Science.gov

Sample records for earth cosmic influences

  1. Cosmic Influence on the Sun-Earth Environment

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Saumitra

    2008-01-01

    SOHO satellite data reveals geophysical changes before sudden changes in the Earth's Sun-Earth environment. The influence of extragalactic changes on the Sun as well as the Sun-Earth environment seems to be both periodic and episodic. The periodic changes in terms of solar maxima and minima occur every 11 years, whereas the episodic changes can happen at any time. Episodic changes can be monitored by cosmic ray detectors as a sudden increase or decrease of activity. During these solar and cosmic anomaly periods the environment of the Earth is affected. The Star-Sun-Earth connection has the potential to influence the thermosphere, atmosphere, ionosphere and lithosphere. Initial correlation of the cosmic and Sun-Earth connection has shown the possibility of predicting earthquakes, sudden changes in atmospheric temperatures and erratic rainfall/snowfall patterns. PMID:27873955

  2. THE COSMIC-RAY INTENSITY NEAR THE ARCHEAN EARTH

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.; Kota, J.

    2012-11-20

    We employ three-dimensional state-of-the-art magnetohydrodynamic models of the early solar wind and heliosphere and a two-dimensional model for cosmic-ray transport to investigate the cosmic-ray spectrum and flux near the Archean Earth. We assess how sensitive the cosmic-ray spectrum is to changes in the sunspot placement and magnetic field strength, the large-scale dipole magnetic field strength, the wind ram pressure, and the Sun's rotation period. Overall, our results confirm earlier work that suggested the Archean Earth would have experienced a greatly reduced cosmic-ray flux than is the case today. The cosmic-ray reduction for the early Sun is mainly due to themore » shorter solar rotation period and tighter winding of the Parker spiral, and to the different surface distribution of the more active solar magnetic field. These effects lead to a global reduction of the cosmic-ray flux at 1 AU by up to two orders of magnitude or more. Variations in the sunspot magnetic field have more effect on the flux than variations in the dipole field component. The wind ram pressure affects the cosmic-ray flux through its influence on the size of the heliosphere via the pressure balance with the ambient interstellar medium. Variations in the interstellar medium pressure experienced by the solar system in orbit through the Galaxy could lead to order of magnitude changes in the cosmic-ray flux at Earth on timescales of a few million years.« less

  3. Cosmic Rays at Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieder, P. K. F.

    In 1912 Victor Franz Hess made the revolutionary discovery that ionizing radiation is incident upon the Earth from outer space. He showed with ground-based and balloon-borne detectors that the intensity of the radiation did not change significantly between day and night. Consequently, the sun could not be regarded as the sources of this radiation and the question of its origin remained unanswered. Today, almost one hundred years later the question of the origin of the cosmic radiation still remains a mystery. Hess' discovery has given an enormous impetus to large areas of science, in particular to physics, and has played a major role in the formation of our current understanding of universal evolution. For example, the development of new fields of research such as elementary particle physics, modern astrophysics and cosmology are direct consequences of this discovery. Over the years the field of cosmic ray research has evolved in various directions: Firstly, the field of particle physics that was initiated by the discovery of many so-called elementary particles in the cosmic radiation. There is a strong trend from the accelerator physics community to reenter the field of cosmic ray physics, now under the name of astroparticle physics. Secondly, an important branch of cosmic ray physics that has rapidly evolved in conjunction with space exploration concerns the low energy portion of the cosmic ray spectrum. Thirdly, the branch of research that is concerned with the origin, acceleration and propagation of the cosmic radiation represents a great challenge for astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology. Presently very popular fields of research have rapidly evolved, such as high-energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy. In addition, high-energy neutrino astronomy may soon initiate as a likely spin-off neutrino tomography of the Earth and thus open a unique new branch of geophysical research of the interior of the Earth. Finally, of considerable interest are the biological

  4. Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays

    PubMed

    Marsh; Svensmark

    2000-12-04

    The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Surprisingly the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds (cosmic rays. If confirmed it suggests that the average state of the heliosphere is important for climate on Earth.

  5. Cosmic Rays Variation Before Changes in Sun-Earth Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2011-12-01

    Influence of cosmic rays variations on the Sun-Earth Environment has been observed before the changes in the atmospheric temperature, outbreak of influenza, cyclone, earthquake and tsunami. It has been recorded by Sun Observatory Heleospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite data. Before the earthquake and tsunami the planetary indices (Kp) and Electron flux (E-flux) shows sudden changes followed by the atmospheric perturbations including very high temperature rise to sudden fall resulting snowfall in high altitude and rainfall in tropical areas. The active fault zones shows sudden faulting after the sudden drop in cosmic ray intensity and rise in Kp and E-flux. Besides the geo-environment the extraterrestrial influence on outbreak of H1N1 influenza has also been recorded based on the Mexico Cosmic ray data and its correlation with SOHO records. Distant stars have the potential to influence the heliophysical parameters by showering cosmic rays.

  6. Cosmic ray impact on extrasolar earth-like planets in close-in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Griessmeier, J-M; Stadelmann, A; Motschmann, U; Belisheva, N K; Lammer, H; Biernat, H K

    2005-10-01

    Because of their different origins, cosmic rays can be subdivided into galactic cosmic rays and solar/stellar cosmic rays. The flux of cosmic rays to planetary surfaces is mainly determined by two planetary parameters: the atmospheric density and the strength of the internal magnetic moment. If a planet exhibits an extended magnetosphere, its surface will be protected from high-energy cosmic ray particles. We show that close-in extrasolar planets in the habitable zone of M stars are synchronously rotating with their host star because of the tidal interaction. For gravitationally locked planets the rotation period is equal to the orbital period, which is much longer than the rotation period expected for planets not subject to tidal locking. This results in a relatively small magnetic moment. We found that an Earth-like extrasolar planet, tidally locked in an orbit of 0.2 AU around an M star of 0.5 solar masses, has a rotation rate of 2% of that of the Earth. This results in a magnetic moment of less than 15% of the Earth's current magnetic moment. Therefore, close-in extrasolar planets seem not to be protected by extended Earth-like magnetospheres, and cosmic rays can reach almost the whole surface area of the upper atmosphere. Primary cosmic ray particles that interact with the atmosphere generate secondary energetic particles, a so-called cosmic ray shower. Some of the secondary particles can reach the surface of terrestrial planets when the surface pressure of the atmosphere is on the order of 1 bar or less. We propose that, depending on atmospheric pressure, biological systems on the surface of Earth-like extrasolar planets at close-in orbital distances can be strongly influenced by secondary cosmic rays.

  7. Cosmic rays and other rpace phenomena influenced on the Earth's climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    We consider effects of cosmic rays (CR) and some other space phenomena on the Earth's climate change. It is well known that the system of internal and external factors formatting the Earth's climate is very unstable: decreasing of planetary average annual temperature leads to an increase of planetary snow surface, and decreasing of the total annual solar energy input into the system decreases the planetary temperature even more. And inverse: increasing planetary temperature leads to an decrease of snow surface, and increasing of the total solar energy input into the system increases the planetary temperature even more. From this follows that even energetically small factors acted long time in one direction may have a big influence on climate change. In our opinion, the most important of these factors are CR (mostly through its influence on planetary cloudiness) and space dust (SD) through their influence on the flux of solar irradiation and on formation of clouds (these actions are in one direction). It is important that CR and SD influenced on global climate change in the same direction. Increasing of CR planetary intensity leads to increasing of formation clouds (especially low clouds on altitudes smaller than 3 km), increasing annual average of raining and decreasing of annual average planetary temperature. Increasing of SD decreases of solar irradiation and increases cloudiness what leads also to decreasing of annual average planetary temperature. Moreover, interactions of CR particles with dust granules decreases their dimensions what increased effectiveness of their actions on clouds. We consider data great variations of planetary temperature much before the beginning of the Earth's technological civilization (mostly caused by moving of the solar system around our Galaxy centre and collisions with molecular-dust clouds). We consider in details not only situation during the last hundred years, but also situation in the last one thousand years (and especially

  8. The influence of cosmic radiation on the properties of different polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Andrea Adamne; Boja, David

    2017-10-01

    During our research we investigated the influence of cosmic radiation on the properties of different polymers. Polypropylene, polyamide 6.6 and polycarbonate were used as raw materials. Test pieces were injection molded. The test pieces were "flying" at different heights (on Earth, at 5500 m, at 12000 m). Thermal properties were investigated: DSC and TGA. We found that cosmic relay influences change in the thermal properties of polypropylene, polyamide 6.6 and polycarbonate.

  9. Cosmic signatures in earth's seismic tremor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Even in absence of earthquakes, each site on earth experiences continuous elastic vibrations which are mostly traced to the nonlinear interactions of ocean waves. However, the fine structure of the spectrum at mHz frequencies shows many persistent and highly significant narrow bandwidth peaks in surprising coincidence with solar acoustic eigenmodes. The feasibility of a common cosmic origin is evaluated through an estimate of the gravitational wave cross-section of the earth, combined with its elastic response and with the stochastic amplification produced by the interference of the cosmic signal with tremor of oceanic origin. The measured spectral peaks appear compatible with a gravitational monochromatic illumination at strains h ≳ 10-20, larger than those expected for any known gravitational stellar source. Hence, a gravitational source attribution to the tremor spectral peaks would call for a population of unknown non-luminous sources with well-defined mass-distance ratios.

  10. Heliospheric influence on the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Ming; Zuo, Pingbing; Pogorelov, Nikolai

    2014-06-26

    This article provides a theory of using Liouville's theorem to map the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays seen at Earth using the particle distribution function in the local interstellar medium (LISM). The ultimate source of cosmic ray anisotropy is the energy, pitch angle, and spatial dependence of the cosmic ray distribution function in the LISM. Because young nearby cosmic ray sources can make a special contribution to the cosmic ray anisotropy, the anisotropy depends on the source age, distance and magnetic connection, and particle diffusion of these cosmic rays, all of which make the anisotropy sensitive to the particle energy.more » When mapped through the magnetic and electric field of a magnetohydrodynamic model heliosphere, the large-scale dipolar and bidirectional interstellar anisotropy patterns become distorted if they are seen from Earth, resulting in many small structures in the observations. Best fits to cosmic ray anisotropy measurements have allowed us to estimate the particle density gradient and pitch angle anisotropies in the LISM. It is found that the heliotail, hydrogen deflection plane, and the plane perpendicular to the LISM magnetic field play a special role in distorting cosmic ray anisotropy. These features can lead to an accurate determination of the LISM magnetic field direction and polarity. The effects of solar cycle variation, the Sun's coronal magnetic field, and turbulence in the LISM and heliospheric magnetic fields are minor but clearly visible at a level roughly equal to a fraction of the overall anisotropy amplitude. Lastly, the heliospheric influence becomes stronger at lower energies. Below 1 TeV, the anisotropy is dominated by small-scale patterns produced by disturbances in the heliosphere.« less

  11. Heliospheric influence on the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming; Zuo, Pingbing; Pogorelov, Nikolai, E-mail: mzhang@fit.edu

    2014-07-20

    This paper provides a theory of using Liouville's theorem to map the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays seen at Earth using the particle distribution function in the local interstellar medium (LISM). The ultimate source of cosmic ray anisotropy is the energy, pitch angle, and spatial dependence of the cosmic ray distribution function in the LISM. Because young nearby cosmic ray sources can make a special contribution to the cosmic ray anisotropy, the anisotropy depends on the source age, distance and magnetic connection, and particle diffusion of these cosmic rays, all of which make the anisotropy sensitive to the particle energy.more » When mapped through the magnetic and electric field of a magnetohydrodynamic model heliosphere, the large-scale dipolar and bidirectional interstellar anisotropy patterns become distorted if they are seen from Earth, resulting in many small structures in the observations. Best fits to cosmic ray anisotropy measurements have allowed us to estimate the particle density gradient and pitch angle anisotropies in the LISM. It is found that the heliotail, hydrogen deflection plane, and the plane perpendicular to the LISM magnetic field play a special role in distorting cosmic ray anisotropy. These features can lead to an accurate determination of the LISM magnetic field direction and polarity. The effects of solar cycle variation, the Sun's coronal magnetic field, and turbulence in the LISM and heliospheric magnetic fields are minor but clearly visible at a level roughly equal to a fraction of the overall anisotropy amplitude. The heliospheric influence becomes stronger at lower energies. Below 1 TeV, the anisotropy is dominated by small-scale patterns produced by disturbances in the heliosphere.« less

  12. Sources of cosmic dust in the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.; Nesvorný, D.; Pokorný, P.; Janches, D.; Plane, J. M. C.

