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Sample records for earth connection coronal

  1. Coronal Hole Faces Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-14

    A substantial coronal hole rotated into a position where it is facing Earth (Aug. 9-11, 2017). Coronal holes are areas of open magnetic field that spew out charged particles as solar wind that spreads into space. If that solar wind interacts with our own magnetosphere it can generate aurora. In this view of the sun in extreme ultraviolet light, the coronal hole appears as the dark stretch near the center of the sun. It was the most distinctive feature on the sun over the past week. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21874

  2. Coronal Hole Facing Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-08

    An extensive equatorial coronal hole has rotated so that it is now facing Earth (May 2-4, 2018). The dark coronal hole extends about halfway across the solar disk. It was observed in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. This magnetically open area is streaming solar wind (i.e., a stream of charged particles released from the sun) into space. When Earth enters a solar wind stream and the stream interacts with our magnetosphere, we often experience nice displays of aurora. Videos are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00624

  3. Coronal Hole Facing Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-15

    An extensive equatorial coronal hole has rotated so that it is now facing Earth (May 2-4, 2018). The dark coronal hole extends about halfway across the solar disk. It was observed in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. This magnetically open area is streaming solar wind (i.e., a stream of charged particles released from the sun) into space. When Earth enters a solar wind stream and the stream interacts with our magnetosphere, we often experience nice displays of aurora. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00577

  4. Earth-Directed Coronal Hole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-21

    A dark coronal hole that was facing towards Earth for several days spewed streams of solar wind in our direction (Sept. 18-21, 2016). A coronal hole is a magnetically open region. The magnetic fields have opened up allowing solar wind (comprised of charged particles) to stream into space. Gusts of solar wind can generate beautiful aurora when they reach Earth. The video clip shows the sun in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21067

  5. Earth-Facing Coronal Holes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-09

    Two good-sized coronal holes have rotated around to the center of the sun where they will be spewing solar wind towards Earth (Nov. 8-9, 2016). Coronal holes are areas of open magnetic field from which solar wind particles stream into space. In this wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light they appear as the two dark areas at the center and lower portion of the sun. The stream of particles should reach Earth in a few days and are likely to generate aurora. Videos are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA16909

  6. SYMPATHETIC FILAMENT ERUPTIONS CONNECTED BY CORONAL DIMMINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yunchun; Yang Jiayan; Hong Junchao

    2011-09-10

    We present for the first time detailed observations of three successive, interdependent filament eruptions that occurred one by one within 5 hr from different locations beyond the range of a single active region. The first eruption was observed from an active region and was associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME), during which diffuse and complex coronal dimmings formed, largely extending to the two other filaments located in quiet-Sun regions. Then, both quiescent filaments consecutively underwent the second and third eruptions, while the nearby dimmings were persistent. Comparing the result of a derived coronal magnetic configuration, the magnetic connectivity betweenmore » the dimmings suggested that they were caused by the joint effect of simple expansion of overlying loop systems forced by the first eruption, as well as by its erupting field interacting or reconnecting with the surrounding magnetic structures. Note that the dimming process in the first eruption indicated a weakening and partial removal of an overlying magnetic field constraint on the two other filaments, and thus one can physically connect these eruptions as sympathetic. It appears that the peculiar magnetic field configuration in our event was largely favorable to the occurrence of sympathetic filament eruptions. Because coronal dimmings are frequent and common phenomena in solar eruptions, especially in CME events, it is very likely that they represent a universal agent that can link consecutive eruptions nearby with sympathetic eruptions.« less

  7. EUV Coronal Waves: Atmospheric and Heliospheric Connections and Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsourakos, S.

    2015-12-01

    Since their discovery in late 90's by EIT on SOHO, the study EUV coronal waves has been a fascinating andfrequently strongly debated research area. While it seems as ifan overall consensus has been reached about the nurture and nature of this phenomenon,there are still several important questions regarding EUV waves. By focusing on the most recentobservations, we will hereby present our current understanding about the nurture and nature of EUV waves,discuss their connections with other atmospheric and heliospheric phenomena (e.g.,flares and CMEs, Moreton waves, coronal shocks, coronal oscillations, SEP events) and finallyassess their possible energetic contribution to the overall budget of relatederuptive phenomena.

  8. Predicting the magnetic vectors within coronal mass ejections arriving at Earth: 1. Initial architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savani, N. P.; Vourlidas, A.; Szabo, A.; Mays, M. L.; Richardson, I. G.; Thompson, B. J.; Pulkkinen, A.; Evans, R.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.

    2015-06-01

    The process by which the Sun affects the terrestrial environment on short timescales is predominately driven by the amount of magnetic reconnection between the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere. Reconnection occurs most efficiently when the solar wind magnetic field has a southward component. The most severe impacts are during the arrival of a coronal mass ejection (CME) when the magnetosphere is both compressed and magnetically connected to the heliospheric environment. Unfortunately, forecasting magnetic vectors within coronal mass ejections remain elusive. Here we report how, by combining a statistically robust helicity rule for a CME's solar origin with a simplified flux rope topology, the magnetic vectors within the Earth-directed segment of a CME can be predicted. In order to test the validity of this proof-of-concept architecture for estimating the magnetic vectors within CMEs, a total of eight CME events (between 2010 and 2014) have been investigated. With a focus on the large false alarm of January 2014, this work highlights the importance of including the early evolutionary effects of a CME for forecasting purposes. The angular rotation in the predicted magnetic field closely follows the broad rotational structure seen within the in situ data. This time-varying field estimate is implemented into a process to quantitatively predict a time-varying Kp index that is described in detail in paper II. Future statistical work, quantifying the uncertainties in this process, may improve the more heuristic approach used by early forecasting systems.

  9. A STEREO Survey of Magnetic Cloud Coronal Mass Ejections Observed at Earth in 2008–2012

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Brian E.; Wu, Chin-Chun; Howard, Russell A.

    We identify coronal mass ejections (CMEs) associated with magnetic clouds (MCs) observed near Earth by the Wind spacecraft from 2008 to mid-2012, a time period when the two STEREO spacecraft were well positioned to study Earth-directed CMEs. We find 31 out of 48 Wind MCs during this period can be clearly connected with a CME that is trackable in STEREO imagery all the way from the Sun to near 1 au. For these events, we perform full 3D reconstructions of the CME structure and kinematics, assuming a flux rope (FR) morphology for the CME shape, considering the full complement ofmore » STEREO and SOHO imaging constraints. We find that the FR orientations and sizes inferred from imaging are not well correlated with MC orientations and sizes inferred from the Wind data. However, velocities within the MC region are reproduced reasonably well by the image-based reconstruction. Our kinematic measurements are used to provide simple prescriptions for predicting CME arrival times at Earth, provided for a range of distances from the Sun where CME velocity measurements might be made. Finally, we discuss the differences in the morphology and kinematics of CME FRs associated with different surface phenomena (flares, filament eruptions, or no surface activity).« less

  10. Modeling the Sun-Earth Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, W. J.

    2003-04-01

    Space weather is caused by a series of interconnected events, beginning at the Sun and ending in the near-Earth space environment. Our ability to predict conditions and events in space depends on our understanding of these connections, and more importantly, our ability to predict details, such as the orientation of the magnetic field within a CME that is on its way to Earth. One approach to both improved understanding and prediction is through the use of models, particularly computer simulation models. Although models of the space environment are not yet good enough for this approach to be quantitative, things are changing. Models of components of the system the magnetosphere or the Sun’s corona, for example are now approaching a point where the biggest uncertainties in the model results are due to uncertainties in boundary conditions or in interactions with neighboring regions. Thus the time is ripe for the models to be joined into one large model that can deal with the complex couplings between the components of the system. In this talk we will review efforts to do this being undertaken by the new NSF Science and Technology Center, the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling, a consortium of ten institutions headed by Boston University. We will discuss results of initial efforts to couple MHD models of the corona and solar wind, and to couple a global magnetospheric MHD model with a global ionosphere/thermosphere model and a ring current particle model. Coupling the SAIC coronal MHD model and the U Colorado/SEC solar wind MHD codes allows us to track CMEs from the base of the corona to 1 AU. The results show how shocks form and develop in the heliosphere, and how the CME flattens into a pancake shape by the time it reaches earth. Coupling the Lyon/Fedder/Mobarry global MHD model with the Rice Convection Model and the NCAR TIE-GCM/TING model allows full dynamic coupling between the magnetosphere, the ionosphere/thermosphere, and the hot plasma in the inner

  11. The Connection Between Solar Coronal Cavities and Solar Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, B.; Karna, N.; Prchlik, J.; Reeves, K.; Kempton, D.; Angryk, R.

    2017-12-01

    Filaments are structures in the solar corona made up of relatively cool, dense, partially ionized plasma. Coronal cavities, circular or elliptical regions of low plasma density, are observed above prominences on the solar limb when viewed in EUV and white light coronal images. Since most filament/cavity eruptions lead to a coronal mass ejection (CME), determining the likelihood of an eruption event will improve our ability to predict space weather. We examine SDO/AIA cavity metadata and HEK filament metadata to determine which cavities are associated with which filaments from 2012 to 2015. Our study involved 140 cavities and 368 filaments that appeared poleward of +-30 degrees. We categorized the cavities and filaments based on the stability of the structures, defined by whether or not the cavity and filament exist long enough to track fully across the solar disk. Using these categories we perform a statistical study on various filament qualities within the metadata. Our findings indicate that filaments with cavities are observed more often at high latitude in compared to filaments without cavities. Moreover, our study indicates that a statistically significant difference exists between the filament length and tilt distributions for certain categories. This work supported by the NSF-REU solar physics program at SAO, grant number AGS-1560313, and the NSF-DIBBS project, grant number ACI-1443061.

  12. Radio-Loud Coronal Mass Ejections Without Shocks Near Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; SaintCyr, O. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Kaiser, M. L.; Xie, H.; Makela, P.; Akiyama, S.

    2010-01-01

    Type II radio bursts are produced by low energy electrons accelerated in shocks driven by corona) mass ejections (CMEs). One can infer shocks near the Sun, in the Interplanetary medium, and near Earth depending on the wavelength range in which the type II bursts are produced. In fact, type II bursts are good indicators of CMEs that produce solar energetic particles. If the type 11 burst occurs from a source on the Earth-facing side of the solar disk, it is highly likely that a shock arrives at Earth in 2-3 days and hence can be used to predict shock arrival at Earth. However, a significant fraction of CMEs producing type II bursts were not associated shocks at Earth, even though the CMEs originated close to the disk center. There are several reasons for the lack of shock at 1 AU. CMEs originating at large central meridian distances (CMDs) may be driving a shock, but the shock may not be extended sufficiently to reach to the Sun-Earth line. Another possibility is CME cannibalism because of which shocks merge and one observes a single shock at Earth. Finally, the CME-driven shock may become weak and dissipate before reaching 1 AU. We examined a set of 30 type II bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES experiment that had the solar sources very close to the disk center (within a CMD of 15 degrees), but did not have shock at Earth. We find that the near-Sun speeds of the associated CMEs average to approx.600 km/s, only slightly higher than the average speed of CMEs associated with radio-quiet shocks. However, the fraction of halo CMEs is only approx.28%, compared to 40% for radio-quiet shocks and 72% for all radio-loud shocks. We conclude that the disk-center radio loud CMEs with no shocks at 1 AU are generally of lower energy and they drive shocks only close to the Sun.

  13. CISM: Modeling the Sun-Earth Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, W. J.; Team, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    The Center for Integrated SpaceWeather Modeling (CISM), an NSF Science and Technology Center that is a consortium of ten institutions headed by Boston University, has as its primary goal the development of a series of ever improving versions of a comprehensive physics-based simulation model that describes the space environment from the Sun to the Earth. CISM will do this by coupling existing models of components of the system. In this paper we review our progress to date and summarize our plans. We discuss results of initial coupling of MHD models of the corona and solar wind, and of a global magnetospheric MHD model with a global ionosphere/thermosphere model, a radiation belt model, and a ring current particle model. Coupling the SAIC coronal MHD model and the U Colorado/SEC solar wind MHD codes allows us to track CMEs from the base of the corona to 1 AU. The results show how shocks form and develop in the heliosphere, and how the CME flattens into a pancake shape by the time it reaches earth. Coupling the Lyon/Fedder/Mobarry global MHD model with the Rice Convection Model and the NCAR TIE-GCM/TING model allows full dynamic coupling between the magnetosphere, the ionosphere/thermosphere, and the hot plasma in the inner magnetosphere. Including the Dartmouth radiation belt model shows how the radiation belts evolve in a realistic magnetosphere.

  14. Observing Coronal Mass Ejections from the Sun-Earth L5 Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Davila, J. M.; St Cyr, O. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomenon in the heliosphere and are known to be responsible for severe space weather. Most of the current knowledge on CMEs accumulated over the past few decades has been derived from observations made from the Sun-Earth line, which is not the ideal vantage point to observe Earth-affecting CMEs (Gopalswamy et al., 2011a,b). The STEREO mission viewed CMEs from points away from the Sun-Earth line and demonstrated the importance of such observations in understanding the three-dimensional structure of CMEs and their true kinematics. In this paper, we show that it is advantageous to observe CMEs from the Sun-Earth L5 point in studying CMEs that affect Earth. In particular, these observations are important in identifying that part of the CME that is likely to arrive at Earth. L5 observations are critical for several aspects of CME studies such as: (i) they can also provide near-Sun space speed of CMEs, which is an important input for modeling Earth-arriving CMEs, (ii) backside and frontside CMEs can be readily distinguished even without inner coronal imagers, and (iii) preceding CMEs in the path of Earth-affecting CMEs can be identified for a better estimate of the travel time, which may not be possible from the Sun-Earth line. We also discuss how the L5 vantage point compares with the Sun-Earth L4 point for observing Earth-affecting CMEs. References Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., St. Cyr, O. C., Sittler, E. C., Auchère, F., Duvall, T. L., Hoeksema, J. T., Maksimovic, M., MacDowall, R. J., Szabo, A., Collier, M. R. (2011a), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5 JASTP 73, 658-663, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013 Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., Auchère, F., Schou, J., Korendyke, C. M. Shih, A., Johnston, J. C., MacDowall, R. J., Maksimovic, M., Sittler, E., et al. (2011b), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): a mission at

  15. Geomagnetic response of interplanetary coronal mass ejections in the Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badruddin; Mustajab, F.; Derouich, M.

    2018-05-01

    A coronal mass ejections (CME) is the huge mass of plasma with embedded magnetic field ejected abruptly from the Sun. These CMEs propagate into interplanetary space with different speed. Some of them hit the Earth's magnetosphere and create many types of disturbances; one of them is the disturbance in the geomagnetic field. Individual geomagnetic disturbances differ not only in their magnitudes, but the nature of disturbance is also different. It is, therefore, desirable to understand these differences not only to understand the physics of geomagnetic disturbances but also to understand the properties of solar/interplanetary structures producing these disturbances of different magnitude and nature. In this work, we use the spacecraft measurements of CMEs with distinct magnetic properties propagating in the interplanetary space and generating disturbances of different levels and nature. We utilize their distinct plasma and field properties to search for the interplanetary parameter(s) playing important role in influencing the geomagnetic response of different coronal mass ejections.

  16. The Connection Between the Longitudinal Extent of SEP Events and the Properties of Coronal Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raouafi, N. E.; Lario, D.; Kwon, R. Y.; Riley, P.

    2016-12-01

    Under the paradigm that the acceleration of solar energetic particles (SEPs) is mainly due to shocks initially driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the observation of a SEP event (generated by a single solar eruption) from distant heliospheric locations poses the question of whether shocks are at the origin of the wide-longitudinal spread of the SEP events. The combination of remote-sensing observations of the corona in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and white-light (WL) images obtained from multiple vantage points allows us to reconstruct the 3D large-scale structure of the coronal shocks formed around CMEs, and hence estimate the speed of their fronts. On the other hand, coronal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations allow us to estimate the characteristics of the medium where the shocks propagate and expand. The extent of the shocks and their capability to accelerate SEPs depend on the properties of this medium. We analyze, for the well-studied SEP events of 11 Apr 2013 and 25 Feb 2014 observed by the two STEREO spacecraft and near-Earth observers [Lario et al., 2014, 2016], whether (1) the extent of the shocks as seen in EUV and WL images are determined by the pre-event medium background provided by the MHD simulations, and (2) the properties of the associated shocks at different longitudes are consistent with the thesis that the SEPs observed by the different spacecraft are accelerated and injected by the expanding shocks.

  17. The magnetic connectivity of coronal shocks from behind-the-limb flares to the visible solar surface during γ-ray events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikov, I.; Rouillard, A. P.; Share, G. H.

    2017-12-01

    Context. The observation of >100 MeV γ-rays in the minutes to hours following solar flares suggests that high-energy particles interacting in the solar atmosphere can be stored and/or accelerated for long time periods. The occasions when γ-rays are detected even when the solar eruptions occurred beyond the solar limb as viewed from Earth provide favorable viewing conditions for studying the role of coronal shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the acceleration of these particles. Aims: In this paper, we investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the coronal shocks inferred from stereoscopic observations of behind-the-limb flares to determine if they could be the source of the particles producing the γ-rays. Methods: We analyzed the CMEs and early formation of coronal shocks associated with γ-ray events measured by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) from three eruptions behind the solar limb as viewed from Earth on 2013 Oct. 11, 2014 Jan. 06 and Sep. 01. We used a 3D triangulation technique, based on remote-sensing observations to model the expansion of the CME shocks from above the solar surface to the upper corona. Coupling the expansion model to various models of the coronal magnetic field allowed us to derive the time-dependent distribution of shock Mach numbers and the magnetic connection of particles produced by the shock to the solar surface visible from Earth. Results: The reconstructed shock fronts for the three events became magnetically connected to the visible solar surface after the start of the flare and just before the onset of the >100 MeV γ-ray emission. The shock surface at these connections also exhibited supercritical Mach numbers required for significant particle energization. The strongest γ-ray emissions occurred when the flanks of the shocks were connected in a quasi-perpendicular geometry to the field lines reaching the visible surface. Multipoint, in situ, measurements of solar energetic particles (SEPs) were

  18. Strong coronal channelling and interplanetary evolution of a solar storm up to Earth and Mars

    PubMed Central

    Möstl, Christian; Rollett, Tanja; Frahm, Rudy A.; Liu, Ying D.; Long, David M.; Colaninno, Robin C.; Reiss, Martin A.; Temmer, Manuela; Farrugia, Charles J.; Posner, Arik; Dumbović, Mateja; Janvier, Miho; Démoulin, Pascal; Boakes, Peter; Devos, Andy; Kraaikamp, Emil; Mays, Mona L.; Vršnak, Bojan

    2015-01-01

    The severe geomagnetic effects of solar storms or coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are to a large degree determined by their propagation direction with respect to Earth. There is a lack of understanding of the processes that determine their non-radial propagation. Here we present a synthesis of data from seven different space missions of a fast CME, which originated in an active region near the disk centre and, hence, a significant geomagnetic impact was forecasted. However, the CME is demonstrated to be channelled during eruption into a direction +37±10° (longitude) away from its source region, leading only to minimal geomagnetic effects. In situ observations near Earth and Mars confirm the channelled CME motion, and are consistent with an ellipse shape of the CME-driven shock provided by the new Ellipse Evolution model, presented here. The results enhance our understanding of CME propagation and shape, which can help to improve space weather forecasts. PMID:26011032

  19. Connecting white light to in situ observations of 22 coronal mass ejections from the Sun to 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moestl, C.; Amla, K.; Farrugia, C. J.; Hall, J. R.; Liewer, P. C.; De Jong, E.; Colaninno, R. C.; Vourlidas, A.; Veronig, A. M.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Peinhart, V.; Davies, J.; Lugaz, N.; Liu, Y. D.; McEnulty, T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Galvin, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    We study the feasibility of using a Heliospheric Imager (HI) instrument, such as STEREO/HI, for unambiguously connecting remote images to in situ observations of coronal mass ejection (CMEs). Our goal is to develop and test methods to predict CME parameters from heliospheric images, but our dataset can actually be used to benchmark any ICME propagation model. The results are of interest concerning future missions such as Solar Orbiter, or a dedicated space weather mission at the Sun-Earth L5 point (e.g. EASCO mission concept). We compare the predictions for speed and arrival time for 22 CME events (between 2008-2012), each observed remotely by one STEREO spacecraft, to the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) speed and arrival time observed at in situ observatories (STEREO PLASTIC/IMPACT, Wind SWE/MFI). We use forward modeling for STEREO-COR2, and geometrical models for STEREO-HII, assuming different CME front shapes (Fixed-Phi, Harmonic Mean, Self-similar expansion), and fit them to the CME time-elongation functions with the SolarSoft SATPLOT tool, assuming constant CME speed and direction. The arrival times derived from imaging match the in situ ones +/- 8 hours, and speeds are consistent within +/-300 km/s, including CME apex/flank effects. We find no preference in the predictive capability for any of the 3 geometries used on the full dataset, consisting of front- and backsided, slow and fast CMEs (up to 2700 km/s). We search for new empirical relations between the predicted and observed speeds and arrival times, enhancing the HI predictive capabilities. Additionally, for very fast and back-sided CMEs, strong differences between the results of the HI models arise, consistent with theoretical expectations by Lugaz and Kintner (2013, Solar Physics). This work has received funding from the European Commission FP7 Project COMESEP (263252).

  20. A Sun-to-Earth Analysis of Magnetic Helicity of the 2013 March 17–18 Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sanchita; Gopalswamy, Nat; Nandy, Dibyendu; Akiyama, Sachiko; Yashiro, Seiji; Makela, Pertti; Xie, Hong

    2017-12-01

    We compare the magnetic helicity in the 2013 March 17–18 interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) flux rope at 1 au and in its solar counterpart. The progenitor coronal mass ejection (CME) erupted on 2013 March 15 from NOAA active region 11692 and is associated with an M1.1 flare. We derive the source region reconnection flux using the post-eruption arcade (PEA) method that uses the photospheric magnetogram and the area under the PEA. The geometrical properties of the near-Sun flux rope is obtained by forward-modeling of white-light CME observations. Combining the geometrical properties and the reconnection flux, we extract the magnetic properties of the CME flux rope. We derive the magnetic helicity of the flux rope using its magnetic and geometric properties obtained near the Sun and at 1 au. We use a constant-α force-free cylindrical flux rope model fit to the in situ observations in order to derive the magnetic and geometric information of the 1 au ICME. We find a good correspondence in both amplitude and sign of the helicity between the ICME and the CME, assuming a semi-circular (half torus) ICME flux rope with a length of π au. We find that about 83% of the total flux rope helicity at 1 au is injected by the magnetic reconnection in the low corona. We discuss the effect of assuming flux rope length in the derived value of the magnetic helicity. This study connecting the helicity of magnetic flux ropes through the Sun–Earth system has important implications for the origin of helicity in the interplanetary medium and the topology of ICME flux ropes at 1 au and hence their space weather consequences.

  1. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections in the Near-Earth Solar Wind During 1996-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    We summarize the occurrence of interplanetary coronal mass injections (ICMEs) in the near-Earth solar wind during 1996-2002, corresponding to the increasing and maximum phases of solar cycle 23. In particular, we give a detailed list of such events. This list, based on in-situ observations, is not confined to subsets of ICMEs, such as magnetic clouds or those preceded by halo CMEs observed by the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph, and provides an overview of 214 ICMEs in the near-Earth solar wind during this period. The ICME rate increases by about an order of magnitude from solar minimum to solar maximum (when the rate is approximately 3 ICMEs/solar rotation period). The rate also shows a temporary reduction during 1999, and another brief, deeper reduction in late 2000-early 2001, which only approximately track variations in the solar 10 cm flux. In addition, there are occasional periods of several rotations duration when the ICME rate is enhanced in association with high solar activity levels. We find an indication of a periodic variation in the ICME rate, with a prominent period of approximately 165 days similar to that previously reported in various solar phenomena. It is found that the fraction of ICMEs that are magnetic clouds has a solar cycle variation, the fraction being larger near solar minimum. For the subset of events that we could associate with a CME at the Sun, the transit speeds from the Sun to the Earth were highest after solar maximum.

  2. Art with Science: Connecting to Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendel, W. B.; Kirn, M.; Gupta, S.

    2013-12-01

    Why are so many people aware of climate change and sustainable solutions, but so few are actually doing anything about them? Social science research now suggests that to foster effective decision-making and action, good communication must include both cognition (e.g., intellect, facts, analysis) and affect (e.g., emotions, values, beliefs) working together. The arts have been used since prehistoric times not only to document and entertain, but to inspire, communicate, educate and motivate people to do things they might not otherwise have the interest or courage to do. Two projects, both funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), are presented that explore art and science collaborations, designed to engage both the analytical and experiential information processing systems of the brain while fostering transformative thinking and behavior shifts for Earth-sustainability. The first project, Raindrop, is a smartphone application created at Butler University through a collaboration with artist Mary Miss and EcoArts Connections in the project FLOW: Can You See the River? Raindrop uses geographic information systems and GPS technology to map a raindrop's path from a user's location in Marion County to the White River as it flows through Indianapolis. Raindrop allows users to identify various flow paths and pollutant constituents transported by this water from farms, buildings, lawns, and streets along the way. Miss, with the help of scientists and others, created public art installations along the river engaging viewers in its infrastructure, history, ecology, and uses, and allowed for virtual features of the Raindrop app to be grounded in physical space. By combining art, science and technology, the project helped people not only to connect more personally to watershed and climate information, but also to understand viscerally that 'all property is river front property' connecting their own behavior with the health of the river. The second

  3. Elongated Coronal Hole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-24

    NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory shows a long coronal hole has rotated so that was temporarily facing right towards Earth Mar. 23-25, 2016. Coronal holes appear dark when viewed in some wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light.

  4. Studying Geoeffective Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Between the Sun and Earth: Space Weather Implications of Solar Mass Ejection Imager Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-14

    courtesy of I. Richardson. itoring, and adequate data latency would constitute a reliable tool for early warning of storms. Is] The first Earth...some ICMEs appear to undergo little change as they propagate outward from their low coronal origins, in this case out to 45° elongation. Such...and that, given much better data latency , a future SMEI-type heliospheric im- ager could be used to forecast the onset and maybe even the

  5. Teaching About the Sun-Earth Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, Arthur I.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This talk will be about the Sun: how it changes with time, its magnetic cycle, flares, and the solar wind. The solar wind and what space is like between the Sun and Earth will be presented. Also, the Earth, its magnetic field, how the solar wind interacts with the Earth, Aurora, and how these affect human systems will be discussed. These interactions dictate how we build our systems in space (communications satellites, GPS, etc), and some of our ground systems (power grids). Some simple classroom activities will be presented that can be done using new data from space that is available daily on the internet, and how you can use the internet to get space questions answered within about 1 day. Finally, some career opportunities for jobs related to space for the future will be discussed.

  6. Demonstrating Earth Connections and Fuses Working Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Earth wires and fuses work together in UK mains circuits to keep users safe from electric shocks and are taught in many school contexts. The subject can be quite abstract and difficult for pupils to grasp, and a simple but visually clear and direct demonstration is described which would be easy for most physics departments to build and which can…

  7. ON THE CONNECTION BETWEEN PROPAGATING SOLAR CORONAL DISTURBANCES AND CHROMOSPHERIC FOOTPOINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bryans, P.; McIntosh, S. W.; Moortel, I. De

    2016-09-20

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) provides an unparalleled opportunity to explore the (thermal) interface between the chromosphere, transition region, and the coronal plasma observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO ). The SDO /AIA observations of coronal loop footpoints show strong recurring upward propagating signals—“propagating coronal disturbances” (PCDs) with apparent speeds of the order of 100–120 km s{sup −1}. That signal has a clear signature in the slit-jaw images of IRIS in addition to identifiable spectral signatures and diagnostics in the Mg iih (2803 Å) line. In analyzing the Mgmore » iih line, we are able to observe the presence of magnetoacoustic shock waves that are also present in the vicinity of the coronal loop footpoints. We see there is enough of a correspondence between the shock propagation in Mg iih, the evolution of the Si iv line profiles, and the PCD evolution to indicate that these waves are an important ingredient for PCDs. In addition, the strong flows in the jet-like features in the IRIS Si iv slit-jaw images are also associated with PCDs, such that waves and flows both appear to be contributing to the signals observed at the footpoints of PCDs.« less

  8. Comparative Study of the December 28, 2015 - January 2, 2016 and April 7 - 11, 1997 Sun-Earth Connection Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdichevsky, D. B.; Richardson, I. G.; Farrugia, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    A Sun-Earth connection event started on December 28, 2015 in association with a M1.8 X-ray flare, commencing at 1120 UT detected by the GOES Environmental satellites, and a partial halo coronal mass ejection (CME) observed from 1200 UT by the SOHO LASCO coronographs. SDO AIA observations indicate that this event was located at W11S22. The related interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) drove an above average strength fast-forward interplanetary shock observed by the Wind spacecraft at the start of Dec 31. This shock also appears to have accelerated solar energetic particles; ACE/EPAM observations show that these energetic particles peaked at shock passage. The shock driver, i.e. the ICME, appears to have impacted the Earth's environment near 17 UT on December 31. This ICME seems to have included several substructures and possibly extended to around midday on January 2, 2016. The impact of the ICME produced lively auroras at low Earth latitudes in the Western-North hemisphere. The associated strong magnetic storm was due to the leading part of the ICME maintaining a southward-oriented magnetic field for several hours. The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast this event with the April 7-11, 1997 Sun-Earth connection event previously discussed by Berdichevsky et al. (1998) which included the passage of an ICME at Earth with a persistent northward, rather than southward, magnetic-field and produced an unusually long-lasting compression of the Earth's magnetosphere. Berdichevsky, D, J.-L. Bougeret, J.-P. Delaboudinière, N. Fox, M. Kaiser, R. Lepping, D. Michels, S. Plunkett, D. Reames, M. Reiner, I. Richardson, G. Rostoker, J. Steinberg, B. Thompson, and T. von Rosenvinge, Evidence for multiple ejecta: April 7-11, 1997, ISTP Sun-Earth connection event GRL, 25, 2473-6, 1998.

  9. Treatment of gingival recession defects using coronally advanced flap with a porcine collagen matrix compared to coronally advanced flap with connective tissue graft: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cardaropoli, Daniele; Tamagnone, Lorenzo; Roffredo, Alessandro; Gaveglio, Lorena

    2012-03-01

    Connective tissue graft (CTG) plus coronally advanced flap (CAF) is the reference therapy for root coverage. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the use of a porcine collagen matrix (PCM) plus CAF as an alternative to CTG+CAF for the treatment of gingival recessions (REC), in a prospective randomized, controlled clinical trial. Eighteen adult patients participated in this study. The patients presented 22 single Miller's Class I or II REC, randomly assigned to the test (PCM+CAF) or control (CTG+CAF) group. REC, probing depth, clinical attachment level (CAL), and width of keratinized tissue (KG) were evaluated at 12 months. In addition, the gingival thickness (GT) was measured 1mm apical to the bottom of the sulcus. At 12 months, mean REC was 0.23 mm for test sites and 0.09 mm for control sites (P <0.01), whereas percentage of root coverage was 94.32% and 96.97%, respectively. CAL gain was 2.41 mm in test sites and 2.95 mm in control sites (P <0.01). KG gain was 1.23 mm in the test group and 1.27 mm in the control group (P <0.01). In test sites, GT changed from 0.82 to 1.82 mm, and in control sites, from 0.86 to 2.09 mm (P <0.01). Within the limits of the study, both treatment procedures resulted in significant reduction in REC at 12 months. No statistically significant differences were found between PCM+CAF and CTG+CAF with regard to any clinical parameter. The collagen matrix represents a possible alternative to CTG.

  10. ON SUN-TO-EARTH PROPAGATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS: II. SLOW EVENTS AND COMPARISON WITH OTHERS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Chi

    As a follow-up study on Sun-to-Earth propagation of fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs), we examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of slow CMEs combining heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. Three events of particular interest, the 2010 June 16, 2011 March 25, and 2012 September 25 CMEs, are selected for this study. We compare slow CMEs with fast and intermediate-speed events, and obtain key results complementing the attempt of Liu et al. to create a general picture of CME Sun-to-Earth propagation: (1) the Sun-to-Earth propagation of a typical slow CME can be approximately described by two phases, a gradual acceleration out tomore » about 20–30 solar radii, followed by a nearly invariant speed around the average solar wind level; (2) comparison between different types of CMEs indicates that faster CMEs tend to accelerate and decelerate more rapidly and have shorter cessation distances for the acceleration and deceleration; (3) both intermediate-speed and slow CMEs would have speeds comparable to the average solar wind level before reaching 1 au; (4) slow CMEs have a high potential to interact with other solar wind structures in the Sun–Earth space due to their slow motion, providing critical ingredients to enhance space weather; and (5) the slow CMEs studied here lack strong magnetic fields at the Earth but tend to preserve a flux-rope structure with an axis generally perpendicular to the radial direction from the Sun. We also suggest a “best” strategy for the application of a triangulation concept in determining CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics, which helps to clarify confusions about CME geometry assumptions in the triangulation and to improve CME analysis and observations.« less

  11. Coronal Hole Front and Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-18

    A substantial coronal hole had rotated so that it temporarily faced right towards Earth May, 17-19, 2016. This coronal hole area is the dark area at the top center of this image from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory.

  12. Xenogeneic collagen matrix with coronally advanced flap compared to connective tissue with coronally advanced flap for the treatment of dehiscence-type recession defects.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michael K; Scheyer, E Todd

    2010-08-01

    For root coverage therapy, the connective tissue graft (CTG) plus coronally advanced flap (CAF) is considered the gold standard therapy against which alternative therapies are generally compared. When evaluating these therapies, in addition to traditional measures of root coverage, subject-reported, qualitative measures of esthetics, pain, and overall preferences for alternative procedures should also be considered. This study determines if a xenogeneic collagen matrix (CM) with CAF might be as effective as CTG+CAF in the treatment of recession defects. This study was a single-masked, randomized, controlled, split-mouth study of dehiscence-type recession defects in contralateral sites; one defect received CTG+CAF and the other defect received CM+CAF. A total of 25 subjects (8 male, 17 female; mean age: 43.7 +/- 12.2 years) were evaluated at 6 months and 1 year. The primary efficacy endpoint was recession depth at 6 months. Secondary endpoints included traditional periodontal measures, such as width of keratinized tissue and percentage of root coverage. Subject-reported values of pain, discomfort, and esthetic satisfaction were also recorded. At 6 months, recession depth was on average 0.52 mm for test sites and 0.10 mm for control sites. Recession depth change from baseline was statistically significant between test and control, with an average of 2.62 mm gained at test sites and 3.10 mm gained at control sites for a difference of 0.4 mm (P = 0.0062). At 1 year, test percentage of root coverage averaged 88.5%, and controls averaged 99.3% (P = 0.0313). Keratinized tissue width gains were equivalent for both therapies and averaged 1.34 mm for test sites and 1.26 mm for control sites (P = 0.9061). There were no statistically significant differences between subject-reported values for esthetic satisfaction, and subjects' assessments of pain and discomfort were also equivalent. When balanced with subject-reported esthetic values and compared to historical root coverage

  13. Sun-Earth Connection EPO's with Multiple Uses and Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Russell, R.; Lu, G.; Richmond, A.; Maute, A.; Haller, D.; Conery, C.; Bintner, G.; Kiessling, D.; Hughes, W. J.

    2005-05-01

    The three-year life of an EPO grant can be a journey guided by clear goals and enriched by collaborative and outreach opportunities connecting Space sciences to Earth sciences for both K-12 and public audiences. This point is illustrated by two EPO projects funded by NASA Sun-Earth Connection research grants to the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. They are entering their final year coordinated by the Office of Education and Outreach at University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. The content focus of both projects is well aligned with HAO's research mission and the expertise of our scientists, addressing solar dynamics, space weather, and the impacts of solar events on the magnetosphere, as well as societies inhabiting Earth's surface. The first project (Gang Lu, PI) develops presentation resources, inquiry activities, and tips that will help HAO scientists be better prepared to visit K-12 classrooms. Unexpectedly, the simultaneous development of a Teachers' Guide to NCAR's new Climate Discovery exhibit, which takes an Earth system approach to climate and global change, has created a niche for this EPO resource to be revised and repurposed for a needed unit in the guide about the exhibit's graphic panels on Sun-Earth connections. The second project (Art Richmond, PI) engages two high school "Teachers in Residence" to develop resources they can utilize with their students. Excited by exceptional educational graphics and animations in the new Physics of the Aurora: Earth Systems module co-produced by HAO and the COMET Program for advanced undergraduate courses, they chose to adapt appropriate sections of the module to enrich Earth science and math concepts addressed in their 9th and 10th grade astronomy and general physics classes. Simultaneously, the Windows to the Universe web site, which continuously updates space science content and is now developing a new Space Weather section with support from the Center for

  14. A space weather information service based upon remote and in-situ measurements of coronal mass ejections heading for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartkorn, O. A.; Ritter, B.; Meskers, A. J. H.; Miles, O.; Russwurm, M.; Scully, S.; Roldan, A.; Juestel, P.; Reville, V.; Lupu, S.; Ruffenach, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere is formed as a consequence of the interaction between the planet's magnetic field and the solar wind, a continuous plasma stream from the Sun. A number of different solar wind phenomena have been studied over the past forty years with the intention of understandingand forcasting solar behavior and space weather. In particular, Earth-bound interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can significantly disturb the Earth's magnetosphere for a short time and cause geomagnetic storms. We present a mission concept consisting of six spacecraft that are equally spaced in a heliocentric orbit at 0.72 AU. These spacecraft will monitor the plasma properties, the magnetic field's orientation and magnitude, and the 3D-propagation trajectory of CMEs heading for Earth. The primary objective of this mission is to increase space weather forecasting time by means of a near real-time information service, that is based upon in-situ and remote measurements of the CME properties. The mission secondary objective is the improvement of scientific space weather models. In-situ measurements are performed using a Solar Wind Analyzer instrumentation package and flux gate magnetometers. For remote measurements, coronagraphs are employed. The proposed instruments originate from other space missions with the intention to reduce mission costs and to streamline the mission design process. Communication with the six identical spacecraft is realized via a deep space network consisting of six ground stations. This network provides an information service that is in uninterrupted contact with the spacecraft, allowing for continuos space weather monitoring. A dedicated data processing center will handle all the data, and forward the processed data to the SSA Space Weather Coordination Center. This organization will inform the general public through a space weather forecast. The data processing center will additionally archive the data for the scientific community. This concept

  15. THE BLOB CONNECTION: SEARCHING FOR LOW CORONAL SIGNATURES OF SOLAR POST-CME BLOBS

    SciTech Connect

    Schanche, Nicole E; Reeves, Katharine K; Webb, David F., E-mail: nschanche@cfa.harvard.edu

    2016-11-01

    Bright linear structures, thought to be indicators of a current sheet (CS), are often seen in Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) white-light data in the wake of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In a subset of these post-CME structures, relatively bright blobs are seen moving outward along the rays. These blobs have been interpreted as consequences of the plasmoid instability in the CS, and can help us to understand the dynamics of the reconnection. We examine several instances, taken largely from the SOHO /LASCO CME-rays Catalog, where these blobs are clearly visible inmore » white-light data. Using radially filtered, difference, wavelet enhanced, and multiscale Gaussian normalized images to visually inspect Solar Dynamics Observatory /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data in multiple wavelengths, we look for signatures of material that correspond both temporally and spatially to the later appearance of the blobs in LASCO/C2. Constraints from measurements of the blobs allow us to predict the expected count rates in DN pixel{sup −1} s{sup −1} for each AIA channel. The resulting values would make the blobs bright enough to be detectable at 1.2 R {sub ⊙}. However, we do not see conclusive evidence for corresponding blobs in the AIA data in any of the events. We do the same calculation for the “cartwheel CME,” an event in which blobs were seen in X-rays, and find that our estimated count rates are close to those observed. We suggest several possibilities for the absence of the EUV blobs including the formation of the blob higher than the AIA field of view, blob coalescence, and overestimation of blob densities.« less

  16. Predicting the magnetic vectors within coronal mass ejections arriving at Earth: 2. Geomagnetic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savani, N. P.; Vourlidas, A.; Richardson, I. G.; Szabo, A.; Thompson, B. J.; Pulkkinen, A.; Mays, M. L.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Bothmer, V.

    2017-02-01

    This is a companion to Savani et al. (2015) that discussed how a first-order prediction of the internal magnetic field of a coronal mass ejection (CME) may be made from observations of its initial state at the Sun for space weather forecasting purposes (Bothmer-Schwenn scheme (BSS) model). For eight CME events, we investigate how uncertainties in their predicted magnetic structure influence predictions of the geomagnetic activity. We use an empirical relationship between the solar wind plasma drivers and Kp index together with the inferred magnetic vectors, to make a prediction of the time variation of Kp (Kp(BSS)). We find a 2σ uncertainty range on the magnetic field magnitude (|B|) provides a practical and convenient solution for predicting the uncertainty in geomagnetic storm strength. We also find the estimated CME velocity is a major source of error in the predicted maximum Kp. The time variation of Kp(BSS) is important for predicting periods of enhanced and maximum geomagnetic activity, driven by southerly directed magnetic fields, and periods of lower activity driven by northerly directed magnetic field. We compare the skill score of our model to a number of other forecasting models, including the NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC)/SWRC estimates. The BSS model was the most unbiased prediction model, while the other models predominately tended to significantly overforecast. The True skill score of the BSS prediction model (TSS = 0.43 ± 0.06) exceeds the results of two baseline models and the NOAA/SWPC forecast. The BSS model prediction performed equally with CCMC/SWRC predictions while demonstrating a lower uncertainty.

  17. Low coronal signatures of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attrill, Gemma Diana Ruth

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are vast eruptions of magnetised plasma that explode from the solar atmosphere. This thesis focuses on understanding the nascent stages of CMEs, and their magnetic development as they expand into the interplanetary space of our solar system. This is an important part of our effort to understand the space weather environment that we live in, and increasingly interact with through satellite communications technologies. Predominantly through combining extreme ultra-violet imaging and magnetogram data, two low coronal signatures of CMEs, namely coronal waves and dimmings, are studied. A comprehensive list of observational properties of EIT coronal waves is compiled and potential counterparts in radio, Ha, soft X-rays and He n wavelengths are also discussed. New observational constraints on EIT coronal waves are presented, most notably diffuse coronal waves are shown to have a magnetic nature. Finding that many observational constraints are not satisfactorily explained by current theories, a new model for understanding the physical nature of diffuse coronal waves is developed. The new model interprets diffuse coronal "wave" bright fronts to be the low coronal magnetic footprint of CMEs. Implications for developing our understanding of how CMEs become large-scale in the low corona are discussed. Application of the model demonstrates how an understanding of the formation of complex global-scale coronal dimmings can be derived. For the first time it is shown that study of the evolution and magnetic nature of coronal dimming regions can be used to probe the post-eruptive evolution of the CME. Finally, a study is presented regarding why and how CME-related dimmings recover, despite the "open" magnetic connectivity of the ejecta to the Sun being maintained as indicated by electron heat flux measurements at 1 AU.

  18. Coronal Hole Coming Around

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-06

    A substantial coronal hole began to rotate into view over the past few days (Dec. 1-2, 2016). Coronal holes are magnetically open areas of the sun's magnetic field structure that spew streams of high speed solar wind into space. In about a week or so that coronal hole might send streams of particles in the direction of Earth. Often times these streams can interact with Earth's magnetosphere and generate aurora. The images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21208

  19. Returning Coronal Hole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-06

    A substantial coronal hole rotated across the face of the sun this past week and is again streaming solar wind towards Earth (Jan. 30 - Feb. 2, 2017). This same coronal hole was facing Earth about a month ago and has rotated into a similar position again. Coronal holes are areas of open magnetic field from which solar wind particles stream into space. In this wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light it appears as a dark area near the center and lower portion of the sun. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11177

  20. Evolution of a Coronal Mass Ejection from the Sun to Mercury, Venus, Earth and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Shen, C.; Liu, J.; Mengjiao, X.; Guo, J.

    2017-12-01

    A clear magnetic cloud was observed by Messenger at Mercury. By using coronagraph images from SOHO/LASCO and STEREO/COR and the in-situ data from Wind near the Earth, we estimated its propgation velocity and identified the possible CME candidate in the corona and its counterpart recorded by Venus Express near Venus. By applying the CME's DIPS (Deflection in InterPlanetary Space) model, we show that the CME's arrivals at the three different heliocentric distance can be well reproduced. By extending the trajectory of the CME to the orbitor of Mars, we predict the arrival of the CME at Mars, which is in agreement with a significant Forbush decrease observed by MSL. We use uniformly-twisted force-free flux rope model to fit the in-situ measurements at Mercury, Venus and the Earth to study the evolution of the magnetic flux rope, and find that both axial magnetic flux and twist significantly decreased, suggesting that a significant erosion process was on-going and might change the averaged twist of the magnetic flux rope.

  1. Sun-Earth Day: Exposing the Public to Sun-Earth Connection Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J. R.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2001-12-01

    The year 2001 marked the first observance of Sun-Earth Day as an event to celebrate the strong interconnection of the life we have on Earth and the dependence of it on the dynamic influence of the Sun. The science of the Sun-Earth Connection has grown dramatically with new satellite and ground-based studies of the Sun and the Sun's extended "atmosphere" in which we live. Space weather is becoming a more common concept that people know can affect their lives. An understanding of the importance of the Sun's dynamic behavior and how this shapes the solar system and especially the Earth is the aim of Sun-Earth Day. The first Sun-Earth event actually took place over two days, April 27 and 28, 2001, in order to accommodate all the events which were planned both in the classroom on Friday the 27th and in more informal settings on Saturday the 28th. The Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) organized the creation of ten thousand packets of educational materials about Sun-Earth Day and distributed them mostly to teachers who were trained to use them in the classroom. Many packets, however, went to science centers, museums, and planetariums as resource materials for programs associated with Sun-Earth Day. Over a hundred scientists used the event as an opportunity to communicate their love of science to audiences in these informal settings. Sun-Earth Day was also greatly assisted by the Amateur Astronomical Society which used the event as a theme for their annual promotion of astronomy in programs given around the country. The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), a satellite mission jointly sponsored by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA), used Sun-Earth Day in conjunction with the fifth anniversary celebration of SOHO as a basis for many programs and events, especially a large number of happenings in Europe. These included observing parties, art exhibits, demonstrations, etc. Examples of some of the innovative ways that Sun-Earth Day was brought into people

  2. Connecting Coronal Mass Ejections to Their Solar Active Region Sources: Combining Results from the HELCATS and FLARECAST Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Sophie A.; Guerra, Jordan A.; Zucca, Pietro; Park, Sung-Hong; Carley, Eoin P.; Gallagher, Peter T.; Vilmer, Nicole; Bothmer, Volker

    2018-04-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and other solar eruptive phenomena can be physically linked by combining data from a multitude of ground-based and space-based instruments alongside models; however, this can be challenging for automated operational systems. The EU Framework Package 7 HELCATS project provides catalogues of CME observations and properties from the Heliospheric Imagers on board the two NASA/STEREO spacecraft in order to track the evolution of CMEs in the inner heliosphere. From the main HICAT catalogue of over 2,000 CME detections, an automated algorithm has been developed to connect the CMEs observed by STEREO to any corresponding solar flares and active-region (AR) sources on the solar surface. CME kinematic properties, such as speed and angular width, are compared with AR magnetic field properties, such as magnetic flux, area, and neutral line characteristics. The resulting LOWCAT catalogue is also compared to the extensive AR property database created by the EU Horizon 2020 FLARECAST project, which provides more complex magnetic field parameters derived from vector magnetograms. Initial statistical analysis has been undertaken on the new data to provide insight into the link between flare and CME events, and characteristics of eruptive ARs. Warning thresholds determined from analysis of the evolution of these parameters is shown to be a useful output for operational space weather purposes. Parameters of particular interest for further analysis include total unsigned flux, vertical current, and current helicity. The automated method developed to create the LOWCAT catalogue may also be useful for future efforts to develop operational CME forecasting.

  3. SUN-TO-EARTH CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 2012 JULY 12 CORONAL MASS EJECTION AND ASSOCIATED GEO-EFFECTIVENESS

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Huidong; Liu, Ying D.; Wang, Rui

    We analyze multi-spacecraft observations associated with the 2012 July 12 coronal mass ejection (CME), covering the source region on the Sun from the Solar Dynamics Observatory , stereoscopic imaging observations from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO ), magnetic field characteristics from Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging ( MESSENGER ), and type II radio burst and in situ measurements from Wind . A triangulation method based on STEREO stereoscopic observations is employed to determine the kinematics of the CME, and the outcome is compared with the results derived from the type II radio burst using a solarmore » wind electron density model. A Grad–Shafranov technique is applied to Wind in situ data to reconstruct the flux-rope structure and compare it with the observations of the solar source region, which helps in understanding the geo-effectiveness associated with the CME structure. Our conclusions are as follows: (1) the CME undergoes an impulsive acceleration, a rapid deceleration before reaching MESSENGER , and then a gradual deceleration out to 1 au, which should be considered in CME kinematics models; (2) the type II radio burst was probably produced from a high-density interaction region between the CME-driven shock and a nearby streamer or from the shock flank with lower heights, which implies uncertainties in the determination of CME kinematics using solely type II radio bursts; (3) the flux-rope orientation and chirality deduced from in situ reconstructions at Wind agree with those obtained from solar source observations; (4) the prolonged southward magnetic field near the Earth is mainly from the axial component of the largely southward inclined flux rope, which indicates the importance of predicting both the flux-rope orientation and magnetic field components in geomagnetic activity forecasting.« less

  4. Remote and In Situ Observations of an Unusual Earth-Directed Coronal Mass Ejection from Multiple Viewpoints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Colaninno, R.; Vourlidas, A.; Szabo, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Boardsen, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2012-01-01

    During June 16-21, 2010, an Earth-directed Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) event was observed by instruments onboard STEREO, SOHO, MESSENGER and Wind. This event was the first direct detection of a rotating CME in the middle and outer corona. Here, we carry out a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of the CME in the interplanetary medium comparing in-situ and remote observations, with analytical models and three-dimensional reconstructions. In particular, we investigate the parallel and perpendicular cross section expansion of the CME from the corona through the heliosphere up to 1 AU. We use height-time measurements and the Gradual Cylindrical Shell (GCS) technique to model the imaging observations, remove the projection effects, and derive the 3-dimensional extent of the event. Then, we compare the results with in-situ analytical Magnetic Cloud (MC) models, and with geometrical predictions from past works. We nd that the parallel (along the propagation plane) cross section expansion agrees well with the in-situ model and with the Bothmer & Schwenn [1998] empirical relationship based on in-situ observations between 0.3 and 1 AU. Our results effectively extend this empirical relationship to about 5 solar radii. The expansion of the perpendicular diameter agrees very well with the in-situ results at MESSENGER ( 0:5 AU) but not at 1 AU. We also find a slightly different, from Bothmer & Schwenn [1998], empirical relationship for the perpendicular expansion. More importantly, we find no evidence that the CME undergoes a significant latitudinal over-expansion as it is commonly assumed

  5. Making Connections: Where STEM Learning and Earth Science Data Services Meet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Kaylin; Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Gatlin, Patrick; Weigel, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) learning is most effective when students are encouraged to see the connections between science, technology and real world problems. Helping to make these connections has become an increasingly important aspect of Earth Science data research. The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC), one of NASA's 12 EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data Information System) data centers, has developed a new type of documentation called the micro article to facilitate making connections between data and Earth science research problems.

  6. Immediate placement and provisionalization of maxillary anterior single implant with guided bone regeneration, connective tissue graft, and coronally positioned flap procedures.

    PubMed

    Waki, Tomonori; Kan, Joseph Y K

    2016-01-01

    Immediate implant placement and provisionalization in the esthetic zone have been documented with success. The benefit of immediate implant placement and provisionalization is the preservation of papillary mucosa. However, in cases with osseous defects presenting on the facial bony plate, immediate implant placement procedures have resulted in facial gingival recession. Subepithelial connective tissue grafts for immediate implant placement and provisionalization procedures have been reported with a good esthetic outcome. Biotype conversion around implants with subepithelial connective tissue grafts have been advocated, and the resulting tissues appear to be more resistant to recession. The dimensions of peri-implant mucosa in a thick biotype were significantly greater than in a thin biotype. Connective tissue graft with coronally positioned flap procedures on natural teeth has also been documented with success. This article describes a technique combining immediate implant placement, provisionalization, guided bone regeneration (GBR), connective tissue graft, and a coronally positioned flap in order to achieve more stable peri-implant tissue in facial osseous defect situations.

  7. Making the Earth to Life Connection Using Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haine, D. B.; Berbeco, M.

    2016-12-01

    From ocean acidification to changes in air quality to shifts in the range of disease vectors, there are many opportunities for educators to make the earth science to life science connection by incorporating the impacts of climate change on organisms and entire ecosystems and by describing how living organisms impact climate. NCSE's study in Science found that 86% of life science teachers are teaching climate, but few admit they have any formal climate science training. This session will introduce activities we developed that utilize the 2014 National Climate Assessment, data visualizations, technology tools and models to allow students to explore the evidence that climate change is impacting life. Translating the NCA into classroom activities is an approach that becomes more pertinent with the advent of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Using the NCA and the NGSS we demonstrate strategies for weaving the concept of climate change into an already packed life science curriculum by enhancing rather than displacing content and ultimately promoting integration of science and engineering practices into instruction. Since the fall of 2014 we have engaged approximately 200 K-12 educators at local, state, regional and national teacher professional development events. Here we will summarize what we have learned from science teachers about how they address life science impacts of climate change and we will summarize evaluation data to inform future efforts to engage life science educators in light of the recent USGCRP Climate and Health Assessment and the upcoming 4th National Climate Assessment.

  8. The nature of micro CMEs within coronal holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothmer, Volker; Nistico, Giuseppe; Zimbardo, Gaetano; Patsourakos, Spiros; Bosman, Eckhard

    Whilst investigating the origin and characteristics of coronal jets and large-scale CMEs identi-fied in data from the SECCHI (Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation) instrument suites on board the two STEREO satellites, we discovered transient events that originated in the low corona with a morphology resembling that of typical three-part struc-tured coronal mass ejections (CMEs). However, the CMEs occurred on considerably smaller spatial scales. In this presentation we show evidence for the existence of small-scale CMEs from inside coronal holes and present quantitative estimates of their speeds and masses. We interprete the origin and evolution of micro CMEs as a natural consequence of the emergence of small-scale magnetic bipoles related to the Sun's ever changing photospheric magnetic flux on various scales and their interactions with the ambient plasma and magnetic field. The analysis of CMEs is performed within the framework of the EU Erasmus and FP7 SOTERIA projects.

  9. Coronally Advanced Flap Technique to Treat Class I and II Gingival Recession in Combination with Connective Tissue Graft or Equine Collagen Matrix: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tarquini, Giacomo

    This retrospective study aimed to compare the effectiveness of an equine collagen matrix (ECM) with that of a subepithelial connective tissue graft (CTG) in patients affected by Class I and II gingival recessions treated with a coronally advanced flap (CAF) technique. Records of 50 consecutive patients were analyzed. Recession depth, probing depth, keratinized tissue width, and percentage of root coverage had been recorded at baseline and at the 1-year follow-up. The number of patients that achieved complete root coverage was also assessed. According to the investigated parameters, ECM and CTG provide similar results when used in association with a CAF technique.

  10. Lengthy Coronal Hole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-09

    An elongated coronal hole rotated across the face of the sun this past week so that it is now streaming solar wind towards Earth (Jan. 2-5, 2017). Coronal holes are areas of open magnetic field from which solar wind particles stream into space. In this wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light it appears as a dark area near the center and lower portion of the sun. The particle stream will likely generate aurora here on Earth. Check spaceweather.com for updates on auroral activity. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA14093

  11. Infrasound: Connecting the Solid Earth, Oceans, and Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedlin, M. A. H.; Walker, K.; Drob, D. P.; de Groot-Hedlin, C. D.

    2012-05-01

    The recently reinvigorated field of infrasonics is poised to provide insight into atmospheric structure and the physics of large atmospheric phenomena, just as seismology has shed considerable light on the workings and structure of Earth's solid interior. Although a natural tool to monitor the atmosphere and shallow Earth for nuclear explosions, it is becoming increasingly apparent that infrasound also provides another means to monitor a suite of natural hazards. The frequent observation of geophysical sources—such as the unsteady sea surface, volcanoes, and earthquakes—that radiate energy both up into the atmosphere and down into the liquid or solid Earth and transmission of energy across Earth's boundaries reminds us that Earth is an interconnected system. This review details the rich history of the unheard sound in the atmosphere and the role that infrasonics plays in helping us understand the Earth system.

  12. Unique Non-Keplerian Orbit Vantage Locations for Sun-Earth Connection and Earth Science Vision Roadmaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Young, Corissa; Ross, Adam

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the feasibility of attaining and maintaining unique non-Keplerian orbit vantage locations in the Earth/Moon environment in order to obtain continuous scientific measurements. The principal difficulty associated with obtaining continuous measurements is the temporal nature of astrodynamics, i.e., classical orbits. This investigation demonstrates advanced trajectory designs to meet demanding science requirements which cannot be met following traditional orbital mechanic logic. Examples of continuous observer missions addressed include Earth pole-sitters and unique vertical libration orbits that address Sun-Earth Connection and Earth Science Vision roadmaps.

  13. Connecting Earth observation to high-throughput biodiversity data.

    PubMed

    Bush, Alex; Sollmann, Rahel; Wilting, Andreas; Bohmann, Kristine; Cole, Beth; Balzter, Heiko; Martius, Christopher; Zlinszky, András; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Cobbold, Christina A; Dawson, Terence P; Emerson, Brent C; Ferrier, Simon; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Herold, Martin; Jones, Laurence; Leendertz, Fabian H; Matthews, Louise; Millington, James D A; Olson, John R; Ovaskainen, Otso; Raffaelli, Dave; Reeve, Richard; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Rodgers, Torrey W; Snape, Stewart; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid; Vogler, Alfried P; White, Piran C L; Wooster, Martin J; Yu, Douglas W

    2017-06-22

    Understandably, given the fast pace of biodiversity loss, there is much interest in using Earth observation technology to track biodiversity, ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. However, because most biodiversity is invisible to Earth observation, indicators based on Earth observation could be misleading and reduce the effectiveness of nature conservation and even unintentionally decrease conservation effort. We describe an approach that combines automated recording devices, high-throughput DNA sequencing and modern ecological modelling to extract much more of the information available in Earth observation data. This approach is achievable now, offering efficient and near-real-time monitoring of management impacts on biodiversity and its functions and services.

  14. Connections between the bulk composition, geodynamics and habitability of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jellinek, A. M.; Jackson, M. G.

    2015-08-01

    The bulk composition of the silicate part of Earth has long been linked to chondritic meteorites. Ordinary chondrites -- the most abundant meteorite class -- are thought to represent planetary building materials. However, a landmark discovery showed that the 142Nd/144Nd ratio of the accessible parts of the modern terrestrial mantle on Earth is greater than that of ordinary chondrites. If Earth was derived from these precursors, mass balance requires that a missing reservoir with 142Nd/144Nd lower than ordinary chondrites was isolated from the accessible mantle within 20 to 30 million years of accretion. This reservoir would host the equivalent of the modern continents' budget of radioactive heat-producing elements (uranium, thorium and potassium), yet has not been discovered. We argue that this reservoir could have been lost to space by ablation from early impactors. If so, Earth's radiogenic heat generation is between 18 and 45% lower than estimates based on a chondritic composition. Calculations of Earth's thermal history that incorporate such reduced radiogenic heating are consistent with a transition to the current plate tectonic mode in the past 2.5 billion years or so, a late onset of the dynamo and an evolving rate of volcanic outgassing consistent with Earth's long-term habitable climate. Reduced heat production compared with Venus and Mars could also explain aspects of the differences between the current climatic regimes of these planets and Earth.

  15. Connecting NASA science and engineering with earth science applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Research Council (NRC) recently highlighted the dual role of NASA to support both science and applications in planning Earth observations. This Editorial reports the efforts of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission to integrate applications with science and engineering i...

  16. Substantial Coronal Holes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-21

    A pair of large coronal holes rotated into view over the past few days (Oct. 20-21, 2016). Coronal holes appear dark in certain wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light, such as in the wavelength used here. These holes are areas of open magnetic field that spew solar wind into space. Sometimes, when they are facing Earth, they can cause geomagnetic disturbances that generate aurora. The lines you see were drawn to represent how solar scientists are modeling the magnetic field lines. Movies are available at the Photojournal http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA15378

  17. Three Coronal Holes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-16

    For much of this week the sun featured three substantial coronal holes (Apr. 3-6, 2018). Coronal holes appear as large dark areas which are identified with arrows in the still image. These are areas of open magnetic field from which high speed solar wind rushes out into space. This wind, if it interacts with Earth's magnetosphere, can cause aurora to appear near the poles. They are not at all uncommon. Animations are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22414

  18. Extensive Coronal Hole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-02

    A large coronal hole has been spewing solar wind particles in the general direction of Earth over the past few days (Aug. 31- Sept. 1, 2017). It is the extensive dark area that stretches from the top of the sun and angles down to the right. Coronal holes are areas of open magnetic field, which allow charge particles to escape into space. They appear dark in certain wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light such as shown here. These clouds of particles can cause aurora to appear, particularly in higher latitude regions. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21942

  19. Sun-to-Earth simulations of geo-effective Coronal Mass Ejections with EUHFORIA: a heliospheric-magnetospheric model chain approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolini, C.; Verbeke, C.; Gopalswamy, N.; Wijsen, N.; Poedts, S.; Mierla, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Pomoell, J.; Cramer, W. D.; Raeder, J.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their interplanetary counterparts are considered to be the major space weather drivers. An accurate modelling of their onset and propagation up to 1 AU represents a key issue for more reliable space weather forecasts, and predictions about their actual geo-effectiveness can only be performed by coupling global heliospheric models to 3D models describing the terrestrial environment, e.g. magnetospheric and ionospheric codes in the first place. In this work we perform a Sun-to-Earth comprehensive analysis of the July 12, 2012 CME with the aim of testing the space weather predictive capabilities of the newly developed EUHFORIA heliospheric model integrated with the Gibson-Low (GL) flux rope model. In order to achieve this goal, we make use of a model chain approach by using EUHFORIA outputs at Earth as input parameters for the OpenGGCM magnetospheric model. We first reconstruct the CME kinematic parameters by means of single- and multi- spacecraft reconstruction methods based on coronagraphic and heliospheric CME observations. The magnetic field-related parameters of the flux rope are estimated based on imaging observations of the photospheric and low coronal source regions of the eruption. We then simulate the event with EUHFORIA, testing the effect of the different CME kinematic input parameters on simulation results at L1. We compare simulation outputs with in-situ measurements of the Interplanetary CME and we use them as input for the OpenGGCM model, so to investigate the magnetospheric response to solar perturbations. From simulation outputs we extract some global geomagnetic activity indexes and compare them with actual data records and with results obtained by the use of empirical relations. Finally, we discuss the forecasting capabilities of such kind of approach and its future improvements.

  20. Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

    2012-01-01

    For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

  1. On the deficit problem of mass and energy of solar coronal mass ejections connected with interplanetary shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanchuk, V. I.; Pishkalo, N. I.

    1995-01-01

    Mean values of a number of parameters of the most powerful coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and interplanetary shocks generated by these ejections are estimated using an analysis of data obtained by the cosmic coronagraphs and spacecrafts, and geomagnetic storm measurements. It was payed attention that the shock mass and mechanical energy, averaging 5 x 10(exp 16) grm and 2 x 10(exp 32) erg respectively, are nearly 10 times larger than corresponding parameters of the ejections. So, the CME energy deficit problem seems to exist really. To solve this problem one can make an assumption that the process of the mass and energy growth of CMEs during their propagation out of the Sun observed in the solar corona is continued in supercorona too up to distances of 10-30 solar radii. This assumption is confirmed by the data analysis of five events observed using zodiacal light photometers of the HELIOS- I and HELIOS-2 spacecrafts. The mass growth rate is estimated to be equal to (1-7) x 10(exp 11) grm/sec. It is concluded that the CME contribution to mass and energy flows in the solar winds probably, is larger enough than the value of 3-5% adopted usually.

