic measurement of the unoccupied states in cuprates. The determined Coulomb U indicates that the charge-transfer gap of optimally doped Bi2212 is 1.1 eV.« less

  7. Theoretical Modeling of Various Spectroscopies for Cuprates and Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Susmita

    Spectroscopies resolved highly in momentum, energy and/or spatial dimensions are playing an important role in unraveling key properties of wide classes of novel materials. However, spectroscopies do not usually provide a direct map of the underlying electronic spectrum, but act as a complex 'filter' to produce a 'mapping' of the underlying energy levels, Fermi surfaces (FSs) and excitation spectra. The connection between the electronic spectrum and the measured spectra is described as a generalized 'matrix element effect'. The nature of the matrix element involved differs greatly between different spectroscopies. For example, in angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) an incoming photon knocks out an electron from the sample and the energy and momentum of the photoemitted electron is measured. This is quite different from what happens in K-edge resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS), where an X-ray photon is scattered after inducing electronic transitions near the Fermi energy through an indirect second order process, or in Compton scattering where the incident X-ray photon is scattered inelastically from an electron transferring energy and momentum to the scattering electron. For any given spectroscopy, the matrix element is, in general, a complex function of the phase space of the experiment, e.g. energy/polarization of the incoming photon and the energy/momentum/spin of the photoemitted electron in the case of ARPES. The matrix element can enhance or suppress signals from specific states, or merge signals of groups of states, making a good understanding of the matrix element effects important for not only a robust interpretation of the spectra, but also for ascertaining optimal regions of the experimental phase space for zooming in on states of the greatest interest. In this thesis I discuss a comprehensive scheme for modeling various highly resolved spectroscopies of the cuprates and topological insulators (TIs) where effects of matrix element, crystal

  8. The CAMEO barium release - E/parallel/ fields over the polar cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.; Miller, M. L.; Pongratz, M. B.; Smith, G. M.; Smith, L. L.; Mende, S. B.; Nath, N. R.

    1981-01-01

    Four successive thermite barium releases at an altitude of 965 km over polar cap invariant latitudes 84 to 76 deg near magnetic midnight were conducted from the orbiting second stage of the vehicle that launched Nimbus 7; the releases were made as part of the CAMEO (Chemically Active Material Ejected in Orbit) program. This was the first opportunity to observe the behavior of conventional barium release when conducted at orbital velocity in the near-earth magnetic field. The principal unexpected characteristic in the release dynamics was the high, 1.4 to 2.6 km/s, initial Ba(+) expansion velocity relative to an expected velocity of 0.9 km/s. Attention is also given to neutral cloud expansion, initial ion cloud expansion, convective motion, and the characteristics of field-aligned motion. The possibility of measuring parallel electric fields over the polar cap by observing perturbations in the motion of the visible ions is assessed.

  9. Characterization of the third-order optical nonlinearity spectrum of barium borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, S. N. C.; Almeida, J. M. P.; Paula, K. T.; Tomazio, N. B.; Mastelaro, V. R.; Mendonça, C. R.

    2017-11-01

    Borate glasses have proven to be an important material for applications ranging from radiation dosimetry to nonlinear optics. In particular, B2O3-BaO based glasses are attractive to frequency generation since their barium metaborate phase (β-BaB2O4 or β-BBO) may be crystallized under proper heat treatment. Despite the vast literature covering their linear and second-order optical nonlinear properties, their third-order nonlinearities remain overlooked. This paper thus reports a study on the nonlinear refraction (n2) of BBO and BBS-DyEu glasses through femtosecond Z-scan technique. The results were modeled using the BGO approach, which showed that oxygen ions are playing a role in the nonlinear optical properties of the glasses studied here. In addition, the barium borate glasses containing rare-earths ions were found to exhibit larger nonlinearities, which is in agreement with previous studies.

  10. Spin-polaron nature of fermion quasiparticles and their d-wave pairing in cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Val'kov, V. V.; Dzebisashvili, D. M.; Barabanov, A. F.

    2016-11-01

    In the framework of the spin-fermion model, to which the Emery model is reduced in the limit of strong electron correlations, it is shown that the fermion quasiparticles in cuprate high- T c superconductors (HTSCs) arise under a strong effect of exchange coupling between oxygen holes and spins of copper ions. This underlies the spin-polaron nature of fermion quasiparticles in cuprate HTSCs. The Cooper instability with respect to the d-wave symmetry of the order parameter is revealed for an ensemble of such quasiparticles. For the normal phase, the spin-polaron concept allows us to reproduce the fine details in the evolution of the Fermi surface with the changes in the doping level x observed in experiment for La2-xSrxCuO4. The calculated T-x phase diagram correlates well with the available experimental data for cuprate HTSCs.

  11. Superconducting Mercury-Based Cuprate Films with a Zero-Resistance Transition Temperature of 124 Kelvin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuei, C. C.; Gupta, A.; Trafas, G.; Mitzi, D.

    1994-03-01

    The synthesis of high-quality films of the recently discovered mercury-based cuprate films with high transition temperatures has been plagued by problems such as the air sensitivity of the cuprate precursor and the volatility of Hg and HgO. These processing difficulties have been circumvented by a technique of atomic-scale mixing of the HgO and cuprate precursors, use of a protective cap layer, and annealing in an appropriate Hg and O_2 environment. With this procedure, a zero-resistance transition temperature as high as 124 kelvin in c axis-oriented epitaxial HgBa_2CaCu_2O6+δ films has been achieved.

  12. Superconducting mercury-based cuprate films with a zero-resistance transition temperature of 124 Kelvin.

    PubMed

    Tsuei, C C; Gupta, A; Trafas, G; Mitzi, D

    1994-03-04

    The synthesis of high-quality films of the recently discovered mercury-based cuprate films with high transition temperatures has been plagued by problems such as the air sensitivity of the cuprate precursor and the volatility of Hg and HgO. These processing difficulties have been circumvented by a technique of atomic-scale mixing of the HgO and cuprate precursors, use of a protective cap layer, and annealing in an appropriate Hg and O(2) environment. With this procedure, a zero-resistance transition temperature as high as 124 kelvin in c axis-oriented epitaxial HgBa(2)CaCu(2)O(6+delta) films has been achieved.

  13. Electron doped layered nickelates: Spanning the phase diagram of the cuprates

    SciTech Connect

    Botana, Antia S.; Pardo, Victor; Norman, Michael R.

    2017-07-01

    Pr4Ni3O8 is an overdoped analog of hole-doped layered cuprates. Here we show via ab initio calculations that Ce-doped Pr4Ni3O8 (Pr3CeNi3O8) has the same electronic structure as the antiferromagnetic insulating phase of parent cuprates.We find that substantial Ce doping should be thermodynamically stable and that other 4+ cations would yield a similar antiferromagnetic insulating state, arguing this configuration is robust for layered nickelates of low-enough valence. The analogies with cuprates at different d fillings suggest that intermediate Ce-doping concentrations near 1/8 should be an appropriate place to search for superconductivity in these low-valence Ni oxides.

  14. Interpretation of scanning tunneling quasiparticle interference and impurity states in cuprates.

    PubMed

    Kreisel, A; Choubey, Peayush; Berlijn, T; Ku, W; Andersen, B M; Hirschfeld, P J

    2015-05-29

    We apply a recently developed method combining first principles based Wannier functions with solutions to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations to the problem of interpreting STM data in cuprate superconductors. We show that the observed images of Zn on the surface of Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8} can only be understood by accounting for the tails of the Cu Wannier functions, which include significant weight on apical O sites in neighboring unit cells. This calculation thus puts earlier crude "filter" theories on a microscopic foundation and solves a long-standing puzzle. We then study quasiparticle interference phenomena induced by out-of-plane weak potential scatterers, and show how patterns long observed in cuprates can be understood in terms of the interference of Wannier functions above the surface. Our results show excellent agreement with experiment and enable a better understanding of novel phenomena in the cuprates via STM imaging.

  15. Infrared conductivity of cuprates using Yang-Rice-Zhang ansatz: Review of our recent investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Navinder; Sharma, Raman

    2015-05-15

    A review of our recent investigations related to the ac transport properties in the psedogapped state of cuprate high temperature superconductors is presented. For our theoretical calculations we use a phenomenological Green’s function proposed by Yang, Rice and Zhang (YRZ). This is based upon the renormalized mean-field theory of the Hubbard model and takes into account the strong electron-electron interaction present in Cuprates. The pseudogap is also taken into account through a proposed self energy. We have tested the form of the Green’s function by computing ac conductivity of cuprates and then compared with experimental results. We found agreement betweenmore » theory and experiment in reproducing the doping evolution of ac conductivity but there is a problem with absolute magnitudes and their frequency dependence. This shows a partial success of the YRZ ansatz. The ways to rectify it are suggested and worked out.« less

  16. Doping-dependent charge order correlations in electron-doped cuprates

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Neto, Eduardo H.; Yu, Biqiong; Minola, Matteo; Sutarto, Ronny; Schierle, Enrico; Boschini, Fabio; Zonno, Marta; Bluschke, Martin; Higgins, Joshua; Li, Yangmu; Yu, Guichuan; Weschke, Eugen; He, Feizhou; Le Tacon, Mathieu; Greene, Richard L.; Greven, Martin; Sawatzky, George A.; Keimer, Bernhard; Damascelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between charge order (CO) and other phenomena (for example, pseudogap, antiferromagnetism, and superconductivity) is one of the central questions in the cuprate high-temperature superconductors. The discovery that similar forms of CO exist in both hole- and electron-doped cuprates opened a path to determine what subset of the CO phenomenology is universal to all the cuprates. We use resonant x-ray scattering to measure the CO correlations in electron-doped cuprates (La2−xCexCuO4 and Nd2−xCexCuO4) and their relationship to antiferromagnetism, pseudogap, and superconductivity. Detailed measurements of Nd2−xCexCuO4 show that CO is present in the x = 0.059 to 0.166 range and that its doping-dependent wave vector is consistent with the separation between straight segments of the Fermi surface. The CO onset temperature is highest between x = 0.106 and 0.166 but decreases at lower doping levels, indicating that it is not tied to the appearance of antiferromagnetic correlations or the pseudogap. Near optimal doping, where the CO wave vector is also consistent with a previously observed phonon anomaly, measurements of the CO below and above the superconducting transition temperature, or in a magnetic field, show that the CO is insensitive to superconductivity. Overall, these findings indicate that, although verified in the electron-doped cuprates, material-dependent details determine whether the CO correlations acquire sufficient strength to compete for the ground state of the cuprates. PMID:27536726

  17. Competing pseudogap and impurity effects on the normal-state specific heat properties of cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhumanov, S.; Karimboev, E. X.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we show that the pseudogap in the excitation spectra of high-Tc cuprates together with the impurity phase and charge inhomogeneity plays key roles in determining the essential features of their anomalous specific heat properties observed above Tc. We consider the doped cuprate superconductor as a multi-carrier model system (which consists of intrinsic and extrinsic polarons and pre-formed bosonic Cooper pairs) and study the competing pseudogap and impurity effects on the normal-state electronic specific heat of high-Tc cuprates taking into account charge inhomogeneities. We argue that unconventional electron-phonon interactions are responsible for the precursor Cooper pairing in the polaronic band below a mean-field temperature T∗ and the existence of a pseudogap above Tc in the cuprates. The electronic specific heat Ce(T) of doped cuprates below T∗ is calculated taking into account three contributions coming from the excited components of Cooper pairs, the ideal Bose-gas of incoherent Cooper pairs and the unpaired carriers in the impurity band. Above T∗, two contributions to Ce(T) coming from the unpaired intrinsic and extrinsic polarons are calculated within the two-component degenerate Fermi-gas model. By comparing our results with the experimental Ce(T) data obtained for La- and Y-based cuprates, we find that the observed behaviors of Ce(T) (below and above T∗) are similar to the calculated results for Ce(T) and the BCS-type jumps of Ce(T) at T∗ may be depressed by the impurity effects and may become more or less pronounced BCS-type anomalies in Ce(T) .

  18. Doping-dependent charge order correlations in electron-doped cuprates.

    PubMed

    da Silva Neto, Eduardo H; Yu, Biqiong; Minola, Matteo; Sutarto, Ronny; Schierle, Enrico; Boschini, Fabio; Zonno, Marta; Bluschke, Martin; Higgins, Joshua; Li, Yangmu; Yu, Guichuan; Weschke, Eugen; He, Feizhou; Le Tacon, Mathieu; Greene, Richard L; Greven, Martin; Sawatzky, George A; Keimer, Bernhard; Damascelli, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the interplay between charge order (CO) and other phenomena (for example, pseudogap, antiferromagnetism, and superconductivity) is one of the central questions in the cuprate high-temperature superconductors. The discovery that similar forms of CO exist in both hole- and electron-doped cuprates opened a path to determine what subset of the CO phenomenology is universal to all the cuprates. We use resonant x-ray scattering to measure the CO correlations in electron-doped cuprates (La2-x Ce x CuO4 and Nd2-x Ce x CuO4) and their relationship to antiferromagnetism, pseudogap, and superconductivity. Detailed measurements of Nd2-x Ce x CuO4 show that CO is present in the x = 0.059 to 0.166 range and that its doping-dependent wave vector is consistent with the separation between straight segments of the Fermi surface. The CO onset temperature is highest between x = 0.106 and 0.166 but decreases at lower doping levels, indicating that it is not tied to the appearance of antiferromagnetic correlations or the pseudogap. Near optimal doping, where the CO wave vector is also consistent with a previously observed phonon anomaly, measurements of the CO below and above the superconducting transition temperature, or in a magnetic field, show that the CO is insensitive to superconductivity. Overall, these findings indicate that, although verified in the electron-doped cuprates, material-dependent details determine whether the CO correlations acquire sufficient strength to compete for the ground state of the cuprates.

  19. Radioactive Barium Ion Trap Based on Metal-Organic Framework for Efficient and Irreversible Removal of Barium from Nuclear Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yaguang; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Zhong, Chongli

    2016-04-06

    Highly efficient and irreversible capture of radioactive barium from aqueous media remains a serious task for nuclear waste disposal and environmental protection. To address this task, here we propose a concept of barium ion trap based on metal-organic framework (MOF) with a strong barium-chelating group (sulfate and sulfonic acid group) in the pore structures of MOFs. The functionalized MOF-based ion traps can remove >90% of the barium within the first 5 min, and the removal efficiency reaches 99% after equilibrium. Remarkably, the sulfate-group-functionalized ion trap demonstrates a high barium uptake capacity of 131.1 mg g(-1), which surpasses most of the reported sorbents and can selectively capture barium from nuclear wastewater, whereas the sulfonic-acid-group-functionalized ion trap exhibits ultrafast kinetics with a kinetic rate constant k2 of 27.77 g mg(-1) min(-1), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than existing sorbents. Both of the two MOF-based ion traps can capture barium irreversibly. Our work proposes a new strategy to design barium adsorbent materials and provides a new perspective for removing radioactive barium and other radionuclides from nuclear wastewater for environment remediation. Besides, the concrete mechanisms of barium-sorbent interactions are also demonstrated in this contribution.

  20. Electronic structure of CuTeO 4 and its relationship to cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Botana, Antia S.; Norman, Michael R.

    2017-03-13

    Based on first-principles calculations, the electronic structure of CuTeO 4 is discussed in the context of superconducting cuprates. Despite some significant crystallographic differences, we find that CuTeO 4 is similar to these cuprates, exhibiting a quasi-two-dimensional electronic structure that involves hybridized Cu- d and O-p states in the vicinity of the Fermi level, along with an antiferromagnetic insulating ground state. Lastly, hole- doping this material by substituting Te 6+ with Sb 5+ would be of significant interest.

  1. Temperature and doping dependence of the high-energy kink in cuprates.

    PubMed

    Zemljic, M M; Prelovsek, P; Tohyama, T

    2008-01-25

    It is shown that spectral functions within the extended t-J model, evaluated using the finite-temperature diagonalization of small clusters, exhibit the high-energy kink in single-particle dispersion consistent with recent angle-resolved photoemission results on hole-doped cuprates. The kink and waterfall-like features persist up to large doping and to temperatures beyond J; hence, the origin can be generally attributed to strong correlations and incoherent hole propagation at large binding energies. In contrast, our analysis predicts that electron-doped cuprates do not exhibit these phenomena in photoemission.

  2. Photorefractive Effect in Barium Titanate Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-15

    photorefractivity. The titanium dioxide feed material was prepared by the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide , Ti(ioc3H7 )4 , according to the reaction...reduced pressure fractional distillation. This purification technique was based on the observation that titanium isopropoxide has a much lower boiling...Starting materials A major effort in this research was devoted to the synthesis of high-purity starting materials, since titanium dioxide and barium

  3. Nanoparticles of barium induce apoptosis in human phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mores, Luana; França, Eduardo Luzia; Silva, Núbia Andrade; Suchara, Eliane Aparecida; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nutrients and immunological factors of breast milk are essential for newborn growth and the development of their immune system, but this secretion can contain organic and inorganic toxins such as barium. Colostrum contamination with barium is an important issue to investigate because this naturally occurring element is also associated with human activity and industrial pollution. The study evaluated the administration of barium nanoparticles to colostrum, assessing the viability and functional activity of colostral mononuclear phagocytes. Methods Colostrum was collected from 24 clinically healthy women (aged 18–35 years). Cell viability, superoxide release, intracellular Ca2+ release, and phagocyte apoptosis were analyzed in the samples. Results Treatment with barium lowered mononuclear phagocyte viability, increased superoxide release, and reduced intracellular calcium release. In addition, barium increased cell death by apoptosis. Conclusion These data suggest that nanoparticles of barium in colostrum are toxic to cells, showing the importance of avoiding exposure to this element. PMID:26451108

  4. Nanoparticles of barium induce apoptosis in human phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Mores, Luana; França, Eduardo Luzia; Silva, Núbia Andrade; Suchara, Eliane Aparecida; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Nutrients and immunological factors of breast milk are essential for newborn growth and the development of their immune system, but this secretion can contain organic and inorganic toxins such as barium. Colostrum contamination with barium is an important issue to investigate because this naturally occurring element is also associated with human activity and industrial pollution. The study evaluated the administration of barium nanoparticles to colostrum, assessing the viability and functional activity of colostral mononuclear phagocytes. Colostrum was collected from 24 clinically healthy women (aged 18-35 years). Cell viability, superoxide release, intracellular Ca(2+) release, and phagocyte apoptosis were analyzed in the samples. Treatment with barium lowered mononuclear phagocyte viability, increased superoxide release, and reduced intracellular calcium release. In addition, barium increased cell death by apoptosis. These data suggest that nanoparticles of barium in colostrum are toxic to cells, showing the importance of avoiding exposure to this element.

  5. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles for Biomarker Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, O.; Posada, O. M.; Hondow, N. S.; Wälti, C.; Saunders, M.; Murray, C. A.; Brydson, R. M. D.; Milne, S. J.; Brown, A. P.

    2015-10-01

    A tetragonal crystal structure is required for barium titanate nanoparticles to exhibit the nonlinear optical effect of second harmonic light generation (SHG) for use as a biomarker when illuminated by a near-infrared source. Here we use synchrotron XRD to elucidate the tetragonal phase of commercially purchased tetragonal, cubic and hydrothermally prepared barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles by peak fitting with reference patterns. The local phase of individual nanoparticles is determined by STEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), measuring the core-loss O K-edge and the Ti L3-edge energy separation of the t2g, eg peaks. The results show a change in energy separation between the t2g and eg peak from the surface and core of the particles, suggesting an intraparticle phase mixture of the barium titanate nanoparticles. HAADF-STEM and bright field TEM-EDX show cellular uptake of the hydrothermally prepared BaTiO3 nanoparticles, highlighting the potential for application as biomarkers.

  6. BARIUM REDUCTION OF INTUSSUSCEPTION IN INFANCY

    PubMed Central

    Denenholz, Edward J.; Feher, George. S.

    1955-01-01

    Barium enema reduction was used as the initial routine treatment in 29 infants with intussusception. In 22 of them the intussusception was reduced by this means. In three of eight patients operated upon the intussusception was found to be reduced. Four of the remaining five patients had clinical or x-ray evidence of complications before reduction by barium enema was attempted. Twenty-one of the patients, all of whom were observed in private practice, were treated without admission to the hospital. After reduction, these patients were observed closely by the clinician. None of these patients showed clinical or x-ray signs of complications before reduction. Certain clinical and roentgen criteria must be satisfied before it can be concluded that reduction by barium enema is complete. If there are clinical signs of complications with x-ray evidence of small bowel obstruction, only a very cautious attempt at hydrostatic reduction should be made. As the time factor is generally a reliable clinical guide to reducibility, the late cases should be viewed with greater caution. Long duration of symptoms, however, is not per se a contraindication to an attempt at hydrostatic reduction. PMID:13230908

  7. Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and mass distribution of barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escorza, A.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Jorissen, A.; Van Eck, S.; Siess, L.; Van Winckel, H.; Karinkuzhi, D.; Shetye, S.; Pourbaix, D.

    2017-12-01

    With the availability of parallaxes provided by the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution, it is possible to construct the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) of barium and related stars with unprecedented accuracy. A direct result from the derived HRD is that subgiant CH stars occupy the same region as barium dwarfs, contrary to what their designations imply. By comparing the position of barium stars in the HRD with STAREVOL evolutionary tracks, it is possible to evaluate their masses, provided the metallicity is known. We used an average metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.25 and derived the mass distribution of barium giants. The distribution peaks around 2.5 M⊙ with a tail at higher masses up to 4.5 M⊙. This peak is also seen in the mass distribution of a sample of normal K and M giants used for comparison and is associated with stars located in the red clump. When we compare these mass distributions, we see a deficit of low-mass (1 - 2 M⊙) barium giants. This is probably because low-mass stars reach large radii at the tip of the red giant branch, which may have resulted in an early binary interaction. Among barium giants, the high-mass tail is however dominated by stars with barium indices of less than unity, based on a visual inspection of the barium spectral line; that is, these stars have a very moderate barium line strength. We believe that these stars are not genuine barium giants, but rather bright giants, or supergiants, where the barium lines are strengthened because of a positive luminosity effect. Moreover, contrary to previous claims, we do not see differences between the mass distributions of mild and strong barium giants. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/608/A100

  8. Creating unstable velocity-space distributions with barium injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    Ion velocity-space distributions resulting from barium injections from orbiting spacecraft and shaped charges are discussed. Active experiments confirm that anomalous ionization processes may operate, but photoionization accounts for the production of the bulk of the barium ions. Pitch-angle diffusion and/or velocity-space diffusion may occur, but observations of barium ions moving upwards against gravity suggests that the ions retain a significant enough fraction of their initial perpendicular velocity to provide a mirror force. The barium ion plasmas should have a range of Alfven Mach numbers and plasma betas. Because the initial conditions can be predicted these active experiments should permit testing plasma instability hypotheses.

  9. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  10. Linear dichroism and the nature of charge order in underdoped cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Norman, M. R.

    2015-04-21

    Recent experiments have addressed the nature of the charge order seen in underdoped cuprates. In this paper, I show that x-ray absorption and linear dichroism are excellent probes of such order. Ab initio calculations reveal that a d-wave charge density wave order involving the oxygen ions is a much better description of the data than alternate models.

  11. Binding and Leakage of Barium in Alginate Microbeads

    PubMed Central

    Mørch, Yrr A.; Qi, Meirigeng; Gundersen, Per Ole M.; Formo, Kjetil; Lacik, Igor; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund; Oberholzer, Jose; Strand, Berit L.

    2013-01-01

    Microbeads of alginate cross-linked with Ca2+ and/or Ba2+ are popular matrices in cell-based therapy. The aim of this study was to quantify the binding of barium in alginate microbeads and its leakage under in vitro and accumulation under in vivo conditions. Low concentrations of barium (1 mM) in combination with calcium (50 mM) and high concentrations of barium (20 mM) in gelling solutions were used for preparation of microbeads made of high-G and high-M alginates. High-G microbeads accumulated barium from gelling solution and contained higher concentrations of divalent ions for both low- and high-Ba exposure compared to high-G microbeads exposed to calcium solely and to high-M microbeads for all gelling conditions. Although most of the unbound divalent ions were removed during the wash and culture steps, leakage of barium was still detected during storage. Barium accumulation in blood and femur bone of mice implanted with high-G beads was found to be dose-dependent. Estimated barium leakage relevant to transplantation to diabetic patients with islets in alginate microbeads showed that the leakage was 2.5 times lower than the tolerable intake value given by WHO for high-G microbeads made using low barium concentration. The similar estimate gave 1.5 times higher than is the tolerable intake value for the high-G microbeads made using high barium concentration. In order to reduce the risk of barium accumulation that may be of safety concern, the microbeads made of high-G alginate gelled with a combination of calcium and low concentration of barium ions is recommended for islet transplantation. PMID:22700168

  12. Binding and leakage of barium in alginate microbeads.

    PubMed

    Mørch, Yrr A; Qi, Meirigeng; Gundersen, Per Ole M; Formo, Kjetil; Lacik, Igor; Skjåk-Braek, Gudmund; Oberholzer, Jose; Strand, Berit L

    2012-11-01

    Microbeads of alginate crosslinked with Ca(2+) and/or Ba(2+) are popular matrices in cell-based therapy. The aim of this study was to quantify the binding of barium in alginate microbeads and its leakage under in vitro and accumulation under in vivo conditions. Low concentrations of barium (1 mM) in combination with calcium (50 mM) and high concentrations of barium (20 mM) in gelling solutions were used for preparation of microbeads made of high-G and high-M alginates. High-G microbeads accumulated barium from gelling solution and contained higher concentrations of divalent ions for both low- and high-Ba exposure compared with high-G microbeads exposed to calcium solely and to high-M microbeads for all gelling conditions. Although most of the unbound divalent ions were removed during the wash and culture steps, leakage of barium was still detected during storage. Barium accumulation in blood and femur bone of mice implanted with high-G beads was found to be dose-dependent. Estimated barium leakage relevant to transplantation to diabetic patients with islets in alginate microbeads showed that the leakage was 2.5 times lower than the tolerable intake value given by WHO for high-G microbeads made using low barium concentration. The similar estimate gave 1.5 times higher than is the tolerable intake value for the high-G microbeads made using high barium concentration. To reduce the risk of barium accumulation that may be of safety concern, the microbeads made of high-G alginate gelled with a combination of calcium and low concentration of barium ions is recommended for islet transplantation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Specific heat and Nernst effect of electron-doped cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Hamza

    This thesis consists of two separate studies on Pr2- xCexCuO4 (PCCO), a member of the electron-doped high temperature cuprate superconductor family: specific heat and the Nernst effect. We measured the specific heat of PCCO single crystals in order to probe the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter, to study the effect of oxygen reduction (annealing) on bulk properties of the crystals, and to determine proper ties like the condensation energy and the thermodynamic critical field. The order parameter symmetry has been established to be d-wave in the hole-doped cuprates. Experiments performed on electron-doped cuprates show conflicting results. Different experiments suggest s-wave symmetry, d-wave symmetry, or a transition from d-wave to s-wave symmetry with increasing cerium doping. However, most of these experiments are surface sensitive experiments. Specific heat, as a bulk method of probing the gap symmetry is essential in order to convincingly determine the gap symmetry. Our data proposes a way to reconcile all these conflicting results regarding the gap symmetry. In addition, prior specific heat measurements attempting to determine thermodynamic properties like the condensation energy were not successful due to inefficient methods of data analysis or poor sample quality. With improvements on sample quality and data analysis, we reliably determined these properties. The second part of this thesis is a study of the Nernst effect in PCCO thin films with different cerium dopings. We probed the superconducting fluctuations, studied transport phenomena in the normal state, and accurately measured H c2 by using the Nernst effect. After the discovery of the anomalous Nernst effect in the normal state of the hole-doped cuprates, many alternative explanations have been proposed. Vortex-like excitations above Tc, superconducting fluctuations, AFM fluctuations, and preformed Cooper pairs are some of these proposals. The electron-doped cuprates, due to their

  14. Evolution of superconducting gap and metallic ground state in cuprates from transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillefer, Louis

    2006-03-01

    We report on fundamental characteristics of the ground state of cuprates in the limit of T=0, for both normal and superconducting states, obtained from transport measurements on high-quality single crystals of YBCO and Tl-2201, as a function of hole concentration. The superconducting gap is extracted from thermal conductivity; it is found to scale with the superconducting transition temperature throughout the overdoped regime, with a gap-to-Tc ratio of 5 [1]. The normal state is accessed by suppressing superconductivity with magnetic fields up to 60 T and is characterized by the limiting behavior of its electrical resistivity; while carrier localization is observed in YBCO at low temperature for carrier concentrations p below 0.1 hole/planar Cu, at p=0.1 and above the material remains highly metallic down to T=0 [2]. This shows that the non-superconducting state of underdoped cuprates, deep in the pseudogap phase, is remarkably similar to that of strongly overdoped cuprates, e.g. at p=0.3. We compare these results with similar measurements on other cuprates and discuss their implication for our understanding of the cuprate phase diagram. [1] In collaboration with: D.G. Hawthorn, S.Y. Li, M. Sutherland, E. Boaknin, R.W. Hill, C. Proust, F. Ronning, M. Tanatar, J. Paglione, D. Peets, R. Liang, D.A. Bonn, W.N. Hardy, and N.N. Kolesnikov. [2] In collaboration with: C. Proust, M. Sutherland, N. Doiron- Leyraud, S.Y. Li, R. Liang, D.A. Bonn, W.N. Hardy, N.E. Hussey, S. Adachi, S. Tajima, J. Levallois, and M. Narbone.

  15. Systematic study of electron-phonon coupling to oxygen modes across the cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, S.; Vernay, F.; Moritz, B.; Shen, Z.-X.; Nagaosa, N.; Zaanen, J.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2010-08-01

    The large variations in Tc across the cuprate families is one of the major unsolved puzzles in condensed matter physics and is poorly understood. Although there appears to be a great deal of universality in the cuprates, several orders of magnitude changes in Tc can be achieved through changes in the chemical composition and structure of the unit cell. In this paper we formulate a systematic examination of the variations in electron-phonon coupling to oxygen phonons in the cuprates, incorporating a number of effects arising from several aspects of chemical composition and doping across cuprate families. It is argued that the electron-phonon coupling is a very sensitive probe of the material-dependent variations in chemical structure, affecting the orbital character of the band crossing the Fermi level, the strength of local electric fields arising from structural-induced symmetry breaking, doping-dependent changes in the underlying band structure, and ionicity of the crystal governing the ability of the material to screen c -axis perturbations. Using electrostatic Ewald calculations and known experimental structural data, we establish a connection between the material’s maximal Tc at optimal doping and the strength of coupling to c -axis modes. We demonstrate that materials with the largest coupling to the out-of-phase bond-buckling (B1g) oxygen phonon branch also have the largest Tc ’s. In light of this observation we present model Tc calculations using a two-well model where phonons work in conjunction with a dominant pairing interaction, presumably due to spin fluctuations, indicating how phonons can generate sizeable enhancements to Tc despite the relatively small coupling strengths. Combined, these results can provide a natural framework for understanding the doping and material dependence of Tc across the cuprates.

  16. Acute barium intoxication following ingestion of ceramic glaze.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, M.; Bowie, D.; Walker, R.

    1998-01-01

    A case of deliberate overdose of barium sulphide in a psychiatric setting is presented, with resulting flaccid paralysis, malignant arrhythmia, respiratory arrest and severe hypokalaemia, but ultimately with complete recovery. The degree of paralysis appears to be related directly to serum barium levels. The value of early haemodialysis, particularly with respiratory paralysis and hypokalaemia, is emphasised. PMID:10211330

  17. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this section... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this section... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this section... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance...

  20. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  1. Deflocculants for Tape Casting Barium Titanate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    the individual components of our system in order to determine the effects of water on dispersion properties. The Karl Fischer reagent method (KFR) was...Determined by Karl Fischer Methods Ambient (%) (Dry) % Methyl Ethyl Ketone 0.0338 0.0068* Ethanol 5.1029 0.0161* REX-ethanol 1.8658 0.0059* Barium Titanate...glass jar prior to use. Residual moisture, as determined by Karl Fischer reagent methods , is indicated in Table 11. The Fisher reagent grade ethanol

  2. Evaluation of barium hydroxide treatment efficacy on a dolomitic marble.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, L; Colombo, C; Realini, M; Peraio, A; Positano, M

    2001-01-01

    The Arch of Peace, by Luigi Cagnola, is one of the most famous neoclassical monuments in Milan. It has been subjected to conservative intervention in 1998. In the present paper the efficacy of the consolidation by means of barium hydroxide has been evaluated. The stone material showed severe degradation phenomena as: erosion, pulverisation, exfoliation. The analytical data acquired through X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), allowed to compare the conditions of stone before and after the treatment with barium hydroxide. The presence of barium has been put in evidence mainly on the surface as barium sulphate, whereas barium is only sporadically present within the thickness of the decayed material. The treatment was judged not satisfying and its inefficacy is, most probably, due to a not suitable cleaning procedure carried out before the consolidation.

  3. Effect of barium on diffusion of sodium in borosilicate glass.

    PubMed

    Mishra, R K; Kumar, Sumit; Tomar, B S; Tyagi, A K; Kaushik, C P; Raj, Kanwar; Manchanda, V K

    2008-08-15

    Diffusion coefficients of sodium in barium borosilicate glasses having varying concentration of barium were determined by heterogeneous isotopic exchange method using (24)Na as the radiotracer for sodium. The measurements were carried out at various temperatures (748-798 K) to obtain the activation energy (E(a)) of diffusion. The E(a) values were found to increase with increasing barium content of the glass, indicating that introduction of barium in the borosilicate glass hinders the diffusion of alkali metal ions from the glass matrix. The results have been explained in terms of the electrostatic and structural factors, with the increasing barium concentration resulting in population of low energy sites by Na(+) ions and, plausibly, formation of more tight glass network. The leach rate measurements on the glass samples show similar trend.

  4. The Effect of Alkaline Earth Metal on the Cesium Loading of Ionsiv(R) IE-910 and IE-911

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2001-01-16

    This study investigated the effect of variances in alkaline earth metal concentrations on cesium loading of IONSIV(R) IE-911. The study focused on Savannah River Site (SRS) ''average'' solution with varying amounts of calcium, barium and magnesium.

  5. Do all barium stars have a white dwarf companion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominy, J. F.; Lambert, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    International Ultraviolet Explorer short-wavelength, low-dispersion spectra were analyzed for four barium, two mild barium, and one R-type carbon star in order to test the hypothesis that the barium and related giants are produced by mass transfer from a companion now present as a white dwarf. An earlier tentative identification of a white dwarf companion to the mild barium star Zeta Cyg is confirmed. For the other stars, no ultraviolet excess attributable to a white dwarf is seen. Limits are set on the bolometric magnitude and age of a possible white dwarf companion. Since the barium stars do not have obvious progenitors among main-sequence and subgiant stars, mass transfer must be presumed to occur when the mass-gaining star is already on the giant branch. This restriction, and the white dwarf's minimum age, which is greater than 8 x 10 to the 8th yr, determined for several stars, effectively eliminates the hypothesis that mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star creates a barium star. Speculations are presented on alternative methods of producing a barium star in a binary system.

  6. A high-altitude barium radial injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Deehr, C. S.; Romick, G. J.; Olson, J. V.; Roederer, J. G.; Sydora, R.

    1980-01-01

    A rocket launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, carried a new type of high-explosive barium shaped charge to 571 km, where detonation injected a thin disk of barium vapor with high velocity nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. The TV images of the injection are spectacular, revealing three major regimes of expanding plasma which showed early instabilities in the neutral gas. The most unusual effect of the injection is a peculiar rayed barium-ion structure lying in the injection plane and centered on a 5 km 'black hole' surrounding the injection point. Preliminary electrostatic computer simulations show a similar rayed development.

  7. Universal optimal hole-doping concentration in single-layer high-temperature cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, T.; Hor, P. H.

    2006-09-01

    We argue that in cuprate physics there are two types, hole content per CuO2 plane (Ppl) and the corresponding hole content per unit volume (P3D), of hole-doping concentrations for addressing physical properties that are two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) in nature, respectively. We find that the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) varies systematically with P3D as a superconducting 'dome' with a universal optimal hole-doping concentration of P3Dopt = 1.6 × 1021 cm-3 for single-layer high-temperature superconductors. We suggest that P3Dopt determines the upper bound of the electronic energy of underdoped single-layer high-Tc cuprates.

  8. Quantum oscillations from the reconstructed Fermi surface in electron-doped cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, J. S.; Chan, M. K.; Sarkar, Tarapada; McDonald, R. D.; Greene, R. L.; Butch, N. P.

    2018-04-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of electron-doped cuprate superconductors via measurements of high-field Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations in thin films. In optimally doped Pr2‑x Ce x CuO4±δ and La2‑x Ce x CuO4±δ , quantum oscillations indicate the presence of a small Fermi surface, demonstrating that electronic reconstruction is a general feature of the electron-doped cuprates, despite the location of the superconducting dome at very different doping levels. Negative high-field magnetoresistance is correlated with an anomalous low-temperature change in scattering that modifies the amplitude of quantum oscillations. This behavior is consistent with effects attributed to spin fluctuations.

  9. Vestigial nematicity from spin and/or charge order in the cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Nie, Laimei; Maharaj, Akash V.; Fradkin, Eduardo; ...

    2017-08-01

    Nematic order has manifested itself in a variety of materials in the cuprate family. We propose an effective field theory of a layered system with incommensurate, intertwined spin- and charge-density wave (SDW and CDW) orders, each of which consists of two components related by C4 rotations. Using a variational method (which is exact in a large N limit), we study the development of nematicity from partially melting those density waves by either increasing temperature or adding quenched disorder. As temperature decreases we first find a transition to a nematic phase, but depending on the range of parameters (e.g. doping concentration)more » the strongest fluctuations associated with this phase reflect either proximate SDW or CDW order. We also discuss the changes in parameters that can account for the differences in the SDW-CDW interplay between the (214) family and the other hole-doped cuprates.« less

  10. Nematicity in stripe ordered cuprates probed via resonant x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Achkar, A. J.; Zwiebler, M.; McMahon, Christopher

    We found that in underdoped cuprate superconductors, a rich competition occurs between superconductivity and charge density wave (CDW) order. Whether rotational symmetry-breaking (nematicity) occurs intrinsically and generically or as a consequence of other orders is under debate. Here, we employ resonant x-ray scattering in stripe-ordered superconductors (La,M) 2CuO 4 to probe the relationship between electronic nematicity of the Cu 3d orbitals, structure of the (La,M) 2O 2 layers, and CDW order. We find distinct temperature dependences for the structure of the (La,M) 2O 2 layers and the electronic nematicity of the CuO 2 planes, with only the latter being enhancedmore » by the onset of CDW order. Our results identify electronic nematicity as an order parameter that is distinct from a purely structural order parameter in underdoped striped cuprates.« less

  11. Nematicity in stripe ordered cuprates probed via resonant x-ray scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Achkar, A. J.; Zwiebler, M.; McMahon, Christopher; ...

    2016-02-05

    We found that in underdoped cuprate superconductors, a rich competition occurs between superconductivity and charge density wave (CDW) order. Whether rotational symmetry-breaking (nematicity) occurs intrinsically and generically or as a consequence of other orders is under debate. Here, we employ resonant x-ray scattering in stripe-ordered superconductors (La,M) 2CuO 4 to probe the relationship between electronic nematicity of the Cu 3d orbitals, structure of the (La,M) 2O 2 layers, and CDW order. We find distinct temperature dependences for the structure of the (La,M) 2O 2 layers and the electronic nematicity of the CuO 2 planes, with only the latter being enhancedmore » by the onset of CDW order. Our results identify electronic nematicity as an order parameter that is distinct from a purely structural order parameter in underdoped striped cuprates.« less

  12. Entropic Origin of Pseudogap Physics and a Mott-Slater Transition in Cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Markiewicz, R. S.; Buda, I. G.; Mistark, P.; ...

    2017-03-22

    Here, we propose a new approach to understand the origin of the pseudogap in the cuprates, in terms of bosonic entropy. The near-simultaneous softening of a large number of different q-bosons yields an extended range of short-range order, wherein the growth of magnetic correlations with decreasing temperature T is anomalously slow. These entropic effects cause the spectral weight associated with the Van Hove singularity (VHS) to shift rapidly and nearly linearly toward half filling at higher T, consistent with a picture of the VHS driving the pseudogap transition at a temperature ~T*. As a byproduct, we develop an order-parameter classificationmore » scheme that predicts supertransitions between families of order parameters. As one example, we find that by tuning the hopping parameters, it is possible to drive the cuprates across a transition between Mott and Slater physics, where a spin-frustrated state emerges at the crossover.« less

  13. Universal spectral signatures in pnictides and cuprates: the role of quasiparticle-pair coupling.

    PubMed

    Sacks, William; Mauger, Alain; Noat, Yves

    2017-11-08

    Understanding the physical properties of a large variety of high-T c superconductors (SC), the cuprate family as well as the more recent iron-based superconductors, is still a major challenge. In particular, these materials exhibit the 'peak-dip-hump' structure in the quasiparticle density of states (DOS). The origin of this structure is explained within our pair-pair interaction (PPI) model: The non-superconducting state consists of incoherent pairs, a 'Cooper-pair glass' which, due to the PPI, undergoes a Bose-like condensation below T c to the coherent SC state. We derive the equations of motion for the quasiparticle operators showing that the DOS 'peak-dip-hump' is caused by the coupling between quasiparticles and excited pair states, or 'super-quasiparticles'. The renormalized SC gap function becomes energy-dependent and non retarded, reproducing accurately the experimental spectra of both pnictides and cuprates, despite the large difference in gap value.

  14. Toward (-)-Enterocin: An Improved Cuprate Barbier Protocol To Overcome Strain and Sterical Hindrance.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Antonio; Trauner, Dirk

    2018-04-06

    An approach toward (-)-enterocin, an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus, is described. Its compact, heavily oxidized protoadamantane core represents a daunting challenge for an efficient synthesis. Convergent assembly of its 2-oxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane core with a cuprate-mediated Barbier reaction is disclosed. Its functionalization to a suitable substrate for a biomimetic aldol to close the final ring of the natural product is evaluated.

  15. Material and Doping Dependence of the Nodal and Antinodal Dispersion Renormalizations in Single- and Multilayer Cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Johnston, S.; Lee, W. S.; Chen, Y.; ...