    2016-12-01

    There are four known sources of dust in the inner solar system: Jupiter Family comets, asteroids, Halley Type comets, and Oort Cloud comets. Here we combine the mass, velocity, and radiant distributions of these cosmic dust populations from an astronomical model with a chemical ablation model to estimate the injection rates of Na and Fe into the Earth's upper atmosphere, as well as the flux of cosmic spherules to the surface. Comparing these parameters to lidar observations of the vertical Na and Fe fluxes above 87.5 km, and the measured cosmic spherule accretion rate at South Pole, shows that Jupiter Family Comets contribute (80 ± 17)% of the total input mass (43 ± 14 t d-1), in good accord with Cosmic Background Explorer and Planck observations of the zodiacal cloud.

  13. Sources of cosmic dust in the Earth's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Sánchez, J D; Nesvorný, D; Pokorný, P; Janches, D; Plane, J M C

    2016-12-16

    There are four known sources of dust in the inner solar system: Jupiter Family comets, asteroids, Halley Type comets, and Oort Cloud comets. Here we combine the mass, velocity, and radiant distributions of these cosmic dust populations from an astronomical model with a chemical ablation model to estimate the injection rates of Na and Fe into the Earth's upper atmosphere, as well as the flux of cosmic spherules to the surface. Comparing these parameters to lidar observations of the vertical Na and Fe fluxes above 87.5 km, and the measured cosmic spherule accretion rate at South Pole, shows that Jupiter Family Comets contribute (80 ± 17)% of the total input mass (43 ± 14 t d -1 ), in good accord with Cosmic Background Explorer and Planck observations of the zodiacal cloud.

  14. Sources of cosmic dust in the Earth's atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo‐Sánchez, J. D.; Nesvorný, D.; Pokorný, P.; Janches, D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There are four known sources of dust in the inner solar system: Jupiter Family comets, asteroids, Halley Type comets, and Oort Cloud comets. Here we combine the mass, velocity, and radiant distributions of these cosmic dust populations from an astronomical model with a chemical ablation model to estimate the injection rates of Na and Fe into the Earth's upper atmosphere, as well as the flux of cosmic spherules to the surface. Comparing these parameters to lidar observations of the vertical Na and Fe fluxes above 87.5 km, and the measured cosmic spherule accretion rate at South Pole, shows that Jupiter Family Comets contribute (80 ± 17)% of the total input mass (43 ± 14 t d−1), in good accord with Cosmic Background Explorer and Planck observations of the zodiacal cloud. PMID:28275286

  15. Cosmic dust in the earth's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Plane, John M C

    2012-10-07

    This review discusses the magnitude of the cosmic dust input into the earth's atmosphere, and the resulting impacts from around 100 km to the earth's surface. Zodiacal cloud observations and measurements made with a spaceborne dust detector indicate a daily mass input of interplanetary dust particles ranging from 100 to 300 tonnes, which is in agreement with the accumulation rates of cosmic-enriched elements (Ir, Pt, Os and super-paramagnetic Fe) in polar ice cores and deep-sea sediments. In contrast, measurements in the middle atmosphere - by radar, lidar, high-flying aircraft and satellite remote sensing - indicate that the input is between 5 and 50 tonnes per day. There are two reasons why this huge discrepancy matters. First, if the upper range of estimates is correct, then vertical transport in the middle atmosphere must be considerably faster than generally believed; whereas if the lower range is correct, then our understanding of dust evolution in the solar system, and transport from the middle atmosphere to the surface, will need substantial revision. Second, cosmic dust particles enter the atmosphere at high speeds and undergo significant ablation. The resulting metals injected into the atmosphere are involved in a diverse range of phenomena, including: the formation of layers of metal atoms and ions; the nucleation of noctilucent clouds, which are a sensitive marker of climate change; impacts on stratospheric aerosols and O(3) chemistry, which need to be considered against the background of a cooling stratosphere and geo-engineering plans to increase sulphate aerosol; and fertilization of the ocean with bio-available Fe, which has potential climate feedbacks.

  16. Cosmic rays: a review for astrobiologists.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Franco; Szuszkiewicz, Ewa

    2009-05-01

    Cosmic rays represent one of the most fascinating research themes in modern astronomy and physics. Significant progress is being made toward an understanding of the astrophysics of the sources of cosmic rays and the physics of interactions in the ultrahigh-energy range. This is possible because several new experiments in these areas have been initiated. Cosmic rays may hold answers to a great number of fundamental questions, but they also shape our natural habitat and influence the radiation environment of our planet Earth. The importance of the study of cosmic rays has been acknowledged in many fields, including space weather science and astrobiology. Here, we concentrate on the astrobiological aspects of cosmic rays with regard to the enormous amount of new data available, some of which may, in fact, improve our knowledge about the radiation of cosmic origin on Earth. We focus on fluxes arriving at Earth and doses received, and will guide the reader through the wealth of scientific literature on cosmic rays. We have prepared a concise and self-contained source of data and recipes useful for performing interdisciplinary research in cosmic rays and their effects on life on Earth.

  17. Bioeffectiveness of Cosmic Rays Near the Earth Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belisheva, N. K.

    2014-10-01

    Experimental studies of the dynamics of morphological and functional state of the diverse biosystems (microflora, plant Maranta leuconeura «Fascinator», cell cultures, human peripheral blood, the human body ) have shown that geocosmical agents modulated the functional state of biological systems Belisheva 2006; Belisheva et all 2007 ) . First time on the experimental data showed the importance of the increase in the fluxes of solar cosmic rays (CRs ) with high energies (Belisheva et all 2002; 2012; Belisheva, Lammer, Biernat, 2004) and galactic cosmic ray variations (Belisheva et al, 2005; 2006; Vinnichenko Belisheva, 2009 ) near the Earth surface for the functional state of biosystems. The evidence of the presence of the particles with high bioeffectiveness in the secondary cosmic rays was obtained by simulating the particle cascades in the atmosphere, performed by using Geant4 (Planetocosmics, based on the Monte Carlo code (Maurchev et al, 2011), and experimental data, where radiobiological effects of cosmic rays were revealed. Modeling transport of solar protons through the Earth's atmosphere, taking into account the angular and energy distributions of secondary particles in different layers of the atmosphere, allowed us to estimate the total neutron flux during three solar proton events, accompanied by an increase in the intensity of the nucleon component of secondary cosmic rays - Ground Level Enhancement GLE (43, 44, 45) in October 1989 (19, 22, 24 October). The results obtained by simulation were compared with the data of neutron monitors and balloon measurements made during solar proton events. Confirmation of the neutron fluxes near the Earth surface during the GLE (43, 44, 45) were obtained in the experiments on the cellular cultures (Belisheva et al. 2012). A direct evidence of biological effects of CR has been demonstrated in experiments with three cellular lines growing in culture during three events of Ground Level Enhancement (GLEs) in the

  18. The Cosmic Habitat for Earth-Life and the Issue of Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piątek, Zdzisława

    2017-12-01

    The subjects under consideration here are the philosophical consequences arising as the cosmic dimension to ecology is taken into account. If the habitat for Earthlife is a part of the cosmic environment, then cosmology and astrophysics become a part of ecology. The human species is furthermore a participant in a vast process of cosmic evolution, with sustainable-development strategy thus defi ning the conditions for - and time needed to achieve - a technological civilisation allowing Earth-life to be evacuated to another part of the galaxy as and when the further existence of life on this planet becomes (or threatens to become) an impossibility. In the context of such a cosmic perspective, the value ascribable to our scientifi c and technological civilisation (and future versions thereof) changes, given that only this kind of civilisation offers a chance for Earth-life to persist in an extra-terrestrial environment.

  19. The problems of cosmic ray particle simulation for the near-Earth orbital and interplanetary flight conditions.

    PubMed

    Nymmik, R A

    1999-10-01

    A wide range of the galactic cosmic ray and SEP event flux simulation problems for the near-Earth satellite and manned spacecraft orbits and for the interplanetary mission trajectories are discussed. The models of the galactic cosmic ray and SEP events in the Earth orbit beyond the Earth's magnetosphere are used as a basis. The particle fluxes in the near-Earth orbits should be calculated using the transmission functions. To calculate the functions, the dependences of the cutoff rigidities on the magnetic disturbance level and on magnetic local time have to be known. In the case of space flights towards the Sun and to the boundary of the solar system, particular attention is paid to the changes in the SEP event occurrence frequency and size. The particle flux gradients are applied in this case to galactic cosmic ray fluxes.

  20. Influence of Sun and Other Cosmic Factors on Environment of the Earth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-07

    of the secondary cosmic rays (mostly muons , electrons, neutrons and gammas) can provide highly cost-effective information on the key characteristics...Coronal mass ejection (CME) from the Sun the impact on the Galactic Cosmic rays (GCR) will be observed. Particle detector is vital for measuring the...modulation effects the sun poses on the ambient population of the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). The known agents of these modulation effects are Solar Flares

  1. Cosmic acceleration of Earth and the Moon by dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordtvedt, Kenneth L.

    1994-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that the gravitational interaction between our Galaxy's dark matter and the ordinary matter in Earth and the Moon might not fulfill the equivalence principle (universality of free fall), we consider the pertinent perturbation of the lunar orbit -- a sidereal month period range oscillation resulting from a spatially fixed polarization of the orbit. Lunar laser ranging (LLR) data can measure this sidereal perturbation to an accuracy equal to or better than its existing measurement of the synodic month period range oscillation amplitude (+/- 3 cm) which has been used for testing whether Earth and the Moon accelerate at equal rates toward the Sun. Because of the slow precession rate of the Moon's perigree (8.9 yr period), the lunar orbit is particularly sensitive to a cosmic acceleration; the LLR fit of the orbit places an upper limit of 10(exp -13) cm/sq. s for any cosmic differential acceleration between Earth (Fe) and the Moon (silicates). This is 10(exp -5) of the total galactic acceleration of the solar system, of which, it has been suggested, a large portion is produced by dark matter.

  2. SOLAR COSMIC RAYS AND SOFT RADIATION OBSERVED AT 5,000,000 KILOMETERS FROM EARTH

    SciTech Connect

    Arnoldy, R.L.; Hoffman, R.A.; Winckler, J.R.

    1960-09-01

    During the period Mar. 27 to Apr. 6, 1960, the integrating ionization chamber and Geiger counter in Pioneer V detected solar cosmic rays and some soft- radiation effects associated with a high level of solar activity. The space probe was 5 x 10/sup 6/ km from the earth, approximately in the plane of the ecliptic, and located somewhat behind the sunearth radius toward the sun. The solar activity was associated with McMath plage region 5615 and was characterized by numerous flares of all sizes, large loops and surge prominences, and strong emission over a wide range of frequencies. On Mar.more » 31 at 0800 UT, a severe geomagnetic storm began on earth accompanied by major earth-current disturbances, a complete blackout of the North Atlantic communications channel, and auroral displays. At the same time, a large Forbush decrease occurred in the galactic cosmic radiation. An intense series of balloon flights was conducted to record the counting-rate increases at high altitudes due to solar cosmic rays and auroral x rays. Explorer VII showed substantial changes in the radiation belts and detected the solar cosmic rays. The observations of Pioneer V are summarized and compared to the findings of Explorer VII for the same period. (B.O.G.)« less

  3. Cosmic rays and other space phenomena dangerous for the Earth's civilization: Foundation of cosmic ray warning system and beginning steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    difference between consequences Alerts became much smaller than errors. In our report "Cosmic Rays and other Space Weather Effects Influenced on Satellites Operation, Technologies, Biosphere and People Health" it was shown that very important element of Space Weather, influenced on satellites operation, technologies, and people health are strong magnetic storms, accompanied usually by CR Forbush effects. We discuss here on the possibility to include in the "Cosmic Ray Warning System" possibility to forecast this phenomenon, also dangerous for the Earth's Civilization. In the report "Cosmic Rays and other Space Phenomena Influenced on the Earth's Climate" on this Conference it was shown that very big changes in climate, dangerous for the Earth's Civilization, are caused by interactions of Solar system with molecular-dust clouds (caused the Great Ice Periods during many thousand years). Very dangerous for the Earth's Civilization are also nearby supernova explosions with great influence on biosphere and climate. We show that by CR data in the frame of "Cosmic Ray Warning System" is possible to forecast for many years before starting these dangerous phenomena, so the Earth's Civilization will have enough time for preparing to the new type of life. For this forecasting we need to add to the "Cosmic Ray Warning System" in near future several CR stations for continue measuring CR with much higher energies (1013 - 1014 eV). We hope to organize the mostly automatic working "Cosmic Ray Warning System" in cooperation with Azerbaijan, Israel, and many CR stations in the World. The Project will be open for any country and organizations (ESA, NASA and so on) and will be start as soon as possible. In the first 3 - 5 years we hope that forecasting of radiation hazards will be made fully automatically as it was described in this report. In the next 5-10 years the Project will be expanded for forecasting dangerous magnetic storms (in this case we need to use also muon telescopes data), and

  4. Control of the Earth's electric field intensity through solar wind modulation of galactic cosmic radiation: Support for a proposed atmospheric electrical sun-weather mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markson, R.