  2. Modeling the Global Coronal Field with Simulated Synoptic Magnetograms from Earth and the Lagrange Points L3, L4, and L5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Pevtsov, Alexei; Schwarz, Andrew; DeRosa, Marc

    2018-06-01

    The solar photospheric magnetic flux distribution is key to structuring the global solar corona and heliosphere. Regular full-disk photospheric magnetogram data are therefore essential to our ability to model and forecast heliospheric phenomena such as space weather. However, our spatio-temporal coverage of the photospheric field is currently limited by our single vantage point at/near Earth. In particular, the polar fields play a leading role in structuring the large-scale corona and heliosphere, but each pole is unobservable for {>} 6 months per year. Here we model the possible effect of full-disk magnetogram data from the Lagrange points L4 and L5, each extending longitude coverage by 60°. Adding data also from the more distant point L3 extends the longitudinal coverage much further. The additional vantage points also improve the visibility of the globally influential polar fields. Using a flux-transport model for the solar photospheric field, we model full-disk observations from Earth/L1, L3, L4, and L5 over a solar cycle, construct synoptic maps using a novel weighting scheme adapted for merging magnetogram data from multiple viewpoints, and compute potential-field models for the global coronal field. Each additional viewpoint brings the maps and models into closer agreement with the reference field from the flux-transport simulation, with particular improvement at polar latitudes, the main source of the fast solar wind.

  3. Contagious Coronal Heating from Recurring Emergence of Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. L.; Falconer, D. A.; Sterling, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    For each of six old bipolar active regions, we present and interpret Yohkoh/SXT and SOHO/MDI observations of the development, over several days, of enhanced coronal heating in and around the old bipole in response to new magnetic flux emergence within the old bipole. The observations show: 1. In each active region, new flux emerges in the equatorward side of the old bipole, around a lone remaining leading sunspot and/or on the equatorward end of the neutral line of the old bipole. 2. The emerging field is marked by intense internal coronal heating, and enhanced coronal heating occurs in extended loops stemming from the emergence site. 3. In five of the six cases, a "rooster tail" of coronal loops in the poleward extent of the old bipole also brightens in response to the flux emergence. 4. There are episodes of enhanced coronal heating in surrounding magnetic fields that are contiguous with the old bipole but are not directly connected to the emerging field. From these observations, we suggest that the accommodation of localized newly emerged flux within an old active region entails far reaching adjustments in the 3D magnetic field throughout the active region and in surrounding fields in which the active region is embedded, and that these adjustments produce the extensive enhanced coronal heating. We Also Note That The Reason For The recurrence of flux emergence in old active regions may be that active-region flux tends to emerge in giant-cell convection downflows. If so, the poleward "rooster tail" is a coronal flag of a long-lasting downflow in the convection zone. This work was funded by NASA's Office of Space Science through the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program and the Sun-Earth Connection Guest Investigator Program.

  4. Contagious Coronal Heating from Recurring Emergence of Magnetic Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For each of six old bipolar active regions, we present and interpret Yohkoh/SXT and SOHO/MDI observations of the development, over several days, of enhanced coronal heating in and around the old bipole in response to new magnetic flux emerge= within the old bipole. The observations show: 1. In each active region, new flux emerges in the equatorward side of the old bipole, around a lone remaining leading sunspot and/or on the equatorward end of the neutral line of the old bipole. 2. The emerging field is marked by intense internal coronal heating, and enhanced coronal heating occurs in extended loops stemming from the emergence site. 3. In five of the six cases, a "rooster tail" of coronal loops in the poleward extent of the old bipole also brightens in response to the flux emergence. 4. There are episodes of enhanced coronal heating in surrounding magnetic fields that are contiguous with the old bipole but are not directly connected to the emerging field. From these observations, we suggest that the accommodation of localized newly emerged flux within an old active region entails far reaching adjustments in the 3D magnetic field throughout the active region and in surrounding fields in which the active region is embedded, and that these adjustments produce the extensive enhanced coronal heating. We also note that the reason for the recurrence of flux emergence in old active regions may be that active region flux tends to emerge in giant-cell convection downflows. If so, the poleward "rooster tail" is a coronal flag of a long-lasting downflow in the convection zone. This work was funded by NASA's Office of Space Science through the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program and the Sun-Earth Connection Guest Investigator Program.

  5. The symmetry and mass of halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) as quantitative predictors for severe space weather at Earth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuselier, S.; Allegrini, F.; Bzowski, M.; Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M. I.; Funsten, H. O.; Galli, A.; Heirtzler, D.; Janzen, P. H.; Kubiak, M. A.; Kucharek, H.; Lewis, W. S.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Petrinec, S. M.; Quinn, M. S.; Schwadron, N.; Sokol, J. M.; Trattner, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Bureau of Meteorology's Space Weather Service operates an alert service for severe space weather events. The service relies on a statistical model which ingests observations of M and X class solar flares at or shortly after the time of the flare to predict the occurrence and severity of terrestrial impacts with a lead time of 1 to 4 days. This model has been operational since 2012 and caters to the needs of critical infrastructure groups in the Australian region. This paper reports on improvements to the forecast model by including SOHO LASCO coronagraph observations of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). The coronagraphs are analysed to determine the Earthward direction parameter and the integrated intensity as a measure of the CME mass. Both of these parameters can help to predict whether a CME will be geo-effective. This work aims to increase the accuracy of the model predictions and lower the rate of false positives, as well as providing an estimate of the expected level of geomagnetic storm intensity.

  6. The symmetry and mass of halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) as quantitative predictors for severe space weather at Earth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, L. E.; Terkildsen, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Bureau of Meteorology's Space Weather Service operates an alert service for severe space weather events. The service relies on a statistical model which ingests observations of M and X class solar flares at or shortly after the time of the flare to predict the occurrence and severity of terrestrial impacts with a lead time of 1 to 4 days. This model has been operational since 2012 and caters to the needs of critical infrastructure groups in the Australian region. This paper reports on improvements to the forecast model by including SOHO LASCO coronagraph observations of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). The coronagraphs are analysed to determine the Earthward direction parameter and the integrated intensity as a measure of the CME mass. Both of these parameters can help to predict whether a CME will be geo-effective. This work aims to increase the accuracy of the model predictions and lower the rate of false positives, as well as providing an estimate of the expected level of geomagnetic storm intensity.

  7. Global Cooperation in the Science of Sun-Earth Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Davila, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The international space science community had recognized the importance of space weather more than a decade ago, which resulted in a number of international collaborative activities such as the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI), the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by SCOSTEP and the International Living with a Star (ILWS) program. These programs have brought scientists together to tackle the scientific issues related to short and long term variability of the Sun and the consequences in the heliosphere. The ISWI program is a continuation of the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) 2007 program in focusing on science, observatory deployment, and outreach. The IHY/ISWI observatory deployment has not only filled voids in data coverage, but also inducted young scientists from developing countries into the scientific community. The ISWI schools and UN workshops are the primary venues for interaction and information exchange among scientists from developing and developed countries that lead to collaborative efforts in space weather. This paper presents a summary of ISWI activities that promote space weather science via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach.

  8. Elongated Coronal Hole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-19

    Over the past week, the single, largest feature on the sun was a long coronal hole that stretched out across more than half the diameter of the sun (Mar. 13-15, 2018). Coronal holes appear dark in certain wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light like the one you see here. They are areas of open magnetic fields from which solar wind rushes out into space. This area likely generated the beautiful aurora that were reportedly observed on March 14th in regions near Earth's poles. With the Earth set in the image to show scale, you get a good sense of just how extensive this hole is. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22345

  9. Connection between the CMEs in the coronagraph and the MCs near the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C.; Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic Clouds (MCs) are thought to be a subset of the interplanetary counterparts of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) near the Earth. Using different models, the parameters of MCs are obtained based on the in situ observations. In recent, the propagation speed, the expansion speed, and poloidal speed of MCs are obtained based on the velocity-modified cylindrical force-free flux rope model developed by Wang et al. (2015). In this work, we first make the association between the MCs recorded by WIND and their source CMEs observed by SOHO. Then, the parameters of these MCs obtained by the model developed by Wang et al. (2016) will be compared with the parameters of the CMEs during their propagation in the coronagraph. The parameters of CMEs are obtained by the GCS model using multiple observations from SOHO and STEREO.

  10. EarthConnections: Integrating Community Science and Geoscience Education Pathways for More Resilient Communities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    To develop a diverse geoscience workforce, the EarthConnections collective impact alliance is developing regionally focused, Earth education pathways. These pathways support and guide students from engagement in relevant, Earth-related science at an early age through the many steps and transitions to geoscience-related careers. Rooted in existing regional activities, pathways are developed using a process that engages regional stakeholders and community members with EarthConnections partners. Together they connect, sequence, and create multiple learning opportunities that link geoscience education and community service to address one or more local geoscience issues. Three initial pilots are demonstrating different starting points and strategies for creating pathways that serve community needs while supporting geoscience education. The San Bernardino pilot is leveraging existing academic relationships and programs; the Atlanta pilot is building into existing community activities; and the Oklahoma Tribal Nations pilot is co-constructing a pathway focus and approach. The project is using pathway mapping and a collective impact framework to support and monitor progress. The goal is to develop processes and activities that can help other communities develop similar community-based geoscience pathways. By intertwining Earth education with local community service we aspire to increase the resilience of communities in the face of environmental hazards and limited Earth resources.

  11. Coronal partings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulin, Igor F.; Dumin, Yurii V.

    2016-02-01

    The basic observational properties of "coronal partings"-the special type of quasi-one-dimensional magnetic structures, identified by a comparison of the coronal X-ray and EUV images with solar magnetograms-are investigated. They represent the channels of opposite polarity inside the unipolar large-scale magnetic fields, formed by the rows of magnetic arcs directed to the neighboring sources of the background polarity. The most important characteristics of the partings are discussed. It can be naturally assumed that-from the evolutionary and spatial points of view-the partings can transform into the coronal holes and visa versa. The classes of global, intersecting, and complex partings are identified.

  12. Effect of the Coronal Wall Thickness of Dental Implants on the Screw Joint Stability in the Internal Implant-Abutment Connection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of implant coronal wall thickness on load-bearing capacity and screw joint stability. Experimental implants were customized after investigation of the thinnest coronal wall thickness of commercially available implant systems with a regular platform diameter. Implants with four coronal wall thicknesses (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mm) were fabricated. Three sets of tests were performed. The first set was a failure test to evaluate load-bearing capacity and elastic limit. The second and third sets were cyclic and static loading tests. After abutment screw tightening of each implant, vertical cyclic loading of 250 N or static loading from 250 to 800 N was applied. Coronal diameter expansion, axial displacement, and removal torque values of the implants were compared. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analysis (α = .05). Implants with 0.2-mm coronal wall thickness demonstrated significantly low load-bearing capacity and elastic limit (both P < .05). These implants also showed significantly large coronal diameter expansion and axial displacement after screw tightening (both P < .05). Greater vertical load and thinner coronal wall thickness significantly increased coronal diameter expansion of the implant, axial displacement of the abutment, and removal torque loss of the abutment screw (all P < .05). Implant coronal wall thickness of 0.2 mm produces significantly inferior load-bearing capacity and screw joint stability.

  13. Data-driven Simulations of Magnetic Connectivity in Behind-the-Limb Gamma-ray Flares and Associated Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, M.; Petrosian, V.; Liu, W.; Nitta, N.; Omodei, N.; Rubio da Costa, F.; Effenberger, F.; Li, G.; Pesce-Rollins, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent Fermi detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the behind-the-limb (BTL) solar flares pose a puzzle on the particle acceleration and transport mechanisms in such events. Due to the large separation between the flare site and the location of gamma-ray emission, it is believed that the associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) play an important role in accelerating and subsequently transporting particles back to the Sun to produce obseved gamma-rays. We explore this scenario by simulating the CME associated with a well-observed flare on 2014 September 1 about 40 degrees behind the east solar limb and by comparing the simulation and observational results. We utilize a data-driven global magnetohydrodynamics model (AWSoM: Alfven-wave Solar Model) to track the dynamical evolution of the global magnetic field during the event and investigate the magnetic connectivity between the CME/CME-driven shock and the Fermi emission region. Moreover, we derive the time-varying shock parameters (e.g., compression ratio, Alfven Mach number, and ThetaBN) over the area that is magnetically connected to the visible solar disk where Fermi gamma-ray emission originates. Our simulation shows that the visible solar disk develops connections both to the flare site and to the CME-driven shock during the eruption, which indicate that the CME's interaction with the global solar corona is critical for understanding such Fermi BTL events and gamma-ray flares in general. We discuss the causes and implications of Fermi BTL events, in the framework of a potential shift of paradigm on particle acceleration in solar flares/CMEs.

  14. The Real Reasons for Seasons--Sun-Earth Connections: Unraveling Misconceptions about the Earth and Sun. Grades 6-8. Teacher's Guide. LHS GEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Alan; Willard, Carolyn; Pompea, Stephen

    This guide is aimed at helping students arrive at a clear understanding of seasons as they investigate the connections between the sun and the earth. Activities include: (1) "Name the Season"; (2) "Sun-Earth Survey"; (3) "Trip to the Sun"; (4) "What Shape is Earth's Orbit?"; (5) "Temperatures around the…

  15. Earth2Class: Bringing the Earth to the Classroom-Innovative Connections between Research Scientists, Teachers, and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    "Earth2Class" (E2C) is a unique program offered through the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. It connects research scientists, classroom teachers, middle and high school students, and others in ways that foster broader outreach of cutting-edge discoveries. One key component are Saturday workshops offered during the school year. These provide investigators with a tested format for sharing research methods and results. Teachers and students learn more about "real"science than what is found in textbooks. They discover that Science is exciting, uncertain, and done by people not very different from themselves. Since 1998, we have offered more than 170 workshops, partnering with more than 90 LDEO scientists. E2C teachers establishe links with scientists that have led to participation in research projects, the LDEO Open House, and other programs. Connections developed between high school students and scientists resulted in authentic science research experiences. A second key component of the project is the E2C website, https://earth2class.org/site/. We provide archived versions of monthly workshops. The website hosts a vast array of resources geared to support learning Earth Science and other subjects. Resources created through an NSF grant to explore strategies which enhance Spatial Thinking in the NYS Regents Earth Science curriculum are found at https://earth2class.org/site/?page_id=2957. The site is well-used by K-12 Earth Science educators, averaging nearly 70k hits per month. A third component of the E2C program are week-long summer institutes offering opportunities to enhance content knowledge in weather and climate; minerals, rocks, and resources; and astronomy. These include exploration of strategies to implement NGSS-based approaches within the school curriculum. Participants can visit LDEO lab facilities and interact with scientists to learn about their research. In the past year, we have begun to create a "satellite" E2C program at UFVJM

  16. An equatorial coronal hole at solar minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromage, B. J. I.; DelZanna, G.; DeForest, C.; Thompson, B.; Clegg, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    The large transequatorial coronal hole that was observed in the solar corona at the end of August 1996 is presented. It consists of a north polar coronal hole called the 'elephant's trunk or tusk'. The observations of this coronal hole were carried out with the coronal diagnostic spectrometer onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The magnetic field associated with the equatorial coronal hole is strongly connected to that of the active region at its base, resulting in the two features rotating at almost the same rate.

  17. CME Interaction with Large-Scale Coronal Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswarny, Nat

    2012-01-01

    This talk presents some key observations that highlight the importance of CME interaction with other large scale structures such as CMEs and coronal holes . Such interactions depend on the phase of the solar cycle: during maximum, CMEs are ejected more frequently, so CME-CME interaction becomes dominant. During the rise phase, the polar coronal holes are strong, so the interaction between polar coronal holes and CMEs is important, which also leads to a possible increase in the number of interplanetary CMEs observed as magnetic clouds. During the declining phase, there are more equatorial coronal holes, so CMEs originating near these coronal holes are easily deflected. CMEs can be deflected toward and away from the Sun-Earth line resulting in interesting geospace consequences. For example, the largest geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 23 was due to a CME that was deflected towards the Sun-earth line from E22. CME deflection away from the Sun-Earth line diminishes the chance of a CME producing a geomagnetic storm. CME interaction in the coronagraphic field of view was first identified using enhanced radio emission, which is an indication of acceleration of low energy (approx.10 keV) electrons in the interaction site. CME interaction, therefore, may also have implications for proton acceleration. For example, solar energetic particle events typically occur with a higher intensity, whenever multiple CMEs occur in quick succession from the same source region. CME deflection may also have implications to the arrival of energetic particles to earth because magnetic connectivity may be changed by the interaction. I illustrate the above points using examples from SOHO, STEREO, Wind, and ACE data .

  18. Coronation Chemicals

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-22

    This is the first laser spectrum from the ChemCam instrument on NASA Curiosity rover, sent back from Mars on Aug. 19, 2012, showing emission lines from different elements present in the target, a rock near the rover landing site dubbed Coronation.

  19. Influence of Earth-directed Coronal Mass Ejections on the Sun’s Shadow Observed by the Tibet-III Air Shower Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, D.; Chen, T. L.; Chen, W. Y.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z. Y.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; He, Z. T.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Jia, H. Y.; Jiang, L.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Kozai, M.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, A. F.; Li, H. J.; Li, W. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J. S.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Meng, X. R.; Miyazaki, T.; Munakata, K.; Nakajima, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Niwa, T.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Ozawa, S.; Qian, X. L.; Qu, X. B.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sako, T. K.; Shao, J.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, H.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamauchi, K.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, A. F.; Zhai, L. M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Tibet ASγ Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    We examine the possible influence of Earth-directed coronal mass ejections (ECMEs) on the Sun’s shadow in the 3 TeV cosmic-ray intensity observed by the Tibet-III air shower (AS) array. We confirm a clear solar-cycle variation of the intensity deficit in the Sun’s shadow during ten years between 2000 and 2009. This solar-cycle variation is overall reproduced by our Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the Sun’s shadow based on the potential field model of the solar magnetic field averaged over each solar rotation period. We find, however, that the magnitude of the observed intensity deficit in the Sun’s shadow is significantly less than that predicted by MC simulations, particularly during the period around solar maximum when a significant number of ECMEs is recorded. The χ 2 tests of the agreement between the observations and the MC simulations show that the difference is larger during the periods when the ECMEs occur, and the difference is reduced if the periods of ECMEs are excluded from the analysis. This suggests the first experimental evidence of the ECMEs affecting the Sun’s shadow observed in the 3 TeV cosmic-ray intensity.

  20. Making connections: Where STEM learning and Earth science data services meet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugbee, K.; Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Gatlin, P. N.; Weigel, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    STEM learning is most effective when students are encouraged to see the connections between science, technology and real world problems. Helping to make these connections has become an increasingly important aspect of Earth science data research. The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC), one of NASA's 12 EOSDIS data centers, has developed a new type of documentation called the micro article to facilitate making connections between data and Earth science research problems. Micro articles are short academic texts that enable a reader to quickly understand a scientific phenomena, a case study, or an instrument used to collect data. While originally designed to increase data discovery and usability, micro articles also serve as a reliable starting point for project-based learning, an educational approach in STEM education, for high school and higher education environments. This presentation will highlight micro articles at the Global Hydrology Resource Center data center and will demonstrate the potential applications of micro articles in project-based learning.

  1. Coronally advanced flap and connective tissue graft with or without plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in treatment of gingival recession.

    PubMed

    Jenabian, Niloofar; Motallebnejad, Mina; Zahedi, Ehsan; Sarmast, Nima D; Angelov, Nikola

    2018-05-01

    Several researchers have tried to improve the results of gingival recession treatment techniques. One of the methods is to use growth factors The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of CAF (coronally advanced flap) + CTG (connective tissue graft) + PRGF (plasma rich in growth factors) in the treatment of Miller Class I buccal gingival recession. Twenty-two teeth with Miller Class I gingival recession in 6 patients 26 ‒ 47 years of age were included in a split-mouth designed randomized controlled trial (RCT). In each patient, one side was treated with CAF + CTG + PRGF (test) and the other side was treated with CAF + CTG (control). The following parameters were measured before surgery and up to 6 months after surgery on the mid-buccal surface of the tooth: keratinized tissue width (KTW), clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), vertical recession depth (VRD), recession depth (RD), gingival thickness (GT), root coverage in percentage (RC%) and the distance between the CEJ and mucogingival junction (MGJL). Data were analyzed with paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. After 6 months noticeable improvements were observed in both groups in all the variables measured except for PD; however, the differences between the two groups were not significant. RC% was 80 ± 25% and 67 ± 28% in the test and control groups, respectively, after 6 months. Both CAF + CTG + PRGF and CAF + CTG treatment modalities resulted in favorable root coverage; however, the addition of PRGF added no measurable significant effect. Key words: Connective tissue graft, dental root coverage, gingival recession, growth factors, mucogingival surgery, periodontal plastic surgery.

  2. Coronally advanced flap and connective tissue graft with or without plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in treatment of gingival recession

    PubMed Central

    Jenabian, Niloofar; Motallebnejad, Mina; Zahedi, Ehsan; Angelov, Nikola

    2018-01-01

    Background Several researchers have tried to improve the results of gingival recession treatment techniques. One of the methods is to use growth factors The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of CAF (coronally advanced flap) + CTG (connective tissue graft) + PRGF (plasma rich in growth factors) in the treatment of Miller Class I buccal gingival recession. Material and Methods Twenty-two teeth with Miller Class I gingival recession in 6 patients 26 ‒ 47 years of age were included in a split-mouth designed randomized controlled trial (RCT). In each patient, one side was treated with CAF + CTG + PRGF (test) and the other side was treated with CAF + CTG (control). The following parameters were measured before surgery and up to 6 months after surgery on the mid-buccal surface of the tooth: keratinized tissue width (KTW), clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), vertical recession depth (VRD), recession depth (RD), gingival thickness (GT), root coverage in percentage (RC%) and the distance between the CEJ and mucogingival junction (MGJL). Data were analyzed with paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. Results After 6 months noticeable improvements were observed in both groups in all the variables measured except for PD; however, the differences between the two groups were not significant. RC% was 80 ± 25% and 67 ± 28% in the test and control groups, respectively, after 6 months. Conclusions Both CAF + CTG + PRGF and CAF + CTG treatment modalities resulted in favorable root coverage; however, the addition of PRGF added no measurable significant effect. Key words:Connective tissue graft, dental root coverage, gingival recession, growth factors, mucogingival surgery, periodontal plastic surgery. PMID:29849966

  3. Google Earth as a method for connecting scientific research with the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Google Earth has proven itself to be an exceptionally successful and ambitious application: fully capable as a scientific tool, yet able to also satisfy the intellectual and virtual touristic needs of students, educators and the general public. It is difficult to overstate Google Earth's impact on our understanding of the World we inhabit, and yet there is also considerable potential that remains unexplored. This paper will discuss Google Earth's potential as a social network for the science community - connecting the general public with scientists, and scientists with their research. This paper will look at the University of Lethbridge's RAVE (Reaching Audiences through Virtual Entryways) project as a model for how this social network can function within the Google Earth environment.

  4. Coronal Hole Rotating Towards Us

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-22

    A good-sized coronal hole came around to where it is just about facing Earth (May 16-18, 2018). Coronal holes are areas of open magnetic field from which solar wind (consisting of charged particles) streams into space. The video clip covers two days and was taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. Such streams of particles take several days to reach Earth, but they can generate aurora, particularly nearer the poles. An animation is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00575

  5. Coronal Heating and the Magnetic Flux Content of the Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    is predominantly produced via the magnetic field, the mechanism is significantly different than in active regions. This work is funded by NASA's Office of Space Science through the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program and the Sun-Earth Connection Guest Investigator Program.

  6. Healing of localized gingival recessions treated with coronally advanced flap alone or combined with either a resorbable collagen matrix or subepithelial connective tissue graft. A preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Sculean, Anton; Mihatovic, Ilja; Shirakata, Yoshinori; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Schwarz, Frank; Iglhaut, Gerhard

    2015-05-01

    To histologically evaluate the effectiveness of a porcine derived collagen matrix (CM) and a subepithelial connective tissue graft (CTG) for coverage of localized gingival recessions. Chronic single Miller Class I-like recessions were created at the buccal at the canines and at the third and fourth premolars in the upper and lower jaws of six beagle dogs. The defects were randomly treated with (1) coronally advanced flap surgery (CAF) + CM, (2) CAF + CTG, or (3) CAF alone. At 12 weeks, histometric measurements were made, e.g., between a reference point (N) - and the gingival margin (GM) - and the outer contour of the adjacent soft tissue (gingival thickness [GT]). The postoperative healing was uneventful in all animals. No complications such as allergic reactions, abscesses or infections were noted throughout the entire study period. All three treatments resulted in coverage of localized gingival recessions. The histological analysis failed to identify any residues of CM or CTG. The histometric measurements revealed comparable outcomes for N-GM and GT values for all three groups (CAF + CM: 1.04 ± 0.69 mm/0.68 ± 0.33 mm; CAF + CTG: 1.15 ± 1.12 mm/0.76 ± 0.37 mm; CAF: 1.43 ± 0.45 mm/0.79 ± 0.24 mm). In the used defect model, the application of CTG or CM in conjunction with CAF did not have an advantage over the use of CAF alone. The use of CAF alone is a valuable option for the treatment localized Miller Class I recessions.

  7. Long-Term Results Comparing Xenogeneic Collagen Matrix and Autogenous Connective Tissue Grafts With Coronally Advanced Flaps for Treatment of Dehiscence-Type Recession Defects.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michael K; Scheyer, E Todd

    2016-03-01

    Although connective tissue grafts with coronally advanced flaps (CTG + CAF) have been deemed the gold standard for recession defect treatment, to provide adequate recession coverage, the periodontal profession continues to pursue lower-morbidity, patient-preferred substitutes that are more convenient and of unlimited supply. Using a randomized, controlled, and masked contralateral comparison of matched-pair, within-patient recession defects, collagen matrix (CMX) + CAF therapy was compared with CTG + CAF at 6 months and 5 years. The primary efficacy endpoint was percentage of root coverage (RC). Secondary efficacy parameters included width of keratinized tissue (KTw), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), clinician rating of color and texture compared with surrounding tissues, and patient esthetic satisfaction. Seventeen patients were available for the 5-year recall. Mean RC between 6 months and 5 years changed from 89.5% to 77.6% for CMX + CAF test sites and 97.5% to 95.5% for CTG + CAF control sites. KTw averaged >3 mm for both test and control sites at 5 years. PD was equivalent at all time points. The 6-month to 5-year changes for RC, KTw, and PD were not significantly different between therapies. CAL change from 6 months to 5 years was greater for CTG + CAF (0.26 mm) than CMX + CAF (-0.21 mm). Tissue color match to surrounding tissues remained similar for both therapies throughout the study. There was a difference in tissue texture at both 6 months and 5 years, with CMX + CAF sites tending to be "equally firm" and CTG + CAF sites "more firm." Patient satisfaction was high, with no statistical difference in satisfaction between therapies at any time point. When balanced with patient-reported satisfaction, clinical rankings of esthetics, and control and historical RC results reported by other investigators, CMX + CAF appears to present a viable and long-term alternative to traditional CTG + CAF therapy.

  8. Radio studies of the magnetic connection between solar particle acceleration sites and the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Karl-Ludwig

    The magnetic connection from the Sun to the Earth is a crucial problem of SEP propagation in space. While the Parker spiral often provides a plausible configuration, there are also examples where simple impulsive SEP events are observed at Earth even when the parent active region is several tens of degrees in heliographic longitude away from the root of the nominal Parker spiral. In previous work radio spectrography and imaging, together with PFSS magnetic field extrapolations from photospheric measurements, have been shown to provide a consistent ex-planation of this observation in terms of open flux tubes that rapidly fan out with inceasing height and connect the root of the Parker spiral at the source surface to the remote solar active region. Other work, however, has challenged this view and concluded that PFSS models often do not provide adequate connections. The problem is re-examined in this contribution. It is shown that at least in several cases the claimed failure of the PFSS model is in fact due to the assumption that high-latitude active regions must connect to the Parker spiral in the ecliptic plane in order that the SEP be able to reach Earth. This means that the PFSS field lines have to care for the particle transport from high to low heliographic latitudes in these events. However, this contribution presents evidence from radio observations from metre to kilometre wavelengths that even when particles leave the Sun towards high ecliptic latitudes, interplan-etary field lines may bend down to the ecliptic between a few solar radii and 1 AU and guide the particles to the vicinity of the Earth.

  9. Urban fifth graders' connections-making between formal earth science content and their lived experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brkich, Katie Lynn

    2014-03-01

    Earth science education, as it is traditionally taught, involves presenting concepts such as weathering, erosion, and deposition using relatively well-known examples—the Grand Canyon, beach erosion, and others. However, these examples—which resonate well with middle- and upper-class students—ill-serve students of poverty attending urban schools who may have never traveled farther from home than the corner store. In this paper, I explore the use of a place-based educational framework in teaching earth science concepts to urban fifth graders and explore the connections they make between formal earth science content and their lived experiences using participant-driven photo elicitation techniques. I argue that students are able to gain a sounder understanding of earth science concepts when they are able to make direct observations between the content and their lived experiences and that when such direct observations are impossible they make analogies of appearance, structure, and response to make sense of the content. I discuss additionally the importance of expanding earth science instruction to include man-made materials, as these materials are excluded traditionally from the curriculum yet are most immediately available to urban students for examination.

  10. Evaluation of human recession defects treated with coronally advanced flaps and either purified recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB with beta tricalcium phosphate or connective tissue: a histologic and microcomputed tomographic examination.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michael K; Scheyer, Todd; Nevins, Myron; Schupbach, Peter

    2009-02-01

    The current study examined the histologic and microcomputed tomographic (micro CT) outcomes of the treatment of gingival recession defects with either a subepithelial connective tissue graft (CTG) or 0.3 mg/mL recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF-BB) on a beta tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) matrix. Gingival recession defects were surgically created in six premolar teeth with no more than 3 mm of keratinized marginal tissue, an osseous crest 2 to 3 mm apical to the newly created gingival margin, and recession depth of at least 3 mm. The defects were left untouched for 2 months; then, four defects were grafted with rhPDGF-BB + beta-TCP + a wound healing dressing, and two defects received CTGs. A coronally advanced flap covered each grafted site. Nine months later, sections were obtained for examination. All four sites treated with rhPDGF-BB + beta-TCP showed connective tissue fibers (Sharpey fibers) perpendicularly inserting into newly formed cementum and alveolar bone. In the two sites treated with CTGs, a long junctional epithelium was seen coronal to the osseous crest and connective tissue fibers ran parallel to the adjacent root surfaces, with no evidence of insertion into cementum or bone. There was no evidence of regeneration of cementum, inserting connective tissue fibers, or supporting alveolar bone. Regeneration of the periodontium in gingival recession defects is possible through growth factor-mediated therapy.

  11. Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections by Tether-Cutting Reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present and interpret examples of the eruptive motion and flare brightening observed in the onset of magnetic explosions that produce coronal mass ejections. The observations are photospheric magnetograms and sequences of coronal and/or chromospheric images. In our examples, the explosion is apparently driven by the ejective eruption of a sigmoidal sheared-field flux rope from the core of an initially closed bipole. This eruption is initiated (triggered and unleashed) by reconnection located either (1) internally, low in the sheared core field, or (2) externally, at a magnetic null above the closed bipole. The internal reconnection is commonly called 'tether-cutting" reconnection, and the external reconnection is commonly called "break-out' reconnection. We point out that break-out reconnection amounts to external tether cutting. In one example, the eruptive motion of the sheared core field starts several minutes prior to any detectable brightening in the coronal images. We suggest that in this case the eruption is triggered by internal tether-cutting reconnection that at first is too slow and/or too localized to produce detectable heating in the coronal images. This work is supported by NASA's Office of Space Science through its Solar & Heliospheric Physics Supporting Research & Technology program and its Sun-Earth Connection Guest Investigator program.

  12. Connecting Teachers and Students with Science Experts: NASA's Expedition Earth and Beyond Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.; McCollum, T.; Baker, M.; Mailhot, M.; Lindgren, C. F.

    2010-12-01

    Classroom teachers are challenged with engaging and preparing today’s students for the future. Activities are driven by state required skills, education standards, and high stakes testing. How can educators teach required standards and motivate students to not only learn essential skills, but also acquire a sense of intrigue to want to learn more? One way is to allow students to take charge of their learning and conduct student-driven research. NASA’s Expedition Earth and Beyond program, based at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is designed to do just that. The program, developed by both educators and scientists, promotes inquiry-based investigations in classrooms (grades 5-14) by using current NASA data. By combining the expertise of teachers, who understand the everyday challenges of working with students, and scientists, who work with the process of science as they conduct their own research, the result is a realistic and useable means in which to promote authentic research in classrooms. NASA’s Expedition Earth and Beyond Program was created with the understanding that there are three important aspects that enable teachers to implement authentic research experiences in the classroom. These aspects are: 1) Standards-aligned, inquiry based curricular resources and an implementation structure to support student-driven research; 2) Professional development opportunities to learn techniques and strategies to ensure seamless implementation of resources; and 3) Ongoing support. Expedition Earth and Beyond provides all three of these aspects and adds two additional and inspiring motivators. One is the opportunity for student research teams to request new data. Data requested and approved would be acquired by astronauts orbiting Earth on the International Space Station. This aspect is part of the process of science structure and provides a powerful way to excite students. The second, and perhaps more significant motivator, is the creation of connections between

  13. Coronal Rain, Solar Storm

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-19

    Explanation: In this picture, the Sun's surface is quite dark. A frame from a movie recorded on November 9th by the orbiting TRACE telescope, it shows coronal loops lofted over a solar active region. Glowing brightly in extreme ultraviolet light, the hot plasma entrained above the Sun along arching magnetic fields is cooling and raining back down on the solar surface. Hours earlier, on November 8th, astronomers had watched this particular active region produce a not so spectacular solar flare. Still, the M-class flare spewed forth an intense storm of particles, suddenly showering satellites near the Earth with high energy protons. The flare event was also associated with a large coronal mass ejection, a massive cloud of material which impacted our fair planet's magnetic field about 31 hours later. The result ... a strong geomagnetic storm. Credit: NASA/GSFC/TRACE To learn more go to: nasascience.nasa.gov/missions/trace To learn more about NASA's Sun Earth Day go here: sunearthday.nasa.gov/2010/index.php

  14. Using An Online Photo-Sharing Tool (Flickr) to Connect Students During Earth Science Week

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guertin, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    At the university level, some faculty desire to have their students connect with middle school and high school students for activities and discussions relating to Earth science. Unfortunately, it is not always feasible to coordinate face-to-face meetings of the students, especially when trying to forge connections with schools located at a distance. Therefore, I have turned to an online tool to forge the connections for an Earth science outreach activity - specifically, the use of the photo-sharing tool Flickr, http://www.flickr.com. Flickr is an online photo management and sharing application that allows for the creation of a community with authorized members to contribute images viewable by the general public. For this project, the participating student community included undergraduates from Penn State University, as well as middle school and high school students from Delaware, Michigan, Kentucky, and North Carolina. I decided a theme should be selected for the students to frame the project. I selected the 2009 Earth Science Week (ESW) photography context theme, How Climate Shapes My World, as I felt it was important to have the students connect with a nationwide celebration and exploration of this topic. Students were encouraged to consider what the theme meant to them and how to represent that through a photograph. Each student was required to provide a title and description for the photograph contributed to the Flickr group (http://www.flickr.com/groups/earthscienceweek2009). As this Flickr project was only a collaboration and sharing of photos and not a contest, the students were encouraged to not only submit their photo in Flickr but to the actual ESW contest. The deadline to post the photographs online in Flickr was set for the end of Earth Science Week. The key to the ESW Flickr project was not just the taking and viewing of photos. The Flickr website is designed with the idea of social networking around an image. Flickr facilitated a dialogue that had

  15. Coronal and Prominence Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, Arthur I. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Various aspects of solar prominences and the solar corona are discussed. The formation of prominences, prominence diagnostics and structure, prominence dissappearance, large scale coronal structure, coronal diagnostics, small scale coronal structure, and non-equilibrium/coronal heating are among the topics covered.

  16. EarthNow: Weather and Climate Connections for 3D Spherical Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowley, P.; Ackerman, S. A.; Arkin, P. A.; Pisut, D.; Kohrs, R.; Mooney, M. E.; Schollaert, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NOAA Science on a Sphere (SOS) is one of the fastest growing museum and science center exhibits worldwide, with over 80 installations. Rightfully so—few other exhibits captivate and mystify audiences in the way SOS does. Harnessing audience excitement about the science, especially climate change and real-time weather, however, has been challenging for docents. The EarthNow project (http://sphere.ssec.wisc.edu) from the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) allows SOS institutions to go beyond the scientific facts to create meaningful visitor experiences about weather and climate connections. CIMSS, in collaboration with the NOAA Environmental Visualization Lab and the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites, regularly updates a blog-style website, providing a central location for SOS facilitators to find timely weather and climate stories to speak about how current events affect and are affected by global change. Along with these stories, the website also provides relevant, visually appealing SOS-formatted datasets and animations with appropriate annotations, leading to easier comprehension by presenters and the public. Along with discussing the logistics and background of the EarthNow project, this presentation will review the results of our front-end and formative evaluations. The evaluation results will not only allow us to showcase how museums and science centers are using EarthNow, but also what museums need to tackle complex and contentious issues like global climate change.;

  17. Geometry of solar coronal rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, B. P.; Martsenyuk, O. V.; Platov, Yu. V.; Den, O. E.

    2016-02-01

    Coronal helmet streamers are the most prominent large-scale elements of the solar corona observed in white light during total solar eclipses. The base of the streamer is an arcade of loops located above a global polarity inversion line. At an altitude of 1-2 solar radii above the limb, the apices of the arches sharpen, forming cusp structures, above which narrow coronal rays are observed. Lyot coronagraphs, especially those on-board spacecrafts flying beyond the Earth's atmosphere, enable us to observe the corona continuously and at large distances. At distances of several solar radii, the streamers take the form of fairly narrow spokes that diverge radially from the Sun. This radial direction displays a continuous expansion of the corona into the surrounding space, and the formation of the solar wind. However, the solar magnetic field and solar rotation complicate the situation. The rotation curves radial streams into spiral ones, similar to water streams flowing from rotating tubes. The influence of the magnetic field is more complex and multifarious. A thorough study of coronal ray geometries shows that rays are frequently not radial and not straight. Coronal streamers frequently display a curvature whose direction in the meridional plane depends on the phase of the solar cycle. It is evident that this curvature is related to the geometry of the global solar magnetic field, which depends on the cycle phase. Equatorward deviations of coronal streamers at solar minima and poleward deviations at solar maxima can be interpreted as the effects of changes in the general topology of the global solar magnetic field. There are sporadic temporal changes in the coronal rays shape caused by remote coronal mass ejections (CMEs) propagating through the corona. This is also a manifestation of the influence of the magnetic field on plasma flows. The motion of a large-scale flux rope associated with a CME away from the Sun creates changes in the structure of surrounding field

  18. Pacific Research Platform - Creation of a West Coast Big Data Freeway System Applied to the CONNected objECT (CONNECT) Data Mining Framework for Earth Science Knowledge Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellars, S. L.; Nguyen, P.; Tatar, J.; Graham, J.; Kawsenuk, B.; DeFanti, T.; Smarr, L.; Sorooshian, S.; Ralph, M.

    2017-12-01

    A new era in computational earth sciences is within our grasps with the availability of ever-increasing earth observational data, enhanced computational capabilities, and innovative computation approaches that allow for the assimilation, analysis and ability to model the complex earth science phenomena. The Pacific Research Platform (PRP), CENIC and associated technologies such as the Flash I/O Network Appliance (FIONA) provide scientists a unique capability for advancing towards this new era. This presentation reports on the development of multi-institutional rapid data access capabilities and data pipeline for applying a novel image characterization and segmentation approach, CONNected objECT (CONNECT) algorithm to study Atmospheric River (AR) events impacting the Western United States. ARs are often associated with torrential rains, swollen rivers, flash flooding, and mudslides. CONNECT is computationally intensive, reliant on very large data transfers, storage and data mining techniques. The ability to apply the method to multiple variables and datasets located at different University of California campuses has previously been challenged by inadequate network bandwidth and computational constraints. The presentation will highlight how the inter-campus CONNECT data mining framework improved from our prior download speeds of 10MB/s to 500MB/s using the PRP and the FIONAs. We present a worked example using the NASA MERRA data to describe how the PRP and FIONA have provided researchers with the capability for advancing knowledge about ARs. Finally, we will discuss future efforts to expand the scope to additional variables in earth sciences.

  19. Sprawling Coronal Hole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-16

    A large coronal hole stands out as the most obvious feature on the sun this week (Oct. 12-13, 2017). The dark structure, shaped kind of like the Pi symbol, spreads across much of the top of the sun. Though one cannot tell from this image and video clip in false-color extreme ultraviolet light, it is spewing high-speed solar wind particles into space and has been doing this all week. It is likely that these charged particles have been interacting with Earth's atmosphere and generating many aurora displays in regions near the poles the past several days. Animations are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22047

  20. Rare Earth coordination polymers with zeolite topology constructed from 4-connected building units.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaodan; Zhu, Guangshan; Li, Zhongyue; Chen, Yan; Li, Xiaotian; Qiu, Shilun

    2006-05-15

    A series of rare earth coordination polymers, M(BTC)(DMF)(DMSO) (M = Tb (1), Ho (2), Er (3), Yb (4), Y (5)), with zeolite ABW topology have been synthesized under mild conditions. They exhibit the same three-dimensional (3D) architecture and crystallize in monoclinic symmetry space group P2(1)/n. Their structures are built up from inorganic and organic 4-connected building units, whose vertex symbols are 4.4.6.6.6.8. The building units link to each other to generate approximate 5 x 8 angstroms2 channels along the [100] direction. The luminescent and magnetic properties of these compounds are investigated, and the results reveal that they could be anticipated to be potential antiferromagnetic and fluorescent materials.

  1. "Tormenta Espacial" - Exploring The Sun-earth Connection With A Spanish-language Planetarium Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elteto, Attila; Salas, F.; Duncan, D.; Traub-Metlay, S.

    2007-10-01

    Reaching out to Spanish speakers is increasingly vital to workforce development and public support of space science projects. Building on a successful partnership with NASA's TIMED mission, LASP and Space Science Institute, Fiske Planetarium has translated its original planetarium show - "Space Storm” - into "Tormenta Espacial". This show explores the Sun-Earth connection and explains how solar activity affects technology and life on Earth. Solar scientists from NOAA's Space Environment Center and the University of Colorado at Boulder contributed to provide scientific accuracy. Show content and accompanying educational materials are aligned with state and national science standards. While designed for students in grades 6-8, this show has been positively evaluated by students from grades 4-10 and shown to the general public with favorable responses. Curricular materials extend the planetarium experience into the K-12 classroom so that students inspired and engaged by the show continue to see real-life applications and workplace opportunities. Fiske Planetarium offers both "Space Storm” and "Tormenta Espacial” to other planetariums at a minimal rate, including technical support for the life of the show. Thanks to a request from a planetarium in Belgium, a version of "Space Storm” is available with no spoken dialogue so that languages other than English or Spanish may be accommodated. Collaborative projects among planetariums, NASA missions (planned as well as active), research scientists and other parties keep EPO activities healthy and well-funded. Fiske Planetarium staff strive to develop and maintain partnerships throughout the EPO and informal education communities.

  2. Galileo Earth approach navigation using connected-element interferometer phase-delay tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurman, S. W.

    1990-01-01

    The application of a Connected-Element Interferometer (CEI) to the navigation of the Galileo spacecraft during its encounter with Earth in December 1990 is investigated. A CEI tracking demonstration is planned for the week of November 11 through 18, 1990, from 27 days to 20 days prior to Earth encounter on December 8. During this period, the spacecraft will be tracked daily with Deep Space Network Stations 13 and 15 at Goldstone. The purpose of this work is twofold: first, to establish and define the navigation performance expected during the tracking demonstration and, second, to study, in a more general sense, the sensitivity of orbit demonstration results obtained with CEI to the data density within CEI tracking passes and to important system parameters, such as baseline orientation errors and the phase-delay measurement accuracy. Computer simulation results indicate that the use of CEI data, coupled with conventional range and Doppler data, may reduce the uncertainty in the declination of the spacecraft's incoming trajectory by 15 to 66 percent compared with the operational solution using range and Doppler data only. The level of improvement depends upon the quantity and quality of the CEI data.

  3. Connecting Atlantic temperature variability and biological cycling in two earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanadesikan, Anand; Dunne, John P.; Msadek, Rym

    2014-05-01

    Connections between the interdecadal variability in North Atlantic temperatures and biological cycling have been widely hypothesized. However, it is unclear whether such connections are due to small changes in basin-averaged temperatures indicated by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) Index, or whether both biological cycling and the AMO index are causally linked to changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). We examine interdecadal variability in the annual and month-by-month diatom biomass in two Earth System Models with the same formulations of atmospheric, land, sea ice and ocean biogeochemical dynamics but different formulations of ocean physics and thus different AMOC structures and variability. In the isopycnal-layered ESM2G, strong interdecadal changes in surface salinity associated with changes in AMOC produce spatially heterogeneous variability in convection, nutrient supply and thus diatom biomass. These changes also produce changes in ice cover, shortwave absorption and temperature and hence the AMO Index. Off West Greenland, these changes are consistent with observed changes in fisheries and support climate as a causal driver. In the level-coordinate ESM2M, nutrient supply is much higher and interdecadal changes in diatom biomass are much smaller in amplitude and not strongly linked to the AMO index.

  4. Exploring Sun-Earth Connections: A Physical Science Program for (K-8)Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michels, D. J.; Pickert, S. M.; Thompson, J. L.; Montrose, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    An experimental, inquiry-based physical science curriculum for undergraduate, pre-service K-8 teachers is under development at the Catholic University of America in collaboration with the Solar Physics Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection missions. This is a progress report. The current, stunningly successful exploratory phase in Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) physics, sparked by SOHO, Yohkoh, TRACE, and other International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) and Living With a Star (LWS) programs, has provided dynamic, visually intuitive data that can be used for teaching basic physical concepts such as the properties of gravitational and electromagnetic fields which are manifest in beautiful imagery of the astrophysical plasmas of the solar atmosphere and Earth's auroras. Through a team approach capitalizing on the combined expertise of the Catholic University's departments of Education and Physics and of NRL solar researchers deeply involved in SEC missions we have laid out a program that will teach non-science-major undergraduates a very limited number of physical science concepts but in such a way as to develop for each one both a formal understanding and an intuitive grasp that will instill confidence, spark interest and scientific curiosity and, ideally, inspire a habit of lifetime inquiry and professional growth. A three-semester sequence is planned. The first semester will be required of incoming Education freshmen. The second and third semesters will be of such a level as to satisfy the one-year science requirement for non-science majors in the College of Arts and Sciences. The approach as adopted will integrate physics content and educational methods, with each concept introduced through inquiry-based, hands-on investigation using methods and materials directly applicable to K-8 teaching situations (Exploration Phase). The topic is further developed through discussion, demonstration and lecture, introducing such mathematical

  5. Experimental temperature analysis of simple & hybrid earth air tunnel heat exchanger in series connection at Bikaner Rajasthan India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakhar, O. P.; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Kukana, Rajendra

    2018-05-01

    The Earth Air Tunnel Heat Exchanger System is a passive air-conditioning system which has no side effect on earth climate and produces better cooling effect and heating effect comfortable to human body. It produces heating effect in winter and cooling effect in summer with the minimum power consumption of energy as compare to other air-conditioning devices. In this research paper Temperature Analysis was done on the two systems of Earth Air Tunnel Heat Exchanger experimentally for summer cooling purpose. Both the system was installed at Mechanical Engineering Department Government Engineering College Bikaner Rajasthan India. Experimental results concludes that the Average Air Temperature Difference was found as 11.00° C and 16.27° C for the Simple and Hybrid Earth Air Tunnel Heat Exchanger in Series Connection System respectively. The Maximum Air Temperature Difference was found as 18.10° C and 23.70° C for the Simple and Hybrid Earth Air Tunnel Heat Exchanger in Series Connection System respectively. The Minimum Air Temperature Difference was found as 5.20° C and 11.70° C for the Simple and Hybrid Earth Air Tunnel Heat Exchanger in Series Connection System respectively.

  6. Numerically modelling the large scale coronal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panja, Mayukh; Nandi, Dibyendu

    2016-07-01

    The solar corona spews out vast amounts of magnetized plasma into the heliosphere which has a direct impact on the Earth's magnetosphere. Thus it is important that we develop an understanding of the dynamics of the solar corona. With our present technology it has not been possible to generate 3D magnetic maps of the solar corona; this warrants the use of numerical simulations to study the coronal magnetic field. A very popular method of doing this, is to extrapolate the photospheric magnetic field using NLFF or PFSS codes. However the extrapolations at different time intervals are completely independent of each other and do not capture the temporal evolution of magnetic fields. On the other hand full MHD simulations of the global coronal field, apart from being computationally very expensive would be physically less transparent, owing to the large number of free parameters that are typically used in such codes. This brings us to the Magneto-frictional model which is relatively simpler and computationally more economic. We have developed a Magnetofrictional Model, in 3D spherical polar co-ordinates to study the large scale global coronal field. Here we present studies of changing connectivities between active regions, in response to photospheric motions.

  7. Classification and Physical parameters EUV coronal jets with STEREO/SECCHI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistico, Giuseppe; Bothmer, Volker; Patsourakos, Spiro; Zimbardo, Gaetano

    In this work we present observations of EUV coronal jets, detected with the SECCHI (Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation) imaging suites of the two STEREO spacecraft. Starting from catalogues of polar and equatorial coronal hole jets (Nistico' et al., Solar Phys., 259, 87, 2009; Ann. Geophys. in press), identified from simultaneous EUV and white-light coronagraph observations, taken during the time period March 2007 to April 2008 when solar activity was at minimum, we perfom a detailed study of some events. A basic char-acterisation of the magnetic morphology and identification of the presence of helical structure were established with respect to recently proposed models for their origin and temporal evo-lution. A classification of the events with respect to previous jet studies shows that amongst the 79 events, identified into polar coronal holes, there were 37 Eiffel tower -type jet events commonly interpreted as a small-scale ( 35 arcsec) magnetic bipole reconnecting with the ambi-ent unipolar open coronal magnetic fields at its looptops, 12 lambda-type jet events commonly interpreted as reconnection with the ambient field happening at the bipoles footpoints. Five events were termed micro-CME type jet events because they resembled classical three-part structured coronal mass ejections (CMEs) but on much smaller scales. The remainig 25 cases could not be uniquely classified. Thirty-one of the total number of events exhibited a helical magnetic field structure, indicative for a torsional motion of the jet around its axis of propaga-tion. The jet events are found to be also present in equatorial coronal holes. We also present the 3-D reconstruction, temperature, velocity, and density measurements of a number of jets during their evolution.

  8. Dynamics of Coronal Hole Boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Higginson, A. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Antiochos, S. K.

    Remote and in situ observations strongly imply that the slow solar wind consists of plasma from the hot, closed-field corona that is released onto open magnetic field lines. The Separatrix Web theory for the slow wind proposes that photospheric motions at the scale of supergranules are responsible for generating dynamics at coronal-hole boundaries, which result in the closed plasma release. We use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to determine the effect of photospheric flows on the open and closed magnetic flux of a model corona with a dipole magnetic field and an isothermal solar wind. A rotational surface motion is used tomore » approximate photospheric supergranular driving and is applied at the boundary between the coronal hole and helmet streamer. The resulting dynamics consist primarily of prolific and efficient interchange reconnection between open and closed flux. The magnetic flux near the coronal-hole boundary experiences multiple interchange events, with some flux interchanging over 50 times in one day. Additionally, we find that the interchange reconnection occurs all along the coronal-hole boundary and even produces a lasting change in magnetic-field connectivity in regions that were not driven by the applied motions. Our results show that these dynamics should be ubiquitous in the Sun and heliosphere. We discuss the implications of our simulations for understanding the observed properties of the slow solar wind, with particular focus on the global-scale consequences of interchange reconnection.« less

  9. Dynamics of Coronal Hole Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginson, A. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Wyper, Peter F.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2017-01-01

    Remote and in situ observations strongly imply that the slow solar wind consists of plasma from the hot, closed-field corona that is released onto open magnetic field lines. The Separatrix Web theory for the slow wind proposesthat photospheric motions at the scale of supergranules are responsible for generating dynamics at coronal-holeboundaries, which result in the closed plasma release. We use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamicsimulations to determine the effect of photospheric flows on the open and closed magnetic flux of a model coronawith a dipole magnetic field and an isothermal solar wind. A rotational surface motion is used to approximatephotospheric supergranular driving and is applied at the boundary between the coronal hole and helmet streamer.The resulting dynamics consist primarily of prolific and efficient interchange reconnection between open andclosed flux. The magnetic flux near the coronal-hole boundary experiences multiple interchange events, with someflux interchanging over 50 times in one day. Additionally, we find that the interchange reconnection occurs allalong the coronal-hole boundary and even produces a lasting change in magnetic-field connectivity in regions thatwere not driven by the applied motions. Our results show that these dynamics should be ubiquitous in the Sun andheliosphere. We discuss the implications of our simulations for understanding the observed properties of the slowsolar wind, with particular focus on the global-scale consequences of interchange reconnection.

  10. NASA Sun-Earth Connections Theory Program: The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Grebowsky, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report covers technical progress during the first quarter of the second year of NASA Sun-Earth Connections Theory Program (SECTP). SAIC and the University of California, Irvine (UCI) have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD model.

  11. Connecting Science and Literacy in the Classroom: Using Space and Earth Science to Support Language Arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessen, A. S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    The connections between science and literacy in the classroom have received increasing attention over the last two decades, as more and more evidence demonstrates that science provides an exciting vehicle in which to engage students on the path to literacy improvement. Combining literacy with science allows students to creatively explore the world or universe, and it. Combining science and literacy improves both reading and science scores, and increases students’ interest in science. At a time when over 40% of students beyond the 5th grade are reading two or more levels below grade level and are struggling with their current materials, finding ways to excite and engage them in the reading process is key. Literacy programs incorporating unique space science content can help prepare children for standardized language arts tests. It also engages our nation’s youngest learners and their teachers with the science, math, and technology of exploration in a language arts format. This session focuses on programs and products that bring the excitement of earth and space science into the literacy classroom, with a focus on research-based approached to combining science and language arts. Reading, Writing and Rings! Grades 1-2

  12. DERIVING THE PROPERTIES OF CORONAL PRESSURE FRONTS IN 3D: APPLICATION TO THE 2012 MAY 17 GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, A. P.; Plotnikov, I.; Pinto, R. F.

    2016-12-10

    We study the link between an expanding coronal shock and the energetic particles measured near Earth during the ground level enhancement of 2012 May 17. We developed a new technique based on multipoint imaging to triangulate the three-dimensional (3D) expansion of the shock forming in the corona. It uses images from three vantage points by mapping the outermost extent of the coronal region perturbed by the pressure front. We derive for the first time the 3D velocity vector and the distribution of Mach numbers, M {sub FM}, of the entire front as a function of time. Our approach uses magneticmore » field reconstructions of the coronal field, full magnetohydrodynamic simulations and imaging inversion techniques. We find that the highest M {sub FM} values appear near the coronal neutral line within a few minutes of the coronal mass ejection onset; this neutral line is usually associated with the source of the heliospheric current and plasma sheet. We illustrate the variability of the shock speed, shock geometry, and Mach number along different modeled magnetic field lines. Despite the level of uncertainty in deriving the shock Mach numbers, all employed reconstruction techniques show that the release time of GeV particles occurs when the coronal shock becomes super-critical ( M {sub FM} > 3). Combining in situ measurements with heliospheric imagery, we also demonstrate that magnetic connectivity between the accelerator (the coronal shock of 2012 May 17) and the near-Earth environment is established via a magnetic cloud that erupted from the same active region roughly five days earlier.« less

  13. Deriving the Properties of Coronal Pressure Fronts in 3D: Application to the 2012 May 17 Ground Level Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouillard, A. P.; Plotnikov, I.; Pinto, R. F.; Tirole, M.; Lavarra, M.; Zucca, P.; Vainio, R.; Tylka, A. J.; Vourlidas, A.; De Rosa, M. L.; Linker, J.; Warmuth, A.; Mann, G.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    We study the link between an expanding coronal shock and the energetic particles measured near Earth during the ground level enhancement of 2012 May 17. We developed a new technique based on multipoint imaging to triangulate the three-dimensional (3D) expansion of the shock forming in the corona. It uses images from three vantage points by mapping the outermost extent of the coronal region perturbed by the pressure front. We derive for the first time the 3D velocity vector and the distribution of Mach numbers, M FM, of the entire front as a function of time. Our approach uses magnetic field reconstructions of the coronal field, full magnetohydrodynamic simulations and imaging inversion techniques. We find that the highest M FM values appear near the coronal neutral line within a few minutes of the coronal mass ejection onset; this neutral line is usually associated with the source of the heliospheric current and plasma sheet. We illustrate the variability of the shock speed, shock geometry, and Mach number along different modeled magnetic field lines. Despite the level of uncertainty in deriving the shock Mach numbers, all employed reconstruction techniques show that the release time of GeV particles occurs when the coronal shock becomes super-critical (M FM > 3). Combining in situ measurements with heliospheric imagery, we also demonstrate that magnetic connectivity between the accelerator (the coronal shock of 2012 May 17) and the near-Earth environment is established via a magnetic cloud that erupted from the same active region roughly five days earlier.

  14. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATION OF THE X2.2 SOLAR FLARE ON 2011 FEBRUARY 15. II. DYNAMICS CONNECTING THE SOLAR FLARE AND THE CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, S.; Magara, T.; Choe, G. S.

    2015-04-20

    We clarify a relationship between the dynamics of a solar flare and a growing coronal mass ejection (CME) by investigating the dynamics of magnetic fields during the X2.2-class flare taking place in the solar active region 11158 on 2011 February 15, based on simulation results obtained from Inoue et al. We found that the strongly twisted lines formed through tether-cutting reconnection in the twisted lines of a nonlinear force-free field can break the force balance within the magnetic field, resulting in their launch from the solar surface. We further discover that a large-scale flux tube is formed during the eruptionmore » as a result of the tether-cutting reconnection between the eruptive strongly twisted lines and these ambient weakly twisted lines. The newly formed large flux tube exceeds the critical height of the torus instability. Tether-cutting reconnection thus plays an important role in the triggering of a CME. Furthermore, we found that the tangential fields at the solar surface illustrate different phases in the formation of the flux tube and its ascending phase over the threshold of the torus instability. We will discuss these dynamics in detail.« less

  15. Coronal Magnetism and Forward Solarsoft Idl Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The FORWARD suite of Solar Soft IDL codes is a community resource for model-data comparison, with a particular emphasis on analyzing coronal magnetic fields. FORWARD may be used both to synthesize a broad range of coronal observables, and to access and compare to existing data. FORWARD works with numerical model datacubes, interfaces with the web-served Predictive Science Inc MAS simulation datacubes and the Solar Soft IDL Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) package, and also includes several analytic models (more can be added). It connects to the Virtual Solar Observatory and other web-served observations to download data in a format directly comparable to model predictions. It utilizes the CHIANTI database in modeling UV/EUV lines, and links to the CLE polarimetry synthesis code for forbidden coronal lines. FORWARD enables "forward-fitting" of specific observations, and helps to build intuition into how the physical properties of coronal magnetic structures translate to observable properties.

  16. Coronal magnetic fields and the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newkirk, G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Current information is presented on coronal magnetic fields as they bear on problems of the solar wind. Both steady state fields and coronal transient events are considered. A brief critique is given of the methods of calculating coronal magnetic fields including the potential (current free) models, exact solutions for the solar wind and field interaction, and source surface models. These solutions are compared with the meager quantitative observations which are available at this time. Qualitative comparisons between the shapes of calculated magnetic field lines and the forms visible in the solar corona at several recent eclipses are displayed. These suggest that: (1) coronal streamers develop above extended magnetic arcades which connect unipolar regions of opposite polarity; and (2) loops, arches, and rays in the corona correspond to preferentially filled magnetic tubes in the approximately potential field.

  17. Characteristics of EUV Coronal Jets Observed with STEREO/SECCHI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisticò, G.; Bothmer, V.; Patsourakos, S.; Zimbardo, G.

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we present the first comprehensive statistical study of EUV coronal jets observed with the SECCHI (Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation) imaging suites of the two STEREO spacecraft. A catalogue of 79 polar jets is presented, identified from simultaneous EUV and white-light coronagraph observations, taken during the time period March 2007 to April 2008, when solar activity was at a minimum. The twin spacecraft angular separation increased during this time interval from 2 to 48 degrees. The appearances of the coronal jets were always correlated with underlying small-scale chromospheric bright points. A basic characterization of the morphology and identification of the presence of helical structure were established with respect to recently proposed models for their origin and temporal evolution. Though each jet appeared morphologically similar in the coronagraph field of view, in the sense of a narrow collimated outward flow of matter, at the source region in the low corona the jet showed different characteristics, which may correspond to different magnetic structures. A classification of the events with respect to previous jet studies shows that amongst the 79 events there were 37 Eiffel tower-type jet events, commonly interpreted as a small-scale (˜35 arc sec) magnetic bipole reconnecting with the ambient unipolar open coronal magnetic fields at its loop tops, and 12 lambda-type jet events commonly interpreted as reconnection with the ambient field happening at the bipole footpoints. Five events were termed micro-CME-type jet events because they resembled the classical coronal mass ejections (CMEs) but on much smaller scales. The remaining 25 cases could not be uniquely classified. Thirty-one of the total number of events exhibited a helical magnetic field structure, indicative for a torsional motion of the jet around its axis of propagation. A few jets are also found in equatorial coronal holes. In this study we present sample

  18. Using the International Directory Network and connected information systems for research in the Earth and space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieman, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many researchers are becoming aware of the International Directory Network (IDN), an interconnected federation of international directories to Earth and space science data. Are you aware, however, of the many Earth-science-relevant information systems which can be accessed automatically from the directories? After determining potentially useful data sets in various disciplines through directories such as the Global Change Master Directory, it is becoming increasingly possible to get detailed information about the correlative possibilities of these data sets through the connected guide/catalog and inventory systems. Such capabilities as data set browse, subsetting, analysis, etc. are available now and will be improving in the future.

  19. Properties of Coronal Shocks at the Origin of SEP events Observed by Only One Single Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lario, D.; Kwon, R.

    2017-12-01

    The simultaneous observation of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by multiple spacecraft distributed in the interplanetary medium depends not only on the spatial separation among the different spacecraft, but also on the properties of the particle sources and the characteristics of the SEP transport in interplanetary space. Among the SEP events observed by STEREO-A, STEREO-B and/or near-Earth spacecraft during solar cycle 24, we select SEP events observed by a single spacecraft (specifically, the SEP events observed only by near-Earth spacecraft on 2012 April 5, 2011 September 4, and 2013 August 17). We analyze whether the properties of the coronal shock associated with the origin of the events (as seen in extreme-ultraviolet and white-light coronal images) differ from those associated with SEP events observed by two or three spacecraft. For the selected events we find that the associated CMEs are, in general, narrower than those associated with SEP events observed by two or three spacecraft. The confined extension of the parent coronal shock and the absence of magnetic connection between distant spacecraft and the regions of the expanding coronal shock able to efficiently accelerate SEPs seem to be the conditions leading to intense SEP events observed only over narrow regions of interplanetary space by spacecraft magnetically connected to regions close to the parent eruption site. Weak and gradual intensity increases observed in extended regions of space might involve transport processes and/or later connections established with interplanetary shocks. Systematic analyses of a larger number of events are required before drawing firm conclusions.

  20. The Coronal Analysis of SHocks and Waves (CASHeW) framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozarev, Kamen A.; Davey, Alisdair; Kendrick, Alexander; Hammer, Michael; Keith, Celeste

    2017-11-01

    Coronal bright fronts (CBF) are large-scale wavelike disturbances in the solar corona, related to solar eruptions. They are observed (mostly in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light) as transient bright fronts of finite width, propagating away from the eruption source location. Recent studies of individual solar eruptive events have used EUV observations of CBFs and metric radio type II burst observations to show the intimate connection between waves in the low corona and coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven shocks. EUV imaging with the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument on the solar dynamics observatory has proven particularly useful for detecting large-scale short-lived CBFs, which, combined with radio and in situ observations, holds great promise for early CME-driven shock characterization capability. This characterization can further be automated, and related to models of particle acceleration to produce estimates of particle fluxes in the corona and in the near Earth environment early in events. We present a framework for the coronal analysis of shocks and waves (CASHeW). It combines analysis of NASA Heliophysics System Observatory data products and relevant data-driven models, into an automated system for the characterization of off-limb coronal waves and shocks and the evaluation of their capability to accelerate solar energetic particles (SEPs). The system utilizes EUV observations and models written in the interactive data language. In addition, it leverages analysis tools from the SolarSoft package of libraries, as well as third party libraries. We have tested the CASHeW framework on a representative list of coronal bright front events. Here we present its features, as well as initial results. With this framework, we hope to contribute to the overall understanding of coronal shock waves, their importance for energetic particle acceleration, as well as to the better ability to forecast SEP events fluxes.