    2010-01-01

    We presenmore » t a review of bosonic renormalization effects on electronic carriers observed from angle-resolved photoemission spectra in the cuprates. Specifically, we discuss the viewpoint that these renormalizations represent coupling of the electrons to the lattice and review how materials dependence, such as the number of Cu O 2 layers, and doping dependence can be understood straightforwardly in terms of several aspects of electron-phonon coupling in layered correlated materials.« less

  16. On the important role of the anti-Jahn-Teller effect in underdoped cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Hiroshi; Matsuno, Shunichi; Mizokawa, Takashi; Sasaoka, Kenji; Shiraishi, Kenji; Ushio, Hideki

    2013-04-01

    In this paper it is shown that the "anti-Jahn-Teller effect" plays an essential role in giving rise to a small Fermi surface of Fermi pockets above Tc and d-wave superconductivity below Tc in underdoped cuprates. In the first part of the present paper, we review the latest developments of the model proposed by Kamimura and Suwa, which bears important characteristics born from the interplay of Jahn-Teller Physics and Mott Physics. It is shown that the feature of Fermi surfaces in underdoped LSCO is the Fermi pockets in the nodal region constructed by doped holes under the coexistence of a metallic state and of the local antiferromagnetic order. In the antinodal region in the momentum space, there are no Fermi surfaces. Then it is discussed that the phonon-involved mechanism based on the Kamimura-Suwa model leads to the d-wave superconductivity. In particular, it is shown that the origin of strong electron-phonon interactions in cuprates is due to the anti-Jahn-Teller effect. In the second part a recent theoretical result on the energy distribution curves (EDCs) of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) below Tc is discussed. It is shown that the feature of ARPES profiles of underdoped cuprates consists of a coherent peak in the nodal region and the real transitions of photoexcited electrons from occupied states below the Fermi level to a free-electron state above the vacuum level in the antinodal region, where the latter transitions form a broad hump. From this feature, the origin of the two distinct gaps observed by ARPES is elucidated without introducing the concept of the pseudogap. Finally, a remark is made on the phase diagram of underdoped cuprates.

  17. Solar Twins and the Barium Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Lambert, David L.

    2017-08-01

    Several abundance analyses of Galactic open clusters (OCs) have shown a tendency for Ba but not for other heavy elements (La-Sm) to increase sharply with decreasing age such that Ba was claimed to reach [Ba/Fe] ≃ +0.6 in the youngest clusters (ages < 100 Myr) rising from [Ba/Fe] = 0.00 dex in solar-age clusters. Within the formulation of the s-process, the difficulty to replicate higher Ba abundance and normal La-Sm abundances in young clusters is known as the barium puzzle. Here, we investigate the barium puzzle using extremely high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 solar twins and measured the heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Sm with a precision of 0.03 dex. We demonstrate that the enhanced Ba II relative to La-Sm seen among solar twins, stellar associations, and OCs at young ages (<100 Myr) is unrelated to aspects of stellar nucleosynthesis but has resulted from overestimation of Ba by standard methods of LTE abundance analysis in which the microturbulence derived from the Fe lines formed deep in the photosphere is insufficient to represent the true line broadening imposed on Ba II lines by the upper photospheric layers from where the Ba II lines emerge. Because the young stars have relatively active photospheres, Ba overabundances most likely result from the adoption of a too low value of microturbulence in the spectrum synthesis of the strong Ba II lines but the change of microturbulence in the upper photosphere has only a minor affect on La-Sm abundances measured from the weak lines.

  18. Solar Twins and the Barium Puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Lambert, David L., E-mail: bala@astro.as.utexas.edu

    Several abundance analyses of Galactic open clusters (OCs) have shown a tendency for Ba but not for other heavy elements (La−Sm) to increase sharply with decreasing age such that Ba was claimed to reach [Ba/Fe] ≃ +0.6 in the youngest clusters (ages < 100 Myr) rising from [Ba/Fe] = 0.00 dex in solar-age clusters. Within the formulation of the s -process, the difficulty to replicate higher Ba abundance and normal La−Sm abundances in young clusters is known as the barium puzzle. Here, we investigate the barium puzzle using extremely high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 solar twins and measuredmore » the heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Sm with a precision of 0.03 dex. We demonstrate that the enhanced Ba ii relative to La−Sm seen among solar twins, stellar associations, and OCs at young ages (<100 Myr) is unrelated to aspects of stellar nucleosynthesis but has resulted from overestimation of Ba by standard methods of LTE abundance analysis in which the microturbulence derived from the Fe lines formed deep in the photosphere is insufficient to represent the true line broadening imposed on Ba ii lines by the upper photospheric layers from where the Ba ii lines emerge. Because the young stars have relatively active photospheres, Ba overabundances most likely result from the adoption of a too low value of microturbulence in the spectrum synthesis of the strong Ba ii lines but the change of microturbulence in the upper photosphere has only a minor affect on La−Sm abundances measured from the weak lines.« less

  19. Anomalous Electron Spectrum and Its Relation to Peak Structure of Electron Scattering Rate in Cuprate Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Deheng; Mou, Yingping; Feng, Shiping

    2018-02-01

    The recent discovery of a direct link between the sharp peak in the electron quasiparticle scattering rate of cuprate superconductors and the well-known peak-dip-hump structure in the electron quasiparticle excitation spectrum is calling for an explanation. Within the framework of the kinetic-energy-driven superconducting mechanism, the complicated line-shape in the electron quasiparticle excitation spectrum of cuprate superconductors is investigated. It is shown that the interaction between electrons by the exchange of spin excitations generates a notable peak structure in the electron quasiparticle scattering rate around the antinodal and nodal regions. However, this peak structure disappears at the hot spots, which leads to that the striking peak-dip-hump structure is developed around the antinodal and nodal regions, and vanishes at the hot spots. The theory also confirms that the sharp peak observed in the electron quasiparticle scattering rate is directly responsible for the remarkable peak-dip-hump structure in the electron quasiparticle excitation spectrum of cuprate superconductors.

  20. Collapse of superconductivity in cuprates via ultrafast quenching of phase coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschini, F.; da Silva Neto, E. H.; Razzoli, E.; Zonno, M.; Peli, S.; Day, R. P.; Michiardi, M.; Schneider, M.; Zwartsenberg, B.; Nigge, P.; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J.; Gu, G. D.; Zhdanovich, S.; Mills, A. K.; Levy, G.; Jones, D. J.; Giannetti, C.; Damascelli, A.

    2018-05-01

    The possibility of driving phase transitions in low-density condensates through the loss of phase coherence alone has far-reaching implications for the study of quantum phases of matter. This has inspired the development of tools to control and explore the collective properties of condensate phases via phase fluctuations. Electrically gated oxide interfaces1,2, ultracold Fermi atoms3,4 and cuprate superconductors5,6, which are characterized by an intrinsically small phase stiffness, are paradigmatic examples where these tools are having a dramatic impact. Here we use light pulses shorter than the internal thermalization time to drive and probe the phase fragility of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ cuprate superconductor, completely melting the superconducting condensate without affecting the pairing strength. The resulting ultrafast dynamics of phase fluctuations and charge excitations are captured and disentangled by time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. This work demonstrates the dominant role of phase coherence in the superconductor-to-normal state phase transition and offers a benchmark for non-equilibrium spectroscopic investigations of the cuprate phase diagram.

  1. Collapse of superconductivity in cuprates via ultrafast quenching of phase coherence

    DOE PAGES

    Boschini, F.; da Silva Neto, E. H.; Razzoli, E.; ...

    2018-04-02

    The possibility of driving phase transitions in low-density condensates through the loss of phase coherence alone has far-reaching implications for the study of quantum phases of matter. This has inspired the development of tools to control and explore the collective properties of condensate phases via phase fluctuations. Electrically gated oxide interfaces, ultracold Fermi atoms and cuprate superconductors, which are characterized by an intrinsically small phase stiffness, are paradigmatic examples where these tools are having a dramatic impact. In this study, we use light pulses shorter than the internal thermalization time to drive and probe the phase fragility of the Bimore » 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+δ cuprate superconductor, completely melting the superconducting condensate without affecting the pairing strength. The resulting ultrafast dynamics of phase fluctuations and charge excitations are captured and disentangled by time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. This work demonstrates the dominant role of phase coherence in the superconductor-to-normal state phase transition and offers a benchmark for non-equilibrium spectroscopic investigations of the cuprate phase diagram.« less

  2. Inverse correlation between quasiparticle mass and T c in a cuprate high-T c superconductor.

    PubMed

    Putzke, Carsten; Malone, Liam; Badoux, Sven; Vignolle, Baptiste; Vignolles, David; Tabis, Wojciech; Walmsley, Philip; Bird, Matthew; Hussey, Nigel E; Proust, Cyril; Carrington, Antony

    2016-03-01

    Close to a zero-temperature transition between ordered and disordered electronic phases, quantum fluctuations can lead to a strong enhancement of electron mass and to the emergence of competing phases such as superconductivity. A correlation between the existence of such a quantum phase transition and superconductivity is quite well established in some heavy fermion and iron-based superconductors, and there have been suggestions that high-temperature superconductivity in copper-oxide materials (cuprates) may also be driven by the same mechanism. Close to optimal doping, where the superconducting transition temperature T c is maximal in cuprates, two different phases are known to compete with superconductivity: a poorly understood pseudogap phase and a charge-ordered phase. Recent experiments have shown a strong increase in quasiparticle mass m* in the cuprate YBa2Cu3O7-δ as optimal doping is approached, suggesting that quantum fluctuations of the charge-ordered phase may be responsible for the high-T c superconductivity. We have tested the robustness of this correlation between m* and T c by performing quantum oscillation studies on the stoichiometric compound YBa2Cu4O8 under hydrostatic pressure. In contrast to the results for YBa2Cu3O7-δ, we find that in YBa2Cu4O8, the mass decreases as T c increases under pressure. This inverse correlation between m* and T c suggests that quantum fluctuations of the charge order enhance m* but do not enhance T c.

  3. A tale of two metals: contrasting criticalities in the pnictides and hole-doped cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussey, N. E.; Buhot, J.; Licciardello, S.

    2018-05-01

    The iron-based high temperature superconductors share a number of similarities with their copper-based counterparts, such as reduced dimensionality, proximity to states of competing order, and a critical role for 3d electron orbitals. Their respective temperature-doping phase diagrams also contain certain commonalities that have led to claims that the metallic and superconducting (SC) properties of both families are governed by their proximity to a quantum critical point (QCP) located inside the SC dome. In this review, we critically examine these claims and highlight significant differences in the bulk physical properties of both systems. While there is now a large body of evidence supporting the presence of a (magnetic) QCP in the iron pnictides, the situation in the cuprates is much less apparent, at least for the end point of the pseudogap phase. We argue that the opening of the normal state pseudogap in cuprates, so often tied to a putative QCP, arises from a momentum-dependent breakdown of quasiparticle coherence that sets in at much higher doping levels but which is driven by the proximity to the Mott insulating state at half filling. Finally, we present a new scenario for the cuprates in which this loss of quasiparticle integrity and its evolution with momentum, temperature and doping plays a key role in shaping the resultant phase diagram. This key issues review is dedicated to the memory of Dr John Loram whose pioneering measurements, analysis and ideas inspired much of its content.

  4. Interpretation of scanning tunneling quasiparticle interference and impurity states in cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Kreisel, Andreas; Choubey, Peayush; Berlijn, Tom; ...

    2015-05-27

    We apply a recently developed method combining first principles based Wannier functions with solutions to the Bogoliubov–de Gennes equations to the problem of interpreting STM data in cuprate superconductors. We show that the observed images of Zn on the surface of Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8 can only be understood by accounting for the tails of the Cu Wannier functions, which include significant weight on apical O sites in neighboring unit cells. This calculation thus puts earlier crude “filter” theories on a microscopic foundation and solves a long-standing puzzle. We then study quasiparticle interference phenomena induced by out-of-plane weak potentialmore » scatterers, and show how patterns long observed in cuprates can be understood in terms of the interference of Wannier functions above the surface. Furthermore, our results show excellent agreement with experiment and enable a better understanding of novel phenomena in the cuprates via STM imaging.« less

  5. Collapse of superconductivity in cuprates via ultrafast quenching of phase coherence

    SciTech Connect

    Boschini, F.; da Silva Neto, E. H.; Razzoli, E.

    The possibility of driving phase transitions in low-density condensates through the loss of phase coherence alone has far-reaching implications for the study of quantum phases of matter. This has inspired the development of tools to control and explore the collective properties of condensate phases via phase fluctuations. Electrically gated oxide interfaces, ultracold Fermi atoms and cuprate superconductors, which are characterized by an intrinsically small phase stiffness, are paradigmatic examples where these tools are having a dramatic impact. In this study, we use light pulses shorter than the internal thermalization time to drive and probe the phase fragility of the Bimore » 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+δ cuprate superconductor, completely melting the superconducting condensate without affecting the pairing strength. The resulting ultrafast dynamics of phase fluctuations and charge excitations are captured and disentangled by time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. This work demonstrates the dominant role of phase coherence in the superconductor-to-normal state phase transition and offers a benchmark for non-equilibrium spectroscopic investigations of the cuprate phase diagram.« less

  6. Inverse correlation between quasiparticle mass and Tc in a cuprate high-Tc superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Putzke, Carsten; Malone, Liam; Badoux, Sven; Vignolle, Baptiste; Vignolles, David; Tabis, Wojciech; Walmsley, Philip; Bird, Matthew; Hussey, Nigel E.; Proust, Cyril; Carrington, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Close to a zero-temperature transition between ordered and disordered electronic phases, quantum fluctuations can lead to a strong enhancement of electron mass and to the emergence of competing phases such as superconductivity. A correlation between the existence of such a quantum phase transition and superconductivity is quite well established in some heavy fermion and iron-based superconductors, and there have been suggestions that high-temperature superconductivity in copper-oxide materials (cuprates) may also be driven by the same mechanism. Close to optimal doping, where the superconducting transition temperature Tc is maximal in cuprates, two different phases are known to compete with superconductivity: a poorly understood pseudogap phase and a charge-ordered phase. Recent experiments have shown a strong increase in quasiparticle mass m* in the cuprate YBa2Cu3O7-δ as optimal doping is approached, suggesting that quantum fluctuations of the charge-ordered phase may be responsible for the high-Tc superconductivity. We have tested the robustness of this correlation between m* and Tc by performing quantum oscillation studies on the stoichiometric compound YBa2Cu4O8 under hydrostatic pressure. In contrast to the results for YBa2Cu3O7-δ, we find that in YBa2Cu4O8, the mass decreases as Tc increases under pressure. This inverse correlation between m* and Tc suggests that quantum fluctuations of the charge order enhance m* but do not enhance Tc. PMID:27034989

  7. Cuprate diamagnetism in the presence of a pseudogap: Beyond the standard fluctuation formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyack, Rufus; Chen, Qijin; Varlamov, A. A.; Levin, K.

    2018-02-01

    It is often claimed that among the strongest evidence for preformed-pair physics in the cuprates are the experimentally observed large values for the diamagnetic susceptibility and Nernst coefficient. These findings are most apparent in the underdoped regime, where a pseudogap is also evident. While the conventional (Gaussian) fluctuation picture has been applied to address these results, this preformed-pair approach omits the crucial effects of a pseudogap. In this paper we remedy this omission by computing the diamagnetic susceptibility and Nernst coefficient in the presence of a normal state gap. We find a large diamagnetic response for a range of temperatures much higher than the transition temperature. In particular, we report semiquantitative agreement with the measured diamagnetic susceptibility onset temperatures, over the entire range of hole dopings. Notable is the fact that at the lower critical doping of the superconducting dome, where the transition temperature vanishes and the pseudogap onset temperature remains large, the onset temperature for both diamagnetic and transverse thermoelectric transport coefficients tends to zero. Due to the importance attributed to the cuprate diamagnetic susceptibility and Nernst coefficient, this work helps to clarify the extent to which pairing fluctuations are a component of the cuprate pseudogap.

  8. Study of the photovoltaic effect in thin film barium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grannemann, W. W.; Dharmadhikari, V. S.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of making non-volatile digital memory devices of barium titanate, BaTiO3, that are integrated onto a silicon substrate with the required ferroelectric film produced by processing, compatible with silicon technology was examined.

  9. Calculated emission rates for barium releases in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    The optical emissions from barium releases in space are caused by resonance and fluorescent scattering of sunlight. Emission rates for the dominant ion and neutral lines are calculated assuming the release to be optically thin and the barium to be in radiative equilibrium with the solar radiation. The solar spectrum has deep Fraunhofer absorption lines at the primary barium ion resonances. A velocity component toward or away from the sun will Doppler shift the emission lines relative to the absorption lines and the emission rates will increase many-fold over the rest value. The Doppler brightening is important in shaped charge or satellite releases where the barium is injected at high velocities. Emission rates as a function of velocity are calculated for the 4554, 4934, 5854, 6142 and 6497 A ion emission lines and the dominant neutral line at 5535 A. Results are presented for injection parallel to the ambient magnetic field, B, and for injection at an angle to B.

  10. Upper gastrointestinal barium evaluation of duodenal pathology: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Debi, Uma; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor

    2014-01-01

    Like other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), duodenum is subject to a variety of lesions both congenital and acquired. However, unlike other parts of the GIT viz. esophagus, rest of the small intestine and large intestine, barium evaluation of duodenal lesions is technically more challenging and hence not frequently reported. With significant advances in computed tomography technology, a thorough evaluation including intraluminal, mural and extramural is feasible in a single non-invasive examination. Notwithstanding, barium evaluation still remains the initial and sometimes the only imaging study in several parts of the world. Hence, a thorough acquaintance with the morphology of various duodenal lesions on upper gastrointestinal barium examination is essential in guiding further evaluation. We reviewed our experience with various common and uncommon barium findings in duodenal abnormalities. PMID:25170399

  11. Coastal barium cycling at the West Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, K. M.; Hendry, K. R.; Sherrell, R. M.; Meredith, M. P.; Venables, H.; Lagerström, M.; Morte-Ródenas, A.

    2017-05-01

    Barium cycling in the ocean is associated with a number of processes, including the production and recycling of organic matter, freshwater fluxes, and phenomena that affect alkalinity. As a result, the biogeochemical cycle of barium offers insights into past and present oceanic conditions, with barium currently used in various forms as a palaeoproxy for components of organic and inorganic carbon storage, and as a quasi-conservative water mass tracer. However, the nature of the oceanic barium cycle is not fully understood, particularly in cases where multiple processes may be interacting simultaneously with the dissolved and particulate barium pools. This is particularly the case in coastal polar regions such as the West Antarctic Peninsula, where biological drawdown and remineralisation occur in tandem with sea ice formation and melting, glacial meltwater input, and potential fluxes from shelf sediments. Here, we use a high-precision dataset of dissolved barium (Bad) from a grid of stations adjacent to the West Antarctic Peninsula in conjunction with silicic acid (Si(OH)4), the oxygen isotope composition of water, and salinity measurements, to determine the relative control of various coastal processes on the barium cycle throughout the water column. There is a strong correlation between Bad and Si(OH)4 present in deeper samples, but nevertheless persists significantly in surface waters. This indicates that the link between biogenic opal and barium is not solely due to barite precipitation and dissolution at depth, but is supplemented by an association between Bad and diatom tests in surface waters, possibly due to barite formation within diatom-dominated phytodetritus present in the photic zone. Sea-ice meltwater appears to exert a significant secondary control on barium concentrations, likely due to non-conservative biotic or abiotic processes acting as a sink for Bad within the sea ice itself, or sea-ice meltwater stimulating non-siliceous productivity that acts

  12. A search for technetium (Tc II) in barium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little-Marenin, Irene R.; Little, Stephen J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors searched without success for the lines of Tc II at 2647.02, 2610.00 and 2543.24 A in IUE spectra of the barium stars HR 5058, Omicron Vir, and Zeta Cap. The lack of Tc II implies that the observed s-process enhancements were produced more than half a million years ago and supports the suggestion that the spectral peculiarities of barium stars are probably related to the binary nature of the stars.

  13. Intensity-Dependence Absorption and Photorefractive Effects in Barium Titanate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    S) barium titanate (U) George A. Brost , Ra and A. Motes, James R. Rotge’ 13& TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Yr.. Mo.. Day) 15...the copyright owner. Inthnsity-dependent absorption and photorefractive effects in barium titanate0 ELECTE 0 G. A. Brost , R. A. Motes, and 1. R. Rotge...Opt. Soc. Am. B/Vol. 5, No. 9/September 1988 Brost et al. CONDUCTION BAND the relative contributions of photoconductivities and dark conductivities

  14. 'Skidding' of the CRRES G-9 barium release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Mitchell, H. G.; Fedder, J. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    A simulation study and experimental data of the CRRES G-9 ionospheric barium release are presented. The simulation study is based on a 2D electrostatic code that incorporates time-dependent coupling to the background plasma. It is shown that the densest portion of the barium ion cloud 'skids' about 15 km within the first three seconds following the release, consistent with the optical data analyses.

  15. High pressure FAST of nanocrystalline barium titanate

    DOE PAGES

    Fraga, Martin B.; Delplanque, Jean -Pierre; Yang, Nancy; ...

    2016-06-01

    Here, this work studies the microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline (<1 µm) barium titanate (BaTiO 3), and presents high pressure in field-assisted sintering (FAST) as a robust methodology to obtain >100 nm BaTiO 3 compacts. Using FAST, two commercial ~50 nm powders were consolidated into compacts of varying densities and grain sizes. Microstructural inhomogeneities were investigated for each case, and an interpretation is developed using a modified Monte Carlo Potts (MCP) simulation. Two recurrent microstructural inhomogeneities are highlighted, heterogeneous grain growth and low-density regions, both ubiqutously present in all samples to varying degrees. In the worst cases, HGG presents an areamore » coverage of 52%. Because HGG is sporadic but homogenous throughout a sample, the catalyst (e.g., the local segregation of species) must be, correspondingly, distributed in a homogenous manner. MCP demonstrates that in such a case, a large distance between nucleating abnormal grains is required—otherwise abnormal grains prematurely impinge on each other, and their size is not distinguishable from that of normal grains. Compacts sintered with a pressure of 300 MPa and temperatures of 900 °C, were 99.5% dense and had a grain size of 90±24 nm. These are unprecedented results for commercial BaTiO 3 powders or any starting powder of 50 nm particle size—other authors have used 16 nm lab-produced powder to obtain similar results.« less

  16. Barium enema in frail elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Segal, R; Khahil, A; Leibovitz, A; Gil, I; Annuar, M; Habot, B

    2000-01-01

    Barium enema (BE) examinations for the investigation of suspected colonic disease are often unsuccessful in elderly patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success rate of BE in hospitalized frail elderly patients. Four hundred and seventy-two elderly patients hospitalized for different reasons underwent BE examinations. The medical charts and radiological reports were retrospectively reviewed. One hundred and ninety-two (41%) BE examinations were considered inadequate; mostly (32%) because of inappropriate preparation. Sixty-seven patients (14%) were not cooperative and could not retain the contrast material, and in 25 patients (5%), the examination failed due to both these reasons. The characteristics associated with unsuccessful BE examination were the mean number of medical problems (p < 0.001), the mean number of scheduled medications (p < 0.05) and in particular the long-term use of laxatives (p < 0.01) or antiparkinsonian drugs (p < 0.01). Of great significance in predicting an inadequate BE were the patient's functional status (p < 0.001) and the presence of dementia (p < 0.001). The high percentage of unsuccessful BEs in the frail elderly suggests that clinicians should carefully consider the need for that examination in these patients. We suggest that only in patients where there is a clear suspicion of a bleeding or obstructing tumor should a BE examination be performed, and even in these cases, colonoscopy or CT may be preferable as the initial examination in the frail elderly. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Barium Tagging for nEXO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fudenberg, Daniel; Brunner, Thomas; Varentsov, Victor; Devoe, Ralph; Dilling, Jens; Gratta, Giorgio; nEXO Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    nEXO is a next-generation experiment designed to search for 0 νββ -decay of Xe-136 in a liquid xenon time projection chamber. Positive observation of this decay would determine the neutrino to be a Majorana particle In order to greatly reduce background contributions to this search, the collaboration is developing several ``barium tagging'' techniques to recover and identify the decay daughter, Ba-136. ``Tagging'' may be available for a 2nd phase of nEXO and will push the sensitivity beyond the inverted neutrino-mass hierarchy. Tagging methods in testing for this phase include Ba-ion capture on a probe with identification by resonance ionization laser spectroscopy, and Ba capture in solid xenon on a cold probe with identification by fluorescence. In addition, Ba tagging for a gas-phase detector, appropriate for a later stage, is being tested. Here efficient ion extraction from heavy carrier gases is key. Detailed gas-dynamic and ion transport calculations have been performed to optimize for ion extraction. An apparatus to extract Ba ions from up to 10 bar xenon gas into vacuum using an RF-only funnel has been constructed and demonstrates extraction of ions from noble gases. We will present this system's status along with results of this R&D program.

  18. Barium ferrite thin-film recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Xiaoyu; Scherge, Matthias; Kryder, Mark H.; Snyder, John E.; Harris, Vincent G.; Koon, Norman C.

    1996-03-01

    Both longitudinal and perpendicular barium ferrite thin films are being pursued as overcoatless magnetic recording media. In this paper, prior research on thin-film Ba ferrite is reviewed and the most recent results are presented. Self-textured high-coercivity longitudinal Ba ferrite thin films have been achieved using conventional rf diode sputtering. Microstructural studies show that c-axis in-plane oriented grains have a characteristic acicular shape, while c-axis perpendicularly oriented grains have a platelet shape. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements indicate that the crystal orientations are predetermined by the structural anisotropy in the as-sputtered 'amorphous' state. Recording tests on 1500 Oe coercivity longitudinal Ba ferrite disks show performance comparable with that of a 1900 Oe Co alloy disk. To further improve the recording performance, both grain size and aspect ratio need to be reduced. Initial tribological tests indicate high hardness of Ba ferrite thin films. However, surface roughness needs to be reduced. For future ultrahigh-density contact recording, it is believed that perpendicular recording may be used. A thin Pt underlayer has been found to be capable of producing Ba ferrite thin films with excellent c-axis perpendicular orientation.

  19. Ferroelectric properties of substituted barium titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Parveen; Singh, Sangeeta; Juneja, J. K.; Prakash, Chandra; Raina, K. K.

    2009-06-01

    Barium titanate (BT) is among the most studied ferroelectric material which has been used in various forms, e.g. bulk, thin and thick film, powder, in a number of applications. In order to achieve a material with desired properties, it is modified with a variety of substituents. Most common substituents have been strontium, calcium and zirconium. Here we report studies on lead and zirconium substituted BT. The material series with compositional formula Ba 0.80Pb 0.20Ti 1-xZr xO 3 with, 0< x<0.1 was chosen for investigations. The material was synthesized by solid state reaction method. Reacted powder compacted in form of circular discs were sintered in the range of 1300 °C. All the samples were subjected to X-ray analysis and found to be single phase. Ferroelectric properties were studied as a function of composition and temperature. Pr/ Ps ratio was determined. It was found to decrease with increase in x.

  20. High Performance, Low Temperature Solution-Processed Barium and Strontium Doped Oxide Thin Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Banger, Kulbinder K; Peterson, Rebecca L; Mori, Kiyotaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Leedham, Timothy; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2014-01-28

    Amorphous mixed metal oxides are emerging as high performance semiconductors for thin film transistor (TFT) applications, with indium gallium zinc oxide, InGaZnO (IGZO), being one of the most widely studied and best performing systems. Here, we investigate alkaline earth (barium or strontium) doped InBa(Sr)ZnO as alternative, semiconducting channel layers and compare their performance of the electrical stress stability with IGZO. In films fabricated by solution-processing from metal alkoxide precursors and annealed to 450 °C we achieve high field-effect electron mobility up to 26 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . We show that it is possible to solution-process these materials at low process temperature (225-200 °C yielding mobilities up to 4.4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ) and demonstrate a facile "ink-on-demand" process for these materials which utilizes the alcoholysis reaction of alkyl metal precursors to negate the need for complex synthesis and purification protocols. Electrical bias stress measurements which can serve as a figure of merit for performance stability for a TFT device reveal Sr- and Ba-doped semiconductors to exhibit enhanced electrical stability and reduced threshold voltage shift compared to IGZO irrespective of the process temperature and preparation method. This enhancement in stability can be attributed to the higher Gibbs energy of oxidation of barium and strontium compared to gallium.

  1. High Performance, Low Temperature Solution-Processed Barium and Strontium Doped Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous mixed metal oxides are emerging as high performance semiconductors for thin film transistor (TFT) applications, with indium gallium zinc oxide, InGaZnO (IGZO), being one of the most widely studied and best performing systems. Here, we investigate alkaline earth (barium or strontium) doped InBa(Sr)ZnO as alternative, semiconducting channel layers and compare their performance of the electrical stress stability with IGZO. In films fabricated by solution-processing from metal alkoxide precursors and annealed to 450 °C we achieve high field-effect electron mobility up to 26 cm2 V–1 s–1. We show that it is possible to solution-process these materials at low process temperature (225–200 °C yielding mobilities up to 4.4 cm2 V–1 s–1) and demonstrate a facile “ink-on-demand” process for these materials which utilizes the alcoholysis reaction of alkyl metal precursors to negate the need for complex synthesis and purification protocols. Electrical bias stress measurements which can serve as a figure of merit for performance stability for a TFT device reveal Sr- and Ba-doped semiconductors to exhibit enhanced electrical stability and reduced threshold voltage shift compared to IGZO irrespective of the process temperature and preparation method. This enhancement in stability can be attributed to the higher Gibbs energy of oxidation of barium and strontium compared to gallium. PMID:24511184

  2. Deep-sea fluxes of barium and lithogenic trace elements in the subtropical northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Judith; Dellwig, Olaf; Waniek, Joanna J.

    2017-04-01

    Total particle flux, Barium and lithogenic trace element fluxes were measured at the mooring Kiel 276 (33°N, 22°W) in the deep-sea of the subtropical Northeast Atlantic. The particulate material was collected between 2002 and 2008 with a sediment trap in 2000 m depth and analyzed with ICP-OES/-MS to determine its geochemical composition. The particle flux is controlled by primary production, lithogenic particle inputs via atmospheric transport and the migration of the Azores Front. We used refractory trace elements (eg. Ti, Zr, and the rare earth elements) to demonstrate the changes in flux and composition of the material due to lithogenic inputs. Shortly after periods of high dust load and enhanced primary production an increase in lithogenic trace element fluxes occurred. Especially the formation of aggregates with biogenic matter seems to have a major impact on the downwards transport of lithogenic particles. The observation of particulate Ba is of great interest since it is known as a proxy for past and present primary production. Ba fluxes ranging between 0.02 mg m-2 d-1 and 1.21 mg m-2 d-1 with biogenic proportions up to 97%. The fluxes of particulate Barium in the water column are mainly attributed to the strength of primary production.

  3. Freeze cast porous barium titanate for enhanced piezoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscow, J. I.; Zhang, Y.; Kraśny, M. J.; Lewis, R. W. C.; Taylor, J.; Bowen, C. R.

    2018-06-01

    Energy harvesting is an important developing technology for a new generation of self-powered sensor networks. This paper demonstrates the significant improvement in the piezoelectric energy harvesting performance of barium titanate by forming highly aligned porosity using freeze casting. Firstly, a finite element model demonstrating the effect of pore morphology and angle with respect to poling field on the poling behaviour of porous ferroelectrics was developed. A second model was then developed to understand the influence of microstructure-property relationships on the poling behaviour of porous freeze cast ferroelectric materials and their resultant piezoelectric and energy harvesting properties. To compare with model predictions, porous barium titanate was fabricated using freeze casting to form highly aligned microstructures with excellent longitudinal piezoelectric strain coefficients, d 33. The freeze cast barium titanate with 45 vol.% porosity had a d 33  =  134.5 pC N‑1 compared to d 33  =  144.5 pC N‑1 for dense barium titanate. The d 33 coefficients of the freeze cast materials were also higher than materials with uniformly distributed spherical porosity due to improved poling of the aligned microstructures, as predicted by the models. Both model and experimental data indicated that introducing porosity provides a large reduction in the permittivity () of barium titanate, which leads to a substantial increase in energy harvesting figure of merit, , with a maximum of 3.79 pm2 N‑1 for barium titanate with 45 vol.% porosity, compared to only 1.40 pm2 N‑1 for dense barium titanate. Dense and porous barium titanate materials were then used to harvest energy from a mechanical excitation by rectification and storage of the piezoelectric charge on a capacitor. The porous barium titanate charged the capacitor to a voltage of 234 mV compared to 96 mV for the dense material, indicating a 2.4-fold increase that was similar to that

  4. Superconductivity, pseudo-gap, and stripe correlations in high-Tc cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zailan; Denis, Sylvain; Lebert, Blair W.; Bertran, Francois; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Castellan, John-Paul; Bolloc'h, David Le; Jacques, Vincent L. R.; Sidis, Yvan; Baptiste, Benoît; Decorse, Claudia; Berthet, Patrick; Perfetti, Luca; d'Astuto, Matteo

    2018-05-01

    Under-doped La-214 cuprates show a charge- and spin-modulation known as "stripes" [1]. These stripe modulations are (quasi)-static close to 1/8 hole doping where superconductivity is suppressed. The pseudo-gap phase of other cuprate compounds recently also revealed charge modulation, but interpreted rather as a charge density wave (CDW) [2-4], that possibly competes with superconductivity. In this context, to better understand the interplay between the stripe phase and the superconductivity, we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the electronic band structure and gap in La-214 cuprates near 1/8 doping (La2-x-yNdySrxCuO4 (x = 0.12; y = 0.0 & 0.4)) and compare with the previous results in the same system [5] and La1.86Ba0.14CuO4 [6]. Our data shows a loss of spectral intensity towards the end of the Fermi arcs, that is possibly due to a strong renormalisation, as already pointed out elsewhere [6], with a noisy but still measurable gap. On the nodal direction no gap is observed within our statistics, but a sizeable decrease in intensity with temperature. Moreover, we do not see any shadow band, but our Fermi surface can be well modelled with a single electron band calculation in the tight binding approximation, even very close to the 1/8 doping La2-x-yNdySrxCuO4 with and without Nd substitution.

  5. Acceleration of barium ions near 8000 km above an aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Wescott, E. M.; Foeppl, H.

    1984-01-01

    A barium shaped charge, named Limerick, was released from a rocket launched from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, on March 30, 1982, at 1033 UT. The release took place in a small auroral breakup. The jet of ionized barium reached an altitude of 8100 km 14.5 min after release, indicating that there were no parallel electric fields below this altitude. At 8100 km the jet appeared to stop. Analysis shows that the barium at this altitude was effectively removed from the tip. It is concluded that the barium was actually accelerated upward, resulting in a large decrease in the line-of-sight density and hence the optical intensity. The parallel electric potential in the acceleration region must have been greater than 1 kV over an altitude interval of less than 200 km. The acceleration region, although presumably auroral in origin, did not seem to be related to individual auroral structures, but appeared to be a large-scale horizontal structure. The perpendicular electric field below, as deduced from the drift of the barium, was temporally and spatially very uniform and showed no variation related to individual auroral structures passing through.

  6. REVIEW ARTICLE: Unconventional isotope effects in the high-temperature cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guo-meng; Keller, H.; Conder, K.

    2001-07-01

    We review various isotope effects in the high-Tc cuprate superconductors to assess the role of the electron-phonon interaction in the basic physics of these materials. Of particular interest are the unconventional isotope effects on the supercarrier mass, on the charge-stripe formation temperature, on the pseudogap formation temperature, on the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) linewidth, on the spin-glass freezing temperature and on the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. The observed unconventional isotope effects strongly suggest that lattice vibrations play an important role in the microscopic pairing mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity.

  7. Photoemission perspective on pseudogap, superconducting fluctuations, and charge order in cuprates: a review of recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishik, I. M.

    2018-06-01

    In the course of seeking the microscopic mechanism of superconductivity in cuprate high temperature superconductors, the pseudogap phase— the very abnormal ‘normal’ state on the hole-doped side— has proven to be as big of a quandary as superconductivity itself. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is a powerful tool for assessing the momentum-dependent phenomenology of the pseudogap, and recent technological developments have permitted a more detailed understanding. This report reviews recent progress in understanding the relationship between superconductivity and the pseudogap, the Fermi arc phenomena, and the relationship between charge order and pseudogap from the perspective of ARPES measurements.

  8. Short range smectic order driving long range nematic order: Example of cuprates

    SciTech Connect

    Markiewicz, R. S.; Lorenzana, J.; Seibold, G.

    We present a model for describing the combined presence of nematic and ‘smectic’ or stripe-like orders seen in recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments on cuprates. The smectic order is treated as an electronic charge density wave with an associated Peierls distortion or a ‘Pomeranchuk wave’. This primary order is restricted to nanoscale domains by disorder effects, while the secondary coupling to strain generates the nematic order with a considerably longer range. Lastly, a variety of experimental results are shown to be consistent with our theoretical predictions.

  9. Bosonic excitations and electron pairing in an electron-doped cuprate superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M. C.; Yu, H. S.; Xiong, J.; Yang, Y.-F.; Luo, S. N.; Jin, K.; Qi, J.

    2018-04-01

    By applying ultrafast optical spectroscopy to electron-doped La1.9Ce0.1CuO4 ±δ , we discern a bosonic mode of electronic origin and provide the evolution of its coupling with the charge carriers as a function of temperature. Our results show that it has the strongest coupling strength near Tc and can fully account for the superconducting pairing. This mode can be associated with the two-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin correlations emerging below a critical temperature T† larger than Tc. Our work may help to establish a quantitative relation between bosonic excitations and superconducting pairing in electron-doped cuprates.

  10. Fluctuation-exchange study of antiferromagnetism in disordered electron-doped cuprate superconductors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xin-Zhong; Ting, C S

    2006-08-11

    On the basis of the Hubbard model, we extend the fluctuation-exchange (FLEX) approach to investigating the properties of the antiferromagnetic (AF) phase in electron-doped cuprate superconductors. Furthermore, by incorporating the effect of scatterings due to the disordered dopant atoms into the FLEX formalism, our numerical results show that the antiferromagnetic transition temperature, the onset temperature of pseudogap due to spin fluctuations, the spectral density of the single particle near the Fermi surface, and the staggered magnetization in the AF phase as a function of electron doping can consistently account for the experimental measurements.

  11. Short range smectic order driving long range nematic order: Example of cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Markiewicz, R. S.; Lorenzana, J.; Seibold, G.; ...

    2016-01-27

    We present a model for describing the combined presence of nematic and ‘smectic’ or stripe-like orders seen in recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments on cuprates. The smectic order is treated as an electronic charge density wave with an associated Peierls distortion or a ‘Pomeranchuk wave’. This primary order is restricted to nanoscale domains by disorder effects, while the secondary coupling to strain generates the nematic order with a considerably longer range. Lastly, a variety of experimental results are shown to be consistent with our theoretical predictions.

  12. Theory of High-T{sub c} Superconducting Cuprates Based on Experimental Evidence

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Abrikosov, A. A.

    1999-12-10

    A model of superconductivity in layered high-temperature superconducting cuprates is proposed, based on the extended saddle point singularities in the electron spectrum, weak screening of the Coulomb interaction and phonon-mediated interaction between electrons plus a small short-range repulsion of Hund's, or spin-fluctuation, origin. This permits to explain the large values of T{sub c}, features of the isotope effect on oxygen and copper, the existence of two types of the order parameter, the peak in the inelastic neutron scattering, the positive curvature of the upper critical field, as function of temperature etc.

  13. Barium Depletion in the NSTAR Discharge Cathode After 30,000 Hours of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of barium released by impregnant materials in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. Examinations of cathode inserts from long duration ion engine tests show deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of barium from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of barium transport in the insert plasma indicates that the barium partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant barium-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress barium loss in the upstream part of the insert. New measurements of the depth of barium depletion from a cathode insert operated for 30,352 hours reveal that barium loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis.

  14. Selectivity in biomineralization of barium and strontium.

    PubMed

    Krejci, Minna R; Wasserman, Brian; Finney, Lydia; McNulty, Ian; Legnini, Daniel; Vogt, Stefan; Joester, Derk

    2011-11-01

    The desmid green alga Closterium moniliferum belongs to a small number of organisms that form barite (BaSO(4)) or celestite (SrSO(4)) biominerals. The ability to sequester Sr in the presence of an excess of Ca is of considerable interest for the remediation of (90)Sr from the environment and nuclear waste. While most cells dynamically regulate the concentration of the second messenger Ca(2+) in the cytosol and various organelles, transport proteins rarely discriminate strongly between Ca, Sr, and Ba. Herein, we investigate how these ions are trafficked in C. moniliferum and how precipitation of (Ba,Sr)SO(4) crystals occurs in the terminal vacuoles. Towards this goal, we simultaneously visualize intracellular dynamics of multiple elements using X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) of cryo-fixed/freeze-dried samples. We correlate the resulting elemental maps with ultrastructural information gleaned from freeze-fracture cryo-SEM of frozen-hydrated cells and use micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES) to determine sulfur speciation. We find that the kinetics of Sr uptake and efflux depend on external Ca concentrations, and Sr, Ba, and Ca show similar intracellular localization. A highly ion-selective cross-membrane transport step is not evident. Based on elevated levels of sulfate detected in the terminal vacuoles, we propose a "sulfate trap" model, where the presence of dissolved barium leads to preferential precipitation of (Ba,Sr)SO(4) due to its low solubility relative to SrSO(4) and CaSO(4). Engineering the sulfate concentration in the vacuole may thus be the most direct way to increase the Sr sequestered per cell, an important consideration in using desmids for phytoremediation of (90)Sr. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiphoton laser ionization for energy conversion in barium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makdisi, Y.; Kokaj, J.; Afrousheh, K.; Mathew, J.; Nair, R.; Pichler, G.

    2013-03-01

    We have studied the ion detection of barium atoms in special heated ovens with a tungsten rod in the middle of the stainless steel tube. The tungsten rod was heated indirectly by the oven body heaters. A bias voltage between the cell body and the tungsten rod of 9 V was used to collect electrons, after the barium ions had been created. However, we could collect the electrons even without the bias voltage, although with ten times less efficiency. We studied the conditions for the successful bias-less thermionic signal detection using excimer/dye laser two-photon excitation of Rydberg states below and above the first ionization limit (two-photon wavelength at 475.79 nm). We employed a hot-pipe oven and heat-pipe oven (with inserted mesh) in order to generate different barium vapor distributions inside the oven. The thermionic signal increased by a factor of two under heat-pipe oven conditions.

  16. Study of optical properties of cerium ion doped barium aluminate phosphor

    SciTech Connect

    Lohe, P. P., E-mail: prachiti.lohe2012@gmail.com; Omanwar, S. K.; Bajaj, N. S.