    1980-01-01

    The ionospheric potential and galactic cosmic radiation, found to be inversely correlated with the solar wind velocity are examined as being germane to weather modification. Since the ionospheric potential is proportional to the fair weather electric field intensity and cosmic radiation is the dominant source of atmospheric ionization, it is concluded that the Earth's overall electric field varies in phase with atmospheric ionization and that the latter is modulated by the solar wind. A proposed mechanism, in which solar control of ionizing radiation influences atmospheric electrification and thus possibly cloud physical processes is discussed. An experimental approach to critically test the proposed mechanism through comparison of the temporal variation of the Earth's electric field with conditions in the interplanetary medium is outlined.

  5. Propagation of Galactic cosmic rays: the influence of anisotropic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Zetoun, A.; Achterberg, A.

    2018-06-01

    We consider the anisotropic diffusion of cosmic rays in the large-scale Galactic magnetic field, where diffusion along the field and diffusion across the field proceeds at different rates. To calculate this diffusion, we use stochastic differential equations to describe the cosmic ray propagation, solving these numerically. The Galactic magnetic field is described using the Jansson-Farrar model for the Galactic magnetic field. In this paper, we study the influence of perpendicular diffusion on the residence time of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. This provides an estimate for the influence of anisotropic diffusion on the residence time and the amount of matter (grammage) that a typical cosmic ray traverses during its residence in the Galaxy.

  6. A Shifting Shield Provides Protection Against Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    at Earth.In a new study, a team of scientists led by Nicola Tomassetti (University of Perugia, Italy) has modeled this solar modulation to better understand the process by which the Suns changing activity influences the cosmic ray flux that reaches us at Earth.Modeling a LagTomassetti and collaborators model uses two solar-activity observables as inputs: the number of sunspots and the tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet. By modeling basic transport processes in the heliosphere, the authors then track the impact that the changing solar properties have on incoming galactic cosmic rays. In particular, the team explores the time lag between when solar activity changes and when we see the responding change in the cosmic-ray flux.Cosmic-ray flux observations are best fit by the authors model when an 8-month lag is included (red bold line). A comparison model with no lag (black dashed line) is included. [Tomassetti et al. 2017]By comparing their model outputs to the large collection of time-dependent observations of cosmic-ray fluxes, Tomassetti and collaborators show that the best fit to data occurs with an 8-month lag between changing solar activity and local cosmic-ray flux modulation.This is an important outcome for studying the processes that affect the cosmic-ray flux that reaches Earth. But theres an additional intriguing consequence of this result: knowledge of the current solar activity could allow us to predict the modulation that will occur for cosmic rays near Earth an entire 8 months from now! If this model is correct, it brings us one step closer to being able to plan safer space missions for the future.CitationNicola Tomassetti et al 2017 ApJL 849 L32. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa9373

  7. The cosmic Era and the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closca-Grigore, Carmen

    THe book describes the main directions of development of cosmic research in the USA, USSR, Europe, Japan and China. The main inventors and creators of cosmic technics are designed : Tsiolkovskii, Tsander, Korolev, Oberth, Verner von Braun, Goddard and the most important cosmic flies by Sputnik, Gagarin, Tereshkova, Leonov, Armstrong. The main program of cosmic research are outlined in such areas as maps, geological research, meteorolgy, television, radio and military. The Romanian contributions are described: Ioan Vitez, Konrad Haas, Traian Vuia, Aurel Vlaicu, Hermann Oberth and Dumnitru Prunariu.

  8. COMPARISON OF COSMIC-RAY ENVIRONMENTS ON EARTH, MOON, MARS AND IN SPACECARFT USING PHITS.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Ueno, Haruka; Kataoka, Ryuho; Miyake, Shoko; Takeda, Kazuo; Niita, Koji

    2017-09-29

    Estimation of cosmic-ray doses is of great importance not only in aircrew and astronaut dosimetry but also in evaluation of background radiation exposure to public. We therefore calculated the cosmic-ray doses on Earth, Moon and Mars as well as inside spacecraft, using Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS. The same cosmic-ray models and dose conversion coefficients were employed in the calculation to properly compare between the simulation results for different environments. It is quantitatively confirmed that the thickness of physical shielding including the atmosphere and soil of the planets is the most important parameter to determine the cosmic-ray doses and their dominant contributors. The comparison also suggests that higher solar activity significantly reduces the astronaut doses particularly for the interplanetary missions. The information obtained from this study is useful in the designs of the future space missions as well as accelerator-based experiments dedicated to cosmic-ray research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Searching for a shadow biosphere on Earth as a test of the 'cosmic imperative'.

    PubMed

    Davies, P C W

    2011-02-13

    Estimates for the number of communicating civilizations in the galaxy, based on the so-called Drake equation, are meaningless without a plausible estimate for the probability that life will emerge on an Earth-like planet. In the absence of a theory of the origin of life, that number can be anywhere from 0 to 1. Distinguished scientists have been known to argue that life on Earth is a freak accident, unique in the observable universe and, conversely, that life is almost bound to arise in the course of time, given Earth-like conditions. De Duve, adopting the latter position, coined the phrase that 'life is a cosmic imperative'. De Duve's position would be immediately verified if we were to discover a second sample of life that we could be sure arose from scratch independently of known life. Given the current absence of evidence for life beyond Earth, the best way to test the hypothesis of the cosmic imperative is to see whether terrestrial life began more than once. If it did, it is possible that descendants of a second genesis might be extant, forming a sort of 'shadow biosphere' existing alongside, or perhaps interpenetrating, the known biosphere. I outline a strategy to detect the existence of such a shadow biosphere.

  10. Rare Earth or Cosmic Zoo: Testing the Frequency of Complex Life in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bains, W.; Schulze-Makuch, D.

    2017-02-01

    We propose how to test between two major hypotheses about the frequency of life in the universe (Rare Earth and Cosmic Zoo) using future remote sensing capabilities targeted at exoplanets and site visits of planetary bodies in our solar system.

  11. The Transition from Earth-Centred Biology to Cosmic Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra; Tokoro, Gensuke; Wainwright, Milton

    A paradigm shift with potentially profound implications has been taking place over the past 3 decades. The convergence of research in diverse disciplines points to life being a cosmic phenomenon. A near-infinite information content of life appears to have evolved on a cosmological scale -- over vast distances, and enormous spans of time. It appears highly unlikely that life could have emerged from chemicals in "some warm little pond" on the Earth; in contrast we maintain that every species of life on the Earth, including Homo sapiens, is in essence the result of an assembly of cosmologically derived viral genes. The ingress of such genes that continues to the present day led to their accommodation within the genomes of evolving lineages, sifted according to the "natural processes of selection", a mechanism first enunciated by Patrick Matthews and later used by Darwin. The evidence for this point of view has now grown to the point where we believe, it will soon need to be accepted by the majority of the scientific community. This is particularly critical, since we suggest that new diseases capable of threatening Man's existence could arrive to Earth from space. Moreover, we need to understand that we must live in harmony with the Earth and its ever-changing biosphere if we are to coexist with it.

  12. Cosmic Rays as a Factor of Biosphere Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, L. I.

    2014-11-01

    There are no doubts that the Earth's space environment in the past inevitably exerted direct and/or indirect influence [1--4] on the conditions of terrestrial life and biospheric evolution. Well-known cosmic factors are usually streams of cosmic dust and gas, comets and asteroids, cosmic rays (energetic particles of galactic and/or solar origin), interplanetary plasma (solar wind), and electromagnetic radiation of different energies, wavelengths, or frequencies. Of great interest are radiation conditions and their variations, especially in the remote past (over the geological time scales). The Sun, the most important and indispensable condition for the existence of the Earth's biosphere, is also a potential source of dangerous emissions. In continuation of (and in addition to) our review paper [3], below we summarize the observational data and results of theoretical works that have been carried out and/or published mainly after 2012. These studies are actually in the frontier region between the Astrobiology and Space Weather. Our main attention is paid to cosmic rays (CR) of galactic and solar origin (GCR and SCR, respectively).

  13. Cosmic-ray record in solar system matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.; Lal, D.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar cosmic rays (SCR) with bodies in the solar system is discussed, and what the record of that interaction reveals about the history of the solar system is considered. The influence of the energy, charge, and mass of the particles on the interaction is addressed, showing long-term average fluxes of solar protons, predicted production rates for heavy-nuclei tracks and various radionuclides as a function of depth in lunar rock, and integral fluxes of protons emitted by solar flares. The variation of the earth's magnetic field, the gardening of the lunar surface, and the source of meteorites and cosmic dust are studied using the cosmic ray record. The time variation of GCR, SCR, and VH and VVH nuclei is discussed for both the short and the long term.

  14. COSMIC RAYS AND COSMIC SPACE (in Russian)

    SciTech Connect

    Vernova, S.N.

    1960-08-01

    An account is given of recent studies of cosmic rays utilizing both earthbound stations and artificial earth satellites. Phenomena recently uncovered by sputniks are described. A description is given of the cosmic ray laboratory of Moscow University. A particle possessing an energy of l0/sup 15/ ev was detected and the equipment and procedure by which this was done are described. mu mesons in a particle shower produced by cosmic rays were detected at a depth of thirty meters underground. The apparatus required in the sputriks for the study of cosmic rays outside the earth's atmosphere is discussed. The equipment inmore » the sputniks launched to date was transistorized; scintillation counters were used to determine particle energies. A description is given of the large burst of radiation detected by the second sputnik on Nov. 7, 1957. This burst was observed only at latitudes of about 50 to 70 degrees north latitude. The third sputnik had a scintillation counter of high sensitivity which detected relatively weak fluxes of electrons. This equipment fixed the location of the high intensity radiation belt around the earth. A typical graph of count rate and energy current versus geographic location is given. Data are given that indicate the coincidence of peak radiation intensities with those regions where the aurora borealis is seen. The radiation belt extends up to approximately 60,000 km from the earth's surface and is bounded by the magnetic lines of force that intersect the earth' s surface at geomagnetic latitudes of 55 deg and 70 deg . The earth's magnetic field traps these particles and holds them in an orbit that follows magnetic lines of force and oscillates from the northern to the southern hemisphere for long periods of time. A diagram is given of the trajectory of the first Soviet cosmic rocket and changes in radiation intensity along this trajectory are indicated. A maximum radiation intensity was detected at a distance of 20,000 km from the earth

  15. Multi-spectra Cosmic Ray Flux Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaochun; Dayananda, Mathes

    2010-02-01

    The Earth's upper atmosphere is constantly bombarded by rain of charged particles known as primary cosmic rays. These primary cosmic rays will collide with the atmospheric molecules and create extensive secondary particles which shower downward to the surface of the Earth. In recent years, a few studies have been done regarding to the applications of the cosmic ray measurements and the correlations between the Earth's climate conditions and the cosmic ray fluxes [1,2,3]. Most of the particles, which reach to the surface of the Earth, are muons together with a small percentage of electrons, gammas, neutrons, etc. At Georgia State University, multiple cosmic ray particle detectors have been constructed to measure the fluxes and energy distributions of the secondary cosmic ray particles. In this presentation, we will briefly describe these prototype detectors and show the preliminary test results. Reference: [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, Nature, Vol.422, 277 (2003). [2] L.V. Egorova, V. Ya Vovk, O.A. Troshichev, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics 62, 955-966 (2000). [3] Henrik Svensmark, Phy. Rev. Lett. 81, 5027 (1998). )

  16. Cosmic Dust and the Earth's Atmosphere (Vilhelm Bjerknes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, John M. C.