  1. Coronal mass ejection (CME) activity of low mass M stars as an important factor for the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets. I. CME impact on expected magnetospheres of Earth-like exoplanets in close-in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Khodachenko, Maxim L; Ribas, Ignasi; Lammer, Helmut; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Leitner, Martin; Selsis, Franck; Eiroa, Carlos; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Biernat, Helfried K; Farrugia, Charles J; Rucker, Helmut O

    2007-02-01

    Low mass M- and K-type stars are much more numerous in the solar neighborhood than solar-like G-type stars. Therefore, some of them may appear as interesting candidates for the target star lists of terrestrial exoplanet (i.e., planets with mass, radius, and internal parameters identical to Earth) search programs like Darwin (ESA) or the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph/Inferometer (NASA). The higher level of stellar activity of low mass M stars, as compared to solar-like G stars, as well as the closer orbital distances of their habitable zones (HZs), means that terrestrial-type exoplanets within HZs of these stars are more influenced by stellar activity than one would expect for a planet in an HZ of a solar-like star. Here we examine the influences of stellar coronal mass ejection (CME) activity on planetary environments and the role CMEs may play in the definition of habitability criterion for the terrestrial type exoplanets near M stars. We pay attention to the fact that exoplanets within HZs that are in close proximity to low mass M stars may become tidally locked, which, in turn, can result in relatively weak intrinsic planetary magnetic moments. Taking into account existing observational data and models that involve the Sun and related hypothetical parameters of extrasolar CMEs (density, velocity, size, and occurrence rate), we show that Earth-like exoplanets within close-in HZs should experience a continuous CME exposure over long periods of time. This fact, together with small magnetic moments of tidally locked exoplanets, may result in little or no magnetospheric protection of planetary atmospheres from a dense flow of CME plasma. Magnetospheric standoff distances of weakly magnetized Earth-like exoplanets at orbital distances

  2. Multidimensional Modeling of Coronal Rain Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Xia, C.; Keppens, R.

    2013-07-01

    We present the first multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that capture the initial formation and long-term sustainment of the enigmatic coronal rain phenomenon. We demonstrate how thermal instability can induce a spectacular display of in situ forming blob-like condensations which then start their intimate ballet on top of initially linear force-free arcades. Our magnetic arcades host a chromospheric, transition region, and coronal plasma. Following coronal rain dynamics for over 80 minutes of physical time, we collect enough statistics to quantify blob widths, lengths, velocity distributions, and other characteristics which directly match modern observational knowledge. Our virtual coronal rain displays the deformation of blobs into V-shaped features, interactions of blobs due to mostly pressure-mediated levitations, and gives the first views of blobs that evaporate in situ or are siphoned over the apex of the background arcade. Our simulations pave the way for systematic surveys of coronal rain showers in true multidimensional settings to connect parameterized heating prescriptions with rain statistics, ultimately allowing us to quantify the coronal heating input.

  3. High-Performance Data Analysis Tools for Sun-Earth Connection Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messmer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The data analysis tool of choice for many Sun-Earth Connection missions is the Interactive Data Language (IDL) by ITT VIS. The increasing amount of data produced by these missions and the increasing complexity of image processing algorithms requires access to higher computing power. Parallel computing is a cost-effective way to increase the speed of computation, but algorithms oftentimes have to be modified to take advantage of parallel systems. Enhancing IDL to work on clusters gives scientists access to increased performance in a familiar programming environment. The goal of this project was to enable IDL applications to benefit from both computing clusters as well as graphics processing units (GPUs) for accelerating data analysis tasks. The tool suite developed in this project enables scientists now to solve demanding data analysis problems in IDL that previously required specialized software, and it allows them to be solved orders of magnitude faster than on conventional PCs. The tool suite consists of three components: (1) TaskDL, a software tool that simplifies the creation and management of task farms, collections of tasks that can be processed independently and require only small amounts of data communication; (2) mpiDL, a tool that allows IDL developers to use the Message Passing Interface (MPI) inside IDL for problems that require large amounts of data to be exchanged among multiple processors; and (3) GPULib, a tool that simplifies the use of GPUs as mathematical coprocessors from within IDL. mpiDL is unique in its support for the full MPI standard and its support of a broad range of MPI implementations. GPULib is unique in enabling users to take advantage of an inexpensive piece of hardware, possibly already installed in their computer, and achieve orders of magnitude faster execution time for numerically complex algorithms. TaskDL enables the simple setup and management of task farms on compute clusters. The products developed in this project have the

  4. Can coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjarska, M. S.; Vanninathan, K.; Doyle, J. G.

    2011-08-01

    Aims: The present study aims to provide observational evidence of whether coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures. Methods: We combine multi-instrument co-observations obtained with the SUMER/SoHO and with the EIS/SOT/XRT/Hinode. Results: The analysed three large spicules were found to be comprised of numerous thin spicules that rise, rotate, and descend simultaneously forming a bush-like feature. Their rotation resembles the untwisting of a large flux rope. They show velocities ranging from 50 to 250 kms-1. We clearly associated the red- and blue-shifted emissions in transition region lines not only with rotating but also with rising and descending plasmas. Our main result is that these spicules although very large and dynamic, are not present in the spectral lines formed at temperatures above 300 000 K. Conclusions: In this paper we present the analysis of three Ca ii H large spicules that are composed of numerous dynamic thin spicules but appear as macrospicules in lower resolution EUV images. We found no coronal counterpart of these and smaller spicules. We believe that the identification of phenomena that have very different origins as macrospicules is due to the interpretation of the transition region emission, and especially the He ii emission, wherein both chromospheric large spicules and coronal X-ray jets are present. We suggest that the recent observation of spicules in the coronal AIA/SDO 171 Å and 211 Å channels probably comes from the existence of transition region emission there. Movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. The Sun and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  6. A comparative evaluation of subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) versus platelet concentrate graft (PCG) in the treatment of gingival recession using coronally advanced flap technique: A 12-month study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, G. Naveen Vital; Murthy, K. Raja Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to clinically evaluate and compare the efficacy of platelet concentrate graft (PCG) with that of subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) using a coronally advanced flap technique in the treatment of gingival recession. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients with a total of 24 gingival recession defects were selected and randomly assigned either to experimental site-A (SCTG) or experimental site-B (PCG). The clinical parameters were recorded at baseline up to 12 months post-operatively and compared. Results: The mean vertical recession depth (VRD) statistically significantly decreased from 2.50 ± 0.48 mm to 0.54 ± 0.50 mm with PCG and from 2.75 ± 0.58 mm to 0.54 ± 0.45 mm with SCTG at 12 months. No statistically significant differences between the treatments were found for VRD and clinical attachment level (CAL), while keratinized tissue width (KTW) gain was statistically significant. Conclusion: Both the SCTG and the PCG group resulted in a significant amount of root coverage. The PCG technique was less invasive and required minimal time and clinical maneuver. It resulted in superior aesthetic outcome and lower post-surgical discomfort at the 12 months follow-up. PMID:24554889

  7. The EarthConnections San Bernardino Alliance: Addressing Diversity in the Geosciences Using a Collective Impact Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, S. F.; Benthien, M. L.; Castillo, B. A.; Fitzsimmons, J.; Foutz, A.; Keck, D.; Manduca, C. A.; Noriega, G. R.; Pandya, R. E.; Taber, J. J.; Vargas, B.

    2017-12-01

    The EarthConnections San Bernardino Alliance is one of three regional alliances supported by the national EarthConnections Collective Impact Alliance, funded by a pilot grant from the National Science Foundation INCLUDES program. All three of the regional alliances share a common vision, focused on developing a diverse geoscience workforce through connecting existing programs and institutions into regional pathways that support and guide students from engagement at an early age with Earth science linked to issues facing the local community, through the many steps and transitions to geoscience-related careers. The San Bernardino Alliance began with collaboration between one university, one community college and one high school and also includes the Southern California Earthquake Center as well as professional geologists in the region. Based on discussions at an opening round table event, the Alliance has chosen to capitalize on existing geology student clubs and deeply engaged faculty and alumni at the founding high school, community college and university members of the Alliance to plan joint field trips, service learning projects, guest speakers, and visits to dinner meetings of the local professional societies for students at participating institutions at various stages along the pathway. The underlying motivation is to connect students to their peers and to mentors at institutions that represent the next step on the pathway, as well as to expose them to careers in geology and to geoscience issues that impact the local community. A second type of intervention we are planning is to promote high quality teaching in introductory Earth science courses at the university, community college and high school levels, including the development of high school honors courses in Earth science. To this end we are hosting an NAGT traveling workshop focused on using active learning and societally relevant issues to develop engaging introductory geoscience courses. This teaching

  8. Coronal mass ejection (CME) activity of low mass M stars as an important factor for the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets. II. CME-induced ion pick up of Earth-like exoplanets in close-in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Lammer, Helmut; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Kulikov, Yuri N; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Terada, N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Biernat, Helfried K; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Ribas, Ignasi; Penz, Thomas; Selsis, Franck

    2007-02-01

    Atmospheric erosion of CO2-rich Earth-size exoplanets due to coronal mass ejection (CME)-induced ion pick up within close-in habitable zones of active M-type dwarf stars is investigated. Since M stars are active at the X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) wave-lengths over long periods of time, we have applied a thermal balance model at various XUV flux input values for simulating the thermospheric heating by photodissociation and ionization processes due to exothermic chemical reactions and cooling by the CO2 infrared radiation in the 15 microm band. Our study shows that intense XUV radiation of active M stars results in atmospheric expansion and extended exospheres. Using thermospheric neutral and ion densities calculated for various XUV fluxes, we applied a numerical test particle model for simulation of atmospheric ion pick up loss from an extended exosphere arising from its interaction with expected minimum and maximum CME plasma flows. Our results indicate that the Earth-like exoplanets that have no, or weak, magnetic moments may lose tens to hundreds of bars of atmospheric pressure, or even their whole atmospheres due to the CME-induced O ion pick up at orbital distances Earth radius above the surface. Furthermore, our study indicates that magnetic moments of tidally locked Earth-like exoplanets are essential for protecting their expanded upper atmospheres because of intense XUV radiation against CME plasma erosion. Therefore, we suggest that larger and more massive terrestrial-type exoplanets may better protect their

  9. Tunnel technique with connective tissue graft versus coronally advanced flap with enamel matrix derivative for root coverage: a RCT using 3D digital measuring methods. Part II. Volumetric studies on healing dynamics and gingival dimensions.

    PubMed

    Rebele, Stephan F; Zuhr, Otto; Schneider, David; Jung, Ronny E; Hürzeler, Markus B

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this randomized clinical trial (RCT) was to compare the clinical performance of the tunnel technique with subepithelial connective tissue graft (TUN) versus a coronally advanced flap with enamel matrix derivative (CAF) in the treatment of gingival recession defects. The use of innovative 3D digital measuring methods allowed to study healing dynamics at connective tissue (CT)-grafted sites and to evaluate the influence of the thickness of the root covering soft tissues on the outcome of surgical root coverage. Twenty-four patients contributed a total of 47 Miller class I or II recessions for scientific evaluation. Precise study models collected at baseline and follow-up examinations were optically scanned and virtually superimposed for digital evaluation of clinical outcome measures including mean marginal soft tissue thickness (THK). Healing dynamics were measured in a defined region of interest at CT-grafted sites where volume differences between time points were calculated. At 12 months, recession reduction as well as mean root coverage were significantly better at CT-grafted sites treated in the TUN group (1.94 mm and 98.4% respectively) compared to the non-augmented sites of the CAF group (1.17 mm and 71.8% respectively) and statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation of THK (1.63 mm TUN versus 0.91 mm CAF, p < 0.0001) to both these variables. Soft tissue healing following surgical root coverage with CT-grafting was mainly accomplished after 6 months, with around two-thirds of the augmented volume being maintained after 12 months. The TUN resulted in thicker gingiva and better clinical outcomes compared to CAF. Increased gingival thickness was associated with better surgical outcomes in terms of recession reduction and root coverage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Quest for highly connected metal-organic framework platforms: rare-earth polynuclear clusters versatility meets net topology needs.

    PubMed

    Alezi, Dalal; Peedikakkal, Abdul Malik P; Weseliński, Łukasz J; Guillerm, Vincent; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Cairns, Amy J; Chen, Zhijie; Wojtas, Łukasz; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-04-29

    Gaining control over the assembly of highly porous rare-earth (RE) based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) remains challenging. Here we report the latest discoveries on our continuous quest for highly connected nets. The topological exploration based on the noncompatibility of a 12-connected RE polynuclear carboxylate-based cluster, points of extension matching the 12 vertices of the cuboctahedron (cuo), with 3-connected organic ligands led to the discovery of two fascinating and highly connected minimal edge-transitive nets, pek and aea. The reduced symmetry of the employed triangular tricarboxylate ligand, as compared to the prototype highly symmetrical 1,3,5-benzene(tris)benzoic acid guided the concurrent occurrence of nonanuclear [RE9(μ3-OH)12(μ3-O)2(O2C-)12] and hexanuclear [RE6(OH)8(O2C-)8] carboxylate-based clusters as 12-connected and 8-connected molecular building blocks in the structure of a 3-periodic pek-MOF based on a novel (3,8,12)-c trinodal net. The use of a tricarboxylate ligand with modified angles between carboxylate moieties led to the formation of a second MOF containing solely nonanuclear clusters and exhibiting once more a novel and a highly connected (3,12,12)-c trinodal net with aea topology. Notably, it is the first time that RE-MOFs with double six-membered ring (d6R) secondary building units are isolated, representing therefore a critical step forward toward the design of novel and highly coordinated materials using the supermolecular building layer approach while considering the d6Rs as building pillars. Lastly, the potential of these new MOFs for gas separation/storage was investigated by performing gas adsorption studies of various probe gas molecules over a wide range of pressures. Noticeably, pek-MOF-1 showed excellent volumetric CO2 and CH4 uptakes at high pressures.

  11. Planet Earth, Humans, Gravity and Their Connection to Natural Medicine-Essence from a 5000 Yrs Old Ancient Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, S.; Monsanto, C.; Radjendirane, B.

    2015-12-01

    According to the Ancient Indian Science, the fundamental constituents of planet earth are the five elements (Solid, Liquid, Heat, Air and Akash (subtlest energy field)). The same five elements constitute the human body. The Chinese and many other native traditions have used their deep understanding of these elements to live in balance with the planet. David Suzuki has elaborated on this key issue in his classic book, The Legacy: "Today we are in a state of crisis, and we must join together to respond to that crisis. If we do so, Suzuki envisions a future in which we understand that we are the Earth and live accordingly. All it takes is imagination and a determination to live within our, and the planet's, means". Gravity, the common force that connects both the body and earth plays a major role in the metabolism as well as the autonomous function of different organs in the body. Gravity has a direct influence on the fruits and vegetables that are grown on the planet as well. As a result, there is a direct relationship among gravity, food and human health. My talk will cover the missing link between the Earth's Gravity and the human health. A new set of ancient axioms will be used to address this and many other issues that are remain as "major unsolved problems" linking modern Geophysical and Health sciences.

  12. High Pressure Phase Transformations in Heavy Rare Earth Metals and Connections to Actinide Crystal Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, Yogesh K.; Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy; Stemshorn, Andrew K.

    2008-07-01

    High-pressure studies have been performed on heavy rare earth metals Terbium (Tb) to 155 GPa and Holmium (Ho) to 134 GPa in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. The following crystal structure sequence was observed in both metals hcp {yields} Sm-type {yields} dhcp {yields} distorted fcc (hR-24) {yields} monoclinic (C2/m) with increasing pressure. The last transformation to a low symmetry monoclinic phase is accompanied by a volume collapse of 5 % for Tb at 51 GPa and a volume collapse of 3 % for Ho at 103 GPa. This volume collapse under high pressure is reminiscent of f-shell delocalizationmore » in light rare earth metal Cerium (Ce), Praseodymium (Pr), and heavy actinide metals Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm). The orthorhombic Pnma phase that has been reported in Am and Cm after f-shell delocalization is not observed in heavy rare earth metals under high pressures. (authors)« less

  13. Laboratory Earth: Connecting Everything to Everything Else Online for Pre-college Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, D.; Bonnstetter, R.; Yendra, S.; Slater, T.

    2007-12-01

    The Laboratory Earth professional development series, which has been funded by NASA, consists of three, three- credit hour, graduate level, distance-delivered, online courses designed for K- 8 (and above) educators. Currently, we have delivered two module-based courses, Laboratory Earth I: Earth and its Systems and Laboratory Earth II: Earth's Natural Resource Systems. A third course tentatively titled, Laboratory Earth: Earth's Changing Environments, is under development. Our objectives are to deliver a high quality professional development experience, improve participant's ability to understand and apply Earth system science concepts in their classroom, and to increase teacher's sense of belonging to a community. Each course consists of four modules that engage students using multiple strategies to meet a variety of learning styles. To document learning, content questions are used to focus the student on the concepts they will be learning throughout the course. These questions are also used to assess the progress the student has made toward learning the concepts from the beginning to the end of the course. Analysis of the responses to the content questions from Lab Earth I demonstrates significant knowledge gains from the beginning to the end of the course. Preliminary data also suggests that the extent of learning is higher in the 8-week version than it is in the 16-week version of the course. An implicit goal of the courses is to help participants focus on learning, not grades. Unfortunately, grades have to be issued. Our grading strategy has evolved to a system that uses the ability of students to master course content along with active participation and the on-time, quality completion of the grading elements in the course. Course content mastery can be demonstrated in a variety of ways and it is up to the student to choose the method that they would like to use. Methods include writing essays, creating presentations, preparing an oral journal, and developing

  14. Magnetic Topology of Coronal Hole Linkages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titov, V. S.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    In recent work, Antiochos and coworkers argued that the boundary between the open and closed field regions on the Sun can be extremely complex with narrow corridors of open ux connecting seemingly disconnected coronal holes from the main polar holes, and that these corridors may be the sources of the slow solar wind. We examine, in detail, the topology of such magnetic configurations using an analytical source surface model that allows for analysis of the eld with arbitrary resolution. Our analysis reveals three important new results: First, a coronal hole boundary can join stably to the separatrix boundary of a parasitic polarity region. Second, a single parasitic polarity region can produce multiple null points in the corona and, more important, separator lines connecting these points. Such topologies are extremely favorable for magnetic reconnection, because it can now occur over the entire length of the separators rather than being con ned to a small region around the nulls. Finally, the coronal holes are not connected by an open- eld corridor of finite width, but instead are linked by a singular line that coincides with the separatrix footprint of the parasitic polarity. We investigate how the topological features described above evolve in response to motion of the parasitic polarity region. The implications of our results for the sources of the slow solar wind and for coronal and heliospheric observations are discussed.

  15. Exploring Connections Between Earth Science and Biology - Interdisciplinary Science Activities for Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vd Flier-Keller, E.; Carolsfeld, C.; Bullard, T.

    2009-05-01

    To increase teaching of Earth science in schools, and to reflect the interdisciplinary nature and interrelatedness of science disciplines in today's world, we are exploring opportunities for linking Earth science and Biology through engaging and innovative hands-on science activities for the classroom. Through the NSERC-funded Pacific CRYSTAL project based at the University of Victoria, scientists, science educators, and teachers at all levels in the school system are collaborating to research ways of enriching the preparation of students in math and science, and improving the quality of science education from Kindergarten to Grade 12. Our primary foci are building authentic, engaging science experiences for students, and fostering teacher leadership through teacher professional development and training. Interdisciplinary science activities represent an important way of making student science experiences real, engaging and relevant, and provide opportunities to highlight Earth science related topics within other disciplines, and to expand the Earth science taught in schools. The Earth science and Biology interdisciplinary project builds on results and experiences of existing Earth science education activities, and the Seaquaria project. We are developing curriculum-linked activities and resource materials, and hosting teacher workshops, around two initial areas; soils, and marine life and the fossil record. An example activity for the latter is the hands-on examination of organisms occupying the nearshore marine environment using a saltwater aquarium and touch tank or beach fieldtrip, and relating this to a suite of marine fossils to facilitate student thinking about representation of life in the fossil record e.g. which life forms are typically preserved, and how are they preserved? Literacy activities such as fossil obituaries encourage exploration of paleoenvironments and life habits of fossil organisms. Activities and resources are being tested with teachers

  16. NASA Sun-Earth Connections Theory Program: The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Grebowsky, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report covers technical progress during the fourth quarter of the second year of NASA Sun-Earth Connections Theory Program (SECTP) contract 'The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere,' NAS5-99188, between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation, and covers the period May 16,2001 to August 15, 2001. Under this contract SAIC and the University of California, Irvine (UCI) have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD model.

  17. Heteroclinic, Homoclinic Connections Between the Sun-Earth Triangular Points and Quasi-Satellite Orbits for Solar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llanos, Pedro J.; Hintz, Gerald R.; Lo, Martin W.; Miller, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of new orbit geometries exhibits a very attractive behavior for a spacecraft to monitor space weather coming from the Sun. Several orbit transfer mechanisms are analyzed as potential alternatives to monitor solar activity such as a sub-solar orbit or quasi-satellite orbit and short and long heteroclinic and homoclinic connections between the triangular points L(sub 4) and L(sub 5) and the collinear point L(sub 3) of the Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem (CRTBP) in the Sun-Earth system.

  18. Genesis Solar Wind Interstream, Coronal Hole and Coronal Mass Ejection Samples: Update on Availability and Condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2017-01-01

    Recent refinement of analysis of ACE/SWICS data (Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer) and of onboard data for Genesis Discovery Mission of 3 regimes of solar wind at Earth-Sun L1 make it an appropriate time to update the availability and condition of Genesis samples specifically collected in these three regimes and currently curated at Johnson Space Center. ACE/SWICS spacecraft data indicate that solar wind flow types emanating from the interstream regions, from coronal holes and from coronal mass ejections are elementally and isotopically fractionated in different ways from the solar photosphere, and that correction of solar wind values to photosphere values is non-trivial. Returned Genesis solar wind samples captured very different kinds of information about these three regimes than spacecraft data. Samples were collected from 11/30/2001 to 4/1/2004 on the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Meshik, et al is an example of precision attainable. Earlier high precision laboratory analyses of noble gases collected in the interstream, coronal hole and coronal mass ejection regimes speak to degree of fractionation in solar wind formation and models that laboratory data support. The current availability and condition of samples captured on collector plates during interstream slow solar wind, coronal hole high speed solar wind and coronal mass ejections are de-scribed here for potential users of these samples.

  19. Sporadic radio emission connected with a definite manifestation of solar activity in the near Earth space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudnic, A. V.; Zaljubovski, I. I.; Kartashev, V. M.; Shmatko, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Sporadic radio emission of near Earth space at the frequency of 38 MHz is shown to appear in the event of a rapid development of instabilities in the ionospheric plasma. The instabilities are generated due to primary ionospheric disturbances occurring under the influence of solar chromospheric flares.

  20. Who uses NASA Earth Science Data? Connecting with Users through the Earthdata website and Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. M.; Brennan, J.; Bagwell, R.; Behnke, J.

    2015-12-01

    This poster will introduce and explore the various social media efforts, monthly webinar series and a redesigned website (https://earthdata.nasa.gov) established by National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) project. EOSDIS is a key core capability in NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Program. It provides end-to-end capabilities for managing NASA's Earth science data from various sources - satellites, aircraft, field measurements, and various other programs. It is comprised of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), Science Computing Facilities (SCFs), data discovery and service access client (Reverb and Earthdata Search), dataset directory (Global Change Master Directory - GCMD), near real-time data (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS - LANCE), Worldview (an imagery visualization interface), Global Imagery Browse Services, the Earthdata Code Collaborative and a host of other discipline specific data discovery, data access, data subsetting and visualization tools. We have embarked on these efforts to reach out to new audiences and potential new users and to engage our diverse end user communities world-wide. One of the key objectives is to increase awareness of the breadth of Earth science data information, services, and tools that are publicly available while also highlighting how these data and technologies enable scientific research.

  1. Theory connecting nonlocal sediment transport, earth surface roughness, and the Sadler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumer, Rina; Taloni, Alessandro; Furbish, David Jon

    2017-03-01

    Earth surface evolution, like many natural phenomena typified by fluctuations on a wide range of scales and deterministic smoothing, results in a statistically rough surface. We present theory demonstrating that scaling exponents of topographic and stratigraphic statistics arise from long-time averaging of noisy surface evolution rather than specific landscape evolution processes. This is demonstrated through use of "elastic" Langevin equations that generically describe disturbance from a flat earth surface using a noise term that is smoothed deterministically via sediment transport. When smoothing due to transport is a local process, the geologic record self organizes such that a specific Sadler effect and topographic power spectral density (PSD) emerge. Variations in PSD slope reflect the presence or absence and character of nonlocality of sediment transport. The range of observed stratigraphic Sadler slopes captures the same smoothing feature combined with the presence of long-range spatial correlation in topographic disturbance.

  2. Creating the Public Connection: Interactive Experiences with Real-Time Earth and Space Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiff, Patricia H.; Ledley, Tamara S.; Sumners, Carolyn; Wyatt, Ryan

    1995-01-01

    The Houston Museum of Natural Sciences is less than two miles from Rice University, a major hub on the Internet. This project links these two institutions so that NASA real-time data and imagery can flow via Rice to the Museum where it reaches the public in the form of planetarium programs, computer based interactive kiosks, and space and Earth science problem solving simulation. Through this program at least 200,000 visitors annually (including every 4th and 7th grader in the Houston Independent School District) will have direct exposure to the Earth and space research being conducted by NASA and available over the Internet. Each information conduit established between Rice University and the Houston Museum of Natural Science will become a model for public information dissemination that can be replicated nationally in museums, planetariums, Challenger Centers, and schools.

  3. Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

  4. Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and Its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua

    2011-01-01

    The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

  5. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections During 1996 - 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2007-01-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections, the interplanetary counterparts of coronal mass ejections at the Sun, are the major drivers of interplanetary shocks in the heliosphere, and are associated with modulations of the galactic cosmic ray intensity, both short term (Forbush decreases caused by the passage of the shock, post-shock sheath, and ICME), and possibly with longer term modulation. Using several in-situ signatures of ICMEs, including plasma temperature, and composition, magnetic fields, and cosmic ray modulations, made by near-Earth spacecraft, we have compiled a "comprehensive" list of ICMEs passing the Earth since 1996, encompassing solar cycle 23. We summarize the properties of these ICMEs, such as their occurrence rate, speeds and other parameters, the fraction of ICMEs that are classic magnetic clouds, and their association with solar energetic particle events, halo CMEs, interplanetary shocks, geomagnetic storms, shocks and cosmic ray decreases.

  6. AGI's Earth Science Week and Education Resources Network: Connecting Teachers to Geoscience Organizations and Classroom Resources that Support NGSS Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robeck, E.; Camphire, G.; Brendan, S.; Celia, T.

    2016-12-01

    There exists a wide array of high quality resources to support K-12 teaching and motivate student interest in the geosciences. Yet, connecting teachers to those resources can be a challenge. Teachers working to implement the NGSS can benefit from accessing the wide range of existing geoscience resources, and from becoming part of supportive networks of geoscience educators, researchers, and advocates. Engaging teachers in such networks can be facilitated by providing them with information about organizations, resources, and opportunities. The American Geoscience Institute (AGI) has developed two key resources that have great value in supporting NGSS implement in these ways. Those are Earth Science Week, and the Education Resources Network in AGI's Center for Geoscience and Society. For almost twenty years, Earth Science Week, has been AGI's premier annual outreach program designed to celebrate the geosciences. Through its extensive web-based resources, as well as the physical kits of posters, DVDs, calendars and other printed materials, Earth Science Week offers an array of resources and opportunities to connect with the education-focused work of important geoscience organizations such as NASA, the National Park Service, HHMI, esri, and many others. Recently, AGI has initiated a process of tagging these and other resources to NGSS so as to facilitate their use as teachers develop their instruction. Organizing Earth Science Week around themes that are compatible with topics within NGSS contributes to the overall coherence of the diverse array of materials, while also suggesting potential foci for investigations and instructional units. More recently, AGI has launched its Center for Geoscience and Society, which is designed to engage the widest range of audiences in building geoscience awareness. As part of the Center's work, it has launched the Education Resources Network (ERN), which is an extensive searchable database of all manner of resources for geoscience

  7. Coronal Loops Reveal Magnetic Dance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-20

    Magnetic Dance: Solar material traces out giant magnetic fields soaring through the sun to create what's called coronal loops. Here they can be seen as white lines in a sharpened AIA image from Oct. 24, 2014, laid over data from SDO's Helioseismic Magnetic Imager, which shows magnetic fields on the sun's surface in false color. Credit: NASA/SDO/HMI/AIA/LMSAL Read more: www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/sdo-telescope-collects-its-1... NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  8. Association of Impulsive Solar Energetic Particle Events With Large-Scale Coronal Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucik, R.; Innes, D.; Mason, G. M.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Impulsive or 3He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events have been commonly associated with EUV jets and narrow CMEs which are believed to be the signatures of magnetic reconnection involving field lines open to interplanetary space. The elemental and isotopic fractionation in these events are thought to be caused by processes confined to the flare sites. In addition to their anomalous abundances, 3He-rich SEPs show puzzling energy spectral shapes varying from rounded forms to power laws where the later are characteristics of shock acceleration. In this study we identify 32 impulsive SEP events observed by the ACE near the Earth during the solar minimum period 2007-2010 and examine their solar sources with the high resolution STEREO EUV images. Leading the Earth, STEREO-A provided for the first time a direct view on impulsive SEP event sources, which are generally located on the Sun's western hemisphere. Surprisingly, we find that about half of the impulsive SEP events in this survey are associated with large-scale EUV coronal waves. An examination of the wave front propagation and the coronal magnetic field connections suggests that the EUV waves may affect the injection of 3He-rich SEPs into interplanetary space. We found the events with jets tend to be associated with rounded spectra and the events with coronal waves with power laws. This suggests that coronal waves may be related to the unknown second stage mechanism commonly used to interpret spectral forms of 3He-rich SEPs. R. Bucik is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under grant BU 3115/2-1.

  9. Connecting the dots: a versatile model for the atmospheres of tidally locked Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carone, L.; Keppens, R.; Decin, L.

    2014-11-01

    Radiative equilibrium temperatures are calculated for the troposphere of a tidally locked Super-Earth based on a simple greenhouse model, using Solar system data as a guideline. These temperatures provide in combination with a Newtonian relaxation scheme thermal forcing for a 3D atmosphere model using the dynamical core of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology global circulation model. Our model is of the same conceptional simplicity than the model of Held & Suarez and is thus computationally fast. Furthermore, because of the coherent, general derivation of radiative equilibrium temperatures, our model is easily adaptable for different planets and atmospheric scenarios. As a case study relevant for Super-Earths, we investigate a Gl581g-like planet with Earth-like atmosphere and irradiation and present results for two representative rotation periods of Prot = 10 d and Prot = 36.5 d. Our results provide proof of concept and highlight interesting dynamical features for the rotating regime 3 < Prot < 100 d, which was shown by Edson et al. to be an intermediate regime between equatorial superrotation and divergence. We confirm that the Prot = 10 d case is more dominated by equatorial superrotation dynamics than the Prot = 36.5 d case, which shows diminishing influence of standing Rossby-Kelvin waves and increasing influence of divergence at the top of the atmosphere. We argue that this dynamical regime change relates to the increase in Rossby deformation radius, in agreement with previous studies. However, we also pay attention to other features that are not or only in partial agreement with other studies, like, e.g. the number of circulation cells and their strength, the role and extent of thermal inversion layers, and the details of heat transport.

  10. Observational Signatures of Coronal Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Einaudi, G.; Ugarte-Urra, I.; Warren, H. P.; Rappazzo, A. F.; Velli, M.; Taylor, B.

    2016-12-01

    Recent research on observational signatures of turbulent heating of a coronal loop will be discussed. The evolution of the loop is is studied by means of numericalsimulations of the fully compressible three-dimensionalmagnetohydrodynamic equations using the HYPERION code. HYPERION calculates the full energy cycle involving footpoint convection, magnetic reconnection,nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiation.The footpoints of the loop magnetic field are convected by random photospheric motions. As a consequence the magnetic field in the loop is energized and develops turbulent nonlinear dynamics characterized by the continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets: energy is deposited at small scales where heating occurs. Dissipation is non-uniformly distributed so that only a fraction of thecoronal mass and volume gets heated at any time. Temperature and density are highly structured at scales which, in the solar corona, remain observationally unresolved: the plasma of the simulated loop is multi-thermal, where highly dynamical hotter and cooler plasma strands arescattered throughout the loop at sub-observational scales. Typical simulated coronal loops are 50000 km length and have axial magnetic field intensities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 Tesla.To connect these simulations to observations the computed numberdensities and temperatures are used to synthesize the intensities expected inemission lines typically observed with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer(EIS) on Hinode. These intensities are then employed to compute differentialemission measure distributions, which are found to be very similar to those derivedfrom observations of solar active regions.

  11. Stellar orbits in the Galaxy and mass extinctions on the Earth: a connection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porto de Mello, G. F.; Dias, W. S.; Lepine, J.; Lorenzo-Oliveira, D.; Kazu, R. S.

    2014-03-01

    The orbits of the stars in the disk of the Galaxy, and their passages through the Galactic spiral arms, are a rarely mentioned factor of biosphere stability which might be important for long-term planetary climate evolution, with a possible bearing on mass extinctions. The Sun lies very near the co-rotation radius, where stars revolve around the Galaxy in the same period as the density wave perturbations of the spiral arms (Dias & Lepine 2005). Conventional wisdom generally considers that this status makes for few passages through the spiral arms. Controversy still surrounds whether time spent inside or around spiral arms is dangerous to biospheres and conducive to mass extinctions (Bailer-Jones 2009). Possible threats include giant molecular clouds disturbing the Oort comet cloud and provoking heavy bombardment (Clube & Napier 1982); a higher exposure to cosmic rays near star forming regions triggering increased cloudiness in Earth's atmosphere and ice ages (Gies & Helsel 2005); and the destruction of Earth's ozone layer posed by supernova explosions (Gehrels et al 2003). We present detailed calculations of the history of spiral arm passages for all 212 solartype stars nearer than 20 parsecs, including the total time spent inside the spiral arms in the last 500 million years, when the spiral arm position can be traced with good accuracy. There is a very large diversity of stellar orbits amongst solar neighborhood solar-type stars, and the time fraction spent inside spiral arms can vary from a few percent to nearly half the time. The Sun, despite its proximity to the galactic co-rotation radius, has exceptionally low eccentricity and a low vertical velocity component, and therefore spends 40% of its lifetime crossing the spiral arms, more than nearly all nearby stars. We discuss the possible implications of this fact to the long-term habitability of the Earth, and possible correlations of the Sun's passage through the spiral arms with the five great mass

  12. Coronal Structures in Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Dupree, Andrea K.

    2005-01-01

    We have extended our study of the structure of coronas in cool stars to very young stars still accreting from their surrounding disks. In addition we are pursing the connection between coronal X-rays and a powerful diagnostic line in the infrared, the He I 10830Angstrom transition of helium. Highlights of these are summarized below including publications during this reporting period and presentations. Spectroscopy of the infrared He I (lambda10830) line with KECK/NIRSPEC and IRTF/CSHELL and of the ultraviolet C III (lambda977) and O VI (lambda1032) emission with FUSE reveals that the classical T Tauri star TW Hydrae exhibits P Cygni profiles, line asymmetries, and absorption indicative of a continuous, fast (approximately 400 kilometers per second), hot (approximately 300,000 K) accelerating outflow with a mass loss rate approximately 10(exp -11)-10(exp -12) solar mass yr(sup -1) or larger. Spectra of T Tauri N appear consistent with such a wind. The source of the emission and outflow seems restricted to the stars themselves. Although the mass accretion rate is an order of magnitude less for TW Hya than for T Tau, the outflow reaches higher velocities at chromospheric temperatures in TW Hya. Winds from young stellar objects may be substantially hotter and faster than previously thought. The ultraviolet emission lines, when corrected for absorption are broad. Emission associated with the accretion flow and shock is likely to show turbulent broadening. We note that the UV line widths are significantly larger than the X-ray line widths. If the X-rays from TW Hya are generated at the accretion shock, the UV lines may not be directly associated with the shock. On the other hand, studies of X-ray emission in young star clusters, suggest that the strength of the X-ray emission is correlated with stellar rotation, thus casting doubt on an accretion origin for the X-rays. We are beginning to access the infrared spectral region where the He I 108308Angstroms transition

  13. Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  14. A CORONAL HOLE'S EFFECTS ON CORONAL MASS EJECTION SHOCK MORPHOLOGY IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B. E.; Wu, C.-C.; Howard, R. A.

    2012-08-10

    We use STEREO imagery to study the morphology of a shock driven by a fast coronal mass ejection (CME) launched from the Sun on 2011 March 7. The source region of the CME is located just to the east of a coronal hole. The CME ejecta is deflected away from the hole, in contrast with the shock, which readily expands into the fast outflow from the coronal hole. The result is a CME with ejecta not well centered within the shock surrounding it. The shock shape inferred from the imaging is compared with in situ data at 1 AU, wheremore » the shock is observed near Earth by the Wind spacecraft, and at STEREO-A. Shock normals computed from the in situ data are consistent with the shock morphology inferred from imaging.« less

  15. Interchange Reconnection and Coronal Hole Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Lynch, B. J.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of magnetic reconnection between open and closed field, (often referred to as "interchange" reconnection), on the dynamics and topology of coronal hole boundaries. The most important and most prevalent 3D topology of the interchange process is that of a small-scale bipolar magnetic field interacting with a large-scale background field. We determine the evolution of such a magnetic topology by numerical solution of the fully 3D MHD equations in spherical coordinates. First, we calculate the evolution of a small-scale bipole that initially is completely inside an open field region and then is driven across a coronal hole boundary by photospheric motions. Next the reverse situation is calculated in which the bipole is initially inside the closed region and driven toward the coronal hole boundary. In both cases we find that the stress imparted by the photospheric motions results in deformation of the separatrix surface between the closed field of the bipole and the background field, leading to rapid current sheet formation and to efficient reconnection. When the bipole is inside the open field region, the reconnection is of the interchange type in that it exchanges open and closed field. We examine, in detail, the topology of the field as the bipole moves across the coronal hole boundary, and find that the field remains well-connected throughout this process. Our results imply that open flux cannot penetrate deeply into the closed field region below a helmet streamer and, hence, support the quasi-steady models in which open and closed flux remain topologically distinct. Our results also support the uniqueness hypothesis for open field regions as postulated by Antiochos et al. We discuss the implications of this work for coronal observations. Subject Headings: Sun: corona Sun: magnetic fields Sun: reconnection Sun: coronal hole

  16. Treatment of multiple adjacent Miller class I and II gingival recessions with a Modified Coronally Advanced Tunnel (MCAT) technique and a collagen matrix or palatal connective tissue graft: a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Aroca, Sofia; Molnár, Bálint; Windisch, Péter; Gera, István; Salvi, Giovanni E; Nikolidakis, Dimitris; Sculean, Anton

    2013-07-01

    A newly developed collagen matrix (CM) of porcine origin has been shown to represent a potential alternative to palatal connective tissue grafts (CTG) for the treatment of single Miller Class I and II gingival recessions when used in conjunction with a coronally advanced flap (CAF). However, at present it remains unknown to what extent CM may represent a valuable alternative to CTG in the treatment of Miller Class I and II multiple adjacent gingival recessions (MAGR). The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes following treatment of Miller Class I and II MAGR using the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) in conjunction with either CM or CTG. Twenty-two patients with a total of 156 Miller Class I and II gingival recessions were included in this study. Recessions were randomly treated according to a split-mouth design by means of MCAT + CM (test) or MCAT + CTG (control). The following measurements were recorded at baseline (i.e. prior to surgery) and at 12 months: Gingival Recession Depth (GRD), Probing Pocket Depth (PD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Keratinized Tissue Width (KTW), Gingival Recession Width (GRW) and Gingival Thickness (GT). GT was measured 3-mm apical to the gingival margin. Patient acceptance was recorded using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The primary outcome variable was Complete Root Coverage (CRC), secondary outcomes were Mean Root Coverage (MRC), change in KTW, GT, patient acceptance and duration of surgery. Healing was uneventful in both groups. No adverse reactions at any of the sites were observed. At 12 months, both treatments resulted in statistically significant improvements of CRC, MRC, KTW and GT compared with baseline (p < 0.05). CRC was found at 42% of test sites and at 85% of control sites respectively (p < 0.05). MRC measured 71 ± 21% mm at test sites versus 90 ± 18% mm at control sites (p < 0.05). Mean KTW measured 2.4 ± 0.7 mm at test sites versus 2.7 ± 0.8 mm at

  17. Is there a connection between Earth's core and climate at multidecadal time scales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Sébastien; Marcus, Steven; de Viron, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The length-of-day (LOD) undergoes multidecadal variations of several milliseconds (ms) attributed to changes in the fluid outer core angular momentum. These variations resemble a quasi-periodic oscillation of duration 60 to 70 years, although the periodicity (and its accurate length) are disputable because of the relatively short observational time span and the lower quality of the observations before the 20th century. Interestingly, similar variations show up in various measured or reconstructed climate indices including the sea surface (SST) and surface air (SAT) temperatures. It has been shown in several studies that LOD variations lead SST and SAT variations by a few years. No clear scenarios have been raised so far to explain the link between external, astronomical forcing (e.g., Solar wind), Earth's rotation (core-driven torsional) oscillations, and Earth's surface processes (climate variations) at these time scales. Accumulating evidence, however, suggests the centrifugal tides generated by multidecadal LOD variations as a 'valve' to control the transfer of thermal energy from the lithosphere to the surface via geothermal fluxes. This hypothesis is supported by recent studies reporting significant correlations between tidal and rotational excitation and seafloor and surface volcanism. In this study, we extend recent works from us and other independent authors by re-assessing the correlations between multidecadal LOD, climate indices, Solar and magnetic activities, as well as gridded data including SST, SAT, and cloud cover. We pay a special attention to the time lags: when a significant correlation is found, the value of the lag may help to discriminate between various possible scenarios. We locate some `hot spots', particularly in the Atlantic ocean and along the trajectory of the upper branch of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), where the 70-yr oscillation is strongly marked. In addition, we discuss the possibility for centrifugal

  18. Coronal mass ejections and coronal structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildner, E.; Bassi, J.; Bougeret, J. L.; Duncan, R. A.; Gary, D. E.; Gergely, T. E.; Harrison, R. A.; Howard, R. A.; Illing, R. M. E.; Jackson, B. V.

    1986-01-01

    Research on coronal mass ejections (CMF) took a variety of forms, both observational and theoretical. On the observational side there were: case studies of individual events, in which it was attempted to provide the most complete descriptions possible, using correlative observations in diverse wavelengths; statistical studies of the properties CMEs and their associated activity; observations which may tell us about the initiation of mass ejections; interplanetary observations of associated shocks and energetic particles even observations of CMEs traversing interplanetary space; and the beautiful synoptic charts which show to what degree mass ejections affect the background corona and how rapidly (if at all) the corona recovers its pre-disturbance form. These efforts are described in capsule form with an emphasis on presenting pictures, graphs, and tables so that the reader can form a personal appreciation of the work and its results.

  19. 25th Space Simulation Conference. Environmental Testing: The Earth-Space Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, Edward

    2008-01-01

    to Acquire, Process, Trend Data and Produce Radiometric System Assessment Reports; Exhaustive Thresholds and Resistance Checkpoints; Reconfigurable HIL Testing of Earth Satellites; FPGA Control System for the Automated Test of MicroShutters; Ongoing Capabilities and Developments of Re-Entry Plasma Ground Tests at EADS-ASTRIUM; Operationally Responsive Space Standard Bus Battery Thermal Balance Testing and Heat Dissipation Analysis; Galileo - The Serial-Production AIT Challenge; The Space Systems Environmental Test Facility Database (SSETFD), Website Development Status; Simulated Reentry Heating by Torching; Micro-Vibration Measurements on Thermally Loaded Multi-Layer Insulation Samples in Vacuum; High Temperature Life Testing of 80Ni-20Cr Wire in a Simulated Mars Atmosphere for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument Suit Gas Processing System (GPS) Carbon Dioxide Scrubber; The Planning and Implementation of Test Facility Improvements; and Development of a Silicon Carbide Molecular Beam Nozzle for Simulation Planetary Flybys and Low-Earth Orbit.

  20. Xenogenic collagen matrix or autologous connective tissue graft as adjunct to coronally advanced flaps for coverage of multiple adjacent gingival recession: Randomized trial assessing non-inferiority in root coverage and superiority in oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Tonetti, Maurizio S; Cortellini, Pierpaolo; Pellegrini, Gaia; Nieri, Michele; Bonaccini, Daniele; Allegri, Mario; Bouchard, Philippe; Cairo, Francesco; Conforti, Gianpaolo; Fourmousis, Ioannis; Graziani, Filippo; Guerrero, Adrian; Halben, Jan; Malet, Jacques; Rasperini, Giulio; Topoll, Heinz; Wachtel, Hannes; Wallkamm, Beat; Zabalegui, Ion; Zuhr, Otto

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the non-inferiority of the adjunct of a xenogeneic collagen matrix (CMX) or connective tissue graft (CTG) to coronally advanced flaps (CAF) for coverage of multiple adjacent recessions and compare superiority in patient-reported outcomes (PROM). One hundred and eighty-seven subjects (92 CMX) with 485 recessions in 14 centres were randomized and followed up for 6 months. Patients filled daily diaries for 15 days to monitor patient-reported experience. The primary outcome was changed in position of the gingival margin. Multilevel analysis used centre, subject and tooth as levels and baseline parameters as covariates. Average baseline recession was 2.5 ± 1.0 mm. The surgery was 15.7 min shorter (95%CI from 11.9 to 19.6, p < .0001) and perceived lighter (11.9 VAS units, 95%CI from 4.6 to 19.1, p = .0014) in CMX subjects. Time to recovery was 1.8 days shorter in CMX. Six-month root coverage was 1.7 ± 1.1 mm for CMX and 2.1 ± 1.0 mm for CTG (difference of 0.44 mm, 95%CI from 0.25 to 0.63 mm). The upper limit of the confidence interval was over the non-inferiority margin of 0.25 mm. Odds of complete root coverage were significantly higher for CTG (OR = 4.0, 95% CI 1.8-8.8). Replacing CTG with CMX shortens time to recovery and decreases morbidity, but the tested generation of devices is probably inferior to autologous CTG in terms of root coverage. Significant variability in PROMs was observed among centres. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Periodontology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Connecting Provenance with Semantic Descriptions in the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votava, P.; Michaelis, A.; Nemani, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a data, modeling and knowledge collaboratory that houses NASA satellite data, climate data and ancillary data where a focused community may come together to share modeling and analysis codes, scientific results, knowledge and expertise on a centralized platform. Some of the main goals of NEX are transparency and repeatability and to that extent we have been adding components that enable tracking of provenance of both scientific processes and datasets produced by these processes. As scientific processes become more complex, they are often developed collaboratively and it becomes increasingly important for the research team to be able to track the development of the process and the datasets that are produced along the way. Additionally, we want to be able to link the processes and the datasets developed on NEX to an existing information and knowledge, so that the users can query and compare the provenance of any dataset or process with regard to the component-specific attributes such as data quality, geographic location, related publications, user comments and annotations etc. We have developed several ontologies that describe datasets and workflow components available on NEX using the OWL ontology language as well as a simple ontology that provides linking mechanism to the collected provenance information. The provenance is captured in two ways - we utilize existing provenance infrastructure of VisTrails, which is used as a workflow engine on NEX, and we extend the captured provenance using the PROV data model expressed through the PROV-O ontology. We do this in order to link and query the provenance easier in the context of the existing NEX information and knowledge. The captured provenance graph is processed and stored using RDFlib with MySQL backend that can be queried using either RDFLib or SPARQL. As a concrete example, we show how this information is captured during anomaly detection process in large satellite datasets.

  2. The Sun-Earth connect 2: Modelling patterns of a fractal Sun in time and space using the fine structure constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Robert G. V.

    2017-02-01

    Self-similar matrices of the fine structure constant of solar electromagnetic force and its inverse, multiplied by the Carrington synodic rotation, have been previously shown to account for at least 98% of the top one hundred significant frequencies and periodicities observed in the ACRIM composite irradiance satellite measurement and the terrestrial 10.7cm Penticton Adjusted Daily Flux data sets. This self-similarity allows for the development of a time-space differential equation (DE) where the solutions define a solar model for transmissions through the core, radiative, tachocline, convective and coronal zones with some encouraging empirical and theoretical results. The DE assumes a fundamental complex oscillation in the solar core and that time at the tachocline is smeared with real and imaginary constructs. The resulting solutions simulate for tachocline transmission, the solar cycle where time-line trajectories either 'loop' as Hermite polynomials for an active Sun or 'tail' as complementary error functions for a passive Sun. Further, a mechanism that allows for the stable energy transmission through the tachocline is explored and the model predicts the initial exponential coronal heating from nanoflare supercharging. The twisting of the field at the tachocline is then described as a quaternion within which neutrinos can oscillate. The resulting fractal bubbles are simulated as a Julia Set which can then aggregate from nanoflares into solar flares and prominences. Empirical examples demonstrate that time and space fractals are important constructs in understanding the behaviour of the Sun, from the impact on climate and biological histories on Earth, to the fractal influence on the spatial distributions of the solar system. The research suggests that there is a fractal clock underpinning solar frequencies in packages defined by the fine structure constant, where magnetic flipping and irradiance fluctuations at phase changes, have periodically impacted on the

  3. Cohesion, granular solids, granular liquids, and their connection to small near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, P.; Scheeres, D.

    2014-07-01

    During the last 15 years or so, the Planetary Sciences community has been using Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulation codes to study small near-Earth objects (NEOs). In general, these codes treat gravitational aggregates as conglomerates of spherical particles; a good approximation given that many asteroids are self-gravitating granular media. Unfortunately, the degree of sophistication of these codes, and our own understanding, has not been high enough as to appropriately represent realistic physical properties of granular matter. In particular, angles of friction (θ) and cohesive strength (σ_c) of the aggregates were rarely taken in consideration and this could have led to unrealistic dynamics, and therefore, unrealistic conclusions about the dynamical evolution of small NEOs. In our research, we explore the failure mechanics of spherical (r=71 m) and ellipsoidal (r_1=92 m) self-gravitating aggregates with different angles of friction and values for their cohesive strength, in order to better understand the geophysics of rubble-pile asteroids. In particular we focused on the deformation and different disruption modes provoked by an always increasing angular velocity (spin rate). Scaling arguments allow us to regard simulations with the same aggregate size and different σ_c as equivalent to simulations of aggregates of different size and the same σ_c. We use a computational code that implements a Soft-Sphere DEM. The aggregates are composed by 3,000 spherical solid spheres (7--10 m) with 6 degrees of freedom. The code calculates normal, as well as, frictional (tangential) contact forces by means of soft potentials and the aggregate as a whole mimics the effect of non- spherical particles through the implementation of rolling friction. Cohesive forces, and a cohesive stress, are calculated as the net effect of the sum of the van der Waals forces between the smaller regolith, sand and dust (powder) that are present in real asteroids [1]. These finer materials

  4. Sheath-accumulating Propagation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-03-01

    Fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the drivers of strong space weather storms such as solar energetic particle events and geomagnetic storms. The connection between the space-weather-impacting solar wind disturbances associated with fast ICMEs at Earth and the characteristics of causative energetic CMEs observed near the Sun is a key question in the study of space weather storms, as well as in the development of practical space weather prediction. Such shock-driving fast ICMEs usually expand at supersonic speeds during the propagation, resulting in the continuous accumulation of shocked sheath plasma ahead. In this paper, we propose a “sheath-accumulating propagation” (SAP) model that describes the coevolution of the interplanetary sheath and decelerating ICME ejecta by taking into account the process of upstream solar wind plasma accumulation within the sheath region. Based on the SAP model, we discuss (1) ICME deceleration characteristics; (2) the fundamental condition for fast ICMEs at Earth; (3) the thickness of interplanetary sheaths; (4) arrival time prediction; and (5) the super-intense geomagnetic storms associated with huge solar flares. We quantitatively show that not only the speed but also the mass of the CME are crucial for discussing the above five points. The similarities and differences between the SAP model, the drag-based model, and the“snow-plow” model proposed by Tappin are also discussed.

  5. Sheath-accumulating Propagation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: takahasi@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    Fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the drivers of strong space weather storms such as solar energetic particle events and geomagnetic storms. The connection between the space-weather-impacting solar wind disturbances associated with fast ICMEs at Earth and the characteristics of causative energetic CMEs observed near the Sun is a key question in the study of space weather storms, as well as in the development of practical space weather prediction. Such shock-driving fast ICMEs usually expand at supersonic speeds during the propagation, resulting in the continuous accumulation of shocked sheath plasma ahead. In this paper, we propose a “sheath-accumulating propagation”more » (SAP) model that describes the coevolution of the interplanetary sheath and decelerating ICME ejecta by taking into account the process of upstream solar wind plasma accumulation within the sheath region. Based on the SAP model, we discuss (1) ICME deceleration characteristics; (2) the fundamental condition for fast ICMEs at Earth; (3) the thickness of interplanetary sheaths; (4) arrival time prediction; and (5) the super-intense geomagnetic storms associated with huge solar flares. We quantitatively show that not only the speed but also the mass of the CME are crucial for discussing the above five points. The similarities and differences between the SAP model, the drag-based model, and the“snow-plow” model proposed by Tappin are also discussed.« less

  6. Flux-tube divergence, coronal heating, and the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.-M.

    1993-01-01

    Using model calculations based on a self-consistent treatment of the coronal energy balance, we show how the magnetic flux-tube divergence rate controls the coronal temperature and the properties of the solar wind. For a fixed input of mechanical and Alfven-wave energy at the coronal base, we find that as the divergence rate increases, the maximum coronal temperature decreases but the mass flux leaving the sun gradually increases. As a result, the asymptotic wind speed decreases with increasing expansion factor near the sun, in agreement with empirical studies. As noted earlier by Withbroe, the calculated mass flux at the sun is remarkably insensitive to parameter variations; when combined with magnetohydrodynamic considerations, this self-regulatory property of the model explains the observed constancy of the mass flux at earth.

  7. Interplanetary Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2011-01-01

    Although more than ten thousand coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are produced during each solar cycle at the Sun, only a small fraction hits the Earth. Only a small fraction of the Earth-directed CMEs ultimately arrive at Earth depending on their interaction with the solar wind and other large-scale structures such as coronal holes and CMEs. The interplanetary propagation is essentially controlled by the drag force because the propelling force and the solar gravity are significant only near the Sun. Combined remote-sensing and in situ observations have helped us estimate the influence of the solar wind on the propagation of CMEs. However, these measurements have severe limitations because the remote-sensed and in-situ observations correspond to different portions of the CME. Attempts to overcome this problem are made in two ways: the first is to model the CME and get the space speed of the CME, which can be compared with the in situ speed. The second method is to use stereoscopic observation so that the remote-sensed and in-situ observations make measurements on the Earth-arriving part of CMEs. The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission observed several such CMEs, which helped understand the interplanetary evolution of these CMEs and to test earlier model results. This paper discusses some of these issues and updates the CME/shock travel time estimates for a number of CMEs.

  8. Chromospheres of Coronal Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.

    1996-01-01

    We summarize the main results obtained from the analysis of ultraviolet emission line profiles of coronal late-type stars observed with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The excellent GHRS spectra provide new information on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena in the chromospheres and transition regions of these stars. One exciting new result is the discovery of broad components in the transition region lines of active stars that we believe provide evidence for microflare heating in these stars.

  9. Determining hillslope-channel connectivity in an agricultural catchment using rare-earth oxide tracers and random forests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masselink, Rens; Temme, Arnaud; Giménez, Rafael; Casalí, Javier; Keesstra, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion from agricultural areas is a large problem, because of off-site effects like the rapid filling of reservoirs. To mitigate the problem of sediments from agricultural areas reaching the channel, reservoirs and other surface waters, it is important to understand hillslope-channel connectivity and catchment connectivity. To determine the functioning of hillslope-channel connectivity and the continuation of transport of these sediments in the channel, it is necessary to obtain data on sediment transport from the hillslopes to the channels. Simultaneously, the factors that influence sediment export out of the catchment need to be studied. For measuring hillslope-channel sediment connectivity, Rare-Earth Oxide (REO) tracers were applied to a hillslope in an agricultural catchment in Navarre, Spain, preceding the winter of 2014-2015. The results showed that during the winter there was no sediment transport from the hillslope to the channel. Analysis of precipitation data showed that total precipitation quantities did not differ much from the mean. However, precipitation intensities were low, causing little sediment mobilisation. To test the implication of the REO results at the catchment scale, two conceptual models for sediment connectivity were assessed using a Random Forest (RF) machine learning method. One model proposes that small events provide sediment for large events, while the other proposes that only large events cause sediment detachment and small events subsequently remove these sediments from near and in the channel. The RF method was applied to a daily dataset of sediment yield from the catchment (N=2451 days), and two subsets of the whole dataset: small events (N=2319) and large events (N=132). For sediment yield prediction of small events, variables related to large preceding events were the most important. The model for large events underperformed and, therefore, we could not draw any immediate conclusions whether small events influence the

  10. Determination of Coronal Magnetic Fields from Vector Magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran

    1997-01-01

    During the course of the present contract we developed an 'evolutionary technique' for the determination of force-free coronal magnetic fields from vector magnetograph observations. The method can successfully generate nonlinear force- free fields (with non-constant-a) that match vector magnetograms. We demonstrated that it is possible to determine coronal magnetic fields from photospheric measurements, and we applied it to vector magnetograms of active regions. We have also studied theoretical models of coronal fields that lead to disruptions. Specifically, we have demonstrated that the determination of force-free fields from exact boundary data is a well-posed mathematical problem, by verifying that the computed coronal field agrees with an analytic force-free field when boundary data for the analytic field are used; demonstrated that it is possible to determine active-region coronal magnetic fields from photospheric measurements, by computing the coronal field above active region 5747 on 20 October 1989, AR6919 on 15 November 1991, and AR7260 on 18 August 1992, from data taken with the Stokes Polarimeter at Mees Solar Observatory, University of Hawaii; started to analyze active region 7201 on 19 June 1992 using measurements made with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter at NSO/Sac Peak; investigated the effects of imperfections in the photospheric data on the computed coronal magnetic field; documented the coronal field structure of AR5747 and compared it to the morphology of footpoint emission in a flare, showing that the 'high- pressure' H-alpha footpoints are connected by coronal field lines; shown that the variation of magnetic field strength along current-carrying field lines is significantly different from the variation in a potential field, and that the resulting near-constant area of elementary flux tubes is consistent with observations; begun to develop realistic models of coronal fields which can be used to study flare trigger mechanisms; demonstrated that

  11. Radio Studies of Coronal Holes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Withbroe (1978) has pointed out, "The transport of energy by thermal conduction into the transition zone is a primary coronal cooling mechanism." Thus, the...temperature and particle density gradients in the transition zone are of critical importance in understanding the energy balance of a coronal hole. The...coronal hole has been provided by Konp and Orrall (1977), but a quantitative understanding requires a detailed knowledge of the energy balance in the

  12. Coronal and chromospheric physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, J. T.; Landman, D. A.; Orrall, F. Q.

    1983-01-01

    Achievements and completed results are discussed for investigations covering solar activity during the solar maximum mission and the solar maximum year; other studies of solar activity and variability; infrared and submillimeter photometry; solar-related atomic physics; coronal and transition region studies; prominence research; chromospheric research in quiet and active regions; solar dynamics; eclipse studies; and polarimetry and magnetic field measurements. Contributions were also made in defining the photometric filterograph instrument for the solar optical telescope, designing the combined filter spectrograph, and in expressing the scientific aims and implementation of the solar corona diagnostic mission.

  13. Magnificent CME Erupts on the Sun with Earth to Scale

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    On August 31, 2012 a long filament of solar material that had been hovering in the sun's atmosphere, the corona, erupted out into space at 4:36 p.m. EDT. The coronal mass ejection, or CME, traveled at over 900 miles per second. The CME did not travel directly toward Earth, but did connect with Earth's magnetic environment, or magnetosphere, causing aurora to appear on the night of Monday, September 3. The image above includes an image of Earth to show the size of the CME compared to the size of Earth. Credit: NASA/GSFC/SDO NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  14. Explaining Warm Coronal Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.; Karpen, Judy T.; Patsourakos, Spiros

    2008-01-01

    One of the great mysteries of coronal physics that has come to light in the last few years is the discovery that warn (- 1 INK) coronal loops are much denser than expected for quasi-static equilibrium. Both the excess densities and relatively long lifetimes of the loops can be explained with bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively to very high temperatures. Since neighboring strands are at different stages of cooling, the composite loop bundle is multi-thermal, with the distribution of temperatures depending on the details of the "nanoflare storm." Emission hotter than 2 MK is predicted, but it is not clear that such emission is always observed. We consider two possible explanations for the existence of over-dense warm loops without corresponding hot emission: (1) loops are bundles of nanoflare heated strands, but a significant fraction of the nanoflare energy takes the form of a nonthermal electron beam rather then direct plasma heating; (2) loops are bundles of strands that undergo thermal nonequilibrium that results when steady heating is sufficiently concentrated near the footpoints. We present numerical hydro simulations of both of these possibilities and explore the observational consequences, including the production of hard X-ray emission and absorption by cool material in the corona.

  15. CME Interaction with Coronal Holes and Their Interplanetary Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.

    2008-01-01

    A significant number of interplanetary (IP) shocks (-17%) during cycle 23 were not followed by drivers. The number of such "driverless" shocks steadily increased with the solar cycle with 15%, 33%, and 52% occurring in the rise, maximum, and declining phase of the solar cycle. The solar sources of 15% of the driverless shocks were very close the central meridian of the Sun (within approx.15deg), which is quite unexpected. More interestingly, all the driverless shocks with their solar sources near the solar disk center occurred during the declining phase of solar cycle 23. When we investigated the coronal environment of the source regions of driverless shocks, we found that in each case there was at least one coronal hole nearby suggesting that the coronal holes might have deflected the associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) away from the Sun-Earth line. The presence of abundant low-latitude coronal holes during the declining phase further explains why CMEs originating close to the disk center mimic the limb CMEs, which normally lead to driverless shocks due to purely geometrical reasons. We also examined the solar source regions of shocks with drivers. For these, the coronal holes were located such that they either had no influence on the CME trajectories. or they deflected the CMEs towards the Sun-Earth line. We also obtained the open magnetic field distribution on the Sun by performing a potential field source surface extrapolation to the corona. It was found that the CMEs generally move away from the open magnetic field regions. The CME-coronal hole interaction must be widespread in the declining phase, and may have a significant impact on the geoeffectiveness of CMEs.

  16. Three Connected Climate Education Interactives: Carbon Cycle, Earth System Energy Flows, and Climate Change Impacts/Adaptations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai'i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and focus on adaptation strategies that can increase resiliency with respect to climate change impacts. Unfortunately the vast majority of the science texts used in schools come from the US mainland and feature contexts that do not relate to the lives of Pacific island students. The curricular materials also tend to be older and to have very weak climate science content, especially with respect to tropical islands and climate change. In collaboration with public broadcast station WGBH, PCEP has developed three climate education interactives that sequentially provide an introduction to key climate change education concepts. The first in the series focuses on the global carbon cycle and connects increased atmospheric CO2 with rising global temperatures. The second analyzes Earth system energy flows to explain the key role of the increased greenhouse effect. The third focuses on four climate change impacts (higher temperatures, rising sea level, changes in precipitation, and ocean acidification), and adaptation strategies to increase resiliency of local ecosystems and human systems. While the interactives have a Pacific island visual and text perspective, they are broadly applicable for other education audiences. Learners can use the interactives to engage with the basic science concepts, and then apply the climate change impacts to their own contexts.

  17. Properties of coronal arches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. M.; Krieger, A. S.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of coronal arches located on the peripheries of active regions, observed during a sounding rocket flight on March 8, 1973, are discussed. The arches are found to overlie filament channels and their footpoints are traced on locations on the perimeters of supergranulation cells. The arches have a wide range of lengths although their widths are well approximated by the value 2.2 x 10 to the 9th cm. Comparison of the size of the chromospheric footprint with the arc width indicates that arches do not always expand as they ascend into the corona. The electron temperatures and densities of the plasma contained in the arches were measured and the pressure calculated; typical values are 2-million K, 1 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm, and 0.2 dyne/sq cm, respectively. The variation of these parameters with position along the length of the arch indicates that the arches are not in hydrostatic equilibrium.