    2016-05-06

    In the recent years due to their various optical and technological applications aluminate materials have attracted attention of several researchers. When these materials are doped with rare earth ions they show properties favorable for many optical applications such as high quantum efficiencies. These materials are used in various applications such as lamp phosphors, optically and thermoluminescence dosimeter etc Barium aluminate BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} doped with Ce is well known long lasting phosphor. This paper reports synthesis of BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Ce phosphor prepared by a simple combustion synthesis. The samples were characterized for the phase purity, chemical bonds and luminescentmore » properties.« less

  17. Compact pulse forming line using barium titanate ceramic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Sharma, Surender; Deb, P.; Shukla, R.; Prabaharan, T.; Shyam, A.

    2011-11-01

    Ceramic material has very high relative permittivity, so compact pulse forming line can be made using these materials. Barium titanate (BaTiO3) has a relative permittivity of 1200 so it is used for making compact pulse forming line (PFL). Barium titanate also has piezoelectric effects so it cracks during high voltages discharges due to stresses developed in it. Barium titanate is mixed with rubber which absorbs the piezoelectric stresses when the PFL is charged and regain its original shape after the discharge. A composite mixture of barium titanate with the neoprene rubber is prepared. The relative permittivity of the composite mixture is measured to be 85. A coaxial pulse forming line of inner diameter 120 mm, outer diameter 240 mm, and length 350 mm is made and the composite mixture of barium titanate and neoprene rubber is filled between the inner and outer cylinders. The PFL is charged up to 120 kV and discharged into 5 Ω load. The voltage pulse of 70 kV, 21 ns is measured across the load. The conventional PFL is made up of oil or plastics dielectrics with the relative permittivity of 2-10 [D. R. Linde, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th ed. (CRC, 2009); Xia et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 086113 (2008); Yang et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 43303 (2010)], which increases the length of PFL. We have reported the compactness in length achieved due to increase in relative permittivity of composite mixture by adding barium titanate in neoprene rubber.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN P-00... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN P-00... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721...

  20. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished liver...

  1. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished liver...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN P-00...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN P-00...

  4. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished liver...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN P-00...

  6. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or more...

  7. Sorption of strontium-90 from fresh waters during sulfate modification of barium manganite

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhen`kov, A.P.; Egorov, Yu.V.

    1995-11-01

    Recovery of strontium-90 with barium manganite from fresh waters (natural fresh waters of open basins) can be increased by adding agents that contain sulfate ions and thus modify the sorbent and chemically bind the sorbate. The treatment results in a heterogeneous anion-exchange transformation of barium manganite into barium sulfate-manganese dioxide and in simultaneous absorptive coprecipitation of strontium sulfate (microcomponent).

  8. Preparation and characterization of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X. P.; Yao, B. H.; Pan, Q. H.; Pen, C.; Zhang, C. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, two kinds of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts have been prepared by two methods and characterized by XRD and SEM. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by a photocatalytic reactor and an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The results showed that-BaSb2O5•4H2O, BaSb2O6 two kinds of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts were successfully prepared in this experiment and they showed good photocatalytic properties. In addition, BaSb2O6 morphology showed more regular, microstructure and better catalytic performance.

  9. Methods for producing monodispersed particles of barium titanate

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a low-temperature controlled method for producing high-quality, ultrafine monodispersed nanocrystalline microsphere powders of barium titanate and other pure or composite oxide materials having particles ranging from nanosized to micronsized particles. The method of the subject invention comprises a two-stage process. The first stage produces high quality monodispersed hydrous titania microsphere particles prepared by homogeneous precipitation via dielectric tuning in alcohol-water mixed solutions of inorganic salts. Titanium tetrachloride is used as an inorganic salt precursor material. The second stage converts the pure hydrous titania microsphere particles into crystalline barium titanate microsphere powders via low-temperature, hydrothermal reactions.

  10. Fatal Liver Damage After Barium Enemas Containing Tannic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Lucke, Hans H.; Hodge, Kenneth E.; Patt, Norman L.

    1963-01-01

    Tannic acid contained in the barium enema was found to have been the sole known potential hepatotoxin in four of the five cases of fulminating fatal liver failure that occurred in a 213-bed hospital over a period of 27 months. In the other case halothane anesthesia had also been administered. Autopsies (performed on four of the cases) did not suggest viral hepatitis but showed substantially indentical hepatic changes, not unlike those reported in the past following tannic acid exposure. Proof is not claimed that tannic acid was the cause of these deaths, but further investigation regarding the safety of its administration in barium enemas is advocated. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:14079135

  11. Study of the photovoltaic effect in thin film barium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grannemann, W. W.; Dharmadhikari, V. S.

    1981-01-01

    The photoelectric effect in structures consisting of metal deposited barium titanate film silicon is described. A radio frequency sputtering technique is used to deposit ferroelectric barium titantate films on silicon and quartz. Film properties are measured and correlated with the photoelectric effect characteristics of the films. It was found that to obtain good quality pin hole free films, it is necessary to reduce the substrate temperature during the last part of the deposition. The switching ability of the device with internal applied voltage is improved when applied with a ferroelectric memory device.

  12. Ionization and expansion of barium clouds in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, T.-Z.; Schunk, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    A recently envelope 3D model is used here to study the motion of the barium clouds released in the ionosphere, including the ionization stage. The ionization and the expansion of the barium clouds and the interaction between the clouds and the background ions are investigated using three simulations: a cloud without a directional velocity, a cloud with an initial velocity of 5 km/s across the B field, and a cloud with initial velocity components of 2 km/s both along and across the B field.

  13. Comparison of endoscopy and barium swallow with marshmallow in dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Somers, S; Stevenson, G W; Thompson, G

    1986-06-01

    Forty-four patients with dysphagia were examined both by endoscopy and by barium swallow with a marshmallow bolus. In these patients 36 stenoses were found: 34 by radiology and 30 by endoscopy. The radiologic criteria for stenosis included arrest of the marshmallow in a manner to support a column of barium and reproduction of the patient's symptoms at the time this occurred. Radiologic false negative findings were partly due to an inability by patients to swallow an adequate marshmallow bolus; endoscopic failures were associated with small endoscopes and mild stenoses.

  14. Barium Tagging from nEXO Using Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twelker, K.; Kravitz, S.

    nEXO is a 5-ton liquid enriched-xenon time projection chamber (TPC) to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, designed to have the sensitivity to completely probe the inverted mass hierarchy of Majorana neutrinos. The detector will accommodate-as a background reduction technique-a system to recover and identify the barium decay product. This upgrade will allow a background-free measurement of neutrinoless double-beta decay and increase the half-life sensitivity of the experiment by at least one order of magnitude. Ongoing research and development includes a system to test barium extraction from liquid xenon using surface adsorption and Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS).

  15. Dimensional Crossover of Charge-Density Wave Correlations in the Cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Yosef; Orgad, Dror

    2017-09-01

    Short-range charge-density wave correlations are ubiquitous in underdoped cuprates. They are largely confined to the copper-oxygen planes and typically oscillate out of phase from one unit cell to the next in the c direction. Recently, it was found that a considerably longer-range charge-density wave order develops in YBa2 Cu3 O6 +x above a sharply defined crossover magnetic field. This order is more three-dimensional and is in-phase along the c axis. Here, we show that such behavior is a consequence of the conflicting ordering tendencies induced by the disorder potential and the Coulomb interaction, where the magnetic field acts to tip the scales from the former to the latter. We base our conclusion on analytic large-N analysis and Monte Carlo simulations of a nonlinear sigma model of competing superconducting and charge-density wave orders. Our results are in agreement with the observed phenomenology in the cuprates, and we discuss their implications to other members of this family, which have not been measured yet at high magnetic fields.

  16. The novel metallic states of the cuprates: Topological Fermi liquids and strange metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdev, Subir; Chowdhury, Debanjan

    2016-12-01

    We review ideas on the nature of the metallic states of the hole-doped cuprate high temperature superconductors, with an emphasis on the connections between the Luttinger theorem for the size of the Fermi surface, topological quantum field theories (TQFTs), and critical theories involving changes in the size of the Fermi surface. We begin with the derivation of the Luttinger theorem for a Fermi liquid, using momentum balance during a process of flux insertion in a lattice electronic model with toroidal boundary conditions. We then review the TQFT of the ℤ spin liquid, and demonstrate its compatibility with the toroidal momentum balance argument. This discussion leads naturally to a simple construction of "topological" Fermi liquid states: the fractionalized Fermi liquid (FL*) and the algebraic charge liquid (ACL). We present arguments for a description of the pseudogap metal of the cuprates using ℤ-FL* or ℤ-ACL states with Ising-nematic order. These pseudogap metal states are also described as Higgs phases of a SU(2) gauge theory. The Higgs field represents local antiferromagnetism, but the Higgs-condensed phase does not have long-range antiferromagnetic order: the magnitude of the Higgs field determines the pseudogap, the reconstruction of the Fermi surface, and the Ising-nematic order. Finally, we discuss the route to the large Fermi surface Fermi liquid via the critical point where the Higgs condensate and Ising nematic order vanish, and the application of Higgs criticality to the strange metal.

  17. Digital modulation of the nickel valence state in a cuprate-nickelate heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobel, F.; Geisler, B.; Wang, Y.; Christiani, G.; Logvenov, G.; Bluschke, M.; Schierle, E.; van Aken, P. A.; Keimer, B.; Pentcheva, R.; Benckiser, E.

    2018-03-01

    Layer-by-layer oxide molecular-beam epitaxy has been used to synthesize cuprate-nickelate multilayer structures of composition (La2CuO4)m/LaO /(LaNiO3)n . In a combined experimental and theoretical study, we show that these structures allow a clean separation of dopant and doped layers. Specifically, the LaO layer separating cuprate and nickelate blocks provides an additional charge that, according to density-functional theory calculations, is predominantly accommodated in the interfacial nickelate layers. This is reflected in an elongation of bond distances and changes in valence state, as observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Moreover, the predicted charge disproportionation in the nickelate interface layers leads to a metal-to-insulator transition when the thickness is reduced to n =2 , as observed in electrical transport measurements. The results exemplify the perspectives of charge transfer in metal-oxide multilayers to induce doping without introducing chemical and structural disorder.

  18. Self-optimized superconductivity attainable by interlayer phase separation at cuprate interfaces.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Takahiro; Nomura, Yusuke; Biermann, Silke; Imada, Masatoshi

    2016-07-01

    Stabilizing superconductivity at high temperatures and elucidating its mechanism have long been major challenges of materials research in condensed matter physics. Meanwhile, recent progress in nanostructuring offers unprecedented possibilities for designing novel functionalities. Above all, thin films of cuprate and iron-based high-temperature superconductors exhibit remarkably better superconducting characteristics (for example, higher critical temperatures) than in the bulk, but the underlying mechanism is still not understood. Solving microscopic models suitable for cuprates, we demonstrate that, at an interface between a Mott insulator and an overdoped nonsuperconducting metal, the superconducting amplitude is always pinned at the optimum achieved in the bulk, independently of the carrier concentration in the metal. This is in contrast to the dome-like dependence in bulk superconductors but consistent with the astonishing independence of the critical temperature from the carrier density x observed at the interfaces of La2CuO4 and La2-x Sr x CuO4. Furthermore, we identify a self-organization mechanism as responsible for the pinning at the optimum amplitude: An emergent electronic structure induced by interlayer phase separation eludes bulk phase separation and inhomogeneities that would kill superconductivity in the bulk. Thus, interfaces provide an ideal tool to enhance and stabilize superconductivity. This interfacial example opens up further ways of shaping superconductivity by suppressing competing instabilities, with direct perspectives for designing devices.

  19. Self-optimized superconductivity attainable by interlayer phase separation at cuprate interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Misawa, Takahiro; Nomura, Yusuke; Biermann, Silke; Imada, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Stabilizing superconductivity at high temperatures and elucidating its mechanism have long been major challenges of materials research in condensed matter physics. Meanwhile, recent progress in nanostructuring offers unprecedented possibilities for designing novel functionalities. Above all, thin films of cuprate and iron-based high-temperature superconductors exhibit remarkably better superconducting characteristics (for example, higher critical temperatures) than in the bulk, but the underlying mechanism is still not understood. Solving microscopic models suitable for cuprates, we demonstrate that, at an interface between a Mott insulator and an overdoped nonsuperconducting metal, the superconducting amplitude is always pinned at the optimum achieved in the bulk, independently of the carrier concentration in the metal. This is in contrast to the dome-like dependence in bulk superconductors but consistent with the astonishing independence of the critical temperature from the carrier density x observed at the interfaces of La2CuO4 and La2−xSrxCuO4. Furthermore, we identify a self-organization mechanism as responsible for the pinning at the optimum amplitude: An emergent electronic structure induced by interlayer phase separation eludes bulk phase separation and inhomogeneities that would kill superconductivity in the bulk. Thus, interfaces provide an ideal tool to enhance and stabilize superconductivity. This interfacial example opens up further ways of shaping superconductivity by suppressing competing instabilities, with direct perspectives for designing devices. PMID:27482542

  20. Single reconstructed Fermi surface pocket in an underdoped single-layer cuprate superconductor

    DOE PAGES

    Chan, Mun Keat; Harrison, Neil; Mcdonald, Ross David; ...

    2016-07-22

    The observation of a reconstructed Fermi surface via quantum oscillations in hole-doped cuprates opened a path towards identifying broken symmetry states in the pseudogap regime. However, such an identification has remained inconclusive due to the multi-frequency quantum oscillation spectra and complications accounting for bilayer effects in most studies. We overcome these impediments with high-resolution measurements on the structurally simpler cuprate HgBa2CuO4+δ (Hg1201), which features one CuO2 plane per primitive unit cell. We find only a single oscillatory component with no signatures of magnetic breakdown tunnelling to additional orbits. Therefore, the Fermi surface comprises a single quasi-two-dimensional pocket. Quantitative modelling ofmore » these results indicates that a biaxial charge density wave within each CuO2 plane is responsible for the reconstruction and rules out criss-crossed charge stripes between layers as a viable alternative in Hg1201. Lastly, we determine that the characteristic gap between reconstructed pockets is a significant fraction of the pseudogap energy« less

  1. Doping dependence of charge order in electron-doped cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Yingping; Feng, Shiping

    2017-12-01

    In the recent studies of the unconventional physics in cuprate superconductors, one of the central issues is the interplay between charge order and superconductivity. Here the mechanism of the charge-order formation in the electron-doped cuprate superconductors is investigated based on the t-J model. The experimentally observed momentum dependence of the electron quasiparticle scattering rate is qualitatively reproduced, where the scattering rate is highly anisotropic in momentum space, and is intriguingly related to the charge-order gap. Although the scattering strength appears to be weakest at the hot spots, the scattering in the antinodal region is stronger than that in the nodal region, which leads to the original electron Fermi surface is broken up into the Fermi pockets and their coexistence with the Fermi arcs located around the nodal region. In particular, this electron Fermi surface instability drives the charge-order correlation, with the charge-order wave vector that matches well with the wave vector connecting the hot spots, as the charge-order correlation in the hole-doped counterparts. However, in a striking contrast to the hole-doped case, the charge-order wave vector in the electron-doped side increases in magnitude with the electron doping. The theory also shows the existence of a quantitative link between the single-electron fermiology and the collective response of the electron density.

  2. Pseudogap-generated a coexistence of Fermi arcs and Fermi pockets in cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huaisong; Gao, Deheng; Feng, Shiping

    2017-03-01

    One of the most intriguing puzzle is why there is a coexistence of Fermi arcs and Fermi pockets in the pseudogap phase of cuprate superconductors? This puzzle is calling for an explanation. Based on the t - J model in the fermion-spin representation, the coexistence of the Fermi arcs and Fermi pockets in cuprate superconductors is studied by taking into account the pseudogap effect. It is shown that the pseudogap induces an energy band splitting, and then the poles of the electron Green's function at zero energy form two contours in momentum space, however, the electron spectral weight on these two contours around the antinodal region is gapped out by the pseudogap, leaving behind the low-energy electron spectral weight only located at the disconnected segments around the nodal region. In particular, the tips of these disconnected segments converge on the hot spots to form the closed Fermi pockets, generating a coexistence of the Fermi arcs and Fermi pockets. Moreover, the single-particle coherent weight is directly related to the pseudogap, and grows linearly with doping. The calculated result of the overall dispersion of the electron excitations is in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. The theory also predicts that the pseudogap-induced peak-dip-hump structure in the electron spectrum is absent from the hot-spot directions.

  3. Effect of the pseudogap on the transition temperature in the cuprates and implications for its origin

    DOE PAGES

    Mishra, Vivek; Chatterjee, U.; Campuzano, J. C.; ...

    2014-03-30

    We present cuprates that possess a large pseudogap that spans much of their phase diagram. The origin of this pseudogap is as debated as the mechanism for high-temperature superconductivity. In one class of theories, the pseudogap arises from some instability not related to pairing, typically charge, spin or orbital current ordering. Evidence of this has come from a variety of measurements indicating symmetry breaking. On the other side are theories where the pseudogap is associated with pairing. This ranges from preformed pairs to resonating valence bond theories where spin singlets become charge coherent. Here, we study pairing in the cupratesmore » by constructing the pair vertex using spectral functions derived from angle-resolved photoemission data. Assuming that the pseudogap is not due to pairing, we find that the superconducting instability is strongly suppressed, in stark contrast to what is actually observed. We trace this suppression to the destruction of the BCS logarithmic singularity from a combination of the pseudogap and lifetime broadening. In conclusion, our findings strongly support those theories of the cuprates where the pseudogap is instead due to pairing.« less

  4. Oxygen Annealing in the Synthesis of the Electron-Doped Cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, J. S.; Bach, P. L.; Yu, W.; Weaver, B. D.; Greene, R. L.

    2015-03-01

    Post-synthesis oxygen reduction (annealing) in the electron-doped, high-temperature superconducting cuprates is necessary for the establishment of superconductivity. It is not established what effect this reduction has microscopically on the lattice structure. Several mechanisms have been put forth as explanations; they range from disorder minimization1, antiferromagnetic suppression2, and copper migration3. Here we present an electronic transport study on electron-doped cuprate Pr2-xCexCuO4+/-δ (PCCO) thin films in an attempt to better understand the need for this post-synthesis process. Several different cerium doping concentrations of PCCO were grown. Within each doping, a series of films were grown with varying levels of oxygen concentration. As a measure of disorder on the properties of PCCO, several films were irradiated with various doses of 2 MeV protons. Analysis within each series, and among the different dopings, favors disorder minimization through the removal of apical oxygen as the explanation for the necessary post-synthesis annealing process. 1P. K. Mang, et al., Physical Review Letters, 93(2):027002, 2004. 2P. Richard, et al., Physical Review B, 70 (6), 064513, 2004. 3Hye Jung Kang, et al., Nature Materials, 2007. Supported by NSF DMR 1104256.

  5. Raman and fluorescence characteristics of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering from doped superconducting cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, H. Y.; Jia, C. J.; Chen, Z. Y.; ...

    2016-01-22

    Measurements of spin excitations are essential for an understanding of spin-mediated pairing for superconductivity; and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) provides a considerable opportunity to probe high-energy spin excitations. However, whether RIXS correctly measures the collective spin excitations of doped superconducting cuprates remains under debate. Here we demonstrate distinct Raman- and fluorescence-like RIXS excitations of Bi1.5Pb0.6Sr1.54CaCu2O8+δ. Combining photon-energy and momentum dependent RIXS measurements with theoretical calculations using exact diagonalization provides conclusive evidence that the Raman-like RIXS excitations correspond to collective spin excitations, which are magnons in the undoped Mott insulators and evolve into paramagnons in doped superconducting compounds. In contrast,more » the fluorescence-like shifts are due primarily to the continuum of particle-hole excitations in the charge channel. Our results show that under the proper experimental conditions RIXS indeed can be used to probe paramagnons in doped high-Tc cuprate superconductors.« less

  6. Cuprate High Temperature Superconductors and the Vision for Room Temperature Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newns, Dennis M.; Martyna, Glenn J.; Tsuei, Chang C.

    Superconducting transition temperatures of 164 K in cuprate high temperature superconductors (HTS) and recently 200 K in H3S under high pressure encourage us to believe that room temperature superconductivity (RTS) might be possible. In considering paths to RTS, we contrast conventional (BCS) SC, such as probably manifested by H3S, with the unconventional superconductivity (SC) in the cuprate HTS family. Turning to SC models, we show that in the presence of one or more van Hove singularities (vHs) near the Fermi level, SC mediated by classical phonons (kBTc>ℏ×phonon frequency) can occur. The phonon frequency in the standard Tc formula is replaced by an electronic cutoff, enabling a much higher Tc independent of phonon frequency. The resulting Tc and isotope shift plot versus doping strongly resembles that seen experimentally in HTS. A more detailed theory of HTS, which involves mediation by classical phonons, satisfactorily reproduces the chief anomalous features characteristic of these materials. We propose that, while a path to RTS through an H3S-like scenario via strongly-coupled ultra-high frequency phonons is attractive, features perhaps unavailable at ordinary pressures, a route involving SC mediated by classical phonons which can be low frequency may be found.

  7. Magnetic proximity effect at the interface between a cuprate superconductor and an oxide spin valve

    SciTech Connect

    Ovsyannikov, G. A., E-mail: gena@hitech.cplire.ru; Demidov, V. V.; Khaydukov, Yu. N.

    2016-04-15

    A heterostructure that consists of the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7–δ} cuprate superconductor and the SrRuO{sub 3}/La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} ruthenate/manganite spin valve is investigated using SQUID magnetometry, ferromagnetic resonance, and neutron reflectometry. It is shown that a magnetic moment is induced due to the magnetic proximity effect in the superconducting part of the heterostructure, while the magnetic moment in the composite ferromagnetic interlayer is suppressed. The magnetization emerging in the superconductor coincides in order of magnitude with the results of calculations taking into account the induced magnetic moment of Cu atoms because of orbital reconstruction at the interface between themore » superconductor and the ferromagnet, as well as with the results of the model taking into account the variations in the density of states at a distance on the order of the coherence length in the superconductor. The experimentally obtained characteristic penetration depth of the magnetic moment in the superconductor considerably exceeds the coherence length of the cuprate superconductor, which indicates the predominance of the mechanism of induced magnetic moment of Cu atoms.« less

  8. Change of carrier density at the pseudogap critical point of a cuprate superconductor.

    PubMed

    Badoux, S; Tabis, W; Laliberté, F; Grissonnanche, G; Vignolle, B; Vignolles, D; Béard, J; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Liang, R; Doiron-Leyraud, N; Taillefer, Louis; Proust, Cyril

    2016-03-10

    The pseudogap is a partial gap in the electronic density of states that opens in the normal (non-superconducting) state of cuprate superconductors and whose origin is a long-standing puzzle. Its connection to the Mott insulator phase at low doping (hole concentration, p) remains ambiguous and its relation to the charge order that reconstructs the Fermi surface at intermediate doping is still unclear. Here we use measurements of the Hall coefficient in magnetic fields up to 88 tesla to show that Fermi-surface reconstruction by charge order in the cuprate YBa2Cu3Oy ends sharply at a critical doping p = 0.16 that is distinctly lower than the pseudogap critical point p* = 0.19 (ref. 11). This shows that the pseudogap and charge order are separate phenomena. We find that the change in carrier density n from n = 1 + p in the conventional metal at high doping (ref. 12) to n = p at low doping (ref. 13) starts at the pseudogap critical point. This shows that the pseudogap and the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator are linked.

  9. Quasiparticle density of states, localization, and distributed disorder in the cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulangi, Miguel Antonio; Zaanen, Jan

    2018-04-01

    We explore the effects of various kinds of random disorder on the quasiparticle density of states of two-dimensional d -wave superconductors using an exact real-space method, incorporating realistic details known about the cuprates. Random on-site energy and pointlike unitary impurity models are found to give rise to a vanishing DOS at the Fermi energy for narrow distributions and low concentrations, respectively, and lead to a finite, but suppressed, DOS at unrealistically large levels of disorder. Smooth disorder arising from impurities located away from the copper-oxide planes meanwhile gives rise to a finite DOS at realistic impurity concentrations. For the case of smooth disorder whose average potential is zero, a resonance is found at zero energy for the quasiparticle DOS at large impurity concentrations. We discuss the implications of these results on the computed low-temperature specific heat, the behavior of which we find is strongly affected by the amount of disorder present in the system. We also compute the localization length as a function of disorder strength for various types of disorder and find that intermediate- and high-energy states are quasiextended for low disorder, and that states near the Fermi energy are strongly localized and have a localization length that exhibits an unusual dependence on the amount of disorder. We comment on the origin of disorder in the cuprates and provide constraints on these based on known results from scanning tunneling spectroscopy and specific heat experiments.

  10. Quasi-particles ultrafastly releasing kink bosons to form Fermi arcs in a cuprate superconductor.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Y; Saitoh, T; Mochiku, T; Nakane, T; Hirata, K; Shin, S

    2016-01-05

    In a conventional framework, superconductivity is lost at a critical temperature (Tc) because, at higher temperatures, gluing bosons can no longer bind two electrons into a Cooper pair. In high-Tc cuprates, it is still unknown how superconductivity vanishes at Tc. We provide evidence that the so-called ≲ 70-meV kink bosons that dress the quasi-particle excitations are playing a key role in the loss of superconductivity in a cuprate. We irradiated a 170-fs laser pulse on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ) and monitored the responses of the superconducting gap and dressed quasi-particles by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We observe an ultrafast loss of superconducting gap near the d-wave node, or light-induced Fermi arcs, which is accompanied by spectral broadenings and weight redistributions occurring within the kink binding energy. We discuss that the underlying mechanism of the spectral broadening that induce the Fermi arc is the undressing of quasi-particles from the kink bosons. The loss mechanism is beyond the conventional framework, and can accept the unconventional phenomena such as the signatures of Cooper pairs remaining at temperatures above Tc.

  11. Quasi-particles ultrafastly releasing kink bosons to form Fermi arcs in a cuprate superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Y.; Saitoh, T.; Mochiku, T.; Nakane, T.; Hirata, K.; Shin, S.

    2016-01-01

    In a conventional framework, superconductivity is lost at a critical temperature (Tc) because, at higher temperatures, gluing bosons can no longer bind two electrons into a Cooper pair. In high-Tc cuprates, it is still unknown how superconductivity vanishes at Tc. We provide evidence that the so-called ≲70-meV kink bosons that dress the quasi-particle excitations are playing a key role in the loss of superconductivity in a cuprate. We irradiated a 170-fs laser pulse on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ and monitored the responses of the superconducting gap and dressed quasi-particles by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We observe an ultrafast loss of superconducting gap near the d-wave node, or light-induced Fermi arcs, which is accompanied by spectral broadenings and weight redistributions occurring within the kink binding energy. We discuss that the underlying mechanism of the spectral broadening that induce the Fermi arc is the undressing of quasi-particles from the kink bosons. The loss mechanism is beyond the conventional framework, and can accept the unconventional phenomena such as the signatures of Cooper pairs remaining at temperatures above Tc. PMID:26728626

  12. Phase separation of electrons strongly coupled with phonons in cuprates and manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Sasha

    2009-03-01

    Recent advanced Monte Carlo simulations have not found superconductivity and phase separation in the Hubbard model with on-site repulsive electron-electron correlations. I argue that microscopic phase separations in cuprate superconductors and colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) manganites originate from a strong electron-phonon interaction (EPI) combined with unavoidable disorder. Attractive electron correlations, caused by an almost unretarded EPI, are sufficient to overcome the direct inter-site Coulomb repulsion in these charge-transfer Mott-Hubbard insulators, so that low energy physics is that of small polarons and small bipolarons. They form clusters localized by disorder below the mobility edge, but propagate as the Bloch states above the mobility edge. I identify the Froehlich EPI as the most essential for pairing and phase separation in superconducting layered cuprates. The pairing of oxygen holes into heavy bipolarons in the paramagnetic phase (current-carrier density collapse (CCDC)) explains also CMR and high and low-resistance phase coexistence near the ferromagnetic transition of doped manganites.

  13. Status of barium studies in the present era of oncology: Are they a history?

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Abhishek; Desai, Subash; Sable, Nilesh Pandurang; Thakur, Meenakshi Haresh

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of the modern imaging technologies, the present era of oncology is seeing steady decline in requests for barium studies due to the many reasons. It is prudent to mention here, that, barium examinations cannot be made obsolete! Our aim to preserve the age old technique of barium studies not only to keep it going on but also for the betterment and appropriate management of the patient. Our goal is not to “save” barium studies simply to keep this technology alive, per se, but rather to preserve barium radiology for the quality in patient care. PMID:28144086

  14. Status of barium studies in the present era of oncology: Are they a history?

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Abhishek; Desai, Subash; Sable, Nilesh Pandurang; Thakur, Meenakshi Haresh

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of the modern imaging technologies, the present era of oncology is seeing steady decline in requests for barium studies due to the many reasons. It is prudent to mention here, that, barium examinations cannot be made obsolete! Our aim to preserve the age old technique of barium studies not only to keep it going on but also for the betterment and appropriate management of the patient. Our goal is not to "save" barium studies simply to keep this technology alive, per se, but rather to preserve barium radiology for the quality in patient care.

  15. Characterization of Barium Borate Frameworks Using Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gharavi-Naeini, Jafar; Yoo, Kyung W; Stump, Nathan A

    2018-04-01

    Systematic micro-Raman scattering investigations have been carried out on Sm +2 doped 2(BaO)-n(B 2 O 3 ) matrices for n = 4, 5, 8, and 2(BaO)-(Na 2 O)-9(B 2 O 3 ) using the 364 nm excitation of an Ar + laser. The Raman results have been compared with the known structures of barium tetraborate, barium pentaborate, barium octaborate, and barium sodium nonaborate. An excellent correlation has been found between the BO 4 /BO 3 composition ratios for each product and intensity ratios of the designated BO 4 and BO 3 Raman peaks. Furthermore, the Raman frequencies of both BO 4 and BO 3 groups undergo a systematic blueshift as n increases from four to nine. The shift results from a decrease of the B-O bond lengths for both BO 4 and BO 3 groups as the samples transition from the tetraborate to nonaborate structures. Linear relations (with negative slopes) have been determined between the measured Raman frequencies and B-O bond lengths in the frameworks.

  16. SEPARATION OF BARIUM VALUES FROM URANYL NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Tompkins, E.R.

    1959-02-24

    The separation of radioactive barium values from a uranyl nitrate solution of neutron-irradiated uranium is described. The 10 to 20% uranyl nitrate solution is passed through a flrst column of a cation exchange resin under conditions favoring the adsorption of barium and certain other cations. The loaded resin is first washed with dilute sulfuric acid to remove a portion of the other cations, and then wash with a citric acid solution at pH of 5 to 7 to recover the barium along with a lesser amount of the other cations. The PH of the resulting eluate is adjusted to about 2.3 to 3.5 and diluted prior to passing through a smaller second column of exchange resin. The loaded resin is first washed with a citric acid solution at a pH of 3 to elute undesired cations and then with citric acid solution at a pH of 6 to eluts the barium, which is substantially free of undesired cations.

  17. Dynamics of a barium release in the magnetospheric tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.; Swenson, G. R.; Geller, S. P.; Doolittle, J. H.; Haerendel, G.

    1989-01-01

    The late time behavior of the May 13, 1985 magnetotail barium cloud is examined. The bulk dynamics of the cloud are studied based on triangulated data and data from Fabry-Perot Doppler velocity measurements. The changes in cloud morphology in relation to the in situ measurements made by the Ion Release Module satellite are discussed.

  18. Synthesis and surface properties of submicron barium sulfate particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Bao; Li, Xinhai; Yin, Zhoulan; Guo, Xueyi

    2011-10-01

    Barium sulfate particles were synthesized in the presence of EDTA at room temperature. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared resonance (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of BaSO 4 particles. The effect of the preparation parameters on the particle size distribution and morphology was investigated. The conditional formation constants of Ba-EDTA at different pH values were calculated. The results show that the size and morphology of BaSO 4 particles can be effectively controlled by adding EDTA in the precipitation process. Among all the operation conditions, the pH value has significant effect on the particle size. The obtained barium sulfate particles are spherical and well dispersed at pH = 9-10. Zeta potentials of BaSO 4 were measured at different pH. The isoelectric point (IEP) of barium sulfate colloid appears at pH 6.92. The model of the solid-solution interface at a particle of BaSO 4 was presented. The FTIR result indicates that the surface of the prepared BaSO 4 absorbs the functional groups of EDTA, which lower the IEP of the barium sulfate particles.

  19. Effectiveness of therapeutic barium enema for diverticular hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Mizue; Inamori, Masahiko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Komiya, Yasuhiko; Inoh, Yumi; Kawasima, Keigo; Naitoh, Mai; Fujita, Yuji; Eduka, Akiko; Kanazawa, Noriyoshi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Tani, Rie; Kawana, Kennichi; Ohtani, Setsuya; Nagase, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of barium impaction therapy for patients with colonic diverticular bleeding. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical charts of patients in whom therapeutic barium enema was performed for the control of diverticular bleeding between August 2010 and March 2012 at Yokohama Rosai Hospital. Twenty patients were included in the review, consisting of 14 men and 6 women. The median age of the patients was 73.5 years. The duration of the follow-up period ranged from 1 to 19 mo (median: 9.8 mo). Among the 20 patients were 11 patients who required the procedure for re-bleeding during hospitalization, 6 patients who required it for re-bleeding that developed after the patient left the hospital, and 3 patients who required the procedure for the prevention of re-bleeding. Barium (concentration: 150 w%/v%) was administered per the rectum, and the leading edge of the contrast medium was followed up to the cecum by fluoroscopy. After confirmation that the ascending colon and cecum were filled with barium, the enema tube was withdrawn, and the patient’s position was changed every 20 min for 3 h. RESULTS: Twelve patients remained free of re-bleeding during the follow-up period (range: 1-19 mo) after the therapeutic barium enema, including 9 men and 3 women with a median age of 72.0 years. Re-bleeding occurred in 8 patients including 5 men and 3 women with a median age of 68.5 years: 4 developed early re-bleeding, defined as re-bleeding that occurs within one week after the procedure, and the remaining 4 developed late re-bleeding. The DFI (disease-free interval) decreased 0.4 for 12 mo. Only one patient developed a complication from therapeutic barium enema (colonic perforation). CONCLUSION: Therapeutic barium enema is effective for the control of diverticular hemorrhage in cases where the active bleeding site cannot be identified by colonoscopy. PMID:25987779

  20. Preliminary study of the CRRES magnetospheric barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Lyon, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary theoretical and computational analyses of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) magnetospheric barium releases are presented. The focus of the studies is on the evolution of the diamagnetic cavity which is formed by the barium ions as they expand outward, and on the structuring of the density and magnetic field during the expansion phase of the releases. Two sets of simulation studies are discussed. The first set is based upon a 2D ideal MHD code and provides estimates of the time and length scales associated with the formation and collapse of the diamagnetic cavity. The second set uses a nonideal MHD code; specifically, the Hall term is included. This additional term is critical to the dynamics of sub-Alfvenic plasma expansions, such as the CRRES barium releases, because it leads to instability of the expanding plasma. Detailed simulations of the G4 and G10 releases were performed. In both cases the expanding plasma rapidly structured: the G4 release structured at time t less than about 3 s and developed scale sizes of about 1-2 km, while the G10 release structured at time t less than about 22 s and developed scale sizes of about 10-15 km. It is also found that the diamagnetic cavity size is reduced from those obtained from the ideal MHD results because of the structure. On the other hand, the structuring allows the formation of plasma blobs which appear to free stream across the magnetic field; thus, the barium plasma can propagate to larger distances traverse to the magnetic field than the case where no structuring occurs. Finally, a new normal mode of the system was discovered which may be excited at the leading edge of the expanding barium plasma.

  1. Synthesis of nanocomposites comprising iron and barium hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, M.; Bid, S.; Pradhan, S. K.; Nath, B. K.; Das, D.; Chakravorty, D.

    2004-02-01

    Composites of nanometre-sized α-iron and barium hexaferrite phases, respectively, have been synthesized by the ceramic processing route. Pure barium hexaferrite (BaO·6Fe 2O 3) was first of all prepared by calcinations of the precursor oxides at a maximum temperature of 1200°C for 4 h. By subjecting the resulting powder having particle size of the order of 1 μm to a reduction treatment in the temperature range 500-650°C for a period varying from 10 to 15 min it was possible to obtain a composite consisting of nanosized barium hexaferrite and α-Fe. At reduction temperature of 650°C for a period greater than 15 min all the ferrite phase was converted to α-Fe and Ba—the particle sizes being 59.4 and 43.6 nm, respectively. These conclusions are based on X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer studies of different samples. During reduction H + ions are introduced into the hexaferrite crystallite. It is believed that due to a tensile stress the crystals are broken up into smaller dimensions and the reduction brings about the growth of nanosized α-Fe and barium, respectively, around the hexaferrite particles. Magnetic measurements show coercivity values for the reduced samples in the range 120-440 Oe and saturation magnetization varying from 158 to 53.7 emu/g. These values have been ascribed to the formation and growth of α-Fe particles as the reduction treatment is increased. By heating the nanocomposites at a temperature of 1000°C for 1 h in ordinary atmosphere it was found that they were reconverted to the barium hexaferrite phase with a particle size ˜182.3 nm. The reaction described in this study is thus reversible.

  2. Unified electronic phase diagram for hole-doped high- Tc cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, T.; Hor, P. H.

    2008-05-01

    We have analyzed various characteristic temperatures and energies of hole-doped high- Tc cuprates as a function of a dimensionless hole-doping concentration (pu) . Entirely based on the experimental grounds, we construct a unified electronic phase diagram (UEPD), where three characteristic temperatures ( T∗ ’s) and their corresponding energies ( E∗ ’s) converge as pu increases in the underdoped regime. T∗ ’s and E∗ ’s merge together with the Tc curve and 3.5kBTc curve at pu˜1.1 in the overdoped regime, respectively. They finally go to zero at pu˜1.3 . The UEPD follows an asymmetric half-dome-shaped Tc curve, in which Tc appears at pu˜0.4 , reaches a maximum at pu˜1 , and rapidly goes to zero at pu˜1.3 . The asymmetric half-dome-shaped Tc curve is at odds with the well-known symmetric superconducting dome for La2-xSrxCuO4 (SrD-La214), in which two characteristic temperatures and energies converge as pu increases and merge together at pu˜1.6 , where Tc goes to zero. The UEPD clearly shows that pseudogap phase precedes and coexists with high temperature superconductivity in the underdoped and overdoped regimes, respectively. It is also clearly seen that the upper limit of high- Tc cuprate physics ends at a hole concentration that equals to 1.3 times the optimal doping concentration for almost all high- Tc cuprate materials and 1.6 times the optimal doping concentration for the SrD-La214. Our analysis strongly suggests that pseudogap is a precursor of high- Tc superconductivity, the observed quantum critical point inside the superconducting dome may be related to the end point of UEPD, and the normal state of the underdoped and overdoped high temperature superconductors cannot be regarded as a conventional Fermi liquid phase.

  3. Synthesis and molecular structures of phenylamides of magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium--from molecular to polymeric structures.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Martin; Görls, Helmar; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2007-09-03

    Several preparative procedures for the synthesis of the THF complexes of the alkaline earth metal bis(phenylamides) of Mg (1), Ca (2), Sr (3), and Ba (4) are presented such as metalation of aniline with strontium and barium, metathesis reactions of MI2 with KN(H)Ph, and metalation of aniline with arylcalcium compounds or dialkylmagnesium. The THF content of these compounds is rather low and an increasing aggregation is observed with the size of the metal atom. Thus, tetrameric [(THF)2Ca{mu-N(H)Ph}2]4 (2) and polymeric [(THF)2Sr{mu-N(H)Ph}2]infinity and {[(THF)2Ba{mu-N(H)Ph}2]2[(THF)Ba{mu-N(H)Ph}2]2}infinity show six-coordinate metal atoms with increasing interactions to the pi systems of the phenyl groups with increasing the radius of the alkaline earth metal atom.

  4. Size quantization in high-temperature superconducting cuprates and a link to Einstein's diffusion law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeser, H. P.; Bohr, A.; Haslam, D. T.; López, J. S.; Stepper, M.; Nikoghosyan, A. S.

    2012-07-01

    Optimum doping of high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) defines a superconducting unit volume for each HTSC. For a single-mode HTSC, e.g., a cuprate with one CuO2 plane, the volume is given by Vsc=cx2, where c is the unit cell height and x the doping distance. The experimental resistivity at Tc is connected to the structure by ρ(exp)≈c×h/(2e2). Combining this result with the classical definition of resistivity leads to an equation similar to Einstein's diffusion law x2/(2τ)=h/(2Meff)=D, where τ is the relaxation time, Meff=2me and D the diffusion constant. It has also been shown that the mean free path d=x. The Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion relation D=μkBTc provides a connection to Tc.

  5. Weak phase stiffness and nature of the quantum critical point in underdoped cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Yildirim, Yucel; Ku, Wei

    2015-11-02

    We demonstrate that the zero-temperature superconducting phase diagram of underdoped cuprates can be quantitatively understood in the strong binding limit, using only the experimental spectral function of the “normal” pseudogap phase without any free parameter. In the prototypical (La 1–xSr x) 2CuO 4, a kinetics-driven d-wave superconductivity is obtained above the critical doping δ c ~ 5.2%, below which complete loss of superfluidity results from local quantum fluctuation involving local p-wave pairs. Near the critical doping, an enormous mass enhancement of the local pairs is found responsible for the observed rapid decrease of phase stiffness. Lastly, a striking mass divergencemore » is predicted at δ c that dictates the occurrence of the observed quantum critical point and the abrupt suppression of the Nernst effects in the nearby region.« less

  6. Is there a path from cuprates towards room-temperature superconductivity?

    DOE PAGES

    Božović, I.; Wu, J.; He, X.; ...

    2017-09-01

    A brief account is presented of an extensive experiment performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, aimed at understanding the nature of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates. Over the course of the last 12 years, over 2000 films of the prototypical high- T c superconductor, La 2-xSr xCuO 4, have been synthesized using atomic-layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE), characterized by a range of techniques, and patterned into devices. These were then used to measure accurately the key physical parameters in both the superconducting and the normal states, and establish their precise dependence on doping, temperature, and external fields. Our results bring in somemore » great surprises, challenge the commonly held beliefs, rule out many theoretical models, and point to a new path for raising T c even further.« less

  7. Complementary Response of Static Spin-Stripe Order and Superconductivity to Nonmagnetic Impurities in Cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Guguchia, Z.; Roessli, B.; Khasanov, R.; ...