    2017-04-01

    Cosmic dust particles are produced in the solar system from the sublimation of comets as they orbit close to the sun, and also from collisions between asteroids in the belt between Mars and Jupiter. Dust particles enter the atmosphere at hyperthermal velocities (11 - 72 km s-1), and ablate at heights between 80 and 120 km in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT). The resulting metallic vapours (Fe, Mg, Si and Na etc.) then oxidize and recondense to form nm-size particles, termed "meteoric smoke particles (MSPs)". MSPs are too small to sediment downwards and so are transported by the general circulation of the atmosphere, taking roughly 4 years to reach the surface. Smoke particles play a potentially important role as condensation nuclei of noctilucent ice clouds in the mesosphere, and polar stratospheric clouds in the lower stratosphere, where they also facilitate freezing of the clouds. There are also potential implications for climate, as the input of bio-available cosmic Fe in the Southern Ocean can increase biological productivity and stimulate CO2 drawdown from the atmosphere. However, current estimates of the magnitude of the cosmic dust mass input rate into the Earth's atmosphere range from 2 to over 200 tonnes per day, depending on whether the measurements are made in space, in the middle atmosphere, or in polar ice cores. This nearly 2 order-of-magnitude discrepancy indicates that there must be serious flaws in the interpretation of observations that have been used to make the estimates. Furthermore, given this degree of uncertainty, the significance of these potential atmospheric impacts remains speculative. In this lecture I will describe the results of a large study designed to determine the size of the cosmic dust input rate using a self-consistent treatment of cosmic dust from the outer solar system to the Earth's surface. An astronomical model which tracks the evolution of dust from various sources into the inner solar system was combined with a

  17. Galactic Cosmic Rays: From Earth to Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Theresa J.

    2012-01-01

    For nearly 100 years we have known that cosmic rays come from outer space, yet proof of their origin, as well as a comprehensive understanding of their acceleration, remains elusive. Direct detection of high energy (up to 10(exp 15)eV), charged nuclei with experiments such as the balloon-born, antarctic Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER) have provided insight into these mysteries through measurements of cosmic ray abundances. The abundance of these rare elements with respect to certain intrinsic properties suggests that cosmic rays include a component of massive star ejecta. Supernovae and their remnants (SNe & SNRs), often occurring at the end of a massive star's life or in an environment including massive star material, are one of the most likely candidates for sources accelerating galactic comic ray nuclei up to the requisite high energies. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Detector (Fermi LAT) has improved our understanding of such sources by widening the window of observable energies and thus into potential sources' energetic processes. In combination with multiwavelength observations, we are now better able to constrain particle populations (often hadron-dominated at GeV energies) and environmental conditions, such as the magnetic field strength. The SNR CTB 37A is one such source which could contribute to the observed galactic cosmic rays. By assembling populations of SNRs, we will be able to more definitively define their contribution to the observed galactic cosmic rays, as well as better understand SNRs themselves. Such multimessenger studies will thus illuminate the long-standing cosmic ray mysteries, shedding light on potential sources, acceleration mechanisms, and cosmic ray propagation.

  18. Cosmic Rays as a Factor of Biospheric Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, L. I.

    2014-10-01

    There are no doubts that the Earth's space environment in the past inevitably has exerted direct and/or indirect influence [1-4] on the conditions of terrestrial life and biospheric evolution. Well-known space factors are usually the fluxes of cosmic dust and gas, comets and asteroids, cosmic rays (energetic particles of galactic and/or solar origin), interplanetary plasma (solar wind) and electromagnetic radiation of different energies, wave lengths, or frequencies. Of great interest are radiation conditions and their variations, especially in the remote past (over the geological time scales). The Sun, the most important and indispensable condition for the existence of the Earth's biosphere, is also a potential source of dangerous emissions. In continuation of (and in addition to) our review paper [3], below we summarize the observational data and results of theoretical works that have been carried out and/or published mainly after 2012. These studies are actually in the frontier region between the Astrobiology and Space Weather. Our main attention is paid to cosmic rays (CR) of galactic and solar origin (GCR and SCR, respectively).

  19. Does the presence of cosmic dust influence the displacement of the Earth's Magnetopause?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, I.; Hamrin, M.

    2012-04-01

    In a recent paper Treumann and Baumjohann propose that dust particles in interplanetary space occasionally cause large compressions of the magnetopause that, in the absence of coronal mass ejections, are difficult to explain by other mechanisms (R.A. Treumann and W. Baumjohann, Ann. Geophys. 30, 119-130, 2012). They suggest that enhanced dust number density raises the contribution of the dust component to the solar wind dynamical pressure and hence to the pressure balance that determines the extension of the magnetopause. They quantify the influence of the dust component in terms of a variation of the magnetopause stagnation point distance. As a possible event to trigger the compressions they propose the encounters with meteoroid dust streams along Earth's orbit. We investigate the conditions under which these compressions may occur. The estimate by Treumann and Baumjohann of the magnetopause variation presupposes that the dust particles have reached solar wind speed. Acceleration by electromagnetic forces is efficient in the solar wind for dust particles that have a sufficiently large ratio of surface charge to mass (Mann et al. Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion, Vol. 52, 124012, 2010). This applies to small dust particles that contribute little to the total dust mass in meteoroid streams. The major fraction of dust particles that reach high speed in the solar wind are nanometer-sized dust particles that form and are accelerated in the inner solar system (Czechowski and Mann, ApJ, Vol. 714, 89, 2010). Observations suggest that the flux of these nanodust particles near 1 AU is highly time-variable (Meyer-Vernet, et al. Solar Physics, Vol. 256, 463, 2009). We estimate a possible variation of the magnetopause stagnation point distance caused by these nanodust fluxes and by the dust associated to meteoroid streams. We conclude that the Earth's encounters with meteoroid dust streams are not likely to strongly influence the magnetopause according to the proposed effect. We

  20. The Influence of COSMIC Satellite Data on Regional Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Y.

    2006-12-01

    The atmospheric limb sounding technique making use of radio signals transmitted by the Global Position System (GPS) has emerged as a promising approach for global atmospheric measurements. As demonstrated by the proof-of-concept GPS Meteorology (GPS/MET) experiment and more recently by the CHAMP and SAC-C missions, the GPS radio occultation (RO) sounding data are of high accuracy and high vertical resolution. On 15 April 2006, the joint U.S.-Taiwan COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 mission, a constellation of six microsatellites, was launched from the Vandenberg Air Force Base. These satellites are being deployed to their final orbits, which would take about a year. During the early phase of the deployment, the satellites are closely located. This offers a unique opportunity to examine the precision of the GPS RO measurements. The COSMIC data are available in near real-time for global weather analysis and prediction and for climate monitoring. Currently, COSMIC is producing approximately 1300 GPS RO soundings per day at the end of August 2006. This number will be increased as the satellites are further separated through the deployment process. Radio occultation measures phase and amplitude of the microwave signals emitted from GPS. These signals are inverted to obtain profiles of signal bending, atmospheric refractivity, pressure temperature and water vapor. The main objective of the COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 mission is to demonstrate the value of these radio occultation products for weather forecasting, climate monitoring, ionospheric research and space weather prediction. This presentation will provide an overview of the COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 program. We will present results on the influence of COSMIC data on the regional analysis over the data void regions, particularly over the tropics and high latitudes. For further information on the COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3, please refer to http://www.cosmic.ucar.edu/.

  1. The origin of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichler, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data related to the development of cosmic rays are discussed. The relationship between cosmic ray production and the steady-state Boltzmann equation is analyzed. The importance of the power-law spectrum, the scattering rate, the theory of shock acceleration, anisotropic instabilities, and cosmic ray diffusion in the formation of cosmic rays is described. It is noted that spacecraft observations at the earth's bow shock are useful for studying cosmic rays and that the data support the collisionless shock-wave theory of cosmic ray origin.

  2. Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; van den Berg, Ad; Ebert, Ute

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms Cosmic rays are protons and heavier nuclei that constantly bombard the Earth's atmosphere with energies spanning a vast range from 109 to 1021 eV. At typical altitudes up to 10-20 km they initiate large particle cascades, called extensive air showers, that contain millions to billions of secondary particles depending on their initial energy. These particles include electrons, positrons, hadrons and muons, and are concentrated in a compact particle front that propagates at relativistic speed. In addition, the shower leaves behind a trail of lower energy electrons from ionization of air molecules. Under thunderstorm conditions these electrons contribute to the electrical and ionization processes in the cloud. When the local electric field is strong enough the secondary electrons can create relativistic electron run-away avalanches [1] or even non-relativistic avalanches. Cosmic rays could even trigger lightning inception. Conversely, strong electric fields also influence the development of the air shower [2]. Extensive air showers emit a short (tens of nanoseconds) radio pulse due to deflection of the shower particles in the Earth's magnetic field [3]. Antenna arrays, such as AERA, LOFAR and LOPES detect these pulses in a frequency window of roughly 10-100 MHz. These systems are also sensitive to the radiation from discharges associated to thunderstorms, and provide a means to study the interaction of cosmic ray air showers and the electrical processes in thunderstorms [4]. In this presentation we discuss the involved radiation mechanisms and present analyses of thunderstorm data from air shower arrays [1] A. Gurevich et al., Phys. Lett. A 165, 463 (1992) [2] S. Buitink et al., Astropart. Phys. 33, 1 (2010) [3] H. Falcke et al., Nature 435, 313 (2005) [4] S. Buitink et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 467, 385 (2007)

  3. The influence of cosmic rays on the stability and large-scale dynamics of the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, V. D.

    1986-06-01

    The diffusion-convection formulation is used to study the influence of galactic cosmic rays on the stability and dynamics of the interstellar medium which is supposedly kept in equilibrium by the gravitational field of stars. It is shown that the influence of cosmic rays on the growth rate of MHD instability depends largely on a dimensionless parameter expressing the ratio of the characteristic acoustic time scale to the cosmic-ray diffusion time. If this parameter is small, the cosmic rays will decelerate the build-up of instabilities, thereby stabilizing the system; in contrast, if the parameter is large, the system will be destabilized.

  4. Cosmic ray interactions in the ground: Temporal variations in cosmic ray intensities and geophysical studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, D.

    1986-01-01

    Temporal variations in cosmic ray intensity have been deduced from observations of products of interactions of cosmic ray particles in the Moon, meteorites, and the Earth. Of particular interest is a comparison between the information based on Earth and that based on other samples. Differences are expected at least due to: (1) differences in the extent of cosmic ray modulation, and (2) changes in the geomagnetic dipole field. Any information on the global changes in the terrestrial cosmic ray intensity is therefore of importance. In this paper a possible technique for detecting changes in cosmic ray intensity is presented. The method involves human intervention and is applicable for the past 10,000 yrs. Studies of changes over longer periods of time are possible if supplementary data on age and history of the sample are available using other methods. Also discussed are the possibilities of studying certain geophysical processes, e.g., erosion, weathering, tectonic events based on studies of certain cosmic ray-produced isotopes for the past several million years.

  5. History of cosmic ray influence on ozone layer-key steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivolutsky, A.

    The history of cosmic radiation influence as a source of odd nitrogen in the stratosphere began about three decades ago (Dalgarno, 1971; Warneck, 1972). Corresponding estimated NO x production by galactic cosmic rays which leads to one molecular of NO per one pair of ions (Nicolet, 1975) in the stratosphere and mesosphere. First simple model was suggested by Ruderman and Chamberlain (1975) to explain the origin of the sun spot modulation of ozone. Nitric oxide generation in the stratosphere by solar proton events leads to ozone depletion (Crutzen et al., 1975). First results supported this idea were obtained from the board of Nimbus-4 (Heath et al., 1977). Several mechanisms concerning the possibility of cosmic ray influence on climate and life were suggested in different papers (Ruderman, 1974; Reid et al., 1976; Chamberlain, 1977; and others). Many important steps to understand the role of solar protons in atmospheric chemistry have been made by Charles Jackman with co-authors (1978, 1980 up to 2001) Different groups found the response of ozone after SPE in July 2000 using UARS data. It is important now to prolong numerical modeling and observations using new missions like ENVISAT and SAGE-III instrument.