  18. The coronal fricative problem

    PubMed Central

    Dinnsen, Daniel A.; Dow, Michael C.; Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.; Green, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines a range of predicted versus attested error patterns involving coronal fricatives (e.g. [s, z, θ, ð]) as targets and repairs in the early sound systems of monolingual English-acquiring children. Typological results are reported from a cross-sectional study of 234 children with phonological delays (ages 3 years; 0 months to 7;9). Our analyses revealed different instantiations of a putative developmental conspiracy within and across children. Supplemental longitudinal evidence is also presented that replicates the cross-sectional results, offering further insight into the life-cycle of the conspiracy. Several of the observed typological anomalies are argued to follow from a modified version of Optimality Theory with Candidate Chains (McCarthy, 2007). PMID:24790247

  19. Solar Eruptions: Coronal Mass Ejections and Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2012-01-01

    This lecture introduces the topic of Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares, collectively known as solar eruptions. During solar eruptions, the released energy flows out from the Sun in the form of magnetized plasma and electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic radiation suddenly increases the ionization content of the ionosphere, thus impacting communication and navigation systems. Flares can be eruptive or confined. Eruptive flares accompany CMEs, while confined flares hav only electromagnetic signature. CMEs can drive MHD shocks that accelerate charged particles to very high energies in the interplanetary space, which pose radiation hazard to astronauts and space systems. CMEs heading in the direction of Earth arrive in about two days and impact Earth's magnetosphere, producing geomagnetic storms. The magnetic storms result in a number of effects including induced currnts that can disrupt power grids, railroads, and underground pipelines

  20. TRACE Observations of Changes in Coronal Hole Boundaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-13

    predominate SXT •3 sP nngcr TRACK Observations of Changes in Coronal Hole Boundaries 145 active regions in CHs appear as anemone , characterized by a radial...array of loops formed by connections between the CH fields and the opposite polarity part of the active region. The anemone active regions are

  1. The Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, S.; Landi, E.; Zhang, J.; Lin, H.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields are arguably the most important observables required for advances in our understanding of the processes responsible for coronal heating, coronal dynamics and the generation of space weather that affects communications, GPS systems, space flight, and power transmission. The Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO) is a proposed ground-based suite of instruments designed for routine study of coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields and their environment, and to understand the formation of coronal mass ejections (CME) and their relation to other forms of solar activity. This new facility will be operated by the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) with partners at the University of Michigan, the University of Hawaii and George Mason University in support of the solar and heliospheric community. It will replace the current NCAR Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu). COSMO will enhance the value of existing and new observatories on the ground and in space by providing unique and crucial observations of the global coronal and chromospheric magnetic field and its evolution. The design and current status of the COSMO will be reviewed.

  2. A Triumvirate: Three Coronal Holes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-10

    Three substantial coronal holes rotated across the face of the Sun the week of Sept. 8-10, 2015 as seen by NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory. Coronal holes are areas where the Sun magnetic field is open and a source of streaming solar wind. They appear darker in extreme ultraviolet light because there is less material in the hole areas being imaged in this specific wavelength of light. It is a little unusual to have three coronal holes at the same time, but neither is it a rare occurrence. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19950

  3. Two Coronal Holes on the Sun Viewed by SDO

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-17

    NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO, captured this solar image on March 16, 2015, which clearly shows two dark patches, known as coronal holes. The larger coronal hole of the two, near the southern pole, covers an estimated 6- to 8-percent of the total solar surface. While that may not sound significant, it is one of the largest polar holes scientists have observed in decades. The smaller coronal hole, towards the opposite pole, is long and narrow. It covers about 3.8 billion square miles on the sun - only about 0.16-percent of the solar surface. Coronal holes are lower density and temperature regions of the sun’s outer atmosphere, known as the corona. Coronal holes can be a source of fast solar wind of solar particles that envelop the Earth. The magnetic field in these regions extends far out into space rather than quickly looping back into the sun’s surface. Magnetic fields that loop up and back down to the surface can be seen as arcs in non-coronal hole regions of the image, including over the lower right horizon. The bright active region on the lower right quadrant is the same region that produced solar flares last week. Credit: NASA/Goddard/SDO NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  4. A Solid Earth educational module, co-operatively developed by scientists and high school teachers through the Scripps Classroom Connection GK12 Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, L. B.; van Dusen, D.; Benedict, R.; Chojnacki, P. R.; Peach, C. L.; Staudigel, H.; Constable, C.; Laske, G.

    2010-12-01

    The Scripps Classroom Connection, funded through the NSF GK-12 program, pairs local high school teachers with Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) graduate students in the earth and ocean sciences for their mutual professional development. An integral goal of the program is the collaborative production of quality earth science educational modules that are tested in the classroom and subsequently made freely available online for use by other educators. We present a brief overview of the program structure in place to support this goal and illustrate a module that we have developed on the Solid Earth & Plate Tectonics for a 9th grade Earth Science classroom. The unit includes 1) an exercise in constructing a geomagnetic polarity timescale which exposes students to authentic scientific data; 2) activities, labs, lectures and worksheets that support the scientific content; and 3) use of online resources such as Google Earth and interactive animations that help students better understand the concepts. The educational unit is being implemented in two separate local area high schools for Fall 2010 and we will report on our experiences. The co-operative efforts of teachers and scientists lead to educational materials which expose students to the scientific process and current science research, while teaching basic concepts using an engaging inquiry-based approach. In turn, graduate students involved gain experience communicating their science to non-science audiences.

  5. Transverse Oscillations of Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruderman, Michael S.; Erdélyi, Robert

    2009-12-01

    On 14 July 1998 TRACE observed transverse oscillations of a coronal loop generated by an external disturbance most probably caused by a solar flare. These oscillations were interpreted as standing fast kink waves in a magnetic flux tube. Firstly, in this review we embark on the discussion of the theory of waves and oscillations in a homogeneous straight magnetic cylinder with the particular emphasis on fast kink waves. Next, we consider the effects of stratification, loop expansion, loop curvature, non-circular cross-section, loop shape and magnetic twist. An important property of observed transverse coronal loop oscillations is their fast damping. We briefly review the different mechanisms suggested for explaining the rapid damping phenomenon. After that we concentrate on damping due to resonant absorption. We describe the latest analytical results obtained with the use of thin transition layer approximation, and then compare these results with numerical findings obtained for arbitrary density variation inside the flux tube. Very often collective oscillations of an array of coronal magnetic loops are observed. It is natural to start studying this phenomenon from the system of two coronal loops. We describe very recent analytical and numerical results of studying collective oscillations of two parallel homogeneous coronal loops. The implication of the theoretical results for coronal seismology is briefly discussed. We describe the estimates of magnetic field magnitude obtained from the observed fundamental frequency of oscillations, and the estimates of the coronal scale height obtained using the simultaneous observations of the fundamental frequency and the frequency of the first overtone of kink oscillations. In the last part of the review we summarise the most outstanding and acute problems in the theory of the coronal loop transverse oscillations.

  6. Solar and stellar coronal plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1985-01-01

    Progress made in describing and interpreting coronal plasma processes and the relationship between the solar corona and its stellar counterparts is reported. Topics covered include: stellar X-ray emission, HEAO 2 X-ray survey of the Pleiades, closed coronal structures, X-ray survey of main-sequence stars with shallow convection zones, implications of the 1400 MHz flare emission, and magnetic field stochasticity.

  7. Dynamical behaviour in coronal loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, Bernhard M.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid variability has been found in two active region coronal loops observed by the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) and the Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS) onboard the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). There appear to be surprisingly few observations of the short-time scale behavior of hot loops, and the evidence presented herein lends support to the hypothesis that coronal heating may be impulsive and driven by flaring.

  8. Dynamical behaviour in coronal loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haisch, Bernhard M.

    Rapid variability has been found in two active region coronal loops observed by the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) and the Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS) onboard the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). There appear to be surprisingly few observations of the short-time scale behavior of hot loops, and the evidence presented herein lends support to the hypothesis that coronal heating may be impulsive and driven by flaring.

  9. Coronal loops and active region structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, D. F.; Zirin, H.

    1981-01-01

    Synoptic H-alpha Ca K, magnetograph and Skylab soft X-ray and EUV data were compared for the purpose of identifying the basic coronal magnetic structure of loops in a 'typical' active region and studying its evolution. A complex of activity in July 1973, especially McMath 12417, was emphasized. The principal results are: (1) most of the brightest loops connected the bright f plage to either the sunspot penumbra or to p satellite spots; no non-flaring X-ray loops end in umbrae; (2) short, bright loops had one or both ends in regions of emergent flux, strong field or high field gradients; (3) stable, strongly sheared loop arcades formed over filaments; (4) EFRs were always associated with compact X-ray arcades; and (5) loops connecting to other active regions had their bases in outlying plage of weak field strength in McM 417 where H-alpha fibrils marked the direction of the loops

  10. On the existence of another source of heat production for the earth and planets, and its connection with gravitomagnetism.

    PubMed

    Elbeze, Alexandre Chaloum

    2013-01-01

    Recent revised estimates of the Earth's surface heat flux are in the order of 47 TW. Given that its internal radiogenic (mantle and crust) heat production is estimated to be around 20 TW, the Earth has a thermal deficit of around 27 TW. This article will try to show that the action of the gravitational field of the Sun on the rotating masses of the Earth is probably the source of another heat production in order of 54TW, which would satisfy the thermal balance of our celestial body and probably explain the reduced heat flow Qo. We reach this conclusion within the framework of gravitation implied by Einstein's special and general relativity theory (SR, GR). Our results show that it might possible, in principle, to calculate the heat generated by the action of the gravitational field of celestial bodies on the Earth and planets of the Solar System (a phenomenon that is different to that of the gravitational tidal effect from the Sun and the Moon). This result should help physicists to improve and develop new models of the Earth's heat balance, and suggests that contrary to cooling, the Earth is in a phase of thermal balance, or even reheating.

  11. The Coronal Monsoon: Thermal Nonequilibrium Revealed by Periodic Coronal Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchère, Frédéric; Froment, Clara; Soubrié, Elie; Antolin, Patrick; Oliver, Ramon; Pelouze, Gabriel

    2018-02-01

    We report on the discovery of periodic coronal rain in an off-limb sequence of Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images. The showers are co-spatial and in phase with periodic (6.6 hr) intensity pulsations of coronal loops of the sort described by Auchère et al. and Froment et al. These new observations make possible a unified description of both phenomena. Coronal rain and periodic intensity pulsations of loops are two manifestations of the same physical process: evaporation/condensation cycles resulting from a state of thermal nonequilibrium. The fluctuations around coronal temperatures produce the intensity pulsations of loops, and rain falls along their legs if thermal runaway cools the periodic condensations down and below transition-region temperatures. This scenario is in line with the predictions of numerical models of quasi-steadily and footpoint heated loops. The presence of coronal rain—albeit non-periodic—in several other structures within the studied field of view implies that this type of heating is at play on a large scale.

  12. Nebraska Earth Science Education Network: Enhancing the NASA, University, and Pre-College Science Teacher Connection with Electronic Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, David C.

    1997-01-01

    The primary goals of this project were to: 1. Promote and enhance K-12 earth science education; and enhance the access to and exchange of information through the use of digital networks in K-12 institutions. We have achieved these two goals. Through the efforts of many individuals at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), Nebraska Earth Science Education Network (NESEN) has become a viable and beneficial interdisciplinary outreach program for K-12 educators in Nebraska. Over the last three years, the NASA grant has provided personnel and equipment to maintain, expand and develop NESEN into a program that is recognized by its membership as a valuable source of information and expertise in earth systems science. Because NASA funding provided a framework upon which to build, other external sources of funding have become available to support NESEN programs.

  13. Coronal Seismology -- Achievements and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruderman, Michael

    Coronal seismology is a new and fast developing branch of the solar physics. The main idea of coronal seismology is the same as of any branches of seismology: to determine basic properties of a medium using properties of waves propagating in this medium. The waves and oscillations in the solar corona are routinely observed in the late space missions. In our brief review we concentrate only on one of the most spectacular type of oscillations observed in the solar corona - the transverse oscillations of coronal magnetic loops. These oscillations were first observed by TRACE on 14 July 1998. At present there are a few dozens of similar observations. Shortly after the first observation of the coronal loop transverse oscillations they were interpreted as kink oscillations of magnetic tubes with the ends frozen in the dense photospheric plasma. The frequency of the kink oscillation is proportional to the magnetic field magnitude and inversely proportional to the tube length times the square root of the plasma density. This fact was used to estimate the magnetic field magnitude in the coronal loops. In 2004 the first simultaneous observation of the fundamental mode and first overtone of the coronal loop transverse oscillation was reported. If we model a coronal loop as a homogeneous magnetic tube, then the ratio of the frequencies of the first overtone and the fundamental mode should be equal to 2. However, the ratio of the observed frequencies was smaller than 2. This is related to the density variation along the loop. If we assume that the corona is isothermal and prescribe the loop shape (usually it is assumed that it has the shape of half-circle), then, using the ratio of the two frequencies, we can determine the temperature of the coronal plasma. The first observation of transverse oscillations of the coronal loops showed that they were strongly damped. This phenomenon was confirmed by the subsequent observations. At present, the most reliable candidate for the

  14. Key aspects of coronal heating

    PubMed Central

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2015-01-01

    We highlight 10 key aspects of coronal heating that must be understood before we can consider the problem to be solved. (1) All coronal heating is impulsive. (2) The details of coronal heating matter. (3) The corona is filled with elemental magnetic stands. (4) The corona is densely populated with current sheets. (5) The strands must reconnect to prevent an infinite build-up of stress. (6) Nanoflares repeat with different frequencies. (7) What is the characteristic magnitude of energy release? (8) What causes the collective behaviour responsible for loops? (9) What are the onset conditions for energy release? (10) Chromospheric nanoflares are not a primary source of coronal plasma. Significant progress in solving the coronal heating problem will require coordination of approaches: observational studies, field-aligned hydrodynamic simulations, large-scale and localized three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and possibly also kinetic simulations. There is a unique value to each of these approaches, and the community must strive to coordinate better. PMID:25897094

  15. Ponderomotive Acceleration in Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlburg, Russell B.; Laming, J. Martin; Taylor, Brian; Obenschain, Keith

    2017-08-01

    Ponderomotive acceleration has been asserted to be a cause of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect, the by now well known enhancement in abundance by a factor of 3-4 over photospheric values of elements in the solar corona with FIP less than about 10 eV. It is shown here by means of numerical simulations that ponderomotive acceleration occurs in solar coronal loops, with the appropriate magnitude and direction, as a ``byproduct'' of coronal heating. The numerical simulations are performed with the HYPERION code, which solves the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations including nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiation. Numerical simulations of a coronal loops with an axial magnetic field from 0.005 Teslas to 0.02 Teslas and lengths from 25000 km to 75000 km are presented. In the simulations the footpoints of the axial loop magnetic field are convected by random, large-scale motions. There is a continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets which act to heat the loop. As a consequence of coronal magnetic reconnection, small scale, high speed jets form. The familiar vortex quadrupoles form at reconnection sites. Between the magnetic footpoints and the corona the reconnection flow merges with the boundary flow. It is in this region that the ponderomotive acceleration occurs. Mirroring the character of the coronal reconnection, the ponderomotive acceleration is also found to be intermittent.

  16. Relationship between coronal holes and high speed streams at L1: arrival times, durations, and intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, B.; Bu, X.; Liu, S.; Gong, J.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal holes are sources of high-speed steams (HSS) of solar wind. When coronal holes appear at mid/low latitudes on the Sun, consequential HSSs may impact Earth and cause recurrent geospace environment disturbances, such as geomagnetic storms, relativistic electron enhancements at the geosynchronous orbit, and thermosphere density enhancements. Thus, it is of interests for space weather forecasters to predict when (arrival times), how long (time durations), and how severe (intensities) HSSs may impact Earth when they notice coronal holes on the sun and are anticipating their geoeffectiveness. In this study, relationship between coronal holes and high speed streams will be statistically investigated. Several coronal hole parameters, including passage times of solar central meridian, coronal hole longitudinal widths, intensities reflected by mean brightness, are derived using Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) images for years 2011 to 2016. These parameters will be correlated with in-situ solar wind measurements measured at the L1 point by the ACE spacecraft, which can give some results that are useful for space weather forecaster in predicting the arrival times, durations, and intensities of coronal hole high-speed streams in about 3 days advance.

  17. Solar Coronal Structure Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, Nariaki; Bruner, Marilyn E.; Saba, Julia; Strong, Keith; Harvey, Karen

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this investigation is to study the physics of the solar corona through the analysis of the EUV and UV data produced by two flights (12 May 1992 and 25 April 1994) of the Lockheed Solar Plasma Diagnostics Experiment (SPDE) sounding rocket payload, in combination with Yohkoh and ground-based data. Each rocket flight produced both spectral and imaging data. These joint datasets are useful for understanding the physical state of various features in the solar atmosphere at different heights ranging from the photosphere to the corona at the time of the, rocket flights, which took place during the declining phase of a solar cycle, 2-4 years before the minimum. The investigation is narrowly focused on comparing the physics of small- and medium-scale strong-field structures with that of large-scale, weak fields. As we close th is investigation, we have to recall that our present position in the understanding of basic solar physics problems (such as coronal heating) is much different from that in 1995 (when we proposed this investigation), due largely to the great success of SOHO and TRACE. In other words, several topics and techniques we proposed can now be better realized with data from these missions. For this reason, at some point of our work, we started concentrating on the 1992 data, which are more unique and have more supporting data. As a result, we discontinued the investigation on small-scale structures, i.e., bright points, since high-resolution TRACE images have addressed more important physics than SPDE EUV images could do. In the final year, we still spent long time calibrating the 1992 data. The work was complicated because of the old-fashioned film, which had problems not encountered with more modern CCD detectors. After our considerable effort on calibration, we were able to focus on several scientific topics, relying heavily on the SPDE UV images. They include the relation between filaments and filament channels, the identification of hot

  18. Urban Fifth Graders' Connections-Making between Formal Earth Science Content and Their Lived Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brkich, Katie Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Earth science education, as it is traditionally taught, involves presenting concepts such as weathering, erosion, and deposition using relatively well-known examples--the Grand Canyon, beach erosion, and others. However, these examples--which resonate well with middle- and upper-class students--ill-serve students of poverty attending urban schools…

  19. Determining the full halo coronal mass ejection characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainshtein, V. G.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we determined the parameters of 45 full halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) for various modifications of their cone forms (“ice cream cone models”). We show that the CME determined characteristics depend significantly on the CME chosen form. We show that, regardless of the CME chosen form, the trajectory of practically all the considered HCMEs deviate from the radial direction to the Sun-to-Earth axis at the initial stage of their movement.

  20. Hybrid Stars and Coronal Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Dupree, Andrea K.

    2004-01-01

    This program addresses the evolution of stellar coronas by comparing a solar-like corona in the supergiant Dra (G2 Ib-IIa) to the corona in the allegedly more evolved state of a hybrid star, TrA (K2 11-111). Because the hybrid star has a massive wind, it appears likely that the corona will be cooler and less dense as the magnetic loop structures are no longer closed. By analogy with solar coronal holes, when the topology of the magnetic field is configured with open magnetic structures, both the coronal temperature and density are lower than in atmospheres dominated by closed loops. The hybrid stars assume a pivotal role in the definition of coronal evolution, atmospheric heating processes and mechanisms to drive winds of cool stars.

  1. Solar and stellar coronal plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1989-01-01

    Progress in observational, theoretical, and radio studies of coronal plasmas is summarized. Specifically work completed in the area of solar and stellar magnetic fields, related photospheric phenomena and the relationships between magnetism, rotation, coronal and chromospheric emission in solar-like stars is described. Also outlined are theoretical studies carried out in the following areas, among others: (1) neutral beams as the dominant energy transport mechanism in two ribbon-flares; (2) magneto hydrodynamic and circuit models for filament eruptions; and (3) studies of radio emission mechanisms in transient events. Finally, radio observations designed for coronal activity studies of the sun and of solar-type coronae are described. A bibliography of publications and talks is provided along with reprints of selected articles.

  2. Observational Analysis of Coronal Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talpeanu, D.-C.; Rachmeler, L; Mierla, Marilena

    2017-01-01

    Coronal fans (see Figure 1) are bright observational structures that extend to large distances above the solar surface and can easily be seen in EUV (174 angstrom) above the limb. They have a very long lifetime and can live up to several Carrington rotations (CR), remaining relatively stationary for many months. Note that they are not off-limb manifestation of similarly-named active region fans. The solar conditions required to create coronal fans are not well understood. The goal of this research was to find as many associations as possible of coronal fans with other solar features and to gain a better understanding of these structures. Therefore, we analyzed many fans and created an overview of their properties. We present the results of this statistical analysis and also a case study on the longest living fan.

  3. Steady State Model for Solar Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, L.; Asgari-Targhi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Solar coronal loops on the surface of the sun provide background magnetic and plasma structures for the release of a significant amount of the sun's energy, through energetic solar flares and coronal mass ejections and more gradual processes. Understanding their steady states is the first step in understanding loop dynamics. A consistent MHD steady state model, for a curved magnetic flux rope that contains plasma, has been developed[1] for simple coronal loops with both ends anchored in the photosphere. Plasma pressure or current makes the loop unstable to expansion in major radius and must be balanced by external forces, such as the solar gravity. The MHD momentum equation has a well defined small parameter ordering in the loop inverse aspect ratio ɛ=a/Ro (minor/major radius). Different types of common coronal loops fall in different parameter regimes, determined by the relative values of the plasma beta β=po/(Bo2/2μo), the MHD gravity parameter Ĝ≡ga/vA2 (the gravitational acceleration g normalized to the minor radius a and shear Alfvén velocity vA), and ɛ. The largest possible gravity, Ĝ ɛ1β, corresponds to the largest loops because it reduces the plasma density at the top of the loop exponentially compared to its lower ends, reducing the downward gravitational force -ρĜ there. The thin loops that are ubiquitous in solar active regions have ``high'' beta, β ɛ1, for ɛ≃0.02, and fit the predicted model scalings. The thicker loops that can give rise to flares and CMEs have ``low'' beta, β ɛ2. Cool loops, such as solar filaments outside active regions, that have a central pressure lower than that of the surrounding corona would have the strongest stability against radial expansion. The model raises a number of questions about the connection of loops to the photosphere and the force-free nature of the magnetic field there. [1] L. Sugiyama, M. Asgari-Targhi, Phys. Plasmas 24, 022904 (2017).

  4. CORONAL FOURIER POWER SPECTRA: IMPLICATIONS FOR CORONAL SEISMOLOGY AND CORONAL HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Ireland, J.; McAteer, R. T. J.; Inglis, A. R., E-mail: jack.ireland@nasa.gov

    The dynamics of regions of the solar corona are investigated using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 Å and 193 Å data. The coronal emission from the quiet Sun, coronal loop footprints, coronal moss, and from above a sunspot is studied. It is shown that the mean Fourier power spectra in these regions can be described by a power law at lower frequencies that tails to a flat spectrum at higher frequencies, plus a Gaussian-shaped contribution that varies depending on the region studied. This Fourier spectral shape is in contrast to the commonly held assumption that coronal time series are well describedmore » by the sum of a long timescale background trend plus Gaussian-distributed noise, with some specific locations also showing an oscillatory signal. The implications of the observed spectral shape on the fields of coronal seismology and the automated detection of oscillations in the corona are discussed. The power-law contribution to the shape of the Fourier power spectrum is interpreted as being due to the summation of a distribution of exponentially decaying emission events along the line of sight. This is consistent with the idea that the solar atmosphere is heated everywhere by small energy deposition events.« less

  5. Connecting NGSS to Other Literacy Initiatives: An Update of the Rainbow Chart of Earth Science Bigger Ideas (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan-Haas, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards and the Frameworks upon which they are built, built upon and synthesized a wide range of educational research and development that came before them. For the Earth sciences, this importantly includes a series of initiatives to define literacy within oceanography, atmospheric and climate sciences, and geology. Since the publication of the Frameworks, a similarly structured set of principles for energy literacy was also published. Each set of principles includes seven to nine Essential Principles or Big Ideas, all written at the commencement level. Each of these Principles is undergirded by several Fundamental Concepts. This set of idea sets yields 38 Essential Principles and 247 Fundamental Concepts. How do these relate to the content of NGSS? How can teachers, professional development providers and curriculum specialists make sense of this array of ideas and place it into a coherent conceptual framework? This presentation will answer these questions and more. Of course, there is substantial overlap amongst the sets of principles and with the ideas, practices and principles in NGSS. This presentation will provide and describe a framework that identifies these areas of overlap and contextualizes them within a framework that makes them more manageable for educators and learners. A set of five bigger ideas and a pair of overarching questions assembled with the Essential Principles and Earth & Space Science Disciplinary Core Ideas in the form of a 'Rainbow Chart' shows a consistency of thought across Earth science's sub-disciplines and helps educators navigate this somewhat overwhelming landscape of ideas. These questions and ideas are shown in the included figure and listed below. Overarching Questions: - How do we know what we know? - How does what we know inform our decision making? Bigger Ideas: - Earth is a system of systems. - The flow of energy drives the cycling of matter. - Life, including human life, influences and is

  6. Coronal Hole All Spread Out

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-16

    This image from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory shows a broad coronal hole was the dominant feature this week on the sun (Nov. 7-9, 2017). It was easily recognizable as the dark expanse across the top of the sun and extending down in each side. Coronal holes are magnetically open areas on the sun that allow high-speed solar wind to gush out into space. They always appear darker in extreme ultraviolet. This one was likely the source of bright aurora that shimmered for numerous observers, with some reaching down even to Nebraska. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22113

  7. The Office of the Coroner

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, J. Stewart

    1983-01-01

    Society has always been concerned about deaths which do not result from natural causes. In Canada, provincial legislatures have met this concern with legislation known as the Coroners' Act in some provinces and as the Fatality Inquiries Act in others. While these statutes are not identical, their intent is the same: to ensure that all unusual deaths are fully investigated to determine their true cause. The coroner's or medical examiner's primary responsibility is to show the public how similar deaths may be avoided. PMID:21283284

  8. Coronal ``Wave'': Magnetic Footprint of a Coronal Mass Ejection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attrill, Gemma D. R.; Harra, Louise K.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Démoulin, Pascal

    2007-02-01

    We investigate the properties of two ``classical'' EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) coronal waves. The two source regions of the associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) possess opposite helicities, and the coronal waves display rotations in opposite senses. We observe deep core dimmings near the flare site and also widespread diffuse dimming, accompanying the expansion of the EIT wave. We also report a new property of these EIT waves, namely, that they display dual brightenings: persistent ones at the outermost edge of the core dimming regions and simultaneously diffuse brightenings constituting the leading edge of the coronal wave, surrounding the expanding diffuse dimmings. We show that such behavior is consistent with a diffuse EIT wave being the magnetic footprint of a CME. We propose a new mechanism where driven magnetic reconnections between the skirt of the expanding CME magnetic field and quiet-Sun magnetic loops generate the observed bright diffuse front. The dual brightenings and the widespread diffuse dimming are identified as innate characteristics of this process.

  9. Space Oddities: The Search For Ephemeral Coronal Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Rachel E.; Pesnell, W. Dean; Kirk, Michael S.; Karna, Nishu

    2016-10-01

    Ephemeral coronal holes are short-lived, volatile counterparts to equatorial coronal holes. Very little is known about their characteristics and behavior aside from their definition: open, unipolar magnetic field lines resulting in darkened regions of the corona. The first exemplar of this phenomenon was observed by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) on October 26, 2010, which spurred our search for other occurrences in order to understand the frequency and evolution of these phenomena. To accomplish this, we visually evaluated SDO 211 Å images on a 12-hour cadence between June 2010 and June 2016. Each compact and isolated dim region we encountered was flagged as a potential ephemeral coronal hole for further analysis. This preliminary effort resulted in 149 candidate holes. For further analysis of their characteristics, we applied a strict definition criterion of an ephemeral coronal hole. This criterion was a set of four factors that were created in order to ensure events being observed were isolated, individual events- the candidates had to be dark relative to the surrounding material, not influenced by a nearby eruption, not obviously connected to other coronal hole structures, and their lifetime had to occur completely within the disk crossing. This criterion was designed so that events could be completely analyzed, from beginning to end, to better understand the origins. Application of this criterion eliminated all candidates but 5 of the original 149. True ephemeral coronal holes are rare occurrences, appearing only five times in six years. Future research in this area is needed to both locate additional events and study the underlying driving forces behind these rare phenomena.

  10. Simulations of Solar Jets Confined by Coronal Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyper, P. F.; De Vore, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Coronal jets are collimated, dynamic events that occur over a broad range of spatial scales in the solar corona. In the open magnetic field of coronal holes, jets form quasi-radial spires that can extend far out into the heliosphere, while in closed-field regions the jet outflows are confined to the corona. We explore the application of the embedded-bipole model to jets occurring in closed coronal loops. In this model, magnetic free energy is injected slowly by footpoint motions that introduce twist within the closed dome of the jet source region, and is released rapidly by the onset of an ideal kink-like instability. Two length scales characterize the system: the width (N) of the jet source region and the footpoint separation (L) of the coronal loop that envelops the jet source. We find that both the conditions for initiation and the subsequent dynamics are highly sensitive to the ratio L/N. The longest-lasting and most energetic jets occur along long coronal loops with large L/N ratios, and share many of the features of open-field jets, while smaller L/N ratios produce shorter-duration, less energetic jets that are affected by reflections from the far-loop footpoint. We quantify the transition between these behaviors and show that our model replicates key qualitative and quantitative aspects of both quiet Sun and active-region loop jets. We also find that there connection between the closed dome and surrounding coronal loop is very extensive: the cumulative reconnected flux at least matches the total flux beneath the dome for small L/N, and is more than double that value for large L/N.

  11. The Correlation Between Solar Energetic Particle Events and Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelitz, A. M.; Pulkkinen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are a wide scale phenomena that are not only an issue for the 2,000+ costly satellites in the sky but also have negative implications on aviation, and even ground based communication. Forecasting the magnitude and duration of strong SEP events based on preceding events that are often associated with them, such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares, is an important step in future operational space weather as well as research. In order to provide a model connecting SEP and CME characteristics, six specific CMEs between 8/14/2010 and 5/17/12 that met specific qualifications (i.e. earth directed), were chosen and several parameters characterizing the connections were derived. From the derived data, correlations between many of the different parameters were tested. One of the more meaningful correlations that was found is between the peak flux of >10 MeV GOES protons and the speed of the CME. A logarithmic correlation between these two entities is clearly seen with a R^2 value of 0.78 and a fit of y=2.74e.^(003x). For forecasting purposes, the times of the arrival of the SEP event with respect to the evolution of the CME was also recorded. Another possibly meaningful correlation was found between SEP duration and CME speed with R^2 value of 0.56. The identified connections were verified by adding an event that occurred on July 12, 2012. Using the model connecting SEP peak flux and CME speed as produced in this study, space weather forecasters can better predict the magnitude of the SEP event that is a result of an earth directed CME. Doing so will enable precautions to be taken on spacecraft as well as ground based entities that are vulnerable to the high-energy protons. In future work, we plan to perform

  12. Coronal Heating by Magnetic Explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, D. A.; Porter, Jason G.; Suess, Steven T.

    1998-01-01

    We build a case for the persistent strong coronal heating in active regions and the pervasive quasi-steady heating of the corona in quiet regions and coronal holes being driven in basically the same way as the intense transient heating in solar flares: by explosions of sheared magnetic fields in the cores of initially closed bipoles. We begin by summarizing the observational case for exploding sheared core fields being the drivers of a wide variety of flare events, with and without coronal mass ejections. We conclude that the arrangement of an event's flare heating, whether there is a coronal mass ejection, and the time and place of the ejection relative to the flare heating are all largely determined by four elements of the form and action the magnetic field: (1) the arrangement of the impacted, interacting bipoles participating in the event, (2) which of these bipoles are active (have sheared core fields that explode) and which are passive (are heated by injection from impacted active bipoles), (3) which core field explodes first, and (4) which core-field explosions are confined within the closed field of their bipoles and which ejectively open their bipoles.

  13. Coronal Mass Ejections: a Summary of Recent Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    . This may indicate a subtle difference in the acceleration of the ions and 10 keV electrons needed to produce type II bursts. Surprisingly, some shocks lacking type II bursts are associated with energetic storm particle events (ESPs) pointing to the importance of electron escape from the shock for producing the radio emission. CMEs slow down or accelerate in the interplanetary medium because of the drag force, which modifies the transit time of CMEs and shocks. Halo CMEs that appear to surround the occulting disk were known before the SOHO era as occasional events. During the SOHO era, they became very prominent because of their ability to impact Earth and producing geomagnetic storms. Halo CMEs are generally more energetic than ordinary CMEs, which means they can produce severe impact on Earth's magnetosphere. Their origin close to the disk center of the Sun ensures direct impact on the magnetosphere, although their internal magnetic structure is crucial in causing storms. The solar sources of CMEs that produce SEP events at Earth, on the other hand, are generally in the western hemisphere because of the magnetic connectivity. Thus, CMEs are very interesting from the point of view of plasma physics as well as practical implications because of their space weather impact.

  14. The Relation between Coronal Holes and Coronal Mass Ejections during the Rise, Maximum, and Declining Phases of Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohamed, A. A.; Gopalswamy, N; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Jung, H.

    2012-01-01

    We study the interaction between coronal holes (CHs) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) using a resultant force exerted by all the coronal holes present on the disk and is defined as the coronal hole influence parameter (CHIP). The CHIP magnitude for each CH depends on the CH area, the distance between the CH centroid and the eruption region, and the average magnetic field within the CH at the photospheric level. The CHIP direction for each CH points from the CH centroid to the eruption region. We focus on Solar Cycle 23 CMEs originating from the disk center of the Sun (central meridian distance =15deg) and resulting in magnetic clouds (MCs) and non-MCs in the solar wind. The CHIP is found to be the smallest during the rise phase for MCs and non-MCs. The maximum phase has the largest CHIP value (2.9 G) for non-MCs. The CHIP is the largest (5.8 G) for driverless (DL) shocks, which are shocks at 1 AU with no discernible MC or non-MC. These results suggest that the behavior of non-MCs is similar to that of the DL shocks and different from that of MCs. In other words, the CHs may deflect the CMEs away from the Sun-Earth line and force them to behave like limb CMEs with DL shocks. This finding supports the idea that all CMEs may be flux ropes if viewed from an appropriate vantage point.

  15. Q.U.E.S.T. An Interactive Earth Science Study Tool: Connecting Real Students to Digital Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, A.; Danowski, D.; Brindisi, C.; Sandvol, C.; Seber, D.

    2001-05-01

    Quick Use Earth Study Tool (QUEST) is an experimental educational interface to the Cornell University's Geoscience Information System (http://atlas.geo.cornell.edu). The information system currently includes more than 100 geographic, geologic, and geophysical data sets along with World Wide Web based interactive mapping tools for data display and analysis. The system is GIS based and accessible via any web browser that support Java applets. QUEST is the companion module that has been developed to assist educators who wish to use these data to their fullest potential, providing tutorials, sample exercises, and suggested projects. Clearly, students learn best when they engage in the practice of science. One means to accomplish this is to have students access primary scientific data. Our experience suggests that a structured exploration of original data sets enhances student learning. For this reason we have selected a subset of Cornell's available geoscience data, and have designed a series of activities that allow students to explore dynamic Earth processes. Currently, these data include the ISC seismicity catalog, volcanism data from the Smithsonian Institution, and digital topography from the USGS and NOAA. The QUEST interface allows students to query the data sets based on a variety of criteria (e.g., earthquakes can be sorted by date, magnitude, depth, and location), or perform computations on data (e.g., sea level can be interactively mapped at any elevation on the DEM). Because the system is GIS-based, multiple data sets can be displayed simultaneously in order for users to examine the spatial relationships between geological features. Users can zoom in to regions of interest, and a map history window keeps track of student work so that comparisons are easily made. QUEST is accompanied by a Teacher's Manual to assist teachers in extracting the most information from the available data and tools. Through these efforts we hope to provide teachers and students

  16. Sun-Earth Connections: How the Sun Knocks Out My Cell Phone from 150 Million Kilometers Away

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.

    2014-01-01

    Large solar particle events (SPE) threaten many elements of critical infrastructure. A 2013 study by Lloyds of London and Atmospheric and Environmental Research recently found that if a worst-case solar event like the 1859 Carrington Event struck our planet now, it could result on $0.6-$2.36 trillion in damages to the economy. In March 2014, researchers Y. D. Liu et al. revealed that just such an event had narrowly missed Earth in July 2012. The event was observed by the STEREO A spacecraft. In this presentation, we examine how the sun can pack such a punch from 150 million km away, the threats such solar particle events pose, their mechanisms and the efforts NASA and other space agencies are carrying out to understand and mitigate such risks.

  17. Coronal Seismology: The Search for Propagating Waves in Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schad, Thomas A.; Seeley, D.; Keil, S. L.; Tomczyk, S.

    2007-05-01

    We report on Doppler observations of the solar corona obtained in the Fe XeXIII 1074.7nm coronal emission line with the HAO Coronal Multi-Channel Polarimeter (CoMP) mounted on the NSO Coronal One Shot coronagraph located in the Hilltop Facility of NSO/Sacramento Peak. The COMP is a tunable filtergraph instrument that records the entire corona from the edge of the occulting disk at approximately 1.03 Rsun out to 1.4 Rsun with a spatial resolution of about 4” x 4”. COMP can be rapidly scanned through the spectral line while recording orthogonal states of linear and circular polarization. The two dimensional spatial resolution allows us to correlate temporal fluctuations observed in one part of the corona with those seen at other locations, in particular along coronal loops. Using cross spectral analysis we find that the observations reveal upward propagating waves that are characterized by Doppler shifts with rms velocities of 0.3 km/s, peak wave power in the 3-5 mHz frequency range, and phase speeds 1-3 Mm/s. The wave trajectories are consistent with the direction of the magnetic field inferred from the linear polarization measurements. We discuss the phase and coherence of these waves as a function of height in the corona and relate our findings to previous observations. The observed waves appear to be Alfvenic in character. "Thomas Schad was supported through the National Solar Observatory Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) site program, which is co-funded by the Department of Defense in partnership with the National Science Foundation REU Program." Daniel Seeley was supported through the National Solar Observatory Research Experience for Teachers (RET) site program, which is funded by the National Science Foundation RET program.

  18. Pre-flare coronal dimmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. M.; Su, Y. N.; Ji, H. S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Coronal dimmings are regions of decreased extreme-ultravoilet (EUV) and/or X-ray (originally Skylab, then Yohkoh/SXT) intensities, which are often associated with flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The large-scale impulsive dimmings have been thoroughly observed and investigated. The pre-flare dimmings before the flare impulsive phase, however, have rarely been studied in detail. Aims: We focus on the pre-flare coronal dimmings. We report our multiwavelength observations of the GOES X1.6 solar flare and the accompanying halo CME that was produced by the eruption of a sigmoidal magnetic flux rope (MFR) in NOAA active region (AR) 12158 on 2014 September 10. Methods: The eruption was observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). The photospheric line-of-sight magnetograms were observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board SDO. The soft X-ray (SXR) fluxes were recorded by the GOES spacecraft. The halo CME was observed by the white-light coronagraphs of the Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) on board SOHO. Results: About 96 min before the onset of the flare/CME, narrow pre-flare coronal dimmings appeared at the two ends of the twisted MFR. They extended very slowly, with their intensities decreasing with time, while their apparent widths (8-9 Mm) continued to be nearly constant. During the impulsive and decay phases of flare, typical fan-like twin dimmings appeared and expanded, with a much larger extent and lower intensities than the pre-flare dimmings. The percentage of the 171 Å intensity decrease reaches 40%. The pre-flare dimmings are most striking in 171, 193, and 211 Å with formation temperatures of 0.6-2.5 MK. The northern part of the pre-flare dimmings could also be recognized in 131 and 335 Å. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first detailed study of pre-flare coronal dimmings; they can be explained by density depletion as a result of the gradual

  19. On the Detection of Coronal Dimmings and the Extraction of Their Characteristic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissauer, K.; Veronig, A. M.; Temmer, M.; Podladchikova, T.; Vanninathan, K.

    2018-03-01

    Coronal dimmings are distinct phenomena associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The study of coronal dimmings and the extraction of their characteristic parameters help us to obtain additional information regarding CMEs, especially on the initiation and early evolution of Earth-directed CMEs. We present a new approach to detect coronal dimming regions based on a thresholding technique applied on logarithmic base-ratio images. Characteristic dimming parameters describing the dynamics, morphology, magnetic properties, and the brightness of coronal dimming regions are extracted by cumulatively summing newly dimmed pixels over time. It is also demonstrated how core dimming regions are identified as a subset of the overall identified dimming region. We successfully apply our method to two well-observed coronal dimming events. For both events, the core dimming regions are identified and the spatial evolution of the dimming area reveals the expansion of the dimming region around these footpoints. We also show that in the early impulsive phase of the dimming expansion the total unsigned magnetic flux involved in the dimming regions is balanced and that up to 30% of this flux results from the localized core dimming regions. Furthermore, the onset in the profile of the area growth rate is cotemporal with the start of the associated flares and in one case also with the fast rise of the CME, indicating a strong relationship of coronal dimmings with both flares and CMEs.

  20. Recurring coronal holes and their rotation rates during the solar cycles 22-24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, K.; Ravindra, B.; Hegde, Manjunath; Doddamani, Vijayakumar H.

    2018-05-01

    Coronal holes (CHs) play a significant role in making the Earth geo-magnetically active during the declining and minimum phases of the solar cycle. In this study, we analysed the evolutionary characteristics of the Recurring CHs from the year 1992 to 2016. The extended minimum of Solar Cycle 23 shows unusual characteristics in the number of persistent coronal holes in the mid- and low-latitude regions of the Sun. Carrington rotation maps of He 10830 Å and EUV 195 Å observations are used to identify the Coronal holes. The latitude distribution of the RCHs shows that most of them are appeared between ± 20° latitudes. In this period, more number of recurring coronal holes appeared in and around 100° and 200° Carrington longitudes. The large sized coronal holes lived for shorter period and they appeared close to the equator. From the area distribution over the latitude considered, it shows that more number of recurring coronal holes with area <10^{21} cm2 appeared in the southern latitude close to the equator. The rotation rates calculated from the RCHs appeared between ± 60° latitude shows rigid body characteristics. The derived rotational profiles of the coronal holes show that they have anchored to a depth well below the tachocline of the interior, and compares well with the helioseismology results.

  1. Coroners' records of accidental deaths.

    PubMed Central

    Levene, S

    1991-01-01

    This study set out to provide a description of the children involved in fatal accidents and to ascertain which deaths might have been prevented and by what means. The records from a convenience sample of four coroners (jurisdictions of Inner North London, Birmingham, Bedfordshire, and Ipswich) of inquests opened in 1984-8 on children aged under 15 killed in accidents were reviewed for information on the deceased, the accident, and the injuries sustained. Altogether 225 records (150 boys, 75 girls) were examined. Accidents to pedestrians were the commonest cause of death (81 cases), and road safety engineering measures were the most likely means by which most fatalities might have been prevented. The records frequently omitted information on social circumstances, family structure, ethnic group, or the use of safety equipment. Cooperative coroners can contribute to child safety as their records are rich in information about accidents. This could be made available to parties interested in accident prevention, including community paediatricians. PMID:1953011

  2. Interannual Variations in Earth's Low-Degree Gravity Field and the Connections With Geophysical/Climatic Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Cox, Christopher M.

    2004-01-01

    Long-wavelength time-variable gravity recently derived from satellite laser ranging (SLR) analysis have focused to a large extent on the effects of the recent (since 1998) large anomalous change in J2, or the Earth's oblateness, and the potential causes. However, it is relatively more difficult to determine whether there are corresponding signals in the shorter wavelength zonal harmonics from the existing SLR-derived time variable gravity results, although it appears that geophysical fluid mass transport is being observed. For example, the recovered J3 time series shows remarkable agreement with NCEP-derived estimates of atmospheric gravity variations. Likewise, some of the non-zonal spherical harmonic components have significant interannual signal that appears to be related to mass transport. The non-zonal degree-2 components show reasonable temporal correlation with atmospheric signals, as well as climatic effects such as El Nino Southern Oscillation. We will present recent updates on the J2 evolution, as well as a look at other low-degree components of the interannual variations of gravity, complete through degree 4. We will examine the possible geophysical and climatic causes of these low-degree time-variable gravity related to oceanic and hydrological mass transports, for example some anomalous but prominent signals found in the extratropic Pacific ocean related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  3. The Structure of Coronal Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely believed that the simple coronal loops observed by XUV imagers, such as EIT, TRACE, or XRT, actually have a complex internal structure consisting of many (perhaps hundreds) of unresolved, interwoven "strands". According to the nanoflare model, photospheric motions tangle the strands, causing them to reconnect and release the energy required to produce the observed loop plasma. Although the strands, themselves, are unresolved by present-generation imagers, there is compelling evidence for their existence and for the nanoflare model from analysis of loop intensities and temporal evolution. A problem with this scenario is that, although reconnection can eliminate some of the strand tangles, it cannot destroy helicity, which should eventually build up to observable scales. we consider, therefore, the injection and evolution of helicity by the nanoflare process and its implications for the observed structure of loops and the large-scale corona. we argue that helicity does survive and build up to observable levels, but on spatial and temporal scales larger than those of coronal loops. we discuss the implications of these results for coronal loops and the corona, in general .

  4. Polarization of Coronal Forbidden Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hao; Qu, Zhongquan; Landi Degl’Innocenti, Egidio, E-mail: sayahoro@ynao.ac.cn

    Since the magnetic field is responsible for most manifestations of solar activity, one of the most challenging problems in solar physics is the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields, particularly in the outer atmosphere. To this end, it is important to develop rigorous diagnostic tools to interpret polarimetric observations in suitable spectral lines. This paper is devoted to analyzing the diagnostic content of linear polarization imaging observations in coronal forbidden lines. Although this technique is restricted to off-limb observations, it represents a significant tool to diagnose the magnetic field structure in the solar corona, where the magnetic field is intrinsically weakmore » and still poorly known. We adopt the quantum theory of polarized line formation developed in the framework of the density matrix formalism, and synthesize images of the emergent linear polarization signal in coronal forbidden lines using potential-field source-surface magnetic field models. The influence of electronic collisions, active regions, and Thomson scattering on the linear polarization of coronal forbidden lines is also examined. It is found that active regions and Thomson scattering are capable of conspicuously influencing the orientation of the linear polarization. These effects have to be carefully taken into account to increase the accuracy of the field diagnostics. We also found that linear polarization observation in suitable lines can give valuable information on the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona.« less

  5. Swift X-ray monitoring of stellar coronal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brendan; Hagen, Cedric; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    We used California Planet Search Ca II H and K core emission measurements to identify and characterize chromospheric activity cycles in a sample of main-sequence FGK stars. About a dozen of these with existing ROSAT archival data were targeted with Swift to obtain a current epoch X-ray flux. We find that coronal variability by a factor of several is common on decade-long timescales (we attempt to link to the chromospheric cycle phase) but can also occur on short timescales between Swift visits to a given target, presumably related to stellar rotation and coronal inhomogeneity or to small flares. Additionally, we present new Swift monitoring observations of two M dwarfs with known exoplanets: GJ 15A and GJ 674. GJ 15A b is around 5.3 Earth masses with an 11.4 day orbital period, while GJ 674 is around 11.1 Earth masses with a 4.7 day orbital period. GJ 15A was observed several times in late 2014 and then monitored at approximately weekly intervals for several months in early 2016, for a total exposure of 18 ks. GJ 674 was monitored at approximately weekly intervals for most of 2016, for a total exposure of 40 ks. We provide light curves and hardness ratios for both sources, and also compare to earlier archival X-ray data. Both sources show significant X-ray variability, including between consecutive observations. We quantify the energy distribution for coronal flaring, and compare to optical results for M dwarfs from Kepler. Finally, we discuss the implications of M dwarf coronal activity for exoplanets orbiting within the nominal habitable zone.

  6. Swift X-ray monitoring of stellar coronal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason; Hagen, Cedric

    2017-08-01

    We used California Planet Search Ca II H and K core emission measurements to identify and characterize chromospheric activity cycles in a sample of main-sequence FGK stars. About a dozen of these with existing ROSAT archival data were targeted with Swift to obtain a current epoch X-ray flux. We find that coronal variability by a factor of several is common on decade-long timescales (we attempt to link to the chromospheric cycle phase) but can also occur on short timescales between Swift visits to a given target, presumably related to stellar rotation and coronal inhomogeneity or to small flares.Additionally, we present new Swift monitoring observations of two M dwarfs with known exoplanets: GJ 15A and GJ 674. GJ 15A b is around 5.3 Earth masses with an 11.4 day orbital period, while GJ 674 is around 11.1 Earth masses with a 4.7 day orbital period. GJ 15A was observed several times in late 2014 and then monitored at approximately weekly intervals for several months in early 2016, for a total exposure of 18 ks. GJ 674 was monitored at approximately weekly intervals for most of 2016, for a total exposure of 40 ks. We provide light curves and hardness ratios for both sources, and also compare to earlier archival X-ray data. Both sources show significant X-ray variability, including between consecutive observations. We quantify the energy distribution for coronal flaring, and compare to optical results for M dwarfs from Kepler. Finally, we discuss the implications of M dwarf coronal activity for exoplanets orbiting within the nominal habitable zone.

  7. Low-Latitude Solar Coronal Hole Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haislmaier, Karl; Petrie, G.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the origin of low-latitude solar coronal holes (CHs) and their relation to the magnetic flux distribution of the underlying Solar Photosphere. Two recent reports (Karachik et al. 2010, Wang et al. 2010) suggest that CH formation might be correlated with the decay of active regions (ARs) in the photosphere. In order to explore the nature and extent of such correlations, we surveyed GONG (Global Oscillations Network Group) synoptic magnetograms and STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) synoptic extreme ultraviolet images of Carrington rotations 2047-2112. From these two data sets, 41 AR-CH pairs were identified, accounting for ~34% of all ARs that appeared during the surveyed rotations. Each of these AR-CH pairs fell into one of two general classes: 1) those where the CHs were associated with the leading polarity fluxes of decaying ARs whose lagging fluxes largely decayed away, and 2) those where the CHs were associated with the lagging fluxes of surviving ARs. Perhaps surprisingly, the positive and negative fluxes of the ARs generally remained well balanced after their CHs developed. Extrapolated coronal potential-field source-surface (PFSS) models linked the CH creation and development to changes in magnetic connectivity with the surroundings as the AR flux became more diffuse over time. These considerations lead us to conclude that CHs are associated with low intensity, unipolar magnetic flux regions in the photosphere, which are most readily created by the turbulent diffusion and decay of AR flux. This work is carried out through the National Solar Observatory Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) site program, which is co-funded by the Department of Defense in partnership with the National Science Foundation REU Program. The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  8. Numerical Simulation of DC Coronal Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlburg, Russell B.; Einaudi, G.; Taylor, Brian D.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry; Rappazzo, A. F.; Velli, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Recent research on observational signatures of turbulent heating of a coronal loop will be discussed. The evolution of the loop is is studied by means of numerical simulations of the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations using the HYPERION code. HYPERION calculates the full energy cycle involving footpoint convection, magnetic reconnection, nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiation. The footpoints of the loop magnetic field are convected by random photospheric motions. As a consequence the magnetic field in the loop is energized and develops turbulent nonlinear dynamics characterized by the continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets: energy is deposited at small scales where heating occurs. Dissipation is non-uniformly distributed so that only a fraction of thecoronal mass and volume gets heated at any time. Temperature and density are highly structured at scales which, in the solar corona, remain observationally unresolved: the plasma of the simulated loop is multi thermal, where highly dynamical hotter and cooler plasma strands are scattered throughout the loop at sub-observational scales. Typical simulated coronal loops are 50000 km length and have axial magnetic field intensities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 Tesla. To connect these simulations to observations the computed number densities and temperatures are used to synthesize the intensities expected in emission lines typically observed with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. These intensities are then employed to compute differential emission measure distributions, which are found to be very similar to those derived from observations of solar active regions.

  9. Use of a GCM to Explore Sampling Issues in Connection with Satellite Remote Sensing of the Earth Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, Laura D.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Randall, David A.; Branson, Mark D.; Gibson, Gary G.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    2000-01-01

    Collocated in time and space, top-of-the-atmosphere measurements of the Earth radiation budget (ERB) and cloudiness from passive scanning radiometers, and lidar- and radar-in-space measurements of multilayered cloud systems, are the required combination to improve our understanding of the role of clouds and radiation in climate. Experiments to fly multiple satellites "in formation" to measure simultaneously the radiative and optical properties of overlapping cloud systems are being designed. Because satellites carrying ERB experiments and satellites carrying lidars- or radars-in space have different orbital characteristics, the number of simultaneous measurements of radiation and clouds is reduced relative to the number of measurements made by each satellite independently. Monthly averaged coincident observations of radiation and cloudiness are biased when compared against more frequently sampled observations due, in particular, to the undersampling of their diurnal cycle, Using the Colorado State University General Circulation Model (CSU GCM), the goal of this study is to measure the impact of using simultaneous observations from the Earth Observing System (EOS) platform and companion satellites flying lidars or radars on monthly averaged diagnostics of longwave radiation, cloudiness, and its cloud optical properties. To do so, the hourly varying geographical distributions of coincident locations between the afternoon EOS (EOS-PM) orbit and the orbit of the ICESAT satellite set to fly at the altitude of 600 km, and between the EOS PM orbit and the orbits of the PICASSO satellite proposed to fly at the altitudes of 485 km (PICA485) or 705 km (PICA705), are simulated in the CSU GCM for a 60-month time period starting at the idealistic July 1, 2001, launch date. Monthly averaged diagnostics of the top-of-the-atmosphere, atmospheric, and surface longwave radiation budgets and clouds accumulated over grid boxes corresponding to satellite overpasses are compared against

  10. Albedos and spectral signatures determination and it connection to geological processes: Simile between Earth and other solar system bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, J.; Ochoa, L.; Saavedra, F.

    2017-07-01

    Remote sensing has always been the best investigation tool for planetary sciences. In this research have been used data of Surface albedo, electromagnetic spectra and satelital imagery in search of understanding glacier dynamics in some bodies of the solar system, and how it's related to their compositions and associated geological processes, this methodology is very common in icy moons studies. Through analytic software's some albedos map's and geomorphological analysis were made that allow interpretation of different types of ice in the glacier's and it's interaction with other materials, almost all the images were worked in the visible and infrared ranges of the spectrum; spectral data were later used to connect the reflectance whit chemical and reologic properties of the compounds studied. It have been concluded that the albedo analysis is an effective tool to differentiate materials in the bodies surfaces, but the application of spectral data is necessary to know the exact compounds of the glaciers and to have a better understanding of the icy bodies.

  11. Observing the Roots of Coronal Heating - in the Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, S. W.; de Pontieu, B.; Hansteen, V. H.; Schrjver, K.

    2009-12-01

    I will discuss recent results using Hinode/SOT-EIS-XRT, SOHO/SUMER, CRISP (at the Swedish Solar Telescope) and TRACE that provide a direct connection between coronal dynamics and those of the lower atmosphere. We use chromospheric measurements (H-alpha and Ca II 8542 spectral imaging, and Ca II H images), as well as UV spectra (EIS and SUMER), and EUV/X-ray images (XRT and TRACE) to show that faint, high-speed upflows at velocities of 50-100 km/s across a wide range of temperatures from chromospheric (10,000 K), through lower and upper transition region (0.1 to 0.7 MK) and coronal temperatures (2 MK) are associated with significant mass-loading of the corona with hot plasma. Our observations are incompatible with current models in which coronal heating occurs as a result of nanoflares at coronal heights. Instead we suggest that a significant fraction of heating of plasma to coronal temperatures may occur at chromospheric heights in association with jets driven from below (the recently discovered type II spicules). Illustrating the mass and energy transport between the chromosphere, transition region and corona, as deduced from Hinode observations. Convective flows and oscillations in the convection zone and photosphere of the Sun buffet the magnetic field of the Sun. This leads to at least two different kinds of jets in the chromosphere: Type I, and II spicules. Type II spicules drive matter upward violently and likely form when magnetic field reconnects because of stresses introduced by convective flows. A significant fraction of the plasma in type II spicules is heated to coronal temperatures (>1MK), providing the corona with hot plasma. The correlation between the chromospheric and coronal parts of the spicules depends greatly on the viewing angle between the line-of-sight and the direction of the upward flows. Order of magnitude estimates indicate that the mass supplied by type II spicules plays a significant role in supplying the corona with hot plasma.

  12. A SOLAR CORONAL JET EVENT TRIGGERS A CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jiajia; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong

    2015-11-10

    In this paper, we present multi-point, multi-wavelength observations and analysis of a solar coronal jet and coronal mass ejection (CME) event. Employing the GCS model, we obtained the real (three-dimensional) heliocentric distance and direction of the CME and found it to propagate at a high speed of over 1000 km s{sup −1}. The jet erupted before the CME and shared the same source region. The temporal and spacial relationship between these two events lead us to the possibility that the jet triggered the CME and became its core. This scenario hold the promise of enriching our understanding of the triggeringmore » mechanism of CMEs and their relations to coronal large-scale jets. On the other hand, the magnetic field configuration of the source region observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/HMI instrument along with the off-limb inverse Y-shaped configuration observed by SDO/AIA in the 171 Å passband provide the first detailed observation of the three-dimensional reconnection process of a large-scale jet as simulated in Pariat et al. The eruption process of the jet highlights the importance of filament-like material during the eruption of not only small-scale X-ray jets, but likely also of large-scale EUV jets. Based on our observations and analysis, we propose the most probable mechanism for the whole event, with a blob structure overlaying the three-dimensional structure of the jet, to describe the interaction between the jet and the CME.« less

  13. Development of a Full Ice-cream Cone Model for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim, E-mail: nho0512@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: moonyj@khu.ac.kr

    It is essential to determine three-dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, and source location) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for the space weather forecast. In this study, we investigate which cone type represents a halo CME morphology using 29 CMEs (12 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) /Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) halo CMEs and 17 Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO )/Sun–Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation COR2 halo CMEs) from 2010 December to 2011 June. These CMEs are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft ( SOHO or one of STEREO A and B ) and limbmore » ones by the other spacecraft (One of STEREO A and B or SOHO ). From cone shape parameters of these CMEs, such as their front curvature, we find that the CME observational structures are much closer to a full ice-cream cone type than a shallow ice-cream cone type. Thus, we develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths to estimate the three-dimensional parameters of the halo CMEs. This model is constructed by carrying out the following steps: (1) construct a cone for a given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO /LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model).« less

  14. Development of a Full Ice-cream Cone Model for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim

    2017-04-01

    It is essential to determine three-dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, and source location) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for the space weather forecast. In this study, we investigate which cone type represents a halo CME morphology using 29 CMEs (12 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) halo CMEs and 17 Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation COR2 halo CMEs) from 2010 December to 2011 June. These CMEs are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or one of STEREO A and B) and limb ones by the other spacecraft (One of STEREO A and B or SOHO). From cone shape parameters of these CMEs, such as their front curvature, we find that the CME observational structures are much closer to a full ice-cream cone type than a shallow ice-cream cone type. Thus, we develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths to estimate the three-dimensional parameters of the halo CMEs. This model is constructed by carrying out the following steps: (1) construct a cone for a given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (I.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model).

  15. Get Connected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jessica; Hagevik, Rita; Adkinson, Bennett; Parmly, Jilynn

    2013-01-01

    Technology can be both a blessing and a curse in the classroom. Although technology can provide greater access to information and increase student engagement, if screen time replaces time spent outside, then students stand to lose awareness and connectivity to the surrounding natural environment. This article describes how Google Earth can foster…

  16. Coronal holes as sources of solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolte, J. T.; Krieger, A. S.; Timothy, A. F.; Gold, R. E.; Roelof, E. C.; Vaiana, G.; Lazarus, A. J.; Sullivan, J. D.; Mcintosh, P. S.

    1976-01-01

    We investigate the association of high-speed solar wind with coronal holes during the Skylab mission by: (1) direct comparison of solar wind and coronal X-ray data; (2) comparison of near-equatorial coronal hole area with maximum solar wind velocity in the associated streams; and (3) examination of the correlation between solar and interplanetary magnetic polarities. We find that all large near-equatorial coronal holes seen during the Skylab period were associated with high-velocity solar wind streams observed at 1 AU.

  17. Understanding Coronal Dimming and its Relation to Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, J. P.; Woods, T. N.; Caspi, A.; Hock, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    When extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emitting material in the corona is lost during a coronal mass ejection (CME), the solar spectral irradiance is impacted and these effects are observed in data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). This process is one of the physical mechanisms that can lead to the observation of 'coronal dimming,' a phenomenon lasting eight hours on average and rarely persisting longer than one day. Other mechanisms that can cause observed dimming include obscuration of bright material (e.g., flare arcade) by dark material (e.g., filament), temperature evolution (e.g., cool plasma being heated causing transient decreases in characteristic emission lines), and propagation of global waves. Each of these processes has a unique spectral signature, which will be explained and exemplified. In particular, the 7 August 2010 M1.0 flare with associated ~870 km/s CME will be analyzed in detail using both AIA and EVE to demonstrate new techniques for isolating dimming due to the CME ('core dimming'). Further analysis will estimate CME mass and velocity using only parameterization of core dimming and compare these estimates to traditionally calculated CME kinetics.

  18. Using Strong Solar Coronal Emission Lines as Coronal Flux Proxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Jordan, Studart D.; Davila, Joseph M.; Thomas, Roger J.; Andretta, Vincenzo; Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Hara, Hirosha

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of Skylab results with observations of the strong EUV lines of Fe XVI at 335 A and 361 A from the Goddard Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) flight of 1989 suggests that these lines, and perhaps others observed with SERTS, might offer good proxies for estimating the total coronal flux over important wavelength ranges. In this paper, we compare SERTS observations from a later, 1993 flight with simultaneous cospatial Yohkoh soft X-ray observations to test this suggestion over the energy range of the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. Both polynomial and power-law fits are obtained, and errors are estimated, for the SERTS lines of Fe XVI 335 A and 361 A, Fe XV 284 A and 417 A, and Mg IX 368 A. It is found that the power-law fits best cover the full range of solar conditions from quiet Sun through active region, though not surprisingly the 'cooler' Mg IX 368 A line proves to be a poor proxy. The quadratic polynomial fits yield fair agreement over a large range for all but the Mg IX line, but the linear fits fail conspicuously when extrapolated into the quiet Sun regime. The implications of this work for the He 11 304 A line formation problem are briefly considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of the value of these iron lines observed with SERTS for estimating stellar coronal fluxes, as observed for example with the EUVE satellite.

  19. Coronal bright points in microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Nitta, N.

    1988-01-01

    An excellent map of the quiet sun showing coronal bright points at 20-cm wavelength was produced using the VLA on February 13, 1987. The locations of bright points (BPs) were studied relative to features on the photospheric magnetogram and Ca K spectroheliogram. Most bright points appearing in the full 5-hour synthesized map are associated with small bipolar structures on the photospheric magnetogram; and the brightest part of a BP tends to lie on the boundary of a supergranulation network. The bright points exhibit rapid variations in intensity superposed on an apparently slow variation.

  20. The Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) Toolset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zank, G. P.; Spann, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project is to serve the needs of space system designers and operators by developing an interplanetary radiation environment model within 10 AU:Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) toolset: (1) The RISCS toolset will provide specific reference environments for space system designers and nowcasting and forecasting capabilities for space system operators; (2) We envision the RISCS toolset providing the spatial and temporal radiation environment external to the Earth's (and other planets') magnetosphere, as well as possessing the modularity to integrate separate applications (apps) that can map to specific magnetosphere locations and/or perform the subsequent radiation transport and dosimetry for a specific target.