    2017-08-22

    Here, we report muon-spin rotation and neutron-scattering experiments on nonmagnetic Zn impurity effects on the static spin-stripe order and superconductivity of the La214 cuprates. Remarkably, it was found that, for samples with hole doping x≈1/8, the spin-stripe ordering temperature T so decreases linearly with Zn doping y and disappears at y≈4%, demonstrating a high sensitivity of static spin-stripe order to impurities within a CuO 2 plane. Moreover, Tso is suppressed by Zn in the same manner as the superconducting transition temperature Tc for samples near optimal hole doping. This surprisingly similar sensitivity suggests that the spin-stripe order is dependent onmore » intertwining with superconducting correlations.« less

  8. Numerical evidence of fluctuating stripes in the normal state of high- T c cuprate superconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Edwin W.; Mendl, Christian B.; Liu, Shenxiu; ...

    2017-12-01

    Upon doping, Mott insulators often exhibit symmetry breaking where charge carriers and their spins organize into patterns known as stripes. For high–transition temperature cuprate superconductors, stripes are widely suspected to exist in a fluctuating form. We used numerically exact determinant quantum Monte Carlo calculations to demonstrate dynamical stripe correlations in the three-band Hubbard model, which represents the local electronic structure of the copper-oxygen plane. Our results, which are robust to varying parameters, cluster size, and boundary conditions, support the interpretation of experimental observations such as the hourglass magnetic dispersion and the Yamada plot of incommensurability versus doping in terms ofmore » the physics of fluctuating stripes. Furthermore, these findings provide a different perspective on the intertwined orders emerging from the cuprates’ normal state.« less

  9. Electronic polymers and soft-matter-like broken symmetries in underdoped cuprates.

    PubMed

    Capati, M; Caprara, S; Di Castro, C; Grilli, M; Seibold, G; Lorenzana, J

    2015-07-06

    Empirical evidence in heavy fermion, pnictide and other systems suggests that unconventional superconductivity appears associated to some form of real-space electronic order. For the cuprates, despite several proposals, the emergence of order in the phase diagram between the commensurate antiferromagnetic state and the superconducting state is not well understood. Here we show that in this regime doped holes assemble in 'electronic polymers'. Within a Monte Carlo study, we find that in clean systems by lowering the temperature the polymer melt condenses first in a smectic state and then in a Wigner crystal both with the addition of inversion symmetry breaking. Disorder blurs the positional order leaving a robust inversion symmetry breaking and a nematic order, accompanied by vector chiral spin order and with the persistence of a thermodynamic transition. Such electronic phases, whose properties are reminiscent of soft-matter physics, produce charge and spin responses in good accord with experiments.

  10. Numerical evidence of fluctuating stripes in the normal state of high- T c cuprate superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Edwin W.; Mendl, Christian B.; Liu, Shenxiu

    Upon doping, Mott insulators often exhibit symmetry breaking where charge carriers and their spins organize into patterns known as stripes. For high–transition temperature cuprate superconductors, stripes are widely suspected to exist in a fluctuating form. We used numerically exact determinant quantum Monte Carlo calculations to demonstrate dynamical stripe correlations in the three-band Hubbard model, which represents the local electronic structure of the copper-oxygen plane. Our results, which are robust to varying parameters, cluster size, and boundary conditions, support the interpretation of experimental observations such as the hourglass magnetic dispersion and the Yamada plot of incommensurability versus doping in terms ofmore » the physics of fluctuating stripes. Furthermore, these findings provide a different perspective on the intertwined orders emerging from the cuprates’ normal state.« less

  11. Differences between the insulating limit quasiparticles of one-band and three-band cuprate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimnejad, H.; Sawatzky, G. A.; Berciu, M.

    2016-03-01

    We study the charge dynamics of the quasiparticle that forms when a single hole is doped in a two-dimensional antiferromagnet as described by the one-band t-{{t}\\prime} -{{t}\\prime \\prime} -J model, using a variational approximation that includes spin fluctuations in the vicinity of the hole. We explain why the spin fluctuations and the longer range hopping have complementary contributions to the quasiparticle dynamics, and thus why both are essential to obtain a dispersion in agreement with that measured experimentally. This is very different from the three-band Emery model in the strongly-correlated limit, where the same variational approximation shows that spin fluctuations have a minor effect on the quasiparticle dynamics. This difference proves that these one-band and three-band models describe qualitatively different quasiparticles in the insulating limit, and therefore that they cannot both be suitable to describe the physics of very underdoped cuprates.

  12. High-energy anomalies in covalent high-Tc cuprates with large Hubbard Ud on copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barišić, O. S.; Barišić, S.

    2015-03-01

    A large Ud theory is constructed for the metallic state of high-Tc cuprates. The Emery three-band model, extended with Ox-Oy hopping tpp, and with Ud → ∞, is mapped on slave fermions. The Dyson time-dependent diagrammatic theory in terms of the Cu-O hopping tpd, starting from the nondegenerate unperturbed ground state, is translationally and asymptotically locally gauge invariant. The small parameter of the theory is the average hole occupation of Cu sites nd. The lowest order of the theory generates the single particle propagators of the hybridized pdp- and dpd-fermions with the exact covalent three band structure. The leading many-body effect is band narrowing, accompanied by Landau-like damping of the single particle propagation, due to incoherent local charge Cu-O fluctuations. The corresponding continuum is found below and above the Fermi level.

  13. Complementary Response of Static Spin-Stripe Order and Superconductivity to Nonmagnetic Impurities in Cuprates

    SciTech Connect

    Guguchia, Z.; Roessli, B.; Khasanov, R.

    Here, we report muon-spin rotation and neutron-scattering experiments on nonmagnetic Zn impurity effects on the static spin-stripe order and superconductivity of the La214 cuprates. Remarkably, it was found that, for samples with hole doping x≈1/8, the spin-stripe ordering temperature T so decreases linearly with Zn doping y and disappears at y≈4%, demonstrating a high sensitivity of static spin-stripe order to impurities within a CuO 2 plane. Moreover, Tso is suppressed by Zn in the same manner as the superconducting transition temperature Tc for samples near optimal hole doping. This surprisingly similar sensitivity suggests that the spin-stripe order is dependent onmore » intertwining with superconducting correlations.« less

  14. Angular fluctuations of a multi-component order describe the pseudogap regime of the cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdev, Subir

    2014-03-01

    The hole-doped cuprate high temperature superconductors enter the pseudogap regime as their superconducting critical temperature, Tc, falls with decreasing hole density. Experiments have probed this regime for over two decades, but we argue that decisive new information has emerged from recent X-ray scattering experiments. The experiments observe incommensurate charge density wave fluctuations whose strength rises gradually over a wide temperature range above Tc, but then decreases as the temperature is lowered below Tc. We propose a theory in which the superconducting and charge-density wave orders exhibit angular fluctuations in a 6-dimensional space. The theory provides a natural quantitative fit to the X-ray data, and is consistent with other observed characteristics of the pseudogap. Results will also be presented on the microscopic origins of these order parameters. Work in collaboration with Lauren Hayward, Roger Melko, David Hawthorn, and Jay Sau.

  15. Quantum critical point underlying the pseudogap state in underdoped cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    Cuprate superconductors rank among the most complex materials that are known in the universe. Faced with this complexity, scientists have adopted two types of approaches. In a bottom up approach, one considers that strong correlations occur at a high energy scale of roughly 1 eV upon very strong Coulomb interactions. In the top down approach one considers that one universal singularity at very low temperatures is responsible for complexity of the phase diagram. In this talk we will argue that the strong quantum fluctuations experienced at the proximity to a anti-ferromagnetic Quantum Critical Point (QCP) is responsible for a cascade of phase transitions in the charge and superconducting channels. We will discuss in this context the emergence of the pseudo-gap and charge order modulations. Symmetries and relations to experimental observations will be addressed. Work done in collaboration with K.B. Efetov (Bochum) and H. Meier (Yale).

  16. Origin of the 1 eV-reflectivity edges in high-T c superconducting cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, S.; Uchida, S.; Kaneko, T.; Tomeno, I.; Kosuge, M.; Yamauchi, H.; Koshizuka, N.

    1992-05-01

    The reflectivity edge commonly observed at around 1 eV in the optical spectrum is investigated for a number of high- Tc superconducting cuprates. We have found that the edge energy ( ωedge) is almost independent of doping concentration in each material but varies widely among the materials dependent on the average CuO 2-plane spacing d c. This is consistent with a view supposing that the observed reflectivity edge corresponds to the plasma edge associated with the renormalized two-dimensional band, which would be nearly half-filled and has been reconstructed on doping from the gap-separated states of the charge transfer insulator as a result of reduced renormalization. We could not find a universal correlation between Tc and ω'p2.

  17. Multistage electronic nematic transitions in cuprate superconductors: A functional-renormalization-group analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiizu, Masahisa; Kawaguchi, Kouki; Yamakawa, Youichi; Kontani, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    Recently, complex rotational symmetry-breaking phenomena have been discovered experimentally in cuprate superconductors. To find the realized order parameters, we study various unconventional charge susceptibilities in an unbiased way by applying the functional-renormalization-group method to the d -p Hubbard model. Without assuming the wave vector of the order parameter, we reveal that the most dominant instability is the uniform (q =0 ) charge modulation on the px and py orbitals, which possesses d symmetry. This uniform nematic order triggers another nematic p -orbital density wave along the axial (Cu-Cu) direction at Qa≈(π /2 ,0 ) . It is predicted that uniform nematic order is driven by the spin fluctuations in the pseudogap region, and another nematic density-wave order at q =Qa is triggered by the uniform order. The predicted multistage nematic transitions are caused by Aslamazov-Larkin-type fluctuation-exchange processes.

  18. Inequivalence of single-particle and population lifetimes in a cuprate superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shuolong; Sobota, J. A.; Leuenberger, D.

    2015-06-15

    We study optimally doped Bi-2212 (T c=96 K) using femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Energy-resolved population lifetimes are extracted and compared with single-particle lifetimes measured by equilibrium photoemission. The population lifetimes deviate from the single-particle lifetimes in the low excitation limit by 1–2 orders of magnitude. Fundamental considerations of electron scattering unveil that these two lifetimes are in general distinct, yet for systems with only electron-phonon scattering they should converge in the low-temperature, low-fluence limit. As a result, the qualitative disparity in our data, even in this limit, suggests that scattering channels beyond electron-phonon interactions play a significant rolemore » in the electron dynamics of cuprate superconductors.« less

  19. Numerical evidence of fluctuating stripes in the normal state of high-Tc cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Edwin W.; Mendl, Christian B.; Liu, Shenxiu; Johnston, Steve; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Moritz, Brian; Devereaux, Thomas P.

    2017-12-01

    Upon doping, Mott insulators often exhibit symmetry breaking where charge carriers and their spins organize into patterns known as stripes. For high-transition temperature cuprate superconductors, stripes are widely suspected to exist in a fluctuating form. We used numerically exact determinant quantum Monte Carlo calculations to demonstrate dynamical stripe correlations in the three-band Hubbard model, which represents the local electronic structure of the copper-oxygen plane. Our results, which are robust to varying parameters, cluster size, and boundary conditions, support the interpretation of experimental observations such as the hourglass magnetic dispersion and the Yamada plot of incommensurability versus doping in terms of the physics of fluctuating stripes. These findings provide a different perspective on the intertwined orders emerging from the cuprates’ normal state.

  20. Dual structure in the charge excitation spectrum of electron-doped cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejas, Matías; Yamase, Hiroyuki; Greco, Andrés

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by the recent resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments for electron-doped cuprates, we study the charge excitation spectrum in a layered t -J model with the long-range Coulomb interaction. We show that the spectrum is not dominated by a specific type of charge excitations, but by different kinds of charge fluctuations, and is characterized by a dual structure in the energy space. Low-energy charge excitations correspond to various types of bond-charge fluctuations driven by the exchange term (J term), whereas high-energy charge excitations are due to usual on-site charge fluctuations and correspond to plasmon excitations above the particle-hole continuum. The interlayer coupling, which is frequently neglected in many theoretical studies, is particularly important to the high-energy charge excitations.

  1. Giant phonon anomaly associated with superconducting fluctuations in the pseudogap phase of cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Ye-Hua; Konik, Robert M.; Rice, T. M.; ...

    2016-01-20

    The pseudogap in underdoped cuprates leads to significant changes in the electronic structure, and was later found to be accompanied by anomalous fluctuations of superconductivity and certain lattice phonons. Here we propose that the Fermi surface breakup due to the pseudogap, leads to a breakup of the pairing order into two weakly coupled sub-band amplitudes, and a concomitant low energy Leggett mode due to phase fluctuations between them. This increases the temperature range of superconducting fluctuations containing an overdamped Leggett mode. In this range inter-sub-band phonons show strong damping due to resonant scattering into an intermediate state with a pairmore » of overdamped Leggett modes. In the ordered state, the Leggett mode develops a finite energy, changing the anomalous phonon damping into an anomaly in the dispersion. Finally, this proposal explains the intrinsic connection between the anomalous pseudogap phase, enhanced superconducting fluctuations and giant anomalies in the phonon spectra.« less

  2. Coherence factors in a high-tc cuprate probed by quasi-particle scattering off vortices.

    PubMed

    Hanaguri, T; Kohsaka, Y; Ono, M; Maltseva, M; Coleman, P; Yamada, I; Azuma, M; Takano, M; Ohishi, K; Takagi, H

    2009-02-13

    When electrons pair in a superconductor, quasi-particles develop an acute sensitivity to different types of scattering potential that is described by the appearance of coherence factors in the scattering amplitudes. Although the effects of coherence factors are well established in isotropic superconductors, they are much harder to detect in their anisotropic counterparts, such as high-superconducting-transition-temperature cuprates. We demonstrate an approach that highlights the momentum-dependent coherence factors in Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2. We used Fourier-transform scanning tunneling spectroscopy to reveal a magnetic-field dependence in quasi-particle scattering interference patterns that is sensitive to the sign of the anisotropic gap. This result is associated with the d-wave coherence factors and quasi-particle scattering off vortices. Our technique thus provides insights into the nature of electron pairing as well as quasi-particle scattering processes in unconventional superconductors.

  3. Quenched disorder and vestigial nematicity in the pseudogap regime of the cuprates

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Laimei; Tarjus, Gilles; Kivelson, Steven Allan

    2014-01-01

    The cuprate high-temperature superconductors have been the focus of unprecedentedly intense and sustained study not only because of their high superconducting transition temperatures, but also because they represent the most exquisitely investigated examples of highly correlated electronic materials. In particular, the pseudogap regime of the phase diagram exhibits a variety of mysterious emergent behaviors. In the last few years, evidence from NMR and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies, as well as from a new generation of X-ray scattering experiments, has accumulated, indicating that a general tendency to short-range–correlated incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) order is “intertwined” with the superconductivity in this regime. Additionally, transport, STM, neutron-scattering, and optical experiments have produced evidence—not yet entirely understood—of the existence of an associated pattern of long-range–ordered point-group symmetry breaking with an electron-nematic character. We have carried out a theoretical analysis of the Landau–Ginzburg–Wilson effective field theory of a classical incommensurate CDW in the presence of weak quenched disorder. Although the possibilities of a sharp phase transition and long-range CDW order are precluded in such systems, we show that any discrete symmetry-breaking aspect of the charge order—nematicity in the case of the unidirectional (stripe) CDW we consider explicitly—generically survives up to a nonzero critical disorder strength. Such “vestigial order,” which is subject to unambiguous macroscopic detection, can serve as an avatar of what would be CDW order in the ideal, zero disorder limit. Various recent experiments in the pseudogap regime of the hole-doped cuprates are readily interpreted in light of these results. PMID:24799709

  4. Atomic-scale electronic structure of the cuprate d-symmetry form factor density wave state

    DOE PAGES

    M. H. Hamidian; Kim, Chung Koo; Edkins, S. D.; ...

    2015-10-26

    Research on high-temperature superconducting cuprates is at present focused on identifying the relationship between the classic ‘pseudogap’ phenomenon 1, 2 and the more recently investigated density wave state 3–13. This state is generally characterized by a wavevector Q parallel to the planar Cu–O–Cu bonds 4–13 along with a predominantly d-symmetry form factor 14–17 (dFF-DW). To identify the microscopic mechanism giving rise to this state 18–30, one must identify the momentum-space states contributing to the dFF-DW spectral weight, determine their particle–hole phase relationship about the Fermi energy, establish whether they exhibit a characteristic energy gap, and understand the evolution of allmore » these phenomena throughout the phase diagram. Here we use energy-resolved sublattice visualization 14 of electronic structure and reveal that the characteristic energy of the dFF-DW modulations is actually the ‘pseudogap’ energy Δ 1. Moreover, we demonstrate that the dFF-DW modulations at E = –Δ 1 (filled states) occur with relative phase π compared to those at E = Δ 1 (empty states). Lastly, we show that the conventionally defined dFF-DW Q corresponds to scattering between the ‘hot frontier’ regions of momentum-space beyond which Bogoliubov quasiparticles cease to exist 30–32. These data indicate that the cuprate dFF-DW state involves particle–hole interactions focused at the pseudogap energy scale and between the four pairs of ‘hot frontier’ regions in momentum space where the pseudogap opens.« less

  5. Universal intrinsic scale of the hole concentration in high- Tc cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, T.; Hor, P. H.; Hsieh, H. H.; Tanimoto, M.

    2004-12-01

    We have measured thermoelectric power (TEP) as a function of hole concentration per CuO2 layer Ppl in Y1-xCaxBa2Cu3O6 (Ppl=x/2) with no oxygen in the Cu-O chain layer. The room-temperature TEP as a function of Ppl , S290(Ppl) , of Y1-xCaxBa2Cu3O6 behaves identically to that of La2-zSrzCuO4 (Ppl=z) . We argue that S290(Ppl) represents a measure of the intrinsic equilibrium electronic states of doped holes and, therefore, can be used as a common scale for the carrier concentrations of layered cuprates. We shows that the Ppl determined by this new universal scale is consistent with both hole concentration microscopically determined by NQR and the hole concentration macroscopically determined by the formal valency of Cu . We find two characteristic scaling temperatures, TS* and TS2* , in the TEP versus temperature curves that change systematically with doping. Based on the universal scale, we uncover a universal phase diagram in which almost all the experimentally determined pseudogap temperatures as a function of Ppl fall on two common curves; lower pseudogap temperature defined by the TS* versus Ppl curve and upper pseudogap temperature defined by the TS2* versus Ppl curve. We find that while pseudogaps are intrinsic properties of doped holes of a single CuO2 layer for all high- Tc cuprates, Tc depends on the number of layers, therefore, the inter layer coupling, in each individual system.

  6. Evolution des quasiparticules nodales du cuprate supraconducteur YBa2Cu3Oy en conductivite thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rene de Cotret, Samuel

    Ce memoire presente des mesures de conductivite thermique sur les supraconducteurs YBCO et Tl-2201 afin de statuer sur la presence possible d'un point critique quantique (QCP) dans le diagramme de phase de cuprates. Ce point critique quantique serait a l'origine de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi, d'un large cylindre de trous en de petites poches de trous et d'electrons. La conductivite thermique dans le regime T → 0 permet d'extraire une quantite purement electronique liee aux vitesses de Fermi et du gap, au noeud. Une discontinuite dans cette quantite pourrait signaler la traversee du dopage critique qui reconstruit la surface de Fermi. Plusieurs sondes experimentales distinguent une transition de phase ou un crossover a T* a temperature finie. D'autres sondes mettent en evidence une transition de phase sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique. La presence ou non de cet ordre, a temperature et champ magnetique nul questionne la communaute depuis plusieurs annees. Dans cette etude, nous detectons une variation brusque de kappa0/T a p = 0.18 dans YBCO et a p = 0.20 dans Tl-2201. Ces sauts sont interpretes comme un signe de la transition a temperature nulle et sont en faveur d'un QCP. Le manque de donnees d'un meme materiau a ces dopages ne permet pas de valider hors de tout doute l'existence d'un point critique quantique. Le modele theorique YRZ decrit aussi bien les donnees de conductivite thermique. Des pistes de travaux experimentaux a poursuivre sont proposees pour determiner la presence ou non du QCP de facon franche. Mots-cles : Supraconducteurs, cuprates, conductivite thermique, point critique quantique.

  7. Pair-density waves, charge-density waves, and vortices in high-Tc cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhehao; Zhang, Ya-Hui; Senthil, T.; Lee, Patrick A.

    2018-05-01

    A recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiment reports the observation of a charge-density wave (CDW) with a period of approximately 8a in the halo region surrounding the vortex core, in striking contrast to the approximately 4a period CDWs that are commonly observed in the cuprates. Inspired by this work, we study a model where a bidirectional pair-density wave (PDW) with period 8 is at play. This further divides into two classes: (1) where the PDW is a competing state of the d -wave superconductor and can exist only near the vortex core where the d -wave order is suppressed and (2) where the PDW is the primary order, the so-called "mother state" that persists with strong phase fluctuations to high temperature and high magnetic field and lies behind the pseudogap phenomenology. We study the charge-density wave structures near the vortex core in these models. We emphasize the importance of the phase winding of the d -wave order parameter. The PDW can be pinned by the vortex core due to this winding and become static. Furthermore, the period-8 CDW inherits the properties of this winding, which gives rise to a special feature of the Fourier transform peak, namely, it is split in certain directions. There is also a line of zeros in the inverse Fourier transform of filtered data. We propose that these are key experimental signatures that can distinguish between the PDW-driven scenario from the more mundane option that the period-8 CDW is primary. We discuss the pro's and con's of the options considered above. Finally, we attempt to place the STM experiment in the broader context of pseudogap physics of underdoped cuprates and relate this observation to the unusual properties of x-ray scattering data on CDW carried out to very high magnetic field.

  8. Observation of two distinct pairs fluctuation lifetimes and supercurrents in the pseudogap regime of cuprate junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koren, Gad; Lee, Patrick A.

    2016-11-01

    Pairs fluctuation supercurrents and inverse lifetimes in the pseudogap regime are reported. These were measured on epitaxial c-axis junctions of the cuprates, with a PrBa2Cu3O7-δ barrier sandwiched in between two YBa2Cu3O7-δ or doped YBa2Cu3Oy electrodes, with or without magnetic fields parallel to the a-b planes. All junctions had a Tc(high) ≈85 -90 K and a Tc(low) ≈50 -55 K electrodes, allowing us to study pairs fluctuation supercurrents and inverse lifetimes in between these two temperatures. In junctions with a pseudogap electrode under zero field, an excess current due to pair fluctuations was observed which persisted at temperatures above Tc(low) , in the pseudogap regime, and up to about Tc(high) . No such excess current was observed in junctions without an electrode with a pseudogap. The measured conductance spectra at temperatures above Tc(low) were fitted using a modified fluctuations model by Scalapino [Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1052 (1970), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.24.1052] of a junction with a serial resistance. We found that in the pseudogap regime, the conductance vs voltage consists of a narrow peak sitting on top of a very broad peak. This yielded two distinct pairs fluctuation lifetimes in the pseudogap electrode which differ by an order of magnitude up to about Tc(high) . Under in-plane fields, these two lifetime values remain separated in two distinct groups, which varied with increasing field moderately. We also found that detection of Amperian pairing [Phys. Rev. X 4, 031017 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevX.4.031017] in our cuprate junctions is not feasible, due to Josephson vortices penetration into the superconducting electrodes which drove the necessary field above the depairing field.

  9. Barium and calcium analyses in sediment cores using µ-XRF core scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Dursun; Çaǧatay, Namık; Genç, S. Can; Eriş, K. Kadir; Sarı, Erol; Uçarkus, Gülsen

    2017-04-01

    Barium and Ca are used as proxies for organic productivity in paleooceanographic studies. With its heavy atomic weight (137.33 u), barium is easily detectable in small concentrations (several ppm levels) in marine sediments using XRF methods, including the analysis by µ-XRF core scanners. Calcium has an intermediate atomic weight (40.078 u) but is a major element in the earth's crust and in sediments and sedimentary rocks, and hence it is easily detectable by µ-XRF techniques. Normally, µ-XRF elemental analysis of cores are carried out using split half cores or 1-2 cm thich u-channels with an original moisture. Sediment cores show variation in different water content (and porosity) along their length. This in turn results in variation in the XRF counts of the elements and causes error in the elemental concentrations. We tried µ-XRF elemental analysis of split half cores, subsampled as 1 cm thick u-channels with original moisture and 0.3 mm-thin film slices of the core with original wet sample and after air drying with humidity protector mylar film. We found considerable increase in counts of most elements, and in particular for Ba and Ca, when we used 0.3 mm thin film, dried slice. In the case of Ba, the counts increased about three times that of the analysis made with wet and 1 cm thick u-channels. The higher Ba and Ca counts are mainly due to the possible precipitation of Ba as barite and Ca as gypsum from oxidation of Fe-sulphides and the evaporation of pore waters. The secondary barite and gypsum precipitation would be especially serious in unoxic sediment units, such as sapropels, with considerable Fe-sulphides and bio-barite.It is therefore suggested that reseachers should be cautious of such secondary precipitation on core surfaces when analyzing cores that have long been exposed to the atmospheric conditions.

  10. Selection of plants for phytoremediation of barium-polluted flooded soils.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto Cleyton de Castro; Viana, Douglas Gomes; Pires, Fábio Ribeiro; Egreja Filho, Fernando Barboza; Bonomo, Robson; Cargnelutti Filho, Alberto; Martins, Luiz Fernando; Cruz, Leila Beatriz Silva; Nascimento, Mauro César Pinto

    2018-05-10

    The use of barite (BaSO4) in drilling fluids for oil and gas activities makes barium a potential contaminant in case of spills onto flooded soils, where low redox conditions may increase barium sulfate solubility. In order to select plants able to remove barium in such scenarios, the following species were evaluated on barium phytoextraction capacity: Brachiaria arrecta, Cyperus papyrus, Eleocharis acutangula, E. interstincta, Nephrolepsis cf. rivularis, Oryza sativa IRGA 424, O. sativa BRS Tropical, Paspalum conspersum, and Typha domingensis. Plants were grown in pots and exposed to six barium concentrations: 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 30.0, and 65.0 mg kg -1 . To simulate flooding conditions, each pot was kept with a thin water film over the soil surface (∼1.0 cm). Plants were evaluated for biomass yield and barium removal. The highest amount of barium was observed in T. domingensis biomass, followed by C. papyrus. However, the latter exported most of the barium to the aerial part of the plant, especially at higher BaCl 2 doses, while the former accumulated barium preferentially in the roots. Thus, barium removal with C. papyrus could be achieved by simply harvesting aerial biomass. The high amounts of barium in T. domingensis and C. papyrus resulted from the combination of high barium concentration in plant tissues with high biomass production. These results make T. domingensis and C. papyrus potential candidates for phytoremediation schemes to remove barium from flooded soils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure to low-dose barium by drinking water causes hearing loss in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohgami, Nobutaka; Hori, Sohjiro; Ohgami, Kyoko; Tamura, Haruka; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Ohnuma, Shoko; Kato, Masashi

    2012-10-01

    We continuously ingest barium as a general element by drinking water and foods in our daily life. Exposure to high-dose barium (>100mg/kg/day) has been shown to cause physiological impairments. Direct administration of barium to inner ears by vascular perfusion has been shown to cause physiological impairments in inner ears. However, the toxic influence of oral exposure to low-dose barium on hearing levels has not been clarified in vivo. We analyzed the toxic influence of oral exposure to low-dose barium on hearing levels and inner ears in mice. We orally administered barium at low doses of 0.14 and 1.4 mg/kg/day to wild-type ICR mice by drinking water. The doses are equivalent to and 10-fold higher than the limit level (0.7 mg/l) of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water, respectively. After 2-week exposure, hearing levels were measured by auditory brain stem responses and inner ears were morphologically analyzed. After 2-month exposure, tissue distribution of barium was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Low-dose barium in drinking water caused severe hearing loss in mice. Inner ears including inner and outer hair cells, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion neurons showed severe degeneration. The Barium-administered group showed significantly higher levels of barium in inner ears than those in the control group, while barium levels in bone did not show a significant difference between the two groups. Barium levels in other tissues including the cerebrum, cerebellum, heart, liver and kidney were undetectably low in both groups. Our results demonstrate for the first time that low-dose barium administered by drinking water specifically distributes to inner ears resulting in severe ototoxicity with degeneration of inner ears in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Design, testing, fabrication and launch support of a liquid chemical barium release payload (utilizing the liquid fluorine-barium salt/hydrazine system)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    A payload was designed which included a cryogenic oxidizer tank, a fuel tank, and burner section. Release of 30 lb of chemicals was planned to occur in 2 seconds at the optimum oxidizer to fuel ratio. The chemicals consisted of 17 lb of liquid fluorine oxidizer and 13 lb of hydrazine-barium salt fuel mixture. The fuel mixture was 17% barium chloride, 16% barium nitrate, and 67% hydrazine, and contained 2.6 lb of available barium. Two significant problem areas were resolved during the program: explosive valve development and burner operation. The release payload was flight tested, from Wallops Island, Virginia. The release took place at an altitude of approximately 260 km. The release produced a luminous cloud which expanded very rapidly, disappearing to the human eye in about 20 seconds. Barium ion concentration slowly increased over a wide area of sky until measurements were discontinued at sunrise (about 30 minutes).

  13. Barium determination in gastric contents, blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the case of oral barium chloride poisoning.

    PubMed

    Łukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Hanć, Anetta; Grzegorowski, Adam; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Gaca, Michał; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A serious case of barium intoxication from suicidal ingestion is reported. Oral barium chloride poisoning with hypokalemia, neuromuscular and cardiac toxicity, treated with intravenous potassium supplementation and hemodialysis, was confirmed by the determination of barium concentrations in gastric contents, blood, serum and urine using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Barium concentrations in the analyzed specimens were 20.45 µg/L in serum, 150 µg/L in blood, 10,500 µg/L in urine and 63,500 µg/L in gastric contents. Results were compared with barium levels obtained from a non-intoxicated person. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Surface studies of barium and barium oxide on tungsten and its application to understanding the mechanism of operation of an impregnated tungsten cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Surface studies have been made of multilayer and monolayer films of barium and barium oxide on a tungsten substrate. The purpose of the investigation was to synthesize the surface conditions that exist on an activated impregnated tungsten cathode and obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of operation of such cathodes. The techniques employed in these measurements were Auger spectroscopy and work-function measurements. The results of this study show that the surface of an impregnated cathode is identical to that observed for a synthesized monolayer or partial monolayer of barium on oxidized tungsten by evaluating Auger spectra and work-function measurements. Data obtained from desorption studies of barium monolayers on a tungsten substrate in conjunction with Auger and work-function results have been interpreted to show that throughout most of its life an impreganated cathode has a partial monolayer, rather than a monolayer, of barium on its surface.

  15. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  16. NASA/Max Planck Institute Barium Ion Cloud Project.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brence, W. A.; Carr, R. E.; Gerlach, J. C.; Neuss, H.

    1973-01-01

    NASA and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Munich, Germany, conducted a cooperative experiment involving the release and study of a barium cloud at 31,500 km altitude near the equatorial plane. The release was made near local magnetic midnight on Sept. 21, 1971. The MPE-built spacecraft contained a canister of 16 kg of Ba CuO mixture, a two-axis magnetometer, and other payload instrumentation. The objectives of the experiment were to investigate the interaction of the ionized barium cloud with the ambient medium and to deduce the properties of electric fields in the proximity of the release. An overview of the project is given to briefly summarize the organization, responsibilities, objectives, instrumentation, and operational aspects of the project.

  17. Multisite occupation of divalent dopants in barium and strontium titanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulueta, Yohandys A.; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2018-10-01

    Based on recent experimental and theoretical proofs of calcium multisite occupation in barium titanate, we investigated a mixed incorporation mechanism for divalent dopants in barium and strontium titanates (BaTiO3 and SrTiO3). Our present theoretical results demonstrated the multisite occupation of divalent dopants in both perovskite structures. We determined the dependences of the solution, binding energies, and final solution energies with respect to the ionic radii of the dopants. Calculated results obtained based on classical simulations showed that the divalent dopants can occupy both A- and Ti- cation sites in ATiO3 perovskite structures. Such a multisite occupation has direct implications for other experimental findings regarding BaTiO3, such as non-stabilization of the tetragonal phase, shifts in the Curie temperature, intensification of the diffuse phase transition, and shifts in the absorption of ultraviolet light to the visible range in photocatalytic applications related to solar cells for producing energy.

  18. The Skylab barium plasma injection experiments. I - Convection observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Peek, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Two barium-plasma injection experiments were carried out during magnetically active periods in conjunction with the Skylab 3 mission. The high-explosive shaped charges were launched near dawn on November 27 and December 4, 1973, UT. In both cases, the AE index was near 400 gammas, and extensive pulsating auroras covered the sky. The first experiment, Skylab Alpha, occurred in the waning phase of a 1000-gamma substorm, and the second, Skylab Beta, occurred in the expansive phase of an 800-gamma substorm. In both, the convection was generally magnetically eastward, with 100-km-level electric fields near 40 mV/m. However, in the Alpha experiment the observed orientation of the barium flux tube fit theoretical field lines having no parallel current, but the Beta flux-tube orientation indicated a substantial upward parallel sheet current.

  19. Observations and theory of the AMPTE magnetotail barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Roussel-Dupre, R. A.; Pongratz, M. B.; Haerendel, G.; Valenzuela, A.

    1987-01-01

    The barium releases in the magnetotail during the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) operation were monitored by ground-based imagers and by instruments on the Ion Release Module. After each release, the data show the formation of a structured diamagnetic cavity. The cavity grows until the dynamic pressure of the expanding ions balances the magnetic pressure on its surface. The magnetic field inside the cavity is zero. The barium ions collect on the surface of the cavity, producing a shell. Plasma irregularities form along magnetic field lines draped over the surface of the cavity. The scale size of the irregularities is nearly equal to the thickness of the shell. The evolution and structuring of the diamagnetic cavity are modeled using magnetohydrodynamics theory.

  20. Numerical simulation of a radially injected barium cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, D. W.; Wescott, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrostatic two-dimensional numerical simulations of a radially symmetric barium injection experiment demonstrate that ions created by solar UV irradiation are electrostatically bound to the electrons which remain tied to the field lines on which they are created. Two possible instabilities are identified, but neither of them causes the barium plasma cloud to polarize in a way that would permit the plasma to keep up with the neutrals. In a second model, the velocity of the neutrals is allowed to be a function of the azimuthal angle. Here, a portion of the cloud does polarize in a way that allows a portion of the plasma to detach and move outward at the approximate speed of the neutrals. No rapid detachment is found when only the density of the neutrals is given an azimuthal asymmetry.

  1. Study of the photovoltaic effect in thin film barium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grannemann, W. W.; Dharmadhikari, V. S.

    1982-01-01

    Ferroelectric films of barium titanate were synthesized on silicon and quartz substrates, and the photoelectric effect in the structure consisting of metal deposited ferroelectric barium titanate film silicon was studied. A photovoltage with polarity that depends on the direction of the remanent polarization was observed. The deposition of BaTiO3 on silicon and fused quartz substrates was accomplished by an rf sputtering technique. A series of experiments to study the growth of ferroelectric BaTiO3 films on single crystal silicon and fused quartz substrates were conducted. The ferroelectric character in these films was found on the basis of evidence from the polarization electric field hysteresis loops, capacitance voltage and capacitance temperature techniques and from X-ray diffraction studies.

  2. Electromagnetic properties of photodefinable barium ferrite polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholiyi, Olusegun; Lee, Jaejin; Williams, John D.

    2014-07-01

    This article reports the magnetic and microwave properties of a Barium ferrite powder suspended in a polymer matrix. The sizes for Barium hexaferrite powder are 3-6 μm for coarse and 0.8-1.0 μm for the fine powder. Ratios 1:1 and 3:1 (by mass) of ferrite to SU8 samples were characterized and analyzed for predicting the necessary combinations of these powders with SU8 2000 Negative photoresist. The magnetization properties of these materials were equally determined and were analyzed using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The Thru, Reflect, Line (TRL) calibration technique was employed in determining complex relative permittivity and permeability of the powders and composites with SU8 between 26.5 and 40 GHz.

  3. Dielectric function for doped graphene layer with barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Ramos, Manuel; Garces Garcia, Eric; Magana, Fernado; Vazquez Fonseca, Gerardo Jorge

    2015-03-01

    The aim of our study is to calculate the dielectric function for a system formed with a graphene layer doped with barium titanate. Density functional theory, within the local density approximation, plane-waves and pseudopotentials scheme as implemented in Quantum Espresso suite of programs was used. We considered 128 carbon atoms with a barium titanate cluster of 11 molecules as unit cell with periodic conditions. The geometry optimization is achieved. Optimization of structural configuration is performed by relaxation of all atomic positions to minimize their total energies. Band structure, density of states and linear optical response (the imaginary part of dielectric tensor) were calculated. We thank Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, partial financial support by Grant IN-106514 and we also thank Miztli Super-Computing center the technical assistance.

  4. Hematological, biochemical, and histopathological impacts of barium chloride and barium carbonate accumulation in soft tissues of male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Amany Tharwat; Ismail, Hager Tarek H

    2017-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the hematotoxicity, sero-biochemical and histological changes due to the accumulation of BaCl 2 and BaCO 3 , the most important barium salts in our daily lives, in different soft tissues including the liver, kidney, heart, and spleen of adult rats after an oral exposure for 30 consecutive days, and to explain the different mechanisms by which this metal can exert these impacts. For this purpose, adult male rats were divided into three main groups of 15 animals each: group I, serving as controls, group II, receiving BaCl 2 orally in a dose of 179 mg barium/kg b.wt, and group III, receiving BaCO 3 orally in a dose of 418 mg barium/kg b.wt. for 30 consecutive days. Obviously, normocytic normochromic anemia was evident in both barium groups. Serum biochemical analysis revealed significant declines in glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and urea with significant elevations in malondialdehyde, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase levels. Hyperphosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and hypochloremia were also evident in both barium groups. Besides, residual analysis of both barium salts in different body organs revealed significantly abundant barium residues in the liver, spleen, heart, and kidney, respectively in both barium salts groups. Moreover, splenic tissue showed hemosiderosis, peritubular congestion, and necrotic glomeruli with intratubular hemorrhage. Sever subepicardial congestion with intramuscular edema was evident in the heart. In conclusion, BaCl 2 and BaCO 3 were able to deliver mortalities, antioxidant enzymes exhaustion, and a sort of normocytic normochromic anemia, as well as marked disturbances in cardiac, hepatic, and renal functions due to the accumulation of these two salts in the soft tissues. Therefore, these results demonstrate the unrecognized toxicity of those two barium salts due to their accumulation in various soft tissues of the body and so, this needs to reconsider

  5. Umklapp scattering as the origin of T -linear resistivity in the normal state of high- T c cuprate superconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Rice, T. Maurice; Robinson, Neil J.; Tsvelik, Alexei M.

    2017-12-11

    Here, the high-temperature normal state of the unconventional cuprate superconductors has resistivity linear in temperature T, which persists to values well beyond the Mott-Ioffe-Regel upper bound. At low temperatures, within the pseudogap phase, the resistivity is instead quadratic in T, as would be expected from Fermi liquid theory. Developing an understanding of these normal phases of the cuprates is crucial to explain the unconventional superconductivity. We present a simple explanation for this behavior, in terms of the umklapp scattering of electrons. This fits within the general picture emerging from functional renormalization group calculations that spurred the Yang-Rice-Zhang ansatz: Umklapp scatteringmore » is at the heart of the behavior in the normal phase.« less

  6. Thermal stresses in layered barium titanate-based semiconductor ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shut, V. N.; Gavrilov, A. V.

    2008-11-01

    Thermal stresses emerging in a barium titanate-based semiconducting ceramic during heating by electric current are studied using numerical methods. It is shown that the highest tensile stresses are formed in the plane equidistant from the electrodes. The values of these stresses can be as high as 70 MPa, which is commensurate with the critical stresses. A method is proposed for reducing stresses by developing thermistors with a layered structure.

  7. Barium isotopes reveal role of ocean circulation on barium cycling in the Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Stephanie L.; Hendry, Katharine R.; Pryer, Helena V.; Kinsley, Christopher W.; Pyle, Kimberley M.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Horner, Tristan J.

    2017-05-01

    We diagnose the relative influences of local-scale biogeochemical cycling and regional-scale ocean circulation on Atlantic barium cycling by analysing four new depth profiles of dissolved Ba concentrations and isotope compositions from the South and tropical North Atlantic. These new profiles exhibit systematic vertical, zonal and meridional variations that reflect the influence of both local-scale barite cycling and large-scale ocean circulation. Epipelagic decoupling of dissolved Ba and Si reported previously in the tropics is also found to be associated with significant Ba isotope heterogeneity. As such, we contend that this decoupling originates from the depth segregation of opal and barite formation but is exacerbated by weak vertical mixing. Zonal influence from isotopically-'heavy' water masses in the western North Atlantic evidence the advective inflow of Ba-depleted Upper Labrador Sea Water, which is not seen in the eastern basin or the South Atlantic. Meridional variations in Atlantic Ba isotope systematics below 2000 m appear entirely controlled by conservative mixing. Using an inverse isotopic mixing model, we calculate the Ba isotope composition of the Ba-poor northern end-member as +0.45 ‰ and the Ba-rich southern end-member +0.26 ‰, relative to NIST SRM 3104a. The near-conservative behaviour of Ba below 2000 m indicates that Ba isotopes can serve as an independent tracer of the provenance of northern- versus southern-sourced water masses in the deep Atlantic Ocean. This finding may prove useful in palaeoceanographic studies, should appropriate sedimentary archives be identified, and offers new insights into the processes that cycle Ba in seawater.

  8. Life Model of Hollow Cathodes Using a Barium Calcium Aluminate Impregnated Tungsten Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovaleski, S. D.; Burke, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Hollow cathodes with barium calcium aluminate impregnated tungsten emitters for thermionic emission are widely used in electric propulsion. These high current, low power cathodes are employed in ion thrusters, Hall thrusters, and on the International Space Station in plasma contactors. The requirements on hollow cathode life are growing more stringent with the increasing use of electric propulsion technology. The life limiting mechanism that determines the entitlement lifetime of a barium impregnated thermionic emission cathode is the evolution and transport of barium away from the emitter surface. A model is being developed to study the process of barium transport and loss from the emitter insert in hollow cathodes. The model accounts for the production of barium through analysis of the relevant impregnate chemistry. Transport of barium through the approximately static gas is also being treated. Finally, the effect of temperature gradients within the cathode are considered.

  9. PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT WITH COLLOIDAL BARIUM

    PubMed Central

    Windholz, Frank; Kaplan, Henry S.; Jones, Henry H.