  6. Influence of hadron and atmospheric models on computation of cosmic ray ionization in the atmosphere-Extension to heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishev, A. L.; Velinov, P. I. Y.

    2014-12-01

    In the last few years an essential progress in development of physical models for cosmic ray induced ionization in the atmosphere is achieved. The majority of these models are full target, i.e. based on Monte Carlo simulation of an electromagnetic-muon-nucleon cascade in the atmosphere. Basically, the contribution of proton nuclei is highlighted, i.e. the contribution of primary cosmic ray α-particles and heavy nuclei to the atmospheric ionization is neglected or scaled to protons. The development of cosmic ray induced atmospheric cascade is sensitive to the energy and mass of the primary cosmic ray particle. The largest uncertainties in Monte Carlo simulations of a cascade in the Earth atmosphere are due to assumed hadron interaction models, the so-called hadron generators. In the work presented here we compare the ionization yield functions Y for primary cosmic ray nuclei, such as α-particles, Oxygen and Iron nuclei, assuming different hadron interaction models. The computations are fulfilled with the CORSIKA 6.9 code using GHEISHA 2002, FLUKA 2011, UrQMD hadron generators for energy below 80 GeV/nucleon and QGSJET II for energy above 80 GeV/nucleon. The observed difference between hadron generators is widely discussed. The influence of different atmospheric parametrizations, namely US standard atmosphere, US standard atmosphere winter and summer profiles on ion production rate is studied. Assuming realistic primary cosmic ray mass composition, the ion production rate is obtained at several rigidity cut-offs - from 1 GV (high latitudes) to 15 GV (equatorial latitudes) using various hadron generators. The computations are compared with experimental data. A conclusion concerning the consistency of the hadron generators is stated.

  7. Transient Weakening of Earth's Magnetic Shield Probed by a Cosmic Ray Burst.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, P K; Arunbabu, K P; Aziz, T; Dugad, S R; Gupta, S K; Hariharan, B; Jagadeesan, P; Jain, A; Morris, S D; Rao, B S; Hayashi, Y; Kawakami, S; Oshima, A; Shibata, S; Raha, S; Subramanian, P; Kojima, H

    2016-10-21

    The GRAPES-3 tracking muon telescope in Ooty, India measures muon intensity at high cutoff rigidities (15-24 GV) along nine independent directions covering 2.3 sr. The arrival of a coronal mass ejection on 22 June 2015 18:40 UT had triggered a severe G4-class geomagnetic storm (storm). Starting 19:00 UT, the GRAPES-3 muon telescope recorded a 2 h high-energy (∼20  GeV) burst of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) that was strongly correlated with a 40 nT surge in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Simulations have shown that a large (17×) compression of the IMF to 680 nT, followed by reconnection with the geomagnetic field (GMF) leading to lower cutoff rigidities could generate this burst. Here, 680 nT represents a short-term change in GMF around Earth, averaged over 7 times its volume. The GCRs, due to lowering of cutoff rigidities, were deflected from Earth's day side by ∼210° in longitude, offering a natural explanation of its night-time detection by the GRAPES-3. The simultaneous occurrence of the burst in all nine directions suggests its origin close to Earth. It also indicates a transient weakening of Earth's magnetic shield, and may hold clues for a better understanding of future superstorms that could cripple modern technological infrastructure on Earth, and endanger the lives of the astronauts in space.

  8. Carl Sagan's Cosmic Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagan, Carl; Agel, Jerome

    2000-08-01

    Foreword Freeman Dyson; Personal reflections Ann Druyan; Preface; Part I. Cosmic Perspective: 1. A transitional animal; 2. The Unicorn of Cetus; 3. A message from earth; 4. A message to earth; 5. Experiments in utopias; 6. Chauvinism; 7. Space exploration as a human enterprise I. The scientific interest; 8. Space exploration as a human enterprise II. The public interest; 9. Space exploration as a human enterprise III. The historical interest; Part II. The Solar System: 10. On teaching the first grade; 11. 'The ancient and legendary Gods of old'; 12. The Venus detective story; 13. Venus is hell; 14. Science and 'intelligence'; 15. The moons of Barsoom; 16. The mountains of Mars I. Observations from earth; 17. The mountains of Mars II. Observations from space; 18. The canals of Mars; 19. The lost pictures of Mars; 20. The Ice Age and the cauldron; 21. Beginnings and ends of the Earth; 22. Terraforming the plants; 23. The exploration and utlization of the solar system; Part III. Beyond the Solar System: 24. Some of my best friends are dolphins; 25. 'Hello, central casting? Send me twenty extraterrestrials'; 26. The cosmic connection; 27. Extraterrestrial life: an idea whose time has come; 28. Has the Earth been visited?; 29. A search strategy for detecting extraterrestrial intelligence; 30. If we succeed 31. Cables, drums, and seashells; 32. The night freight to the stars; 33. Astroengineering; 34. Twenty questions: a classification of cosmic civilisations; 35. Galactic cultural exchanges; 36. A passage to elsewhere; 37. Starfolk I. A Fable; 38. Starfolk II. A future; 39. Starfolk III. The cosmic Cheshire cats; Epilog David Morrison; Index.

  9. EXPLAINING TEV COSMIC-RAY ANISOTROPIES WITH NON-DIFFUSIVE COSMIC-RAY PROPAGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, J. Patrick; Fryer, Chris L.; Mendel, Susan, E-mail: jpharding@lanl.gov, E-mail: fryer@lanl.gov, E-mail: smendel@lanl.gov

    2016-05-10

    Constraining the behavior of cosmic ray data observed at Earth requires a precise understanding of how the cosmic rays propagate in the interstellar medium. The interstellar medium is not homogeneous; although turbulent magnetic fields dominate over large scales, small coherent regions of magnetic field exist on scales relevant to particle propagation in the nearby Galaxy. Guided propagation through a coherent field is significantly different from random particle diffusion and could be the explanation of spatial anisotropies in the observed cosmic rays. We present a Monte Carlo code to propagate cosmic particle through realistic magnetic field structures. We discuss the detailsmore » of the model as well as some preliminary studies which indicate that coherent magnetic structures are important effects in local cosmic-ray propagation, increasing the flux of cosmic rays by over two orders of magnitude at anisotropic locations on the sky. The features induced by coherent magnetic structure could be the cause of the observed TeV cosmic-ray anisotropy.« less

  10. Fermi large area telescope observations of the cosmic-ray induced {gamma}-ray emission of the Earth's atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. 20001; Ackermann, M.

    We report on measurements of the cosmic-ray induced {gamma}-ray emission of Earth's atmosphere by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The Large Area Telescope has observed the Earth during its commissioning phase and with a dedicated Earth limb following observation in September 2008. These measurements yielded {approx}6.4x10{sup 6} photons with energies >100 MeV and {approx}250 hours total live time for the highest quality data selection. This allows the study of the spatial and spectral distributions of these photons with unprecedented detail. The spectrum of the emission--often referred to as Earth albedo gamma-ray emission--has a power-lawmore » shape up to 500 GeV with spectral index {gamma}=2.79{+-}0.06.« less

  11. Study of cosmic rays reveals secrets of solar-terrestrial science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    For many years cosmic rays provided the most important source of energetic particles for studies of subatomic physics. Today, cosmic rays are being studied as a natural phenomenon that can tell us much about both the Earth's environment in space and distant astrophysical processes. Cosmic rays are naturally occurring energetic particles—mainly ions—with kinetic energies extending from just above thermal energies to more than 1020 electron volts (eV). They constantly bombard the Earth from all directions, with more than 1018 particles having energies >1 MeV striking the top of the Earth's atmosphere each second. Figure 1 illustrates the continuous cosmic ray energy spectrum.

  12. How large is the cosmic dust flux into the Earth's atmosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, John; Janches, Diego; Gomez-Martin, Juan Carlos; Bones, David; Diego Carrillo-Sanchez, Juan; James, Sandy; Nesvorny, David; Pokorny, Petr

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic dust particles are produced in the solar system from the sublimation of comets as they orbit close to the sun, and also from collisions between asteroids in the belt between Mars and Jupiter. Current estimates of the magnitude of the cosmic dust input rate into the Earth's atmosphere range from 2 to well over 100 tons per day, depending on whether the measurements are made in space, in the middle atmosphere, or at the surface in polar ice cores. This nearly 2 order-of-magnitude discrepancy indicates that there are serious flaws in the interpretation of observations that have been used to make the estimates. Dust particles enter the atmosphere at hyperthermal velocities (11 - 72 km s ^{-1}), and mostly ablate at heights between 80 and 120 km in a region of the atmosphere known as the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT). The resulting metal vapours (Fe, Mg, Si and Na etc.) then oxidize and recondense to form nm-size particles, termed "meteoric smoke". These particles are too small to sediment downwards. Instead, they are transported by the general circulation of the atmosphere, taking roughly 5 years to reach the surface. There is great interest in the role smoke particles play as condensation nuclei of noctilucent ice clouds in the mesosphere, and polar stratospheric clouds in the lower stratosphere. Various new estimates of the dust input will be discussed. The first is from a zodiacal dust cloud model which predicts that more than 90% of the dust entering the atmosphere comes from Jupiter Family Comets; this model is constrained by observations of the zodiacal cloud using the IRAS, COBE and Planck satellites. The cometary dust is predicted to mostly be in a near-prograde orbit, entering the atmosphere with an average velocity around 14 km s ^{-1}. The total dust input should then be about 40 t d ^{-1}. However, relatively few of these particles are observed, even by the powerful Arecibo 430 MHz radar. Coupled models of meteoroid differential ablation

  13. Explaining TeV cosmic-ray anisotropies with non-diffusive cosmic-ray propagation

    DOE PAGES

    Harding, James Patrick; Fryer, Chris Lee; Mendel, Susan Marie

    2016-05-11

    Constraining the behavior of cosmic ray data observed at Earth requires a precise understanding of how the cosmic rays propagate in the interstellar medium. The interstellar medium is not homogeneous; although turbulent magnetic fields dominate over large scales, small coherent regions of magnetic field exist on scales relevant to particle propagation in the nearby Galaxy. Guided propagation through a coherent field is significantly different from random particle diffusion and could be the explanation of spatial anisotropies in the observed cosmic rays. We present a Monte Carlo code to propagate cosmic particle through realistic magnetic field structures. We discuss the detailsmore » of the model as well as some preliminary studies which indicate that coherent magnetic structures are important effects in local cosmic-ray propagation, increasing the flux of cosmic rays by over two orders of magnitude at anisotropic locations on the sky. Furthermore, the features induced by coherent magnetic structure could be the cause of the observed TeV cosmic-ray anisotropy.« less

  14. Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W., Jr.; Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    Integral linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation (CR) particles were measured on five Cosmos series spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO). Particular emphasis is placed on results of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite which carried a set of joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. radiation experiments involving passive detectors that included thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's), plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's), fission foils, nuclear photo-emulsions, etc. which were located both inside and outside the spacecraft. Measured LET spectra are compared with those theoretically calculated. Results show that there is some dependence of LET spectra on orbital parameters. The results are used to estimate the CR quality factor (QF) for the COSMOS 1887 mission.

  15. Cosmic Radiation | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-08-07

    Radiation from space is constantly hitting the Earth. Radiation from space is called cosmic radiation. Cosmic radiation makes up about five percent of annual radiation exposure of an average person in the United States.

  16. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

  17. The extreme solar cosmic ray particle event on 20 January 2005 and its influence on the radiation dose rate at aircraft altitude.

    PubMed

    Bütikofer, R; Flückiger, E O; Desorgher, L; Moser, M R

    2008-03-01

    In January 2005 toward the end of solar activity cycle 23 the Sun was very active. Between 15 and 20 January 2005, the solar active region NOAA AR 10720 produced five powerful solar flares. In association with this major solar activity several pronounced variations in the ground-level cosmic ray intensity were observed. The fifth of these flares (X7.1) produced energetic solar cosmic rays that caused a giant increase in the count rates of the ground-based cosmic ray detectors (neutron monitors). At southern polar neutron monitor stations the increase of the count rate reached several thousand percent. From the recordings of the worldwide network of neutron monitors, we determined the characteristics of the solar particle flux near Earth. In the initial phase of the event, the solar cosmic ray flux near Earth was extremely anisotropic. The energy spectrum of the solar cosmic rays was fairly soft during the main and the decay phase. We investigated also the flux of different secondary particle species in the atmosphere and the radiation dosage at flight altitude. Our analysis shows a maximum increment of the effective dose rate due to solar cosmic rays in the south polar region around 70 degrees S and 130 degrees E at flight altitude of almost three orders of magnitude.