  1. ANATOMY OF DEPLETED INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, M.; Lepri, S. T.; Landi, E.

    We report a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) containing distinct periods of anomalous heavy-ion charge state composition and peculiar ion thermal properties measured by ACE /SWICS from 1998 to 2011. We label them “depleted ICMEs,” identified by the presence of intervals where C{sup 6+}/C{sup 5+} and O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} depart from the direct correlation expected after their freeze-in heights. These anomalous intervals within the depleted ICMEs are referred to as “Depletion Regions.” We find that a depleted ICME would be indistinguishable from all other ICMEs in the absence of the Depletion Region, which has the defining property ofmore » significantly low abundances of fully charged species of helium, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Similar anomalies in the slow solar wind were discussed by Zhao et al. We explore two possibilities for the source of the Depletion Region associated with magnetic reconnection in the tail of a CME, using CME simulations of the evolution of two Earth-bound CMEs described by Manchester et al.« less

  2. Correlation Analyses Between the Characteristic Times of Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events and the Properties of Associated Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z. H.; Wang, C. B.; Wang, Yuming; Xue, X. H.

    2011-06-01

    It is generally believed that gradual solar energetic particles (SEPs) are accelerated by shocks associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Using an ice-cream cone model, the radial speed and angular width of 95 CMEs associated with SEP events during 1998 - 2002 are calculated from SOHO/LASCO observations. Then, we investigate the relationships between the kinematic properties of these CMEs and the characteristic times of the intensity-time profile of their accompanied SEP events observed at 1 AU. These characteristic times of SEP are i) the onset time from the accompanying CME eruption at the Sun to the SEP arrival at 1 AU, ii) the rise time from the SEP onset to the time when the SEP intensity is one-half of peak intensity, and iii) the duration over which the SEP intensity is within a factor of two of the peak intensity. It is found that the onset time has neither significant correlation with the radial speed nor with the angular width of the accompanying CME. For events that are poorly connected to the Earth, the SEP rise time and duration have no significant correlation with the radial speed and angular width of the associated CMEs. However, for events that are magnetically well connected to the Earth, the SEP rise time and duration have significantly positive correlations with the radial speed and angular width of the associated CMEs. This indicates that a CME event with wider angular width and higher speed may more easily drive a strong and wide shock near to the Earth-connected interplanetary magnetic field lines, may trap and accelerate particles for a longer time, and may lead to longer rise time and duration of the ensuing SEP event.

  3. Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a synopsis of the initiation of the strong-field magnetic explosions that produce large, fast coronal mass ejections. Cartoons based on observations are used to describe the inferred basic physical processes and sequences that trigger and drive the explosion. The magnetic field that explodes is a sheared-core bipole that may or may not be embedded in surrounding strong magnetic field, and may or may not contain a flux rope before it starts to explode. We describe three different mechanisms that singly or in combination trigger the explosion: (1) runaway internal tether-cutting reconnection, (2) runaway external tether-cutting reconnection, and (3) ideal MHD instability or loss or equilibrium. For most eruptions, high-resolution, high-cadence magnetograms and chromospheric and coronal movies (such as from TRACE and/or Solar-B) of the pre-eruption region and of the onset of the eruption and flare are needed to tell which one or which combination of these mechanisms is the trigger. Whatever the trigger, it leads to the production of an erupting flux rope. Using a simple model flux rope, we demonstrate that the explosion can be driven by the magnetic pressure of the expanding flux rope, provided the shape of the expansion is "fat" enough.

  4. Magnetic shuffling of coronal downdrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Orlando, S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Channelled fragmented downflows are ubiquitous in magnetized atmospheres, and have recently been addressed based on an observation after a solar eruption. Aims: We study the possible back-effect of the magnetic field on the propagation of confined flows. Methods: We compared two 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of dense supersonic plasma blobs that fall down along a coronal magnetic flux tube. In one, the blobs move strictly along the field lines; in the other, the initial velocity of the blobs is not perfectly aligned with the magnetic field and the field is weaker. Results: The aligned blobs remain compact while flowing along the tube, with the generated shocks. The misaligned blobs are disrupted and merge through the chaotic shuffling of the field lines. They are structured into thinner filaments. Alfvén wave fronts are generated together with shocks ahead of the dense moving front. Conclusions: Downflowing plasma fragments can be chaotically and efficiently mixed if their motion is misaligned with field lines, with broad implications for disk accretion in protostars, coronal eruptions, and rain, for example. Movies associated to Figs. 2 and 3 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Coronal manifestations of preflare activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, E. J.; Webb, D. F.; Woodgate, B.; Waggett, P.; Bentley, R.; Hurford, G.; Schadee, A.; Schrijver, J.; Harrison, R.; Martens, P.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of coronal manifestations of precursors or preheating for flares are discussed. Researchers found that almost everyone with a telescope sees something before flares. Whether an all-encompassing scenario will ever be developed is not at all clear at present. The clearest example of preflare activity appears to be activated filaments and their manifestations, which presumably are signatures of a changing magnetic field. But researchers have seen two similar eruptions, one without any evidence of emerging flux (Kundu et al., 1985) and the other with colliding poles (Simon et al., 1984). While the reconnection of flux is generally agreed to be required to energize a flare, the emergence of flux from below (at least on short timescales and in compact regions) does not appear to be a necessary condition. In some cases the cancelling of magnetic flux (Martin, 1984) by horizontal motions instead may provide the trigger (Priest, 1985) Researchers found similarities and some differences between these and previous observations. The similarities, besides the frequent involvement of filaments, include compact, multiple precursors which can occur both at and near (not at) the flare site, and the association between coronal sources and activity lower in the atmosphere (i.e., transition zone and chromosphere).

  6. Bashful ballerina unveiled: Multipole analysis of the coronal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, I.; Mursula, K.

    2012-12-01

    Heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is the continuum of the coronal magnetic equator, dividing the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) into two sectors (polarities). Because of its wavy structure, the HCS is often called the ballerina skirt. Several studies have proven that the HCS is southward shifted during about three years in the solar declining phase. This persistent phenomenon, called the bashful ballerina, has been verified by geomagnetic indices since 1930s, by OMNI data base since 1960s, by the WSO PFSS model since mid-1970s and by the Ulysses probe measurements during the fast latitude scans in 1994-1995 and 2007. We study here the Wilcox Solar Observatory measurements of the photospheric magnetic field and the PFSS extrapolation of the coronal magnetic field. We show that the quadrupole moment of the photospheric magnetic field, which is important for the HCS asymmetry (bashful ballerina), mainly arises from the difference between northern and southern polar field strengths. According to the WSO data the minimum time quadrupole is mainly due to the difference between the highest northern and southern latitude bins. Related studies imply that the southward shift of the HCS is related to the delayed development of southern coronal holes. We also discuss the suggested connection of the HCS asymmetry to sunspot hemispheric asymmetry.

  7. Active Longitude and Coronal Mass Ejection Occurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Gyenge, N.; Kiss, T. S.; Erdélyi, R.

    The spatial inhomogeneity of the distribution of coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrences in the solar atmosphere could provide a tool to estimate the longitudinal position of the most probable CME-capable active regions in the Sun. The anomaly in the longitudinal distribution of active regions themselves is often referred to as active longitude (AL). In order to reveal the connection between the AL and CME spatial occurrences, here we investigate the morphological properties of active regions. The first morphological property studied is the separateness parameter, which is able to characterize the probability of the occurrence of an energetic event, such asmore » a solar flare or CME. The second morphological property is the sunspot tilt angle. The tilt angle of sunspot groups allows us to estimate the helicity of active regions. The increased helicity leads to a more complex buildup of the magnetic structure and also can cause CME eruption. We found that the most complex active regions appear near the AL and that the AL itself is associated with the most tilted active regions. Therefore, the number of CME occurrences is higher within the AL. The origin of the fast CMEs is also found to be associated with this region. We concluded that the source of the most probably CME-capable active regions is at the AL. By applying this method, we can potentially forecast a flare and/or CME source several Carrington rotations in advance. This finding also provides new information for solar dynamo modeling.« less

  8. Active Longitude and Coronal Mass Ejection Occurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyenge, N.; Singh, T.; Kiss, T. S.; Srivastava, A. K.; Erdélyi, R.

    2017-03-01

    The spatial inhomogeneity of the distribution of coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrences in the solar atmosphere could provide a tool to estimate the longitudinal position of the most probable CME-capable active regions in the Sun. The anomaly in the longitudinal distribution of active regions themselves is often referred to as active longitude (AL). In order to reveal the connection between the AL and CME spatial occurrences, here we investigate the morphological properties of active regions. The first morphological property studied is the separateness parameter, which is able to characterize the probability of the occurrence of an energetic event, such as a solar flare or CME. The second morphological property is the sunspot tilt angle. The tilt angle of sunspot groups allows us to estimate the helicity of active regions. The increased helicity leads to a more complex buildup of the magnetic structure and also can cause CME eruption. We found that the most complex active regions appear near the AL and that the AL itself is associated with the most tilted active regions. Therefore, the number of CME occurrences is higher within the AL. The origin of the fast CMEs is also found to be associated with this region. We concluded that the source of the most probably CME-capable active regions is at the AL. By applying this method, we can potentially forecast a flare and/or CME source several Carrington rotations in advance. This finding also provides new information for solar dynamo modeling.

  9. Segmentation of photospheric magnetic elements corresponding to coronal features to understand the EUV and UV irradiance variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, J. J.; Kariyappa, R.; Giono, G.; Bergmann, M.; Delouille, V.; Damé, L.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Kumara, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    Context. The magnetic field plays a dominant role in the solar irradiance variability. Determining the contribution of various magnetic features to this variability is important in the context of heliospheric studies and Sun-Earth connection. Aims: We studied the solar irradiance variability and its association with the underlying magnetic field for a period of five years (January 2011-January 2016). We used observations from the Large Yield Radiometer (LYRA), the Sun Watcher with Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing (SWAP) on board PROBA2, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Methods: The Spatial Possibilistic Clustering Algorithm (SPoCA) is applied to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations obtained from the AIA to segregate coronal features by creating segmentation maps of active regions (ARs), coronal holes (CHs) and the quiet sun (QS). Further, these maps are applied to the full-disk SWAP intensity images and the full-disk (FD) HMI line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms to isolate the SWAP coronal features and photospheric magnetic counterparts, respectively. We then computed full-disk and feature-wise averages of EUV intensity and line of sight (LOS) magnetic flux density over ARs/CHs/QS/FD. The variability in these quantities is compared with that of LYRA irradiance values. Results: Variations in the quantities resulting from the segmentation, namely the integrated intensity and the total magnetic flux density of ARs/CHs/QS/FD regions, are compared with the LYRA irradiance variations. We find that the EUV intensity over ARs/CHs/QS/FD is well correlated with the underlying magnetic field. In addition, variations in the full-disk integrated intensity and magnetic flux density values are correlated with the LYRA irradiance variations. Conclusions: Using the segmented coronal features observed in the EUV wavelengths as proxies to isolate the underlying

  10. The Interaction of Successive Coronal Mass Ejections: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugaz, Noé; Temmer, Manuela; Wang, Yuming; Farrugia, Charles J.

    2017-04-01

    We present a review of the different aspects associated with the interaction of successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the corona and inner heliosphere, focusing on the initiation of series of CMEs, their interaction in the heliosphere, the particle acceleration associated with successive CMEs, and the effect of compound events on Earth's magnetosphere. The two main mechanisms resulting in the eruption of series of CMEs are sympathetic eruptions, when one eruption triggers another, and homologous eruptions, when a series of similar eruptions originates from one active region. CME - CME interaction may also be associated with two unrelated eruptions. The interaction of successive CMEs has been observed remotely in coronagraphs (with the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment - LASCO - since the early 2000s) and heliospheric imagers (since the late 2000s), and inferred from in situ measurements, starting with early measurements in the 1970s. The interaction of two or more CMEs is associated with complex phenomena, including magnetic reconnection, momentum exchange, the propagation of a fast magnetosonic shock through a magnetic ejecta, and changes in the CME expansion. The presence of a preceding CME a few hours before a fast eruption has been found to be connected with higher fluxes of solar energetic particles (SEPs), while CME - CME interaction occurring in the corona is often associated with unusual radio bursts, indicating electron acceleration. Higher suprathermal population, enhanced turbulence and wave activity, stronger shocks, and shock - shock or shock - CME interaction have been proposed as potential physical mechanisms to explain the observed associated SEP events. When measured in situ, CME - CME interaction may be associated with relatively well organized multiple-magnetic cloud events, instances of shocks propagating through a previous magnetic ejecta or more complex ejecta, when the characteristics of the individual eruptions

  11. Coronal structures deduced from photospheric magnetic field and He I lambda 10830 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Karen L.

    1995-01-01

    The National Solar Observatory synoptic program provides an extensive and unique data base of high-resolution full-disk observations of the line-of-sight photospheric magnetic fields and of the He I lambda 10830 equivalent width. These data have been taken nearly daily for more than 21 years since 1974 and provide the opportunity to investigate the behavior of the magnetic fields in the photosphere and those inferred for the corona spanning on the time scales of a day to that of a solar cycle. The intensity of structures observed in He I lambda 10830 are strongly modulated by overlying coronal radiation; areas with low coronal emission are generally brighter in He I lambda 10830, while areas with high coronal emission are darker. For this reason, He I lambda 10830 was selected in the mid-1970's as way to identify and monitor coronal holes, magnetic fields with an open configuration, and the sources of high-speed solar wind streams. The He I lambda 10830 spectroheliograms also show a wide variety of other structures from small-scale, short-lived dark points (less than 30 arc-sec, hours) to the large-scale, long-lived two 'ribbon' flare events that follow the filament eruptions (1000 arc-sec, days). Such structures provide clues about the connections and changes in the large-scale coronal magnetic fields that are rooted in concentrations of magnetic network and active regions in the photosphere. In this paper, what observations of the photospheric magnetic field and He I lambda 10830 can tell us about the short- and long-term evolution of the coronal magnetic fields will be discussed, focussing on the quiet Sun and coronal holes. These data and what we infer from them will be compared with direct observations of the coronal structure from the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope.

  12. Recent advances in coronal heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Moortel, Ineke; Browning, Philippa

    2015-04-01

    The solar corona, the tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun, is orders of magnitude hotter than the solar surface. This 'coronal heating problem' requires the identification of a heat source to balance losses due to thermal conduction, radiation and (in some locations) convection. The review papers in this Theo Murphy meeting issue present an overview of recent observational findings, large- and small-scale numerical modelling of physical processes occurring in the solar atmosphere and other aspects which may affect our understanding of the proposed heating mechanisms. At the same time, they also set out the directions and challenges which must be tackled by future research. In this brief introduction, we summarize some of the issues and themes which reoccur throughout this issue.

  13. Recent advances in coronal heating

    PubMed Central

    De Moortel, Ineke; Browning, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    The solar corona, the tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun, is orders of magnitude hotter than the solar surface. This ‘coronal heating problem’ requires the identification of a heat source to balance losses due to thermal conduction, radiation and (in some locations) convection. The review papers in this Theo Murphy meeting issue present an overview of recent observational findings, large- and small-scale numerical modelling of physical processes occurring in the solar atmosphere and other aspects which may affect our understanding of the proposed heating mechanisms. At the same time, they also set out the directions and challenges which must be tackled by future research. In this brief introduction, we summarize some of the issues and themes which reoccur throughout this issue. PMID:25897095

  14. The Radial Speed-Expansion Speed Relation for Earth-Directed CMEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makela, P.; Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.

    2016-01-01

    Earth-directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the main drivers of major geomagnetic storms. Therefore, a good estimate of the disturbance arrival time at Earth is required for space weather predictions. The STEREO and SOHO spacecraft were viewing the Sun in near quadrature during January 2010 to September 2012, providing a unique opportunity to study the radial speed (V (sub rad)) to expansion speed(V (sub exp)) relationship of Earth-directed CMEs. This relationship is useful in estimating the V (sub rad) of Earth-directed CMEs, when they are observed from Earth view only. We selected 19 Earth-directed CMEs observed by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO)/C3 coronagraph on SOHO and the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI)/COR2 coronagraph on STEREO during January 2010 to September 2012. We found that of the three tested geometric CME models the full ice-cream cone model of the CME describes best the V (sub rad) to V (sub exp) relationship, as suggested by earlier investigations. We also tested the prediction accuracy of the empirical shock arrival (ESA) model proposed by Gopalswamy et al.(2005a), while estimating the CME propagation speeds from the CME expansion speeds. If we use STEREO observations to estimate the CME width required to calculate the V (sub rad) from the V (sub exp) measurements, the mean absolute error (MAE) of the shock arrival times of the ESA model is 8.4 hours. If the LASCO measurements are used to estimate the CME width, the MAE still remains below 17 hours. Therefore, by using the simple V (sub rad) to V (sub exp) relationship to estimate the V (sub rad) of the Earth-directed CMEs, the ESA model is able to predict the shock arrival times with accuracy comparable to most other more complex models.

  15. The radial speed-expansion speed relation for Earth-directed CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, P.; Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.

    2016-05-01

    Earth-directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the main drivers of major geomagnetic storms. Therefore, a good estimate of the disturbance arrival time at Earth is required for space weather predictions. The STEREO and SOHO spacecraft were viewing the Sun in near quadrature during January 2010 to September 2012, providing a unique opportunity to study the radial speed (Vrad)-expansion speed (Vexp) relationship of Earth-directed CMEs. This relationship is useful in estimating the Vrad of Earth-directed CMEs, when they are observed from Earth view only. We selected 19 Earth-directed CMEs observed by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO)/C3 coronagraph on SOHO and the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI)/COR2 coronagraph on STEREO during January 2010 to September 2012. We found that of the three tested geometric CME models the full ice-cream cone model of the CME describes best the Vrad-Vexp relationship, as suggested by earlier investigations. We also tested the prediction accuracy of the empirical shock arrival (ESA) model proposed by Gopalswamy et al. (2005a), while estimating the CME propagation speeds from the CME expansion speeds. If we use STEREO observations to estimate the CME width required to calculate the Vrad from the Vexp measurements, the mean absolute error (MAE) of the shock arrival times of the ESA model is 8.4 h. If the LASCO measurements are used to estimate the CME width, the MAE still remains below 17 h. Therefore, by using the simple Vrad-Vexp relationship to estimate the Vrad of the Earth-directed CMEs, the ESA model is able to predict the shock arrival times with accuracy comparable to most other more complex models.

  16. Observational features of equatorial coronal hole jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisticò, G.; Bothmer, V.; Patsourakos, S.; Zimbardo, G.

    2010-03-01

    Collimated ejections of plasma called "coronal hole jets" are commonly observed in polar coronal holes. However, such coronal jets are not only a specific features of polar coronal holes but they can also be found in coronal holes appearing at lower heliographic latitudes. In this paper we present some observations of "equatorial coronal hole jets" made up with data provided by the STEREO/SECCHI instruments during a period comprising March 2007 and December 2007. The jet events are selected by requiring at least some visibility in both COR1 and EUVI instruments. We report 15 jet events, and we discuss their main features. For one event, the uplift velocity has been determined as about 200 km s-1, while the deceleration rate appears to be about 0.11 km s-2, less than solar gravity. The average jet visibility time is about 30 min, consistent with jet observed in polar regions. On the basis of the present dataset, we provisionally conclude that there are not substantial physical differences between polar and equatorial coronal hole jets.

  17. From SOHO to STEREO: Understanding Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    Direct comparison between coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from near the Sun and their solar wind counterparts became possible roughly a decade after the discovery of CMEs (Lindsay et aL 1999). This comparison revealed that fast CMEs decelerate and slow CMEs accelerate due to the interaction with the solar wind. Gopalswamy et al (2000) quantified this interaction as an interplanetary acceleration which is useful in predicting the arrival time and speed of CMEs at 1 AU. The interplanetary acceleration is essentially due to the aerodynamic drag between the CME and the solar wind because the propelling force and the solar gravity are effective only near the Sun. Combined remote-sensing and in situ observations from SOHO and Wind/ACE have helped us estimate the influence of the solar wind on the propagation of CMEs. However, these measurements have severe limitations because the remote sensed and in-situ observations correspond to different portions of the CME. Furthermore, the true speeds of Earth-directed CMEs cannot be measured accurately from a spacecraft located along the Sun-Earth line. There have been attempts to model the CME as a cone and get the space speed of the CME, which did improve the travel time predictions. Instruments on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission were able to provide observations of Earth-arriving CMEs without projection effects, while the same CMEs were observed at Sun-Earth L1 by Wind and ACE spacecraft. The quadrature between STEREO and L1 spacecraft presented an ideal situation to study the interplanetary evolution of CMEs and test earlier model results. The quadrature observations did improve the CME travel time predictions, but additional factors such as the unusually slow solar wind, CME cannibalism, and coronal-hole deflection need to be considered to reconcile the difference between observed and predicted travel times. This point is illustrated using the 2011 February 15 CME

  18. Polar rain: Solar coronal electrons in the Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairfield, D. H.; Scudder, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Low energy electron measurements collected by ISEE 1 reveal the frequent presence of field-aligned fluxes of few hundred eV electrons in he geomagnetic tail lobes. In the northern tail lobe these electrons are most prominent when the interplanetary magnetic field is directed away from the Sun. This characteristic helps identify the electrons as polar rain electrons. By mapping the tail lobe velocity distribution function into the solar wind, previous suggestions that the polar rain is indeed of solar wind origin and is due to the access of electrons to the magnetotail lobe were confirmed. It was demonstrated that the moe energetic component of the polar rain is composed of electrons from the solar wind strahl - a field-aligned component of the solar wind which is difficult to measure but which is thought to be caused by the collisionless transit of hundred eV electrons from the inner solar corona to 1 AU.

  19. PRE-FLARE CORONAL JET AND EVOLUTIONARY PHASES OF A SOLAR ERUPTIVE PROMINENCE ASSOCIATED WITH THE M1.8 FLARE: SDO AND RHESSI OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Bhuwan; Kushwaha, Upendra; Veronig, Astrid M.

    We investigate the triggering, activation, and ejection of a solar eruptive prominence that occurred in a multi-polar flux system of active region NOAA 11548 on 2012 August 18 by analyzing data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory , the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager , and the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager/Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation on board the Solar Terrestrial Relation Observatory . Prior to the prominence activation, we observed striking coronal activities in the form of a blowout jet, which is associated with the rapid eruption of a cool flux rope. Furthermore, themore » jet-associated flux rope eruption underwent splitting and rotation during its outward expansion. These coronal activities are followed by the prominence activation during which it slowly rises with a speed of ∼12 km s{sup −1} while the region below the prominence emits gradually varying EUV and thermal X-ray emissions. From these observations, we propose that the prominence eruption is a complex, multi-step phenomenon in which a combination of internal (tether-cutting reconnection) and external (i.e., pre-eruption coronal activities) processes are involved. The prominence underwent catastrophic loss of equilibrium with the onset of the impulsive phase of an M1.8 flare, suggesting large-scale energy release by coronal magnetic reconnection. We obtained signatures of particle acceleration in the form of power-law spectra with hard electron spectral index ( δ  ∼ 3) and strong HXR footpoint sources. During the impulsive phase, a hot EUV plasmoid was observed below the apex of the erupting prominence that ejected in the direction of the prominence with a speed of ∼177 km s{sup −1}. The temporal, spatial, and kinematic correlations between the erupting prominence and the plasmoid imply that the magnetic reconnection supported the fast ejection of prominence in the lower corona.« less

  20. The Dependence of the Peak Velocity of High-Speed Solar Wind Streams as Measured in the Ecliptic by ACE and the STEREO satellites on the Area and Co-latitude of Their Solar Source Coronal Holes.

    PubMed

    Hofmeister, Stefan J; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela; Vennerstrom, Susanne; Heber, Bernd; Vršnak, Bojan

    2018-03-01

    We study the properties of 115 coronal holes in the time range from August 2010 to March 2017, the peak velocities of the corresponding high-speed streams as measured in the ecliptic at 1 AU, and the corresponding changes of the Kp index as marker of their geoeffectiveness. We find that the peak velocities of high-speed streams depend strongly on both the areas and the co-latitudes of their solar source coronal holes with regard to the heliospheric latitude of the satellites. Therefore, the co-latitude of their source coronal hole is an important parameter for the prediction of the high-speed stream properties near the Earth. We derive the largest solar wind peak velocities normalized to the coronal hole areas for coronal holes located near the solar equator and that they linearly decrease with increasing latitudes of the coronal holes. For coronal holes located at latitudes ≳ 60°, they turn statistically to zero, indicating that the associated high-speed streams have a high chance to miss the Earth. Similarly, the Kp index per coronal hole area is highest for the coronal holes located near the solar equator and strongly decreases with increasing latitudes of the coronal holes. We interpret these results as an effect of the three-dimensional propagation of high-speed streams in the heliosphere; that is, high-speed streams arising from coronal holes near the solar equator propagate in direction toward and directly hit the Earth, whereas solar wind streams arising from coronal holes at higher solar latitudes only graze or even miss the Earth.

  1. Electrical energy sources for organic synthesis on the early earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    It is pointed out that much of the contemporary origin-of-life research uses the original estimates of Miller and Urey (1959) for terrestrial energy dissipation by lightning and coronal discharges being equal to 2 x 10 to the 19th J/yr and 6 x 10 to the 19th J/yr, respectively. However, data from experiments that provide analogues to naturally-occurring lightning and coronal discharges indicate that lightning energy yields for organic synthesis (nmole/J) are about one order of magnitude higher than the coronal discharge yields. This suggests that, on early earth, organic production by lightning may have dominated that due to coronal emission. New values are recommended for lightning and coronal discharge dissipation rates on the early earth, 1 x 10 to the 18th J/yr and 5 x 10 to the 17th J/yr, respectively.

  2. Results of coronal hole research: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of the last 10 years of coronal hole research, in particular since 1970, is presented. The findings of the early investigations and the more recent results obtained with Skylab/Apollo Telescope Mount instrumentation are discussed.

  3. Observational Consequences of Coronal Heating Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan C.; Golub, Leon; Kobayashi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The coronal heating problem remains unsolved today, 80 years after its discovery, despite 50 years of suborbital and orbital coronal observatories. Tens of theoretical coronal heating mechanisms have been suggested, but only a few have been able to be ruled out. In this talk, we will explore the reasons for the slow progress and discuss the measurements that will be needed for potential breakthrough, including imaging the solar corona at small spatial scales, measuring the chromospheric magnetic fields, and detecting the presence of high temperature, low emission measure plasma. We will discuss three sounding rocket instruments developed to make these measurements: the High resolution Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP), and the Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS).

  4. Relating magnetic reconnection to coronal heating

    PubMed Central

    Longcope, D. W.; Tarr, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that the solar corona is being heated and that coronal magnetic fields undergo reconnection all the time. Here we attempt to show that these two facts are related—i.e. coronal reconnection generates heat. This attempt must address the fact that topological change of field lines does not automatically generate heat. We present one case of flux emergence where we have measured the rate of coronal magnetic reconnection and the rate of energy dissipation in the corona. The ratio of these two, , is a current comparable to the amount of current expected to flow along the boundary separating the emerged flux from the pre-existing flux overlying it. We can generalize this relation to the overall corona in quiet Sun or in active regions. Doing so yields estimates for the contribution to coronal heating from magnetic reconnection. These estimated rates are comparable to the amount required to maintain the corona at its observed temperature. PMID:25897089

  5. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Coronal magnetic loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, Valerii V.; Stepanov, Alexander V.

    2008-11-01

    The goal of this review is to outline some new ideas in the physics of coronal magnetic loops, the fundamental structural elements of the atmospheres of the Sun and flaring stars, which are involved in phenomena such as stellar coronal heating, flare energy release, charged particle acceleration, and the modulation of optical, radio, and X-ray emissions. The Alfvén-Carlqvist view of a coronal loop as an equivalent electric circuit allows a good physical understanding of loop processes. Describing coronal loops as MHD-resonators explains various ways in which flaring emissions from the Sun and stars are modulated, whereas modeling them by magnetic mirror traps allows one to describe the dynamics and emission of high-energy particles. Based on these approaches, loop plasma and fast particle parameters are obtained and models for flare energy release and stellar corona heating are developed.

  6. The Solar Energetic Particle Event of 2010 August 14: Connectivity with the Solar Source Inferred from Multiple Spacecraft Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Lario, D.; Kwon, R.-Y.; Raouafi, N. E.

    We analyze one of the first solar energetic particle (SEP) events of solar cycle 24 observed at widely separated spacecraft in order to assess the reliability of models currently used to determine the connectivity between the sources of SEPs at the Sun and spacecraft in the inner heliosphere. This SEP event was observed on 2010 August 14 by near-Earth spacecraft, STEREO-A (∼80° west of Earth) and STEREO-B (∼72° east of Earth). In contrast to near-Earth spacecraft, the footpoints of the nominal magnetic field lines connecting STEREO-A and STEREO-B with the Sun were separated from the region where the parent fastmore » halo coronal mass ejection (CME) originated by ∼88° and ∼47° in longitude, respectively. We discuss the properties of the phenomena associated with this solar eruption. Extreme ultraviolet and white-light images are used to specify the extent of the associated CME-driven coronal shock. We then assess whether the SEPs observed at the three heliospheric locations were accelerated by this shock or whether transport mechanisms in the corona and/or interplanetary space provide an alternative explanation for the arrival of particles at the poorly connected spacecraft. A possible scenario consistent with the observations indicates that the observation of SEPs at STEREO-B and near Earth resulted from particle injection by the CME shock onto the field lines connecting to these spacecraft, whereas SEPs reached STEREO-A mostly via cross-field diffusive transport processes. The successes, limitations, and uncertainties of the methods used to resolve the connection between the acceleration sites of SEPs and the spacecraft are evaluated.« less

  7. Observational Features of Equatorial Coronal Hole Jets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-10

    0 “Esplorazione del Sistema Solare ”. Some images are produced by FESTIVAL, collaborative project managed by IAS and supported by CNES, which is a...km s−1, while the deceleration rate appears to be about 0.11 km s−2, less than solar gravity. The average jet visibility time is about 30 minutes...differences between polar and equatorial coronal hole jets. Keywords. Coronal holes, jets 1 Introduction The STEREO ( Solar TErrestrial RElations

  8. Energy conversion in the coronal plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, P. C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Solar and stellar X-ray emission are the observed waste products of the interplay between magnetic fields and the motion of stellar plasma. Theoretical understanding of the process of coronal heating is of utmost importance, since the high temperature is what defines the corona in the first place. Most of the research described deals with the aspects of the several rivalling theories for coronal heating. The rest of the papers deal with processes of energy conversion related to flares.

  9. Deformation and deceleration of coronal wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Z. K.; Qu, Z. Q.; Yan, X. L.; Zhao, L.; Ma, L.

    2013-08-01

    Aims: We studied the kinematics and morphology of two coronal waves to better understand the nature and origin of coronal waves. Methods: Using multi-wavelength observations of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) on board the twin spacecraft Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), we present morphological and dynamic characteristics of consecutive coronal waves on 2011 March 24. We also show the coronal magnetic field based on the potential field source surface model. Results: This event contains several interesting aspects. The first coronal wave initially appeared after a surge-like eruption. Its front was changed and deformed significantly from a convex shape to a line-shaped appearance, and then to a concave configuration during its propagation to the northwest. The initial speeds ranged from 947 km s-1 to 560 km s-1. The first wave decelerated significantly after it passed through a filament channel. After the deceleration, the final propagation speeds of the wave were from 430 km s-1 to 312 km s-1. The second wave was found to appear after the first wave in the northwest side of the filament channel. Its wave front was more diffused and the speed was around 250 km s-1, much slower than that of the first wave. Conclusions: The deformation of the first coronal wave was caused by the different speeds along different paths. The sudden deceleration implies that the refraction of the first wave took place at the boundary of the filament channel. The event provides evidence that the first coronal wave may be a coronal MHD shock wave, and the second wave may be the apparent propagation of the brightenings caused by successive stretching of the magnetic field lines.

  10. The Global Coronal Structure Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1998-01-01

    During the past year we have completed the changeover from the NIXT program to the new TXI sounding rocket program. The NIXT effort, aimed at evaluating the viability of the remaining portions of the NIXT hardware and design, has been finished and the portions of the NIXT which are viable and flightworthy, such as filters, mirror mounting hardware, electronics and telemetry interface systems, are now part of the new rocket payload. The backup NIXT multilayer-coated x-ray telescope and its mounting hardware have been completely fabricated and are being stored for possible future use in the TXI rocket. The H-alpha camera design is being utilized in the TXI program for real-time pointing verification and control via telemetry. A new H-alpha camera has been built, with a high-resolution RS170 CCD camera output. Two papers, summarizing scientific results from the NIXT rocket program, have been written and published this year: 1. "The Solar X-ray Corona," by L. Golub, Astrophysics and Space Science, 237, 33 (1996). 2. "Difficulties in Observing Coronal Structure," Keynote Paper, Proceedings STEPWG1 Workshop on Measurements and Analyses of the Solar 3D Magnetic Field, Solar Physics, 174, 99 (1997).

  11. Composition of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbuchen, T. H.; Weberg, M.; von Steiger, R.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Lepri, S. T.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the physical origin of plasmas that are ejected from the solar corona. To address this issue, we perform a comprehensive analysis of the elemental composition of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using recently released elemental composition data for Fe, Mg, Si, S, C, N, Ne, and He as compared to O and H. We find that ICMEs exhibit a systematic abundance increase of elements with first ionization potential (FIP) < 10 eV, as well as a significant increase of Ne as compared to quasi-stationary solar wind. ICME plasmas have a stronger FIP effect than slow wind, which indicates either that an FIP process is active during the ICME ejection or that a different type of solar plasma is injected into ICMEs. The observed FIP fractionation is largest during times when the Fe ionic charge states are elevated above Q Fe > 12.0. For ICMEs with elevated charge states, the FIP effect is enhanced by 70% over that of the slow wind. We argue that the compositionally hot parts of ICMEs are active region loops that do not normally have access to the heliosphere through the processes that give rise to solar wind. We also discuss the implications of this result for solar energetic particles accelerated during solar eruptions and for the origin of the slow wind itself.

  12. Composition of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurbuchen, T. H.; Weberg, M.; von Steiger, R.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Lepri, S. T.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the physical origin of plasmas that are ejected from the solar corona. To address this issue, we perform a comprehensive analysis of the elemental composition of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using recently released elemental composition data for Fe, Mg, Si, S, C, N, Ne, and He as compared to O and H. We find that ICMEs exhibit a systematic abundance increase of elements with first ionization potential (FIP) less than 10 electronvolts, as well as a significant increase of Ne as compared to quasi-stationary solar wind. ICME plasmas have a stronger FIP effect than slow wind, which indicates either that an FIP process is active during the ICME ejection or that a different type of solar plasma is injected into ICMEs. The observed FIP fractionation is largest during times when the Fe ionic charge states are elevated above Q (sub Fe) is greater than 12.0. For ICMEs with elevated charge states, the FIP effect is enhanced by 70 percent over that of the slow wind. We argue that the compositionally hot parts of ICMEs are active region loops that do not normally have access to the heliosphere through the processes that give rise to solar wind. We also discuss the implications of this result for solar energetic particles accelerated during solar eruptions and for the origin of the slow wind itself.

  13. Coronal Structures in Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Dupree, Andrea K.

    2004-01-01

    Many papers have been published that further elucidate the structure of coronas in cool stars as determined from EUVE, HST, FUSE, Chandra, and XMM-Newton observations. In addition we are exploring the effects of coronas on the He I 1083081 transition that is observed in the infrared. Highlights of these are summarized below including publications during this reporting period and presentations. Ground-based magnetic Doppler imaging of cool stars suggests that active stars have active regions located at high latitudes on their surface. We have performed similar imaging in X-ray to locate the sites of enhanced activity using Chandra spectra. Chandra HETG observations of the bright eclipsing contact binary 44i Boo and Chandra LETG observations for the eclipsing binary VW Cep show X-ray line profiles that are Doppler-shifted by orbital motion. After careful analysis of the spectrum of each binary, a composite line-profile is constructed by adding the individual spectral lines. This high signal-to-noise ratio composite line-profile yields orbital velocities for these binaries that are accurate to 30 km/sec and allows their orbital motion to be studied at higher time resolutions. In conjunction with X-ray lightcurves, the phase-binned composite line-profiles constrain coronal structures to be small and located at high latitudes. These observations and techniques show the power of the Doppler Imaging Technique applied to X-ray line emission.

  14. Jets in Polar Coronal Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scullion, E.; Popescu, M. D.; Banerjee, D.; Doyle, J. G.; Erdélyi, R.

    2009-10-01

    Here, we explore the nature of small-scale jet-like structures and their possible relation to explosive events and other known transient features, like spicules and macrospicules, using high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation instrument. We present a highly resolved spectroscopic analysis and line parameter study of time-series data for jets occurring on-disk and off-limb in both a northern and a southern coronal hole. The analysis reveals many small-scale transients which rapidly propagate between the mid-transition region (N IV 765 Å line formation: 140,000 K) and the lower corona (Ne VIII 770 Å line formation: 630,000 K). In one example, a strong jet-like event is associated with a cool feature not present in the Ne VIII 770 Å line radiance or Doppler velocity maps. Another similar event is observed, but with a hot component, which could be perceived as a blinker. Our data reveal fast, repetitive plasma outflows with blueshift velocities of ≈145 km s-1 in the lower solar atmosphere. The data suggest a strong role for smaller jets (spicules), as a precursor to macrospicule formation, which may have a common origin with explosive events.

  15. Dynamic simulation of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinolfson, R. S.; Wu, S. T.

    1980-01-01

    A model is developed for the formation and propagation through the lower corona of the loop-like coronal transients in which mass is ejected from near the solar surface to the outer corona. It is assumed that the initial state for the transient is a coronal streamer. The initial state for the streamer is a polytropic, hydrodynamic solution to the steady-state radial equation of motion coupled with a force-free dipole magnetic field. The numerical solution of the complete time-dependent equations then gradually approaches a stationary coronal streamer configuration. The streamer configuration becomes the initial state for the coronal transient. The streamer and transient simulations are performed completely independent of each other. The transient is created by a sudden increase in the pressure at the base of the closed-field region in the streamer configuration. Both coronal streamers and coronal transients are calculated for values of the plasma beta (the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure) varying from 0.1 to 100.

  16. Coronal rain in magnetic bipolar weak fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Fang, X.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We intend to investigate the underlying physics for the coronal rain phenomenon in a representative bipolar magnetic field, including the formation and the dynamics of coronal rain blobs. Methods: With the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed three dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with strong heating localized on footpoints of magnetic loops after a relaxation to quiet solar atmosphere. Results: Progressive cooling and in-situ condensation starts at the loop top due to radiative thermal instability. The first large-scale condensation on the loop top suffers Rayleigh-Taylor instability and becomes fragmented into smaller blobs. The blobs fall vertically dragging magnetic loops until they reach low-β regions and start to fall along the loops from loop top to loop footpoints. A statistic study of the coronal rain blobs finds that small blobs with masses of less than 1010 g dominate the population. When blobs fall to lower regions along the magnetic loops, they are stretched and develop a non-uniform velocity pattern with an anti-parallel shearing pattern seen to develop along the central axis of the blobs. Synthetic images of simulated coronal rain with Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly well resemble real observations presenting dark falling clumps in hot channels and bright rain blobs in a cool channel. We also find density inhomogeneities during a coronal rain "shower", which reflects the observed multi-stranded nature of coronal rain. Movies associated to Figs. 3 and 7 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  17. The Longitudinal Evolution of Equatorial Coronal Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krista, Larisza D.; McIntosh, Scott W.; Leamon, Robert J.

    2018-04-01

    In 2011, three satellites—the Solar-Terrestrial RElations Observatory A & B, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)—were in a unique spatial alignment that allowed a 360° view of the Sun. This alignment lasted until 2014, the peak of solar cycle 24. Using extreme ultraviolet images and Hovmöller diagrams, we studied the lifetimes and propagation characteristics of coronal holes (CHs) in longitude over several solar rotations. Our initial results show at least three distinct populations of “low-latitude” or “equatorial” CHs (below 65^\\circ latitude). One population rotates in retrograde direction and coincides with a group of long-lived (over sixty days) CHs in each hemisphere. These are typically located between 30° and 55^\\circ , and display velocities of ∼55 m s‑1 slower than the local differential rotation rate. A second, smaller population of CHs rotate prograde, with velocities between ∼20 and 45 m s‑1. This population is also long-lived, but observed ±10° from the solar equator. A third population of CHs are short-lived (less than two solar rotations), and they appear over a wide range of latitudes (±65°) and exhibit velocities between ‑140 and 80 m s‑1. The CH “butterfly diagram” we developed shows a systematic evolution of the longer-lived holes; however, the sample is too short in time to draw conclusions about possible connections to dynamo-related phenomena. An extension of the present work to the 22 years of the combined SOHO–SDO archives is necessary to understand the contribution of CHs to the decadal-scale evolution of the Sun.

  18. Suppression of heating of coronal loops rooted in opposite polarity sunspot umbrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Thalmann, Julia K.; Moore, Ronald L.; Panesar, Navdeep; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2016-05-01

    EUV observations of active region (AR) coronae reveal the presence of loops at different temperatures. To understand the mechanisms that result in hotter or cooler loops, we study a typical bipolar AR, near solar disk center, which has moderate overall magnetic twist and at least one fully developed sunspot of each polarity. From AIA 193 and 94 A images we identify many clearly discernible coronal loops that connect plage or a sunspot of one polarity to an opposite-polarity plage region. The AIA 94 A images show dim regions in the umbrae of the spots. To see which coronal loops are rooted in a dim umbral area, we performed a non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) modeling using photospheric vector magnetic field measurements obtained with the HMI onboard SDO. After validation of the NLFFF model by comparison of calculated model field lines and observed loops in AIA 193 and 94, we specify the photospheric roots of the model field lines. The model field then shows the coronal magnetic loops that arch from the dim umbral areas of the opposite polarity sunspots. Because these coronal loops are not visible in any of the coronal EUV and X-ray images of the AR, we conclude they are the coolest loops in the AR. This result suggests that the loops connecting opposite polarity umbrae are the least heated because the field in umbrae is so strong that the convective braiding of the field is strongly suppressed.We hypothesize that the convective freedom at the feet of a coronal loop, together with the strength of the field in the body of the loop, determines the strength of the heating. In particular, we expect the hottest coronal loops to have one foot in an umbra and the other foot in opposite-polarity penumbra or plage (coronal moss), the areas of strong field in which convection is not as strongly suppressed as in umbra. Many transient, outstandingly bright, loops in the AIA 94 movie of the AR do have this expected rooting pattern. We will also present another example of AR in

  19. Do solar decimetric spikes originate in coronal X-ray sources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, M.; Benz, A. O.

    2009-06-01

    Context: In the standard solar flare scenario, a large number of particles are accelerated in the corona. Nonthermal electrons emit both X-rays and radio waves. Thus, correlated signatures of the acceleration process are predicted at both wavelengths, coinciding either close to the footpoints of a magnetic loop or near the coronal X-ray source. Aims: We attempt to study the spatial connection between coronal X-ray emission and decimetric radio spikes to determine the site and geometry of the acceleration process. Methods: The positions of radio-spike sources and coronal X-ray sources are determined and analyzed in a well-observed limb event. Radio spikes are identified in observations from the Phoenix-2 spectrometer. Data from the Nançay radioheliograph are used to determine the position of the radio spikes. RHESSI images in soft and hard X-ray wavelengths are used to determine the X-ray flare geometry. Those observations are complemented by images from GOES/SXI. Results: We find that the radio emission originates at altitudes much higher than the coronal X-ray source, having an offset from the coronal X-ray source amounting to 90´´ and to 113´´ and 131´´ from the two footpoints, averaged over time and frequency. Conclusions: Decimetric spikes do not originate from coronal X-ray flare sources contrary to previous expectations. However, the observations suggest a causal link between the coronal X-ray source, related to the major energy release site, and simultaneous activity in the higher corona.

  20. Solar Coronal Loop Dynamics Near the Null Point Above Active Region NOAA 2666

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, B.

    2018-06-01

    We analyse observations of a saddle-like structure in the corona above the western limb of the Sun on 2017 July 18. The structure was clearly outlined by coronal loops with typical coronal temperature no more than 1 MK. The dynamics of loops showed convergence towards the centre of the saddle in the vertical direction and divergence in the horizontal direction. The event is a clear example of smooth coronal magnetic field reconnection. No heating manifestations in the reconnection region or magnetically connected areas were observed. Potential magnetic field calculations, which use as the boundary condition the SDO/HMI magnetogram taken on July 14, showed the presence of a null point at the height of 122 arcsec above the photosphere just at the centre of the saddle structure. The shape of field lines fits the fan-spine magnetic configuration above NOAA 2666.

  1. Acceleration of Ions and Electrons by Coronal Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandroos, A.

    2013-12-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of particles at collisionless shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is the best developed theory for the genesis of gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events. According to DSA, particles scatter from fluctuations present in the ambient magnetic field, which causes some particles to encounter the shock front repeatedly and to gain energy during each crossing. DSA operating in solar corona is a complex process whose outcome depends on multiple parameters such as shock speed and strength, magnetic geometry, and composition of seed particles. Currently, STEREO and other near-Earth spacecraft are providing valuable multi-point information on how SEP properties, such as composition and energy spectra, vary in longitude. Initial results have shown that longitude distributions of large CME-associated SEP events are much wider than previously thought. These findings have many important consequences on SEP modeling. For example, it is important to extend the present models into two or three spatial coordinates to properly account for the effects of coronal and interplanetary magnetic geometry and the evolution of the CME-driven shock wave on the acceleration and transport of SEPs. We present a new model for the shock acceleration of ions and electrons in the solar corona and discuss implications for particle properties (energy spectra, longitudinal distribution, composition) in the resulting gradual SEP events. We also discuss the possible emission of type II radio waves by the accelerated coronal electrons. In the new model, the ion pitch angle scattering rate is calculated from modeled Alfvén wave power spectra using quasilinear theory. The energy gained by ions in scatterings are self-consistently removed from waves so that total energy (ions+waves) is conserved. New model has been implemented on massively parallel simulation platform Corsair.

  2. The Interaction between Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Coronal Holes (CHs) during the Solar Cycle 23 and its Geomagnetic Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Amaal; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2016-07-01

    The interactions between the two large scale phenomena, coronal holes (CHs) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) maybe considered as one of the most important relations that having a direct impact not only on space weather but also on the relevant plasma physics. Many observations have shown that throughout their propagation from the Sun to interplanetary space, CMEs interact with the heliospheric structures (e.g., other CMEs, Corotating interaction regions (CIRs), helmet streamers, and CHs). Such interactions could enhance the southward magnetic field component, which has important implications for geomagnetic storm generation. These interactions imply also a significant energy and momentum transfer between the interacting systems where magnetic reconnection is taking place. When CHs deflect CMEs away from or towards the Sun-Earth line, the geomagnetic response of the CME is highly affected. Gopalswamy et al. [2009] have addressed the deflection of CMEs due to the existence of CHs that are in close proximity to the eruption regions. They have shown that CHs can act as magnetic barriers that constrain CMEs propagation and can significantly affect their trajectories. Here, we study the interaction between coronal holes (CHs) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) using a resultant force exerted by all coronal holes present on the disk and is defined as the coronal hole influence parameter (CHIP). The CHIP magnitude for each CH depends on the CH area, the distance between the CH centroid and the eruption region, and the average magnetic field within the CH at the photospheric level. The CHIP direction for each CH points from the CH centroid to the eruption region. We focus on Solar Cycle 23 CMEs originating from the disk center of the Sun (central meridian distance < 15 °). We present an extensive statistical study via compiling data sets of observations of CMEs and their interplanetary counterparts; known as interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). There are 2 subsets of ICMEs

  3. Three-dimensional magnetic reconnection and the magnetic topology of coronal mass ejection events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Birn, J.; Hesse, M.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of superthermal electron fluxes in the solar wind indicate that field lines within coronal mass ejections, CMEs, near and beyond 1 AU are normally connected to the Sun at both ends. However, on occasion some field lines embedded deep within CMEs appear to be connected to the Sun at only one end. Here we propose an explanation for how such field lines arise in terms of 3-dimensional reconnection close to the Sun. Such reconnection also provides a natural explanation for the flux rope topology characteristic of many CMEs as well as the coronal loops formed during long-duration, solar X-ray events. Our consideration of the field topologies resulting from 3-dimensional reconnection indicates that field lines within and near CMEs may on occasion be connected to the outer heliosphere at both ends.

  4. Coronal "wave": Magnetic Footprint Of A Cme?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attrill, Gemma; Harra, L. K.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Demoulin, P.; Wuelser, J.

    2007-05-01

    We propose a new mechanism for the generation of "EUV coronal waves". This work is based on new analysis of data from SOHO/EIT, SOHO/MDI & STEREO/EUVI. Although first observed in 1997, the interpretation of coronal waves as flare-induced or CME-driven remains a debated topic. We investigate the properties of two "classical" SOHO/EIT coronal waves in detail. The source regions of the associated CMEs possess opposite helicities & the coronal waves display rotations in opposite senses. We observe deep dimmings near the flare site & also widespread diffuse dimming, accompanying the expansion of the EIT wave. We report a new property of these EIT waves, namely, that they display dual brightenings: persistent ones at the outermost edge of the core dimming regions & simultaneously diffuse brightenings constituting the leading edge of the coronal wave, surrounding the expanding diffuse dimmings. We show that such behaviour is consistent with a diffuse EIT wave being the magnetic footprint of a CME. We propose a new mechanism where driven magnetic reconnections between the skirt of the expanding CME & quiet-Sun magnetic loops generate the observed bright diffuse front. The dual brightenings & widespread diffuse dimming are identified as innate characteristics of this process. In addition we present some of the first analysis of a STEREO/EUVI limb coronal wave. We show how the evolution of the diffuse bright front & dimmings can be understood in terms of the model described above. We show that an apparently stationary part of the bright front can be understood in terms of magnetic interchange reconnections between the expanding CME & the "open" magnetic field of a low-latitude coronal hole. We use both the SOHO/EIT & STEREO/EUVI events to demonstrate that through successive reconnections, this new model provides a natural mechanism via which CMEs can become large-scale in the lower corona.

  5. Coroners and death certification law reform: the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 and its aftermath.

    PubMed

    Luce, Tom

    2010-10-01

    After considering various different options for half a decade, the last Government legislated in 2009 to reform the England and Wales coroner and death certification systems. The Coroners and Justice Act 2009 provides for the creation of a new Chief Coroner post to lead the jurisdiction and for local medical examiners to oversee a new death certification scheme applicable equally to burial and cremation cases. In October 2010 the new Government announced that it judges the main coroner reform to be unaffordable, will not proceed with it and plans to repeal the provisions. It intends to implement the new death certification arrangements, which is welcome. The decision to abort the main coroner reform in spite of longstanding and widespread recognition of the need for major change is deplorable though in line with other failures over the last century to properly modernise this neglected service.

  6. Disruption of a coronal streamer by an eruptive prominence and coronal mass ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Illing, R. M. E.; Hundhausen, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    The coronal mass ejection of August 18, 1980 is analyzed using images from the coronagraph on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite. The event occurred at the site of a large coronal helmet streamer and evolved into the three-part structure of a bright frontal shell, followed by a relatively dark space surrounding a bright filamentary core as seen in many mass ejections of the SMM epoch. The bright core can be identified as material from a prominence whose eruption was observed from the ground. The mass of the frontal shell is equal to that of the coronal helmet streamer, indicating that the shell is the coronal material previously in the helmet streamer, displaced and set into motion by the erupting prominence and surrounding cavity. The mass ejected in the bright core (or prominences) is estimated to be 50 percent larger than the 'coronal' material in the front loop.

  7. The Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) Toolset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zank, G. P.; Spann, J.

    2014-01-01

    We outline a plan to develop a physics based predictive toolset RISCS to describe the interplanetary energetic particle and radiation environment throughout the inner heliosphere, including at the Earth. To forecast and "nowcast" the radiation environment requires the fusing of three components: 1) the ability to provide probabilities for incipient solar activity; 2) the use of these probabilities and daily coronal and solar wind observations to model the 3D spatial and temporal heliosphere, including magnetic field structure and transients, within 10 AU; and 3) the ability to model the acceleration and transport of energetic particles based on current and anticipated coronal and heliospheric conditions. We describe how to address 1) - 3) based on our existing, well developed, and validated codes and models. The goal of RISCS toolset is to provide an operational forecast and "nowcast" capability that will a) predict solar energetic particle (SEP) intensities; b) spectra for protons and heavy ions; c) predict maximum energies and their duration; d) SEP composition; e) cosmic ray intensities, and f) plasma parameters, including shock arrival times, strength and obliquity at any given heliospheric location and time. The toolset would have a 72 hour predicative capability, with associated probabilistic bounds, that would be updated hourly thereafter to improve the predicted event(s) and reduce the associated probability bounds. The RISCS toolset would be highly adaptable and portable, capable of running on a variety of platforms to accommodate various operational needs and requirements.

  8. The Prospect for Detecting Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osten, Rachel A.; Crosley, Michael Kevin

    2018-06-01

    The astrophysical study of mass loss, both steady-state and transient, on the cool half of the HR diagram has implications bothfor the star itself and the conditions created around the star that can be hospitable or inimical to supporting life. Recent results from exoplanet studies show that planets around M dwarfs are exceedingly common, which together with the commonality of M dwarfs in our galaxy make this the dominant mode of star and planet configurations. The closeness of the exoplanets to the parent M star motivate a comprehensive understanding of habitability for these systems. Radio observations provide the most clear signature of accelerated particles and shocks in stars arising as the result of MHD processes in the stellar outer atmosphere. Stellar coronal mass ejections have not been conclusively detected, despite the ubiquity with which their radiative counterparts in an eruptive event (stellar flares) have. I will review some of the different observational methods which have been used and possibly could be used in the future in the stellar case, emphasizing some of the difficulties inherent in such attempts. I will provide a framework for interpreting potential transient stellar mass loss in light of the properties of flares known to occur on magnetically active stars. This uses a physically motivated way to connect the properties of flares and coronal mass ejections and provides a testable hypothesis for observing or constraining transient stellar mass loss. I will describe recent results using radio observations to detect stellar coronal mass ejections, and what those results imply about transient stellar mass loss. I will provide some motivation for what could be learned in this topic from space-based low frequency radio experiments.

  9. Coronal mass ejection and solar flare initiation processes without appreciable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovsky, I.

    TRACE and SOHO/EIT movies clearly show the cases of the coronal mass ejection and solar flare initiations without noticeable large-scale topology modifications in observed features. Instead of this, the appearance of new intermediate scales is often omnipresent in the erupting region structures when the overall configuration is preserved. Examples of this kind are presented and discussed in the light of the existing magnetic field reconnection paradigms. It is demonstrated that spurious large-scale reconnections and detachments are often produced due to the projection effects in poorly resolved images of twisted loops and sheared arcades especially when deformed parts of them are underexposed and not seen in the images only because of this reason. Other parts, which are normally exposed or overexposed, can make the illusion of "islands" or detached elements in these situations though in reality they preserve the initial magnetic connectivity. Spurious "islands" of this kind could be wrongly interpreted as signatures of topological transitions in the large-scale magnetic fields in many instances described in the vast literature in the past based mainly on fuzzy YOHKOH images, which resulted in the myth about universal solar flare models and the scenario of detached magnetic island formations with new null points in the large scale magnetic field. The better visualization with higher resolution and sensitivity limits allowed to clarify this confusion and to avoid this unjustified interpretation. It is concluded that topological changes obviously can happen in the coronal magnetic fields, but these changes are not always necessary ingredients at least of all coronal mass ejections and solar flares. The scenario of the magnetic field opening is not universal for all ejections. Otherwise, expanding ejections with closed magnetic configurations can be produced by the fast E cross B drifts in strong inductive electric fields, which appear due to the emergence of the new

  10. Using coronal seismology to estimate the magnetic field strength in a realistic coronal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Peter, H.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: Coronal seismology is used extensively to estimate properties of the corona, e.g. the coronal magnetic field strength is derived from oscillations observed in coronal loops. We present a three-dimensional coronal simulation, including a realistic energy balance in which we observe oscillations of a loop in synthesised coronal emission. We use these results to test the inversions based on coronal seismology. Methods: From the simulation of the corona above an active region, we synthesise extreme ultraviolet emission from the model corona. From this, we derive maps of line intensity and Doppler shift providing synthetic data in the same format as obtained from observations. We fit the (Doppler) oscillation of the loop in the same fashion as done for observations to derive the oscillation period and damping time. Results: The loop oscillation seen in our model is similar to imaging and spectroscopic observations of the Sun. The velocity disturbance of the kink oscillation shows an oscillation period of 52.5 s and a damping time of 125 s, which are both consistent with the ranges of periods and damping times found in observations. Using standard coronal seismology techniques, we find an average magnetic field strength of Bkink = 79 G for our loop in the simulation, while in the loop the field strength drops from roughly 300 G at the coronal base to 50 G at the apex. Using the data from our simulation, we can infer what the average magnetic field derived from coronal seismology actually means. It is close to the magnetic field strength in a constant cross-section flux tube, which would give the same wave travel time through the loop. Conclusions: Our model produced a realistic looking loop-dominated corona, and provides realistic information on the oscillation properties that can be used to calibrate and better understand the result from coronal seismology. A movie associated with Fig. 1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Understanding the rotation of coronal holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.

    1993-09-01

    In an earlier study we found that the rotation of coronal holes could be understood on the basis of a nearly current-free coronal field, with the holes representing open magnetic regions. In this paper we illustrate the model by focusing on the case of CH1, the rigidly rotating boot-shaped hole observed by Skylab. We show that the interaction between the polar fields and the flux associated with active regions produces distortions in the coronal field configuration and thus in the polar-hole boundaries; these distortions corotate with the perturbing nonaxisymmetric flux. In the case of CH1, positive-polarity field lines in the northern hemisphere 'collided' with like-polarity field lines fanning out from a decaying active region complex located just below the equator, producing a midlatitude corridor of open field lines rotating at the rate of the active region complex. Sheared coronal holes result when nonaxisymmetric flux is present at high latitudes, or equivalently, when the photospheric neutral line extends to high latitudes. We demonstrate how a small active region, rotating at the local photospheric rate, can drift through a rigidly rotating hole like CH1. Finally, we discuss the role of field-line reconnection in maintaining a quasi-potential coronal configuration.

  12. Evidence for a current sheet forming in the wake of a coronal mass ejection from multi-viewpoint coronagraph observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsourakos, S.; Vourlidas, A.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Ray-like features observed by coronagraphs in the wake of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are sometimes interpreted as the white light counterparts of current sheets (CSs) produced by the eruption. The 3D geometry of these ray-like features is largely unknown and its knowledge should clarify their association to the CS and place constraints on CME physics and coronal conditions. Aims: If these rays are related to field relaxation behind CMEs, therefore representing current sheets, then they should be aligned to the CME axis. With this study we test these important implications for the first time. Methods: An example of such a post-CME ray was observed by various coronagraphs, including these of the Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric investigation (SECCHI) onboard the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) twin spacecraft and the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The ray was observed in the aftermath of a CME which occurred on 9 April 2008. The twin STEREO spacecraft were separated by about 48° on that day. This significant separation combined with a third “eye” view supplied by LASCO allow for a truly multi-viewpoint observation of the ray and of the CME. We applied 3D forward geometrical modeling to the CME and to the ray as simultaneously viewed by SECCHI-A and B and by SECCHI-A and LASCO, respectively. Results: We found that the ray can be approximated by a rectangular slab, nearly aligned with the CME axis, and much smaller than the CME in both terms of thickness and depth (≈0.05 and 0.15 R⊙ respectively). The ray electron density and temperature were substantially higher than their values in the ambient corona. We found that the ray and CME are significantly displaced from the associated post-CME flaring loops. Conclusions: The properties and location of the ray are fully consistent with the expectations of the standard CME theories for post-CME current

  13. MHD shocks in coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinolfson, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is the study of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks and nonlinear simple waves produced as a result of the interaction of ejected lower coronal plasma with the ambient corona. The types of shocks and nonlinear simple waves produced for representative coronal conditions and disturbance velocities were determined. The wave system and the interactions between the ejecta and ambient corona were studied using both analytic theory and numerical solutions of the time-dependent, nonlinear MHD equations. Observations from the SMM coronagraph/polarimeter provided both guidance and motivation and are used extensively in evaluating the results. As a natural consequence of the comparisons with the data, the simulations assisted in better understanding the physical interactions in coronal mass ejections (CME's).

  14. A contemporary view of coronal heating.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Clare E; De Moortel, Ineke

    2012-07-13

    Determining the heating mechanism (or mechanisms) that causes the outer atmosphere of the Sun, and many other stars, to reach temperatures orders of magnitude higher than their surface temperatures has long been a key problem. For decades, the problem has been known as the coronal heating problem, but it is now clear that 'coronal heating' cannot be treated or explained in isolation and that the heating of the whole solar atmosphere must be studied as a highly coupled system. The magnetic field of the star is known to play a key role, but, despite significant advancements in solar telescopes, computing power and much greater understanding of theoretical mechanisms, the question of which mechanism or mechanisms are the dominant supplier of energy to the chromosphere and corona is still open. Following substantial recent progress, we consider the most likely contenders and discuss the key factors that have made, and still make, determining the actual (coronal) heating mechanism (or mechanisms) so difficult.

  15. Free Magnetic Energy and Coronal Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, Amy; Moore, Ron; Falconer, David

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the coronal X-ray luminosity of an active region increases roughly in direct proportion to the total photospheric flux of the active region's magnetic field (Fisher et al. 1998). It is also observed, however, that the coronal luminosity of active regions of nearly the same flux content can differ by an order of magnitude. In this presentation, we analyze 10 active regions with roughly the same total magnetic flux. We first determine several coronal properties, such as X-ray luminosity (calculated using Hinode XRT), peak temperature (calculated using Hinode EIS), and total Fe XVIII emission (calculated using SDO AIA). We present the dependence of these properties on a proxy of the free magnetic energy of the active region

  16. The Fundamental Structure of Coronal Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, Amy; Warren, Harry; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken; Korreck, Kelly; Golub, Leon; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DePontieu, Bart; Title, Alan; hide

    2012-01-01

    During the past ten years, solar physicists have attempted to infer the coronal heating mechanism by comparing observations of coronal loops with hydrodynamic model predictions. These comparisons often used the addition of sub ]resolution strands to explain the observed loop properties. On July 11, 2012, the High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi ]C) was launched on a sounding rocket. This instrument obtained images of the solar corona was 0.2 ]0.3'' resolution in a narrowband EUV filter centered around 193 Angstroms. In this talk, we will compare these high resolution images to simultaneous density measurements obtained with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on Hinode to determine whether the structures observed with Hi ]C are resolved.

  17. Short term evolution of coronal hole boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolte, J. T.; Krieger, A. S.; Solodyna, C. V.

    1978-01-01

    The evolution of coronal hole boundary positions on a time scale of approximately 1 day is studied on the basis of an examination of all coronal holes observed by Skylab from May to November 1973. It is found that a substantial fraction (an average of 38%) of all coronal hole boundaries shifted by at least 1 deg heliocentric in the course of a day. Most (70%) of these changes were on a relatively small scale (less than 3 times the supergranulation cell size), but a significant fraction occurred as discrete events on a much larger scale. The large-scale shifts in the boundary locations involved changes in X-ray emission from these areas of the sun. There were generally more changes in the boundaries of the most rapidly evolving holes, but no simple relationship between the amount of change and the rate of hole growth or decay.

  18. The structure and evolution of coronal holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, A. F.; Krieger, A. S.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Soft X-ray observations of coronal holes are analyzed to determine the structure, temporal evolution, and rotational properties of those features as well as possible mechanisms which may account for their almost rigid rotational characteristics. It is shown that coronal holes are open features with a divergent magnetic-field configuration resulting from a particular large-scale magnetic-field topology. They are apparently formed when the successive emergence and dispersion of active-region fields produce a swath of unipolar field founded by fields of opposite polarity, and they die when large-scale field patterns emerge which significantly distort the original field configuration. Two types of holes are described (compact and elongated), and three possible rotation mechanisms are considered: a rigidly rotating subphotospheric phenomenon, a linking of high and low latitudes by closed field lines, and an interaction between moving coronal material and open field lines.