    1951-01-01

    A stable colloidal suspension of barium sulfate has been developed and tested in roentgen examination of the gastrointestinal tract. The new material is rather distinctive in radiographic appearance and can usually be differentiated from simple barium-water mixtures by inspection of roentgenograms of the opacified stomach and small intestine. It usually affords a satisfactory demonstration of the mucosal folds of the stomach and duodenal bulb and is considerably more resistant to flocculation and precipitation by retained gastric secretions. In the small intestine, it has little tendency to undergo flocculation and fragmentation, and permits visualization of fine mucosal configurations with unusual clarity. Its motility is about the same as that of conventional suspensions. Air contrast colon examinations with the colloidal preparation exhibit a very uniform, opaque, and stable coating of the bowel wall and are more consistently satisfactory than when simple barium-water mixtures are used. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 1.Figure 1.Figure 1.Figure 2.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:14812347

  10. Modified Calix[4]crowns as Molecular Receptors for Barium.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Janine; Bauer, David; Reissig, Falco; Köckerling, Martin; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen; Mamat, Constantin

    2018-06-01

    Invited for this month's cover picture is the group around Dr. Constantin Mamat at the Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany) together with Prof. Martin Köckerling from the University of Rostock (Germany). The cover picture shows the ability of special functionalized calix[4]crown-6 derivatives to stably bind group 2 metals like barium. This binding mode is highly important for radiopharmaceutical applications not to lose the respective radiometal in vivo to avoid high background signals and/or false positive results and damages in other tissues. For this purpose, different calix[4]crowns were tested, based upon their potential to stably bind barium as surrogate for radium. Radium nuclides are known to be good candidates for usage in α-targeted therapies. Currently, radium-223 is used for α-therapy of bone metastases because of its calcium mimetics. Our aim is to apply the radium to treat other cancer tissues. That's why we need novel chelators to stably fix groups 2 metals like barium and radium. Read the full text of their Full Paper at https://doi.org/10.1002/open.201800019.

  11. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-01

    ISS040-E-006327 (1 June 2014) --- A portion of International Space Station solar array panels and Earth?s horizon are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the space station.

  12. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet, must be packed in wooden boxes (4C1, 4C2, 4D, or 4F) or fiber drums (1G) with inner glass...

  13. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet, must be packed in wooden boxes (4C1, 4C2, 4D, or 4F) or fiber drums (1G) with inner glass...

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Infrared properties of barium stars (Chen+, 2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. S.

    2001-04-01

    We present the results of a systematic survey for IRAS associations of barium stars. A total of 155 associations were detected, and IRAS low-resolution spectra exist for 50 barium stars. We use different color-color diagrams from the visual band to 60μm, relations between these colors and the spectral type, the barium intensity, and the IRAS low-resolution spectra to discuss physical properties of barium stars in the infrared. It is confirmed that most barium stars have infrared excesses in the near infrared. However, a new result of this work is that most barium stars have no excesses in the far infrared. This fact may imply that infrared excesses of barium stars are mainly due to the re-emission of energy lost from the Bond-Neff depression. It is also shown that the spectral type and the barium intensity of barium stars are not correlated with infrared colors, but may be correlated with V-K color. (1 data file).

  15. Properties and mechanisms of surface doped barium titanate sintered in reducing atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, David Irwin

    2001-07-01

    Barium titanate-based dielectric compositions for Multilayer Ceramic Capacitor (MLCC) applications that are properly formulated can maintain acceptable dielectric properties after firing in a reducing atmosphere. The data to be presented relates to the application of an experimental scheme to probe the fundamental nature of doped BaTiO3-based dielectrics exposed to low pO2 sintering atmospheres. Specifically, the effect of Y and Rare Earth dopants Nd, Dy, Ho, and Er and donor dopants Nb, and V have been studied for compositions in the system BaTi(Mn)O3 + SiO2. All dopants were applied to high purity barium titanate as chemical surface coatings. Each coated formulation was evaluated after firing under three different atmospheric conditions. These conditions were comprised of firing in air at 1250°C for 2 hours, firing at 10-10 atm pO2 at 1250°C for 2 hours, and firing at 10-10 atm pO2 at 1250°C for 2 hours with an anneal at 10 -9 atm pO2 at 1000°C for 1 hour. This testing method was useful in gaining insight into the mechanism of the dopant interaction and/or the compensation of the oxygen vacancy concentration. As a donor addition, vanadium was observed to produce the highest dissipation factor when sintered under oxidizing conditions and the lowest dissipation factor when sintered under reducing conditions. The V-doped formulations exhibited satisfactory basic MLCC electrical properties when sintered under reducing conditions. Niobium was observed to impart strong donor character to the dielectric formulations sintered under reducing conditions suggesting that it was unlikely that compensatory A-site cation vacancies were induced. For Y and Rare Earth doped formulations there was an observed shifting and suppression of the Curie Peak that seemed to be attributable to electrostrain effects, related to the ionic radius of the dopants. The observed difference in the TCC behavior of the Nd-doped formulations illustrated two possible effects of Nd doping. One is

  16. Nanoscale Electronic Structure of Cuprate Superconductors Investigated with Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Tess Lawanna

    Despite 25 years of intense research activity, high-temperature superconductors remain poorly understood, with the underlying pairing mechanism still unidentified. Efforts are complicated by the remarkably complex phase diagram, rich in energy-dependent charge and spin orders. In this thesis I describe the use of a Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) to study energy-dependent charge orders in Bi2-- yPbySr2CuO6+delta , a cuprate high-temperature superconductor. STM, a surface-sensitive probe used to map electronic structure with sub-meV energy resolution and sub-A spatial resolution, has contributed greatly to our current understanding of the cuprate high-temperature superconductors. However, STM data is acquired with a constant-current normalization condition. The measured differential conductance, g(x, y, V), is often taken to be proportional to the density of states at energy eV (where V is the voltage applied between tip and sample). In fact, due to the normalization condition, the measured g(x, y, V) is actually the quotient of the density of states at energy eV and the integrated density of states from the Fermi energy to eV. This unavoidable quotient may fold electronic structure from its true energy range into other energies. I discuss a new method to correct STM differential conductance spectra to remove the constant-current normalization condition. Using local work function measurements and the constant-current topograph, I create a map which does not suffer from the setpoint effect and contains a mixture of topographic information and properly normalized spectroscopic information. I apply this method to the extraction of the incommensurate charge modulation at q⃗˜34 2pa0 . I also extend the study of electronic nematic order, an atomic-lattice-periodic C4 → C2 symmetry breaking, from highly underdoped Bi2 Sr2CaCu2O 8+delta [28] to overdoped Bi2--yPb ySr2CuO6+/-delta. I find that the electronic nematic order parameter is robust to change of scan angle

  17. More arrows in the quiver: new pathways and old problems with heavy alkaline earth metal diphenylmethanides.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jacob S; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin

    2004-03-05

    Progress in the field of sigma-bonded alkaline earth organometallics has been handicapped by numerous complications, such as high reactivity, low solubility, and the limited availability of suitable starting materials. Here we present two synthetic methods, hydrocarbon elimination and desilylation, as alternative routes into this chemistry. A novel barium diphenylmethanide was prepared using these routes delineating that both methods provide a powerful, versatile synthetic access route to an extended library of organometallic alkaline earth derivatives.

  18. The diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease cannot be made with barium esophagograms.

    PubMed

    Saleh, C M G; Smout, A J P M; Bredenoord, A J

    2015-02-01

    For over 50 years, barium studies have been used to diagnose gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), but the value of this test is controversial. Our study aimed to determine if barium esophagograms can be used to diagnose GERD. Barium esophagograms and pH-impedance measurement were performed in 20 subjects with reflux symptoms. pH-impedance measurements were used as gold standard for the diagnosis of GERD. Gastro-esophageal reflux measured with the barium study was defined as a positive outcome. 50% of patients presented gastro-esophageal reflux on the barium esophagogram. No significant differences were observed in acid exposure time between subjects with (median: 7.4%; interquartile range, IQR: 8.4%) or without reflux at barium esophagography (median: 5.95%; IQR: 13.05%; p > 0.05). Nor did we find differences in median proximal extent of reflux measured with impedance monitoring between patients with a positive (median: 6.7%; IQR: 1.95%) and negative barium study (median: 7.1%; IQR: 0.68%; p > 0.05). Patients with reflux on barium esophagogram did not have a positive symptom association probability more often than those who did not have reflux at barium esophagography. Lastly, there were no differences in numbers of acid, weakly acidic or total reflux episodes between those with positive or negative barium esophagogram (p > 0.05). No correlations were found between the maximum proximal extent of gastro-esophageal reflux during esophagography and pH-impedance parameters. Presence or absence of gastro-esophageal reflux during barium esophagography does not correlate with incidence or extent of reflux observed during 24-h pH-impedance monitoring and is not of value for the diagnosis of GERD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A review of the health impacts of barium from natural and anthropogenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Julia; Darrah, Thomas H; Miller, Richard K; Lyerly, H Kim; Vengosh, Avner

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing public awareness of the relatively new and expanded industrial barium uses which are potential sources of human exposure (e.g., a shale gas development that causes an increased awareness of environmental exposures to barium). However, absorption of barium in exposed humans and a full spectrum of its health effects, especially among chronically exposed to moderate and low doses of barium populations, remain unclear. We suggest a systematic literature review (from 1875 to 2014) on environmental distribution of barium, its bioaccumulation, and potential and proven health impacts (in animal models and humans) to provide the information that can be used for optimization of future experimental and epidemiological studies and developing of mitigative and preventive strategies to minimize negative health effects in exposed populations. The potential health effects of barium exposure are largely based on animal studies, while epidemiological data for humans, specifically for chronic low-level exposures, are sparse. The reported health effects include cardiovascular and kidney diseases, metabolic, neurological, and mental disorders. Age, race, dietary patterns, behavioral risks (e.g., smoking), use of medications (those that interfere with absorbed barium in human organism), and specific physiological status (e.g., pregnancy) can modify barium effects on human health. Identifying, evaluating, and predicting the health effects of chronic low-level and moderate-level barium exposures in humans is challenging: Future research is needed to develop an understanding of barium bioaccumulation in order to mitigate its potential health impacts in various exposured populations. Further, while occupationally exposed at-risk populations exist, it is also important to identify potentially vulnerable subgroups among non-occupationally exposed populations (e.g., elderly, pregnant women, children) who are at higher risk of barium exposure from drinking water and food.

  20. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  1. Ground state of underdoped cuprates in vicinity of superconductor-to-insulator transition

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T.; Sun, Yujie; ...

    2016-08-15

    When an insulating underdoped cuprate is doped beyond a critical concentration (x c), high-temperature superconductivity emerges. We have synthesized a series of La 2–xSr xCuO 4 (LSCO) samples using the combinatorial spread technique that allows us to traverse the superconductor-to-insulator transition (SIT) in extremely fine doping steps, Δx≈0.00008. We have measured the Hall resistivity (ρ H) as a function of temperature down to 300 mK in magnetic fields up to 9 T. At very low temperatures, ρ H shows an erratic behavior, jumps and fluctuations exceeding 100%, hysteresis, and memory effects, indicating that the insulating ground state is a charge-clustermore » glass (CCG). Furthermore, based on the phase diagram depicted in our experiment, we propose a unified picture to account for the anomalous electric transport in the vicinity of the SIT, suggesting that the CCG is in fact a disordered and glassy version of the charge density wave.« less

  2. Stimulated emission of Cooper pairs in a high-temperature cuprate superconductor

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Wentao; Miller, Tristan; Smallwood, Christopher L.; ...

    2016-07-01

    The concept of stimulated emission of bosons has played an important role in modern science and technology, and constitutes the working principle for lasers. In a stimulated emission process, an incoming photon enhances the probability that an excited atomic state will transition to a lower energy state and generate a second photon of the same energy. It is expected, but not experimentally shown, that stimulated emission contributes significantly to the zero resistance current in a superconductor by enhancing the probability that scattered Cooper pairs will return to the macroscopically occupied condensate instead of entering any other state. Here, we usemore » time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study the initial rise of the non-equilibrium quasiparticle population in a Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ cuprate superconductor induced by an ultrashort laser pulse. Our finding reveals significantly slower buildup of quasiparticles in the superconducting state than in the normal state. The slower buildup only occurs when the pump pulse is too weak to deplete the superconducting condensate, and for cuts inside the Fermi arc region. We propose this is a manifestation of stimulated recombination of broken Cooper pairs, and signals an important momentum space dichotomy in the formation of Cooper pairs inside and outside the Fermi arc region.« less

  3. Ultra-fast pump-probe determination of electron-phonon coupling in cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailovic, Dragan

    2010-03-01

    Fresh femtosecond spectroscopy experiments show the electron-phonon interaction strength λ to be 0.7 and 1.4 for YBCO and LSCO respectively and not around 0.2 as previously reported [1]. The revised estimates arise primarily from improved time-resolution, and also partly from improved modeling. Comparison with classical superconductors and pnictides shows non-monotonic correlation of λ with Tc. Systematic new measurements of the condensate vaporization energy (Uv) in cuprates [2] and pnictides reveals a power-law dependence on Tc with exponent 2. However, Uc is 16-18 times greater than the BCS condensation energy Uc, implying that a significant heat capacity of the ``bosonic glue.'' In contrast, charge-density wave systems with electronically driven ordering transitions have Uv˜Uc. The data suggest BCS and Eliashberg-based models to be inappropriate for describing the physics of high-temperature superconductors, and point towards polaron models which consider strong or intermediate λ.[4pt] [1] C.Gadermeier et al., arXiv:0902.1636[0pt] [2] P.Kusar et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 227001 (2008)

  4. High On/Off Ratio Memristive Switching of Manganite/Cuprate Bilayer by Interfacial Magnetoelectricity

    DOE PAGES

    Shen, Xiao; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Hernandez-Martin, David; ...

    2016-05-27

    Memristive switching serves as the basis for a new generation of electronic devices. Conventional memristors are two-terminal devices in which the current is turned on and off by redistributing point defects, e.g., vacancies. Memristors based on alternative mechanisms have been explored, but achieving both high on/off ratio and low switching energy, as needed in applications, remains a challenge. This paper reports memristive switching in La 0.7Ca 0.3MnO 3/PrBa 2Cu 3O 7 bilayers with an on/off ratio greater than 103 and results of density functional theory calculations in terms of which it is concluded that the phenomenon is likely the resultmore » of a new type of interfacial magnetoelectricity. More specifically, this study shows that an external electric field induces subtle displacements of the interfacial Mn ions, which switches on/off an interfacial magnetic “dead layer”, resulting in memristive behavior for spin-polarized electron transport across the bilayer. The interfacial nature of the switching entails low energy cost, about of a tenth of atto Joule for writing/erasing a “bit”. To conclude, the results indicate new opportunities for manganite/cuprate systems and other transition metal oxide junctions in memristive applications.« less

  5. Stabilization of high Tc phase in bismuth cuprate superconductor by lead doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Ram. P.; Pachauri, J. P.; Khokle, W. S.; Nagpal, K. C.; Date, S. K.

    1991-01-01

    It has been widely ascertained that doping of lead in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O systems promotes the growth of high T sub c (110 K) phase, improves critical current density, and lowers processing temperature. A systematic study was undertaken to determine optimum lead content and processing conditions to achieve these properties. A large number of samples with cationic compositions of Bi(2-x)Pb(x)Sr2Ca2Cu3 (x = 0.2 to 2.0) were prepared by conventional solid state reaction technique. Samples of all compositions were annealed together at a temperature and characterized through resistance temperature (R-T) measurements and x ray diffraction to determine the zero resistance temperature, T sub c(0) and to identify presence of phases, respectively. The annealing temperature was varied between 790 and 880 C to optimize processing parameters. Results are given. In brief, an optimum process is reported along with composition of leaded bismuth cuprate superconductor which yields nearly a high T sub c single phase with highly stable superconducting properties.

  6. Suppression of Superfluid Density and the Pseudogap State in the Cuprates by Impurities

    DOE PAGES

    Erdenemunkh, Unurbat; Koopman, Brian; Fu, Ling; ...

    2016-12-16

    Here, we use scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to study magnetic Fe impurities intentionally doped into the high-temperature superconductor Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+δ. Our spectroscopic measurements reveal that Fe impurities introduce low-lying resonances in the density of states at Ω 1 ≈ 4 meV and Ω 2 ≈ 15 meV , allowing us to determine that, despite having a large magnetic moment, potential scattering of quasiparticles by Fe impurities dominates magnetic scattering. In addition, using high-resolution spatial characterizations of the local density of states near and away from Fe impurities, we detail the spatial extent of impurity-affected regions as wellmore » as provide a local view of impurity-induced effects on the superconducting and pseudogap states. Lastly, our studies of Fe impurities, when combined with a reinterpretation of earlier STM work in the context of a two-gap scenario, allow us to present a unified view of the atomic-scale effects of elemental impurities on the pseudogap and superconducting states in hole-doped cuprates; this may help resolve a previously assumed dichotomy between the effects of magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities in these materials.« less

  7. Optical nanoscopy of high T c cuprate nanoconstriction devices patterned by helium ion beams

    DOE PAGES

    Gozar, Adrian; Litombe, N. E.; Hoffman, Jennifer E.; ...

    2017-02-06

    Helium ion beams (HIB) focused to subnanometer scales have emerged as powerful tools for high-resolution imaging as well as nanoscale lithography, ion milling, or deposition. Quantifying irradiation effects is an essential step toward reliable device fabrication, but most of the depth profiling information is provided by computer simulations rather than the experiment. Here, we demonstrate the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) combined with scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) to provide three-dimensional (3D) dielectric characterization of high-temperature superconductor devices fabricated by HIB. By imaging the infrared dielectric response obtained from light demodulation at multiple harmonics of the AFM tapping frequency,more » we find that amorphization caused by the nominally 0.5 nm HIB extends throughout the entire 26.5 nm thickness of the cuprate film and by ~500 nm laterally. This unexpectedly widespread damage in morphology and electronic structure can be attributed to a helium depth distribution substantially modified by the internal device interfaces. Lastly, our study introduces AFM-SNOM as a quantitative tomographic technique for noninvasive 3D characterization of irradiation damage in a wide variety of nanoscale devices.« less

  8. Suppression of the Hall number due to charge density wave order in high-Tc cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Girish; Nandy, S.; Taraphder, A.; Tewari, Sumanta

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the pseudogap phase in hole-doped high-temperature cuprate superconductors remains a central challenge in condensed-matter physics. From a host of recent experiments there is now compelling evidence of translational-symmetry-breaking charge density wave (CDW) order in a wide range of doping inside this phase. Two distinct types of incommensurate charge order, bidirectional at zero or low magnetic fields and unidirectional at high magnetic fields close to the upper critical field Hc 2, have been reported so far in approximately the same doping range between p ≃0.08 and p ≃0.16 . In concurrent developments, recent high-field Hall experiments have also revealed two indirect but striking signatures of Fermi surface reconstruction in the pseudogap phase, namely, a sign change of the Hall coefficient to negative values at low temperatures in the intermediate range of hole doping and a rapid suppression of the positive Hall number without a change in sign near optimal doping p ˜0.19 . We show that the assumption of a unidirectional incommensurate CDW (with or without a coexisting weak bidirectional order) at high magnetic fields near optimal doping and the coexistence of both types of orders of approximately equal magnitude at high magnetic fields in the intermediate range of doping may help explain the striking behavior of the low-temperature Hall effect in the entire pseudogap phase.

  9. New investigations of the guanine trichloro cuprate(II) complex crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabijanić, Ivana; Matković-Čalogović, Dubravka; Pilepić, Viktor; Ivanišević, Irena; Mohaček-Grošev, Vlasta; Sanković, Krešimir

    2017-01-01

    Crystals of the guanine trichloro cuprate(II) complex, (HGua)2[Cu2Cl6]·2H2O (HGua = protonated guanine), were prepared and analysed by spectroscopic (IR, Raman) and computational methods. A new single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis was conducted to obtain data with lower standard uncertainties than those in the previously published structure. Raman and IR spectroscopy and quantum-mechanical analysis gave us new insight into the vibrational states of the (HGua)2[Cu2Cl6]·2H2O crystal. The vibrational spectra of the crystal were assigned by performing a normal coordinate analysis for a free dimer with a centre of inversion as the only symmetry element. The stretching vibration observed at 279 cm-1 in the infrared spectrum corresponds to the N-Cu bond. The noncovalent interaction (NCI) plots and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analysis of the electron density obtained from periodic DFT calculations elucidated the interactions that exist within the crystal structure. Closed-shell ionic attractions, as well as weak and medium strength hydrogen bonds, prevailed in the crystal packing.

  10. Resonant Two-Magnon Raman Scattering in Cuprate Antiferromagnetic Insulators and Superconductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumberg, G.; Abbamonte, P.; Klein, M. V.

    1996-03-01

    We present results of low-temperature two-magnon resonance Raman excitation profile measurements for single layer Sr_2CuO_2Cl2 and bilayer YBa_2Cu_3O6 + δ antiferromagnets over the excitation region from 1.65 to 3.05 eV. These data reveal composite structure of the B_1g two-magnon line shape peaked at ~ 2.7J and ~ 4J and strong nonmonotonic dependence of the scattering intensity on excitation energy. Resonant magnetic scattering contributes also to A_1g and B_2g channels. We analyze these data using the triple resonance theory of Chubukov and Frenkel(A. Chubukov and D. Frenkel, Phys. Rev. Lett.74), 3057 (1995). and deduce information about magnetic interaction (J and J_⊥) and band parameters (NN hopping t and charge transfer gap 2Δ) in these antiferromagnets.(G. Blumberg et. al.), Preprint cond-mat/9511080. The ~ 3J spin superexchange excitation persists upon hole doping and is present in superconductors, proving the universality of the short wavelength magnetic excitations in the cuprate superconducting metals and the parent antiferromagnetic insulators.(G. Blumberg et. al.), Phys. Rev. B 49, 13 295 (1994).

  11. Synthesis and Magnetic, Thermal, and Electrical Measurements on Complex non-Cuprate Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Laurence L

    2006-02-27

    The project investigated superconductivity in non-cuprate materials with critical temperatures, T{sub c}, in excess of 20 K in order to understand the thermodynamics of several of these materials. The project is a cooperative effort between investigators at Southern University (SU), Louisiana State University (LSU), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). It involved synthesis of high quality samples, and subsequent detailed magnetic, thermal and electrical measurements on them. The project provided a PhD Thesis research experience and training for a graduate student, Ms. Robin Macaluso. High quality, single crystal samples were synthesized by Ms. Macaluso under the direction of one ofmore » the CO-PIS, John Sarao, during the summer while she was a visitor at LANL being supported by this grant. On these samples magnetic measurements were performed at SU, thermal and electrical measurements were made in the LSU Physics and Astronomy Department. The crystallographic properties were determined in the LSU Chemistry Department by Ms. Macaluso under the direction of her dissertation advisor, Dr. Julia Chan. Additional high field magnetic measurements on other samples were performed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) both in Tallahassee and at LANL. These measurements involved another graduate student, Umit Alver, who used some of the measurements as part of his PhD dissertation in Physics at LSU.« less

  12. The rate of quasiparticle recombination probes the onset of coherence in cuprate superconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Hinton, J. P.; Thewalt, E.; Alpichshev, Z.; ...

    2016-04-13

    In the underdoped copper-oxides, high-temperature superconductivity condenses from a nonconventional metallic ”pseudogap” phase that exhibits a variety of non-Fermi liquid properties. Recently, it has become clear that a charge density wave (CDW) phase exists within the pseudogap regime. This CDW coexists and competes with superconductivity (SC) below the transition temperature T c, suggesting that these two orders are intimately related. Here we show that the condensation of the superfluid from this unconventional precursor is reflected in deviations from the predictions of BSC theory regarding the recombination rate of quasiparticles. We report a detailed investigation of the quasiparticle (QP) recombination lifetime,more » τ qp, as a function of temperature and magnetic field in underdoped HgBa 2CuO 4+δ (Hg-1201) and YBa 2Cu 3O 6+x (YBCO) single crystals by ultrafast time-resolved reflectivity. We find that τ qp(T) exhibits a local maximum in a small temperature window near T c that is prominent in underdoped samples with coexisting charge order and vanishes with application of a small magnetic field. We explain this unusual, non-BCS behavior by positing that T c marks a transition from phase-fluctuating SC/CDW composite order above to a SC/CDW condensate below. Lastly, our results suggest that the superfluid in underdoped cuprates is a condensate of coherently-mixed particle-particle and particle-hole pairs.« less

  13. Stabilization of high T(sub c) phase in bismuth cuprate superconductor by lead doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Ram. P.; Pachauri, J. P.; Khokle, W. S.; Nagpal, K. C.; Date, S. K.

    1990-01-01

    It has widely been ascertained that doping of lead in Bi:Sr:Ca:Cu:O systems promotes the growth of high T(sub c) (110 K) phase, improves critical current density, and lowers processing temperature. A systematic investigation is undertaken to determine optimum lead content and processing conditions to achieve these. A large number of samples with cationic compositions of Bi(2-x)Pb(x)Sr2Ca2Cu3 (x = 0.2 to 2.0) were prepared by conventional solid state reaction technique. Samples of all compositions were annealed together at a temperature and characterized through resistance-temperature (R-T) measurements and x ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the zero resistance temperature, T(sub c)(0) and to identify presence of phases, respectively. The annealing temperature was varied between 790 C to optimize processing parameters. Results are given. In brief, an optimum process is reported along with composition of leaded bismuth cuprate superconductor which yields nearly a high T(sub c) single phase with highly stable superconducting properties.

  14. The rate of quasiparticle recombination probes the onset of coherence in cuprate superconductors.

    PubMed

    Hinton, J P; Thewalt, E; Alpichshev, Z; Mahmood, F; Koralek, J D; Chan, M K; Veit, M J; Dorow, C J; Barišić, N; Kemper, A F; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Liang, Ruixing; Gedik, N; Greven, M; Lanzara, A; Orenstein, J

    2016-04-13

    In the underdoped copper-oxides, high-temperature superconductivity condenses from a nonconventional metallic "pseudogap" phase that exhibits a variety of non-Fermi liquid properties. Recently, it has become clear that a charge density wave (CDW) phase exists within the pseudogap regime. This CDW coexists and competes with superconductivity (SC) below the transition temperature Tc, suggesting that these two orders are intimately related. Here we show that the condensation of the superfluid from this unconventional precursor is reflected in deviations from the predictions of BSC theory regarding the recombination rate of quasiparticles. We report a detailed investigation of the quasiparticle (QP) recombination lifetime, τqp, as a function of temperature and magnetic field in underdoped HgBa2CuO(4+δ) (Hg-1201) and YBa2Cu3O(6+x) (YBCO) single crystals by ultrafast time-resolved reflectivity. We find that τqp(T) exhibits a local maximum in a small temperature window near Tc that is prominent in underdoped samples with coexisting charge order and vanishes with application of a small magnetic field. We explain this unusual, non-BCS behavior by positing that Tc marks a transition from phase-fluctuating SC/CDW composite order above to a SC/CDW condensate below. Our results suggest that the superfluid in underdoped cuprates is a condensate of coherently-mixed particle-particle and particle-hole pairs.

  15. The rate of quasiparticle recombination probes the onset of coherence in cuprate superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, J. P.; Thewalt, E.; Alpichshev, Z.; Mahmood, F.; Koralek, J. D.; Chan, M. K.; Veit, M. J.; Dorow, C. J.; Barišić, N.; Kemper, A. F.; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Liang, Ruixing; Gedik, N.; Greven, M.; Lanzara, A.; Orenstein, J.

    2016-01-01

    In the underdoped copper-oxides, high-temperature superconductivity condenses from a nonconventional metallic ”pseudogap” phase that exhibits a variety of non-Fermi liquid properties. Recently, it has become clear that a charge density wave (CDW) phase exists within the pseudogap regime. This CDW coexists and competes with superconductivity (SC) below the transition temperature Tc, suggesting that these two orders are intimately related. Here we show that the condensation of the superfluid from this unconventional precursor is reflected in deviations from the predictions of BSC theory regarding the recombination rate of quasiparticles. We report a detailed investigation of the quasiparticle (QP) recombination lifetime, τqp, as a function of temperature and magnetic field in underdoped HgBa2CuO4+δ (Hg-1201) and YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO) single crystals by ultrafast time-resolved reflectivity. We find that τqp(T ) exhibits a local maximum in a small temperature window near Tc that is prominent in underdoped samples with coexisting charge order and vanishes with application of a small magnetic field. We explain this unusual, non-BCS behavior by positing that Tc marks a transition from phase-fluctuating SC/CDW composite order above to a SC/CDW condensate below. Our results suggest that the superfluid in underdoped cuprates is a condensate of coherently-mixed particle-particle and particle-hole pairs. PMID:27071712

  16. The electronic structure of the high-TC cuprates within the hidden rotating order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouz, M.; Ramakko, B. W.; Presenza-Pitman, G.

    2010-09-01

    The doping dependence of the Fermi surface and energy distribution curves of the high-TC cuprate materials La2 - xSrxCuO4 and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + δ are analyzed within the rotating antiferromagnetism theory. Using three different quantities; the k-dependent occupation probability, the spectral function, and the chemical potential (energy spectra), the Fermi surface is calculated and compared to experimental data for La2 - xSrxCuO4. The Fermi surface we calculate evolves from hole-like pockets in the underdoped regime to large electron-like contours in the overdoped regime. This is in agreement with recent findings by Sebastian et al for the α-pocket of Y Ba2Cu3O6 + x (2010 Phys. Rev. B 81 214524). In addition, the full width at half maximum of the energy distribution curves is found to behave linearly with their peak position in agreement with experiment for Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + δ. The effect of scattering on both the Fermi surface and energy distribution curves is examined.

  17. Quantum oscillations and nodal pockets from Fermi surface reconstruction in the underdoped cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Neil

    2012-02-01

    Fermiology in the underdoped high Tc cuprates presents us with unique challenges, requiring experimentalists to look deeper into the data than is normally required for clues. Recent measurements of an oscillatory chemical potential affecting the oscillations at high magnetic fields provide a strong indication of a single type of carrier pocket. When considered in conjunction with photoemission and specific heat measurements, a Fermi surface comprised almost entirely of nodal pockets is suggested. The mystery of the Fermi surface is deepened, however, by a near doping-independent Fermi surface cross-sectional area and negative Hall and Seebeck coefficients. We explore ways in which these findings can be reconciled, taking an important hint from the diverging effective mass yielded by quantum oscillations at low dopings. The author wishes to thank Suchitra Sebastian, Moaz Atarawneh, Doug Bonn, Walter Hardy, Ruixing Liang, Charles Mielke and Gilbert Lonzarich who have contributed to this work. The work is supported by the NSF through the NHMFL and by the DOE project ``Science at 100 tesla.''

  18. Gutzwiller charge phase diagram of cuprates, including electron–phonon coupling effects

    DOE PAGES

    Markiewicz, R. S.; Seibold, G.; Lorenzana, J.; ...

    2015-02-01

    Besides significant electronic correlations, high-temperature superconductors also show a strong coupling of electrons to a number of lattice modes. Combined with the experimental detection of electronic inhomogeneities and ordering phenomena in many high-T c compounds, these features raise the question as to what extent phonons are involved in the associated instabilities. Here we address this problem based on the Hubbard model including a coupling to phonons in order to capture several salient features of the phase diagram of hole-doped cuprates. Charge degrees of freedom, which are suppressed by the large Hubbard U near half-filling, are found to become active atmore » a fairly low doping level. We find that possible charge order is mainly driven by Fermi surface nesting, with competition between a near-(π, π) order at low doping and antinodal nesting at higher doping, very similar to the momentum structure of magnetic fluctuations. The resulting nesting vectors are generally consistent with photoemission and tunneling observations, evidence for charge density wave order in YBa₂Cu₃O 7-δ including Kohn anomalies, and suggestions of competition between one- and two-q-vector nesting.« less

  19. Barium as a potential indicator of phosphorus in agricultural runoff.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, Joakim; Djodjic, Faruk; Wallin, Mats

    2012-01-01

    In many catchments, anthropogenic input of contaminants, and in particular phosphorus (P), into surface water is a mixture of agricultural and sewage runoff. Knowledge about the relative contribution from each of these sources is vital for mitigation of major environmental problems such as eutrophication. In this study, we investigated whether the distribution of trace elements in surface waters can be used to trace the contamination source. Water from three groups of streams was investigated: streams influenced only by agricultural runoff, streams influenced mainly by sewage runoff, and reference streams. Samples were collected at different flow regimes and times of year and analyzed for 62 elements using ICP-MS. Our results show that there are significant differences between the anthropogenic sources affecting the streams in terms of total element composition and individual elements, indicating that the method has the potential to trace anthropogenic impact on surface waters. The elements that show significant differences between sources are strontium (p < 0.001), calcium (p < 0.004), potassium (p < 0.001), magnesium (p < 0.001), boron (p < 0.001), rhodium (p = 0.001), and barium (p < 0.001). According to this study, barium shows the greatest potential as a tracer for an individual source of anthropogenic input to surface waters. We observed a strong relationship between barium and total P in the investigated samples (R(2) = 0.78), which could potentially be used to apportion anthropogenic sources of P and thereby facilitate targeting of mitigation practices. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Multiple electrical phase transitions in Al substituted barium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Supriya, Sweety; Kar, Manoranjan

    2017-12-01

    Barium hexaferrite is known to be a very good ferromagnetic material. However, it shows very good dielectric properties, i.e., the dielectric constant is comparable to that of the ferroelectric material. However, its crystal symmetry does not allow it to be a ferroelectric material. Hence, the electrical properties have revived the considerable research interest on these materials, not only for academic interest, but also for technological applications. There are a few reports on temperature dependent dielectric behavior of these materials. However, the exact cause of dielectric as well as electrical conductivity is yet to be established. Hence, Al (very good conducting material) substituted barium hexaferrite (BaFe12-xAlxO19, x = 0.0-4.0) has been prepared by following the modified sol-gel method to understand the ac and DC electrical properties of these materials. The crystal structure and parameters have been studied by employing the XRD and FTIR techniques. There are two transition temperatures, which have been observed in the temperature dependent ac dielectric and DC resistivity measurement. The response of dielectric behaviors to temperature is similar to that of the ferroelectric material; however, the dielectric polarization is due to the polaron hopping, which is evident from the DC resistivity analysis. Hence, the present observations lead to understand the electrical properties of barium hexaferrite. The frequency dependent dielectric dispersion can be understood by the modified Debye model. More interestingly, the dielectric constant decreases and DC resistivity increases with the increase in the Al concentration, which has the correlation between bond length modifications in the crystal due to substitution.

  1. Barium versus nonbarium stimuli: differences in taste intensity, chemesthesis, and swallowing behavior in healthy adult women.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Ahmed; Steele, Catriona M; Pelletier, Cathy A

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the impact of barium on the perceived taste intensity of 7 different liquid tastant stimuli and the modulatory effect that these differences in perceived taste intensity have on swallowing behaviors. Participants were 80 healthy women, stratified by age group (<40; >60) and genetic taste status (supertasters; nontasters). Perceived taste intensity and chemesthetic properties (fizziness; burning-stinging) were rated for 7 tastant solutions (each prepared with and without barium) using the general Labeled Magnitude Scale. Tongue-palate pressures and submental surface electromyography (sEMG) were simultaneously measured during swallowing of these same randomized liquids. Path analysis differentiated the effects of stimulus, genetic taste status, age, barium condition, taste intensity, and an effortful saliva swallow strength covariate on swallowing. Barium stimuli were rated as having reduced taste intensity compared with nonbarium stimuli. Barium also dampened fizziness but did not influence burning-stinging sensation. The amplitudes of tongue-palate pressure or submental sEMG did not differ when swallowing barium versus nonbarium stimuli. Despite impacting taste intensity, the addition of barium to liquid stimuli does not appear to alter behavioral parameters of swallowing. Barium solutions can be considered to elicit behaviors that are similar to those used with nonbarium liquids outside the assessment situation.

  2. Lack of effect of drinking water barium on cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed Central

    Wones, R G; Stadler, B L; Frohman, L A

    1990-01-01

    Higher cardiovascular mortality has been associated in a single epidemiological study with higher levels of barium in drinking water. The purpose of this study was to determine whether drinking water barium at levels found in some U.S. communities alters the known risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Eleven healthy men completed a 10-week dose-response protocol in which diet was controlled (600 mg cholesterol; 40% fat, 40% carbohydrate, 20% protein; sodium and potassium controlled at the subject's pre-protocol estimated intake). Other aspects of the subjects' lifestyles known to affect cardiac risk factors were controlled, and the barium content (as barium chloride) of the drinking water (1.5 L/day) was varied from 0 (first 2 weeks), to 5 ppm (next 4 weeks), to 10 ppm (last 4 weeks). Multiple blood and urine samples, morning and evening blood pressure measurements, and 48-hr electrocardiographic monitoring were performed at each dose of barium. There were no changes in morning or evening systolic or diastolic blood pressures, plasma cholesterol or lipoprotein or apolipoprotein levels, serum potassium or glucose levels, or urine catecholamine levels. There were no arrhythmias related to barium exposure detected on continuous electrocardiographic monitoring. A trend was seen toward increased total serum calcium levels with exposure to barium, which was of borderline statistical significance and of doubtful clinical significance. In summary, drinking water barium at levels of 5 and 10 ppm did not appear to affect any of the known modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:2384067

  3. The effect of barium on perceptions of taste intensity and palatability.

    PubMed

    Dietsch, Angela M; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Steele, Catriona M; Pelletier, Cathy A

    2014-02-01

    Barium may affect the perception of taste intensity and palatability. Such differences are important considerations in the selection of dysphagia assessment strategies and interpretation of results. Eighty healthy women grouped by age (younger, older) and genetic taste status (supertaster, nontaster) rated intensity and palatability for seven tastants prepared in deionized water with and without 40 % w/v barium: noncarbonated and carbonated water, diluted ethanol, and high concentrations of citric acid (sour), sodium chloride (salty), caffeine (bitter), and sucrose (sweet). Mixed-model analyses explored the effects of barium, taster status, and age on perceived taste intensity and acceptability of stimuli. Barium was associated with lower taste intensity ratings for sweet, salty, and bitter tastants, higher taste intensity in carbonated water, and lower palatability in water, sweet, sour, and carbonated water. Older subjects reported lower palatability (all barium samples, sour) and higher taste intensity scores (ethanol, sweet, sour) compared to younger subjects. Supertasters reported higher taste intensity (ethanol, sweet, sour, salty, bitter) and lower palatability (ethanol, salty, bitter) than nontasters. Refusal rates were highest for younger subjects and supertasters, and for barium (regardless of tastant), bitter, and ethanol. Barium suppressed the perceived intensity of some tastes and reduced palatability. These effects are more pronounced in older subjects and supertasters, but younger supertasters are least likely to tolerate trials of barium and strong tastant solutions.

  4. Strain engineered barium strontium titanate for tunable thin film resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Khassaf, H.; Khakpash, N.; Sun, F.

    2014-05-19

    Piezoelectric properties of epitaxial (001) barium strontium titanate (BST) films are computed as functions of composition, misfit strain, and temperature using a non-linear thermodynamic model. Results show that through adjusting in-plane strains, a highly adaptive rhombohedral ferroelectric phase can be stabilized at room temperature with outstanding piezoelectric response exceeding those of lead based piezoceramics. Furthermore, by adjusting the composition and the in-plane misfit, an electrically tunable piezoelectric response can be obtained in the paraelectric state. These findings indicate that strain engineered BST films can be utilized in the development of electrically tunable and switchable surface and bulk acoustic wave resonators.

  5. Composition and Structure Measurements in an Ionospheric Barium Cloud.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-23

    AD -AI13 138 AIR FORCE GEOPHYSI;S LAO HANSCOM AFR MA F/6 4/1 COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE MEASUREMENTS IN AN IONOSPHERIC BARIUM-.ETC’ DEC 81 R NARCISI. E...Approved for public re..: distribution unlimited. This work was supported in part by do n e Nucler Age cy under Subtmk I2SAAXHX,. , Wok Unl 00014...distribution unlimited. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT rof Ihe bs,-r entered In Block 20, If diff-r-o from, R.FO1r lB SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES This work was

  6. Electric tunable behavior of sputtered lead barium zirconate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lin-Jung; Wu, Jenn-Ming; Huang, Hsin-Erh; Bor, Hui-Yun

    2007-02-01

    Lead barium zirconate (PBZ) films were grown on Pt /Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by rf-magnetron sputtering. The sputtered PBZ films possess pure perovskite phase, uniform microstructure, and excellent tunable behaviors. The tunability and loss tangent of sputtered PBZ films depend greatly on the oxygen mixing ratio (OMR). The optimal dielectric tunable behavior occurs in the PBZ films sputtered at 10% OMR. The sputtered PBZ film (10% OMR) possesses a value of figure of merit of 60, promising for frequency-agile applications. Bulk acoustic waves induced by electromechanical coupling occur at 2.72GHz, which is useful in fabricating filters and related devices in the microwave range.

  7. Evidence against barium in the mushroom Trogia venenata as a cause of sudden unexpected deaths in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanchun; Wu, Gang; Feng, Bang; Yoell, Shanze; Yu, Zefen; Zhang, Keqin; Xu, Jianping

    2012-12-01

    This study examined barium concentrations in the mushroom Trogia venenata, the leading culprit for sudden unexpected deaths in Yunnan, southwest China. We found that barium concentrations in T. venenata from Yunnan were low and comparable to other foods, inconsistent with barium concentrations in this mushroom as a significant contributor to these deaths.

  8. Evidence against Barium in the Mushroom Trogia venenata as a Cause of Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanchun; Wu, Gang; Feng, Bang; Yoell, Shanze; Yu, Zefen; Zhang, Keqin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined barium concentrations in the mushroom Trogia venenata, the leading culprit for sudden unexpected deaths in Yunnan, southwest China. We found that barium concentrations in T. venenata from Yunnan were low and comparable to other foods, inconsistent with barium concentrations in this mushroom as a significant contributor to these deaths. PMID:23042168

  9. Evaluation of gastrointestinal tract transit times using barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres and barium sulfate suspension in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia) model.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Rebecca A; Cronin, Kimberly; Hoover, John P; Pechman, Robert D; Payton, Mark E

    2010-03-01

    Barium impregnated polyethylene spheres (BIPS) are used in small animal medicine as an alternative to barium sulfate for radiographic studies of the gastrointestinal tract. To determine the usefulness of BIPS as an alternative to barium suspension in measuring gastrointestinal (GI) transit time for avian species, ventrodorsal radiographs were used to follow the passage of BIPS and 30% barium sulfate suspension through the GI tracts of domestic pigeons (Columba livia). Gastrointestinal transit times of thirty 1.5-mm BIPS administered in moistened gelatin capsules and 30% barium sulfate suspension gavaged into the crop were compared in 6 pigeons. Although the barium suspension passed out of the GI tract of all pigeons within 24 hours, the 1.5-mm BIPS remained in the ventriculus for 368.0 +/- 176.8 hours and did not clear the GI tract for 424.0 +/- 204.6 hours. Although the times for passage of BIPS and 30% barium sulfate suspension from the crop into the ventriculus were not significantly different (P = .14), the times for passage of BIPS from the ventriculus into the large intestine-cloaca and for clearance from the GI tract of the pigeons were significantly longer (P < .001) than for the 30% barium sulfate suspension. From the results of this study, we conclude that BIPS are not useful for radiographically evaluating GI transit times in pigeons and are unlikely to be useful in other avian species that have a muscular ventriculus. BIPS may or may not be useful for evaluating GI transit times in species that lack a muscular ventriculus.