  18. PLASMA EFFECTS ON EXTRAGALACTIC ULTRAHIGH-ENERGY COSMIC-RAY HADRON BEAMS IN COSMIC VOIDS. II. KINETIC INSTABILITY OF PARALLEL ELECTROSTATIC WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Krakau, S.; Schlickeiser, R., E-mail: steffen.krakau@rub.de, E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de

    2016-02-20

    The linear instability of an ultrarelativistic hadron beam in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium (IGM) is investigated with respect to the excitation of parallel electrostatic and electromagnetic fluctuations. This analysis is important for the propagation of extragalactic ultrarelativistic cosmic rays from their distant sources to Earth. As opposed to the previous paper, we calculate the minimum instability growth time for Lorentz-distributed cosmic rays which traverse the hot IGM. The growth times are orders of magnitude higher than the cosmic-ray propagation time in the IGM. Since the backreaction of the generated plasma fluctuations (plateauing) lasts longer than the propagation time, the cosmic-raymore » hadron beam can propagate to the Earth without losing a significant amount of energy to electrostatic turbulence.« less

  19. THE COSMIC RAY EQUATOR AND THE GEOMAGNETISM

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, K.

    1960-01-01

    It was formerly thought that the disagreement of the position of geomagnetic dipole equator with that of the cosmic ray equator was caused by 45 deg westward shifting of the latter. Referring to the theory of geomagnetic effect on cosmic rays, it was determined whether such westward shifting could be existent or not. It was found that the deviation of the cosmic ray equator from the geomagnetic dipole equator is negligible even if the magnetic cavity is present around the earth's outer atmosphere. Taking into account such results, the origin of the cosmic ray equator was investigated. It was foundmore » that this equater could be produced by the higher harmonic components combined with the dipole component of geomagnetism. The relation of the origin of the cosmic ray equater to the eccentric dipoles, near the outer pant of the earth's core, contributing to the secular variation of geomagnetism was considered. (auth)« less

  20. Consistency of cosmic-ray source abudances with explosive nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, B.; Ramaty, R.

    1973-01-01

    A model was examined in which the cosmic ray abundances of elements from C to Fe are consistent with explosive nucleosynthesis. The observed abundance of cosmic rays near the earth, cosmic ray source abundance, and solar system abundance are discussed along with the ratios of cosmic ray sources to the solar system abundances.

  1. Cosmic-Ray Source Composition Determined from ACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedenbeck, M.

    2000-01-01

    The cosmic rays arriving at Earth comprise a mix of material produced by stellar sources and ejected into the interstellar medium (primary cosmic rays) and particles produced by fragmentation of heavier nuclei during transport through the Galaxy.

  2. The local time dependence of the anisotropic solar cosmic ray flux.

    PubMed

    Smart, D F; Shea, M A

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of the solar cosmic radiation flux over the earth is not uniform, but the result of complex phenomena involving the interplanetary magnetic field, the geomagnetic field and latitude and longitude of locations on the earth. The latitude effect relates to the geomagnetic shield; the longitude effect relates to local time. For anisotropic solar cosmic ray events the maximum particle flux is always along the interplanetary magnetic field direction, sometimes called the Archimedean spiral path from the sun to the earth. During anisotropic solar cosmic ray event, the locations on the earth viewing "sunward" into the interplanetary magnetic field direction will observe the largest flux (when adjustments are made for the magnetic latitude effect). To relate this phenomena to aircraft routes, for anisotropic solar cosmic ray events that occur during "normal quiescent" conditions, the maximum solar cosmic ray flux (and corresponding solar particle radiation dose) will be observed in the dawn quadrant, ideally at about 06 hours local time. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  3. GNSS Radio Occultation Observations as a data source for Ionospheric Assimilation: COSMIC-1 & COSMIC-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, X.; Schreiner, W. S.; Kuo, Y. H.

    2014-12-01

    Since the pioneer GPS/MET mission, low Earth orbit (LEO) based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Radio Occultation (RO) technique has been a powerful technique in ionosphere monitoring. After that, many LEO satellites were launched with RO payload, include: CHAMP , GRACE, SAC-C/D, COSMIC, C/NOFS, Metop-A/B, TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X, and etc. COSMIC was the first constellation of satellites dedicated primarily to RO and delivering RO data in near real time. Currently in UCAR CDAAC, we process most of these missions' RO data for the community. Due to the success of COSMIC mission, a follow on mission called COSMIC-2 will be launched in 2016 and 2018, respectively. The COSMIC-2 RO data will be 4-6 times of COSMIC due to the doubled satellite and GNSS signals. In this paper we will describe: (1) Data process and quality in UCAR/CDAAC; (2) Ionospheric data assimilation results based on COSMIC data; (3) OSSE study for COSMIC-2.

  4. Solar flare induced cosmic noise absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunmodimu, Olugbenga; Honary, Farideh; Rogers, Neil; Falayi, E. O.; Bolaji, O. S.

    2018-06-01

    Solar flare events are a major observing emphasis for space weather because they affect the ionosphere and can eject high-energy particles that can adversely affect Earth's technologies. In this study we model 38.2 MHz cosmic noise absorption (CNA) by utilising measurements from the Imaging Riometer for Ionospheric Studies (IRIS) at Kilpisjärvi, Finland obtained during solar cycle 23 (1996-2009). We utilised X-ray archive for the same period from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) to study solar flare induced cosmic noise absorption. We identified the threshold of flare (M4 class) that could bear significant influence on CNA. Through epoch analysis, we show the magnitude of absorption that each class of flare could produce. Using the parameters of flare and absorption we present a model that could provide the basis for nowcast of CNA induced by M and X-class solar flares.

  5. Long-Term Solar and Cosmic Radiation Data Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    determine the magnitude of the variations in the cosmic ray intensity caused by solar activity. Neutron monitors, with their much lower energy threshold...expression that neutron monitors are sensors on spacecraft EARTH. Here we will consider cosmic ray detectors to measure two components of cosmic ...A comparison with the solar cycle as illustrated by the sunspot number in Fig. 1. shows that the maximum cosmic ray intensity occurs near sunspot

  6. The Emergence of Cosmic Education. Spotlight: Cosmic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Sr. Christina Marie

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the influence of Hindu, Moslem, and Buddhist metaphysics on Maria Montessori's own pedagogical philosophy of Cosmic Education, which she regarded as the core of all learning experiences, after her visit to India. Considers the relationship between Montessori's ideas of child development and Cosmic Education, and the effect of Indian…

  7. Cosmic rays and terrestrial life: A brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atri, Dimitra; Melott, Adrian L.

    2014-01-01

    “The investigation into the possible effects of cosmic rays on living organisms will also offer great interest.” - Victor F. Hess, Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1936 High-energy radiation bursts are commonplace in our Universe. From nearby solar flares to distant gamma ray bursts, a variety of physical processes accelerate charged particles to a wide range of energies, which subsequently reach the Earth. Such particles contribute to a number of physical processes occurring in the Earth system. A large fraction of the energy of charged particles gets deposited in the atmosphere, ionizing it, causing changes in its chemistry and affecting the global electric circuit. Remaining secondary particles contribute to the background dose of cosmic rays on the surface and parts of the subsurface region. Life has evolved over the past ∼3 billion years in presence of this background radiation, which itself has varied considerably during the period [1-3]. As demonstrated by the Miller-Urey experiment, lightning plays a very important role in the formation of complex organic molecules, which are the building blocks of more complex structures forming life. There is growing evidence of increase in the lightning rate with increasing flux of charged particles. Is there a connection between enhanced rate of cosmic rays and the origin of life? Cosmic ray secondaries are also known to damage DNA and cause mutations, leading to cancer and other diseases. It is now possible to compute radiation doses from secondary particles, in particular muons and neutrons. Have the variations in cosmic ray flux affected the evolution of life on earth? We describe the mechanisms of cosmic rays affecting terrestrial life and review the potential implications of the variation of high-energy astrophysical radiation on the history of life on earth.

  8. Impact of a Cosmic Body into Earth's Ocean and the Generation of Large Tsunami Waves: Insight from Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wünnemann, K.; Collins, G. S.; Weiss, R.

    2010-12-01

    The strike of a cosmic body into a marine environment differs in several respects from impact on land. Oceans cover approximately 70% of the Earth's surface, implying not only that oceanic impact is a very likely scenario for future impacts but also that most impacts in Earth's history must have happened in marine environments. Therefore, the study of oceanic impact is imperative in two respects: (1) to quantify the hazard posed by future oceanic impacts, including the potential threat of large impact-generated tsunami-like waves, and (2) to reconstruct Earth's impact record by accounting for the large number of potentially undiscovered crater structures in the ocean crust. Reconstruction of the impact record is of crucial importance both for assessing the frequency of collision events in the past and for better predicting the probability of future impact. We summarize the advances in the study of oceanic impact over the last decades and focus in particular on how numerical models have improved our understanding of cratering in the oceanic environment and the generation of waves by impact. We focus on insight gleaned from numerical modeling studies into the deceleration of the projectile by the water, cratering of the ocean floor, the late stage modification of the crater due to gravitational collapse, and water resurge. Furthermore, we discuss the generation and propagation of large tsunami-like waves as a result of a strike of a cosmic body in marine environments.

  9. Cosmic ray topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressler, Matthew; Goodwin, Lydia; Kryemadhi, Abaz

    2017-11-01

    Cosmic ray muons are produced when high energy particles interact with nuclei in Earth's atmosphere. Muons make up the majority of charged particles that reach sea level and are the only particles (apart from neutrinos) that can penetrate to significant depths underground. The muon flux underground decreases approximately exponentially as a function of depth. We use a cosmic ray detector developed by the QuarkNet Program at Fermi National Laboratory to map the topography of the mountain above an abandoned Pennsylvania Turnpike tunnel by analyzing muon flux at different rock overburdens. Cosmic ray muons have been used in this capacity before to search for hidden chambers in pyramids and for mapping volcanoes. This study provides a unique field experience to learn about particle physics and particle detectors, which could be of interest to students and teachers in physics.

  10. Fundamentals of Aerospace Medicine: Cosmic Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagshaw, Michael; Cucionotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Cosmic rays were discovered in 1911 by the Austrian physicist, Victor Hess. The planet earth is continuously bathed in high-energy galactic cosmic ionizing radiation (GCR), emanating from outside the solar system, and sporadically exposed to bursts of energetic particles from the sun referred to as solar particle events (SPEs). The main source of GCR is believed to be supernovae (exploding stars), while occasionally a disturbance in the sun's atmosphere (solar flare or coronal mass ejection) leads to a surge of radiation particles with sufficient energy to penetrate the earth's magnetic field and enter the atmosphere. The inhabitants of planet earth gain protection from the effects of cosmic radiation from the earth s magnetic field and the atmosphere, as well as from the sun's magnetic field and solar wind. These protective effects extend to the occupants of aircraft flying within the earth s atmosphere, although the effects can be complex for aircraft flying at high altitudes and high latitudes. Travellers in space do not have the benefit of this protection and are exposed to an ionizing radiation field very different in magnitude and quality from the exposure of individuals flying in commercial airliners. The higher amounts and distinct types of radiation qualities in space lead to a large need for understanding the biological effects of space radiation. It is recognized that although there are many overlaps between the aviation and the space environments, there are large differences in radiation dosimetry, risks and protection for airline crew members, passengers and astronauts. These differences impact the application of radiation protection principles of risk justification, limitation, and the principle of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This chapter accordingly is divided into three major sections, the first dealing with the basic physics and health risks, the second with the commercial airline experience, and the third with the aspects of cosmic

  11. Catching Cosmic Rays with a DSLR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic rays are high-energy particles from outer space that continually strike the Earth's atmosphere and produce cascades of secondary particles, which reach the surface of the Earth, mainly in the form of muons. These particles can be detected with scintillator detectors, Geiger counters, cloud chambers, and also can be recorded with commonly…

  12. Earthing the human body influences physiologic processes.

    PubMed

    Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments: Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1-effect of earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2-effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3-effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4-effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5-effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems.