  19. Evidence of suppressed heating of coronal loops rooted in opposite polarity sunspot umbrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Thalmann, Julia K.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Moore, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    Observations of active region (AR) coronae in different EUV wavelengths reveal the presence of various loops at different temperatures. To understand the mechanisms that result in hotter or cooler loops, we study a typical bipolar AR, near solar disk center, which has moderate overall magnetic twist and at least one fully developed sunspot of each polarity. From AIA 193 and 94 A images we identify many clearly discernible coronal loops that connect opposite-polarity plage or a sunspot to a opposite-polarity plage region. The AIA 94 A images show dim regions in the umbrae of the spots. To see which coronal loops are rooted in a dim umbral area, we performed a non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) modeling using photospheric vector magnetic field measurements obtained with the Heliosesmic Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard SDO. After validation of the NLFFF model by comparison of calculated model field lines and observed loops in AIA 193 and 94 A, we specify the photospheric roots of the model field lines. The model field then shows the coronal magnetic loops that arch from the dim umbral area of the positive-polarity sunspot to the dim umbral area of a negative-polarity sunspot. Because these coronal loops are not visible in any of the coronal EUV and X-ray images of the AR, we conclude they are the coolest loops in the AR. This result suggests that the loops connecting opposite polarity umbrae are the least heated because the field in umbrae is so strong that the convective braiding of the field is strongly suppressed.From this result, we further hypothesize that the convective freedom at the feet of a coronal loop, together with the strength of the field in the body of the loop, determines the strength of the heating. In particular, we expect the hottest coronal loops to have one foot in an umbra and the other foot in opposite-polarity penumbra or plage (coronal moss), the areas of strong field in which convection is not as strongly suppressed as in umbrae. Many

  20. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS BY VECTOR TOMOGRAPHY OF THE CORONAL EMISSION LINE POLARIZATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kramar, M.; Lin, H.; Tomczyk, S., E-mail: kramar@cua.edu, E-mail: lin@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: tomczyk@ucar.edu

    We present the first direct “observation” of the global-scale, 3D coronal magnetic fields of Carrington Rotation (CR) Cycle 2112 using vector tomographic inversion techniques. The vector tomographic inversion uses measurements of the Fe xiii 10747 Å Hanle effect polarization signals by the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) and 3D coronal density and temperature derived from scalar tomographic inversion of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) coronal emission lines (CELs) intensity images as inputs to derive a coronal magnetic field model that best reproduces the observed polarization signals. While independent verifications of the vector tomography results cannot be performed, wemore » compared the tomography inverted coronal magnetic fields with those constructed by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations based on observed photospheric magnetic fields of CR 2112 and 2113. We found that the MHD model for CR 2112 is qualitatively consistent with the tomography inverted result for most of the reconstruction domain except for several regions. Particularly, for one of the most noticeable regions, we found that the MHD simulation for CR 2113 predicted a model that more closely resembles the vector tomography inverted magnetic fields. In another case, our tomographic reconstruction predicted an open magnetic field at a region where a coronal hole can be seen directly from a STEREO-B/EUVI image. We discuss the utilities and limitations of the tomographic inversion technique, and present ideas for future developments.« less

  1. Higher-speed coronal mass ejections and their geoeffectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Bhargawa, Asheesh; Tonk, Apeksha

    2018-06-01

    We have attempted to examine the ability of coronal mass ejections to cause geoeffectiveness. To that end, we have investigated total 571 cases of higher-speed (> 1000 km/s) coronal mass ejection events observed during the years 1996-2012. On the basis of angular width (W) of observance, events of coronal mass ejection were further classified as front-side or halo coronal mass ejections (W = 360°); back-side halo coronal mass ejections (W = 360°); partial halo (120°< W < 360°) and non-halo (W < 120°). From further analysis, we found that front halo coronal mass ejections were much faster and more geoeffective in comparison of partial halo and non-halo coronal mass ejections. We also inferred that the front-sided halo coronal mass ejections were 67.1% geoeffective while geoeffectiveness of partial halo coronal mass ejections and non-halo coronal mass ejections were found to be 44.2% and 56.6% respectively. During the same period of observation, 43% of back-sided CMEs showed geoeffectiveness. We have also investigated some events of coronal mass ejections having speed > 2500 km/s as a case study. We have concluded that mere speed of coronal mass ejection and their association with solar flares or solar activity were not mere criterion for producing geoeffectiveness but angular width of coronal mass ejections and their originating position also played a key role.

  2. On the theory of coronal heating mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuperus, M.; Ionson, J. A.; Spicer, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical models describing solar coronal heating mechanisms are reviewed in some detail. The requirements of chromospheric and coronal heating are discussed in the context of the fundamental constraints encountered in modelling the outer solar atmosphere. Heating by acoustic processes in the 'nonmagnetic' parts of the atmosphere is examined with particular emphasis on the shock wave theory. Also discussed are theories of heating by electrodynamic processes in the magnetic regions of the corona, either magnetohydrodynamic waves or current heating in the regions with large electric current densities (flare type heating). Problems associated with each of the models are addressed.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of Coronal Evolution and Disruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linker, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Flux cancellation, defined observationally as the mutual disappearance of magnetic fields of opposite polarity at the neutral line separating them, has been found to occur frequently at the site of filaments (called prominences when observed on the limb of the Sun). During the second year of this project, we have studied theoretically the role that flux cancellation may play in prominence formation, prominence eruption, and the initiation of coronal mass ejections. This work has been in published in two papers: "Magnetic Field Topology in Prominences" by Lionello, Mikic, Linker, and Amari and "Flux Cancellation and Coronal Mass Ejections" by Linker, Mikic, Riley, Lionello, Amari, and Odstrcil.

  4. Do we understand coronal mass ejections yet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildner, Ernest

    1986-01-01

    Though many more coronal mass ejections (CMEs) were observed, and though much more has been learned about them during the Solar Maximum Analysis period, they are not yet fully understood. A few recent observational results are reviewed; conclusions and implications drawn from these observations are presented. An emerging picture of the magnetic character of CMEs is sketched; the variations of CMEs' frequency and latitudes over most of a solar cycle are shown. A strong caution about the present lack of concensus on the definition of CMEs is illustrated with examples of the consequences of using different definitions. Finally, some remaining questions about coronal mass ejections are posed.

  5. The Influence of the Solar Coronal Radiation on Coronal Plasma Structures, I: Determination of the Incident Coronal Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gerrard M.; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    Coronal structures receive radiation not only from the solar disc, but also from the corona. This height-dependent incident radiation plays a crucial role in the excitation and the ionisation of the illuminated plasma. The aim of this article is to present a method for computing the detailed incident radiation coming from the solar corona, which is perceived at a point located at an arbitrary height. The coronal radiation is calculated by integrating the radiation received at a point in the corona over all of the corona visible from this point. The emission from the corona at all wavelengths of interest is computed using atomic data provided by CHIANTI. We obtain the spectrum illuminating points located at varying heights in the corona at wavelengths between 100 and 912 Å when photons can ionise H or He atoms and ions in their ground states. As expected, individual spectral lines will contribute most at the height within the corona where the local temperature is closest to their formation temperature. As there are many spectral lines produced by many ions, the coronal intensity cannot be assumed to vary in the same way at all wavelengths and so must be calculated for each separate height that is to be considered. This code can be used to compute the spectrum from the corona illuminating a point at any given height above the solar surface. This brings a necessary improvement to models where an accurate determination of the excitation and ionisation states of coronal plasma structures is crucial.

  6. Stereoscopy and Tomography of Coronal Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Patoul, J.

    2012-04-01

    The hot solar corona consists of a low density plasma, which is highly structured by the magnetic field. To resolve and study the corona, several solar Ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray telescopes are operated with high spatial and temporal resolution. EUV (Extreme UV) image sequences of the lower solar corona have revealed a wide variety of structures with sizes ranging from the Sun's diameter to the limit of the angular resolution. Active regions can be observed with enhanced temperature and density, as well as 'quiet' regions, coronal holes with lower density and numerous other transient phenomena such as plumes, jets, bright points, flares, filaments, coronal mass ejections, all structured by the coronal magnetic field. In this work, we analyze polar plumes in a sequence of Solar EUV images taken nearly simultaneously by the three telescopes on board of the spacecraft STEREO/SECCHI A and B, and SOHO/EIT. Plumes appear in EUV images as elongated objects starting on the surface of the Sun extending super-radially into the corona. Their formation and contribution to the fast solar wind and other coronal phenomena are still under debate. Knowledge of the polar plume 3-D geometry can help to understand some of the physical processes in the solar corona. In this dissertation we develop new techniques for the characterization of polar plume structures in solar coronal images (Part II) then we analyze these structures using the techniques (Part III): We design a new technique capable of automatically identifying plumes in solar EUV images close to the limb at 1.01-1.39 Ro. This plume identification is based on a multi-scale Hough-wavelet analysis. We show that the method is well adapted to identifying the location, width and orientation of plumes. Starting from Hough-wavelet analysis, we elaborate on two other techniques to determine 3-D plume localization and structure: (i) tomography employing data from a single spacecraft over more than half a rotation and (ii) stereoscopy

  7. A Field-Based Biomimicry Exercise Helps Students Discover Connections among Biodiversity, Form and Function, and Species Conservation during Earth's Sixth Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Constance M.

    2014-01-01

    In a first-year seminar on mass extinctions, a field-based, paleontology-focused exercise promotes active learning about Earth's biodiversity, form and function, and the biomimicry potential of ancient and modern life. Students study Devonian fossils at a local quarry and gain foundational experience in describing anatomy and relating form to…

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of a Streamer Beside a Realistic Coronal Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Wu, S. T.; Wang, A. H.; Poletto, G.

    1994-01-01

    Existing models of coronal streamers establish their credibility and act as the initial state for transients. The models have produced satisfactory streamer simulations, but unsatisfactory coronal hole simulations. This is a consequence of the character of the models and the boundary conditions. The models all have higher densities in the magnetically open regions than occur in coronal holes (Noci, et al., 1993).

  9. Study of the Source Regions of Coronal Mass Ejections Using Yohkoh SXT Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, David F.; Kahler, Stephen W.

    1997-01-01

    The scientific objective of the program was to better understand how CMEs (Coronal Mass Ejections) are initiated at the sun by examining structures on the disk which are related to the origins of CMEs. CMEs represent important disruptions of large-scale structures of closed magnetic fields in the corona, and result in significant disturbances of the interplanetary medium and near-Earth space. The program pertained to NASA's objectives of understanding the physics of solar activity and the structured and evolution of the corona, and the results are being applied to understanding CMEs currently being observed by SOHO near the sun and by WIND and Ulysses in the heliosphere. Three general areas of research were pursued in the program. One was to use Yohkoh soft X-ray telescope (SXT) images of eruptive events visible against the solar disk to examine the coronal structures and the boundaries of the large-scale magnetic fields considered to be involved in coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The second area involved a survey and study of SXT X-ray arcade events which exhibit dimming, or the possible depletion of coronal material above and possibly before onset of the bright long-duration event (LDE). Finally, we studied the SXT data during periods when white light CMEs were observed the HAO Mauna Loa K-coronameter and, conversely, we examined the white light data during periods when expanding X-ray loops were observed at the limb.

  10. Measuring Solar Coronal Magnetism during the Total Solar Eclipse of 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, K. L.; Tomczyk, S.

    2017-12-01

    The total solar eclipse on August 21, 2017 provided a notable opportunity to measure the solar corona at specific emission wavelengths to gain information about coronal magnetic fields. Solar magnetic fields are intimately related to the generation of space weather and its effects on the earth, and the infrared imaging and polarization information collected on coronal emission lines here will enhance the scientific value of several other ongoing experiments, as well as benefit the astrophysics and upper atmosphere communities. Coronal measurements were collected during the 2 minute and 24 second totality period from Casper Mountain, WY. Computer-controlled telescopes automatically inserted four different narrow band pass filters to capture images in the visible range on a 4D PolCam, and in the infrared range on the FLIR 8501c camera. Each band pass filter selects a specific wavelength range that corresponds to a known coronal emission line possessing magnetic sensitivity. The 4D PolCam incorporated a novel grid of linear polarizers precisely aligned with the micron scale pixels. This allowed for direct measurement of the degree of linear polarization in a very small instrument with no external moving parts as is typically required. The FLIR offers short exposure times to freeze motion and output accurate thermal measurements. This allowed a new observation of the sun's corona using thermo infrared technology.

  11. The Image-Optimized Corona; Progress on Using Coronagraph Images to Constrain Coronal Magnetic Field Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. I.; Uritsky, V. M.; Davila, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    In absence of reliable coronal magnetic field measurements, solar physicists have worked for several decades to develop techniques for extrapolating photospheric magnetic field measurements into the solar corona and/or heliosphere. The products of these efforts tend to be very sensitive to variation in the photospheric measurements, such that the uncertainty in the photospheric measurements introduces significant uncertainty into the coronal and heliospheric models needed to predict such things as solar wind speed, IMF polarity at Earth, and CME propagation. Ultimately, the reason for the sensitivity of the model to the boundary conditions is that the model is trying to extact a great deal of information from a relatively small amout of data. We have published in recent years about a new method we are developing to use morphological information gleaned from coronagraph images to constrain models of the global coronal magnetic field. In our approach, we treat the photospheric measurements as approximations and use an optimization algorithm to iteratively find a global coronal model that best matches both the photospheric measurements and quasi-linear features observed in polarization brightness coronagraph images. Here we will summarize the approach we have developed and present recent progress in optimizing PFSS models based on GONG magnetograms and MLSO K-Cor images.

  12. Can Thermal Nonequilibrium Explain Coronal Loops?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.; Karpen, Judy T.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2010-01-01

    Any successful model of coronal loops must explain a number of observed properties. For warm (approx. 1 MK) loops, these include: 1. excess density, 2. flat temperature profile, 3. super-hydrostatic scale height, 4. unstructured intensity profile, and 5. 1000-5000 s lifetime. We examine whether thermal nonequilibrium can reproduce the observations by performing hydrodynamic simulations based on steady coronal heating that decreases exponentially with height. We consider both monolithic and multi-stranded loops. The simulations successfully reproduce certain aspects of the observations, including the excess density, but each of them fails in at least one critical way. -Xonolithic models have far too much intensity structure, while multi-strand models are either too structured or too long-lived. Storms of nanoflares remain the only viable explanation for warm loops that has been proposed so far. Our results appear to rule out the widespread existence of heating that is both highly concentrated low in the corona and steady or quasi-steady (slowly varying or impulsive with a rapid cadence). Active regions would have a very different appearance if the dominant heating mechanism had these properties. Thermal nonequilibrium may nonetheless play an important role in prominences and catastrophic cooling e(veen.gts..,coronal rain) that occupy a small fraction of the coronal volume. However, apparent inconsistencies between the models and observations of cooling events have yet to be understood.

  13. Disruption of coronal magnetic field arcades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Linker, Jon A.

    1994-01-01

    The ideal and resistive properties of isolated large-scale coronal magnetic arcades are studied using axisymmetric solutions of the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in spherical geometry. We examine how flares and coronal mass ejections may be initiated by sudden disruptions of the magnetic field. The evolution of coronal arcades in response to applied shearing photospheric flows indicates that disruptive behavior can occur beyond a critical shear. The disruption can be traced to ideal MHD magnetic nonequilibrium. The magnetic field expands outward in a process that opens the field lines and produces a tangential discontinuity in the magnetic field. In the presence of plasma resistivity, the resulting current sheet is the site of rapid reconnection, leading to an impulsive release of magnetic energy, fast flows, and the ejection of a plasmoid. We relate these results to previous studies of force-free fields and to the properties of the open-field configuration. We show that the field lines in an arcade are forced open when the magnetic energy approaches (but is still below) the open-field energy, creating a partially open field in which most of the field lines extend away from the solar surface. Preliminary application of this model to helmet streamers indicates that it is relevant to the initiation of coronal mass ejections.

  14. Study of the solar coronal hole rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oghrapishvili, N. B.; Bagashvili, S. R.; Maghradze, D. A.; Gachechiladze, T. Z.; Japaridze, D. R.; Shergelashvili, B. M.; Mdzinarishvili, T. G.; Chargeishvili, B. B.

    2018-06-01

    Rotation of coronal holes is studied using data from SDO/AIA for 2014 and 2015. A new approach to the treatment of data is applied. Instead of calculated average angular velocities of each coronal hole centroid and then grouping them in latitudinal bins for calculating average rotation rates of corresponding latitudes, we compiled instant rotation rates of centroids and their corresponding heliographic coordinates in one matrix for further processing. Even unfiltered data showed clear differential nature of rotation of coronal holes. We studied possible reasons for distortion of data by the limb effects to eliminate some discrepancies at high latitudes caused by the high order of scattering of data in that region. A study of the longitudinal distribution of angular velocities revealed the optimal longitudinal interval for the best result. We examined different methods of data filtering and realized that filtration using targeting on the local medians of data with a constant threshold is a more acceptable approach that is not biased towards a predefined notion of an expected result. The results showed a differential pattern of rotation of coronal holes.

  15. Coronal Bright Points Associated with Minifilament Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Bi, Yi; Li, Haidong; Yang, Bo; Yang, Dan

    2014-12-01

    Coronal bright points (CBPs) are small-scale, long-lived coronal brightenings that always correspond to photospheric network magnetic features of opposite polarity. In this paper, we subjectively adopt 30 CBPs in a coronal hole to study their eruptive behavior using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. About one-quarter to one-third of the CBPs in the coronal hole go through one or more minifilament eruption(s) (MFE(s)) throughout their lifetimes. The MFEs occur in temporal association with the brightness maxima of CBPs and possibly result from the convergence and cancellation of underlying magnetic dipoles. Two examples of CBPs with MFEs are analyzed in detail, where minifilaments appear as dark features of a cool channel that divide the CBPs along the neutral lines of the dipoles beneath. The MFEs show the typical rising movements of filaments and mass ejections with brightenings at CBPs, similar to large-scale filament eruptions. Via differential emission measure analysis, it is found that CBPs are heated dramatically by their MFEs and the ejected plasmas in the MFEs have average temperatures close to the pre-eruption BP plasmas and electron densities typically near 109 cm-3. These new observational results indicate that CBPs are more complex in dynamical evolution and magnetic structure than previously thought.

  16. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon

    2013-06-10

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Raymore » Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).« less

  17. Coronal bright points associated with minifilament eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan

    2014-12-01

    Coronal bright points (CBPs) are small-scale, long-lived coronal brightenings that always correspond to photospheric network magnetic features of opposite polarity. In this paper, we subjectively adopt 30 CBPs in a coronal hole to study their eruptive behavior using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. About one-quarter to one-third of the CBPs in the coronal hole go through one or more minifilament eruption(s) (MFE(s)) throughout their lifetimes. The MFEs occur in temporal association with the brightness maxima of CBPs and possibly result from the convergence and cancellationmore » of underlying magnetic dipoles. Two examples of CBPs with MFEs are analyzed in detail, where minifilaments appear as dark features of a cool channel that divide the CBPs along the neutral lines of the dipoles beneath. The MFEs show the typical rising movements of filaments and mass ejections with brightenings at CBPs, similar to large-scale filament eruptions. Via differential emission measure analysis, it is found that CBPs are heated dramatically by their MFEs and the ejected plasmas in the MFEs have average temperatures close to the pre-eruption BP plasmas and electron densities typically near 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}. These new observational results indicate that CBPs are more complex in dynamical evolution and magnetic structure than previously thought.« less

  18. Large-Scale Coronal Heating, Clustering of Coronal Bright Points, and Concentration of Magnetic Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    By combining quiet-region Fe XII coronal images from SOHO/EIT with magnetograms from NSO/Kitt Peak and from SOHO/MDI, we show that on scales larger than a supergranule the population of network coronal bright points and the magnetic flux content of the network are both markedly greater under the bright half of the quiet corona than under the dim half. These results (1) support the view that the heating of the entire corona in quiet regions and coronal holes is driven by fine-scale magnetic activity (microflares, explosive events, spicules) seated low in the magnetic network, and (2) suggest that this large-scale modulation of the magnetic flux and coronal heating is a signature of giant convection cells.

  19. Suppression of Heating of Coronal Loops Rooted in Opposite Polarity Sunspot Umbrae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Thalmann, Julia K.; Moore, Ronald L.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    EUV observations of active region (AR) coronae reveal the presence of loops at different temperatures. To understand the mechanisms that result in hotter or cooler loops, we study a typical bipolar AR, near solar disk center, which has moderate overall magnetic twist and at least one fully developed sunspot of each polarity. From AIA 193 and 94 Å images we identify many clearly discernible coronal loops that connect plage or a sunspot of one polarity to an opposite-­polarity plage region. The AIA 94 Å images show dim regions in the umbrae of the spots. To see which coronal loops are rooted in a dim umbral area, we performed a non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) modeling using photospheric vector magnetic field measurements obtained with the Heliosesmic Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard SDO. The NLFFF model, validated by comparison of calculated model field lines with observed loops in AIA 193 and 94 Å, specifies the photospheric roots of the model field lines. Some model coronal magnetic field lines arch from the dim umbral area of the positive-polarity sunspot to the dim umbral area of a negative-polarity sunspot. Because these coronal loops are not visible in any of the coronal EUV and X-ray images of the AR, we conclude they are the coolest loops in the AR. This result suggests that the loops connecting opposite polarity umbrae are the least heated because the field in umbrae is so strong that the convective braiding of the field is strongly suppressed.

  20. A New Approach to Observing Coronal Dynamics: MUSE, the Multi-Slit Solar Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Multi-Slit Solar Explorer is a Small Explorer mission recently selected for a Phase A study, which could lead to a launch in 2022. It will provide unprecendented observations of the dynamics of the corona and transition region using both conventional and novel spectral imaging techniques. The physical processes that heat the multi-million degree solar corona, accelerate the solar wind and drive solar activity (CMEs and flares) remain poorly known. A breakthrough in these areas can only come from radically innovative instrumentation and state-of-the-art numerical modeling and will lead to better understanding of space weather origins. MUSE's multi-slit coronal spectroscopy will exploit a 100x improvement in spectral raster cadence to fill a crucial gap in our knowledge of Sun-Earth connections; it will reveal temperatures, velocities and non-thermal processes over a wide temperature range to diagnose physical processes that remain invisible to current or planned instruments. MUSE will contain two instruments: an EUV spectrograph (SG) and EUV context imager (CI). Both have similar spatial resolution and leverage extensive heritage from previous high-resolution instruments such as IRIS and the HiC rocket payload. The MUSE investigation will build on the success of IRIS by combining numerical modeling with a uniquely capable observatory: MUSE will obtain EUV spectra and images with the highest resolution in space (1/3 arcsec) and time (1-4 s) ever achieved for the transition region and corona, along 35 slits and a large context FOV simultaneously. The MUSE consortium includes LMSAL, SAO, Stanford, ARC, HAO, GSFC, MSFC, MSU, ITA Oslo and other institutions.

  1. Nonlinear Force-free Coronal Magnetic Stereoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chifu, Iulia; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Inhester, Bernd

    2017-03-01

    Insights into the 3D structure of the solar coronal magnetic field have been obtained in the past by two completely different approaches. The first approach are nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolations, which use photospheric vector magnetograms as boundary condition. The second approach uses stereoscopy of coronal magnetic loops observed in EUV coronal images from different vantage points. Both approaches have their strengths and weaknesses. Extrapolation methods are sensitive to noise and inconsistencies in the boundary data, and the accuracy of stereoscopy is affected by the ability of identifying the same structure in different images and by the separation angle between the view directions. As a consequence, for the same observational data, the 3D coronal magnetic fields computed with the two methods do not necessarily coincide. In an earlier work (Paper I) we extended our NLFFF optimization code by including stereoscopic constrains. The method was successfully tested with synthetic data, and within this work, we apply the newly developed code to a combined data set from SDO/HMI, SDO/AIA, and the two STEREO spacecraft. The extended method (called S-NLFFF) contains an additional term that monitors and minimizes the angle between the local magnetic field direction and the orientation of the 3D coronal loops reconstructed by stereoscopy. We find that when we prescribe the shape of the 3D stereoscopically reconstructed loops, the S-NLFFF method leads to a much better agreement between the modeled field and the stereoscopically reconstructed loops. We also find an appreciable decrease by a factor of two in the angle between the current and the magnetic field. This indicates the improved quality of the force-free solution obtained by S-NLFFF.

  2. A Two-Fluid, MHD Coronal Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Steven T.; Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Poletto, G.; McComas, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    We describe first results from a numerical two-fluid MHD model of the global structure of the solar corona. The model is two-fluid in the sense that it accounts for the collisional energy exchange between protons and electrons. As in our single-fluid model, volumetric heat and momentum sources are required to produce high speed wind from coronal holes, low speed wind above streamers, and mass fluxes similar to the empirical solar wind. By specifying different proton and electron heating functions we obtain a high proton temperature in the coronal hole and a relatively low proton temperature in the streamer (in comparison with the electron temperature). This is consistent with inferences from SOHO/UVCS, and with the Ulysses/SWOOPS proton and electron temperature measurements which we show from the fast latitude scan. The density in the coronal hole between 2 solar radii and 5 solar radii (2RS and 5RS) is similar to the density reported from SPARTAN 201-01 measurements by Fisher and Guhathakurta. The proton mass flux scaled to 1 AU is 2.4 x 10(exp 8)/sq cm s, which is consistent with Ulysses observations. Inside the closed field region, the density is sufficiently high so that the simulation gives equal proton and electron temperatures due to the high collision rate. In open field regions (in the coronal hole and above the streamer) the proton and electron temperatures differ by varying amounts. In the streamer, the temperature and density are similar to those reported empirically by Li et al and the plasma beta is larger than unity everywhere above approx. 1.5 R(sub s), as it is in all other MHD coronal streamer models.

  3. Management of distal humeral coronal shear fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yari, Shahram S; Bowers, Nathan L; Craig, Miguel A; Reichel, Lee M

    2015-01-01

    Coronal shear fractures of the distal humerus are rare, complex fractures that can be technically challenging to manage. They usually result from a low-energy fall and direct compression of the distal humerus by the radial head in a hyper-extended or semi-flexed elbow or from spontaneous reduction of a posterolateral subluxation or dislocation. Due to the small number of soft tissue attachments at this site, almost all of these fractures are displaced. The incidence of distal humeral coronal shear fractures is higher among women because of the higher rate of osteoporosis in women and the difference in carrying angle between men and women. Distal humeral coronal shear fractures may occur in isolation, may be part of a complex elbow injury, or may be associated with injuries proximal or distal to the elbow. An associated lateral collateral ligament injury is seen in up to 40% and an associated radial head fracture is seen in up to 30% of these fractures. Given the complex nature of distal humeral coronal shear fractures, there is preference for operative management. Operative fixation leads to stable anatomic reduction, restores articular congruity, and allows initiation of early range-of-motion movements in the majority of cases. Several surgical exposure and fixation techniques are available to reconstruct the articular surface following distal humeral coronal shear fractures. The lateral extensile approach and fixation with countersunk headless compression screws placed in an anterior-to-posterior fashion are commonly used. We have found a two-incision approach (direct anterior and lateral) that results in less soft tissue dissection and better outcomes than the lateral extensile approach in our experience. Stiffness, pain, articular incongruity, arthritis, and ulnohumeral instability may result if reduction is non-anatomic or if fixation fails. PMID:25984515

  4. A Two-Fluid, MHD Coronal Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Poletto, G.; McComas, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    We describe first results from a numerical two-fluid MHD model of the global structure of the solar Corona. The model is two-fluid in the sense that it accounts for the collisional energy exchange between protons and electrons. As in our single-fluid model, volumetric heat and Momentum sources are required to produce high speed wind from Corona] holes, low speed wind above streamers, and mass fluxes similar to the empirical solar wind. By specifying different proton and electron heating functions we obtain a high proton temperature in the coronal hole and a relatively low proton temperature above the streamer (in comparison with the electron temperature). This is consistent with inferences from SOHO/UltraViolet Coronagraph Spectrometer instrument (UVCS), and with the Ulysses/Solar Wind Observations Over the Poles of the Sun instrument (SWOOPS) proton and electron temperature measurements which we show from the fast latitude scan. The density in the coronal hole between 2 and 5 solar radii (2 and 5 R(sub S)) is similar to the density reported from SPARTAN 201.-01 measurements by Fisher and Guhathakurta [19941. The proton mass flux scaled to 1 AU is 2.4 x 10(exp 8)/sq cm s, which is consistent with Ulysses observations. Inside the closed field region, the density is sufficiently high so that the simulation gives equal proton and electron temperatures due to the high collision rate. In open field regions (in the coronal hole and above the streamer) the proton and electron temperatures differ by varying amounts. In the streamer the temperature and density are similar to those reported empirically by Li et al. [1998], and the plasma beta is larger than unity everywhere above approx. 1.5 R(sub S), as it is in all other MHD coronal streamer models [e.g., Steinolfson et al., 1982; also G. A. Gary and D. Alexander, Constructing the coronal magnetic field, submitted to Solar Physics, 1998].

  5. Formation of Large-scale Coronal Loops Interconnecting Two Active Regions through Gradual Magnetic Reconnection and an Associated Heating Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guohui; Chen, Yao; Zhu, Chunming; Liu, Chang; Ge, Lili; Wang, Bing; Li, Chuanyang; Wang, Haimin

    2018-06-01

    Coronal loops interconnecting two active regions (ARs), called interconnecting loops (ILs), are prominent large-scale structures in the solar atmosphere. They carry a significant amount of magnetic flux and therefore are considered to be an important element of the solar dynamo process. Earlier observations showed that eruptions of ILs are an important source of CMEs. It is generally believed that ILs are formed through magnetic reconnection in the high corona (>150″–200″), and several scenarios have been proposed to explain their brightening in soft X-rays (SXRs). However, the detailed IL formation process has not been fully explored, and the associated energy release in the corona still remains unresolved. Here, we report the complete formation process of a set of ILs connecting two nearby ARs, with successive observations by STEREO-A on the far side of the Sun and by SDO and Hinode on the Earth side. We conclude that ILs are formed by gradual reconnection high in the corona, in line with earlier postulations. In addition, we show evidence that ILs brighten in SXRs and EUVs through heating at or close to the reconnection site in the corona (i.e., through the direct heating process of reconnection), a process that has been largely overlooked in earlier studies of ILs.

  6. Formation and evolution of coronal rain observed by SDO/AIA on February 22, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashalomidze, Z.; Kukhianidze, V.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Oliver, R.; Shergelashvili, B.; Ramishvili, G.; Poedts, S.; De Causmaecker, P.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The formation and dynamics of coronal rain are currently not fully understood. Coronal rain is the fall of cool and dense blobs formed by thermal instability in the solar corona towards the solar surface with acceleration smaller than gravitational free fall. Aims: We aim to study the observational evidence of the formation of coronal rain and to trace the detailed dynamics of individual blobs. Methods: We used time series of the 171 Å and 304 Å spectral lines obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) above active region AR 11420 on February 22, 2012. Results: Observations show that a coronal loop disappeared in the 171 Å channel and appeared in the 304 Å line more than one hour later, which indicates a rapid cooling of the coronal loop from 1 MK to 0.05 MK. An energy estimation shows that the radiation is higher than the heat input, which indicates so-called catastrophic cooling. The cooling was accompanied by the formation of coronal rain in the form of falling cold plasma. We studied two different sequences of falling blobs. The first sequence includes three different blobs. The mean velocities of the blobs were estimated to be 50 km s-1, 60 km s-1 and 40 km s-1. A polynomial fit shows the different values of the acceleration for different blobs, which are lower than free-fall in the solar corona. The first and second blob move along the same path, but with and without acceleration, respectively. We performed simple numerical simulations for two consecutive blobs, which show that the second blob moves in a medium that is modified by the passage of the first blob. Therefore, the second blob has a relatively high speed and no acceleration, as is shown by observations. The second sequence includes two different blobs with mean velocities of 100 km s-1 and 90 km s-1, respectively. Conclusions: The formation of coronal rain blobs is connected with the process of catastrophic cooling. The different

  7. Theoretical basis for operational ensemble forecasting of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzo, V. J.; de Koning, C.; Cash, M.; Millward, G.; Biesecker, D. A.; Puga, L.; Codrescu, M.; Odstrcil, D.

    2015-10-01

    We lay out the theoretical underpinnings for the application of the Wang-Sheeley-Arge-Enlil modeling system to ensemble forecasting of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in an operational environment. In such models, there is no magnetic cloud component, so our results pertain only to CME front properties, such as transit time to Earth. Within this framework, we find no evidence that the propagation is chaotic, and therefore, CME forecasting calls for different tactics than employed for terrestrial weather or hurricane forecasting. We explore a broad range of CME cone inputs and ambient states to flesh out differing CME evolutionary behavior in the various dynamical domains (e.g., large, fast CMEs launched into a slow ambient, and the converse; plus numerous permutations in between). CME propagation in both uniform and highly structured ambient flows is considered to assess how much the solar wind background affects the CME front properties at 1 AU. Graphical and analytic tools pertinent to an ensemble approach are developed to enable uncertainties in forecasting CME impact at Earth to be realistically estimated. We discuss how uncertainties in CME pointing relative to the Sun-Earth line affects the reliability of a forecast and how glancing blows become an issue for CME off-points greater than about the half width of the estimated input CME. While the basic results appear consistent with established impressions of CME behavior, the next step is to use existing records of well-observed CMEs at both Sun and Earth to verify that real events appear to follow the systematic tendencies presented in this study.

  8. MINI-FILAMENT ERUPTION AS THE INITIATION OF A JET ALONG CORONAL LOOPS

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan

    Minifilament eruptions (MFEs) and coronal jets are different types of solar small-scale explosive events. We report an MFE observed at the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST). As seen in the NVST H α images, during the rising phase, the minifilament erupts outward orthogonally to its length, accompanied with a flare-like brightening at the bottom. Afterward, dark materials are found to possibly extend along the axis of the expanded filament body. The MFE is analogous to large filament eruptions. However, a simultaneous observation of the Solar Dynamics Observatory shows that a jet is initiated and flows out along nearby coronal loopsmore » during the rising phase of the MFE. Meanwhile, small hot loops, which connect the original eruptive site of the minifilament to the footpoints of the coronal loops, are formed successively. A differential emission measure analysis demonstrates that, on the top of the new small loops, a hot cusp structure exists. We conjecture that the magnetic fields of the MFE interact with magnetic fields of the coronal loops. This interaction is interpreted as magnetic reconnection that produces the jet and the small hot loops.« less

  9. Mini-filament Eruption as the Initiation of a Jet along Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Yang, Bo; Xu, Zhe; Xiang, Yongyuan

    2016-10-01

    Minifilament eruptions (MFEs) and coronal jets are different types of solar small-scale explosive events. We report an MFE observed at the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST). As seen in the NVST Hα images, during the rising phase, the minifilament erupts outward orthogonally to its length, accompanied with a flare-like brightening at the bottom. Afterward, dark materials are found to possibly extend along the axis of the expanded filament body. The MFE is analogous to large filament eruptions. However, a simultaneous observation of the Solar Dynamics Observatory shows that a jet is initiated and flows out along nearby coronal loops during the rising phase of the MFE. Meanwhile, small hot loops, which connect the original eruptive site of the minifilament to the footpoints of the coronal loops, are formed successively. A differential emission measure analysis demonstrates that, on the top of the new small loops, a hot cusp structure exists. We conjecture that the magnetic fields of the MFE interact with magnetic fields of the coronal loops. This interaction is interpreted as magnetic reconnection that produces the jet and the small hot loops.

  10. Structure and Dynamics of Coronal Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1998-01-01

    Brief summaries of the four published papers produced within the present performance period of NASA Grant NAGW-4081 are presented. The full text of the papers are appended to the report. The first paper titled "Coronal Structures Observed in X-rays and H-alpa Structures" was published in the Kofu Symposium proceedings. The study analyzes cool and hot behavior of two x-ray events, a small flare and a surge. It was found that a large H-alpha surge appears in x-rays as a very weak event, while a weak H-alpha feature corresponds to the brightest x-ray emission on the disk at the time of the observation. Calculations of the heating necessary to produce these signatures, and implications for the driving and heating mechanisms of flares vs. surges are presented. The second paper "Differential Magnetic Field Shear in an Active Region" has been published in The Astrophysical Journal. The study compared the three dimensional extrapolation of magnetic fields with the observed coronal structure in an active region. Based on the fit between observed coronal structure throughout the volume of the region and the calculated magnetic field configurations, the authors propose a differential magnetic field shear model for this active region. The decreasing field shear in the outer portions of the AR may indicate a continual relaxation of the magnetic field with time, corresponding to a net transport of helicity outward. The third paper "Difficulties in Observing Coronal Structure" has been published in the journal Solar Physics. This paper discusses the evidence that the temperature and density structure of the corona are far more complicated than had previously been thought. The discussion is based on five studies carried out by the group on coronal plasma properties, showing that any one x-ray instrument does see all of the plasma present in the corona, that hot and cool material may appear to be co-spatial at a given location in the corona, and that simple magnetic field

  11. Very large array faraday rotation studies of the coronal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Jason Earl

    with the theoretical models for Alfven wave heating of the corona by Hollweg et al. (2010). To support the needs of the low frequency radioastronomical community as well as my own research of coronal FR transients, I developed a new calibration algorithm for CASA that uses GPS-based global ionosphere maps of the Total Electron Content (TEC) to mitigate ionospheric Faraday rotation. The Earth's ionosphere introduces direction- and time-dependent effects over a range of physical and temporal scales and so is a major source for unmodeled phase offsets for low frequency radioastronomical observations. It has become common practice to use global ionospheric models derived from the Global Positioning System (GPS) to provide a means of externally calibrating low frequency data. However, CASA, which was developed to meet the data post-processing needs of next generation telescopes such as the VLA and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), did not have the capability to make ionospheric corrections before I implemented this calibration algorithm. I investigated several data centers as potential sources for global ionospheric models and chose the International Global Navigation Satellite System Service data product because data from other sources are generally too sparse to use without additional interpolation schemes. I employed these ionospheric corrections in reducing VLA observations made in August, 2012, at 1-2 GHz of a "constellation'' of radio sources through the solar corona at heliocentric distances that ranged from 5-15 solar radii. Of the nine sources observed, three were occulted by CMEs: 0842+1835, 0900+1832, and 0843+1547. In addition to my radioastronomical observations, which represent one of the first active hunts for CME Faraday rotation since Bird et al. (1985) and the first active hunt using the VLA, I obtained white-light coronagraph images from the LASCO/C3 instrument aboard SOHO to determine the Thomson scattering brightness, BT. BT is

  12. Coronal Heating: Testing Models of Coronal Heating by Forward-Modeling the AIA Emission of the Ansample of Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malanushenko, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    We present a systemic exploration of the properties of coronal heating, by forward-modeling the emission of the ensemble of 1D quasi-steady loops. This approximations were used in many theoretical models of the coronal heating. The latter is described in many such models in the form of power laws, relating heat flux through the photosphere or volumetric heating to the strength of the magnetic field and length of a given field line. We perform a large search in the parameter space of these power laws, amongst other variables, and compare the resulting emission of the active region to that observed by AIA. We use a recently developed magnetic field model which uses shapes of coronal loops to guide the magnetic model; the result closely resembles observed structures by design. We take advantage of this, by comparing, in individual sub-regions of the active region, the emission of the active region and its synthetic model. This study allows us to rule out many theoretical models and formulate predictions for the heating models to come.

  13. Geometrical Properties of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, Hebe; Bothmer, Volker

    Based on the SOHO/LASCO dataset, a collection of "structured" coronal mass ejections (CMEs) has been compiled within the period 1996-2002, in order to analyze their three-dimensional configuration. These CME events exhibit white-light fine structures, likely indicative of their possible 3D topology. From a detailed investigation of the associated low coronal and photospheric source regions, a generic scheme has been deduced, which considers the white-light topology of a CME projected in the plane of the sky as being primarily dependent on the orientation and position of the source region's neutral line on the solar disk. The obtained results imply that structured CMEs are essentially organized along a symmetry axis, in a cylindrical manner. The measured dimensions of the cylinder's base and length yield a ratio of 1.6. These CMEs seem to be better approximated by elliptic cones, rather than by the classical ice cream cone, characterized by a circular cross section.

  14. Solar Coronal Jets: Observations, Theory, and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raouafi, N. E.; Patsourakos, S.; Pariat, E.; Young, P. R.; Sterling, A. C.; Savcheva, A.; Shimojo, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; DeVore, C. R.; Archontis, V.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Coronal jets represent important manifestations of ubiquitous solar transients, which may be the source of significant mass and energy input to the upper solar atmosphere and the solar wind. While the energy involved in a jet-like event is smaller than that of "nominal" solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), jets share many common properties with these phenomena, in particular, the explosive magnetically driven dynamics. Studies of jets could, therefore, provide critical insight for understanding the larger, more complex drivers of the solar activity. On the other side of the size-spectrum, the study of jets could also supply important clues on the physics of transients close or at the limit of the current spatial resolution such as spicules. Furthermore, jet phenomena may hint to basic process for heating the corona and accelerating the solar wind; consequently their study gives us the opportunity to attack a broad range of solar-heliospheric problems.

  15. Damped transverse oscillations of interacting coronal loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Roberto; Luna, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Damped transverse oscillations of magnetic loops are routinely observed in the solar corona. This phenomenon is interpreted as standing kink magnetohydrodynamic waves, which are damped by resonant absorption owing to plasma inhomogeneity across the magnetic field. The periods and damping times of these oscillations can be used to probe the physical conditions of the coronal medium. Some observations suggest that interaction between neighboring oscillating loops in an active region may be important and can modify the properties of the oscillations. Here we theoretically investigate resonantly damped transverse oscillations of interacting nonuniform coronal loops. We provide a semi-analytic method, based on the T-matrix theory of scattering, to compute the frequencies and damping rates of collective oscillations of an arbitrary configuration of parallel cylindrical loops. The effect of resonant damping is included in the T-matrix scheme in the thin boundary approximation. Analytic and numerical results in the specific case of two interacting loops are given as an application.

  16. The Photospheric Footprints of Coronal Hole Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muglach, Karin

    2016-10-01

    Coronal jets are transient, collimated ejections of plasma that are a common feature of solar X-ray and EUV image sequences. Of special interest are jets in coronal holes due to their possible contribution to the solar wind outflow. From a sample of 35 jet events I will investigate the photospheric signatures at the footpoints of these jets. White light images from the HMI on board SDO are used to derive the plane-of-sky flow field using local correlation tracking, and HMI magnetograms show the development of the magnetic flux. Both the evolution of the magnetic field and flows allow one to study the photospheric driver of these jets. One particularly interesting example demonstrates that the untwisting jet involves a tiny filament whose eruption is most likely triggered by the emergence of a small magnetic bipole close to one of its legs.

  17. Coronal heating by stochastic magnetic pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Uchida, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Recent observational data cast serious doubt on the widely held view that the Sun's corona is heated by traveling waves (acoustic or magnetohydrodynamic). It is proposed that the energy responsible for heating the corona is derived from the free energy of the coronal magnetic field derived from motion of the 'feet' of magnetic field lines in the photosphere. Stochastic motion of the feet of magnetic field lines leads, on the average, to a linear increase of magnetic free energy with time. This rate of energy input is calculated for a simple model of a single thin flux tube. The model appears to agree well with observational data if the magnetic flux originates in small regions of high magnetic field strength. On combining this energy input with estimates of energy loss by radiation and of energy redistribution by thermal conduction, we obtain scaling laws for density and temperature in terms of length and coronal magnetic field strength.

  18. Solar Coronal Jets: Observations, Theory, and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raouafi, N. E.; Patsourakos, S.; Pariat, E.; Young, P. R.; Sterling, A.; Savcheva, A.; Shimojo, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Devore, C. R.; Archontis, V.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Chromospheric and coronal jets represent important manifestations of ubiquitous solar transients, which may be the source of signicant mass and energy input to the upper solar atmosphere and the solar wind. While the energy involved in a jet-like event is smaller than that of nominal solar ares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), jets share many common properties with these major phenomena, in particular, the explosive magnetically driven dynamics. Studies of jets could, therefore, provide critical insight for understanding the larger, more complex drivers of the solar activity. On the other side of the size-spectrum, the study of jets could also supply important clues on the physics of transients closeor at the limit of the current spatial resolution such as spicules. Furthermore, jet phenomena may hint to basic process for heating the corona and accelerating the solar wind; consequently their study gives us the opportunity to attack a broadrange of solar-heliospheric problems.

  19. Empirical scaling laws for coronal heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1983-01-01

    The origins and uses of scaling laws in studies of stellar outer atmospheres are reviewed with particular emphasis on the properties of coronal loops. Some evidence is presented for a fundamental structuring of the solar corona and the thermodynamics of scaling laws are discussed. It is found that magnetic field-related scaling laws can be obtained by relating coronal pressure, temperature, and magnetic field strength. Available data validate this method. Some parameters of the theory, however, must be treated as adjustable, and it is considered necessary to examine data from other stars in order to determine the validity of the parameters. Using detailed observational data, the applicability of single loop models is examined.

  20. Small Flare and a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-31

    The sun shot out a small coronal mass ejection that was also associated with a small flare (Jan. 22, 2018). The video, which covers about 5 hours, shows the burst of plasma as the magnetic loops break apart. Immediately the magnetic fields brighten intensely and begin to reorganize themselves in coils above the active region. The images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. Videos are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22184

  1. Structure and dynamics of coronal plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1995-01-01

    The Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope (NIXT) obtained a unique set of high resolution full disk solar images which were exposed simultaneously by X-rays in a passband at 63.5 A and by visible light. The perfect alignment of a photospheric visible light image with a coronal X-ray image enables us to present observations of X-ray intensity vs an accurately determined height above the visible limb. The height at which the observed X-ray intensity peak varies from 4000 km in active regions to 9000 km in quiet regions of the sun. The interpretation of the observations stems from the previously established fact that, for the coronal loops, emission in the NIXT bandpass peaks sharply just above the footpoints. Because there is not a sharp peak in the observed X-ray intensity vs off limb height, we conclude that the loop footpoints, when viewed at the limb, are obscured by absorption in chromospheric material along the line of sight. We calculate the X-ray intensity vs height predicted by a number of different idealizations of the solar atmosphere, and we compare these calculations with the observed X-ray intensity vs height. The calculations use existing coronal and chromospheric models. In order for the calculations to reproduce the observed off limb X-ray intensities, we are forced to assume an atmosphere in which the footpoints of coronal loops are interspersed along the line of sight with cooler chromospheric material extending to heights well above the loop footpoints. We argue that the absorption coefficient for NIXT X-rays by chromospheric material is roughly proportional to the neutral hydrogen density, and we estimate an average neutral hydrogen density and scale height implied by the data.

  2. Structure and dynamics of coronal plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Progress for the period July 1995 - June 1996 included work on the differential magnetic field shear in an active region; observations and modeling of the solar chromosphere seen in soft X-ray absorption by NIXT; and modeling magnetic flux emergence. These were the subjects of three papers. The plans for the current year include projects on a converging flux model for point-like brightenings around sunspots, and difficulties in observing coronal structure.

  3. Critical Magnetic Field Strengths for Unipolar Solar Coronal Plumes In Quiet Regions and Coronal Holes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avallone, Ellis; Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Moore, Ronald L.; Winebarger, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Coronal plumes are bright magnetic funnels that are found in quiet regions and coronal holes that extend high into the solar corona whose lifetimes can last from hours to days. The heating processes that make plumes bright involve the magnetic field at the base of the plume, but their intricacies remain mysterious. Raouafi et al. (2014) infer from observation that plume heating is a consequence of magnetic reconnection at the base, whereas Wang et al. (2016) infer that plume heating is a result of convergence of the magnetic flux at the plume's base, or base flux. Both papers suggest that the base flux in their plumes is of mixed polarity, but do not quantitatively measure the base flux or consider whether a critical magnetic field strength is required for plume production. To investigate the magnetic origins of plume heating, we track plume luminosity in the 171 Å wavelength as well as the abundance and strength of the base flux over the lifetimes of six unipolar coronal plumes. Of these, three are in coronal holes and three are in quiet regions. For this sample, we find that plume heating is triggered when convergence of the base flux surpasses a field strength of approximately 300 - 500 Gauss, and that the luminosity of both quiet region and coronal hole plumes respond similarly to the strength of the magnetic field in the base.

  4. Solar origins of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    The large scale properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), such as morphology, leading edge speed, and angular width and position, have been cataloged for many events observed with coronagraphs on the Skylab, P-78, and SMM spacecraft. While considerable study has been devoted to the characteristics of the SMEs, their solar origins are still only poorly understood. Recent observational work has involved statistical associations of CMEs with flares and filament eruptions, and some evidence exists that the flare and eruptive-filament associated CMEs define two classes of events, with the former being generally more energetic. Nevertheless, it is found that eruptive-filament CMEs can at times be very energetic, giving rise to interplanetary shocks and energetic particle events. The size of the impulsive phase in a flare-associated CME seems to play no significant role in the size or speed of the CME, but the angular sizes of CMEs may correlate with the scale sizes of the 1-8 angstrom x-ray flares. At the present time, He 10830 angstrom observations should be useful in studying the late development of double-ribbon flares and transient coronal holes to yield insights into the CME aftermath. The recently available white-light synoptic maps may also prove fruitful in defining the coronal conditions giving rise to CMEs.

  5. Forward Modeling of a Coronal Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    We apply a forward model of emission from a coronal cavity in an effort to determine the temperature and density distribution in the cavity. Coronal cavities are long, low-density structures located over filament neutral lines and are often seen as dark elliptical features at the solar limb in white light, EUV and X-rays. When these structures erupt they form the cavity portions of CMEs The model consists of a coronal streamer model with a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel length. Temperature and density can be varied as a function of altitude both in the cavity and streamer. We apply this model to a cavity observed in Aug. 2007 by a wide array of instruments including Hinode/EIS, STEREO/EUVI and SOHO/EIT. Studies such as these will ultimately help us understand the the original structures which erupt to become CMEs and ICMES, one of the prime Solar Orbiter objectives.

  6. The Coronal Abundance Anomalies of M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Laming, J. Martin; Karovska, Margarita

    2012-07-01

    We analyze Chandra X-ray spectra of the M0 V+M0 V binary GJ 338. As quantified by X-ray surface flux, these are the most inactive M dwarfs ever observed with X-ray grating spectroscopy. We focus on measuring coronal abundances, in particular searching for evidence of abundance anomalies related to first ionization potential (FIP). In the solar corona and wind, low-FIP elements are overabundant, which is the so-called FIP effect. For other stars, particularly very active ones, an "inverse FIP effect" is often observed, with low-FIP elements being underabundant. For both members of the GJ 338 binary, we find evidence for a modest inverse FIP effect, consistent with expectations from a previously reported correlation between spectral type and FIP bias. This amounts to strong evidence that all M dwarfs should exhibit the inverse FIP effect phenomenon, not just the active ones. We take the first step toward modeling the inverse FIP phenomenon in M dwarfs, building on past work that has demonstrated that MHD waves coursing through coronal loops can lead to a ponderomotive force that fractionates elements in a manner consistent with the FIP effect. We demonstrate that in certain circumstances this model can also lead to an inverse FIP effect, pointing the way to more detailed modeling of M dwarf coronal abundances in the future.

  7. Temperature Structure of a Coronal Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    we analyze the temperature structure of a coronal cavity observed in Aug. 2007. coronal cavities are long, low-density structures located over filament neutral lines and are often seen as dark elliptical features at the solar limb in white light, EUV and x-rays. when these structures erupt they form the cavity portions of CMEs. It is important to establish the temperature structure of cavities in order to understand the thermodynamics of cavities in relation to their three-dimensional magnetic structure. To analyze the temperature we compare temperature ratios of a series of iron lines observed by the Hinode/EUv Imaging spectrometer (EIS). We also use those lines to constrain a forward model of the emission from the cavity and streamer. The model assumes a coronal streamer with a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel lenth. Temperature and density can be varied as a function of altitude both in the cavity and streamer. The general cavity morphology and the cavity and streamer density have already been modeled using data from STEREO's SECCHI/EUVI and Hinode/EIS (Gibson et al 2010 and Schmit & Gibson 2011).

  8. Coronal Heating Observed with Hi-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, Amy R.

    2013-01-01

    The recent launch of the High-Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) as a sounding rocket has offered a new, different view of the Sun. With approx 0.3" resolution and 5 second cadence, Hi-C reveals dynamic, small-scale structure within a complicated active region, including coronal braiding, reconnection regions, Alfven waves, and flows along active region fans. By combining the Hi-C data with other available data, we have compiled a rich data set that can be used to address many outstanding questions in solar physics. Though the Hi-C rocket flight was short (only 5 minutes), the added insight of the small-scale structure gained from the Hi-C data allows us to look at this active region and other active regions with new understanding. In this talk, I will review the first results from the Hi-C sounding rocket and discuss the impact of these results on the coronal heating problem.

  9. SUNQUAKE GENERATION BY CORONAL MAGNETIC RESTRUCTURING

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, A. J. B.; Mooney, M. K.; Leake, J. E.

    2016-11-01

    Sunquakes are the surface signatures of acoustic waves in the Sun’s interior that are produced by some but not all flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). This paper explores a mechanism for sunquake generation by the changes in magnetic field that occur during flares and CMEs, using MHD simulations with a semiempirical FAL-C atmosphere to demonstrate the generation of acoustic waves in the interior in response to changing magnetic tilt in the corona. We find that Alfvén–sound resonance combined with the ponderomotive force produces acoustic waves in the interior with sufficient energy to match sunquake observations when the magnetic fieldmore » angle changes of the order of 10° in a region where the coronal field strength is a few hundred gauss or more. The most energetic sunquakes are produced when the coronal field is strong, while the variation of magnetic field strength with height and the timescale of the change in tilt are of secondary importance.« less

  10. Corrugation Instability of a Coronal Arcade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimushkin, D. Y.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Mager, P. N.; Cheremnykh, O. K.

    2017-12-01

    We analyse the behaviour of linear magnetohydrodynamic perturbations of a coronal arcade modelled by a half-cylinder with an azimuthal magnetic field and non-uniform radial profiles of the plasma pressure, temperature, and the field. Attention is paid to the perturbations with short longitudinal (in the direction along the arcade) wavelengths. The radial structure of the perturbations, either oscillatory or evanescent, is prescribed by the radial profiles of the equilibrium quantities. Conditions for the corrugation instability of the arcade are determined. It is established that the instability growth rate increases with decreases in the longitudinal wavelength and the radial wave number. In the unstable mode, the radial perturbations of the magnetic field are stronger than the longitudinal perturbations, creating an almost circularly corrugated rippling of the arcade in the longitudinal direction. For coronal conditions, the growth time of the instability is shorter than one minute, decreasing with an increase in the temperature. Implications of the developed theory for the dynamics of coronal active regions are discussed.

  11. EIT Observations of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, J. B.; Fisher, Richard B. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Before the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), we had only the sketchiest of clues as to the nature and topology of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) below 1.1 - 1.2 solar radii. Occasionally, dimmings (or 'transient coronal holes') were observed in time series of soft X-ray images, but they were far less frequent than CME's. Simply by imaging the Sun frequently and continually at temperatures of 0.9 - 2.5 MK we have stumbled upon a zoo of CME phenomena in this previously obscured volume of the corona: (1) waves, (2) dimmings, and (3) a great variety of ejecta. In the three and a half years since our first observations of coronal waves associated with CME's, combined Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) and extreme ultra-violet imaging telescope (EIT) synoptic observations have become a standard prediction tool for space weather forecasters, but our progress in actually understanding the CME phenomenon in the low corona has been somewhat slower. I will summarize the observations of waves, hot (> 0.9 MK) and cool ejecta, and some of the interpretations advanced to date. I will try to identify those phenomena, analysis of which could most benefit from the spectroscopic information available from ultraviolet coronograph spectrometer (UVCS) observations.

  12. Forward Modeling of Coronal Mass Ejection Flux Ropes in the Inner Heliosphere with 3DCORE.

    PubMed

    Möstl, C; Amerstorfer, T; Palmerio, E; Isavnin, A; Farrugia, C J; Lowder, C; Winslow, R M; Donnerer, J M; Kilpua, E K J; Boakes, P D

    2018-03-01

    Forecasting the geomagnetic effects of solar storms, known as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), is currently severely limited by our inability to predict the magnetic field configuration in the CME magnetic core and by observational effects of a single spacecraft trajectory through its 3-D structure. CME magnetic flux ropes can lead to continuous forcing of the energy input to the Earth's magnetosphere by strong and steady southward-pointing magnetic fields. Here we demonstrate in a proof-of-concept way a new approach to predict the southward field B z in a CME flux rope. It combines a novel semiempirical model of CME flux rope magnetic fields (Three-Dimensional Coronal ROpe Ejection) with solar observations and in situ magnetic field data from along the Sun-Earth line. These are provided here by the MESSENGER spacecraft for a CME event on 9-13 July 2013. Three-Dimensional Coronal ROpe Ejection is the first such model that contains the interplanetary propagation and evolution of a 3-D flux rope magnetic field, the observation by a synthetic spacecraft, and the prediction of an index of geomagnetic activity. A counterclockwise rotation of the left-handed erupting CME flux rope in the corona of 30° and a deflection angle of 20° is evident from comparison of solar and coronal observations. The calculated Dst matches reasonably the observed Dst minimum and its time evolution, but the results are highly sensitive to the CME axis orientation. We discuss assumptions and limitations of the method prototype and its potential for real time space weather forecasting and heliospheric data interpretation.

  13. Forward Modeling of Coronal Mass Ejection Flux Ropes in the Inner Heliosphere with 3DCORE

    PubMed Central

    Amerstorfer, T.; Palmerio, E.; Isavnin, A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Lowder, C.; Winslow, R. M.; Donnerer, J. M.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Boakes, P. D.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Forecasting the geomagnetic effects of solar storms, known as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), is currently severely limited by our inability to predict the magnetic field configuration in the CME magnetic core and by observational effects of a single spacecraft trajectory through its 3‐D structure. CME magnetic flux ropes can lead to continuous forcing of the energy input to the Earth's magnetosphere by strong and steady southward‐pointing magnetic fields. Here we demonstrate in a proof‐of‐concept way a new approach to predict the southward field B z in a CME flux rope. It combines a novel semiempirical model of CME flux rope magnetic fields (Three‐Dimensional Coronal ROpe Ejection) with solar observations and in situ magnetic field data from along the Sun‐Earth line. These are provided here by the MESSENGER spacecraft for a CME event on 9–13 July 2013. Three‐Dimensional Coronal ROpe Ejection is the first such model that contains the interplanetary propagation and evolution of a 3‐D flux rope magnetic field, the observation by a synthetic spacecraft, and the prediction of an index of geomagnetic activity. A counterclockwise rotation of the left‐handed erupting CME flux rope in the corona of 30° and a deflection angle of 20° is evident from comparison of solar and coronal observations. The calculated Dst matches reasonably the observed Dst minimum and its time evolution, but the results are highly sensitive to the CME axis orientation. We discuss assumptions and limitations of the method prototype and its potential for real time space weather forecasting and heliospheric data interpretation. PMID:29780287

  14. Forward Modeling of Coronal Mass Ejection Flux Ropes in the Inner Heliosphere with 3DCORE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möstl, C.; Amerstorfer, T.; Palmerio, E.; Isavnin, A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Lowder, C.; Winslow, R. M.; Donnerer, J. M.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Boakes, P. D.

    2018-03-01

    Forecasting the geomagnetic effects of solar storms, known as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), is currently severely limited by our inability to predict the magnetic field configuration in the CME magnetic core and by observational effects of a single spacecraft trajectory through its 3-D structure. CME magnetic flux ropes can lead to continuous forcing of the energy input to the Earth's magnetosphere by strong and steady southward-pointing magnetic fields. Here we demonstrate in a proof-of-concept way a new approach to predict the southward field Bz in a CME flux rope. It combines a novel semiempirical model of CME flux rope magnetic fields (Three-Dimensional Coronal ROpe Ejection) with solar observations and in situ magnetic field data from along the Sun-Earth line. These are provided here by the MESSENGER spacecraft for a CME event on 9-13 July 2013. Three-Dimensional Coronal ROpe Ejection is the first such model that contains the interplanetary propagation and evolution of a 3-D flux rope magnetic field, the observation by a synthetic spacecraft, and the prediction of an index of geomagnetic activity. A counterclockwise rotation of the left-handed erupting CME flux rope in the corona of 30° and a deflection angle of 20° is evident from comparison of solar and coronal observations. The calculated Dst matches reasonably the observed Dst minimum and its time evolution, but the results are highly sensitive to the CME axis orientation. We discuss assumptions and limitations of the method prototype and its potential for real time space weather forecasting and heliospheric data interpretation.

  15. Nonlinear evolution of the coronal magnetic field under reconnective relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, R.; Vekstein, G. E.; Priest, E. R.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, Vekstein et al. (Vekstein, Priest, & Steele 1993) have developed a model for coronal heating in which the corona responds to photospheric footpoint motions by small-scale reconnection events that bring about a relaxed state while conserving magnetic helicity but not field-line connectivity. Vekstein et al. consider a partially open field configuration in which magnetic helicity is ejected to infinity on open field lines but retained in the closed-field region. Under this scheme, they describe the evolution of an initially potential field, in response to helicity injection, in the linear regime. The present work uses numerical calculations to extend the model of Vekstein et al. into the fully nonlinear regime. The results show a rise and bulging of the field lines of the closed-field region with increasing magnetic helicity, to a point where further solutions are impossible. We interpret these solution-sequence endpoints as indicating a possible loss of equilibrium, in the sense that a relaxed equilibrium state may no longer be available to the corona when sufficient helicity has been injected. The rise and bulging behavior is reminiscent of what is observed in a helmet streamer just before the start of a coronal mass ejection (CME), and so our model suggests that a catastrophic loss of magnetic equilibrium might be the initiation mechanism for CMEs. We also find that some choices of boundary conditions can result in qualitative changes in the magnetic topology, with the appearance of magnetic islands. Whether or not this behavior occurs depends on the relative strengths of the fields in the closed- and open-field regions; in particular, island formation is most likely when the open field (which is potential) is strong and thus acts to confine the force-free closed field. Finally, we show that the energy released through reconnective relaxation can be a substantial fraction of the magnetic energy injected into the corona through footpoint motions and may

  16. The Oscillations of Coronal Loops Including the Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalyaev, B. B.; Solov'ev, A. A.

    2005-04-01

    We investigate the MHD waves in a double magnetic flux tube embedded in a uniform external magnetic field. The tube consists of a dense hot cylindrical cord surrounded by a co-axial shell. The plasma and the magnetic field are taken to be uniform inside the cord and also inside the shell. Two slow and two fast magnetosonic modes can exist in the thin double tube. The first slow mode is trapped by the cord, the other is trapped by the shell. The oscillations of the second mode have opposite phases inside the cord and shell. The speeds of the slow modes propagating along the tube are close to the tube speeds inside the cord and the shell. The behavior of the fast modes depends on the magnitude of Alfvén speed inside the shell. If it is less than the Alfvén speed inside the cord and in the environment, then the fast mode is trapped by the shell and the other may be trapped under the certain conditions. In the opposite case when the Alfvén speed in the shell is greater than those inside the cord and in the environment, then the fast mode is radiated by the tube and the other may also be radiated under certain conditions. The oscillation of the cord and the shell with opposite phases is the distinctive feature of the process. The proposed model allows to explain the basic phenomena connected to the coronal oscillations: i) the damping of oscillations stipulated in the double tube model by the radiative loss, ii) the presence of two different modes of perturbations propagating along the loop with close speeds, iii) the opposite phases of oscillations of modulated radio emission, coming from the near coronal sources having sharply different densities.

  17. Recombinant mouse periostin ameliorates coronal sutures fusion in Twist1+/- mice.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shanshan; Li, Dong; Xu, Liang; Duan, Huichuan; Yuan, Jie; Wei, Min

    2018-04-17

    Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder caused by mutations in the twist family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1 (TWIST1) gene. Surgical procedures are frequently required to reduce morphological and functional defects in patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Therefore, the development of noninvasive procedures to treat Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is critical. We identified that periostin, which is an extracellular matrix protein that plays an important role in both bone and connective tissues, is downregulated in craniosynostosis patients. We aimed to verify the effects of different concentrations (0, 50, 100, and 200 μg/l) of recombinant mouse periostin in Twist1 +/- mice (a mouse model of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome) coronal suture cells in vitro and in vivo. Cell proliferation, migration, and osteogenic differentiation were observed and detected. Twist1 +/- mice were also injected with recombinant mouse periostin to verify the treatment effects. Cell Counting Kit-8 results showed that recombinant mouse periostin inhibited the proliferation of suture-derived cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Cell migration was also suppressed when treated with recombinant mouse periostin. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting results suggested that messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, collagen type I, and osteocalcin were all downregulated after treatment with recombinant mouse periostin. However, the expression of Wnt-3a, Wnt-1, and β-catenin were upregulated. The in vivo results demonstrated that periostin-treated Twist1 +/- mice showed patent coronal sutures in comparison with non-treated Twist1 +/- mice which have coronal craniosynostosis. Our results suggest that recombinant mouse periostin can inhibit coronal suture cell proliferation and migration and suppress osteogenic differentiation of suture-derived cells via Wnt canonical signaling, as

  18. OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES OF CORONAL LOOP HEATING AND COOLING DRIVEN BY FOOTPOINT SHUFFLING

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Taylor, B. D.; Einaudi, G.