  10. Effects of chemesthetic stimuli mixtures with barium on swallowing apnea duration.

    PubMed

    Todd, J Tee; Butler, Susan G; Plonk, Drew P; Grace-Martin, Karen; Pelletier, Cathy A

    2012-10-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that swallowing apnea duration (SAD) will increase given barium versus water, chemesthetic stimuli (i.e., water < ethanol, acid, and carbonation) mixed with barium, age (older > younger), and genetic taste differences (supertasters > nontasters). Prospective group design. University Medical Center. Eighty healthy women were identified as nontasters and supertasters, equally comprising two age groups: 18 to 35 years and 60+ years. The KayPentax Swallowing Signals Lab was used to acquire SAD via nasal cannula during individually randomized swallows of 5 mL barium, 2.7% w/v citric acid with barium, carbonation with barium, and 50:50 diluted ethanol with barium. Data were analyzed using path analysis, with the mediator of chemesthetic perception, adjusted for repeated measures. Significant main effects of age (P = .012) and chemesthetic stimuli (P = .014) were found, as well as a significant interaction between chemesthetic stimuli and age (P = .028). Older women had a significantly longer SAD than younger women. Post hoc analyses revealed that barium mixed with ethanol elicited a significantly longer SAD than other bolus conditions, regardless of age group. There were no significant differences in SAD between barium and water conditions, and no significant effect of chemesthetic perception (P > .05). Ethanol added to barium elicited longer SAD compared to plain barium, but not the other chemesthetic conditions. Older women had a longer SAD than younger women in all conditions. These findings may influence design of future studies examining effects of various stimuli on SAD. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Tungsten and Barium Transport in the Internal Plasma of Hollow Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the flow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushedback to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. Thisbarium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream endgreater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length,so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollowcathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  12. Endotrophic Calcium, Strontium, and Barium Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus1

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Harold F.; Foster, J. W.

    1966-01-01

    Foerster, Harold F. (The University of Texas, Austin), and J. W. Foster. Endotrophic calcium, strontium, and barium spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus. J. Bacteriol. 91:1333–1345. 1966.—Spores were produced by washed vegetative cells suspended in deionized water supplemented with CaCl2, SrCl2, or BaCl2. Normal, refractile spores were produced in each case; a portion of the barium spores lost refractility and darkened. Thin-section electron micrographs revealed no apparent anatomical differences among the three types of spores. Analyses revealed that the different spore types were enriched specifically in the metal to which they were exposed during sporogenesis. The calcium content of the strontium and the barium spores was very small. From binary equimolar mixtures of the metal salts, endotrophic spores accumulated both metals to nearly the same extent. Viability of the barium spores was considerably less than that of the other two types. Strontium and barium spores were heat-resistant; however, calcium was essential for maximal heat resistance. Significant differences existed in the rates of germination; calcium spores germinated fastest, strontium spores were slower, and barium spores were slowest. Calcium-barium and calcium-strontium spores germinated readily. Endotrophic calcium and strontium spores germinated without the prior heat activation essential for growth spores. Chemical germination of the different metal-type spores with n-dodecylamine took place at the same relative rates as physiological germination. Heat-induced release of dipicolinic acid occurred much faster with barium and strontium spores than with calcium spores. The washed “coat fraction” from disrupted spores contained little of the spore calcium but most of the spore barium. The metal in this fraction was released by dilute acid. The demineralized coats reabsorbed calcium and barium at neutral pH. Images PMID:4956334

  13. Earth Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Steve

    1985-01-01

    In our human-centered ignorance and arrogance we are rapidly destroying the earth. We must start helping people understand the big picture of ecological concepts. What these concepts mean for our own lives and how we must begin to change our lifestyles in order to live more harmoniously with the earth. (JHZ)

  14. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1976-01-01

    The LAGEOS I (Laser Geodynamics Satellite) was developed and launched by the Marshall Space Flight Center on May 4, 1976 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California . The two-foot diameter satellite orbited the Earth from pole to pole and measured the movements of the Earth's surface.

  15. North Pacific barium isotope distributions illustrate importance of ocean mixing in controlling barium distributions despite weak regional circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyman, B.; Auro, M. E. E.; LaVigne, M.; Ptacek, J. L.; Horner, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    The dissolved behavior of barium in the ocean exhibits a `refractory' nutrient-type profile similar to that of silicon, which has led to the use of Ba as a proxy for paleo-productivity and carbon cycling. Marine barium cycling appears to be controlled by the precipitation of micron-scale barite crystals in the mesopelagic and their subsequent dissolution throughout the water column, which has been shown to impart an isotopic signature that may itself harbor information about ocean circulation and export production. However, the utility of Ba-based proxies in chemical and paleoceanography relies on a sound understanding of the processes governing marine barium distributions, which remain unresolved. Here, we report the first full oceanographic depth profile of barium isotopes from the North Pacific Ocean (30 N, 140 W), which offers the ability to resolve biogeochemical cycling from mixing processes in a given water mass. Our data confirm findings from other oceanographic regions showing a close coupling between increasing [Ba] and decreasing Ba-isotope compositions with depth. Unlike other profiles however, this coupling is restricted to the upper 1,000 m of the North Pacific water column, with samples from between 1,000 m and 4,500 m showing a roughly 60 % increase in [Ba] but essentially no changes in their Ba-isotope compositions (within measurement uncertainty of 15 ppm/AMU). As with Atlantic data, samples spanning the entire profile define a linear trend (R2 > 0.9) when plotted as Ba-isotope compositions against 1/[Ba], indicating that conservative mixing can account for much of the Ba-isotope variation in the North Pacific water column. Overall, these findings highlight the utility of stable isotope measurements to illuminate the processes governing nutrient cycling, and support the critical role of large-scale ocean circulation in setting `refractory' nutrient distributions. These results have particular relevance to regions with relatively weak overturning

  16. [Optics heterodyne detection of the autoionization state of barium].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiang; Su, Hong-xin; Wang, Yan-bang; Guo, Qing-lin; Zuo, Zhan-chun; Fu, Pan-ming

    2008-06-01

    The autoionization state of barium was observed by optics heterodyne between three-photon resonant nondegenerated six-wave mixing (NSWM) and two-photon resonant nondegenerated four-wave mixing (NFWM). In this way, optics heterodyne spectrum of 6p(3/2) 19d autoionization state of barium was measured. The suppression and enhancement of the NFWM signal was observed which was caused by the quantum interference between NFWM and NSWM. Our method is a pure nonlinear optic technique. It has the advantages of excellent spatial signal resolution and simple optical alignment. Here two-photon resonant NFWM is used as local oscillation, while three-photon resonant NSWM signal is used as signal beam. Detection of autoionization states of Ba was achieved by changing the frequency of signal beam. The phase matching condition of this technique is not so stringent and can be achieved over a very wide frequency range, which is very difficult in the general six-wave mixing. Furthermore, the signal is coherent light. Optics heterodyne spectrum is a Doppler-free spectroscopy when the incident lasers have narrow bandwidths.

  17. Structural and optical study of tellurite-barium glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grelowska, I.; Reben, M.; Burtan, B.; Sitarz, M.; Cisowski, J.; Yousef, El Sayed; Knapik, A.; Dudek, M.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this work was to determine the effect of barium oxide on the structural, thermal and optical properties of the TeO2-BaO-Na2O (TBN) and TeO2-BaO-WO3 (TBW) glass systems. Raman spectra allow relating the glass structure and vibration properties (i.e. vibrational frequencies and Raman intensities) with the glass composition. Raman spectra show the presence of TeO4 and TeO3+1/TeO3 units that conform with the glass matrix. Differential thermal analysis DTA, XRD measurements have been considered in term of BaO addition. The spectral dependence of ellipsometric angles of the tellurite-barium glass has been studied. The optical measurements were conducted on Woollam M2000 spectroscopic ellipsometer in spectral range of 190-1700 nm. The reflectance and transmittance measurements have been done on spectrophotometer Perkin Elmer, Lambda 900 in the range of 200-2500 nm (UV-VIS-NIR). From the transmittance spectrum, the energy gap was determined.

  18. Proton trapping in yttrium-doped barium zirconate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Blanc, Frédéric; Okuyama, Yuji; Buannic, Lucienne; Lucio-Vega, Juan C.; Grey, Clare P.; Haile, Sossina M.

    2013-07-01

    The environmental benefits of fuel cells have been increasingly appreciated in recent years. Among candidate electrolytes for solid-oxide fuel cells, yttrium-doped barium zirconate has garnered attention because of its high proton conductivity, particularly in the intermediate-temperature region targeted for cost-effective solid-oxide fuel cell operation, and its excellent chemical stability. However, fundamental questions surrounding the defect chemistry and macroscopic proton transport mechanism of this material remain, especially in regard to the possible role of proton trapping. Here we show, through a combined thermogravimetric and a.c. impedance study, that macroscopic proton transport in yttrium-doped barium zirconate is limited by proton-dopant association (proton trapping). Protons must overcome the association energy, 29 kJ mol-1, as well as the general activation energy, 16 kJ mol-1, to achieve long-range transport. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies show the presence of two types of proton environment above room temperature, reflecting differences in proton-dopant configurations. This insight motivates efforts to identify suitable alternative dopants with reduced association energies as a route to higher conductivities.

  19. Proton trapping in yttrium-doped barium zirconate.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Blanc, Frédéric; Okuyama, Yuji; Buannic, Lucienne; Lucio-Vega, Juan C; Grey, Clare P; Haile, Sossina M

    2013-07-01

    The environmental benefits of fuel cells have been increasingly appreciated in recent years. Among candidate electrolytes for solid-oxide fuel cells, yttrium-doped barium zirconate has garnered attention because of its high proton conductivity, particularly in the intermediate-temperature region targeted for cost-effective solid-oxide fuel cell operation, and its excellent chemical stability. However, fundamental questions surrounding the defect chemistry and macroscopic proton transport mechanism of this material remain, especially in regard to the possible role of proton trapping. Here we show, through a combined thermogravimetric and a.c. impedance study, that macroscopic proton transport in yttrium-doped barium zirconate is limited by proton-dopant association (proton trapping). Protons must overcome the association energy, 29 kJ mol(-1), as well as the general activation energy, 16 kJ mol(-1), to achieve long-range transport. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies show the presence of two types of proton environment above room temperature, reflecting differences in proton-dopant configurations. This insight motivates efforts to identify suitable alternative dopants with reduced association energies as a route to higher conductivities.

  20. Plasma waves associated with the first AMPTE magnetotail barium release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Luehr, H.; Haerendel, G.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma waves observed during the March 21, 1985, AMPTE magnetotail barium release are described. Electron plasma oscillations provided local measurements of the plasma density during both the expansion and decay phases. Immediately after the explosion, the electron density reached a peak of about 400,000/cu cm, and then started decreasing approximately as t to the -2.4 as the cloud expanded. About 6 minutes after the explosion, the electron density suddenly began to increase, reached a secondary peak of about 240/cu cm, and then slowly decayed down to the preevent level over a period of about 15 minutes. The density increase is believed to be caused by the collapse of the ion cloud into the diamagnetic cavity created by the initial expansion. The plasma wave intensities observed during the entire event were quite low. In the diamagnetic cavity, electrostatic emissions were observed near the barium ion plasma frequency, and in another band at lower frequencies. A broadband burst of electrostatic noise was also observed at the boundary of the diamagnetic cavity. Except for electron plasma oscillations, no significant wave activity was observed outside of the diamagnetic cavity.

  1. Results of magnetospheric barium ion cloud experiment of 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, D.; Fricke, C. L.; Long, S. A. T.

    1975-01-01

    The barium ion cloud experiment involved the release of about 2 kg of barium at an altitude of 31 482 km, a latitude of 6.926 N., and a longitude of 74.395 W. Significant erosion of plasma from the main ion core occurred during the initial phase of the ion cloud expansion. From the motion of the outermost striational filaments, the electric field components were determined to be 0.19 mV/m in the westerly direction and 0.68 mV/m in the inward direction. The differences between these components and those measured from balloons flown in the proximity of the extremity of the field line through the release point implied the existence of potential gradients along the magnetic field lines. The deceleration of the main core was greater than theoretically predicted. This was attributed to the formation of a polarization wake, resulting in an increase of the area of interaction and resistive dissipation at ionospheric levels. The actual orientation of the magnetic field line through the release point differed by about 10.5 deg from that predicted by magnetic field models that did not include the effect of ring current.

  2. Barium titanate core--gold shell nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatments.

    PubMed

    FarrokhTakin, Elmira; Ciofani, Gianni; Puleo, Gian Luigi; de Vito, Giuseppe; Filippeschi, Carlo; Mazzolai, Barbara; Piazza, Vincenzo; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2013-01-01

    The development of new tools and devices to aid in treating cancer is a hot topic in biomedical research. The practice of using heat (hyperthermia) to treat cancerous lesions has a long history dating back to ancient Greece. With deeper knowledge of the factors that cause cancer and the transmissive window of cells and tissues in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, hyperthermia applications have been able to incorporate the use of lasers. Photothermal therapy has been introduced as a selective and noninvasive treatment for cancer, in which exogenous photothermal agents are exploited to achieve the selective destruction of cancer cells. In this manuscript, we propose applications of barium titanate core-gold shell nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatment against cancer cells. We explored the effect of increasing concentrations of these nanoshells (0-100 μg/mL) on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, testing the internalization and intrinsic toxicity and validating the hyperthermic functionality of the particles through near infrared (NIR) laser-induced thermoablation experiments. No significant changes were observed in cell viability up to nanoparticle concentrations of 50 μg/mL. Experiments upon stimulation with an NIR laser revealed the ability of the nanoshells to destroy human neuroblastoma cells. On the basis of these findings, barium titanate core-gold shell nanoparticles resulted in being suitable for hyperthermia treatment, and our results represent a promising first step for subsequent investigations on their applicability in clinical practice.

  3. Barium titanate core – gold shell nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatments

    PubMed Central

    FarrokhTakin, Elmira; Ciofani, Gianni; Puleo, Gian Luigi; de Vito, Giuseppe; Filippeschi, Carlo; Mazzolai, Barbara; Piazza, Vincenzo; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2013-01-01

    The development of new tools and devices to aid in treating cancer is a hot topic in biomedical research. The practice of using heat (hyperthermia) to treat cancerous lesions has a long history dating back to ancient Greece. With deeper knowledge of the factors that cause cancer and the transmissive window of cells and tissues in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, hyperthermia applications have been able to incorporate the use of lasers. Photothermal therapy has been introduced as a selective and noninvasive treatment for cancer, in which exogenous photothermal agents are exploited to achieve the selective destruction of cancer cells. In this manuscript, we propose applications of barium titanate core–gold shell nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatment against cancer cells. We explored the effect of increasing concentrations of these nanoshells (0–100 μg/mL) on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, testing the internalization and intrinsic toxicity and validating the hyperthermic functionality of the particles through near infrared (NIR) laser-induced thermoablation experiments. No significant changes were observed in cell viability up to nanoparticle concentrations of 50 μg/mL. Experiments upon stimulation with an NIR laser revealed the ability of the nanoshells to destroy human neuroblastoma cells. On the basis of these findings, barium titanate core–gold shell nanoparticles resulted in being suitable for hyperthermia treatment, and our results represent a promising first step for subsequent investigations on their applicability in clinical practice. PMID:23847415

  4. Liquid-Phase Processing of Barium Titanate Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, David Thomas

    Processing of thin films introduces strict limits on the thermal budget due to substrate stability and thermal expansion mismatch stresses. Barium titanate serves as a model system for the difficulty in producing high quality thin films because of sensitivity to stress, scale, and crystal quality. Thermal budget restriction leads to reduced crystal quality, density, and grain growth, depressing ferroelectric and nonlinear dielectric properties. Processing of barium titanate is typically performed at temperatures hundreds of degrees above compatibility with metalized substrates. In particular integration with silicon and other low thermal expansion substrates is desirable for reductions in costs and wider availability of technologies. In bulk metal and ceramic systems, sintering behavior has been encouraged by the addition of a liquid forming second phase, improving kinetics and promoting densification and grain growth at lower temperatures. This approach is also widespread in the multilayer ceramic capacitor industry. However only limited exploration of flux processing with refractory thin films has been performed despite offering improved dielectric properties for barium titanate films at lower temperatures. This dissertation explores physical vapor deposition of barium titanate thin films with addition of liquid forming fluxes. Flux systems studied include BaO-B2O3, Bi2O3-BaB2O 4, BaO-V2O5, CuO-BaO-B2O3, and BaO-B2O3 modified by Al, Si, V, and Li. Additions of BaO-B2O3 leads to densification and an increase in average grain size from 50 nm to over 300 nm after annealing at 900 °C. The ability to tune permittivity of the material improved from 20% to 70%. Development of high quality films enables engineering of ferroelectric phase stability using residual thermal expansion mismatch in polycrystalline films. The observed shifts to TC match thermodynamic calculations, expected strain from the thermal expansion coefficients, as well as x-ray diffract measurements

  5. Characteristics of the Mott transition and electronic states of high-temperature cuprate superconductors from the perspective of the Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Masanori

    2018-04-01

    A fundamental issue of the Mott transition is how electrons behaving as single particles carrying spin and charge in a metal change into those exhibiting separated spin and charge excitations (low-energy spin excitation and high-energy charge excitation) in a Mott insulator. This issue has attracted considerable attention particularly in relation to high-temperature cuprate superconductors, which exhibit electronic states near the Mott transition that are difficult to explain in conventional pictures. Here, from a new viewpoint of the Mott transition based on analyses of the Hubbard model, we review anomalous features observed in high-temperature cuprate superconductors near the Mott transition.

  6. Mechanisms for Superconductivity in Cuprates compared with results from the Generalized MacMillan-Rowell Analysis of High Resolution Laser- ARPES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, Chandra; Choi, Han-Yong; Zhang, Wentao; Zhou, Xingjiang

    2012-02-01

    The spectra of fluctuations and their coupling to fermions has been deduced from extensive high resolution laser ARPES in several BISCCO samples and quantitatively analyzed. We ask the question whether some of the theories for superconductivity in Cuprates are consistent or inconsistent with the frequency and the momentum dependence of the deductions. We find that any fluctuation spectra, for example that of Antiferromagnetic Fluctuations, whose frequency dependence depends significantly on momentum dependence are excluded. We consider the quantum-critical spectra of the loop-current order observed in under-doped cuprates and its coupling to fermions and find it consistent with the data.

  7. Two-Dimensional Superconductivity in the Cuprates Revealed by Atomic-Layer-by- Layer Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    DOE PAGES

    A. T. Bollinger; Bozovic, I.

    2016-08-12

    Various electronic phases displayed by cuprates that exhibit high temperature superconductivity continue to attract much interest. We provide a short review of several experiments that we have performed aimed at investigating the superconducting state in these compounds. Measurements on single-phase films, bilayers, and superlattices all point to the conclusion that the high-temperature superconductivity in these materials is an essentially quasi-two dimensional phenomenon. With proper control over the film growth, high-temperature superconductivity can exist in a single copper oxide plane with the critical temperatures as high as that achieved in the bulk samples.

  8. Separation of charge-order and magnetic QCPs in heavy fermions and high Tc cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Neil

    2010-03-01

    The Fermi surface topology of high temperature superconductors inferred from magnetic quantum oscillation measurements provides clues for the origin of unconventional pairing thus previously not accessed by other spectroscopy techniques. While the overdoped regime of the high Tc phase diagram has a large Fermi surface consistent with bandstructure calculations, the underdoped regime of YBa2Cu2O6+x is found to be composed of small pockets. There is considerable debate as to whether the small observed ``pocket'' is hole-like or electron-like- whether the Fermi surface is best described by a t-J model or a conventional band folding picture- whether or not a Fermi liquid description applies- or- whether bilayer coupling splits the degeneracy of the observed pockets. We (myself and collaborators) have now collected an extensive body of experimental data that brings this debate to rest, but raises new questions about the nature of itinerant magnetism in underdoped high Tc cuprates. Quantum oscillation measurements are performed on multiple samples in magnetic fields extending to 85 T, temperatures between 30 mK (dilution fridge in dc fields to 45 T) and 18 K, over a range of hole dopings and with samples rotated in-situ about multiple axes with respect to the magnetic field. We perform a topographical map of the Fermi surface, enabling the in-plane shape of one of the pockets to be determined- imposing stringent constraints on the origin of the Fermi surface. While quantum oscillations measurements are consistent with a topological Fermi surface change associated with magnetism near optimal doping, they also point to a secondary instability deep within the underdoped regime beneath a high Tc superconducting sub-dome. An steep upturn in the quasiparticle effective mass is observed on underdoping, suggestive of a quantum critical point near x= 0.46 separating the metallic regime (composed of small pockets) from a more underdoped insulating charge-ordered regime (earlier

  9. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Panelists pose for a group photo at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  10. Temperature-Dependent Ellipsometry Measurements of Partial Coulomb Energy in Superconducting Cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Levallois, J.; Tran, M. K.; Pouliot, D.; ...

    2016-08-24

    Here we performed an experimental study of the temperature and doping dependence of the energy-loss function of the bilayer and trilayer bismuth cuprates family. The primary aim is to obtain information on the energy stored in the Coulomb interaction between the conduction electrons, on the temperature dependence thereof, and on the change of Coulomb interaction when Cooper pairs are formed. We performed temperature-dependent ellipsometry measurements on several Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8₋x single crystals: underdoped with T c=60, 70, and 83 K; optimally doped with T c=91 K; overdoped with T c=84, 81, 70, and 58 K; as well asmore » optimally doped Bi 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O 10+x with T c=110 K. Our first observation is that, as the temperature drops through T c, the loss function in the range up to 2 eV displays a change of temperature dependence as compared to the temperature dependence in the normal state. This effect at—or close to—T c depends strongly on doping, with a sign change for weak overdoping. The size of the observed change in Coulomb energy, using an extrapolation with reasonable assumptions about its q dependence, is about the same size as the condensation energy that has been measured in these compounds. Our results therefore lend support to the notion that the Coulomb energy is an important factor for stabilizing the superconducting phase. Lastly, because of the restriction to small momentum, our observations do not exclude a possible significant contribution to the condensation energy of the Coulomb energy associated with the region of q around (π,π).« less

  11. Quantitative determination of pairing interactions for high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Jin Mo; Bae, Jong Ju; Choi, Han-Yong; Varma, Chandra M.; Zhang, Wentao; He, Junfeng; Zhang, Yuxiao; Yu, Li; Zhou, X. J.

    2016-01-01

    A profound problem in modern condensed matter physics is discovering and understanding the nature of fluctuations and their coupling to fermions in cuprates, which lead to high-temperature superconductivity and the invariably associated strange metal state. We report the quantitative determination of normal and pairing self-energies, made possible by laser-based angle-resolved photoemission measurements of unprecedented accuracy and stability. Through a precise inversion procedure, both the effective interactions in the attractive d-wave symmetry and the repulsive part in the full symmetry are determined. The latter is nearly angle-independent. Near Tc, both interactions are nearly independent of frequency and have almost the same magnitude over the complete energy range of up to about 0.4 eV, except for a low-energy feature at around 50 meV that is present only in the repulsive part, which has less than 10% of the total spectral weight. Well below Tc, they both change similarly, with superconductivity-induced features at low energies. Besides finding the pairing self-energy and the attractive interactions for the first time, these results expose the central paradox of the problem of high Tc: how the same frequency-independent fluctuations can dominantly scatter at angles ±π/2 in the attractive channel to give d-wave pairing and lead to angle-independent repulsive scattering. The experimental results are compared with available theoretical calculations based on antiferromagnetic fluctuations, the Hubbard model, and quantum-critical fluctuations of the loop-current order. PMID:26973872

  12. Positron Annihilation Studies of the Electronic Structure of Selected High-Temperature Cuprate and Organic Superconductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Lie Ping

    The understanding of the electronic structure of the high-T_{c} superconductors could be important for a full theoretical description of the mechanism behind superconductivity in these materials. In this thesis, we present our measurements of the positron -electron momentum distributions of the cuprate superconductors Bi_2Sr_2CaCu _2O_8, Tl _2Ba_2Ca _2Cu_3O_ {10}, and the organic superconductor kappa-(BEDT)_2Cu(NCS) _2. We use the positron Two-dimensional Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation technique to make the measurements on single crystals and compare our high-statistics data with band structure calculations to determine the existence and nature of the respective Fermi surfaces. The spectra from unannealed Bi _2Sr_2CaCu _2O_8 exhibit effects of the superlattice modulation in the BiO_2 layers, and a theoretical understanding of the modulation effects on the electronic band structure is required to interpret these spectra. Since the present theory does not consider the modulation, we have developed a technique to remove the modulation effects from our spectra, and the resultant data when compared with the positron -electron momentum distribution calculation, yield features consistent with the predicted CuO_2 and BiO_2 Fermi surfaces. In the data from unannealed Tl_2Ba _2Ca_2Cu_3 O_{10}, we only observe indications of the TlO Fermi surfaces, and attribute the absence of the predicted CuO_2 Fermi surfaces to the poor sample quality. In the absence of positron-electron momentum calculations for kappa-(BEDT)_2Cu(NCS) _2, we compare our data to electronic band structure calculations, and observed features suggestive of the predicted Fermi surface contributions from the BEDT cation layers. A complete positron-electron calculation for kappa-(BEDT)_2 Cu(NCS)_2 is required to understand the positron wavefunction effects in this material.

  13. Bio-based barium alginate film: Preparation, flame retardancy and thermal degradation behavior.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Chuan-Jie; Zhao, Jin-Chao; Guo, Yi; Zhu, Ping; Wang, De-Yi

    2016-03-30

    A bio-based barium alginate film was prepared via a facile ionic exchange and casting approach. Its flammability, thermal degradation and pyrolysis behaviors, thermal degradation mechanism were studied systemically by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning (UL-94), microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). It showed that barium alginate film had much higher LOI value (52.0%) than that of sodium alginate film (24.5%). Moreover, barium alginate film passed the UL-94 V-0 rating, while the sodium alginate film showed no classification. Importantly, peak of heat release rate (PHRR) of barium alginate film in MCC test was much lower than that of sodium alginate film, suggested that introduction of barium ion into alginate film significantly decreased release of combustible gases. TG-FTIR and Py-GC-MS results indicated that barium alginate produced much less flammable products than that of sodium alginate in whole thermal degradation procedure. Finally, a possible degradation mechanism of barium alginate had been proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of barium hexaferrite with manganese (Mn) doping material as anti-radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilawati, Doyan, Aris; Khalilurrahman

    2017-01-01

    Have been successfully synthesized barium powder doping Manganese hexaferrite with the expected potential as anti-radar material. Synthesis was done by using the co-precipitation method, the variation of the variable x concentrations used were 0; 0.2; 0.4; and 0.6 and calcined at temperatures of 400, 600 and 800°C. Characterization powders of hexaferrite have used XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), LCR (inductance, capacitance, and resistance) meter, and VSM (Vibrating Sample Magnetometer). The higher the concentration and temperature of calcinations given affect the color of the powder. The test results using XRD indicates that it has formed barium hexaferrite phase with a hexagonal crystal structure. Tests using SEM showed that all the constituent elements barium powder hexaferrite by doping Manganese powders have been spread evenly. XRD test results were confirmed by a test using a TEM showing the crystal structure and the powder was sized nano particles. The results from the LCR meter showed that the barium powder hexaferrite by doping Manganese that has been synthesized classified in semiconductor materials. The result from VSM showed that the value of coercivity magnetic powder doped barium hexaferrite Manganese is smaller when compared with barium hexaferrite without doping and belong to the soft magnetic. Based on the results of the synthesis and characterization, we can conclude that the barium powder heksaferrite by doping Manganese potential as a material anti-radar.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of cerium-doped barium titanate inverse opal by sol-gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Yi; Zhu Yihua; Yang Xiaoling

    Cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opal was synthesized from barium acetate contained cerous acetate and tetrabutyl titanate in the interstitial spaces of a polystyrene (PS) opal. This procedure involves infiltration of precursors into the interstices of the PS opal template followed by hydrolytic polycondensation of the precursors to amorphous barium titanate and removal of the PS opal by calcination. The morphologies of opal and inverse opal were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The pores were characterized by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigation showed the doping structure of cerium, barium and titanium. And powder X-ray diffraction allowsmore » one to observe the influence of doping degree on the grain size. The lattice parameters, crystal size and lattice strain were calculated by the Rietveld refinement method. The synthesis of cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opals provides an opportunity to electrically and optically engineer the photonic band structure and the possibility of developing tunable three-dimensional photonic crystal devices. - Graphical abstract: Cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opal was synthesized from barium acetate acid contained cerous acetate and tetrabutyl titanate in the interstitial spaces of a PS opal, which involves infiltration of precursors into the interstices of the PS opal template and removal of the PS opal by calcination.« less

  16. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-20

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Looking southwest over northern Africa. Libya, Algeria, Niger.

  17. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. On crewmember's Flickr page - Look straight down into an aurora.

  18. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-07

    ISS040-E-008174 (7 June 2014) --- Layers of Earth's atmosphere, brightly colored as the sun rises, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  19. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-02

    ISS040-E-006817 (2 June 2014) --- Intersecting the thin line of Earth's atmosphere, International Space Station solar array wings are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  20. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-18

    Workers at Launch Complex 17 Pad A, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) encapsulate the Geomagnetic Tail (GEOTAIL) spacecraft (upper) and attached payload Assist Module-D upper stage (lower) in the protective payload fairing. GEOTAIL project was designed to study the effects of Earth's magnetic field. The solar wind draws the Earth's magnetic field into a long tail on the night side of the Earth and stores energy in the stretched field lines of the magnetotail. During active periods, the tail couples with the near-Earth magnetosphere, sometimes releasing energy stored in the tail and activating auroras in the polar ionosphere. GEOTAIL measures the flow of energy and its transformation in the magnetotail and will help clarify the mechanisms that control the imput, transport, storage, release, and conversion of mass, momentum, and energy in the magnetotail.

  1. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  2. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-31

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: CEO - Arena de Sao Paolo. View used for Twitter message: Cloudy skies over São Paulo Brazil

  3. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-26

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Never tire of finding shapes in the clouds! These look very botanical to me. Simply perfect.

  4. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of a solar array is also visible.

  5. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-10-24

    Solar Vector Magnetograph is used to predict solar flares, and other activities associated with sun spots. This research provides new understanding about weather on the Earth, and solar-related conditions in orbit.

  6. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Perhaps a dandelion losing its seeds in the wind? Love clouds!

  7. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-27

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Part of Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is visible. Folder lists this as: the Middle East, Israel.

  8. Development of biomonitoring equivalents for barium in urine and plasma for interpreting human biomonitoring data.

    PubMed

    Poddalgoda, Devika; Macey, Kristin; Assad, Henry; Krishnan, Kannan

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of the present work were: (1) to assemble population-level biomonitoring data to identify the concentrations of urinary and plasma barium across the general population; and (2) to derive biomonitoring equivalents (BEs) for barium in urine and plasma in order to facilitate the interpretation of barium concentrations in the biological matrices. In population level biomonitoring studies, barium has been measured in urine in the U.S. (NHANES study), but no such data on plasma barium levels were identified. The BE values for plasma and urine were derived from U.S. EPA's reference dose (RfD) of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d, based on a lower confidence limit on the benchmark dose (BMDL 05 ) of 63 mg/kg bw/d. The plasma BE (9 μg Ba/L) was derived by regression analysis of the near-steady-state plasma concentrations associated with the administered doses in animals exposed to barium chloride dihydrate in drinking water for 2-years in a NTP study. Using a human urinary excretion fraction of 0.023, a BE for urinary barium (0.19 mg/L or 0.25 mg/g creatinine) was derived for US EPA's RfD. The median and the 95 th percentile barium urine concentrations of the general population in U.S. are below the BE determined in this study, indicating that the population exposure to inorganic barium is expected to be below the exposure guidance value of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of bolus transit patterns identified by esophageal impedance to barium esophagram in patients with dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y K; Choi, M-G; Oh, S N; Baik, C N; Park, J M; Lee, I S; Kim, S W; Choi, K Y; Chung, I-S

    2012-01-01

    Bolus transit through the esophagus has not been validated by videoesophagram in patients with dysphagia and changes in impedance with abnormal barium transit have not been described in those patients. The aim of this study was to compare esophageal impedance findings with barium esophagram measurements in patients with dysphagia. The consecutive patients with dysphagia underwent conventional multichannel esophageal impedance manometry, after which a barium videoesophagram was performed simultaneously with multichannel esophageal impedance manometry using a mean of three swallows of barium. Esophageal emptying patterns shown in the esophagogram were classified by the degree of intraesophageal stasis and presence of intraesophageal reflux. Bolus transit patterns in impedance were classified as complete and incomplete transit. Sixteen patients (M : F = 8 : 8, mean age, 47 years) were enrolled. Their manometric diagnosis were normal (n= 6), ineffective esophageal motility (n= 1), diffuse esophageal spasm (DES; n= 2), and achalasia (n= 7). Sixty-three swallows were analyzed. According to impedance analysis, 21/22 swallows with normal barium emptying showed complete transit (96%) and 31/32 swallows with severe stasis showed incomplete transit (97%). Nine swallows with mild stasis showed either complete or incomplete transit patterns in impedance. Swallows with mild barium stasis and complete transit in impedance were observed in patients who had received treatment (two patients with achalasia with history of esophageal balloonplasty and a patient with DES after nifedipine administration). Impedance reflected severe stasis with retrograde barium movement and described typical bolus transit patterns in patients with achalasia and DES. In conclusion, impedance-barium esophagram concordance is high for swallows with normal esophageal emptying and for severe barium stasis in patients with dysphagia. © 2011 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley

  10. Magnetic properties of Ni substituted Y-type barium ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Mi Hee; Kim, Chul Sung, E-mail: cskim@kookmin.ac.kr

    2014-05-07

    Y-type barium hexaferrite is attractive material for various applications, such as high frequency antennas and RF devices, because of its interesting magnetic properties. Especially, Ni substituted Y- type hexaferrites have higher magnetic ordering temperature than other Y-type. We have investigated macroscopic and microscopic properties of Y-type barium hexaferrite. Ba{sub 2}Co{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) samples are prepared by solid-state reaction method and studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as a network analyzer for high frequency characteristics. The XRD pattern is analyzed by Rietveld refinement method and confirmsmore » the hexagonal structure with R-3m. The hysteresis curve shows ferrimagnetic behavior. Saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) decreases with Ni contents. Ni{sup 2+}, which preferentially occupies the octahedral site with up-spin sub-lattice, has smaller spin value S of 1 than Co{sup 2+} having S = 3/2. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) measurement of Ba{sub 2}Co{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} shows that Curie and spin transition temperatures are found to be 718 K and 209 K, respectively. The Curie temperature T{sub C} is increased with Ni contents, while T{sub S} is decreased with Ni. The Mössbauer spectra were measured at various temperatures and fitted by using a least-squares method with six sextet of six Lorentzian lines for Fe sites, corresponding to the 3b{sub VI}, 6c{sub IV}*, 6c{sub VI}, 18h{sub VI}, 6c{sub IV}, and 3a{sub IV} sites at below T{sub C}. From Mössbauer measurements, we confirmed the spin state of Fe ion to be Fe{sup 3+} and obtained the isomer shift (δ), magnetic hyperfine field (H{sub hf}), and the occupancy ratio of Fe ions at six sub-lattices. The complex permeability and permittivity are measured between 100 MHz and 4 GHz, suggesting that Y-type barium hexaferrite is promising for

  11. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-16

    ISS024-E-006136 (16 June 2010) --- Polar mesospheric clouds, illuminated by an orbital sunrise, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. Polar mesospheric, or noctilucent (?night shining?), clouds are observed from both Earth?s surface and in orbit by crew members aboard the space station. They are called night-shining clouds as they are usually seen at twilight. Following the setting of the sun below the horizon and darkening of Earth?s surface, these high clouds are still briefly illuminated by sunlight. Occasionally the ISS orbital track becomes nearly parallel to Earth?s day/night terminator for a time, allowing polar mesospheric clouds to be visible to the crew at times other than the usual twilight due to the space station altitude. This unusual photograph shows polar mesospheric clouds illuminated by the rising, rather than setting, sun at center right. Low clouds on the horizon appear yellow and orange, while higher clouds and aerosols are illuminated a brilliant white. Polar mesospheric clouds appear as light blue ribbons extending across the top of the image. These clouds typically occur at high latitudes of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and at fairly high altitudes of 76?85 kilometers (near the boundary between the mesosphere and thermosphere atmospheric layers). The ISS was located over the Greek island of Kos in the Aegean Sea (near the southwestern coastline of Turkey) when the image was taken at approximately midnight local time. The orbital complex was tracking northeastward, nearly parallel to the terminator, making it possible to observe an apparent ?sunrise? located almost due north. A similar unusual alignment of the ISS orbit track, terminator position, and seasonal position of Earth?s orbit around the sun allowed for striking imagery of polar mesospheric clouds over the Southern Hemisphere earlier this year.

  12. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  13. Correlation among the effective mass (m*), λab and Tc of superconducting cuprates in a Casimir energy scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, M. T. D.; Rouver, A. N.; Rocha, J. R.; Cavichini, A. S.

    2018-06-01

    The relevance of the Casimir effect, discovered in 1948, has recently been pointed out in studies on materials such as graphene and high-temperature superconducting cuprates. In particular, the relationship between Casimir energy and the energy of a superconducting condensate with anisotropy characterized by high bidimensionality has already been discussed in certain theoretical scenarios. Using this proposal, this work describes the relationship between the effective mass of the charge carriers (m* = αme) and the macroscopic parameters characteristic of several families of high-Tc superconducting cuprates (Cu-HTSC) that have copper and oxygen superconducting planes (Cu-O). We have verified that an expression exists that correlates the effective mass, the London penetration length in the plane λab, the critical temperature Tc and the distance d between the equivalent superconducting planes of Cu-HTSC. This study revealed that the intersection between the asymptotic behavior of α as a function of Tc and the line describing the optimal value of α ≃ 2 (m* ≃ 2me) indicates that a nonadiabatic region exists, which implies a carrier-lattice interaction and where the critical temperature can have its highest value in Cu-HTSC.

  14. Quasiparticle recombination dynamics in the model cuprate superconductor HgBa2CuO4+δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, J. P.; Thewalt, E.; Koralek, J. D.; Orenstein, J.; Barisic, N.; Xhao, X.; Chan, M.; Dorow, C.; Veit, M.; Ji, L.; Greven, M.

    2014-03-01

    The cuprate family of high temperature superconductors is characterized by a variety of electronic phases which emerge when charge carriers are added to the antiferromagnetic parent compound. The structural simplicity of the single layer cuprate system HgBa2CuO4+δ (Hg1201) is advantageous for experimentally detecting subtle features of these phases. In this work, we investigate the recombination dynamics of photo-excited quasiparticles in Hg1201 as a function of doping, temperature, and magnetic field using pump-probe optical reflectivity. We observe two distinct onset temperatures above TC in the underdoped part of the phase diagram, corresponding to T* and T** as observed in transport and neutron scattering experiments. We also measure a suppression of the recombination rate near TC which peaks at 8% hole concentration. We associate this suppression with coherence effects. Lastly, we observe a complex, non-monotonic temperature dependence in the dynamics around optimal doping, providing evidence for reentrant phase transitions near the apex of the superconducting dome. Work supported by DOE-BES

  15. Nodal bilayer-splitting controlled by spin-orbit interactions in underdoped high-T c cuprates

    DOE PAGES

    Harrison, N.; Ramshaw, B. J.; Shekhter, A.

    2015-06-03

    The highest superconducting transition temperatures in the cuprates are achieved in bilayer and trilayer systems, highlighting the importance of interlayer interactions for high T c. It has been argued that interlayer hybridization vanishes along the nodal directions by way of a specific pattern of orbital overlap. Recent quantum oscillation measurements in bilayer cuprates have provided evidence for a residual bilayer-splitting at the nodes that is sufficiently small to enable magnetic breakdown tunneling at the nodes. Here we show that several key features of the experimental data can be understood in terms of weak spin-orbit interactions naturally present in bilayer systems,more » whose primary effect is to cause the magnetic breakdown to be accompanied by a spin flip. These features can now be understood to include the equidistant set of three quantum oscillation frequencies, the asymmetry of the quantum oscillation amplitudes in c-axis transport compared to ab-plane transport, and the anomalous magnetic field angle dependence of the amplitude of the side frequencies suggestive of small effective g-factors. We suggest that spin-orbit interactions in bilayer systems can further affect the structure of the nodal quasiparticle spectrum in the superconducting phase. PACS numbers: 71.45.Lr, 71.20.Ps, 71.18.+y« less

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of barium-gadolinium hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litsardakis, G.; Manolakis, I.; Serletis, C.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    A series of Gd-substituted M-type barium hexaferrites has been prepared by the ceramic route, according to the formula (Ba 1-xGd x)O·5.25Fe 2O 3 ( x=0-0.30). XRD analysis revealed that all the samples present primarily an M-type structure. Samples x=0 and x=0.05 are single-phase. Hematite (Fe 2O 3) and GdFeO 3 were detected in the remaining samples. Coercivity ( Hc) shows remarkably high values, ˜293 kA/m for x=0.20 and 0.30 with a maximum of 322 kA/m for x=0.25. Specific saturation magnetization ( σsat) of the samples presents a small increase up to x=0.10. The microstructure examination indicates that Gd may act as a grain growth inhibitor.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of barium fluoride substituted zinc tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aishwarya, K.; Vinitha, G.; Varma, G. Sreevidya; Asokan, S.; Manikandan, N.