  13. Cosmic Rays in the Earth's Atmosphere and Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, Lev I.

    2004-08-01

    This book consists of four parts. In the first part (Chapters 1-4) a full overview is given of the theoretical and experimental basis of Cosmic Ray (CR) research in the atmosphere and underground for Geophysics and Space Physics; the development of CR research and a short history of many fundamental discoveries, main properties of primary and secondary CR, methods of transformation of CR observation data in the atmosphere and underground to space, and the experimental basis of CR research underground and on the ground, on balloons and on satellites and space probes. The second part (Chapters 5-9) is devoted to the influence of atmospheric properties on CR, so called CR meteorological effects; pressure, temperature, humidity, snow, wind, gravitation, and atmospheric electric field effects. The inverse problem - the influence of CR properties on the atmosphere and atmospheric processes is considered in the third part (Chapters 10-14); influence on atmospheric, nuclear and chemical compositions, ionization and radio-wave propagation, formation of thunderstorms and lightning, clouds and climate change. The fourth part (Chapters 15-18) describes many realized and potential applications of CR research in different branches of Science and Technology; Meteorology and Aerodrome Service, Geology and Geophysical Prospecting, Hydrology and Agricultural Applications, Archaeology and Medicine, Seismology and Big Earthquakes Forecasting, Space Weather and Environment Monitoring/Forecasting. The book ends with a list providing more than 1,500 full references, a discussion on future developments and unsolved problems, as well as object and author indices. This book will be useful for experts in different branches of Science and Technology, and for students to be used as additional literature to text-books.

  14. Penetration boundary of solar cosmic rays into the earth's magnetosphere during magnetically quiet times

    SciTech Connect

    Biryukov, A.S.; Ivanova, T.A.; Kovrygina, L.M.

    1984-05-01

    Data is used from the satellites Interkosmos-17 and Kosmos-900 to determine penetration boundaries at high latitudes in the earth's magnetosphere. Considered are the results of observations of the penetration boundary of solar cosmic ray (SCR) protons and electrons during an SCR increase on November 22-25, 1977. The position of the SCR penetration boundary during a single increase at practically all values of MLT in quiet conditions is examined. Magnetospheric structure is determined in the region of closed drift shells where the magnetic field is asymmetric. The authors can estimate how the solar wind pressure affects the magnetosphere by using datamore » on the penetration boundaries of solar protons obtained during quiet geomagnetic conditions.« less

  15. Space Weather Observations by GNSS Radio Occultation: From FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC to FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S; Pedatella, Nicholas; Anthes, Richard A; Mannucci, Anthony J; Straus, Paul R; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2014-01-01

    The joint Taiwan-United States FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) mission, hereafter called COSMIC, is the first satellite constellation dedicated to remotely sense Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere using a technique called Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO). The occultations yield abundant information about neutral atmospheric temperature and moisture as well as space weather estimates of slant total electron content, electron density profiles, and an amplitude scintillation index, S4. With the success of COSMIC, the United States and Taiwan are moving forward with a follow-on RO mission named FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (COSMIC-2), which will ultimately place 12 satellites in orbit with two launches in 2016 and 2019. COSMIC-2 satellites will carry an advanced Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) RO receiver that will track both GPS and Russian Global Navigation Satellite System signals, with capability for eventually tracking other GNSS signals from the Chinese BeiDou and European Galileo system, as well as secondary space weather payloads to measure low-latitude plasma drifts and scintillation at multiple frequencies. COSMIC-2 will provide 4–6 times (10–15X in the low latitudes) the number of atmospheric and ionospheric observations that were tracked with COSMIC and will also improve the quality of the observations. In this article we focus on COSMIC/COSMIC-2 measurements of key ionospheric parameters. PMID:26213514

  16. Space Weather Observations by GNSS Radio Occultation: From FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC to FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S; Pedatella, Nicholas; Anthes, Richard A; Mannucci, Anthony J; Straus, Paul R; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2014-11-01

    The joint Taiwan-United States FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) mission, hereafter called COSMIC, is the first satellite constellation dedicated to remotely sense Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere using a technique called Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO). The occultations yield abundant information about neutral atmospheric temperature and moisture as well as space weather estimates of slant total electron content, electron density profiles, and an amplitude scintillation index, S4. With the success of COSMIC, the United States and Taiwan are moving forward with a follow-on RO mission named FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (COSMIC-2), which will ultimately place 12 satellites in orbit with two launches in 2016 and 2019. COSMIC-2 satellites will carry an advanced Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) RO receiver that will track both GPS and Russian Global Navigation Satellite System signals, with capability for eventually tracking other GNSS signals from the Chinese BeiDou and European Galileo system, as well as secondary space weather payloads to measure low-latitude plasma drifts and scintillation at multiple frequencies. COSMIC-2 will provide 4-6 times (10-15X in the low latitudes) the number of atmospheric and ionospheric observations that were tracked with COSMIC and will also improve the quality of the observations. In this article we focus on COSMIC/COSMIC-2 measurements of key ionospheric parameters.

  17. Earthing the Human Body Influences Physiologic Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sokal, Karol

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1—effect of earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2—effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3—effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4—effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5—effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Results Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Conclusions Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems. PMID:21469913

  18. Our Cosmic Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donna L.

    2005-01-01

    To help students understand the connection that Earth and the solar system have with the cosmic cycles of stellar evolution, and to give students an appreciation of the beauty and elegance of celestial phenomena, the Chandra X-Ray Center (CXC) educational website contains a stellar evolution module that is available free to teachers. In this…

  19. Earth Versus Neutrinos: Measuring the Total Muon-Neutrino-to-Nucleon Cross Section at Ultra-High Energies through Differential Earth Absorption of Muon Neutrinos from Cosmic Rays Using the IceCube Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miarecki, Sandra Christine

    The IceCube Neutrino Detector at the South Pole was constructed to measure the flux of high-energy neutrinos and to try to identify their cosmic sources. In addition to these astrophysical neutrinos, IceCube also detects the neutrinos that result from cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. These atmospheric neutrinos can be used to measure the total muon neutrino-to-nucleon cross section by measuring neutrino absorption in the Earth. The measurement involves isolating a sample of 10,784 Earth-transiting muons detected by IceCube in its 79-string configuration. The cross-section is determined using a two-dimensional fit in measured muon energy and zenith angle and is presented as a multiple of the Standard Model expectation as calculated by Cooper-Sarkar, Mertsch, and Sarkar in 2011. A multiple of 1.0 would indicate agreement with the Standard Model. The results of this analysis find the multiple to be 1.30 (+0.21 -0.19 statistical) (+0.40 -0.44 systematic) for the neutrino energy range of 6.3 to 980 TeV, which is in agreement with the Standard Model expectation.

  20. Concerning the use of multifunctional photometer - polarimeter for studying the invasion of cosmic bodies into the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraimchuk, M. D.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Steklov, O. F.

    2018-05-01

    Main astronomical observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine together with the National Technical University of Ukraine "KPI" for many years working on the development of photometers-polarimeters for the study of cosmic bodies and Earth's atmosphere. We proposed an option of the development of a multipurpose panoramic photometer-polarimeter, which takes into account the shortcomings of the previous versions of the instrument and also allows for the registration of tracks of bolides, and study of their tails, and weak meteor phenomena.

  1. Cosmic rays flux and geomagnetic field variations at midlatitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Anna; Ribeiro, Paulo; Tragaldabas Collaboration Team

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that the cosmic rays flux is modulated by the solar wind and the Earth's magnetic field. The Earth's magnetic field deflects charged particles in accordance with their momentum and the local field strength and direction. The geomagnetic cutoffs depend both on the internal and the external components of the geomagnetic field, therefore reflecting the geodynamo and the solar activity variations. A new generation, high performance, cosmic ray detector Tragaldabas was recently installed at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). The detector has been acquiring test data since September 2013 with a rate of about 80 events/s over a solid angle of ~5 srad. around the vertical direction. To take full advantage of this new facility for the study of cosmic rays arriving to the Earth, an international collaboration has been organized, of about 20 researchers from 10 laboratories of 5 European countries. The Magnetic Observatory of Coimbra (Portugal) has been measuring the geomagnetic field components for almost 150 years since the first measurements in 1866. It is presently equipped with up-to-date instruments. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the global cosmic ray fluxes acquired by the new Tragaldabas detector in relation to the geomagnetic field variations measured by the Coimbra observatory. We also compare the data from the new cosmic rays detector with results obtained by the Castilla-La Mancha Neutron Monitor (CaLMa, Gadalajara, Spain) that is in operation since October 2011.

  2. THE COSMIC RAY EQUATOR FROM DATA OF THE SECOND SOVIET EARTH SATELLITE

    SciTech Connect

    Savenko, I.A.; Shavrin, P.I.; Nesterov, V.Ye.

    1962-11-01

    Determination of the geographical position of the line of minimum intensity of primary cosmic radiation (cosmic ray equator) makes is possible to study the structure of the geomagnetic field and to check theoretical and empirical approximations to this field. The minima of cosmic radiation intensity were determined by the second Soviet spaceship for 22 latitude curves obtained from various crossings in the region of the geographical equator. (W.D.M.)

  3. The Origin of Cosmic Rays

    ScienceCinema

    Blasi, Pasquale

    2017-12-22

    Cosmic Rays reach the Earth from space with energies of up to more than 1020 eV, carrying information on the most powerful particle accelerators that Nature has been able to assemble. Understanding where and how cosmic rays originate has required almost one century of investigations, and, although the last word is not written yet, recent observations and theory seem now to fit together to provide us with a global picture of the origin of cosmic rays of unprecedented clarity. Here we will describe what we learned from recent observations of astrophysical sources (such as supernova remnants and active galaxies) and we will illustrate what these observations tell us about the physics of particle acceleration and transport. We will also discuss the “end” of the Galactic cosmic ray spectrum, which bridges out attention towards the so called ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). At ~1020 eV the gyration scale of cosmic rays in cosmic magnetic fields becomes large enough to allow us to point back to their sources, thereby allowing us to perform “cosmic ray astronomy”, as confirmed by the recent results obtained with the Pierre Auger Observatory. We will discuss the implications of these observations for the understanding of UHECRs, as well as some questions which will likely remain unanswered and will be the target of the next generation of cosmic ray experiments.

  4. Cosmic ray modulation by high-speed solar wind fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, L. I.; Kaminer, N. S.; Kuzmicheva, A. E.; Mymrina, N. V.

    1985-01-01

    Cosmic ray intensity variations connected with recurrent high-speed fluxes (HSF) of solar wind are investigated. The increase of intensity before the Earth gets into a HSF, north-south anisotropy and diurnal variation of cosmic rays inside a HSF as well as the characteristics of Forbush decreases are considered.

  5. Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.; Davis, L., Jr.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Prince, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    Research activities in cosmic rays, gamma rays, and astrophysical plasmas are covered. The activities are divided into sections and described, followed by a bibliography. The astrophysical aspects of cosmic rays, gamma rays, and of the radiation and electromagnetic field environment of the Earth and other planets are investigated. These investigations are performed by means of energetic particle and photon detector systems flown on spacecraft and balloons.

  6. Airborne Detection of Cosmic-Ray Albedo Neutrons for Regional-Scale Surveys of Root-Zone Soil Water on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrön, M.; Bannehr, L.; Köhli, M.; Zreda, M. G.; Weimar, J.; Zacharias, S.; Oswald, S. E.; Bumberger, J.; Samaniego, L. E.; Schmidt, U.; Zieger, P.; Dietrich, P.