    The evolution of a coronal loop is studied by means of numerical simulations of the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations using the HYPERION code. The footpoints of the loop magnetic field are advected by random motions. As a consequence, the magnetic field in the loop is energized and develops turbulent nonlinear dynamics characterized by the continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets: energy is deposited at small scales where heating occurs. Dissipation is nonuniformly distributed so that only a fraction of the coronal mass and volume gets heated at any time. Temperature and density are highly structured at scalesmore » that, in the solar corona, remain observationally unresolved: the plasma of our simulated loop is multithermal, where highly dynamical hotter and cooler plasma strands are scattered throughout the loop at sub-observational scales. Numerical simulations of coronal loops of 50,000 km length and axial magnetic field intensities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 T are presented. To connect these simulations to observations, we use the computed number densities and temperatures to synthesize the intensities expected in emission lines typically observed with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode. These intensities are used to compute differential emission measure distributions using the Monte Carlo Markov Chain code, which are very similar to those derived from observations of solar active regions. We conclude that coronal heating is found to be strongly intermittent in space and time, with only small portions of the coronal loop being heated: in fact, at any given time, most of the corona is cooling down.« less

  19. Structure and Dynamics of Coronal Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1997-01-01

    During the past year this grant has funded research in the interaction between magnetic fields and the hot plasma in the solar outer atmosphere. The following is a brief summary of the published papers, abstracts and talks which have been supported. The paper 'Coronal Structures Observed in X-rays and H-alpha Structures' was published in the Kofu Symposium proceedings. The study analyzes cool and hot behavior of two x-ray events, a small flare and a surge. We find that a large H-alpha surge appears in x-rays as a very weak event, while a weak H-alpha feature corresponds to the brightest x-ray emission on the disk at the time of the observation. Calculations of the heating necessary to produce these signatures, and implications for the driving and heating mechanisms of flares vs. surges are presented. A copy of the paper is appended to this report. The paper 'Differential Magnetic Field Shear in an Active Region' has been published in The Astrophysical Journal. We have compared the 3D extrapolation of magnetic fields with the observed coronal structure in an active region. Based on the fit between observed coronal structure throughout the volume of the region and the calculated magnetic field configurations, we propose a differential magnetic field shear model for this active region. The decreasing field shear in the outer portions of the AR may indicate a continual relaxation of the magnetic field with time, corresponding to a net transport of helicity outward. The paper 'Difficulties in Observing Coronal Structure' has been accepted for publication in the journal Solar Physics. In this paper we discuss the evidence that the temperature and density structure of the corona are far more complicated than had previously been thought. The discussion is based on five studies carried out by our group on coronal plasma properties, showing that any one x-ray instrument does see all of the plasma present in the corona, that hot and cool material may appear to be co

  20. Coronal hole boundaries evolution at small scales. I. EIT 195 Å  and TRACE 171 Å view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjarska, M. S.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2009-09-01

    Aims: We aim to study the small-scale evolution at the boundaries of an equatorial coronal hole connected with a channel of open magnetic flux to the polar region and an “isolated” one in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral range. We determine the spatial and temporal scale of these changes. Methods: Imager data from TRACE in the Fe ix/x 171 Å passband and EIT on-board Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in the Fe xii 195 Å passband were analysed. Results: We found that small-scale loops known as bright points play an essential role in coronal hole boundary evolution at small scales. Their emergence and disappearance continuously expand or contract coronal holes. The changes appear to be random on a time scale comparable to the lifetime of the loops seen at these temperatures. No signature was found for a major energy release during the evolution of the loops. Conclusions: Although coronal holes seem to maintain their general shape during a few solar rotations, a closer look at their day-by-day and even hour-by-hour evolution demonstrates significant dynamics. The small-scale loops (10´´-40´´ and smaller) which are abundant along coronal hole boundaries contribute to the small-scale evolution of coronal holes. Continuous magnetic reconnection of the open magnetic field lines of the coronal hole and the closed field lines of the loops in the quiet Sun is more likely to take place. Movies are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Critical Magnetic Field Strengths for Unipolar Solar Coronal Plumes in Quiet Regions and Coronal Holes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avallone, E. A.; Tiwari, S. K.; Panesar, N. K.; Moore, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal plumes are sporadic fountain-like structures that are bright in coronal emission. Each is a magnetic funnel rooted in a strong patch of dominant-polarity photospheric magnetic flux surrounded by a predominantly-unipolar magnetic network, either in a quiet region or a coronal hole. The heating processes that make plumes bright evidently involve the magnetic field in the base of the plume, but remain mysterious. Raouafi et al. (2014) inferred from observations that plume heating is a consequence of magnetic reconnection in the base, whereas Wang et al. (2016) showed that plume heating turns on/off from convection-driven convergence/divergence of the base flux. While both papers suggest that the base magnetic flux in their plumes is of mixed polarity, these papers provide no measurements of the abundance and strength of the evolving base flux or consider whether a critical magnetic field strength is required for a plume to become noticeably bright. To address plume production and evolution, we track the plume luminosity and the abundance and strength of the base magnetic flux over the lifetimes of six coronal plumes, using Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 171 Å images and SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) line-of-sight magnetograms. Three of these plumes are in coronal holes, three are in quiet regions, and each plume exhibits a unipolar base flux. We track the base magnetic flux over each plume's lifetime to affirm that its convergence and divergence respectively coincide with the appearance and disappearance of the plume in 171 Å images. We tentatively find that plume formation requires enough convergence of the base flux to surpass a field strength of ˜300-500 Gauss, and that quiet Sun and coronal-hole plumes both exhibit the same behavior in the response of their luminosity in 171 Å to the strength of the magnetic field in the base.

  2. Simulations of Emerging Magnetic Flux. II. The Formation of Unstable Coronal Flux Ropes and the Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leake, James E.; Linton, Mark G.; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the emergence of a twisted convection zone flux tube into a pre-existing coronal dipole field. As in previous simulations, following the partial emergence of the sub-surface flux into the corona, a combination of vortical motions and internal magnetic reconnection forms a coronal flux rope. Then, in the simulations presented here, external reconnection between the emerging field and the pre-existing dipole coronal field allows further expansion of the coronal flux rope into the corona. After sufficient expansion, internal reconnection occurs beneath the coronal flux rope axis, and the flux rope erupts up to the top boundary of the simulation domain (approximately 36 Mm above the surface).We find that the presence of a pre-existing field, orientated in a direction to facilitate reconnection with the emerging field, is vital to the fast rise of the coronal flux rope. The simulations shown in this paper are able to self-consistently create many of the surface and coronal signatures used by coronal mass ejection (CME) models. These signatures include surface shearing and rotational motions, quadrupolar geometry above the surface, central sheared arcades reconnecting with oppositely orientated overlying dipole fields, the formation of coronal flux ropes underlying potential coronal field, and internal reconnection which resembles the classical flare reconnection scenario. This suggests that proposed mechanisms for the initiation of a CME, such as "magnetic breakout," are operating during the emergence of new active regions.

  3. Origin of Pre-Coronal-Jet Minifilaments: Flux Cancellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse; Moore, Ronald L.

    2017-01-01

    Coronal jets are frequent magnetically channeled narrow eruptions. All coronal jets observed in EUV and X-ray images show a bright spire with a base brightening, also known as jet bright point (JBP). Recent studies of jets show that coronal jets are driven by small-scale filament eruptions (e.g. Hong et al. 2011, Shen et al. 2012, Adams et al. 2014, Sterling et al. 2015). We recently investigated the triggering mechanism of ten on-disk quiet-region coronal jet eruptions and found that magnetic flux cancellation at the neutral line of minifilaments is the main cause of quiet-region jet eruptions (Panesar et al.2016).

  4. Determination of coronal magnetic fields from vector magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran

    1992-01-01

    The determination of coronal magnetic fields from vector magnetograms, including the development and application of algorithms to determine force-free coronal fields above selected observations of active regions is studied. Two additional active regions were selected and analyzed. The restriction of periodicity in the 3-D code which is used to determine the coronal field was removed giving the new code variable mesh spacing and is thus able to provide a more realistic description of coronal fields. The NOAA active region AR5747 of 20 Oct. 1989 was studied. A brief account of progress during the research performed is reported.

  5. Determination of the coronal magnetic field from vector magnetograph data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran

    1991-01-01

    A new algorithm was developed, tested, and applied to determine coronal magnetic fields above solar active regions. The coronal field above NOAA active region AR5747 was successfully estimated on 20 Oct. 1989 from data taken at the Mees Solar Observatory of the Univ. of Hawaii. It was shown that observational data can be used to obtain realistic estimates of coronal magnetic fields. The model has significantly extended the realism with which the coronal magnetic field can be inferred from observations. The understanding of coronal phenomena will be greatly advanced by a reliable technique, such as the one presented, for deducing the detailed spatial structure of the coronal field. The payoff from major current and proposed NASA observational efforts is heavily dependent on the success with which the coronal field can be inferred from vector magnetograms. In particular, the present inability to reliably obtain the coronal field has been a major obstacle to the theoretical advancement of solar flare theory and prediction. The results have shown that the evolutional algorithm can be used to estimate coronal magnetic fields.

  6. Earth meandering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone

  7. Magnetic topological analysis of coronal bright points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galsgaard, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Huang, Z.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2017-10-01

    Context. We report on the first of a series of studies on coronal bright points which investigate the physical mechanism that generates these phenomena. Aims: The aim of this paper is to understand the magnetic-field structure that hosts the bright points. Methods: We use longitudinal magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope with the Narrowband Filter Imager. For a single case, magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager were added to the analysis. The longitudinal magnetic field component is used to derive the potential magnetic fields of the large regions around the bright points. A magneto-static field extrapolation method is tested to verify the accuracy of the potential field modelling. The three dimensional magnetic fields are investigated for the presence of magnetic null points and their influence on the local magnetic domain. Results: In nine out of ten cases the bright point resides in areas where the coronal magnetic field contains an opposite polarity intrusion defining a magnetic null point above it. We find that X-ray bright points reside, in these nine cases, in a limited part of the projected fan-dome area, either fully inside the dome or expanding over a limited area below which typically a dominant flux concentration resides. The tenth bright point is located in a bipolar loop system without an overlying null point. Conclusions: All bright points in coronal holes and two out of three bright points in quiet Sun regions are seen to reside in regions containing a magnetic null point. An as yet unidentified process(es) generates the brigh points in specific regions of the fan-dome structure. The movies are available at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Density Fluctuations in a Polar Coronal Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Michael; D’Huys, Elke; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2018-06-01

    We have measured the root-mean-square (rms) amplitude of intensity fluctuations, ΔI, in plume and interplume regions of a polar coronal hole. These intensity fluctuations correspond to density fluctuations. Using data from the Sun Watcher using the Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing on the Project for Onboard Autonomy (Proba2), our results extend up to a height of about 1.35 R ⊙. One advantage of the rms analysis is that it does not rely on a detailed evaluation of the power spectrum, which is limited by noise levels to low heights in the corona. The rms approach can be performed up to larger heights where the noise level is greater, provided that the noise itself can be quantified. At low heights, both the absolute ΔI, and the amplitude relative to the mean intensity, ΔI/I, decrease with height. However, starting at about 1.2 R ⊙, ΔI/I increases, reaching 20%–40% by 1.35 R ⊙. This corresponds to density fluctuations of Δn e/n e ≈ 10%–20%. The increasing relative amplitude implies that the density fluctuations are generated in the corona itself. One possibility is that the density fluctuations are generated by an instability of Alfvén waves. This generation mechanism is consistent with some theoretical models and with observations of Alfvén wave amplitudes in coronal holes. Although we find that the energy of the observed density fluctuations is small, these fluctuations are likely to play an important indirect role in coronal heating by promoting the reflection of Alfvén waves and driving turbulence.

  9. Connecting real-time data to algorithms and databases: EarthCube's Cloud-Hosted Real-time Data Services for the Geosciences (CHORDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, M. D.; Graves, S. J.; Kerkez, B.; Chandrasekar, V.; Vernon, F.; Martin, C. L.; Maskey, M.; Keiser, K.; Dye, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Cloud-Hosted Real-time Data Services for the Geosciences (CHORDS) project was funded under the National Science Foundation's EarthCube initiative. CHORDS addresses the ever-increasing importance of real-time scientific data in the geosciences, particularly in mission critical scenarios, where informed decisions must be made rapidly. Access to constant streams of real-time data also allow many new transient phenomena in space-time to be observed, however, much of these streaming data are either completely inaccessible or only available to proprietary in-house tools or displays. Small research teams do not have the resources to develop tools for the broad dissemination of their unique real-time data and require an easy to use, scalable, cloud-based solution to facilitate this access. CHORDS will make these diverse streams of real-time data available to the broader geosciences community. This talk will highlight a recently developed CHORDS portal tools and processing systems which address some of the gaps in handling real-time data, particularly in the provisioning of data from the "long-tail" scientific community through a simple interface that is deployed in the cloud, is scalable and is able to be customized by research teams. A running portal, with operational data feeds from across the nation, will be presented. The processing within the CHORDS system will expose these real-time streams via standard services from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) in a way that is simple and transparent to the data provider, while maximizing the usage of these investments. The ingestion of high velocity, high volume and diverse data has allowed the project to explore a NoSQL database implementation. Broad use of the CHORDS framework by geoscientists will help to facilitate adaptive experimentation, model assimilation and real-time hypothesis testing.

  10. Coronal Heating, Spicules, and Solar-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Porter, Jason; Hathaway, David; Yamauchi, Yohei

    2003-01-01

    Falconer et al. investigated the heating of the quiet corona by measuring the increase of coronal luminosity with the amount of the magnetic flux in the underlying network at solar minimum when there were no active regions on the face of the Sun. The coronal luminosity was measured from Fe IX/X - Fe XII pairs of coronal images from SOHO/EIT, under the assumption that practically all of the coronal luminosity in these very quiet regions came from plasma in the temperature range 0.9 x 10(exp 6) K is less than or equal to T is less than or equal to 1.3 x 10(exp 6) K. The network magnetic flux content was measured from SOHO/MDI magnetograms. It was found that luminosity of the corona in these quiet regions increased roughly in proportion to the square root of the magnetic flux content of the network and roughly in proportion to the length of the perimeter of the network flux clumps. From 1) this result; 2) the observed occurrence of many fine-scale explosive events (e.g., spicules) at the edges of network flux clumps; and 3) a demonstration that it is energetically feasible for the heating of the corona in quiet regions to be driven by explosions of granule-sized sheared-core magnetic bipoles embedded in the edges of the network flux clumps, Falconer et al. infer that in quiet regions that are not influenced by active regions the corona is mainly heated by such magnetic activity in the edges of the network flux clumps. From their observational results together with their feasibility analysis, Falconer et al. predict that 1) At the edges of the network flux clumps there are many transient sheared core bipoles of the size and lifetime of granules and having transverse field strengths greater than approx. 100 G; 2) Approx. 30 of these bipoles are present per supergranule; and 3) Most spicules are produced by explosions of these bipoles. The photospheric vector magnetograms, chromospheric filtergrams, and EUV spectra from Solar-B are expected to have sufficient sensitivity

  11. Observational Properties of Coronal Mass Ejections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    speeds 2.5. Masses and Energies of CMEs exceeded 2000 km s-1; the fastest CME speed measured thus far was 2657 km s-1 on 4 November 2000. When compiled The...accelerated. The average deceleration of the fastest (> 900 km s-1) The CME kinetic energies can also be calculated from the CME group is -16 m s-2...OBSERVATIONAL PROPERTIES OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS 15 *"...... .. ’..’... ... ’...... kinetic energy is 2.4 x 1030 ergs (5.0 x 1029 ergs) [Vourlidas, 2004

  12. A multi-channel coronal spectrophotometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landman, D. A.; Orrall, F. Q.; Zane, R.

    1973-01-01

    We describe a new multi-channel coronal spectrophotometer system, presently being installed at Mees Solar Observatory, Mount Haleakala, Maui. The apparatus is designed to record and interpret intensities from many sections of the visible and near-visible spectral regions simultaneously, with relatively high spatial and temporal resolution. The detector, a thermoelectrically cooled silicon vidicon camera tube, has its central target area divided into a rectangular array of about 100,000 pixels and is read out in a slow-scan (about 2 sec/frame) mode. Instrument functioning is entirely under PDP 11/45 computer control, and interfacing is via the CAMAC system.

  13. Coronal Structures in Cool Stars: XMM-NEWTON Hybrid Stars and Coronal Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, Andrea K.; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This program addresses the evolution of stellar coronas by comparing a solar-like corona in the supergiant Beta Dra (G2 Ib-IIa) to the corona in the allegedly more evolved state of a hybrid star, alpha TrA (K2 II-III). Because the hybrid star has a massive wind, it appears likely that the corona will be cooler and less dense as the magnetic loop structures are no longer closed. By analogy with solar coronal holes, when the topology of the magnetic field is configured with open magnetic structures, both the coronal temperature and density are lower than in atmospheres dominated by closed loops. The hybrid stars assume a pivotal role in the definition of coronal evolution, atmospheric heating processes and mechanisms to drive winds of cool stars. We are attempting to determine if this model of coronal evolution is correct by using XMM-NEWTON RGS spectra for the 2 targets we were allocated through the Guest Observer program.

  14. Solar radio bursts of spectral type II, coronal shocks, and optical coronal transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, A.; Dryer, M.

    1981-01-01

    An examination is presented of the association of solar radio bursts of spectral type II and coronal shocks with solar flare ejecta observed in H-alpha, the green coronal line, and white-light coronagraphs. It is suggested that fast-moving optical coronal transients should for the most part be identified with piston-type phenomena well behind the outward-traveling shock waves that generate type II radio bursts. A general model is presented which relates type II radio bursts and coronal shocks to optically observed ejecta and consists of three main velocity regimes: (1) a quasi-hemispherical shock wave moving outward from the flare at speeds of 1000-2000 km/sec and Alfven Mach number of about 1.5; (2) the velocity of the piston driving the shock, on the order of 0.8 that of the shock; and (3) the regime of the slower-moving H-alpha ejecta, with velocities of 300-500 km/sec.

  15. Coronal Mass Ejection early-warning mission by solar-photon sailcraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulpetti, Giovanni; Circi, Christian; Pino, Tommaso

    2017-11-01

    A preliminary investigation of the early warning of solar storms caused by Coronal Mass Ejection has been carried out. A long warning time could be obtained with a sailcraft synchronous with the Earth-Moon barycenter, and stationed well below the L1 point. In this paper, the theory of heliocentric synchronous sailcraft is set up, its perturbed orbit is analyzed, and a potential solution capable of providing an annual synchrony is carried out. A simple analysis of the response from a low-mass electrochromic actuator for the realization of station-keeping attitude maneuvers is put forwards, and an example of propellantless re-orientation maneuver is studied.

  16. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpua, Emilia; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.

    2017-11-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  17. Determining the Full Halo Coronal Mass Ejection Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainshtein, V. G.

    2010-11-01

    Observing halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) in the coronagraph field of view allows one to only determine the apparent parameters in the plane of the sky. Recently, several methods have been proposed allowing one to find some true geometrical and kinematical parameters of HCMEs. In most cases, a simple cone model was used to describe the CME shape. Observations show that various modifications of the cone model ("ice cream models") are most appropriate for describing the shapes of individual CMEs. This paper uses the method of determining full HCME parameters proposed by the author earlier, for determining the parameters of 45 full HCMEs, with various modifications of their shapes. I show that the determined CME characteristics depend significantly on the chosen CME shape. I conclude that the absence of criteria for a preliminary evaluation of the CME shape is a major source of error in determining the true parameters of a full HCME with any of the known methods. I show that, regardless of the chosen CME form, the trajectory of practically all the HCMEs in question deviate from the radial direction towards the Sun-Earth axis at the initial stage of their movement, and their angular size, on average, significantly exceeds that of all the observable CMEs.

  18. Coronal Magnetic Field Topology and Source of Fast Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guhathakurta, M.; Sittler, E.; Fisher, R.; McComas, D.; Thompson, B.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a steady state, 2D semi-empirical MHD model of the solar corona and the solar wind with many surprising results. This model for the first time shows, that the boundary between the fast and the slow solar wind as observed by Ulysses beyond 1 AU, is established in the low corona. The fastest wind observed by Ulysses (680-780 km/s) originates from the polar coronal holes at 70 -90 deg. latitude at the Sun. Rapidly diverging magnetic field geometry accounts for the fast wind reaching down to a latitude of +/- 30 deg. at the orbit of Earth. The gradual increase in the fast wind observed by Ulysses, with latitude, can be explained by an increasing field strength towards the poles, which causes Alfven wave energy flux to increase towards the poles. Empirically, there is a direct relationship between this gradual increase in wind speed and the expansion factor, f, computed at r greater than 20%. This relationship is inverse if f is computed very close to the Sun.

  19. Relationship of EUV Irradiance Coronal Dimming Slope and Depth to Coronal Mass Ejection Speed and Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, James Paul; Woods, Thomas N.; Webb, David F.; Thompson, Barbara J.; Colaninno, Robin C.; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2016-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coronal dimmings are often observed in response to solar eruptive events. These phenomena can be generated via several different physical processes. For space weather, the most important of these is the temporary void left behind by a coronal mass ejection (CME). Massive, fast CMEs tend to leave behind a darker void that also usually corresponds to minimum irradiance for the cooler coronal emissions. If the dimming is associated with a solar are, as is often the case, the are component of the irradiance light curve in the cooler coronal emission can be isolated and removed using simultaneous measurements of warmer coronal lines. We apply this technique to 37dimming events identified during two separate two-week periods in 2011, plus an event on 2010 August 7 analyzed in a previous paper, to parameterize dimming in terms of depth and slope. We provide statistics on which combination of wavelengths worked best for the flare-removal method, describe the fitting methods applied to the dimming light curves, and compare the dimming parameters with corresponding CME parameters of mass and speed. The best linear relationships found are nu(sub CME) [km/s] approx. equals 2.36 x 10 6 [km/%] x s(sub dim) [%/s] m(sub CME) [g] approx. equals 2.59 x 10(exp.15 [g/%] x the square root of d(sub dim) [%].These relationships could be used for space weather operations of estimating CME mass and speed using near-real-time irradiance dimming measurements.

  20. Evaluation of the Minifilament-Eruption Scenario for Solar Coronal Jets in Polar Coronal Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baikie, Tomi K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David; Moore, Ronald L.; Savage, Sabrina L.

    2016-01-01

    Solar coronal jets are suspected to result from magnetic reconnection low in the Sun's atmosphere. Sterling et al. (2015) looked as 20 jets in polar coronal holes, using X-ray images from the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and EUV images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). They suggested that each jet was driven by the eruption of twisted closed magnetic field carrying a small-scale filament, which they call a 'minifilament', and that the jet was produced by reconnection of the erupting field with surrounding open field. In this study, we carry out a more extensive examination of polar coronal jets. From 180 hours of XRT polar coronal hole observations spread over two years (2014-2016), we identified 130 clearly-identifiable X-ray jet events and thus determined an event rate of over 17 jets per day per in the Hinode/XRT field of view. From the broader set, we selected 25 of the largest and brightest events for further study in AIA 171, 193, 211, and 304 Angstrom images. We find that at least the majority of the jets follow the minifilament-eruption scenario, although for some cases the evolution of the minifilament in the onset of its eruption is more complex than presented in the simplified schematic of Sterling et al. (2015). For all cases in which we could make a clear determination, the spire of the X-ray jet drifted laterally away from the jet-base-edge bright point; this spire drift away from the bright point is consistent with expectations of the minifilament-eruption scenario for coronal-jet production. This work was supported with funding from the NASA/MSFC Hinode Project Office, and from the NASA HGI program.

  1. Magnetic Flux Cancelation as the Trigger of Solar Coronal Jets in Coronal Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate in detail the magnetic cause of minifilament eruptions that drive coronal-hole jets. We study 13 random on-disk coronal-hole jet eruptions, using high-resolution X-ray images from the Hinode/X-ray telescope(XRT), EUV images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and magnetograms from the SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). For all 13 events, we track the evolution of the jet-base region and find that a minifilament of cool (transition-region-temperature) plasma is present prior to each jet eruption. HMI magnetograms show that the minifilaments reside along a magnetic neutral line between majority-polarity and minority-polarity magnetic flux patches. These patches converge and cancel with each other, with an average cancelation rate of ∼0.6 × 1018 Mx hr‑1 for all 13 jets. Persistent flux cancelation at the neutral line eventually destabilizes the minifilament field, which erupts outward and produces the jet spire. Thus, we find that all 13 coronal-hole-jet-driving minifilament eruptions are triggered by flux cancelation at the neutral line. These results are in agreement with our recent findings for quiet-region jets, where flux cancelation at the underlying neutral line triggers the minifilament eruption that drives each jet. Thus, from that study of quiet-Sun jets and this study of coronal-hole jets, we conclude that flux cancelation is the main candidate for triggering quiet-region and coronal-hole jets.

  2. Does TRACE Resolve Isothermal Coronal Loops?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Mark A.; Schmelz, J.; Kashyap, V.; Roames, J.

    2006-06-01

    Historically, increasing resolution of solar data has revealed ever smaller length scales for both the thermodynamics and the magnetic structure of the corona. Furthermore, the dynamics there are governed by magnetohydrodynamic processes which are difficult to observe or model. Recent results in the literature suggest that some coronal loops with cross-sections near the resolution limits of the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (pixel size = 0.5 arc-seconds, or approx. 360 km) are, in fact, isothermally homogeneous and thus may be identified as elementary loop strands. This poster presents some ongoing work that applies state-of-the-art estimation of differential emission measures in order to evaluate these claims for a sample of loops. We find that the data give no evidence to prefer the "isothermal" hypothesis over the "multithermal" hypothesis. The authors are supported by the following funds: contract SP02H820IR to the Lockheed-Martin Corp.; NSF grant ATM-0402729; NASA grant NNG05GE68G; and NASA contracts NAS8-39073 and NAS8-03060.

  3. Analytical investigations on the Coronation Gospels manuscript

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Idone, Ambra; Crivello, Fabrizio; Griesser, Martina; Kirchweger, Franz; Uhlir, Katharina; Puyo, Patricia Roger

    2017-01-01

    The Coronation Gospels or Krönungsevangeliar is a manuscript kept in Vienna at the Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, datable to the end of VIII century A.D. and produced at Charlemagne court. It is an example of a purple codex, i.e. its parchment is coloured in purple. It has to be considered as one of the most important medieval codices, according to its use to take oath in the coronation ceremony of kings and emperors of the Holy Roman Empire up to 1792. In order to gather information of the manufacture of the manuscript and its present conservation state, a diagnostic investigation campaign has been carried out in situ with totally non-invasive techniques. X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with optical fibres (FORS), spectrofluorimetry, optical microscopy and multispectral analysis have been applied in order to identify the colourants used in the decoration of the manuscript, with the main concern to the dye used to impart the purple hue to the parchment. The information collected was useful in order to address some of the questions raised by art historians concerning its history.

  4. Plasma Evolution within an Erupting Coronal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, David M.; Harra, Louise K.; Matthews, Sarah A.; Warren, Harry P.; Lee, Kyoung-Sun; Doschek, George A.; Hara, Hirohisa; Jenkins, Jack M.

    2018-03-01

    Coronal cavities have previously been observed to be associated with long-lived quiescent filaments and are thought to correspond to the associated magnetic flux rope. Although the standard flare model predicts a coronal cavity corresponding to the erupting flux rope, these have only been observed using broadband imaging data, restricting an analysis to the plane-of-sky. We present a unique set of spectroscopic observations of an active region filament seen erupting at the solar limb in the extreme ultraviolet. The cavity erupted and expanded rapidly, with the change in rise phase contemporaneous with an increase in nonthermal electron energy flux of the associated flare. Hot and cool filamentary material was observed to rise with the erupting flux rope, disappearing suddenly as the cavity appeared. Although strongly blueshifted plasma continued to be observed flowing from the apex of the erupting flux rope, this outflow soon ceased. These results indicate that the sudden injection of energy from the flare beneath forced the rapid eruption and expansion of the flux rope, driving strong plasma flows, which resulted in the eruption of an under-dense filamentary flux rope.

  5. Modified Homogeneous Data Set of Coronal Intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorotovič, I.; Minarovjech, M.; Lorenc, M.; Rybanský, M.

    2014-07-01

    The Astronomical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences has published the intensities, recalibrated with respect to a common intensity scale, of the 530.3 nm (Fe xiv) green coronal line observed at ground-based stations up to the year 2008. The name of this publication is Homogeneous Data Set (HDS). We have developed a method that allows one to successfully substitute the ground-based observations by satellite observations and, thus, continue with the publication of the HDS. For this purpose, the observations of the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite, were exploited. Among other data the EIT instrument provides almost daily 28.4 nm (Fe xv) emission-line snapshots of the corona. The Fe xiv and Fe xv data (4051 observation days) taken in the period 1996 - 2008 have been compared and good agreement was found. The method to obtain the individual data for the HDS follows from the correlation analysis described in this article. The resulting data, now under the name of Modified Homogeneous Data Set (MHDS), are identical up to 1996 to those in the HDS. The MHDS can be used further for studies of the coronal solar activity and its cycle. These data are available at http://www.suh.sk.

  6. SHOCK CONNECTIVITY IN THE 2010 AUGUST AND 2012 JULY SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS INFERRED FROM OBSERVATIONS AND ENLIL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, H. M.; Luhmann, J. G.; Li, Y.

    During periods of increased solar activity, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can occur in close succession and proximity to one another. This can lead to the interaction and merger of CME ejecta as they propagate in the heliosphere. The particles accelerated in these shocks can result in complex solar energetic particle (SEP) events, as observing spacecraft form both remote and local shock connections. It can be challenging to understand these complex SEP events from in situ profiles alone. Multipoint observations of CMEs in the near-Sun environment, from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory –Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation and themore » Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph, greatly improve our chances of identifying the origin of these accelerated particles. However, contextual information on conditions in the heliosphere, including the background solar wind conditions and shock structures, is essential for understanding SEP properties well enough to forecast their characteristics. Wang–Sheeley–Arge WSA-ENLIL + Cone modeling provides a tool to interpret major SEP event periods in the context of a realistic heliospheric model and to determine how much of what is observed in large SEP events depends on nonlocal magnetic connections to shock sources. We discuss observations of the SEP-rich periods of 2010 August and 2012 July in conjunction with ENLIL modeling. We find that much SEP activity can only be understood in the light of such models, and in particular from knowing about both remote and local shock source connections. These results must be folded into the investigations of the physics underlying the longitudinal extent of SEP events, and the source connection versus diffusion pictures of interpretations of SEP events.« less

  7. Sun-to-Earth Analysis of a Major Geoeffective Solar Eruption within the Framework of the

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsourakos, S.; Vlahos, L.; Georgoulis, M.; Tziotziou, K.; Nindos, A.; Podladchikova, O.; Vourlidas, A.; Anastasiadis, A.; Sandberg, I.; Tsinganos, K.; Daglis, I.; Hillaris, A.; Preka-Papadema, P.; Sarris, M.; Sarris, T.

    2013-09-01

    Transient expulsions of gigantic clouds of solar coronal plasma into the interplanetary space in the form of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and sudden, intense flashes of electromagnetic radiation, solar flares, are well-established drivers of the variable Space Weather. Given the innate, intricate links and connections between the solar drivers and their geomagnetic effects, synergistic efforts assembling all pieces of the puzzle along the Sun-Earth line are required to advance our understanding of the physics of Space Weather. This is precisely the focal point of the Hellenic National Space Weather Research Network (HNSWRN) under the THALIS Programme. Within the HNSWRN framework, we present here the first results from a coordinated multi-instrument case study of a major solar eruption (X5.4 and X1.3 flares associated with two ultra-fast (>2000 km/s) CMEs) which were launched early on 7 March 2012 and triggered an intense geomagnetic storm (min Dst =-147 nT) approximately two days afterwards. Several elements of the associated phenomena, such as the flare and CME, EUV wave, WL shock, proton and electron event, interplanetary type II radio burst, ICME and magnetic cloud and their spatiotemporal relationships and connections are studied all way from Sun to Earth. To this end, we make use of satellite data from a flotilla of solar, heliospheric and magnetospheric missions and monitors (e.g., SDO, STEREO, WIND, ACE, Herschel, Planck and INTEGRAL). We also present our first steps toward formulating a cohesive physical scenario to explain the string of the observables and to assess the various physical mechanisms than enabled and gave rise to the significant geoeffectiveness of the eruption.

  8. Coronal magnetohydrodynamic waves and oscillations: observations and quests.

    PubMed

    Aschwanden, Markus J

    2006-02-15

    Coronal seismology, a new field of solar physics that emerged over the last 5 years, provides unique information on basic physical properties of the solar corona. The inhomogeneous coronal plasma supports a variety of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) wave modes, which manifest themselves as standing waves (MHD oscillations) and propagating waves. Here, we briefly review the physical properties of observed MHD oscillations and waves, including fast kink modes, fast sausage modes, slow (acoustic) modes, torsional modes, their diagnostics of the coronal magnetic field, and their physical damping mechanisms. We discuss the excitation mechanisms of coronal MHD oscillations and waves: the origin of the exciter, exciter propagation, and excitation in magnetic reconnection outflow regions. Finally, we consider the role of coronal MHD oscillations and waves for coronal heating, the detectability of various MHD wave types, and we estimate the energies carried in the observed MHD waves and oscillations: Alfvénic MHD waves could potentially provide sufficient energy to sustain coronal heating, while acoustic MHD waves fall far short of the required coronal heating rates.

  9. View of coronal hole processed from television transmission of ATM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-20

    S73-32883 (20 Aug. 1973) --- This false color isophote, processed from an Aug. 20, 1973 television transmission of Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) experiments from Skylab 3, dramatically reveals a significant change in the coronal hole as compared to the previous day. Solar rotation accounts for the new location of the coronal hole. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Fitting and Reconstruction of Thirteen Simple Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Haddad, Nada; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Savani, Neel P.; Lugaz, Noé; Roussev, Ilia I.

    2018-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the main drivers of geomagnetic disturbances, but the effects of their interaction with Earth's magnetic field depend on their magnetic configuration and orientation. Fitting and reconstruction techniques have been developed to determine important geometrical and physical CME properties, such as the orientation of the CME axis, the CME size, and its magnetic flux. In many instances, there is disagreement between different methods but also between fitting from in situ measurements and reconstruction based on remote imaging. This could be due to the geometrical or physical assumptions of the models, but also to the fact that the magnetic field inside CMEs is only measured at one point in space as the CME passes over a spacecraft. In this article we compare three methods that are based on different assumptions for measurements by the Wind spacecraft for 13 CMEs from 1997 to 2015. These CMEs are selected from the interplanetary coronal mass ejections catalog on https://wind.nasa.gov/ICMEindex.php because of their simplicity in terms of: 1) slow expansion speed throughout the CME and 2) weak asymmetry in the magnetic field profile. This makes these 13 events ideal candidates for comparing codes that do not include expansion or distortion. We find that for these simple events, the codes are in relatively good agreement in terms of the CME axis orientation for six of the 13 events. Using the Grad-Shafranov technique, we can determine the shape of the cross-section, which is assumed to be circular for the other two models, a force-free fitting and a circular-cylindrical non force-free fitting. Five of the events are found to have a clear circular cross-section, even when this is not a precondition of the reconstruction. We make an initial attempt at evaluating the adequacy of the different assumptions for these

  11. Constraining Large-Scale Solar Magnetic Field Models with Optical Coronal Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uritsky, V. M.; Davila, J. M.; Jones, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific success of the Solar Probe Plus (SPP) and Solar Orbiter (SO) missions will depend to a large extent on the accuracy of the available coronal magnetic field models describing the connectivity of plasma disturbances in the inner heliosphere with their source regions. We argue that ground based and satellite coronagraph images can provide robust geometric constraints for the next generation of improved coronal magnetic field extrapolation models. In contrast to the previously proposed loop segmentation codes designed for detecting compact closed-field structures above solar active regions, we focus on the large-scale geometry of the open-field coronal regions located at significant radial distances from the solar surface. Details on the new feature detection algorithms will be presented. By applying the developed image processing methodology to high-resolution Mauna Loa Solar Observatory images, we perform an optimized 3D B-line tracing for a full Carrington rotation using the magnetic field extrapolation code presented in a companion talk by S.Jones at al. Tracing results are shown to be in a good qualitative agreement with the large-scalie configuration of the optical corona. Subsequent phases of the project and the related data products for SSP and SO missions as wwll as the supporting global heliospheric simulations will be discussed.

  12. Our Cosmic Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donna L.

    2005-01-01

    To help students understand the connection that Earth and the solar system have with the cosmic cycles of stellar evolution, and to give students an appreciation of the beauty and elegance of celestial phenomena, the Chandra X-Ray Center (CXC) educational website contains a stellar evolution module that is available free to teachers. In this…

  13. Coronal Heating and the Increase of Coronal Luminosity with Magnetic Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Falconer, D. A.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present the observed scaling of coronal luminosity with magnetic flux in a set of quiet regions. Comparison of this with the observed scaling found for active regions suggests an underlying difference between coronal heating in active regions and quiet regions. From SOHO/EIT coronal images and SOHO/MDI magnetograms of four similar large quiet regions, we measure L(sub corona) and Phi(sub total) in random subregions ranging in area from about four supergranules [(70,000 km)(exp 2)] to about 100 supergranules [(0.5 R(sub sun))(exp 2)], where L(sub corona) is the luminosity of the corona in a subregion and Phi(sub total) is the flux content of the magnetic network in the subregion. This sampling of our quiet regions yields a correlation plot of Log L(sub corona) vs Log Phi(sub total) appropriate for comparison with the corresponding plot for active regions. For our quiet regions, the mean values of L(sub corona) and Phi(sub total) both increase linearly with area (simply because each set of subregions of the same area has very nearly the same mean coronal luminosity per unit area and mean magnetic flux per unit area), and in each constant-area set the values of L(sub corona) and Phi(sub total) 'scatter' about their means for that area. This results in the linear least-squares fit to the Log ((L (sub corona)), vs Log ((Phi (sub total)) plot having a slope somewhat less than one. If active regions mimicked our quiet regions in that all large sets of same-area active regions had the same mean coronal luminosity per unit area and same mean magnetic flux per unit area, then the least-squares fit to their Log((L (sub corona)) vs Log((Phi (sub total)) plot would also have a slope of less than one. Instead, the slope for active regions is 1.2. Given the observed factor of three scatter about the least-squares linear fit, this slope is consistent with Phi(sub total) on average increasing linearly with area (A) as in quiet regions, but L(sub corona) on average increasing as

  14. Equilibrium models of coronal loops that involve curvature and buoyancy

    SciTech Connect

    Hindman, Bradley W.; Jain, Rekha, E-mail: hindman@solarz.colorado.edu

    2013-12-01

    We construct magnetostatic models of coronal loops in which the thermodynamics of the loop is fully consistent with the shape and geometry of the loop. This is achieved by treating the loop as a thin, compact, magnetic fibril that is a small departure from a force-free state. The density along the loop is related to the loop's curvature by requiring that the Lorentz force arising from this deviation is balanced by buoyancy. This equilibrium, coupled with hydrostatic balance and the ideal gas law, then connects the temperature of the loop with the curvature of the loop without resorting to amore » detailed treatment of heating and cooling. We present two example solutions: one with a spatially invariant magnetic Bond number (the dimensionless ratio of buoyancy to Lorentz forces) and the other with a constant radius of the curvature of the loop's axis. We find that the density and temperature profiles are quite sensitive to curvature variations along the loop, even for loops with similar aspect ratios.« less

  15. Determination of coronal magnetic fields from vector magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran

    1993-01-01

    This report covers technical progress during the second year of the contract entitled 'Determination of Coronal Magnetic Fields from Vector Magnetograms,' NASW-4728, between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation, and covers the period January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993. Under this contract SAIC has conducted research into the determination of coronal magnetic fields from vector magnetograms, including the development and application of algorithms to determine force-free coronal fields above selected observations of active regions. The contract began on June 30, 1992 and has a completion date of December 31, 1994. This contract is a continuation of work started in a previous contract, NASW-4571, which covered the period November 15, 1990 to December 14, 1991. During this second year we have concentrated on studying additional active regions and in using the estimated coronal magnetic fields to compare to coronal features inferred from observations.

  16. Coronal disturbances and their terrestrial effects /Tutorial Lecture/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is undertaken of recent approaches to the prediction of the interplanetary consequences of coronal disturbances, with attention to the relationships of shocks and energetic particles to coronal transients, of proton events to gamma-ray and microwave bursts, of geomagnetic storms to filament eruptions, and of solar wind increases to the flare site magnetic field direction. A discussion is given concerning the novel phenomenon of transient coronal holes, which appear astride the long decay enhancements of 2-50 A X-ray emission following H-alpha filament eruptions. These voids in the corona are similar to long-lived coronal holes, which are the sources of high speed solar wind streams. The transient coronal holes may also be associated with transient solar wind speed increases.

  17. Do Solar Coronal Holes Affect the Properties of Solar Energetic Particle Events?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Arge, C. N.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2013-01-01

    The intensities and timescales of gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events at 1 AU may depend not only on the characteristics of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), but also on large-scale coronal and interplanetary structures. It has long been suspected that the presence of coronal holes (CHs) near the CMEs or near the 1-AU magnetic footpoints may be an important factor in SEP events. We used a group of 41 E (is) approx. 20 MeV SEP events with origins near the solar central meridian to search for such effects. First we investigated whether the presence of a CH directly between the sources of the CME and of the magnetic connection at 1 AU is an important factor. Then we searched for variations of the SEP events among different solar wind (SW) stream types: slow, fast, and transient. Finally, we considered the separations between CME sources and CH footpoint connections from 1 AU determined from four-day forecast maps based on Mount Wilson Observatory and the National Solar Observatory synoptic magnetic-field maps and the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model of SW propagation. The observed in-situ magnetic-field polarities and SW speeds at SEP event onsets tested the forecast accuracies employed to select the best SEP/CH connection events for that analysis. Within our limited sample and the three analytical treatments, we found no statistical evidence for an effect of CHs on SEP event peak intensities, onset times, or rise times. The only exception is a possible enhancement of SEP peak intensities in magnetic clouds.

  18. Coronal Heating and the Magnetic Flux Content of the Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Hathaway, D. H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Previously, from analysis of SOHO coronal images in combination with Kitt Peak magnetograms, we found that the quiet corona is the sum of two components: the large-scale corona and the coronal network. The large-scale corona consists of all coronal-temperature (T approximately 10(exp 6) K) structures larger than supergranules (greater than approximately 30,000 kilometers). The coronal network (1) consists of all coronal-temperature structures smaller than supergranules, (2) is rooted in and loosely traces the photospheric magnetic network, (3) has its brightest features seated on polarity dividing lines (neutral lines) in the network magnetic flux, and (4) produces only about 5% of the total coronal emission in quiet regions. The heating of the coronal network is apparently magnetic in origin. Here, from analysis of EIT coronal images of quiet regions in combination with magnetograms of the same quiet regions from SOHO/MDI and from Kitt Peak, we examine the other 95% of the quiet corona and its relation to the underlying magnetic network. We find: (1) Dividing the large-scale corona into its bright and dim halves divides the area into bright "continents" and dark "oceans" having spans of 2-4 supergranules. (2) These patterns are also present in the photospheric magnetograms: the network is stronger under the bright half and weaker under the dim half. (3) The radiation from the large-scale corona increases roughly as the cube root of the magnetic flux content of the underlying magnetic network. In contrast, the coronal radiation from an active region increases roughly linearly with the magnetic flux content of the active region. We assume, as is widely held, that nearly all of the large-scale corona is magnetically rooted in the network. Our results suggest that either the coronal heating in quiet regions has a large non-magnetic component, or, if the heating is predominantly produced via the magnetic field, the mechanism is significantly different than in active

  19. Development and Transition of the Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) Toolset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.; Zank, G.

    2014-01-01

    We outline a plan to develop and transition a physics based predictive toolset called The Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) to describe the interplanetary energetic particle and radiation environment throughout the inner heliosphere, including at the Earth. To forecast and "nowcast" the radiation environment requires the fusing of three components: 1) the ability to provide probabilities for incipient solar activity; 2) the use of these probabilities and daily coronal and solar wind observations to model the 3D spatial and temporal heliosphere, including magnetic field structure and transients, within 10 Astronomical Units; and 3) the ability to model the acceleration and transport of energetic particles based on current and anticipated coronal and heliospheric conditions. We describe how to address 1) - 3) based on our existing, well developed, and validated codes and models. The goal of RISCS toolset is to provide an operational forecast and "nowcast" capability that will a) predict solar energetic particle (SEP) intensities; b) spectra for protons and heavy ions; c) predict maximum energies and their duration; d) SEP composition; e) cosmic ray intensities, and f) plasma parameters, including shock arrival times, strength and obliquity at any given heliospheric location and time. The toolset would have a 72 hour predicative capability, with associated probabilistic bounds, that would be updated hourly thereafter to improve the predicted event(s) and reduce the associated probability bounds. The RISCS toolset would be highly adaptable and portable, capable of running on a variety of platforms to accommodate various operational needs and requirements. The described transition plan is based on a well established approach developed in the Earth Science discipline that ensures that the customer has a tool that meets their needs

  20. Characteristics of polar coronal hole jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrashekhar, K.; Bemporad, A.; Banerjee, D.; Gupta, G. R.; Teriaca, L.

    2014-01-01

    Context. High spatial- and temporal-resolution images of coronal hole regions show a dynamical environment where mass flows and jets are frequently observed. These jets are believed to be important for the coronal heating and the acceleration of the fast solar wind. Aims: We studied the dynamics of two jets seen in a polar coronal hole with a combination of imaging from EIS and XRT onboard Hinode. We observed drift motions related to the evolution and formation of these small-scale jets, which we tried to model as well. Methods: Stack plots were used to find the drift and flow speeds of the jets. A toymodel was developed by assuming that the observed jet is generated by a sequence of single reconnection events where single unresolved blobs of plasma are ejected along open field lines, then expand and fall back along the same path, following a simple ballistic motion. Results: We found observational evidence that supports the idea that polar jets are very likely produced by multiple small-scale reconnections occurring at different times in different locations. These eject plasma blobs that flow up and down with a motion very similar to a simple ballistic motion. The associated drift speed of the first jet is estimated to be ≈27 km s-1. The average outward speed of the first jet is ≈171 km s-1, well below the escape speed, hence if simple ballistic motion is considered, the plasma will not escape the Sun. The second jet was observed in the south polar coronal hole with three XRT filters, namely, C-poly, Al-poly, and Al-mesh filters. Many small-scale (≈3″-5″) fast (≈200-300 km s-1) ejections of plasma were observed on the same day; they propagated outwards. We observed that the stronger jet drifted at all altitudes along the jet with the same drift speed of ≃7 km s-1. We also observed that the bright point associated with the first jet is a part of sigmoid structure. The time of appearance of the sigmoid and that of the ejection of plasma from the bright

  1. Turbulent resistive heating of solar coronal arches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, G.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility that coronal heating occurs by means of anomalous Joule heating by electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is examined, with consideration given to currents running from foot of a loop to the other. It is assumed that self-fields generated by the currents are absent and currents follow the direction of the magnetic field, allowing the plasma cylinder to expand radially. Ion and electron heating rates are defined within the cylinder, together with longitudinal conduction and convection, radiation and cross-field transport, all in terms of Coulomb and turbulent effects. The dominant force is identified as electrostatic ion cyclotron instability, while ion acoustic modes remain stable. Rapid heating from an initial temperature of 10 eV to 100-1000 eV levels is calculated, with plasma reaching and maintaining a temperature in the 100 eV range. Strong heating is also possible according to the turbulent Ohm's law and by resistive heating.

  2. Plasma Heating During Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, N. A.; Shen, C.; Rimple, R.; Raymond, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Several recent observational analyses have shown that plasma heating enters into the energy budget of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at about the same order of magnitude as the kinetic energy. The ultimate source of the heating is the magnetic field, but the mechanisms by which magnetic energy is converted to thermal energy are poorly understood. We will review observational evidence for CME heating and discuss candidate mechanisms that may be responsible for the heating. We will discuss the Python implementation of a non-equilibrium ionization model and its application to CME plasma, and report on progress on modeling three events where the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) observed the same ejecta at multiple heights.

  3. A Catalog of Coronal "EIT Wave" Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. J.; Myers, D. C.

    2005-01-01

    SOHO Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) data have been visually searched for coronal "EIT wave" transients over the period beginning 24 March 1997 extending through 24 June 1998. The dates covered start at the beginning of regular high-cadence (more than 1 image every 20 minutes) observations, ending at the 4-month interruption of SOHO observations in mid-1998. 176 events are included in this catalog. The observations range from "candidate" events, which were either weak or had insufficient data coverage, to events which were well-defined and were clearly distinguishable in the data. Included in the catalog are times of the EIT images in which the events are observed, diagrams indicating the observed locations of the wavefronts and associated active regions, and the speeds of the wavefronts. The measured speeds of the wavefronts varied from less than 50 to over 700 km/sec with "typical" speeds of 200-400 Msec.

  4. Endogenous Magnetic Reconnection in Solar Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari-Targhi, M.; Coppi, B.; Basu, B.; Fletcher, A.; Golub, L.

    2017-12-01

    We propose that a magneto-thermal reconnection process occurring in coronal loops be the source of the heating of the Solar Corona [1]. In the adopted model, magnetic reconnection is associated with electron temperature gradients, anisotropic electron temperature fluctuations and plasma current density gradients [2]. The input parameters for our theoretical model are derived from the most recent observations of the Solar Corona. In addition, the relevant (endogenous) collective modes can produce high energy particle populations. An endogenous reconnection process is defined as being driven by factors internal to the region where reconnection takes place. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. D.O.E. and the Kavli Foundation* [1] Beafume, P., Coppi, B. and Golub, L., (1992) Ap. J. 393, 396. [2] Coppi, B. and Basu, B. (2017) MIT-LNS Report HEP 17/01.

  5. Energy buildup in coronal magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinolfson, R. S.; Tajima, T.

    1987-01-01

    A time-dependent two-dimensional MHD simulation is used to study the response of the magnetic field in coronal loops to photospheric motion. From an initially uniform field, circular sections of the ends of the loop are slowly rotated to represent the photospheric motion. The evolution of the field and flow is characterized by three phases: (1) a phase of negligible kinetic energy where the current and field are predominantly parallel; (2) a phase where the field twist increases, the axial field at and near the axis increases, and the axial field decreases in two cylindrical regions away from the axis; and (3) a phase in which a significant portion of the field makes several rotations at large radii, with a corresponding reducton in the axial field to a few percent of the initial value.

  6. Global Acceleration of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Lara, Alejandro; Lepping, Ronald; Kaiser, Michael; Berdichevsky, Daniel; St. Cyr, O. Chris; Lazarus, Al

    1999-01-01

    Using the observed relation between speeds of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) near the Sun and in the solar wind, we estimate a global acceleration acting on the CMEs. Our study quantifies the qualitative results of Gosling [1997] and numerical simulations that CMEs at 1 AU with speeds closer to the solar wind. We found a linear relation between the global acceleration and the initial speed of the CMEs and the absolute value of the acceleration is similar to the slow solar wind acceleration. Our study naturally divides CMEs into fast and slow ones, the dividing line being the solar wind speed. Our results have important implications to space weather prediction models which need to incorporate this effect in estimating the CME arrival time at 1 AU. We show that the arrival times of CMEs at 1 AU are drastically different from the zero acceleration case.

  7. The coronal structure of active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landini, M.; Monsignori Fossi, B. C.; Krieger, A.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    A four-parameter model, which assumes a Gaussian dependence of both temperature and pressure on distance from center, is used to fit the compact part of coronal active regions as observed in X-ray photographs from a rocket experiment. The four parameters are the maximum temperature, the maximum pressure, the width of the pressure distribution, and the width of the temperature distribution. The maximum temperature ranges from 2.2 to 2.8 million K, and the maximum density from 2 to 9 by 10 to the 9th power per cu cm. The range of the pressure-distribution width is from 2 to 4 by 10 to the 9th power cm and that of the temperature-distribution width from 2 to 7.

  8. Image-optimized Coronal Magnetic Field Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Shaela I.; Uritsky, Vadim; Davila, Joseph M.

    2017-08-01

    We have reported previously on a new method we are developing for using image-based information to improve global coronal magnetic field models. In that work, we presented early tests of the method, which proved its capability to improve global models based on flawed synoptic magnetograms, given excellent constraints on the field in the model volume. In this follow-up paper, we present the results of similar tests given field constraints of a nature that could realistically be obtained from quality white-light coronagraph images of the lower corona. We pay particular attention to difficulties associated with the line-of-sight projection of features outside of the assumed coronagraph image plane and the effect on the outcome of the optimization of errors in the localization of constraints. We find that substantial improvement in the model field can be achieved with these types of constraints, even when magnetic features in the images are located outside of the image plane.

  9. A magnetohydrodynamic theory of coronal loop transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, T.

    1982-01-01

    The physical and geometrical characteristics of solar coronal loop transients are described in an MHD model based on Archimedes' MHD buoyancy force. The theory was developed from interpretation of coronagraphic data, particularly from Skylab. The brightness of a loop is taken to indicate the electron density, and successive pictures reveal the electron enhancement in different columns. The forces which lift the loop off the sun surface are analyzed as an MHD buoyancy force affecting every mass element by imparting an inertial force necessary for heliocentrifugal motion. Thermal forces are responsible for transferring the ambient stress to the interior of the loop to begin the process. The kinematic and hydrostatic buoyancy overcome the gravitational force, and a flux rope can then curve upward, spiralling like a corkscrew with varying cross section around the unwinding solar magnetic field lines.

  10. Image-Optimized Coronal Magnetic Field Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Shaela I.; Uritsky, Vadim; Davila, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    We have reported previously on a new method we are developing for using image-based information to improve global coronal magnetic field models. In that work we presented early tests of the method which proved its capability to improve global models based on flawed synoptic magnetograms, given excellent constraints on the field in the model volume. In this follow-up paper we present the results of similar tests given field constraints of a nature that could realistically be obtained from quality white-light coronagraph images of the lower corona. We pay particular attention to difficulties associated with the line-of-sight projection of features outside of the assumed coronagraph image plane, and the effect on the outcome of the optimization of errors in localization of constraints. We find that substantial improvement in the model field can be achieved with this type of constraints, even when magnetic features in the images are located outside of the image plane.

  11. Observational Signatures of Coronal Heating Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Philip

    1998-11-01

    Many mechanisms for heating the corona have been proposed since the problem was identified by Edlen more than 50 years ago. Identifying those that are important is a challenging problem that has so far not been resolved. One thing is clear: based upon a variety of observations, the corona is heated by conversion of magnetic flux into thermal energy. The flux emerges from sub-photospheric layers and is buffeted by photospheric dynamics. The ``coronal heating problem'' is to identify how, given the high conductivities of coronal plasma, the magnetic energy is dissipated. After reviewing some basic observational facts and placing the corona into appropriate physical regimes, I will focus on two pieces of information recently obtained from spacecraft. In one, I will discuss the interpretation of line profiles from the UVCS instrument on the SOHO spacecraft, presented by Kohl and colleagues. These observations indicate the presence of asymmetric particle distribution functions low in the solar wind, so I will discuss implications for heating mechanisms for plasma on these ``open'' field lines, in terms of ion cyclotron resonant heating by high frequency Alfven waves. In the other, I will try to review evidence for the ``nano-flare'' heating mechanism proposed by Parker to explain the heating of plasma along closed field lines, such as are present in active regions, based upon data from the SOHO and TRACE spacecraft. Parker's picture is one of slow field line ``braiding'', driven by random footpoint motions, with sudden energy release at critical energies. An attempt will be made to relate these different mechanisms by looking for the source of the high frequency waves implied by the UVCS observations.

  12. FOXSI-2 Observations and Coronal Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, S.; Glesener, L.; Krucker, S.; Ramsey, B.; Ishikawa, S. N.; Buitrago Casas, J. C.; Takahashi, T.; Foster, N.

    2015-12-01

    Energy release and particle acceleration on the Sun is a frequent occurrence associated with a number of different solar phenomenon including but not limited to solar flares, coronal mass ejections and nanoflares. The exact mechanism through which particles are accelerated and energy is released is still not well understood. This issue is related to the unsolved coronal heating problem, the mystery of the heating mechanism for the million degree solar corona. One prevalent theory posits the existence of a multitude of small flares, dubbed nanoflares. Recent observations of active region AR11890 by IRIS (Testa et al. 2014) are consistent with numerical simulations of heating by impulsive beams of nonthermal electrons, suggesting that nanoflares may be similar to large flares in that they accelerate particles. Furthermore, observations by the EUNIS sounding rocket (Brosius et al. 2014) of faint Fe XIX (592.2 Angstrom) emission in an active region is indicative of plasma at temperatures of at least 8.9 MK providing further evidence of nanoflare heating. One of the best ways to gain insight into accelerated particles on the Sun and the presence of hot plasma is by observing the Sun in hard X-rays (HXR). We present on observations taken during the second successful flight of the Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI-2). FOXSI flew on December 11, 2014 with upgraded optics as well as new CdTe strip detectors. FOXSI-2 observed thermal emission (4-15 keV) from at least three active regions (AR#12234, AR#12233, AR#12235) and observed regions of the Sun without active regions. We present on using FOXSI observations to test the presence of hot temperatures in and outside of active regions.

  13. A gigantic coronal jet ejected from a compact active region in a coronal hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, K.; Nitta, N.; Strong, K. T.; Matsumoto, R.; Yokoyama, T.; Hirayama, T.; Hudson, H.; Ogawara, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A gigantic coronal jet greater than 3 x 10(exp 5) km long (nearly half the solar radius) has been found with the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on board the solar X-ray satellite, Yohkoh. The jet was ejected on 1992 January 11 from an 'anemone-type' active region (AR) appearing in a coronal hole and is one of the largest coronal X-ray jets observed so far by SXT. This gigantic jet is the best observed example of many other smaller X-ray jets, because the spatial structures of both the jet and the AR located at its base are more easily resolved. The range of apparent translational velocities of the bulk of the jet was between 90 and 240 km s(exp -1), with the corresponding kinetic energy estimated to be of order of 10(exp 28) ergs. A detailed analysis reveals that the jet was associated with a loop brightening (a small flare) that occurred in the active region. Several features of this observation suggest and are consistent with a magnetic reconnection mechanism for the production of such a 'jet-loop-brightening' event.

  14. Association of 3He-rich solar energetic particles with large-scale coronal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucik, Radoslav; Innes, Davina; Guo, Lijia; Mason, Glenn M.; Wiedenbeck, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Impulsive or 3He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events have been typically associated with jets or small EUV brightenings. We identify 30 impulsive SEP events from ACE at L1 during the solar minimum period 2007-2010 and examine their solar sources with high resolution STEREO-A EUV images. At beginning of 2007, STEREO-A was near the Earth while at the end of the investigated period, when there were more events, STEREO-A was leading the Earth by 90°. Thus STEREO-A provided a better (more direct) view on 3He-rich flares generally located on the western Sun's hemisphere. Surprisingly, we find that about half of the events are associated with large-scale EUV coronal waves. This finding provides new insights on acceleration and transport of 3He-rich SEPs in solar corona. It is believed that elemental and isotopic fractionation in impulsive SEP events is caused by more localized processes operating in the flare sites. The EUV waves have been reported in gradual SEP events in association with fast coronal mass ejections. To examine their role on 3He-rich SEPs production the energy spectra and relative abundances are discussed. R. Bucik is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under grant BU 3115/2-1.

  15. How Interplanetary Scintillation Data Can Improve Modeling of Coronal Mass Ejection Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Manoharan, P. K.; Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can have a significant impact on the Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere system and cause widespread anomalies for satellites from geosynchronous to low-Earth orbit and produce effects such as geomagnetically induced currents. At the NASA/GSFC Community Coordinated Modeling Center we have been using ensemble modeling of CMEs since 2012. In this presnetation we demonstrate that using of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations from the Ooty Radio Telescope facility in India can help to track CME propagaion and improve ensemble forecasting of CMEs. The observations of the solar wind density and velocity using IPS from hundreds of distant sources in ensemble modeling of CMEs can be a game-changing improvement of the current state of the art in CME forecasting.

  16. Coronal Mass Ejections Near the Sun and in the Interplanetary Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2012-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomenon in the heliosphere. During solar eruptions, the released energy flows out from the Sun in the form of magnetized plasma and electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic radiation suddenly increases the ionization content of the ionosphere, thus impacting communication and navigation systems. The plasma clouds can drive shocks that accelerate charged particles to very high energies in the interplanetary space, which pose radiation hazard to astronauts and space systems. The plasma clouds also arrive at Earth in about two days and impact Earth's magnetosphere, producing geomagnetic storms. The magnetic storms result in a number of effects including induced currents that can disrupt power grids, railroads, and underground pipelines. This lecture presents an overview of the origin, propagation, and geospace consequences of CMEs and their interplanetary counterparts.

  17. Modeling Earth's Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallant, Amy; Lee, Hee-Sun; Pryputniewicz, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Systems thinking suggests that one can best understand a complex system by studying the interrelationships of its component parts rather than looking at the individual parts in isolation. With ongoing concern about the effects of climate change, using innovative materials to help students understand how Earth's systems connect with each other is…

  18. Unilateral coronal craniosynostosis in Abraham Lincoln and his family.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Ronald S

    2010-09-01

    Premature closure of one coronal skull suture produces a characteristic arching or relative elevation of the superior orbital rim on the involved side. This sign is associated with facial asymmetry, and both signs are usually the most conspicuous features in patients with mild unilateral coronal craniosynostosis. Photographs suggest that at least 9 individuals over 5 generations of the Abraham Lincoln family had premature closure of 1 coronal suture. In 8 males, there was involvement of the left side; in 1 female, there was involvement of the right side.

  19. MAJOR ELECTRON EVENTS AND CORONAL MAGNETIC CONFIGURATIONS OF THE RELATED SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.; Owen, C. J.; Matthews, S. A.

    A statistical survey of 26 major electron events during the period 2002 February through the end of solar cycle 23 is presented. We have obtained electron solar onset times and the peak flux spectra for each event by fitting to a power-law spectrum truncated by an exponential high-energy tail, i.e., f(E){approx}E{sup -{delta}}e{sup -E/E{sub 0}}. We also derived the coronal magnetic configurations of the related solar active regions (ARs) from the potential-field source-surface model. It is found that (1) 10 of the 11 well-connected open field-line events are prompt events whose solar onset times coincide with the maxima of flare emissionmore » and 13 of the 14 closed field-line events are delayed events. (2) A not-well-connected open field-line event and one of the closed field-line events are prompt events, they are both associated with large-scale coronal disturbances or dimming. (3) An averaged harder spectrum is found in open field-line events compared with the closed ones. Specifically, the averaged spectral index {delta} is of 1.6 {+-} 0.3 in open field-line events and of 2.0 {+-} 0.4 in closed ones. The spectra of three closed field-line events show infinite rollover energies E {sub 0}. These correlations clearly establish a significant link between the coronal magnetic field-line topology and the escape of charged particles from the flaring ARs into interplanetary space during the major solar energetic particle events.« less

  20. Constraints on active region coronal heating properties from observations and modeling of chromospheric, transition region, and coronal emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, P.; Polito, V.; De Pontieu, B.; Carlsson, M.; Reale, F.; Allred, J. C.; Hansteen, V. H.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate coronal heating properties in active region cores in non-flaring conditions, using high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution chromospheric/transition region/coronal observations coupled with detailed modeling. We will focus, in particular, on observations with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), joint with observations with Hinode (XRT and EIS) and SDO/AIA. We will discuss how these observations and models (1D HD and 3D MHD, with the RADYN and Bifrost codes) provide useful diagnostics of the coronal heating processes and mechanisms of energy transport.