    2017-12-01

    Glasses in the TeO2-ZnO-BaF2 system were prepared by standard melt quenching technique and were characterized for their thermal, optical and structural properties. Samples were found to show good thermal stability with values ranging above 100 °C for all the compositions. Optical bandgap and refractive index values were calculated from linear optical measurements using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Infrared spectra showed the presence of hydroxyl groups in the glasses indicating that the effect of fluorine was negligible in removing the hydroxyl impurities for the experimental conditions and compositions used. Raman measurements showed the modification occurring in the glass network due to addition of barium fluoride in terms of increase in the formation of non-bridging oxygen atoms compared to strong Te-O-Te linkages in the glass matrix.

  18. Pulsating aurora induced by upper atmospheric barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deehr, C.; Romick, G.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reports the apparent generation of pulsating aurora by explosive releases of barium vapor near 250 km altitude. This effect occurred only when the explosions were in the path of precipitating electrons associated with the visible aurora. Each explosive charge was a standard 1.5 kg thermite mixture of Ba and CuO with an excess of Ba metal which was vaporized and dispersed by the thermite explosion. Traces of Sr, Na, and Li were added to some of the charges, and monitoring was achieved by ground-based spectrophotometric observations. On March 28, 1976, an increase in emission at 5577 A and at 4278 A was observed in association with the first two bursts, these emissions pulsating with roughly a 10 sec period for approximately 60 to 100 sec after the burst.

  19. Synthesis, microstructure and dielectric properties of zirconium doped barium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rohtash; School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi; Asokan, K.

    2016-05-23

    We report on synthesis, microstructural and relaxor ferroelectric properties of Zirconium(Zr) doped Barium Titanate (BT) samples with general formula Ba(Ti{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x})O{sub 3} (x=0.20, 0.35). These lead-free ceramics were prepared by solid state reaction route. The phase transition behavior and temperature dependent dielectric properties and composition dependent ferroelectric properties were investigated. XRD analysis at room temperature confirms phase purity of the samples. SEM observations revealed retarded grain growth with increasing Zr mole fraction. Dielectric properties of BZT ceramics is influenced significantly by small addition of Zr mole fraction. With increasing Zr mole fraction, dielectric constant decreases while FWHM and frequencymore » dispersion increases. Polarization vs electric field hysteresis measurements reveal ferroelectric relaxor phase at room temperature. The advantages of such substitution maneuvering towards optimizing ferroelectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3} are discussed.« less

  20. Impact of vanadium ions in barium borate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelghany, A. M.; Hammad, Ahmed H.

    2015-02-01

    Combined optical and infrared spectral measurements of prepared barium borate glasses containing different concentrations of V2O5 were carried out. Vanadium containing glasses exhibit extended UV-visible (UV/Vis.) bands when compared with base binary borate glass. UV/Vis. spectrum shows the presence of an unsymmetrical strong UV broad band centered at 214 nm attributed to the presence of unavoidable trace iron impurities within the raw materials used for the preparation of such glass. The calculated direct and indirect optical band gaps are found to decrease with increasing the vanadium content (2.9:137 for indirect and 3.99:2.01 for direct transition). This change was discussed in terms of structural changes in the glass network. Infrared absorption spectra of the glasses reveal the appearance of both triangular and tetrahedral borate units. Electron spin resonance analyses indicate the presence of unpaired species in sufficient quantity to be identified and to confirm the spectral data.

  1. Strontium and barium iodide high light yield scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Hull, Giulia; Drobshoff, Alexander D.; Payne, Stephen A.; van Loef, Edgar; Wilson, Cody M.; Shah, Kanai S.; Roy, Utpal N.; Burger, Arnold; Boatner, Lynn A.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W.

    2008-02-01

    Europium-doped strontium and barium iodide are found to be readily growable by the Bridgman method and to produce high scintillation light yields. SrI2(Eu ) emits into the Eu2+ band, centered at 435nm, with a decay time of 1.2μs and a light yield of ˜90000photons/MeV. It offers energy resolution better than 4% full width at half maximum at 662keV, and exhibits excellent light yield proportionality. BaI2(Eu ) produces >30000photons/MeV into the Eu2+ band at 420nm (<1μs decay). An additional broad impurity-mediated recombination band is present at 550nm (>3μs decay), unless high-purity feedstock is used.

  2. Polyethersulfone - barium chloride blend ultrafiltration membranes for dye removal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambabu, K.; Srivatsan, N.; Gurumoorthy, Anand V. P.

    2017-11-01

    A series of Polyethersulfone (PES) - barium chloride (BaCl2) blend ultra filtration membrane was developed by varying the BaCl2 concentration in the dope solution. Prepared membranes were subjected to membrane characterization and their performance was studied through dye rejection tests. Morphological studies through SEM and AFM showed that the composite membranes exhibited differences in morphologies, porosities and properties due to the BaCl2 addition as compared with pristine PES membrane. Addition of the inorganic modifier enhanced the hydrophilicity and water permeability of the blend membrane system. Polymer enhanced ultrafiltration of dye solutions showed that the proposed blend system had better performance in terms of flux and rejection efficiency than the pure polymer membrane. The performance of the 2 wt% BaCl2 blend membrane was more promising for application to real time dye wastewater studies.

  3. Supercritical fluid route for synthesizing crystalline Barium Strontium Titanate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Reverón, H; Elissalde, C; Aymonier, C; Bidault, O; Maglione, M; Cansell, F

    2005-10-01

    Pure and well-crystallized Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) nanoparticles with controlled Ba/Sr ratio have been successfully synthesized under supercritical conditions using a continuous-flow reactor in the temperature range of 150-380 degrees C at 26 MPa. To synthesize the Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 composition, alkoxides, ethanol and water were used. The resulting nanopowder consists of fine particles with an average particle size of 23 nm. The results show that the Ba/Sr ratio of this powder can be accurately controlled from the composition of precursor. The characterization of the as-synthesized Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 solid-solution and the dielectric properties of the sintered ceramics are here reported.

  4. Anomalous permittivity in fine-grain barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrander, Steven Paul

    Fine-grain barium titanate capacitors exhibit anomalously large permittivity. It is often observed that these materials will double or quadruple the room temperature permittivity of a coarse-grain counterpart. However, aside from a general consensus on this permittivity enhancement, the properties of the fine-grain material are poorly understood. This thesis examines the effect of grain size on dielectric properties of a self-consistent set of high density undoped barium titanate capacitors. This set included samples with grain sizes ranging from submicron to ˜20 microns, and with densities generally above 95% of the theoretical. A single batch of well characterized powder was milled, dry-pressed then isostatically-pressed. Compacts were fast-fired, but sintering temperature alone was used to control the grain size. With this approach, the extrinsic influences are minimized within the set of samples, but more importantly, they are normalized between samples. That is, with a single batch of powder and with identical green processing, uniform impurity concentration is expected. The fine-grain capacitors exhibited a room temperature permittivity of ˜5500 and dielectric losses of ˜2%. The Curie-temperature decreased by {˜}5sp°C from that of the coarse-grain material, and the two ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition temperatures increased by {˜}10sp°C. The grain size induced permittivity enhancement was only active in the tetragonal and orthorhombic phases. Strong dielectric anomalies were observed in samples with grain size as small as {˜}0.4\\ mum. It is suggested that the strong first-order character observed in the present data is related to control of microstructure and stoichiometry. Grain size effects on conductivity losses, ferroelectric losses, ferroelectric dispersion, Maxwell-Wagner dispersion, and dielectric aging of permittivity and loss were observed. For the fine-grain material, these observations suggest the suppression of domain wall

  5. Brillouin function characteristics for La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chuanjian, E-mail: wcjuestc2005@gmail.com, E-mail: ksun@uestc.edu.cn; Yu, Zhong; Sun, Ke, E-mail: wcjuestc2005@gmail.com, E-mail: ksun@uestc.edu.cn

    2015-09-14

    La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites with the chemical formula of Ba{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 19} (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5), prepared by a conventional ceramic method, were systematically investigated by Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction patterns, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The result manifests that all the compounds are crystallized in magnetoplumbite hexagonal structure. Trivalent cobalt ions prevailingly occupy the 2a, 4f{sub 1}, and 12k sites. According to Néel model of collinear-spin ferrimagnetism, the molecular-field coefficients ω{sub bf2}, ω{sub kf1}, ω{sub af1}, ω{sub kf2}, and ω{sub bk} of La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites have been calculated usingmore » the nonlinear fitting method, and the magnetic moment of five sublattices (2a, 2b, 4f{sub 1}, 4f{sub 2}, and 12k) versus temperature T has been also investigated. The fitting results are coincided well with the experimental data. Moreover, with the increase of La-Co substitution amount x, the molecular-field coefficients ω{sub bf2} and ω{sub af1} decrease constantly, while the molecular-field coefficients ω{sub kf1}, ω{sub kf2}, and ω{sub bk} show a slight change.« less

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis of barium strontium titanate and bismuth titanate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huiwen

    Hydrothermal processing facilitates the synthesis of crystalline ceramic materials of varying composition or complex crystal structure. The present work can be divided into two parts. First is to study the low temperature hydrothermal synthesis of bismuth titanate. Second is to study both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the hydrothermally synthesized barium strontium titanate. A chelating agent was used to form a Bi-Ti gel precursor. By hydrothermally treating the Bi-Ti gel, crystalline bismuth titanate has been synthesized at 160°C for the first time. Microstructural evolution during the low temperature synthesis of bismuth titanate can be divided into two stages, including condensation of Bi-Ti gel particles and crystallization of bismuth titanate. Crystallization of bismuth titanate occurred by an in situ transformation mechanism at an early stage followed by a dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism. Phase separation was observed in hydrothermally synthesized barium strontium titanate (BST). By hydrothermally treating BST powders between 250°C--300°C, an asymmetrical miscibility gap was found in the BaTiO3-SrTiO 3 system at low temperatures (T ≤ 320°C). A subregular solid solution model was applied to calculate the equilibrium compositions and the Gibbs free energy of formation of BST solid solution at low temperatures (T ≤ 320°C). The Gibbs free energy of formation of Sr-rich BST phase is larger than that of Ba-rich BST phase. Kinetic studies of single phase BST solid solution at 80°C show that, compared to the BaTiO3 or Ba-rich BST, SrTiO3 and Sr-rich BST powders form at lower reaction rates.

  7. Primary versus secondary achalasia: New signs on barium esophagogram

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Debi, Uma; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate new signs on barium swallow that can differentiate primary from secondary achalasia. Materials and Methods: Records of 30 patients with primary achalasia and 17 patients with secondary achalasia were reviewed. Clinical, endoscopic, and manometric data was recorded. Barium esophagograms were evaluated for peristalsis and morphology of distal esophageal segment (length, symmetry, nodularity, shouldering, filling defects, and “tram-track sign”). Results: Mean age at presentation was 39 years in primary achalasia and 49 years in secondary achalasia. The mean duration of symptoms was 3.5 years in primary achalasia and 3 months in secondary achalasia. False-negative endoscopic results were noted in the first instance in five patients. In the secondary achalasia group, five patients had distal esophageal segment morphology indistinguishable from that of primary achalasia. None of the patients with primary achalasia and 35% patients with secondary achalasia had a length of the distal segment approaching combined height of two vertebral bodies. None of the patients with secondary achalasia and 34% patients with primary achalasia had maximum caliber of esophagus approaching combined height of two vertebral bodies. Tertiary contractions were noted in 90% patients with primary achalasia and 24% patients with secondary achalasia. Tram-track sign was found in 55% patients with primary achalasia. Filling defects in the distal esophageal segment were noted in 94% patients with secondary achalasia. Conclusion: Length of distal esophageal segment, tertiary contractions, tram-track sign, and filling defects in distal esophageal segment are useful esophagographic features distinguishing primary from secondary achalasia. PMID:26288525

  8. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  9. The effect of gap fluctuations on interacting and non-interacting polarization for nano-superconducting grains in electron- and hole-doped cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzali, R.; Alizadeh, A.

    2017-12-01

    The behavior of non-interacting and interacting polarization under influence of fluctuations of the superconducting gap with D-wave symmetry and under consideration of the gap dependence on nano- grain size is obtained in terms of the frequency, temperature and the size at zero and finite temperatures for rectangular cuprate nano-superconducting grains. By using Eliashberg equations and applying the relations of the fermionic dispersion for the hole-doped and electron-doped cuprates, we numerically compute the real part of size-dependent polarization for both types of cuprates. We show that the peak of real part of polarization moves to higher frequency by including the additional fluctuating part of gap (or the nano-size effect). Also, we obtain the temperatures for different frequencies, in which the effect of gap fluctuations fades. In the case of size-dependent gap, there is a critical frequency; for frequencies lower (higher) than the critical frequency, the nano-effect weakens (improves) the superconducting state. Moreover, it is concluded that the real part of polarization for hole- doped cuprates in terms of the grain size has more significant amount in comparison with electron-doped ones.

  10. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Panelists discuss how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  11. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist, Planetary Science Institute, moderates a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  12. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    An audience member asks the panelists a question at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  13. DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF BARIUM ENEMA FINDINGS IN HIRSCHSPRUNG'S DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Peyvasteh, Mehran; Askarpour, Shahnam; Ostadian, Nasrollah; Moghimi, Mohammad-Reza; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    Hirschsprung's disease is the most common cause of pediatric intestinal obstruction. Contrast enema is used for evaluation of the patients with its diagnosis. To evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of radiologic findings for diagnosis of Hirschsprung in patients underwent barium enema. This cross sectional study was carried out in Imam Khomeini Hospital for one year starting from 2012, April. Sixty patients were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were: neonates with failure to pass meconium, abdominal distention, and refractory constipation who failed to respond with medical treatment. Transitional zone, delay in barium evacuation after 24 h, rectosigmoid index (maximum with of the rectum divided by maximum with of the sigmoid; abnormal if <1), and irregularity of mucosa (jejunization) were evaluated in barium enema. Biopsy was obtained at three locations apart above dentate line. PPV, NPV, specificity , and sensitivity was calculated for each finding. Mean age of the cases with Hirschsprung's disease and without was 17.90±18.29 months and 17.8±18.34 months respectively (p=0.983). It was confirmed in 30 (M=20, F=10) of cases. Failure to pass meconium was found in 21(70%) cases. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 90%, 80%, 81.8% and 88.8% respectively for transitional zone in barium enema. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 76.7%, 83.3%, 78.1% and 82.1% respectively for rectosigmoid index .Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 46.7%, 100%, 100% and 65.2% respectively for irregular contraction detected in barium enema. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 23.3%, 100%, 100% and 56.6% respectively for mucosal irregularity in barium enema. The most sensitive finding was transitional zone. The most specific findings were irregular contraction, mucosal irregularity, and followed by cobblestone appearance. A doença de Hirschsprung é a causa mais comum de obstrução intestinal pedi

  14. Sponge-associated bacteria mineralize arsenic and barium on intracellular vesicles

    DOE PAGES

    Keren, Ray; Mayzel, Boaz; Lavy, Adi; ...

    2017-02-24

    Arsenic and barium are ubiquitous environmental toxins that accumulate in higher trophic-level organisms. Whereas metazoans have detoxifying organs to cope with toxic metals, sponges lack organs but harbour a symbiotic microbiome performing various functions. Here we examine the potential roles of microorganisms in arsenic and barium cycles in the sponge Theonella swinhoei, known to accumulate high levels of these metals. We show that a single sponge symbiotic bacterium, Entotheonella sp., constitutes the arsenic- and barium-accumulating entity within the host. These bacteria mineralize both arsenic and barium on intracellular vesicles. Our results indicate that Entotheonella sp. may act as a detoxifyingmore » organ for its host.« less

  15. Numberical simulation of the effects of radially injected barium plasma in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The morphology of the ion cloud in the radial shaped charge barium injection was studied. The shape of the ion cloud that remains after the explosive products and neutral barium clears away was examined. The ion cloud which has the configuration of a rimless wagon wheel is shown. The major features are the 2.5 km radius black hole in the center of the cloud, the surrounding ring of barium ion and the spokes of barium ionization radiating away from the center. The cloud shows no evolution after it emerges from the neutral debris and it is concluded that it is formed within 5 seconds of the event. A numerical model is used to calculate the motion of ions and electrons subject to the electrostatic and lorenz forces.

  16. Severe acute cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Ya-Guang; Qin, Cheng-Kun; Su, Zhong-Xue; Xu, Jian; Xian, Guo-Zhe; Wu, Shuo-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is considered as a possible etiological factor for severe cholangitis. We herein report a case of severe cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination. An adult male patient presented with epigastric pain was diagnosed as having choledocholithiasis by ultrasonography. EST was performed and the stone was completely cleaned. Barium examination was done 3 d after EST and severe cholangitis appeared 4 h later. The patient was recovered after treated with tienam for 4 d. Barium examination may induce severe cholangitis in patients after EST, although rare, barium examination should be chosen cautiously. Cautions should be also used when EST is performed in patients younger than 50 years to avoid the damage to the sphincter of Oddi. PMID:23112564

  17. Severe acute cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination: A case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Ya-Guang; Qin, Cheng-Kun; Su, Zhong-Xue; Xu, Jian; Xian, Guo-Zhe; Wu, Shuo-Dong

    2012-10-21

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is considered as a possible etiological factor for severe cholangitis. We herein report a case of severe cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination. An adult male patient presented with epigastric pain was diagnosed as having choledocholithiasis by ultrasonography. EST was performed and the stone was completely cleaned. Barium examination was done 3 d after EST and severe cholangitis appeared 4 h later. The patient was recovered after treated with tienam for 4 d. Barium examination may induce severe cholangitis in patients after EST, although rare, barium examination should be chosen cautiously. Cautions should be also used when EST is performed in patients younger than 50 years to avoid the damage to the sphincter of Oddi.

  18. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished liver... use in enemas. Tannic acid for rectal use to enhance X-ray visualization is regarded as a new drug...

  19. Sponge-associated bacteria mineralize arsenic and barium on intracellular vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Keren, Ray; Mayzel, Boaz; Lavy, Adi

    Arsenic and barium are ubiquitous environmental toxins that accumulate in higher trophic-level organisms. Whereas metazoans have detoxifying organs to cope with toxic metals, sponges lack organs but harbour a symbiotic microbiome performing various functions. Here we examine the potential roles of microorganisms in arsenic and barium cycles in the sponge Theonella swinhoei, known to accumulate high levels of these metals. We show that a single sponge symbiotic bacterium, Entotheonella sp., constitutes the arsenic- and barium-accumulating entity within the host. These bacteria mineralize both arsenic and barium on intracellular vesicles. Our results indicate that Entotheonella sp. may act as a detoxifyingmore » organ for its host.« less

  20. Comparison of barium swallow and ultrasound in diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children.

    PubMed Central

    Naik, D R; Bolia, A; Moore, D J

    1985-01-01

    Fifty one infants and older children with suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux entered a study comparing the diagnostic accuracy of a standard barium swallow examination with that of ultrasound scanning. All children were examined by both techniques. In 40 cases there was unequivocal agreement between the examinations. Of the remaining patients, four had definite reflux by ultrasonic criteria but showed no evidence of reflux on barium swallow examination, four had positive findings on ultrasound but showed only minimal reflux on barium swallow, and one showed minimal reflux on ultrasound but had a negative barium meal result. In two children the ultrasound study was inconclusive. Ultrasound has an important role in the diagnosis and follow up of patients under the age of 5 years with gastro-oesophageal reflux. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:3924317

  1. The value of the preoperative barium-enema examination in the assessment of pelvic masses

    SciTech Connect

    Gedgaudas, R.K.; Kelvin, F.M.; Thompson, W.M.

    1983-03-01

    The value of the barium-enema examination in the assessment of pelvic masses was studied in 44 patients. Findings from those barium-enema examinations and from pathological specimens from 37 patients who had malignant tumors and seven patients who had endometriosis were retrospectively analyzed to determine if the barium-enema examination is useful in differentiating extrinsic lesions with and without invasion of the colon. None of the 12 patients who had extrinsic lesions had any of the criteria that indicated bowel-wall invasion. These criteria included fixation and serrations of the bowel wall in all patients with invasion, and ulceration and fistulizaton in thosemore » patients who had complete transmural invasion. In patients with pelvic masses, the preoperative barium-enema examination may be useful to the surgeon in planning surgery and in preparing the patient for the possibility of partial colectomy or colostomy.« less

  2. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-03-08

    Workers at the Astrotech processing facility in Titusville prepared for a news media showing of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-1 (GOES-1). GOES-1 was the first in a new generation of weather satellites deployed above Earth. It was the first 3-axis, body-stabilized meteorological satellite to be used by the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA. These features allowed GOES-1 to continuously monitor the Earth, rather than viewing it just five percent of the time as was the case with spin-stabilized meteorological satellites. GOES-1 also has independent imaging and sounding instruments which can operate simultaneously yet independently. As a result, observations provided by each instrument will not be interrupted. The imager produces visual and infrared images of the Earth's surface, oceans, cloud cover and severe storm development, while the prime sounding products include vertical temperature and moisture profiles, and layer mean moisture.

  3. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-02

    This image depicts a full view of the Earth, taken by the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES-8). The red and green charnels represent visible data, while the blue channel represents inverted 11 micron infrared data. The north and south poles were not actually observed by GOES-8. To produce this image, poles were taken from a GOES-7 image. Owned and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), GOES satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. They circle the Earth in a geosynchronous orbit, which means they orbit the equatorial plane of the Earth at a speed matching the Earth's rotation. This allows them to hover continuously over one position on the surface. The geosynchronous plane is about 35,800 km (22,300 miles) above the Earth, high enough to allow the satellites a full-disc view of the Earth. Because they stay above a fixed spot on the surface, they provide a constant vigil for the atmospheric triggers for severe weather conditions such as tornadoes, flash floods, hail storms, and hurricanes. When these conditions develop, the GOES satellites are able to monitor storm development and track their movements. NASA manages the design and launch of the spacecraft. NASA launched the first GOES for NOAA in 1975 and followed it with another in 1977. Currently, the United States is operating GOES-8, positioned at 75 west longitude and the equator, and GOES-10, which is positioned at 135 west longitude and the equator. (GOES-9, which malfunctioned in 1998, is being stored in orbit as an emergency backup should either GOES-8 or GOES-10 fail. GOES-11 was launched on May 3, 2000 and GOES-12 on July 23, 2001. Both are being stored in orbit as a fully functioning replacement for GOES-8 or GOES-10 on failure.

  4. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-23

    ISS024-E-016042 (23 Aug. 2010) --- This night time view captured by one of the Expedition 24 crew members aboard the International Space Station some 220 miles above Earth is looking southward from central Romania over the Aegean Sea toward Greece and it includes Thessaloniki (near center), the larger bright mass of Athens (left center), and the Macedonian capital of Skopje (lower right). Center point coordinates of the area pictured are 46.4 degrees north latitude and 25.5 degrees east longitude. The picture was taken in August and was physically brought back to Earth on a disk with the return of the Expedition 25 crew in November 2010.

  5. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070412 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 panorama featuring wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. (Note: south is at the top of the frame). The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above Earth at the time of the photo. Parts of Oregon and Washington are included in the scene. Mt. Jefferson, Three Sisters and Mt. St. Helens are all snow-capped and visible in the photo, and the Columbia River can also be delineated.

  6. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070424 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 image of wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above Earth at the time of the photo. Lightning has been given as the cause of the Ochoco Complex fires in the Ochoco National Forest in central Oregon. The complex has gotten larger since this photo was taken.

  7. Earth observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-04

    ISS040-E-129950 (4 Sept. 2014) --- In this photograph. taken by one of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, the orange spot located in the very center is the sun, which appears to be sitting on Earth's limb. At far right, a small bright spot is believed to be a reflection from somewhere in the camera system or something on the orbital outpost. When the photographed was exposed, the orbital outpost was flying at an altutude of 226 nautical miles above a point near French Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean.

  8. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-08-13

    This panoramic view of Hurricane Charley was photographed by the Expedition 9 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) on August 13, 2004, at a vantage point just north of Tampa, Florida. The small eye was not visible in this view, but the raised cloud tops near the center coincide roughly with the time that the storm began to rapidly strengthen. The category 2 hurricane was moving north-northwest at 18 mph packing winds of 105 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  9. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-11

    This image hosts a look at the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm topped the western Caribbean Sea on Saturday, September 11, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, the category 5 storm sustained winds in the eye of the wall that were reported at about 160 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  10. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-15

    Except for a small portion of the International Space Station (ISS) in the foreground, Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, fills this image over the northern Gulf of Mexico. As the downgraded category 4 storm approached landfall on the Alabama coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the ISS at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  11. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-09-15

    This image hosts a look into the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm approached landfall on the central Gulf coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph as the downgraded category 4 storm approached the Alabama coast. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  12. [Value of preoperative barium contrast examination for the diagnosis and operative planning in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-jian; Zhao, Guang-fa; Li, Qing-guo; Chen, Jing-gui; Zhu, Kai; Shi, Ying-qiang; Fu, Hong

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the value of preoperative barium contrast examination for the diagnosis and operative planning in gastric cancer. Clinical data of 229 gastric cancer patients were analyzed retrospectively. Lesions were divided into three parts: the cardiac, the body, and the antrum. The diagnostic accuracy of localization and the extent of tumor between gastroscopy alone and gastroscopy plus barium contrast were compared with the results of surgical findings. The diagnostic accuracy of localization and the extent of tumor for gastroscopy in the cardiac, the body and the antrum cancers were 100% and 78.4%, 94.6% and 86.5%, 98.1% and 84.6%, respectively, while for gastroscopy plus barium contrast were 100% and 84.8%, 100% and 91.9%, 99.0% and 90.4%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of both the localization and the extent of tumor were not significantly different between gastroscopy alone and gastroscopy plus barium contrast (P>0.05). Diagnostic accuracy of the length of esophagus infiltrated by cardiac cancer in gastroscopy was 60.6%, while in gastroscopy plus barium contrast was 90.9%, which was significantly different (P<0.05). Gastroscopy plus barium contrast was more accurate in predicting the possibility of thoracotomy in cardiac cancer infiltrating the lower esophagus. It is necessary to perform preoperative barium contrast examination in cardiac cancer patients, so as to identify whether the lower esophagus is infiltrated and to measure the length of lesion, which can provide evidences for making a decision of thoracotomy. For gastric body and antrum cancer, there is no indication for barium contrast examination if gastroscopy findings are satisfied.

  13. Barium isotopes in Allende meteorite - Evidence against an extinct superheavy element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.; Shimamura, T.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon and chromite fractions from the Allende meteorite that contain isotopically anomalous xenon-131 to xenon-136 (carbonaceous chondrite fission or CCF xenon) at up to 5 x 10 to the 11th atoms per gram show no detectable isotopic anomalies in barium-130 to barium-138. This rules out the possibility that the CCF xenon was formed by in situ fission of an extinct superheavy element. Apparently the CCF xenon and its carbonaceous carrier are relics from stellar nucleosynthesis.

  14. Comparison of the reflectance characteristics of polytetrafluoroethylene and barium sulfate paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, C. L.; Schutt, J. B.; Shai, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of the directional reflectance measurements taken on two tetrafluorethylene (TFE) paints formulated with silicone binders. Both paints are found to be more Lambertian than barium sulfate paint and pressed powder, although the pigment to binder ratios for barium sulfate and TFE paints are about 133 and 3.3 to 1, respectively. The TFE paints exhibit total visible reflectances above 90 percent and offer surfaces that are not significantly affected by water.

  15. Effects of Different Fabrication Techniques on the Yttrium-Barium-Copper Oxide High Temperature Superconductor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    and barium peroxide. The eperimental design includes barium carbonate as a precursor since it is a comronly used starting material for the ccupound...Kerans, Materials Laboratory, for his assistance in designing this project. I would also like to thank Tim Peterson for his patient instructing. I...the design of the devices used for taking measurements was detailed. Chapter IV showed the results of each type of measurement on each individual

  16. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  17. Comparison of Calcium and Barium Microcapsules as Scaffolds in the Development of Artificial Dermal Papillae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Lin, Changmin; Zeng, Yang; Li, Haihong; Cai, Bozhi; Huang, Keng; Yuan, Yanping; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate barium and calcium microcapsules as candidates for scaffolding in artificial dermal papilla. Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) were isolated and cultured by one-step collagenase treatment. The DPC-Ba and DPC-Ca microcapsules were prepared by using a specially designed, high-voltage, electric-field droplet generator. Selected microcapsules were assessed for long-term inductive properties with xenotransplantation into Sprague-Dawley rat ears. Both barium and calcium microcapsules maintained xenogenic dermal papilla cells in an immunoisolated environment and induced the formation of hair follicle structures. Calcium microcapsules showed better biocompatibility, permeability, and cell viability in comparison with barium microcapsules. Before 18 weeks, calcium microcapsules gathered together, with no substantial immune response. After 32 weeks, some microcapsules were near inflammatory cells and wrapped with fiber. A few large hair follicles were found. Control samples showed no marked changes at the implantation site. Barium microcapsules were superior to calcium microcapsules in structural and mechanical stability. The cells encapsulated in hydrogel barium microcapsules exhibited higher short-term viability. This study established a model to culture DPCs in 3D culture conditions. Barium microcapsules may be useful in short-term transplantation study. Calcium microcapsules may provide an effective scaffold for the development of artificial dermal papilla.

  18. Tunable ferromagnetic resonance in La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites at millimeter wave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, Konstantin A.; Wu, Chuanjian; Yu, Zhong; Sun, Ke; Afsar, Mohammed N.; Harris, Vincent G.

    2018-05-01

    Transmittance measurements have been performed on La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites in millimeter waves. Broadband millimeter-wave measurements have been carried out using the free space quasi-optical spectrometer, equipped with a set of high power backward wave oscillators covering the frequency range of 30 - 120 GHz. Strong absorption zones have been observed in the millimeter-wave transmittance spectra of all La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites due to the ferromagnetic resonance. Linear shift of ferromagnetic resonance frequency as functions of La-Co substitutions have been found. Real and imaginary parts of dielectric permittivity of La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites have been calculated using the analysis of recorded high precision transmittance spectra. Frequency dependences of magnetic permeability of La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites, as well as saturation magnetization and anisotropy field have been determined based on Schlömann's theory for partially magnetized ferrites. La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites have been further investigated by DC magnetization to assess magnetic behavior and compare with millimeter wave data. Consistency of saturation magnetization determined independently by both millimeter wave absorption and DC magnetization have been found for all La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites. These materials seem to be quite promising as tunable millimeter wave absorbers, filters, circulators, based on the adjusting of their substitution parameters.

  19. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough*,**

    PubMed Central

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies. PMID:24473762

  20. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-10

    ISS040-E-091158 (10 Aug. 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members 225 nautical miles above Earth onboard the International Space Station used a 200mm lens to record this image of Hawke's Bay, New Zealand on Aug. 10, 2014. Napier and the bay area's most populous area are at bottom center of the frame.

  1. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-13

    ISS036-E-007619 (13 June 2013) --- To a crew member aboard the International Space Station, the home planet is seen from many different angles and perspectives, as evdenced by this Expedition 36 image of Earth's atmophere partially obscured by one of the orbital outpost's solar panels.

  2. Think Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred; Ice, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Describes a series of environmental education instructional units for grades K-6 developed by the Think Earth Consortium that cover topics such as conservation, pollution control, and waste reduction. Provides testimony from one sixth-grade teacher that field tested the second-grade unit. (MDH)

  3. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. Docked Soyuz and Progress spacecraft are visible. On crewmember's Flickr page - The Moon, about to dive into a glowing ocean of green᥿9.

  4. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-21

    Earth observation taken during night pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message this is labeled as : Tehran, Iran. Lights along the coast of the Caspian Sea visible through clouds. July 21.

  5. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-19

    ISS036-E-002224 (21 May 2013) --- The sun is captured in a "starburst" mode over Earth's horizon by one of the Expedition 36 crew members as the orbital outpost was above a point in southwestern Minnesota on May 21, 2013.

  6. Earth Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaufele, Christopher; Zumoff, Nancy

    Earth Algebra is an entry level college algebra course that incorporates the spirit of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics at the college level. The context of the course places mathematics at the center of one of the major current concerns of the world. Through…

  7. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-03-29

    Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) is a tethered date collecting satellite and is intended to demonstrate a versatile and economical way of delivering smaller payloads to higher orbits or downward toward Earth's atmosphere. 19th Navstar Global Positioning System Satellite mission joined with previously launched satellites used for navigational purposes and geodite studies. These satellites are used commercially as well as by the military.

  8. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-14

    ISS040-E-011868 (14 June 2014) --- The dark waters of the Salton Sea stand out against neighboring cultivation and desert sands in the middle of the Southern California desert, as photographed by one of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station on June 14, 2014.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: From southernmost point of orbit over the South Pacific- all clouds seemed to be leading to the South Pole.

  10. Earth Sky

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-63282 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Area of Indian Ocean, just east of the island of Madagascar, as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 15th revolution of Earth. Land mass at top of picture is the Malagasy Republic (Madagascar). Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  11. Rare earths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

  12. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015354 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires near the Manicouagan Reservoir (seen at lower left) were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  13. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015355 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires near the Manicouagan Reservoir (seen at bottom center) were recorded in a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  14. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-03

    ISS036-E-015292 (3 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 3-4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station. This image was recorded on July 3.

  15. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015342 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  16. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015335 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  17. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of the U.S. Lab and PMM are also visible.

  18. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-29

    ISS036-E-038117 (29 Aug. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed massive smoke plumes from the California wildfires. When this image was exposed on Aug. 29, the orbital outpost was approximately 220 miles above a point located at 38.6 degrees north latitude and 123.2 degrees west longitude.

  19. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-29

    ISS036-E-038114 (29 Aug. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed massive smoke plumes from the California wildfires. When this image was exposed on Aug. 29, the orbital outpost was approximately 220 miles above a point located at 38.6 degrees north latitude and 123.3 degrees west longitude.

  20. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-18

    ISS042E006751 (11/08/2014) --- Earth observation taken from the International Space Station of the coastline of the United Arab Emirates. The large wheel along the coast center left is "Jumeirah" Palm Island, with a conference center, hotels, recreation areas and a large marine zoo.

  1. Earth Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-08

    NASA Galileo spacecraft took this image of Earth moon on December 7, 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. The distinct bright ray crater at the bottom of the image is the Tycho impact basin. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00405

  2. Earth's horizon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-30

    S114-E-6076 (30 July 2005) --- The blackness of space and Earth’s horizon form the backdrop for this view of the extended Space Shuttle Discovery’s remote manipulator system (RMS) robotic arm while docked to the International Space Station during the STS-114 mission.

  3. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-09

    ISS024-E-014071 (9 Sept. 2010) --- This striking panoramic view of the southwestern USA and Pacific Ocean is an oblique image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member looking outwards at an angle from the International Space Station (ISS). While most unmanned orbital satellites view Earth from a nadir perspective?in other words, collecting data with a ?straight down? viewing geometry?crew members onboard the space station can acquire imagery at a wide range of viewing angles using handheld digital cameras. The ISS nadir point (the point on Earth?s surface directly below the spacecraft) was located in northwestern Arizona, approximately 260 kilometers to the east-southeast, when this image was taken. The image includes parts of the States of Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and California together with a small segment of the Baja California, Mexico coastline at center left. Several landmarks and physiographic features are readily visible. The Las Vegas, NV metropolitan area appears as a gray region adjacent to the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range (both covered by white clouds). The Grand Canyon, located on the Colorado Plateau in Arizona, is visible (lower left) to the east of Las Vegas with the blue waters of Lake Mead in between. The image also includes the Mojave Desert, stretching north from the Salton Sea (left) to the Sierra Nevada mountain range. The Sierra Nevada range is roughly 640 kilometers long (north-south) and forms the boundary between the Central Valley of California and the adjacent Basin and Range. The Basin and Range is so called due to the pattern of long linear valleys separated by parallel linear mountain ranges ? this landscape, formed by extension and thinning of Earth?s crust, is particularly visible at right.

  4. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Shawn Domagal-Goldman, Research Space Scientist, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  5. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Phoebe Cohen, Professor of Geosciences, Williams College, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  6. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Christopher House, Professor of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  7. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Dawn Sumner, Professor of Geology, UC Davis, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  8. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Timothy Lyons, Professor of Biogeochemistry, UC Riverside, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  9. Earth meandering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone

  10. Supramolecular curcumin-barium prodrugs for formulating with ceramic particles.

    PubMed

    Kamalasanan, Kaladhar; Anupriya; Deepa, M K; Sharma, Chandra P

    2014-10-01

    A simple and stable curcumin-ceramic combined formulation was developed with an aim to improve curcumin stability and release profile in the presence of reactive ceramic particles for potential dental and orthopedic applications. For that, curcumin was complexed with barium (Ba(2+)) to prepare curcumin-barium (BaCur) complex. Upon removal of the unbound curcumin and Ba(2+) by dialysis, a water-soluble BaCur complex was obtained. The complex was showing [M+1](+) peak at 10,000-20,000 with multiple fractionation peaks of MALDI-TOF-MS studies, showed that the complex was a supramolecular multimer. The (1)H NMR and FTIR studies revealed that, divalent Ba(2+) interacted predominantly through di-phenolic groups of curcumin to form an end-to-end complex resulted in supramolecular multimer. The overall crystallinity of the BaCur was lower than curcumin as per XRD analysis. The complexation of Ba(2+) to curcumin did not degrade curcumin as per HPLC studies. The fluorescence spectrum was blue shifted upon Ba(2+) complexation with curcumin. Monodisperse nanoparticles with size less than 200dnm was formed, out of the supramolecular complex upon dialysis, as per DLS, and upon loading into pluronic micelles the size was remaining in similar order of magnitude as per DLS and AFM studies. Stability of the curcumin was improved greater than 50% after complexation with Ba(2+) as per UV/Vis spectroscopy. Loading of the supramloecular nanoparticles into pluronic micelles had further improved the stability of curcumin to approx. 70% in water. These BaCur supramolecule nanoparticles can be considered as a new class of prodrugs with improved solubility and stability. Subsequently, ceramic nanoparticles with varying chemical composition were prepared for changing the material surface reactivity in terms of the increase in, degradability, surface pH and protein adsorption. Further, these ceramic particles were combined with curcumin prodrug formulations and optimized the curcumin release

  11. Effect of ionic strength on barium transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zi; Prigiobbe, Valentina

    2018-02-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (or fracking) is a well stimulation technique used to extract resources from a low permeability formation. Currently, the most common application of fracking is for the extraction of oil and gas from shale. During the operation, a large volume of brine, rich in hazardous chemicals, is produced. Spills of brine from wells or pits might negatively impact underground water resources and, in particular, one of the major concerns is the migration of radionuclides, such as radium (Ra2+), into the shallow subsurface. However, the transport behaviour of Ra2+ through a reactive porous medium under conditions typical of a brine, i.e., high salinity, is not well understood, yet. Here, a study on the transport behaviour of barium (Ba2+, congener of radium) through a porous medium containing a common mineral such as goethite (FeO(OH)) is presented. Batch and column flood tests were carried out at conditions resembling the produced brine, i.e., large values of ionic strength (I), namely, 1 to 3 mol/kg. The measurements were described with the triple layer surface complexation model coupled with the Pitzer activity coefficient method and a reactive transport model, in the case of the transport tests. The experimental results show that the adsorption of Ba2+ onto FeO(OH) increases with pH but decreases with I and it becomes negligible at the brine conditions. Moreover, even if isotherms show adsorption at large I, at the same conditions during transport, Ba2+ travels without retardation through the FeO(OH) porous medium. The triple layer model agrees very well with all batch data but it does not describe well the transport tests in all cases. In particular, the model cannot match the pH measurements at large I values. This suggests that the chemical reactions at the solid-liquid interface do not capture the mechanism of Ba2+ adsorption onto FeO(OH) at large salinity. Finally, this study suggests that barium, and potentially its congeners, namely, radium

  12. Coupling of a high-energy excitation to superconducting quasiparticles in a cuprate from coherent charge fluctuation spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mansart, Barbara; Lorenzana, José; Mann, Andreas; Odeh, Ahmad; Scarongella, Mariateresa; Chergui, Majed; Carbone, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Dynamical information on spin degrees of freedom of proteins or solids can be obtained by NMR and electron spin resonance. A technique with similar versatility for charge degrees of freedom and their ultrafast correlations could move the understanding of systems like unconventional superconductors forward. By perturbing the superconducting state in a high-Tc cuprate, using a femtosecond laser pulse, we generate coherent oscillations of the Cooper pair condensate that can be described by an NMR/electron spin resonance formalism. The oscillations are detected by transient broad-band reflectivity and are found to resonate at the typical scale of Mott physics (2.6 eV), suggesting the existence of a nonretarded contribution to the pairing interaction, as in unconventional (non-Migdal–Eliashberg) theories.

  13. Two types of nematicity in the phase diagram of the cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyr-Choinière, O.; Grissonnanche, G.; Badoux, S.; Day, J.; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Liang, R.; Doiron-Leyraud, N.; Taillefer, Louis

    2015-12-01

    Nematicity has emerged as a key feature of cuprate superconductors, but its link to other fundamental properties such as superconductivity, charge order, and the pseudogap remains unclear. Here we use measurements of transport anisotropy in YBa2Cu3Oy to distinguish two types of nematicity. The first is associated with short-range charge-density-wave modulations in a doping region near p =0.12 . It is detected in the Nernst coefficient, but not in the resistivity. The second type prevails at lower doping, where there are spin modulations but no charge modulations. In this case, the onset of in-plane anisotropy—detected in both the Nernst coefficient and the resistivity—follows a line in the temperature-doping phase diagram that tracks the pseudogap energy. We discuss two possible scenarios for the latter nematicity.

  14. Optical conductivity of cuprates in the pseudogap state: Yang-Rice-Zhang model and antiferromagnetic spin waves

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Navinder; Sharma, Raman

    In the underdoped regime of the cuprate phase diagram, the modified version of the Resonance Valence Bond (RVB) model by Yang, Rice and Zhang (YRZ) captures the strong electronic correlation effects very well as corroborated by the ARPES and many other experiments. However, under a non-equilibrium transport setting, YRZ says nothing about the scattering mechanisms of the charge carriers. In the present investigation we include, in a very simplified way, the scattering of charge carriers due to antiferromagnetic type spin waves (ASW). The effect of ASW excitations on conductivity has been studied by changing combined life times of the includedmore » process. It has been found that there is a qualitative change in the conductivity in the right direction. The theoretical conductivity reproduces qualitatively the experimental one.« less

  15. Unified one-band Hubbard model for magnetic and electronic spectra of the parent compounds of cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Piazza, B.; Mourigal, M.; Guarise, M.; Berger, H.; Schmitt, T.; Zhou, K. J.; Grioni, M.; Rønnow, H. M.