  1. Fast Breakdown as Coronal/Ionization Waves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, P. R.; Petersen, D.; da Silva, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of high-power narrow bipolar events (NBEs) have shown they are produced by a newly-recognized breakdown process called fast positive breakdown (FPB, Rison et al., 2016, doi:10.1038/ncomms10721). The breakdown was inferred to be produced by a system of positive streamers that propagate at high speed ( ˜3-6 x 107 m/s) due to occurring in a localized region of strong electric field. The polarity of the breakdown was determined from broadband interferometer (INTF) observations of the propagation direction of its VHF radiation, which was downward into the main negative charge region of a normally-electrified storm. Subsequent INTF observations being conducted in at Kennedy Space Center in Florida have shown a much greater incidence of NBEs than in New Mexico. Among the larger dataset have been clear-cut instances of some NBEs being produced by upward breakdown that would be of negative polarity. The speed and behavior of the negative breakdown is the same as that of the fast positive, leading to it being termed fast negative breakdown (FNB). The similarity (not too mention its occurrence) is surprising, given the fact that negative streamers and breakdown develops much differently than that of positive breakdown. The question is how this happens. In this study, we compare fast breakdown characteristics to well-known streamer properties as inferred from laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis. Additionally, we begin to explore the possibility that both polarities of fast breakdown are produced by what may be called coronal or ionization waves, in which the enhanced electric field produced by streamer or coronal breakdown of either polarity propagates away from the advancing front at the speed of light into a medium that is in a metastable condition of being at the threshold of hydrometeor-mediated corona onset or other ionization processes. The wave would develop at a faster speed than the streamer breakdown that gives rise to it, and thus would be

  2. Coronal Dynamics at Recent Total Solar Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Lu, M.; Davis, A. B.; Demianski, M.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.; Seaton, D. B.; Lucas, R.; Babcock, B. A.; Dantowitz, R.; Gaintatzis, P.; Seeger, C. H.; Malamut, C.; Steele, A.

    2014-12-01

    Our composite images of the solar corona based on extensive imaging at the total solar eclipses of 2010 (Easter Island), 2012 (Australia), and 2013 (Gabon) reveal several coronal mass ejections and other changes in coronal streamers and in polar plumes. Our resultant spatial resolution is finer than that available in imaging from spacecraft, including that from SOHO/LASCO or STEREO. We trace the eruptions back to their footpoints on the sun using imaging from SDO and SWAP, and follow them upwards through the corona, measuring velocities. The high-resolution computer compositing by Miloslav Druckmüller and Hana Druckmüllerová (2010 and 2013) and Pavlos Gaintatzis (2012) allows comparison of our images with those taken at intervals of minutes or hours along the totality path. Williams College's 2013 eclipse expedition was supported in part by grant 9327-13 from National Geographic Society/Committee for Research and Exploration. Our work on the 2012 eclipse is supported in part by grant AGS-1047726 from Solar Terrestrial Research/NSF AGS. V.R. and M.S. were partially supported by the VEGA grant agency project 2/0098/10 and 2/0003/13 (Slovak Academy of Sciences) and Grant 0139-12 from NG/CRE, and Hana Druckmüllerová by grant 205/09/1469 of the Czech Science Foundation. M.L. was supported by Sigma Xi. C.M. was a Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium Summer Fellow, supported at Williams College by REU/NSF grant AST-1005024. Partial support was provided by U.S. Department of Defense's ASSURE program. J.M.P. thanks Caltech's Planetary Sciences Department for hospitality. Support for D.B.S. and SWAP came from PRODEX grant C90345 managed by ESA in collaboration with the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) in support of the PROBA2/SWAP mission, and from the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant 218816 (SOTERIA project, www.soteria-space.eu). SWAP is a project of the Centre Spatial de Liège and the Royal Observatory of Belgium funded by

  3. Photospheric magnetic field of an eroded-by-solar-wind coronal mass ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, J.; Cid, C.; Saiz, E.; Guerrero, A.

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated the case of a coronal mass ejection that was eroded by the fast wind of a coronal hole in the interplanetary medium. When a solar ejection takes place close to a coronal hole, the flux rope magnetic topology of the coronal mass ejection (CME) may become misshapen at 1 AU as a result of the interaction. Detailed analysis of this event reveals erosion of the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) magnetic field. In this communication, we study the photospheric magnetic roots of the coronal hole and the coronal mass ejection area with HMI/SDO magnetograms to define their magnetic characteristics.

  4. The Magnetic Evolution of Coronal Hole Bright Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; Muglach, K.

    2017-12-01

    Space weather refers to the state of the heliosphere and the geospace environment that are caused primarily by solar activity. Coronal mass ejections and flares originate in active regions and filaments close to the solar surface and can cause geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particles events, which can damage both spacecraft and ground-based systems that are critical for society's well-being. Coronal bright points are small-scale magnetic regions on the sun that seem to be similar to active regions, but are about an order of magnitude smaller. Due to their shorter lifetime, the complete evolutionary cycle of these mini active regions can be studied, from the time they appear in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images to the time they fade. We are using data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to study both the coronal EUV flux and the photospheric magnetic field and compare them to activities of the coronal bright point.

  5. Energy released by the interaction of coronal magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheeley, N. R., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Comparisons between coronal spectroheliograms and photospheric magnetograms are presented to support the idea that as coronal magnetic fields interact, a process of field-line reconnection usually takes place as a natural way of preventing magnetic stresses from building up in the lower corona. This suggests that the energy which would have been stored in stressed fields is continuously released as kinetic energy of material being driven aside to make way for the reconnecting fields. However, this kinetic energy is negligible compared with the thermal energy of the coronal plasma. Therefore, it appears that these slow adjustments of coronal magnetic fields cannot account for even the normal heating of the corona, much less the energetic events associated with solar flares.

  6. New Instruments to Isolate the Coronal Heating Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The coronal heating problem remains unsolved today, 80 years after its discovery, despite 50 years of suborbital and orbital coronal observatories. Tens of theoretical coronal heating mechanisms have been suggested, but only a few have been able to be ruled out. In this talk, we will explore the reasons for the slow progress and discuss the measurements that will be needed for potential breakthrough, including imaging the solar corona at small spatial scales, measuring the chromospheric magnetic fields, and detecting the presence of high temperature, low-emission measure plasma. We will discuss three sounding rocket instruments developed to make these measurements: the High-resolution Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP), and the Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS).

  7. Coronal hole evolution by sudden large scale changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolte, J. T.; Gerassimenko, M.; Krieger, A. S.; Solodyna, C. V.

    1978-01-01

    Sudden shifts in coronal-hole boundaries observed by the S-054 X-ray telescope on Skylab between May and November, 1973, within 1 day of CMP of the holes, at latitudes not exceeding 40 deg, are compared with the long-term evolution of coronal-hole area. It is found that large-scale shifts in boundary locations can account for most if not all of the evolution of coronal holes. The temporal and spatial scales of these large-scale changes imply that they are the results of a physical process occurring in the corona. It is concluded that coronal holes evolve by magnetic-field lines' opening when the holes are growing, and by fields' closing as the holes shrink.

  8. Propagation and Dissipation of MHD Waves in Coronal Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, B. N.

    2006-11-01

    bholadwivedi@gmail.com In view of the landmark result on the solar wind outflow, starting between 5 Mm and 20 Mm above the photosphere in magnetic funnels, we investigate the propagation and dissipation of MHD waves in coronal holes. We underline the importance of Alfvén wave dissipation in the magnetic funnels through the viscous and resistive plasma. Our results show that Alfvén waves are one of the primary energy sources in the innermost part of coronal holes where the solar wind outflow starts. We also consider compressive viscosity and thermal conductivity to study the propagation and dissipation of long period slow longitudinal MHD waves in polar coronal holes. We discuss their likely role in the line profile narrowing, and in the energy budget for coronal holes and the solar wind. We compare the contribution of longitudinal MHD waves with high frequency Alfvén waves.

  9. The influence of solar active region evolution on solar wind streams, coronal hole boundaries and geomagnetic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, R. E.; Dodson-Prince, H. W.; Hedeman, E. R.; Roelof, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Solar and interplanetary data are examined, taking into account the identification of the heliographic longitudes of the coronal source regions of high speed solar wind (SW) streams by Nolte and Roelof (1973). Nolte and Roelof have 'mapped' the velocities measured near earth back to the sun using the approximation of constant radial velocity. The 'Carrington carpet' for rotations 1597-1616 is shown in a graph. Coronal sources of high speed streams appear in the form of solid black areas. The contours of the stream sources are laid on 'evolutionary charts' of solar active region histories for the Southern and Northern Hemispheres. Questions regarding the interplay of active regions and solar wind are investigated, giving attention to developments during the years 1973, 1974, and 1975.

  10. Effects of Coronal Magnetic Field Structures on the Transport of Solar Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lulu; Zhang, Ming

    2018-06-01

    This Letter presents a model calculation of solar energetic particle (SEP) transport to test the sensitivity of the distribution of escaped SEPs in interplanetary space and dependence upon the details of the magnetic field structure in the corona. It is applied to a circumsolar event on 2011 November 3, in which SEPs are observed promptly after the solar event eruption by three spacecraft (the twin Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatories (STEREO-A and STEREO-B) and ACE) separated by more than 100° in longitude from each other. The corona magnetic field reconstructed from photosphseric field measurements using the PFSS method changes substantially before and after the solar eruption, especially around the active region. The locations of open field regions, separatrix surfaces including the heliospheric current sheet, and footpoints of magnetic field lines connected to the spacecraft location have shifted substantially. We inject 100 keV energetic electrons on the open field lines at 1.5 R s within the size of observed coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and follow their propagation in the corona and the interplanetary space. We find that with a perpendicular diffusion due to field line random walk equal to 10% of the supergranular diffusion rate, the overall distribution of escaped SEPs does not change much even though the region of open field lines from SEPs has changed. The result suggests that detailed small-scale coronal magnetic field structures and the exact magnetic field connection are not crucially important for observing SEPs in the interplanetary space.

  11. The correlation of fractal structures in the photospheric and the coronal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitropoulou, M.; Georgoulis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Anastasiadis, A.; Strintzi, D.; Moussas, X.

    2009-10-01

    Context: This work examines the relation between the fractal properties of the photospheric magnetic patterns and those of the coronal magnetic fields in solar active regions. Aims: We investigate whether there is any correlation between the fractal dimensions of the photospheric structures and the magnetic discontinuities formed in the corona. Methods: To investigate the connection between the photospheric and coronal complexity, we used a nonlinear force-free extrapolation method that reconstructs the 3d magnetic fields using 2d observed vector magnetograms as boundary conditions. We then located the magnetic discontinuities, which are considered as spatial proxies of reconnection-related instabilities. These discontinuities form well-defined volumes, called here unstable volumes. We calculated the fractal dimensions of these unstable volumes and compared them to the fractal dimensions of the boundary vector magnetograms. Results: Our results show no correlation between the fractal dimensions of the observed 2d photospheric structures and the extrapolated unstable volumes in the corona, when nonlinear force-free extrapolation is used. This result is independent of efforts to (1) bring the photospheric magnetic fields closer to a nonlinear force-free equilibrium and (2) omit the lower part of the modeled magnetic field volume that is almost completely filled by unstable volumes. A significant correlation between the fractal dimensions of the photospheric and coronal magnetic features is only observed at the zero level (lower limit) of approximation of a current-free (potential) magnetic field extrapolation. Conclusions: We conclude that the complicated transition from photospheric non-force-free fields to coronal force-free ones hampers any direct correlation between the fractal dimensions of the 2d photospheric patterns and their 3d counterparts in the corona at the nonlinear force-free limit, which can be considered as a second level of approximation in this

  12. MHD Simulations of the Eruption of Coronal Flux Ropes under Coronal Streamers

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Yuhong, E-mail: yfan@ucar.edu

    Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, we investigate the eruption of coronal flux ropes underlying coronal streamers and the development of a prominence eruption. We initialize a quasi-steady solution of a coronal helmet streamer, into which we impose at the lower boundary the slow emergence of a part of a twisted magnetic torus. As a result, a quasi-equilibrium flux rope is built up under the streamer. With varying streamer sizes and different lengths and total twists of the flux rope that emerges, we found different scenarios for the evolution from quasi-equilibrium to eruption. In the cases with a broad streamer, themore » flux rope remains well confined until there is sufficient twist such that it first develops the kink instability and evolves through a sequence of kinked, confined states with increasing height until it eventually develops a “hernia-like” ejective eruption. For significantly twisted flux ropes, prominence condensations form in the dips of the twisted field lines due to runaway radiative cooling. Once formed, the prominence-carrying field becomes significantly non-force-free due to the weight of the prominence, despite having low plasma β . As the flux rope erupts, the prominence erupts, showing substantial draining along the legs of the erupting flux rope. The prominence may not show a kinked morphology even though the flux rope becomes kinked. On the other hand, in the case with a narrow streamer, the flux rope with less than one wind of twist can erupt via the onset of the torus instability.« less

  13. Culex coronator in coastal Georgia and South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Moulis, Robert A; Russell, Jennifer D; Lewandowski, Henry B; Thompson, Pamela S; Heusel, Jeffrey L

    2008-12-01

    In 2007, adult Culex coronator were collected in Chatham County, Georgia, and Jasper County, South Carolina, during nuisance and disease vector surveillance efforts. A total of 75 specimens of this species were collected at 8 widely separated locations in Chatham County, Georgia, and 4 closely situated sites in Jasper County, South Carolina. These represent the first Atlantic coastal records of this species in Georgia and the first confirmed records of Cx. coronator in South Carolina.

  14. First Record of Culex coronator In Shelby County, Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Trimm, Amy; Insch, Andrew; Carlson, Ture

    2017-12-01

    Culex coronator has been identified in Shelby County, TN, for the first time as an established species. This is an important discovery since the range of Cx. coronator is unknown in Tennessee and it has been found positive for West Nile virus. Larvae and an adult were discovered during routine surveillance. Larvae were collected at 9 different locations, while the 1 adult captured was at the 10th isolated location.

  15. An observation of prominence condensation out of a coronal void

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, W. J.; Newkirk, G., Jr.; Schmidt, H. U.

    1983-02-01

    Photographic averaging of cine-camera data-frames from the 7 March 1970 eclipse provided a record of the inner white light corona with unusually high resolution for low-contrast features. The authors report that a coronal void, similar to high corona structures associated with prominence formation (MacQueen et al., 1983), extended low into the corona. During eclipse totality, a coronal rain prominence condensed from the base of the void.

  16. A Survey of Coronal Dimmings and EIT Wave Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive catalog of EIT wave transients and coronal dimmings. We will compiled a set of more than 170 events, and we present strong evidence for the association of the co-development of coronal dimmings and EIT waves. Both limb and disk events are included in this study. We also include the speeds, locations, and associated flare timing in this study.

  17. Reconstructing the Morphology of an Evolving Coronal Mass Ejection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    694, 707 Wood, B. E., Howard, R. A ., Thernisien, A ., Plunkett, S. P., & Socker, D. G. 2009b, Sol. Phys., 259, 163 Wood, B. E., Karovska , M., Chen, J...Reconstructing the Morphology of an Evolving Coronal Mass Ejection B. E. Wood, R. A . Howard, D. G. Socker Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science...mission, we empirically reconstruct the time-dependent three-dimensional morphology of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from 2008 June 1, which exhibits

  18. THE CONTRIBUTION OF CORONAL JETS TO THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Lionello, R.; Török, T.; Titov, V. S.

    Transient collimated plasma eruptions in the solar corona, commonly known as coronal (or X-ray) jets, are among the most interesting manifestations of solar activity. It has been suggested that these events contribute to the mass and energy content of the corona and solar wind, but the extent of these contributions remains uncertain. We have recently modeled the formation and evolution of coronal jets using a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code with thermodynamics in a large spherical domain that includes the solar wind. Our model is coupled to 3D MHD flux-emergence simulations, i.e., we use boundary conditions provided by such simulationsmore » to drive a time-dependent coronal evolution. The model includes parametric coronal heating, radiative losses, and thermal conduction, which enables us to simulate the dynamics and plasma properties of coronal jets in a more realistic manner than done so far. Here, we employ these simulations to calculate the amount of mass and energy transported by coronal jets into the outer corona and inner heliosphere. Based on observed jet-occurrence rates, we then estimate the total contribution of coronal jets to the mass and energy content of the solar wind to (0.4–3.0)% and (0.3–1.0)%, respectively. Our results are largely consistent with the few previous rough estimates obtained from observations, supporting the conjecture that coronal jets provide only a small amount of mass and energy to the solar wind. We emphasize, however, that more advanced observations and simulations (including parametric studies) are needed to substantiate this conjecture.« less

  19. Coronal propagation of flare associated electrons and protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schellert, G.; Wibberenz, G.; Kunow, H.

    1985-01-01

    A statistical study of characteristic times and intensities of 36 solar particle events observed between 1977 and 1979 by the Kiel Cosmic Ray Experiment on board HELIOS-1 and -2 has been carried out. For approx. 0.5 MeV electrons we order the times of maximum and the absolute intensities with respect to angular distance from the parent flare. Discussion of coronal parameters in terms of Reid's model leads to typical time constants for coronal diffusion and escape.

  20. The solar probe and coronal dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J.; Heinemann, M.; Goodrich, C.

    1978-01-01

    The discovery of coronal holes led to basic changes in ideas about the structure of the low corona and its expansion into the solar wind. The nature of the energy flux is not understood. Current ideas include enhanced thermal conductivities, extended MHD wave heating, and wave momentum transfer, all in rapidly diverging geometries. There is little feel for the relative importance of these processes. The Solar Probe, with its penetration deep into the solar corona, could lead to observational constraints on their relative importance, and thus to an understanding of the origin of the solar wind. Observations from the Solar Probe will also bear on such questions as to whether small scale "intrastream" structure is common close to the Sun in open field-line regions, whether the properties of the wind are pronouncedly different over closed and open field-line regions at five solar radii, and many others. The resolution of these questions requires measurements of the magnetic field and of the proton and electron distribution functions.

  1. A Catalog of Coronal "EIT Wave" Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. J.; Myers, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) data have been visually searched for coronal "EIT wave" transients over the period beginning from 1997 March 24 and extending through 1998 June 24. The dates covered start at the beginning of regular high-cadence (more than one image every 20 minutes) observations, ending at the four-month interruption of SOHO observations in mid-1998. One hundred and seventy six events are included in this catalog. The observations range from "candidate" events, which were either weak or had insufficient data coverage, to events which were well defined and were clearly distinguishable in the data. Included in the catalog are times of the EIT images in which the events are observed, diagrams indicating the observed locations of the wave fronts and associated active regions, and the speeds of the wave fronts. The measured speeds of the wave fronts varied from less than 50 to over 700 km s(exp -1) with "typical" speeds of 200-400 km s(exp -1).

  2. Numerical simulation of solar coronal magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlburg, Russell B.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Zang, T. A.

    1990-01-01

    Many aspects of solar activity are believed to be due to the stressing of the coronal magnetic field by footpoint motions at the photosphere. The results are presented of a fully spectral numerical simulation which is the first 3-D time dependent simulation of footpoint stressing in a geometry appropriate for the corona. An arcade is considered that is initially current-free and impose a smooth footpoint motion that produces a twist in the field of approx 2 pi. The footprints were fixed and the evolution was followed until the field relaxes to another current-free state. No evidence was seen for any instability, either ideal or resistive and no evidence for current sheet formation. The most striking feature of the evolution is that in response to photospheric motions, the field expands rapidly upward to minimize the stress. The expansion has two important effects. First, it suppresses the development of dips in the field that could support dense, cool material. For the motions assumed, the magnetic field does not develop a geometry suitable for prominence formation. Second, the expansion inhibits ideal instabilities such as kinking. The results indicate that simple stearing of a single arcade is unlikely to lead to solar activity such as flares or prominences. Effects are discussed that might possibly lead to such activity.

  3. Guided flows in coronal magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Testa, P.

    2018-01-01

    Context. There is evidence that coronal plasma flows break down into fragments and become laminar. Aims: We investigate this effect by modelling flows confined along magnetic channels. Methods: We consider a full magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of a solar atmosphere box with a dipole magnetic field. We compare the propagation of a cylindrical flow perfectly aligned with the field to that of another flow with a slight misalignment. We assume a flow speed of 200 km s-1 and an ambient magnetic field of 30 G. Results: We find that although the aligned flow maintains its cylindrical symmetry while it travels along the magnetic tube, the misaligned one is rapidly squashed on one side, becoming laminar and eventually fragmented because of the interaction and back-reaction of the magnetic field. This model could explain an observation made by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory of erupted fragments that fall back onto the solar surface as thin and elongated strands and end up in a hedge-like configuration. Conclusions: The initial alignment of plasma flow plays an important role in determining the possible laminar structure and fragmentation of flows while they travel along magnetic channels. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. L-alpha intensity in coronal streamers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noci, G.; Poletto, G.; Suess, S. T.; Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.

    1993-01-01

    White-light images are presently the primary source of information on physical conditions in the solar corona at distances greater than a few tenths of a solar radius above the limb. As a consequence, we still only have an incomplete description of structures extending beyond the solar limb. In particular, streamers, although observed for decades, represent a poorly known phenomenon. SOHO, to be launched in 1995, will be able to make long-term observations of these features up to heights of a few solar radii, both in white light and UV. In this paper we present simulations of L-alpha intensity in coronal streamers, based on the two-dimensional (2D) model developed by Wang et at. (1992, 1993) via a time-dependent numerical relaxation approach. Because the model is 2D, we make an a priori hypothesis about the extension of streamers in the third dimension. L-alpha data, obtained from a rocket (Kohl et al., 1983), allowed us to identify a shape which fits the observations.

  5. Image-optimized Coronal Magnetic Field Models

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Shaela I.; Uritsky, Vadim; Davila, Joseph M., E-mail: shaela.i.jones-mecholsky@nasa.gov, E-mail: shaela.i.jonesmecholsky@nasa.gov

    We have reported previously on a new method we are developing for using image-based information to improve global coronal magnetic field models. In that work, we presented early tests of the method, which proved its capability to improve global models based on flawed synoptic magnetograms, given excellent constraints on the field in the model volume. In this follow-up paper, we present the results of similar tests given field constraints of a nature that could realistically be obtained from quality white-light coronagraph images of the lower corona. We pay particular attention to difficulties associated with the line-of-sight projection of features outsidemore » of the assumed coronagraph image plane and the effect on the outcome of the optimization of errors in the localization of constraints. We find that substantial improvement in the model field can be achieved with these types of constraints, even when magnetic features in the images are located outside of the image plane.« less

  6. SOHO Observations of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akmal, Arya; Raymond, John C.; Vourlidas, Angelos; Thompson, Barbara; Ciaravella, A.; Ko, Y.-K.; Uzzo, M.; Wu, R.

    2001-06-01

    We describe a coronal mass ejection (CME) observed on 1999 April 23 by the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS), the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), and the Large-Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraphs (LASCO) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). In addition to the O VI and C III lines typical of UVCS spectra of CMEs, this 480 km s-1 CME exhibits the forbidden and intercombination lines of O V at λλ1213.8 and 1218.4. The relative intensities of the O V lines represent an accurate electron density diagnostic not generally available at 3.5 Rsolar. By combining the density with the column density derived from LASCO, we obtain the emission measure of the ejected gas. With the help of models of the temperature and time-dependent ionization state of the expanding gas, we determine a range of heating rates required to account for the UV emission lines. The total thermal energy deposited as the gas travels to 3.5 Rsolar is comparable to the kinetic and gravitational potential energies. We note a core of colder material radiating in C III, surrounded by hotter material radiating in the O V and O VI lines. This concentration of the coolest material into small regions may be a common feature of CMEs. This event thus represents a unique opportunity to describe the morphology of a CME, and to characterize its plasma parameters.

  7. Hunting for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Heidi; Vida, Krisztián; Leitzinger, Martin; Odert, Petra; Kovács, Orsolya Eszter

    2017-10-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are explosive events that occur basically daily on the Sun. It is thought that these events play a crucial role in the angular momentum and mass loss of late-type stars, and also shape the environment in which planets form and live. Stellar CMEs can be detected in optical spectra in the Balmer lines, especially in Hα, as blue-shifted extra emission/absorption. To increase the detection probability one can monitor young open clusters, in which the stars are due to their youth still rapid rotators, and thus magnetically active and likely to exhibit a large number of CMEs. Using ESO facilities and the Nordic Optical Telescope we have obtained time series of multi-object spectroscopic observations of late-type stars in six open clusters with ages ranging from 15 Myrs to 300 Myrs. Additionally, we have studied archival data of numerous active stars. These observations will allow us to obtain information on the occurrence rate of CMEs in late-type stars with different ages and spectral types. Here we report on the preliminary outcome of our studies.

  8. New Evidence that Magnetoconvection Drives Solar–Stellar Coronal Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2017-07-10

    How magnetic energy is injected and released in the solar corona, keeping it heated to several million degrees, remains elusive. Coronal heating generally increases with increasing magnetic field strength. From a comparison of a nonlinear force-free model of the three-dimensional active region coronal field to observed extreme-ultraviolet loops, we find that (1) umbra-to-umbra coronal loops, despite being rooted in the strongest magnetic flux, are invisible, and (2) the brightest loops have one foot in an umbra or penumbra and the other foot in another sunspot’s penumbra or in unipolar or mixed-polarity plage. The invisibility of umbra-to-umbra loops is new evidencemore » that magnetoconvection drives solar-stellar coronal heating: evidently, the strong umbral field at both ends quenches the magnetoconvection and hence the heating. Broadly, our results indicate that depending on the field strength in both feet, the photospheric feet of a coronal loop on any convective star can either engender or quench coronal heating in the loop’s body.« less

  9. Coronal Magnetism: Hanle Effect in UV and IR Spectral Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raouafi, N. E.; Riley, P.

    2014-12-01

    The plasma thermodynamics in the solar upper atmosphere, particularly in the corona, are dominated by the magnetic field, which controls the flow and dissipation of energy. The relative lack of knowledge of the coronal vector magnetic field is a major handicap for the progress in coronal physics. This makes the development of measurement methods of coronal magnetic fields a high priority in solar physics. The Hanle effect in the UV and IR spectral lines is a largely unexplored diagnostic. Here we use magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to study the magnitude of the signal to be expected for typical coronal magnetic fields for selected spectral lines in the UV and IR wavelength ranges, namely the H I Lyman series (i.e., α, β, and γ), O VI 103.2 nm line, and the He I 1083 nm line. We show that the selected lines may be useful for the diagnostic of coronal magnetic fields. We also show that the combination of polarization measurements of spectral lines with different sensitivities to the Hanle effect may be most appropriate for the interpretation of the data. We propose that UV coronal magnetic field mapper should be a central part of the science payload of any future spacebased solar observatory.

  10. Investigation of the moving structures in a coronal bright point

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Zongjun; Guo, Yang, E-mail: ningzongjun@pmo.ac.cn

    2014-10-10

    We have explored the moving structures in a coronal bright point (CBP) observed by the Solar Dynamic Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on 2011 March 5. This CBP event has a lifetime of ∼20 minutes and is bright with a curved shape along a magnetic loop connecting a pair of negative and positive fields. AIA imaging observations show that a lot of bright structures are moving intermittently along the loop legs toward the two footpoints from the CBP brightness core. Such moving bright structures are clearly seen at AIA 304 Å. In order to analyze their features, the CBP ismore » cut along the motion direction with a curved slit which is wide enough to cover the bulk of the CBP. After integrating the flux along the slit width, we get the spacetime slices at nine AIA wavelengths. The oblique streaks starting from the edge of the CBP brightness core are identified as moving bright structures, especially on the derivative images of the brightness spacetime slices. They seem to originate from the same position near the loop top. We find that these oblique streaks are bi-directional, simultaneous, symmetrical, and periodic. The average speed is about 380 km s{sup –1}, and the period is typically between 80 and 100 s. Nonlinear force-free field extrapolation shows the possibility that magnetic reconnection takes place during the CBP, and our findings indicate that these moving bright structures could be the observational outflows after magnetic reconnection in the CBP.« less

  11. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-01

    ISS040-E-006327 (1 June 2014) --- A portion of International Space Station solar array panels and Earth?s horizon are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the space station.

  12. Influence of coronal mass ejections on parameters of high-speed solar wind: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugay, Yulia; Slemzin, Vladimir; Rodkin, Denis; Yermolaev, Yuri; Veselovsky, Igor

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the case of disagreement between predicted and observed in-situ parameters of the recurrent high-speed solar wind streams (HSSs) existing for Carrington rotation (CR) 2118 (December 2011) in comparison with CRs 2117 and 2119. The HSSs originated at the Sun from a recurrent polar coronal hole (CH) expanding to mid-latitudes, and its area in the central part of the solar disk increased with the rotation number. This part of the CH was responsible for the equatorial flank of the HSS directed to the Earth. The time and speed of arrival for this part of the HSS to the Earth were predicted by the hierarchical empirical model based on EUV-imaging and the Wang-Sheeley-Arge ENLIL semi-empirical replace model and compared with the parameters measured in-situ by model. The predicted parameters were compared with those measured in-situ. It was found, that for CR 2117 and CR 2119, the predicted HSS speed values agreed with the measured ones within the typical accuracy of ±100 km s-1. During CR 2118, the measured speed was on 217 km s-1 less than the value predicted in accordance with the increased area of the CH. We suppose that at CR 2118, the HSS overtook and interacted with complex ejecta formed from three merged coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with a mean speed about 400 km s-1. According to simulations of the Drag-based model, this complex ejecta might be created by several CMEs starting from the Sun in the period between 25 and 27 December 2011 and arriving to the Earth simultaneously with the HSS. Due to its higher density and magnetic field strength, the complex ejecta became an obstacle for the equatorial flank of the HSS and slowed it down. During CR 2117 and CR 2119, the CMEs appeared before the arrival of the HSSs, so the CMEs did not influence on the HSSs kinematics.

  13. Determination of plasma parameters from soft X-ray images for coronal holes /open magnetic field configurations/ and coronal large-scale structures /extended closed-field configurations/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxson, C. W.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    In connection with high-quality solar soft X-ray images the 'quiet' features of the inner corona have been separated into two sharply different components, including the strongly reduced emission areas or coronal holes (CH) and the extended regions of looplike emission features or large-scale structures (LSS). Particular central meridian passage observations of the prominent CH1 on August 21, 1973, are selected for a quantitative study. Histogram photographic density distributions for full-disk images at other central meridian passages of CH 1 are also presented, and the techniques of converting low photographic density data to deposited energy are discussed, with particular emphasis on the problems associated with the CH data.

  14. Statistical Study of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections with Strong Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Matthew E.

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) with strong magnetic fields (B ) are typically associated with significant Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events, high solar wind speed and solar flare events. Successful prediction of the arrival time of a CME at Earth is required to maximize the time available for satellite, infrastructure, and space travel programs to take protective action against the coming flux of high-energy particles. It is known that the magnetic field strength of a CME is linked to the strength of a geomagnetic storm on Earth. Unfortunately, the correlations between strong magnetic field CMEs from the entire sun (especially from the far side or non-Earth facing side of the sun) to SEP and flare events, solar source regions and other relevant solar variables are not well known. New correlation studies using an artificial intelligence engine (Eureqa) were performed to study CME events with magnetic field strength readings over 30 nanoteslas (nT) from January 2010 to October 17, 2014. This thesis presents the results of this study, validates Eureqa to obtain previously published results, and presents previously unknown functional relationships between solar source magnetic field data, CME initial speed and the CME magnetic field. These new results enable the development of more accurate CME magnetic field predictions and should help scientists develop better forecasts thereby helping to prevent damage to humanity's space and Earth assets.

  15. Using the Coronal Evolution to Successfully Forward Model CMEs' In Situ Magnetic Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, C.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting the effects of a coronal mass ejection (CME) impact requires knowing if impact will occur, which part of the CME impacts, and its magnetic properties. We explore the relation between CME deflections and rotations, which change the position and orientation of a CME, and the resulting magnetic profiles at 1 AU. For 45 STEREO-era, Earth-impacting CMEs, we determine the solar source of each CME, reconstruct its coronal position and orientation, and perform a ForeCAT (Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory) simulation of the coronal deflection and rotation. From the reconstructed and modeled CME deflections and rotations, we determine the solar cycle variation and correlations with CME properties. We assume no evolution between the outer corona and 1 AU and use the ForeCAT results to drive the ForeCAT In situ Data Observer (FIDO) in situ magnetic field model, allowing for comparisons with ACE and Wind observations. We do not attempt to reproduce the arrival time. On average FIDO reproduces the in situ magnetic field for each vector component with an error equivalent to 35% of the average total magnetic field strength when the total modeled magnetic field is scaled to match the average observed value. Random walk best fits distinguish between ForeCAT's ability to determine FIDO's input parameters and the limitations of the simple flux rope model. These best fits reduce the average error to 30%. The FIDO results are sensitive to changes of order a degree in the CME latitude, longitude, and tilt, suggesting that accurate space weather predictions require accurate measurements of a CME's position and orientation.

  16. Coronal Jets in Closed Magnetic Regions on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyper, Peter Fraser; DeVore, C. R.

    2015-04-01

    Coronal jets are dynamic, collimated structures observed in solar EUV and X-ray emission. They appear predominantly in the open field of coronal holes, but are also observed in areas of closed field, especially active regions. A common feature of coronal jets is that they originate from the field above a parasitic polarity of opposite sign to the surrounding field. Some process - such as instability onset or flux emergence - induces explosive reconnection between the closed “anemone” field and the surrounding open field that generates the jet. The lesser number of coronal jets in closed-field regions suggests a possible stabilizing effect of the closed configuration with respect to coronal jet formation. If the scale of the jet region is small compared with the background loop length, as in for example type II spicules, the nearby magnetic field may be treated as locally open. As such, one would expect that if a stabilizing effect exists it becomes most apparent as the scale of the anemone region approaches that of the background coronal loops.To investigate if coronal jets are indeed suppressed along shorter coronal loops, we performed a number of simulations of jets driven by a rotation of the parasitic polarity (as in the previous open-jet calculations by Pariat et. al 2009, 2010, 2015) embedded in a large-scale closed bipolar field. The simulations were performed with the state of the art Adaptively Refined Magnetohydrodynamics Solver. We will report here how the magnetic configuration above the anemone region determines the nature of the jet, when it is triggered, and how much of the stored magnetic energy is released. We show that regions in which the background field and the parasitic polarity region are of comparable scale naturally suppress explosive energy release. We will also show how in the post-jet relaxation phase a combination of confined MHD waves and weak current layers are generated by the jet along the background coronal loops, both of which

  17. Electron acceleration in a flare plasma via coronal circuits. (German Title: Elektronenbeschleunigung im Flareplasma modelliert mit koronalen Schaltkreisen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önel, Hakan

    2008-08-01

    The Sun is a star, which due to its proximity has a tremendous influence on Earth. Since its very first days mankind tried to "understand the Sun", and especially in the 20th century science has uncovered many of the Sun's secrets by using high resolution observations and describing the Sun by means of models. As an active star the Sun's activity, as expressed in its magnetic cycle, is closely related to the sunspot numbers. Flares play a special role, because they release large energies on very short time scales. They are correlated with enhanced electromagnetic emissions all over the spectrum. Furthermore, flares are sources of energetic particles. Hard X-ray observations (e.g., by NASA's RHESSI spacecraft) reveal that a large fraction of the energy released during a flare is transferred into the kinetic energy of electrons. However the mechanism that accelerates a large number of electrons to high energies (beyond 20 keV) within fractions of a second is not understood yet. The thesis at hand presents a model for the generation of energetic electrons during flares that explains the electron acceleration based on real parameters obtained by real ground and space based observations. According to this model photospheric plasma flows build up electric potentials in the active regions in the photosphere. Usually these electric potentials are associated with electric currents closed within the photosphere. However as a result of magnetic reconnection, a magnetic connection between the regions of different magnetic polarity on the photosphere can establish through the corona. Due to the significantly higher electric conductivity in the corona, the photospheric electric power supply can be closed via the corona. Subsequently a high electric current is formed, which leads to the generation of hard X-ray radiation in the dense chromosphere. The previously described idea is modelled and investigated by means of electric circuits. For this the microscopic plasma parameters

  18. MAGNETIC FLUX SUPPLEMENT TO CORONAL BRIGHT POINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mou, Chaozhou; Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong

    Coronal bright points (BPs) are associated with magnetic bipolar features (MBFs) and magnetic cancellation. Here we investigate how BP-associated MBFs form and how the consequent magnetic cancellation occurs. We analyze longitudinal magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager to investigate the photospheric magnetic flux evolution of 70 BPs. From images taken in the 193 Å passband of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) we dermine that the BPs’ lifetimes vary from 2.7 to 58.8 hr. The formation of the BP MBFs is found to involve three processes, namely, emergence, convergence, and local coalescence of the magnetic fluxes. The formation of anmore » MBF can involve more than one of these processes. Out of the 70 cases, flux emergence is the main process of an MBF buildup of 52 BPs, mainly convergence is seen in 28, and 14 cases are associated with local coalescence. For MBFs formed by bipolar emergence, the time difference between the flux emergence and the BP appearance in the AIA 193 Å passband varies from 0.1 to 3.2 hr with an average of 1.3 hr. While magnetic cancellation is found in all 70 BPs, it can occur in three different ways: (I) between an MBF and small weak magnetic features (in 33 BPs); (II) within an MBF with the two polarities moving toward each other from a large distance (34 BPs); (III) within an MBF whose two main polarities emerge in the same place simultaneously (3 BPs). While an MBF builds up the skeleton of a BP, we find that the magnetic activities responsible for the BP heating may involve small weak fields.« less

  19. Combined metopic and unilateral coronal synostoses: a phenotypic conundrum.

    PubMed

    Sauerhammer, Tina M; Patel, Kamlesh; Oh, Albert K; Proctor, Mark R; Mulliken, John B; Rogers, Gary F

    2014-03-01

    Most types of craniosynostosis cause predictable changes in cranial shape. However, the phenotype of combined metopic and unilateral coronal synostoses is anomalous. The purpose of this observational study was to better clarify the clinical and radiographic features of this rare entity. A retrospective review of a craniofacial database was performed. Patients with combined metopic and unilateral coronal synostoses were included in this study. Data collected included demographic information, physical and radiographic findings, genetic evaluation, treatment, and operative outcomes. Of 687 patients treated between 1989 and 2010, only 3 patients had combined metopic and unilateral coronal synostoses. All patients were diagnosed through computed tomography on the first day of life. Phenotypic features included the following: (1) narrowed forehead with a prominent midline ridge, (2) severe bilateral brow retrusion with an acute indentation on the side of the patient coronal suture, (3) facial and nasal angulation similar to isolated unilateral coronal synostosis, and (4) anterior displacement of the ear on the fused side. In addition, the cranial vertex was deviated toward the side of the open coronal suture. Two patients had a head circumference below the 25th percentile; 2 of the 3 had a TWIST gene mutation consistent with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. One patient was managed through fronto-orbital advancement and required a revision. The other 2 patients had early endoscopic release, followed by postoperative helmet therapy; one improved but still required open cranial remodeling. The other has near-normal phenotype, and no further surgery is planned. Combined metopic and unilateral coronal synostoses present a rare and unusual phenotype. Although early intervention improves the deformity, revisional procedures are usually required.

  20. Space- and Ground-based Coronal Spectro-Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Bemporad, Alessandro; Rybak, Jan; Capobianco, Gerardo

    This presentation gives an overview of the near-future perspectives of ultraviolet and visible-light spectro-polarimetric instrumentation for probing coronal magnetism from space-based and ground-based observatories. Spectro-polarimetric imaging of coronal emission-lines in the visible-light wavelength-band provides an important diagnostics tool of the coronal magnetism. The interpretation in terms of Hanle and Zeeman effect of the line-polarization in forbidden emission-lines yields information on the direction and strength of the coronal magnetic field. As study case, this presentation will describe the Torino Coronal Magnetograph (CorMag) for the spectro-polarimetric observation of the FeXIV, 530.3 nm, forbidden emission-line. CorMag - consisting of a Liquid Crystal (LC) Lyot filter and a LC linear polarimeter - has been recently installed on the Lomnicky Peak Observatory 20cm Zeiss coronagraph. The preliminary results from CorMag will be presented. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV)can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Space-based UV spectro-polarimeters would provide an additional tool for the disgnostics of coronal magnetism. As a case study of space-borne UV spectro-polarimeters, this presentation will describe the future upgrade of the Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment (SCORE) to include the capability of imaging polarimetry of the HI Lyman-alpha, 121.6 nm. SCORE is a multi-wavelength imager for the emission-lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and visible-light broad-band emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009. This presentation will describe how in future re-flights SCORE could observe the expected Hanle effect in corona with a HI Lyman-alpha polarimeter.

  1. Magnetic Flux Cancellation as the Trigger of Solar Coronal Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlasson, R.; Panesar, N. K.; Sterling, A. C.; Moore, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal jets are narrow eruptions in the solar corona, and are often observed in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray images. They occur everywhere on the solar disk: in active regions, quiet regions, and coronal holes (Raouafi et al. 2016). Recent studies indicate that most coronal jets in quiet regions and coronal holes are driven by the eruption of a minifilament (Sterling et al. 2015), and that this eruption follows flux cancellation at the magnetic neutral line under the pre-eruption minifilament (Panesar et al. 2016). We confirm this picture for a large sample of jets in quiet regions and coronal holes using multithermal (304 Å 171 Å, 193 Å, and 211 Å) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and line-of-sight magnetograms from the SDO /Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). We report observations of 60 randomly selected jet eruptions. We have analyzed the magnetic cause of these eruptions and measured the base size and the duration of each jet using routines in SolarSoft IDL. By examining the evolutionary changes in the magnetic field before, during, and after jet eruption, we found that each of these jets resulted from minifilament eruption triggered by flux cancellation at the neutral line. In agreement with the above studies, we found our jets to have an average base diameter of 7600 ± 2700 km and an average duration of 9.0 ± 3.6 minutes. These observations confirm that minifilament eruption is the driver and magnetic flux cancellation is the primary trigger mechanism for nearly all coronal hole and quiet region coronal jet eruptions.

  2. Random Interchange of Magnetic Connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Rappazzo, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic connectivity, the connection between two points along a magnetic field line, has a stochastic character associated with field lines random walking in space due to magnetic fluctuations, but connectivity can also change in time due to dynamical activity [1]. For fluctuations transverse to a strong mean field, this connectivity change be caused by stochastic interchange due to component reconnection. The process may be understood approximately by formulating a diffusion-like Fokker-Planck coefficient [2] that is asymptotically related to standard field line random walk. Quantitative estimates are provided, for transverse magnetic field models and anisotropic models such as reduced magnetohydrodynamics. In heliospheric applications, these estimates may be useful for understanding mixing between open and close field line regions near coronal hole boundaries, and large latitude excursions of connectivity associated with turbulence. [1] A. F. Rappazzo, W. H. Matthaeus, D. Ruffolo, S. Servidio & M. Velli, ApJL, 758, L14 (2012) [2] D. Ruffolo & W. Matthaeus, ApJ, 806, 233 (2015)

  3. Deflections of Fast Coronal Mass Ejections and the Properties of Associated Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E approx 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 deg. of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events

  4. The SOHO-Stellar Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    1999-01-01

    I discusses practical aspects of the so-called "solar-stellar" connection; namely, the fundamental principles, the tools at the disposal of the stellar astronomer, and a few recent examples of the connection in action. I provide an overall evolutionary context for coronal activity, calling attention to the very different circumstances of low mass main sequence stars like the Sun, which are active mainly early in their lives; compared with more massive stars, whose coronally active phase occurs near the end of their lives, during their brief incursion into the cool half of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram as yellow and then red giants. On the instrumental slide, I concentrate primarily on spectroscopy, in the ultraviolet and X-ray bands where coronae leave their most obvious signatures. I present an early glimpse of the type of moderate resolution spectra we can expect from the recently launched Chandra observatory, and contemporaneous HST STIS high-resolution UV measurements of the CXO calibration star Capella (alpha Aur; G8 III + G1 III). I compare STIS spectra of solar-type dwarfs-zeta Dor (F7 V), an active coronal source; and alpha Cen A (G2 V), a near twin of the Sun-to a trace obtained with the SOHO SUMER imaging UV spectrometer. I also compare STIS line profiles of the active coronal dwarf to the corresponding features in the mixed-activity "hybrid-chromosphere" bright giant alpha TrA (K2 II) and the archetype "noncoronal" red giant Arcturus (alpha Boo; K2 III). The latter shows dramatic evidence for a "cool absorber" in its outer atmosphere that is extinguishing the "hot lines" (like Si IV lambda1393 and N V lambda1238) below about 1500 A, probably through absorption in the Si I lambda1525 and C I lambda1240 photoionization continua. The disappearance of coronae across the "Linsky-Haisch" dividing line near K1 III thus apparently is promoted by a dramatic overturning in the outer atmospheric structure, namely the coronae of the red giants seem to lie beneath

  5. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  6. PLASMA JETS AND ERUPTIONS IN SOLAR CORONAL HOLES: A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FLUX EMERGENCE EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno-Insertis, F.; Galsgaard, K.

    2013-07-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) numerical experiment of the launching of a hot and fast coronal jet followed by several violent eruptions is analyzed in detail. These events are initiated through the emergence of a magnetic flux rope from the solar interior into a coronal hole. We explore the evolution of the emerging magnetically dominated plasma dome surmounted by a current sheet and the ensuing pattern of reconnection. A hot and fast coronal jet with inverted-Y shape is produced that shows properties comparable to those frequently observed with EUV and X-ray detectors. We analyze its 3D shape, its inhomogeneous internal structure, andmore » its rise and decay phases, lasting for some 15-20 minutes each. Particular attention is devoted to the field line connectivities and the reconnection pattern. We also study the cool and high-density volume that appears to encircle the emerged dome. The decay of the jet is followed by a violent phase with a total of five eruptions. The first of them seems to follow the general pattern of tether-cutting reconnection in a sheared arcade, although modified by the field topology created by the preceding reconnection evolution. The two following eruptions take place near and above the strong-field concentrations at the surface. They show a twisted, {Omega}-loop-like rope expanding in height, with twist being turned into writhe, thus hinting at a kink instability (perhaps combined with a torus instability) as the cause of the eruption. The succession of a main jet ejection and a number of violent eruptions that resemble mini-CMEs and their physical properties suggest that this experiment may provide a model for the blowout jets recently proposed in the literature.« less

  7. Standing Kink modes in three-dimensional coronal loops

    SciTech Connect

    Pascoe, D. J.; De Moortel, I., E-mail: dpascoe@mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk

    2014-04-01

    So far, the straight flux tube model proposed by Edwin and Roberts is the most commonly used tool in practical coronal seismology, in particular, to infer values of the (coronal) magnetic field from observed, standing kink mode oscillations. In this paper, we compare the period predicted by this basic model with three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of standing kink mode oscillations, as the period is a crucial parameter in the seismological inversion to determine the magnetic field. We perform numerical simulations of standing kink modes in both straight and curved 3D coronal loops and consider excitation by internal and external drivers.more » The period of oscillation for the displacement of dense coronal loops is determined by the loop length and the kink speed, in agreement with the estimate based on analytical theory for straight flux tubes. For curved coronal loops embedded in a magnetic arcade and excited by an external driver, a secondary mode with a period determined by the loop length and external Alfvén speed is also present. When a low number of oscillations is considered, these two periods can result in a single, non-resolved (broad) peak in the power spectrum, particularly for low values of the density contrast for which the two periods will be relatively similar. In that case (and for this particular geometry), the presence of this additional mode would lead to ambiguous seismological estimates of the magnetic field strength.« less

  8. New techniques for the characterisation of dynamical phenomena in solar coronal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbrecht, E.

    2007-02-01

    During a total solar eclipse, a narrow strip of the Earth's surface is shielded completely by the Moon from the disk of the Sun. In this strip, the corona appears crown-like around the shade of the Moon. It was uncertain until the middle of the 20th century whether the corona was a solar phenomenon or if it was related to the Moon or whether it represented an artifact produced by the Earth's atmosphere. The answer to this question was provided by Grotrian (1939) and Edlèn (1942). Based on studies of iron emission lines, they suggested that the surface of the Sun is surrounded by a hot tenuous gas having a temperature of million degrees Kelvin and thus in a state of high ionization. This discovery was a result from spectroscopy, a field of research which started in 1666 with Sir Isaac Newton's observations of sunlight, dispersed by a prism. It is now clear that the hot solar corona is made of a low density plasma, highly structured by the magnetic field on length scales ranging from the Sun's diameter to the limit of angular resolution (e.g. Démoulin and Klein 2000). The need to resolve and study the corona down to such scales has determined a vigorous scientific and technological impulse toward the development of solar Ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray telescopes with high spatial and temporal resolution. With the advent of the satellite SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, see chapter 1), the picture of a quiet corona was definitely sent to the past. EUV (Extreme UV) image sequences of the lower solar corona revealed a finely structured medium constantly agitated by a wide variety of transients (e.g. Harrison 1998). Active regions consisting of large magnetic loops with enhanced temperature and density are observed, as well as "quiet" areas, coronal holes and numerous structures of different scales such as plumes, jets, spicules, X-ray bright points, blinkers, all structured by magnetic fields. Launched in 1998, the Transition Region And Coronal Explorer (TRACE

  9. Solar Flare Aimed at Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At the height of the solar cycle, the Sun is finally displaying some fireworks. This image from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) shows a large solar flare from June 6, 2000 at 1424 Universal Time (10:24 AM Eastern Daylight Savings Time). Associated with the flare was a coronal mass ejection that sent a wave of fast moving charged particles straight towards Earth. (The image was acquired by the Extreme ultaviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), one of 12 instruments aboard SOHO) Solar activity affects the Earth in several ways. The particles generated by flares can disrupt satellite communications and interfere with power transmission on the Earth's surface. Earth's climate is tied to the total energy emitted by the sun, cooling when the sun radiates less energy and warming when solar output increases. Solar radiation also produces ozone in the stratosphere, so total ozone levels tend to increase during the solar maximum. For more information about these solar flares and the SOHO mission, see NASA Science News or the SOHO home page. For more about the links between the sun and climate change, see Sunspots and the Solar Max. Image courtesy SOHO Extreme ultaviolet Imaging Telescope, ESA/NASA

  10. Cool & Connected

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Cool & Connected planning assistance program helps communities develop strategies and an action plan for using broadband to promote environmentally and economically sustainable community development.

  11. Optimizing Global Coronal Magnetic Field Models Using Image-Based Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones-Mecholsky, Shaela I.; Davila, Joseph M.; Uritskiy, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    The coronal magnetic field directly or indirectly affects a majority of the phenomena studied in the heliosphere. It provides energy for coronal heating, controls the release of coronal mass ejections, and drives heliospheric and magnetospheric activity, yet the coronal magnetic field itself has proven difficult to measure. This difficulty has prompted a decades-long effort to develop accurate, timely, models of the field, an effort that continues today. We have developed a method for improving global coronal magnetic field models by incorporating the type of morphological constraints that could be derived from coronal images. Here we report promising initial tests of this approach on two theoretical problems, and discuss opportunities for application.

  12. Mechanisms of Plasma Acceleration in Coronal Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, N.; Reeves, K.; Savcheva, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Jets are small explosions that occur frequently in the Sun possibly driven by the local reconfiguration of the magnetic field, or reconnection. There are two types of coronal jets: standard jets and blowout jets. The purpose of this project is to determine which mechanisms accelerate plasma in two different jets, one that occurred in January 17, 2015 at the disk of the sun and another in October 24, 2015 at the limb. Two possible acceleration mechanisms are chromospheric evaporation and magnetic acceleration. Using SDO/AIA, Hinode/XRT and IRIS data, we create height-time plots, and calculate the velocities of each wavelength for both jets. We calculate the potential magnetic field of the jet and the general region around it to gain a more detailed understanding of its structure, and determine if the jet is likely to be either a standard or blowout jet. Finally, we calculate the magnetic field strength for different heights along the jet spire, and use differential emission measures to calculate the plasma density. Once we have these two values, we calculate the Alfven speed. When analyzing our results we are looking for certain patterns in our velocities. If the plasma in a jet is accelerated by chromospheric evaporation, we expect the velocities to increase as function of temperature, which is what we observed in the October 24th jet. The magnetic models for this jet also show the Eiffel Tower shaped structure characteristic of standard jets, which tend to have plasma accelerated by this mechanism. On the other hand, if the acceleration mechanism were magnetic acceleration, we would expect the velocities to be similar regardless of temperature. For the January 17th jet, we saw that along the spire, the velocities where approximately 200 km/s in all wavelengths, but the velocities of hot plasma detected at the base were closer to the Alfven speed, which was estimated to be about 2,000 km/s. These observations suggest that the plasma in the January 17th jet is

  13. The Search for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villadsen, Jacqueline Rose

    2017-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may dramatically impact habitability and atmospheric composition of planets around magnetically active stars, including young solar analogs and many M dwarfs. Theoretical predictions of such effects are limited by the lack of observations of stellar CMEs. This thesis addresses this gap through a search for the spectral and spatial radio signatures of CMEs on active M dwarfs. Solar CMEs produce radio bursts with a distinctive spectral signature, narrow-band plasma emission that drifts to lower frequency as a CME expands outward. To search for analogous events on nearby stars, I worked on system design, software, and commissioning for the Starburst project, a wideband single-baseline radio interferometry backend dedicated to stellar observations. In addition, I led a survey of nearby active M dwarfs with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), detecting coherent radio bursts in 13 out of 23 epochs, over a total of 58 hours. This survey's ultra-wide bandwidth (0.23-6.0 GHz) dynamic spectroscopy, unprecedented for stellar observations, revealed diverse behavior in the time-frequency plane. Flare star UV Ceti produced complex, luminous events reminiscent of brown dwarf aurorae; AD Leo sustained long-duration, intense, narrow-band "storms"; and YZ CMi emitted a burst with substructure with rapid frequency drift, resembling solar Type III bursts, which are attributed to electrons moving at speeds of order 10% of the speed of light. To search for the spatial signature of CMEs, I led 8.5-GHz observations with the Very Long Baseline Array simultaneous to 24 hours of the VLA survey. This program detected non-thermal continuum emission from the stars in all epochs, as well as continuum flares on AD Leo and coherent bursts on UV Ceti, enabling measurement of the spatial offset between flaring and quiescent emission. These observations demonstrate the diversity of stellar transients that can be expected in time-domain radio surveys, especially

  14. The Search for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villadsen, Jacqueline; Hallinan, Gregg; Monroe, Ryan; Bourke, Stephen; Starburst Program Team

    2017-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may dramatically impact habitability and atmospheric composition of planets around magnetically active stars, including young solar analogs and many M dwarfs. Theoretical predictions of such effects are limited by the lack of observations of stellar CMEs. My thesis addresses this gap through a search for the spectral and spatial radio signatures of CMEs on active M dwarfs.Solar CMEs produce radio bursts with a distinctive spectral signature, narrow-band plasma emission that drifts to lower frequency as a CME expands outward. To search for analogous events on nearby stars, I worked on system design, software, and commissioning for the Starburst project, a wideband single-baseline radio interferometry backend dedicated to stellar observations. In addition, I led a survey of nearby active M dwarfs with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), detecting 12 bright (>10 mJy) radio bursts in 58 hours. This survey’s ultra-wide bandwidth (0.23-6.0 GHz) dynamic spectroscopy, unprecedented for stellar observations, revealed diverse behavior in the time-frequency plane. Flare star UV Ceti produced complex, luminous events reminiscent of brown dwarf aurorae; AD Leo sustained long-duration, intense, narrow-band "storms"; and YZ CMi emitted a burst with substructure with rapid frequency drift, resembling solar Type III bursts, which are attributed to electrons moving at speeds of order 10% of the speed of light.To search for the spatial signature of CMEs, I led 8.5-GHz observations with the Very Long Baseline Array simultaneous to 24 hours of the JVLA survey. This program detected non-thermal continuum emission from the stars in all epochs, as well as continuum flares on AD Leo and coherent bursts on UV Ceti, enabling measurement of the spatial offset between flaring and quiescent emission.These observations demonstrate the diversity of stellar transients that can be expected in time-domain radio surveys, especially with the advent of large low

  15. Strategic Plans for the Future of Solar Physics: a community discussion of the NASA Sun-Earth Connection Program Roadmap and the NAS Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Solar Astronomy section)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, K.; Knoelker, M.

    1999-05-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connections Program is currently revising its Roadmap, the long-range plan for science goals, technology development, and missions between 2000 and 2040. From the interior dynamics of the Sun, to the interactions of plasma, fields, and radiation in the photosphere and solar atmosphere, to the heating and structure of the corona, to the acceleration, structure, and evolution of the solar wind, to the interactions of the heliosphere with the interstellar medium, to the processes of solar, stellar, and solar system evolution - progress in each of these domains will help us understand how the Sun impacts our home in space. The Roadmap Committee is seeking to refine and extend the SEC's vision and identify the milestone missions for the future. During this session, an outline of the current draft Roadmap will be presented, and further community involvement will be solicited to ensure the strongest possible concensus on the revised Roadmap. The National Academy of Sciences' Space Science Board has appointed a committee to perform a Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics, which is surveying the field of space- and ground-based astronomy and astrophysics, recommending priorities for the most important new initiatives of the decade 2000-2010. The prioritization delivered by the earlier Decadal Surveys has played an important role in guiding the funding agencies in setting their priorities for astronomy and astrophysics. Therefore it will be of crucial importance for solar physics to contribute a strong case for its own set of future projects to be incorpoprated into the survey. The solar physics of the next decade will be characterized by its increasing societal relevance in the context of the National Space Weather Program and related issues, as well as its classical importance as a ``base" for many astrophysical questions. The presentation and subsequent discussion at the Chicago meeting is intended to solicit further community input, to achieve

  16. Characteristics of solar coronal source regions producing He-3-rich particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Lin, R. P.; Reames, D. V.; Stone, R. G.; Liggett, M.

    1987-01-01

    H-alpha, X-ray, and kilometric radio data are used to examine solar coronal activity associated with energetic He-3-rich particle events observed near earth. The basis of the study is the 12 He-3-rich events observed in association with impulsive 2-100 keV electron events reported by Reames et al. (1985). In three or four events, associated H-alpha or X-ray flares were found, and in two events even the metric type III bursts were weak or absent. The measured low energy electron spectra for these events show no evidence of a flattening due to Coulomb collisional losses. These results and several other recent findings are consistent with the idea that the He-3/electron events are due to particle acceleration in the corona well above the associated H-alpha and X-ray flares.

  17. Coronal holes and high-speed wind streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirker, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Coronal holes, regions of unusually low density and low temperature in the solar corona, are identified as Bartel's M regions, i.e., sources of high-speed wind streams that produce recurrent geomagnetic variations. Throughout the Skylab period the polar caps of the sun were coronal holes, and at lower latitudes the most persistent and recurrent holes were equatorial extensions of the polar caps. The holes rotated 'rigidly' at the equatorial synodic rate. They formed in regions of unipolar photospheric magnetic field, and their internal magnetic fields diverged rapidly with increasing distance from the sun. The geometry of the magnetic field in the inner corona seems to control both the physical properties of the holes and the global distribution of high-speed wind streams in the heliosphere. Phenomenological models for the birth and decay of coronal holes have been proposed.

  18. Using Coronal Hole Maps to Constrain MHD Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Ronald M.; Downs, Cooper; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran

    2017-08-01

    In this presentation, we explore the use of coronal hole maps (CHMs) as a constraint for thermodynamic MHD models of the solar corona. Using our EUV2CHM software suite (predsci.com/chd), we construct CHMs from SDO/AIA 193Å and STEREO-A/EUVI 195Å images for multiple Carrington rotations leading up to the August 21st, 2017 total solar eclipse. We then contruct synoptic CHMs from synthetic EUV images generated from global thermodynamic MHD simulations of the corona for each rotation. Comparisons of apparent coronal hole boundaries and estimates of the net open flux are used to benchmark and constrain our MHD model leading up to the eclipse. Specifically, the comparisons are used to find optimal parameterizations of our wave turbulence dissipation (WTD) coronal heating model.

  19. Examining the Properties of Jets in Coronal Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaulle, Owen; Adams, Mitzi L.; Tennant, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    We examined both X-ray and Magnetic field data in order to determine if there is a correlation between emerging magnetic flux and the production of Coronal jets. It was proposed that emerging flux can be a trigger to a coronal jet. The jet is thought to be caused when local bipoles reconnect or when a region of magnetic polarity emerges through a uniform field. In total we studied 15 different jets that occurred over a two day period starting 2011-02-27 00:00:00 UTC and ending 2011-02-28 23:59:55 UTC. All of the jets were contained within a coronal hole that was centered on the disk. Of the 15 that we studied 6 were shown to have an increase of magnetic flux within one hour prior to the creation of the jet and 10 were within 3 hours before the event.

  20. Coronal Loop Evolution Observed with AIA and Hi-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulu-Moore, Fana; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Kobayashi, K.; Korreck, K.; Golub, L.; Kuzin. S.; Walsh, R.; DeForest, C.; DePontieu, B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Despite much progress toward understanding the dynamics of the solar corona, the physical properties of coronal loops are not yet fully understood. Recent investigations and observations from different instruments have yielded contradictory results about the true physical properties of coronal loops. In the past, the evolution of loops has been used to infer the loop substructure. With the recent launch of High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), this inference can be validated. In this poster we discuss the first results of loop analysis comparing AIA and Hi-C data. We find signatures of cooling in a pixel selected along a loop structure in the AIA multi-filter observations. However, unlike previous studies, we find that the cooling time is much longer than the draining time. This is inconsistent with previous cooling models.

  1. Observations of the birth of a small coronal hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solodyna, C. V.; Krieger, A. S.; Nolte, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    Using soft X-ray data from the S-054 X-ray spectrographic telescope aboard Skylab, we observed temporal changes in the emission structure of the X-ray corona associated with the birth of a small coronal hole. Designated as CH6, this coronal hole was born near the equator in a time interval less than 9-1/2 hr. By constructing a light curve for a point near the center of CH6, we observed a sudden 40% decrease in X-ray emission associated with the birth of this coronal hole. On a time scale of hours, the growth of CH6 in area proceeded faster than the average rate predicted by the diffusion of solar fields. The short term decay of CH6 followed the diffusive rate to within experimental uncertainty. On a time scale of one rotation, the subsequent development of CH6 was not consistent with steady growth at the average rate predicted by diffusion.

  2. Extreme-ultraviolet observations of global coronal wave rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Attrill, G. D. R.; Long, D. M.; Green, L. M.

    2014-11-20

    We present evidence of global coronal wave rotation in EUV data from SOHO/EIT, STEREO/EUVI, and SDO/AIA. The sense of rotation is found to be consistent with the helicity of the source region (clockwise for positive helicity, anticlockwise for negative helicity), with the source regions hosting sigmoidal structures. We also study two coronal wave events observed by SDO/AIA where no clear rotation (or sigmoid) is observed. The selected events show supporting evidence that they all originate with flux rope eruptions. We make comparisons across this set of observations (both with and without clear sigmoidal structures). On examining the magnetic configuration ofmore » the source regions, we find that the nonrotation events possess a quadrupolar magnetic configuration. The coronal waves that do show a rotation originate from bipolar source regions.« less

  3. Rapid Acceleration of a Coronal Mass Ejection in the Low Corona and Implications of Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Peter T.; Lawrence, Gareth R.; Dennis, Brian R.

    2003-01-01

    A high-velocity Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) associated with the 2002 April 21 X1.5 flare is studied using a unique set of observations from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS), and the Large-Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO). The event is first observed as a rapid rise in GOES X-rays, followed by simultaneous conjugate footpoint brightenings connected by an ascending loop or flux-rope feature. While expanding, the appearance of the feature remains remarkably constant as it passes through the TRACE 195 A passband and LASCO fields-of-view, allowing its height-time behavior to be accurately determined. An analytic function, having exponential and linear components, is found to represent the height-time evolution of the CME in the range 1.05-26 R. The CME acceleration rises exponentially to approx. 900 km/sq s within approximately 20-min, peaking at approx.1400 m/sq s when the leading edge is at approx. 1.7 R. The acceleration subsequently falls off as a slowly varying exponential for approx.,90-min. At distances beyond approx. 3.4 R, the height-time profile is approximately linear with a constant velocity of approx. 2400 km/s. These results are briefly discussed in light of recent kinematic models of CMEs.

  4. Ensemble Forecasting of Coronal Mass Ejections Using the WSA-ENLIL with CONED Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmons, D.; Acebal, A.; Pulkkinen, A.; Taktakishvili, A.; MacNeice, P.; Odstricil, D.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) coronal model, ENLIL heliospherical model version 2.7, and CONED Model version 1.3 (WSA-ENLIL with CONED Model) was employed to form ensemble forecasts for 15 halo coronal mass ejections (halo CMEs). The input parameter distributions were formed from 100 sets of CME cone parameters derived from the CONED Model. The CONED Model used image processing along with the bootstrap approach to automatically calculate cone parameter distributions from SOHO/LASCO imagery based on techniques described by Pulkkinen et al. (2010). The input parameter distributions were used as input to WSA-ENLIL to calculate the temporal evolution of the CMEs, which were analyzed to determine the propagation times to the L1 Lagrangian point and the maximum Kp indices due to the impact of the CMEs on the Earth's magnetosphere. The Newell et al. (2007) Kp index formula was employed to calculate the maximum Kp indices based on the predicted solar wind parameters near Ea