    2012-03-01

    Using low-energy projection of the one-band t-t'-t'' Hubbard model we derive an effective spin Hamiltonian and its spin-wave expansion to order 1/S. We fit the spin-wave dispersion of several parent compounds to the high-temperature superconducting cuprates La2CuO4, Sr2CuO2Cl2, and Bi2Sr2YCu2O8. Our accurate quantitative determination of the one-band Hubbard model parameters allows prediction and comparison to experimental results. Among those we discuss the two-magnon Raman peak line shape, the K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering 500-meV peak, and the high-energy kink in the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy quasiparticle dispersion, also known as the waterfall feature.

  16. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070439 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 image of wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above a point on Earth located at 48.0 degrees north latitude and 116.9 degrees west longitude when the image was exposed. The state of Washington is especially affected by the fires, many of which have been blamed on lightning. This particular fire was part of the Carlton Complex Fire, located near the city of Brewster in north central Washington. The reservoir visible near the center of the image is Banks Lake.

  17. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-25

    ISS040-E-081008 (25 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the International Space Station, flying 225 nautical miles above Earth, photographed this image of the Tifernine dunes and the Tassili Najjer Mountains in Algeria. The area is about 800 miles south, southeast of Algiers, the capital of Algeria. The dunes are in excess of 1,000 feet in height.

  18. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-15

    ISS040-E-063578 (15 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, flying some 225 nautical miles above the Caribbean Sea in the early morning hours of July 15, photographed this north-looking panorama that includes parts of Cuba, the Bahamas and Florida, and even runs into several other areas in the southeastern U.S. The long stretch of lights to the left of center frame gives the shape of Miami.

  19. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-28

    ISS028-E-006059 (28 May 2011) --- One of the Expedition 28 crew members, photographing Earth images onboard the International Space Station while docked with the space shuttle Endeavour and flying at an altitude of just under 220 miles, captured this frame of the Salton Sea. The body of water, easily identifiable from low orbit spacecraft, is a saline, endorheic rift lake located directly on the San Andreas Fault. The agricultural area is within the Coachella Valley.

  20. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-01-01

    In July 1990, the Marshall Space Flight Center, in a joint project with the Department of Defense/Air Force Space Test Program, launched the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) using an Atlas I launch vehicle. The mission was designed to study the effects of artificial ion clouds produced by chemical releases on the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere, and to monitor the effects of space radiation environment on sophisticated electronics.

  1. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-27

    ISS028-E-009979 (27 June 2011) --- The Massachusetts coastline is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 28 crew member on the International Space Station. The Crew Earth Observations team at NASA Johnson Space Center sends specific ground targets for photography up to the station crew on a daily basis, but sometimes the crew takes imagery on their own of striking displays visible from orbit. One such display, often visible to the ISS crew due to their ability to look outwards at angles between 0 and 90 degrees, is sunglint on the waters of Earth. Sunglint is caused by sunlight reflecting off of a water surface?much as light reflects from a mirror?directly towards the observer. Roughness variations of the water surface scatter the light, blurring the reflection and producing the typical silvery sheen of the sunglint area. The point of maximum sunglint is centered within Cape Cod Bay, the body of water partially enclosed by the ?hook? of Cape Cod in Massachusetts (bottom). Cape Cod was formally designated a National Seashore in 1966. Sunglint off the water provides sharp contrast with the coastline and the nearby islands of Martha?s Vineyard and Nantucket (lower left), both popular destinations for tourists and summer residents. To the north, rocky Cape Ann extends out into the Atlantic Ocean; the border with New Hampshire is located approximately 30 kilometers up the coast. Further to the west, the eastern half of Long Island, New York is visible emerging from extensive cloud cover over the mid-Atlantic and Midwestern States. Persistent storm tracks had been contributing to record flooding along rivers in the Midwest at the time this image was taken in late June 2011. Thin blue layers of the atmosphere, contrasted against the darkness of space, are visible extending along the Earth?s curvature at top.

  2. Cloudy Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-08

    Decades of satellite observations and astronaut photographs show that clouds dominate space-based views of Earth. One study based on nearly a decade of satellite data estimated that about 67 percent of Earth’s surface is typically covered by clouds. This is especially the case over the oceans, where other research shows less than 10 percent of the sky is completely clear of clouds at any one time. Over land, 30 percent of skies are completely cloud free. Earth’s cloudy nature is unmistakable in this global cloud fraction map, based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite. While MODIS collects enough data to make a new global map of cloudiness every day, this version of the map shows an average of all of the satellite’s cloud observations between July 2002 and April 2015. Colors range from dark blue (no clouds) to light blue (some clouds) to white (frequent clouds). Read more here: 1.usa.gov/1P6lbMU Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  3. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-02

    ISS028-E-020276 (2 Aug. 2011) --- This photograph of polar mesospheric clouds was acquired at an altitude of just over 202 nautical miles (about 322 kilometers) in the evening hours (03:19:54 Greenwich Mean Time) on Aug. 2, 2011, as the International Space Station was passing over the English Channel. The nadir coordinates of the station were 49.1 degrees north latitude and 5.5 degrees west longitude. Polar mesospheric clouds (also known as noctilucent, or ?night-shining? clouds) are transient, upper atmospheric phenomena that are usually observed in the summer months at high latitudes (greater than 50 degrees) of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. They appear bright and cloudlike while in deep twilight. They are illuminated by sunlight when the lower layers of the atmosphere are in the darkness of Earth?s shadow. The horizon of Earth appears at the bottom of the image, with some layers of the lower atmosphere already illuminated by the rising sun. The higher, bluish-colored clouds look much like wispy cirrus clouds, which can be found as high as 60,000 feet (18 kilometers) in the atmosphere. However noctilucent clouds, as seen here, are observed in the mesosphere at altitudes of 250,000 to 280,000 feet (about 76 to 85 kilometers). Astronaut observations of polar mesospheric clouds over northern Europe in the summer are not uncommon.

  4. Sintering and foaming of barium silicate glass powder compacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Ralf; Reinsch, Stefan; Agea-Blanco, Boris

    2016-10-01

    The manufacture of sintered glasses and glass-ceramics, glass matrix composites and glass-bounded ceramics or pastes is often affected by gas bubble formation. Against this background, we studied sintering and foaming of barium silicate glass powders used as SOFC sealants using different powder milling procedures. Sintering was measured by means of heating microscopy backed up by XPD, DTA, Vacuum Hot Extraction (VHE) and optical and electron microscopy. Foaming increased significantly as milling progressed. For moderately milled glass powders, subsequent storage in air could also promote foaming. Although the powder compacts were uniaxially pressed and sintered in air, the milling atmosphere sig¬ni¬ficantly affected foaming. The strength of this effect increased in the order Ar ? N2 < air < CO2. Conformingly, VHE studies revealed that the pores of foamed samples predominantly encapsulated CO2, even for powders milled in Ar and N2. Results of this study thus indicate that foaming is caused by carbonaceous species trapped on the glass powder surface. Foaming could be substantially reduced by milling in water and 10 wt% HCl.

  5. Facile growth of barium oxide nanorods: structural and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Naushad; Wahab, Rizwan; Alam, Manawwer

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports a large-scale synthesis of barium oxide nanorods (BaO-NRs) by simple solution method at a very low-temperature of - 60 degrees C. The as-grown BaO-NRs were characterized in terms of their morphological, structural, compositional, optical and thermal properties. The morphological characterizations of as-synthesized nanorods were done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which confirmed that the synthesized products are rod shaped and grown in high density. The nanorods exhibits smooth and clean surfaces throughout their lengths. The crystalline property of the material was analyzed with X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). The compositional and thermal properties of synthesized nanorods were observed via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis which confirmed that the synthesized nanorods are pure BaO and showed good thermal stability. The nanorods exhibited good optical properties as was confirmed from the room-temperature UV-vis spectroscopy. Finally, a plausible mechanism for the formation of BaO-NRs is also discussed in this paper.

  6. Barium from a mini r-process in supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.

    1983-01-01

    McCulloch and Wasserburg (1978) have reported nonlinear isotopic anomalies in barium for two Ca-Al-rich inclusions of the Allende carbonaceous chondrite, known as EK-1-4-1 and C-1. In an attempt to account for these anomalies, it has been proposed that Ba from an r-process of nucleosynthesis, containing Ba-135 and Ba-137, was injected into the primeval color system but was not totally homogenized. Questions arise in connection with the relations of Xe isotopes in carbonaceous chondrites. This has prompted Heymann and Dziczkaniec (1979, 1980, 1981) to study the formation of r-Xe, r-Kr, and r-Te by the mini r-process which is thought to occur in the O, Ne-rich shells of Type II supernovae. Lee et al. (1979) have studied the formation of r-Ba, r-Nd, and r-Sm by the same process. Certain differences regarding the approaches used by Lee et al. and by Heymann and Dziczkaniec make it necessary to restudy the work of Lee et al. Attention is given to the survival probabilities of nuclear species of interest, taking into accounts the elements Cs, Ba, I, and Xe.

  7. Properties of barium strontium titanate at millimeter wave frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, Nurul; Free, Charles

    2015-04-24

    The trend towards using higher millimetre-wave frequencies for communication systems has created a need for accurate characterization of materials to be used at these frequencies. Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) is a ferroelectric material whose permittivity is known to change as a function of applied electric field and have found varieties of application in electronic and communication field. In this work, new data on the properties of BST characterize using the free space technique at frequencies between 145 GHz and 155 GHz for both thick film and bulk samples are presented. The measurement data provided useful information on effective permittivity and loss tangentmore » for all the BST samples. Data on the material transmission, reflection properties as well as loss will also be presented. The outcome of the work shows through practical measurement, that BST has a high permittivity with moderate losses and the results also shows that BST has suitable properties to be used as RAM for high frequency application.« less

  8. Impact of vanadium ions in barium borate glass.

    PubMed

    Abdelghany, A M; Hammad, Ahmed H

    2015-02-25

    Combined optical and infrared spectral measurements of prepared barium borate glasses containing different concentrations of V2O5 were carried out. Vanadium containing glasses exhibit extended UV-visible (UV/Vis.) bands when compared with base binary borate glass. UV/Vis. spectrum shows the presence of an unsymmetrical strong UV broad band centered at 214 nm attributed to the presence of unavoidable trace iron impurities within the raw materials used for the preparation of such glass. The calculated direct and indirect optical band gaps are found to decrease with increasing the vanadium content (2.9:137 for indirect and 3.99:2.01 for direct transition). This change was discussed in terms of structural changes in the glass network. Infrared absorption spectra of the glasses reveal the appearance of both triangular and tetrahedral borate units. Electron spin resonance analyses indicate the presence of unpaired species in sufficient quantity to be identified and to confirm the spectral data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Barium-strontium-titanate etching characteristics in chlorinated discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Luc; Margot, Joëlle; Langlois, Olivier; Chaker, Mohamed

    2003-07-01

    The etching characteristics of barium-strontium-titanate (BST) were investigated using a high-density plasma sustained by surface waves at 190 MHz in Ar/Cl2 gas mixtures. The etch rate was examined as a function of both the total gas pressure and the Cl2 fraction in Ar/Cl2 using a wafer temperature of 10 °C. The results were correlated to positive ion density and plasma composition obtained from Langmuir probes and mass spectrometry. The BST etch rate was found to increase linearly with the positive ion density and to decrease with increasing chlorine atom concentration. This result indicates that for the temperature conditions used, the interaction between chlorine and BST yields compounds having a volatility that is lower than the original material. As a consequence, the contribution of neutral atomic Cl atoms to the etch mechanism is detrimental, thereby reducing the etch rate. As the wafer temperature increases, the role of chemistry in the etching process is enhanced.

  10. Medical and occupational dose reduction in pediatric barium meal procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipov, D.; Schelin, H. R.; Denyak, V.; Paschuk, S. A.; Ledesma, J. A.; Legnani, A.; Bunick, A. P.; Sauzen, J.; Yagui, A.; Vosiak, P.

    2017-11-01

    Doses received in pediatric Barium Meal procedure can be rather high. It is possible to reduce dose values following the recommendations of the European Communities (EC) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In the present work, the modifications of radiographic techniques made in a Brazilian hospital according to the EC and the ICRP recommendations and their influence on medical and occupational exposure are reported. The procedures of 49 patients before and 44 after the optimization were studied and air kerma-area product (PK,A) values and the effective doses were evaluated. The occupational equivalent doses were measured next to the eyes, under the thyroid shield and on each hand of both professionals who remained inside the examination room. The implemented modifications reduced by 70% and 60% the PK,A and the patient effective dose, respectively. The obtained dose values are lower than approximately 75% of the results from similar studies. The occupational annual equivalent doses for all studied organs became lower than the limits set by the ICRP. The equivalent doses in one examination were on average below than 75% of similar studies.

  11. Electrical and thermal transport in doped barium plumbate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eufrasio, Andreza; Pegg, Ian; Dutta, Biprodas

    Thermoelectric (TE) power is generated by utilizing a temperature differential created across a material. Such energy conversion takes place without the incorporation of any moving part and can often lead to substantial recovery of waste heat into useful electrical energy. Ceramic oxides have gained attention as a new class of TE materials because of their high stability at elevated temperatures, where higher conversion efficiencies are expected. The present investigation uses Barium plumbate (BaPbO3) as the starting material, the TE properties of which have been altered by reasonable cation substitutions. As BaPbO3 has high electrical conductivity, σ 1.1x105Ω-1 m-1at room temperature, its thermopower, S, is relatively low 21 μV/K. With a thermal conductivity, k, of 3.00W/m.K, the figure of merit (ZT =S2 σ Tk-1) of BaPbO3\\ is 0.01 at T = 300 K. BaPbO3\\ is a prospective TE material because it exhibits high electrical conductivity like metals. However, it exhibits remarkably low thermal conductivity, which renders it attractive TE qualities. The open perovskite structure of BaPbO3\\ allows it to accommodate a large variety of dopants in relatively large concentrations. This work investigates the variation of TE properties of BaPbO3\\ as Ba ions are systematically substituted by other cations.

  12. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  13. Barium inhibits arsenic-mediated apoptotic cell death in human squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro; Uemura, Noriyuki; Nizam, Saika; Khalequzzaman, Md; Thang, Nguyen D; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Akhand, Anwarul A; Shekhar, Hossain U; Nakajima, Tamie; Kato, Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Our fieldwork showed more than 1 μM (145.1 μg/L) barium in about 3 μM (210.7 μg/L) arsenic-polluted drinking well water (n = 72) in cancer-prone areas in Bangladesh, while the mean concentrations of nine other elements in the water were less than 3 μg/L. The types of cancer include squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We hypothesized that barium modulates arsenic-mediated biological effects, and we examined the effect of barium (1 μM) on arsenic (3 μM)-mediated apoptotic cell death of human HSC-5 and A431 SCC cells in vitro. Arsenic promoted SCC apoptosis with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK1/2 and caspase-3 activation (apoptotic pathway). In contrast, arsenic also inhibited SCC apoptosis with increased NF-κB activity and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression level and decreased JNK activity (antiapoptotic pathway). These results suggest that arsenic bidirectionally promotes apoptotic and antiapoptotic pathways in SCC cells. Interestingly, barium in the presence of arsenic increased NF-κB activity and XIAP expression and decreased JNK activity without affecting ROS production, resulting in the inhibition of the arsenic-mediated apoptotic pathway. Since the anticancer effect of arsenic is mainly dependent on cancer apoptosis, barium-mediated inhibition of arsenic-induced apoptosis may promote progression of SCC in patients in Bangladesh who keep drinking barium and arsenic-polluted water after the development of cancer. Thus, we newly showed that barium in the presence of arsenic might inhibit arsenic-mediated cancer apoptosis with the modulation of the balance between arsenic-mediated promotive and suppressive apoptotic pathways.

  14. Charge-separated and molecular heterobimetallic rare earth-rare earth and alkaline earth-rare earth aryloxo complexes featuring intramolecular metal-pi-arene interactions.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Glen B; Junk, Peter C; Moxey, Graeme J; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin; St Prix, Courtney; Zuniga, Maria F

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of a rare earth metal (Ln) and a potential divalent rare earth metal (Ln') or an alkaline earth metal (Ae) with 2,6-diphenylphenol (HOdpp) at elevated temperatures (200-250 degrees C) afforded heterobimetallic aryloxo complexes, which were structurally characterised. A charge-separated species [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)][Ln(Odpp)(4)] was obtained for a range of metals, demonstrating the similarities between the chemistry of the divalent rare earth metals and the alkaline earth metals. The [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)](+) cation in the heterobimetallic structures is unusual in that it consists solely of bridging aryloxide ligands. A molecular heterobimetallic species [AeEu(Odpp)(4)] (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba) was obtained by treating an alkaline earth metal and Eu metal with HOdpp at elevated temperatures. Similarly, [BaSr(Odpp)(4)] was prepared by treating Ba metal and Sr metal with HOdpp. Treatment of [Ba(2)(Odpp)(4)] with [Mg(Odpp)(2)(thf)(2)] in toluene afforded [Ba(2)(Odpp)(3)][Mg(Odpp)(3)(thf)]. Analogous solution-based syntheses were not possible for [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)][Ln(Odpp)(4)] complexes, for which the free-metal route was essential. As a result of the absence of additional donor ligands, the crystal structures of the heterobimetallic complexes feature extensive pi-Ph-metal interactions involving the pendant phenyl groups of the Odpp ligands, thus enabling the large electropositive metal atoms to attain coordination saturation. The charge-separated heterobimetallic species were purified by extraction with toluene/thf mixtures at ambient temperature (Ba-containing compounds) or by extraction with toluene under pressure above the boiling point of the solvent (other products). In donor solvents, heterobimetallic complexes other than those containing barium were found to fragment into homometallic species.

  15. Alteration of the fast excitatory postsynaptic current by barium in voltage-clamped amphibian sympathetic ganglion cells.

    PubMed Central

    Connor, E. A.; Parsons, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Barium-induced alterations in fast excitatory postsynaptic currents (e.p.s.cs) have been studied in voltage-clamped bullfrog sympathetic ganglion B cells. In the presence of 2-8 mM barium, e.p.s.c. decay was prolonged and in many cells the e.p.s.c. decay phase deviated from a single exponential function. The decay phase in these cases was more accurately described as the sum of two exponential functions. The frequency of occurrence of a complex decay increased both with increasing barium concentration and with hyperpolarization. Miniature e.p.s.c. decay also was prolonged in barium-treated cells. E.p.s.c. amplitude was not markedly affected by barium (2-8 mM) in cells voltage-clamped to -50 mV whereas at -90 mV there was a progressive increase in peak size with increasing barium concentration. In control cells the e.p.s.c.-voltage relationship was linear between -20 and -100 mV; however, this relationship became progressively non-linear with membrane hyperpolarization in barium-treated cells. The e.p.s.c. reversal potential was shifted to a more negative value in the presence of barium. There was a voltage-dependent increase in charge movement during the e.p.s.c. in barium-treated cells which was not present in control cells. We conclude that the voltage-dependent alteration in e.p.s.c. decay time course, peak amplitude and charge movement in barium-treated cells is due to a direct postsynaptic action of barium on the kinetics of receptor-channel gating in postganglionic sympathetic neurones. PMID:6333261

  16. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-11

    ISS024-E-014233 (11 Sept. 2010) --- A smoke plume near the northern Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. This broad view of the north coast of the Caspian Sea shows a smoke plume (left) and two river deltas (bottom and lower right). The larger delta is that of the Volga River which appears prominently here in sunglint (light reflected off a water surface back towards the observer), and the smaller less prominent delta is that of the Ural River. Wide angle, oblique views ? taken looking outward at an angle, rather than straight down towards Earth ? such as this give an excellent impression of how crew members onboard the space station view Earth. For a sense of scale, the Caucasus Mts. (across the Caspian, top right) are approximately 1,100 kilometers to the southwest of the International Space Station?s nadir point location ? the point on Earth directly underneath the spacecraft ? at the time this image was taken. The smoke plume appears to be sourced in the dark-toned coastal marsh vegetation along the outer fringe of the Ural River delta, rather than in a city or at some oil storage facility. Although even small fires produce plumes that are long and bright and thus easily visible from space, the density of the smoke in this plume, and its 350-kilometer length across the entire north lobe of the Caspian Sea, suggest it was a significant fire. The smoke was thick enough nearer the source to cast shadows on the sea surface below. Lines mark three separate pulses of smoke, the most recent, nearest the source, extending directly south away from the coastline (lower left). With time, plumes become progressively more diffuse. The oldest pulse appears to be the thinnest, casting no obvious shadows (center left).

  17. Barium Tagging n Solid Xenon for nEXO Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Tim; Chambers, Chris; Craycraft, Adam; Fairbank, William; nEXO Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    nEXO is a next-generation experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of the isotope Xe136 in a liquid xenon time projection chamber. Positive observation of this decay would determine the nature of the neutrino to be a Majorana particle. Since the daughter of this decay is barium (Ba136), detecting the presence of Ba136 at a decay site (called ``barium tagging'') would provide strong rejection of backgrounds in the search for this decay. This would involve detecting a single barium ion from within a macroscopic volume of liquid xenon. This technique may be available for a second phase of the nEXO detector and sensitivity beyond the inverted hierarchy to neutrino oscillations. Several methods of barium tagging are being explored by the nEXO collaboration, but here we present a method of trapping the barium ion/atom (it may neutralize) in solid xenon (SXe) at the end of a cold probe, and then detecting the ion/atom by its fluorescence in the SXe. Our group at CSU has been studying the fluorescence of Ba in SXe by laser excitation, in order to ultimately detect a single Ba +/Ba in a SXe sample. We present studies of fluorescence signals, as well as recent results on imaging small numbers of Ba atoms in SXe, in a focused laser region. This work is supported by grants from the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy.

  18. Effect of barium sulfate contrast medium on rheology and sensory texture attributes in a model food.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, O; Bulow, M; Ekman, S; Hall, G; Stading, M; Wendin, K

    2009-03-01

    The swallowing process can be visualized using videoradiography, by mixing food with contrast medium, e.g., barium sulfate (BaSO(4)), making it radiopaque. The sensory properties of foods may be affected by adding this medium. To evaluate if and to what extent sensory and rheological characteristics of mango purée were altered by adding barium sulfate to the food. This study evaluated four food samples based on mango purée, with no or added barium sulfate contrast medium (0%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 37.5%), by a radiographic method, and measured sensory texture properties and rheological characteristics. The sensory evaluation was performed by an external trained panel using quantitative descriptive analysis. The ease of swallowing the foods was also evaluated. The sensory texture properties of mango purée were significantly affected by the added barium in all evaluated attributes, as was the perception of particles. Moreover, ease of swallowing was significantly higher in the sample without added contrast medium. All samples decreased in extensional viscosity with increasing extension rate, i.e., all samples were tension thinning. Shear viscosity was not as dependent on the concentration of BaSO(4) as extensional viscosity. Addition of barium sulfate to a model food of mango purée has a major impact on perceived sensory texture attributes as well as on rheological parameters.

  19. High pressure–low temperature phase diagram of barium: Simplicity versus complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Desgreniers, Serge; Tse, John S., E-mail: John.Tse@usask.ca; State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, 130012 Changchun

    2015-11-30

    Barium holds a distinctive position among all elements studied upon densification. Indeed, it was the first example shown to violate the long-standing notion that high compression of simple metals should preserve or yield close-packed structures. From modest pressure conditions at room temperature, barium transforms at higher pressures from its simple structures to the extraordinarily complex atomic arrangements of the incommensurate and self-hosting Ba-IV phases. By a detailed mapping of the pressure/temperature structures of barium, we demonstrate the existence of another crystalline arrangement of barium, Ba-VI, at low temperature and high pressure. The simple structure of Ba-VI is unlike that ofmore » complex Ba-IV, the phase encountered in a similar pressure range at room temperature. First-principles calculations predict Ba-VI to be stable at high pressure and superconductive. The results illustrate the complexity of the low temperature-high pressure phase diagram of barium and the significant effect of temperature on structural phase transformations.« less

  20. Colonoscopy can miss diverticula of the left colon identified by barium enema

    PubMed Central

    Niikura, Ryota; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To identify the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticulosis as determined by barium enema. METHODS: A total of 65 patients with hematochezia who underwent colonoscopy and barium enema were analyzed, and the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticula was assessed. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve was compared in relation to age (< 70 or ≥ 70 years), sex, and colon location. The number of diverticula was counted, and the detection ratio was calculated. RESULTS: Colonic diverticula were observed in 46 patients with barium enema. Colonoscopy had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 90%. No significant differences were found in the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC-AUC) for age group or sex. The ROC-AUC of the left colon was significantly lower than that of the right colon (0.81 vs 0.96, P = 0.02). Colonoscopy identified 486 colonic diverticula, while barium enema identified 1186. The detection ratio for the entire colon was therefore 0.41 (486/1186). The detection ratio in the left colon (0.32, 189/588) was significantly lower than that of the right colon (0.50, 297/598) (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Compared with barium enema, only half the number of colonic diverticula can be detected by colonoscopy in the entire colon and even less in the left colon. PMID:23613630

  1. Colonoscopy can miss diverticula of the left colon identified by barium enema.

    PubMed

    Niikura, Ryota; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-04-21

    To identify the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticulosis as determined by barium enema. A total of 65 patients with hematochezia who underwent colonoscopy and barium enema were analyzed, and the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticula was assessed. The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve was compared in relation to age (< 70 or ≥ 70 years), sex, and colon location. The number of diverticula was counted, and the detection ratio was calculated. Colonic diverticula were observed in 46 patients with barium enema. Colonoscopy had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 90%. No significant differences were found in the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (ROC-AUC) for age group or sex. The ROC-AUC of the left colon was significantly lower than that of the right colon (0.81 vs 0.96, P = 0.02). Colonoscopy identified 486 colonic diverticula, while barium enema identified 1186. The detection ratio for the entire colon was therefore 0.41 (486/1186). The detection ratio in the left colon (0.32, 189/588) was significantly lower than that of the right colon (0.50, 297/598) (P < 0.01). Compared with barium enema, only half the number of colonic diverticula can be detected by colonoscopy in the entire colon and even less in the left colon.

  2. Chromospherically active stars. 11: Giant with compact hot companions and the barium star scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Busby, Michael R.; Eitter, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined spectroscopic orbits for three chromsopherically active giants that have hot compact companions. They are HD 160538 (KO III + wd, P = 904 days), HD 165141 (G8 III + wd, P approximately 5200 days), and HD 185510 (KO III + sdB, P = 20.6619 days). By fitting an IUE spectrum with theoretical models, we find the white dwarf companion of HD 165141 has a temperature of about 35,000 K. Spectral types and rotational velocities have been determined for the three giants and distances have been estimated. These three systems and 39 Ceti are compared with the barium star mass-transfer scenario. The long-period mild barium giant HD 165141 as well as HD 185510 and 39 Ceti, which have relatively short periods and normal abundance giants, appear to be consistent with this scenario. The last binary, HD 160538, a system with apparently near solar abundances, a white dwarf companion, and orbital characteristics similar to many barium stars, demonstrates that the existence of a white dwarf companion is insufficient to produce a barium star. The paucity of systems with confirmed white dwarf companions makes abundance analyses of HD 160538 and HD 165141 of great value in examining the role of metallicity in barium star formation.

  3. Chromospherically active stars. 6: Giants with compact hot companions and the barium star scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Busby, Michael R.; Eitter, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined spectroscopic orbits for three chromospherically active giants that have hot compact companions. They are HD 160538 (K0 III + wd, P = 904 days), HD 165141 (G8 III + wd, P approximately 5200 days), and HD 185510 (K0 III + sdB, P = 20.6619 days). By fitting an IUE spectrum with theoretical models, we find the white dwarf companion of HD 165141 has a temperature of about 35000 K. Spectral types and rotational velocities have been determined for the three giants and distances have been estimated. These three systems and 39 Ceti are compared with the barium star mass-transfer scenario. The long-period mild barium giant HD 165141 as well as HD 185510 and 39 Ceti, which have relatively short periods and normal abundance giants, appear to be consistent with this scenario. The last binary, HD 160538, a system with apparently near solar abundances, a white dwarf companion, and orbital characteristics similar to many barium stars, demonstrates that the existence of a white-dwarf companion is insufficient to produce a barium star. The paucity of systems with confirmed white-dwarf companions makes abundance analyses of HD 160538 and HD 165141 of great value in examining the role of metallicity in barium star formation.

  4. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-04-20

    ISS047e069406 (04/20/2016) ---Earth observation image taken by the Expedition 47 crew aboard the International Space Station. This is an oblique south-looking view of the main Bahama island chain. Cuba is across the entire top of the image, the Florida Peninsula on the right margin. In the Bahamas, the main Andros island is just distinguishable under cloud upper left of center. Under less cloud is the Abaco Islands in the foreground (middle of pic nearest camera left of center.)

  5. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-24

    ISS040-E-018729 (24 June 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed this image featuring the peninsular portion of the state of Florida. Lake Okeechobee stands out in the south central part of the state. The heavily-populated area of Miami can be traced along the Atlantic Coast near the bottom of the scene. Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center are just below center frame on the Atlantic Coast. The Florida Keys are at the south (left) portion of the scene and the Gulf Coast, including the Tampa-St. Petersburg area, is near frame center.

  6. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-29

    ISS040-E-005979 (29 May 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the International Space Station used a 200mm lens to photograph this image from 222 nautical miles above Earth showing Harris County and Galveston County, Texas plus several other surrounding counties, including a long stretch along the Gulf of Mexico (bottom left). The entirety of Galveston Bay is visible at bottom center. Just below center lies the 1625-acre site of NASA's Johnson Space Center, one of the training venues for all space station crew members and the nearby long-time area of residence for NASA astronauts.

  7. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-31

    ISS036-E-027014 (31 July 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, as it was passing over Eastern Europe on July 31, 2013, took this night picture looking toward the Mediterranean Sea, which almost blends into the horizon. Also visible are the Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Parts of the following countries are among those visible as well: Greece, Italy, Sicily, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia and Albania. The high oblique 50mm lens shot includes a number of stars in the late July sky. A solar array panel is visible in the darkness on the right side of the frame.

  8. Earth Explorer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Explorer Web site provides access to millions of land-related products, including the following: Satellite images from Landsat, advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR), and Corona data sets. Aerial photographs from the National Aerial Photography Program, NASA, and USGS data sets.  Digital cartographic data from digital elevation models, digital line graphs, digital raster graphics, and digital orthophoto quadrangles. USGS paper maps Digital, film, and paper products are available, and many products can be previewed before ordering.

  9. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-24

    A Delta II rocket carrying the Geomagnetic Tail Lab (GEOTAIL) spacecraft lifts off at Launch Complex 17, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) into a cloud-dappled sky. This liftoff marks the first Delta launch under the medium expendable launch vehicle services contract between NASA and McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Co. The GEOTAIL mission, a joint US/Japanese project, is the first in a series of five satellites to study the interactions between the Sun, the Earth's magnetic field, and the Van Allen radiation belts.

  10. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-31

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft embarks on a journey that will culminate in a close encounter with an asteroid. The launch of NEAR inaugurates NASA's irnovative Discovery program of small-scale planetary missions with rapid, lower-cost development cycles and focused science objectives. NEAR will rendezvous in 1999 with the asteroid 433 Eros to begin the first long-term, close-up look at an asteroid's surface composition and physical properties. NEAR's science payload includes an x-ray/gamma ray spectrometer, an near-infrared spectrograph, a laser rangefinder, a magnetometer, a radio science experiment and a multi-spectral imager.

  11. Commensurate antiferromagnetic excitations as a signature of the pseudogap in the tetragonal high-T c cuprate HgBa 2CuO 4+δ

    DOE PAGES

    Chan, M. K.; Dorow, C. J.; Mangin-Thro, L.; ...

    2016-03-04

    We report that antiferromagnetic correlations have been argued to be the cause of the d-wave superconductivity and the pseudogap phenomena exhibited by the cuprates. Although the antiferromagnetic response in the pseudogap state has been reported for a number of compounds, there exists no information for structurally simple HgBa 2CuO 4+δ. We report neutron-scattering results for HgBa 2CuO 4+δ (superconducting transition temperature T c≈71 K, pseudogap temperature T*≈305 K) that demonstrate the absence of the two most prominent features of the magnetic excitation spectrum of the cuprates: the X-shaped ‘hourglass’ response and the resonance mode in the superconducting state. Instead, themore » response is Y-shaped, gapped and significantly enhanced below T*, and hence a prominent signature of the pseudogap state.« less

  12. P-Tether-Mediated, Iterative SN2'-Cuprate Alkylation Strategy to Skipped Polyol Stereotetrads: Utility of an Oxidative "Function Switch" with Phosphite-Borane Tethers.

    PubMed

    Markley, Jana L; Hanson, Paul R

    2017-05-19

    The development of a P-tether-mediated, iterative S N 2'-cuprate alkylation protocol for the formation of 1,3-skipped polyol stereotetrads is reported. This two-directional synthetic strategy builds molecular complexity from simple, readily prepared C 2 -symmetric dienediols and unites the chemistry of both temporary phosphite-borane tethers and temporary phosphate tethers-through an oxidative "function switch" of the P-tether itself-to generate intermediates that were previously inaccessible via either method alone.

  13. Herbal Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Subtle vegetation changes are visible in this year-long visualization. Large-scale patterns vary with seasons, but the local variations in green are also sensitive precipitation, drought and fire. High values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, represent dense green functioning vegetation and low NDVI values represent sparse green vegetation or vegetation under stress from limiting conditions, such as drought. The visualization was created from a year’s worth of data from April 2012 to April 2013. The information was sent back to Earth from the Visible-Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership or Suomi NPP satellite, a partnership between NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA. Credit: NASA/NOAA To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NPP/news/vegetation.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  14. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-17

    ISS036-E-009405 (17 June 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station, some 240 miles above Earth, used a 50mm lens to record this oblique nighttime image of a large part of the nation’s second largest state in area, including the four largest metropolitan areas in population. The extent of the metropolitan areas is easily visible at night due to city and highway lights. The largest metro area, Dallas-Fort Worth, often referred to informally as the Metroplex, is the heavily cloud-covered area at the top center of the photo. Neighboring Oklahoma, on the north side of the Red River, less than 100 miles to the north of the Metroplex, appears to be experiencing thunderstorms. The Houston metropolitan area, including the coastal city of Galveston, is at lower right. To the east near the Texas border with Louisiana, the metropolitan area of Beaumont-Port Arthur appears as a smaller blotch of light, also hugging the coast of the Texas Gulf. Moving inland to the left side of the picture one can delineate the San Antonio metro area. The capital city of Austin can be seen to the northeast of San Antonio. This and hundreds of thousands of other Earth photos taken by astronauts and cosmonauts over the past 50 years are available on http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov

  15. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-06

    ISS028-E-014782 (6 July 2011) --- The Shoemaker (formerly Teague) Impact Structure, located in Western Australia in a drainage basin south of the Waldburg Range, presents an other-worldly appearance in this detailed photograph recorded from onboard the International Space Station on July 6. The Shoemaker impact site is approximately 30 kilometers in diameter, and is clearly defined by concentric ring structures formed in sedimentary rocks (brown to dark brown, image center) that were deformed by the impact event approximately 1630 million years ago, according to the Earth Impact Database. Several saline and ephemeral lakes?Nabberu, Teague, Shoemaker, and numerous smaller ponds?occupy the land surface between the concentric ring structures. Differences in color result from both water depth and suspended sediments, with some bright salt crusts visible around the edges of smaller ponds (image center The Teague Impact Structure was renamed Shoemaker in honor of the late Dr. Eugene M. Shoemaker, a pioneer in the field of impact crater studies and planetary geology, and founder of the Astrogeology Branch of the United States Geological Survey. The image was recorded with a digital still camera using a 200 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  16. Spectroscopic study of trivalent praseodymium in barium yttrium fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowlby, Brian Edward

    1998-09-01

    This work investigates the spectroscopic properties of trivalent praseodymium (Pr3+) in barium yttrium fluoride (BaY2F8). Two doping concentrations were studied: BaY2F8:Pr3+ (.3%) and BaY2F8:Pr3+ (1%). Absorption spectra were taken at 77K and 300K and these were then used to calculate the Judd-Ofelt coefficients for both samples. These coefficients were then used to calculate the theoretical lifetimes and radiative branching ratios for all manifolds. Continuous luminescence spectra and lifetime measurements were also performed, and from these, experimentally determined values for the branching ratio and lifetimes were determined. These were then compared to their theoretical counterparts. It was found that while the theory gave values that were qualitatively correct, the quantitative correlation between theory and experiment shows the complexity of the physical reality and the difficulty of synthesizing an encompassing theoretical model. Absorption spectra and continuous luminescence spectra were also used to determine the energy levels of all manifolds in both samples. A total of 59 energy levels in 11 manifolds were identified in the BaY2F8:Pr3+ (1%) sample, while 51 levels in 11 manifolds were identified in the BaY2F8:Pr3+ (.3%) sample. Finally, the effects of temperature on the line width and line position for several radiative transitions was studied. It was found that while most transitions exhibited the expected broadening and shifting towards longer wavelengths at higher temperatures (a 'red shift'), the transition from the 3P0 level to the 3H4 ground state showed a shift towards shorter wavelengths at higher temperature (a 'blue shift'). Again this highlights the complexity of the ion- host interaction.

  17. Noise characteristics of barium ferrite particulate rigid disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Naoki; Inoue, Hitoshi; Spratt, Geoffrey; Uesaka, Yasutaro; Katsumoto, Masayuki

    1991-04-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between the noise characteristics and magnetic properties of longitudinal barium ferrite (Ba-F) rigid disks with different switching field distributions (SFD). The magnetomotive force dependencies of reverse dc-erase (RDC) noise are measured and compared with SFD values. Coated disks with acicular magnetic particles have dips and thin-film disks peaks in the RDC. In Ba-F disks, both cases are observed depending on the SFD values, though the depths or heights of the RDC noise are much smaller than those of coated disks with acicular particles or thin-film disks. Disks with small SFD values have peaks, and disks with large SFD values have dips. In order to find the relationship between noise properties and magnetic properties, interparticle interactions in Ba-F disks are investigated. Reverse dc remanence Id(H) and ac-demagnetized isothermal remanence Ir(H) are measured. Both are normalized by the saturation remanence. The deviation from the noninteracting system, ΔM = Id(H) - [1ΔM=Id(H)-[1- 2Ir(H)] and an interaction field factor (IFF) given by (H'r - Hr)/Hc, are derived from these remanent properties. Here, H'r is the field corresponding to 50% of the remanent magnetization, Hr is remanence coercivity. In Ba-F disks, ΔM shows positive interactions, and the peak heights of ΔM increase and IFF decrease with decreasing SFD values. Positive interactions between Ba-F particles seem to be caused by particle stacking. Therefore, particle stacking results in small SFD values and peak-type RDC noise.

  18. Spectroscopic investigations of neodymium doped barium bismuth fluoroborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariselvam, K.; Arun Kumar, R.; Manasa, P.

    2018-06-01

    A new series of neodymium doped barium bismuth fluoroborate glasses with the chemical composition of (70-x)H3BO3 + 5Bi2O3 + 10BaCO3 + 7.5CaF2 + 7.5ZnO + xNd2O3 (where x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 (in wt.%) have been prepared by the conventional melt quenching method. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. The Urbach energy reveals the minimum disorderness of the glass samples. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ωλ = 2, 4 and 6) were derived from the absorption spectrum and were used to calculate the emission properties. The near infrared emission spectra recorded with 808 nm laser diode excitation for different concentrations of Nd3+ ions and the emission for the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition at 1060 nm found to be high intense. The measured decay curves for 4F3/2 fluorescent level exhibit single exponential nature with shortening of lifetime with increase in concentration. The laser parameters such as stimulated emission cross-section, branching ratios, gain band width and optical gain values are found to be high for BBFB:Nd3+ (0.5 wt%) glass. Hence, the results suggested that the present BBFB:Nd3+ (0.5 wt%) glass could be used as an efficient infrared laser source around 1.06 μm region.

  19. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of Barium Zirconate Titanate (BZT) nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Simin; Aghayan, Mahdi; Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Behdani, Mohammad; Asoodeh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    So far, the antibacterial activity of some organic and inorganic compounds has been studied. Barium zirconate titanate [Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3] (x = 0.05) nanoparticle is an example of inorganic materials. In vitro studies have provided evidence for the antibacterial activity of this nanoparticle. In the current study, the nano-powder was synthesized by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction showed that the powder was single-phase and had a perovskite structure at the calcination temperature of 1000 °C. Antibacterial activity of the desired nanoparticle was assessed on two gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431 and Micrococcus luteus PTCC1625) and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli HP101BA 7601c and clinically isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria according to Radial Diffusion Assay (RDA). The results showed that the antibacterial activity of BZT nano-powder on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was acceptable. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this nano-powder was determined. The results showed that MIC values for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus were about 2.3 μg/mL, 7.3 μg/mL, 3 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL, respectively. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was also evaluated and showed that the growth of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus could be decreased at 2.3, 14, 3 and 18 μg/mL of BZT. Average log reduction in viable bacteria count in time-kill assay ranged between 6 Log10 cfu/mL to zero after 24 h of incubation with BZT nanoparticle. PMID:25763046

  20. Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate for Thin-Film Capacitor Applications.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Glyn J; Kratzer, Martin; Dubs, Martin; Felzer, Heinz; Mamazza, Robert

    2012-04-10

    New apparatus and a new process for the sputter deposition of modified barium titanate thin-films were developed. Films were deposited at temperatures up to 900 °C from a Ba₀ .96 Ca 0. 04 Ti 0. 82 Zr 0. 18 O₃ (BCZTO) target directly onto Si, Ni and Pt surfaces and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Film texture and crystallinity were found to depend on both deposition temperature and substrate: above 600 °C, the as-deposited films consisted of well-facetted crystallites with the cubic perovskite structure. A strongly textured Pt (111) underlayer enhanced the (001) orientation of BCZTO films deposited at 900 °C, 10 mtorr pressure and 10% oxygen in argon. Similar films deposited onto a Pt (111) textured film at 700 °C and directly onto (100) Si wafers showed relatively larger (011) and diminished intensity (00ℓ) diffraction peaks. Sputter ambients containing oxygen caused the Ni underlayers to oxidize even at 700 °C: Raising the process temperature produced more diffraction peaks of NiO with increased intensities. Thin-film capacitors were fabricated using ~500 nm thick BCZTO dielectrics and both Pt and Ni top and bottom electrodes. Small signal capacitance measurements were carried out to determine capacitance and parallel resistance at low frequencies and from these data, the relative permittivity (e r ) and resistivity (r) of the dielectric films were calculated; values ranged from ~50 to >2,000, and from ~10⁴ to ~10 10 Ω∙cm, respectively.