    2017-12-01

    While the detection of albedo neutrons from cosmic rays became a standard method in planetary space science, airborne neutron sensing has never been conceived for hydrological research on Earth. We assessed the applicability of atmospheric neutrons to sense root-zone soil moisture averaged over tens of hectares using neutron detectors on an airborne vehicle. Large-scale quantification of near-surface water content is an urgent challenge in hydrology. Information about soil and plant water is crucial to accurately assess the risks for floods and droughts, to adjust regional weather forecasts, and to calibrate and validate the corresponding models. However, there is a lack of data at scales relevant for these applications. Most conventional ground-based geophysical instruments provide root-zone soil moisture only within a few tens of m2, while electromagnetic signals from conventional remote-sensing instruments can only penetrate the first few centimeters below surface, though at larger spatial areas.In the last couple of years, stationary and roving neutron detectors have been used to sense the albedo component of cosmic-ray neutrons, which represents the average water content within 10—15 hectares and 10—50 cm depth. However, the application of these instruments is limited by inaccessible terrain and interfering local effects from roads. To overcome these limitations, we have pioneered first simulations and experiments of such sensors in the field of airborne geophysics. Theoretical investigations have shown that the footprint increases substantially with height above ground, while local effects smooth out throughout the whole area. Campaigns with neutron detectors mounted on a lightweight gyrocopter have been conducted over areas of various landuse types including agricultural fields, urban areas, forests, flood plains, and lakes. The neutron signal showed influence of soil moisture patterns in heights of up to 180 m above ground. We found correlation with

  7. Space Weather Influence on the Earth wheat markets: past, present, and future.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustil'Nik, Lev

    solar wind, high cosmic ray flux and North Atlantic cloudiness, caused by CR excess, with negative sequences for wheat agriculture in this humid zone. In the same time wheat markets in the South Europe (Spain, Italy) show reliable sensitivity to space weather state in the opposite (maximum) phase of solar activity with strong solar wind, low cosmic ray flux and deficit of CR input in cloudiness in North Atlantic with next deficit of precipitations in the arid zones of the South Europe. In the same time the large part of markets in the Central Europe zone, functioned far from "high risk agriculture state" show the absence of any effects-responses on space weather. This asymmetry is in accordance with model expectation in the frame of proposed approach. For extremely case of the Iceland agriculture we show that drop of agriculture production in unfavorable states of space weather leads to mass mortality from famines correlated with phase of solar activity with high confi- dence level. We discuss possible increasing of sensitivity of wheat markets to space weather effects in condition of drastic and fast change of modern climate, caused by global warming of the Earth atmosphere with fast and unexpected shift of numerous agriculture regions in the world to state of "high risk agriculture zone". Publications on the theme of review: I. "INFLUENCE OF SOLAR ACTIVITY ON THE STATE OF THE WHEAT MARKET IN MEDIEVAL ENGLAND", Solar Physics 223: 335-356, 2004. c 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers II. "SPACE CLIMATE MANIFESTATION IN EARTH PRICES - FROM MEDIEVAL ENGLAND UP TO MODERN U.S.A.", LEV PUSTIL'NIK and GREGORY YOM DIN, Solar Physics, 224: 473-481 c Springer 2005

  8. Neutrinos from cosmic ray interactions in the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Edsjö, J.; Elevant, J.; Niblaeus, C.

    Cosmic rays hitting the solar atmosphere generate neutrinos that interact and oscillate in the Sun and oscillate on the way to Earth. These neutrinos could potentially be detected with neutrino telescopes and will be a background for searches for neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Sun. We calculate the flux of neutrinos from these cosmic ray interactions in the Sun and also investigate the interactions near a detector on Earth that give rise to muons. We compare this background with both regular Earth-atmospheric neutrinos and signals from dark matter annihilation in the Sun. Our calculation is performed with anmore » event-based Monte Carlo approach that should be suitable as a simulation tool for experimental collaborations. Our program package is released publicly along with this paper.« less

  9. Possible space weather influence on the Earth wheat prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustil'Nik, L.; Yom Din, G.; Dorman, L.

    We present development of our study of possible influence of space weather modulated by cycle of solar activity on the price bursts in the Earth markets In our previous works 1 2 we showed that correspondent response may have place in the specific locations characterized by a high sensitivity of the weather cloudiness in particular to cosmic ray variation b risk zone agriculture c isolated wheat market with limited external supply of agriculture production We showed that in this situation we may wait specific price burst reaction on unfavorable phase of solar activity and space weather what lead to corresponding abnormalities in the local weather and next crop failure We showed that main types of manifestation of this connection are a Distribution of intervals between price bursts must be like to the distribution of intervals between correspondent extremes of solar activity minimums or maximums b price asymmetry between opposite states of solar activity price in the one type of activity state is systematically higher then in the opposite one We showed in our previous publications that this influence in interval distribution is detected with high reliability in Mediaeval England 1250-1700 both for wheat prices and price of consumables basket We showed that for period of Maunder Minimum price asymmetry of wheat prices observed all prices in minimum state of solar activity was higher the prices in the next maximum state We showed later that this price asymmetry had place in 20-th century in USA durum prices too In

  10. The Big Bang left a permanent scare in the cosmic background, 5 billion light-years from Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The events surrounding the Big Bang were so cataclysmic that they left an indelible imprint on the fabric of the cosmos. We can detect these scars today by observing the oldest light in the universe. As it was created nearly 14 billion years ago, this light — which exists now as weak microwave radiation and is thus named the cosmic microwave background (CMB) — permeates the entire cosmos, filling it with detectable photons. The CMB can be used to probe the cosmos via something known as the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect, which was first observed over 30 years ago. We detect the CMB here on Earth when its constituent microwave photons travel to us through space. On their journey to us, they can pass through galaxy clusters that contain high-energy electrons. These electrons give the photons a tiny boost of energy. Detecting these boosted photons through our telescopes is challenging but important — they can help astronomers to understand some of the fundamental properties of the universe, such as the location and distribution of dense galaxy clusters. The NASA/ESA (European Space Agency) Hubble Space Telescope observed one of most massive known galaxy clusters, RX J1347.5–1145, seen in this Picture of the Week, as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). This observation of the cluster, 5 billion light-years from Earth, helped the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile to study the cosmic microwave background using the thermal Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect. The observations made with ALMA are visible as the blue-purple hues. Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, T. Kitayama (Toho University, Japan)/ESA/Hubble & NASA NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to

  11. Cosmic dust flux on Earth inferred from the Concordia micrometeorite collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engrand, Cécile; Duprat, Jean; Dartois, Emmanuel; Godard, Marie; Delauche, Lucie

    2017-04-01

    The present extraterrestrial flux incoming to Earth is dominated by cosmic dust, i.e. micrometeorites in the 20-500 microns size range. Prior to atmospheric entry, the flux is estimated to ˜30 000 tons.yr-1 [1]. The proportion of this flux reaching the earth surface as dust particles is debated [e.g. 2]. Since 2000, we recover micrometeorites from ultraclean snow in the vicinity of the Dome C Concordia station in Antarctica. This region has a well-characterized and small precipitation rate (˜ 3.5 g of water per year) that allows collecting micrometeorites from large equivalent surfaces (> 100 m2.yrs) by sampling reasonable volumes of snow. The high efficiency and cleanliness of the collecting process at Dome C has enabled the recovery of several thousands of particles larger than ˜ 20 μm, constituting the Concordia micrometeorite collection [3]. The Concordia micrometeorites have a young terrestrial age of about 50 years. We characterized more than three thousand micrometeorites (both melted and unmelted particles) by secondary electron microscopy and classified them in the textural types defined in [4]. A preliminary flux value of 6,000 tons.yr-1 was given in [5] from the early Concordia collection examination. We now have better statistics to update this value. References: [1] Love S.G. and Brownlee D.E. (1993) Science 262, 550-553. [2] Peucker-Ehrenbrink B., et al. (2016) Elements 12, 191-196. [3] Duprat J., et al. (2007) Adv. Space Res. 39, 605-611. [4] Genge M.J., et al. (2008) Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 43, 497-515. [5] Duprat J., et al. (2006) Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 41 Suppl., A48 (#5239).

  12. Monitoring cosmic radiation on aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Robert D.; Iles, R. H. A.; Jones, J. B. L.; Hunter, R.; Taylor, G. C.; Thomas, D. J.

    2002-03-01

    The Earth is constantly bombarded by cosmic radiation that can be either galactic or solar in origin. At aircraft altitudes, the radiation levels are much higher than at sea level and recent European legislation has classified aircrew as radiation workers. University College London is working with Virgin Atlantic Airways on a 3 year project to monitor the levels of cosmic radiation on long-haul flights. The study will determine whether models currently used to predict radiation exposure of aircrew are adequate. It will also try to determine whether solar flare activity can cause significant enhancement to the predicted doses.

  13. Planetary Habitability over Cosmic-Time Based on Cosmic-Ray Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Paul A.; Biermann, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme cosmic-ray (CR) fluxes have a negative effect on life when flux densities are high enough to cause excessive biological, especially DNA, damage. The CR history of a planet plays an important role in its potential surface habitation. Both global and local CR conditions determine the ability of life to survive for astrobiologically relevant time periods. We highlight two CR life-limiting factors: 1) General galactic activity, starburst and AGN, was up by about a factor of 30 at redshift 1 - 2, per comoving frame, averaged over all galaxies. And 2) AGN activity is highly intermittent, so extreme brief but powerful bursts (Her A for example) can be detrimental at great distances. This means that during such brief bursts of AGN activity the extragalactic CRs might even overpower the local galactic CRs. But as shown by the starburst galaxy M82, the local CRs in a starburst can also be quite high. Moreover, in our cosmic neighborhood we have several super-massive black holes. These are in M31, M32, M81, NGC5128 (Cen A), and in our own Galaxy, all within about 4 Mpc today. Within about 20 Mpc today there are many more super-massive black holes. Cen A is of course the most famous one now, since it may be a major source of the ultra-high-energy CRs (UHECRs). Folding in what redshift means in terms of cosmic time, this implies that there may have been little chance for life to survive much earlier than Earth's starting epoch. We speculate, on whether the very slow start oflife on Earth is connected to the decay of disturbing CR activity.

  14. Cosmic Ray Helium Intensities over the Solar Cycle from ACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeNolfo, G. A.; Yanasak, N. E.; Binns, W. R.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; George, J. S.; Hink. P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Lave, K.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Observations of cosmic-ray helium energy spectra provide important constraints on cosmic ray origin and propagation. However, helium intensities measured at Earth are affected by solar modulation, especially below several GeV/nucleon. Observations of helium intensities over a solar cycle are important for understanding how solar modulation affects galactic cosmic ray intensities and for separating the contributions of anomalous and galactic cosmic rays. The Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) on ACE has been measuring cosmic ray isotopes, including helium, since 1997 with high statistical precision. We present helium elemental intensities between approx. 10 to approx. 100 MeV/nucleon from the Solar Isotope Spectrometer (SIS) and CRIS observations over a solar cycle and compare these results with the observations from other satellite and balloon-borne instruments, and with GCR transport and solar modulation models.

  15. Lightning Discharges, Cosmic Rays and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Siingh, Devendraa; Singh, R. P.; Singh, A. K.; Kamra, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    The entirety of the Earth's climate system is continuously bombarded by cosmic rays and exhibits about 2000 thunderstorms active at any time of the day all over the globe. Any linkage among these vast systems should have global consequences. Numerous studies done in the past deal with partial links between some selected aspects of this grand linkage. Results of these studies vary from weakly to strongly significant and are not yet complete enough to justify the physical mechanism proposed to explain such links. This review is aimed at presenting the current understanding, based on the past studies on the link between cosmic ray, lightning and climate. The deficiencies in some proposed links are pointed out. Impacts of cosmic rays on engineering systems and the possible effects of cosmic rays on human health are also briefly discussed. Also enumerated are some problems for future work which may help in developing the grand linkage among these three vast systems.

  16. Cosmic ray physics in space: the role of Sergey Vernov's scientific school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, M. I.

    2011-04-01

    Cosmic rays were discovered almost 100 years ago. Since then the scientific world has learned a lot from their nature: the particles nascent in the Universe, both in our Galaxy and outside, the basic mechanisms of their acceleration, transfer in the interstellar environment and the interaction of the primary cosmic rays with the atmosphere surrounding the Earth. Before 1957, i.e., the beginning of the Space Era, researchers' capabilities were limited to experiments performed on the ground, underground and in near-ground atmosphere to flight altitudes of aerostats, airplanes and rockets, i.e., where only secondary radiation is in existence, this is the result of the interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. The launching of spacecraft allowed the scientists to commence exploring the Universe's primordial matter itself outside the atmosphere, i.e., the primary cosmic rays. Sergey Vernov, the Russian scientist, was among them.

  17. Ionospheric Electron Density Measurements Using COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymond, K. F.; Budzien, S. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Rocken, C.; Syndergaard, S.

    2007-12-01

    At 0140 UTC on April 15, 2006, the joint Taiwan-U.S. COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate and Formosa Satellite mission #3; hereafter COSMIC) mission, a constellation of six micro-satellites, was launched into a 512-km orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Using on-board propulsion these satellites have been deployed to their final orbits at 800 km with 30 degrees of separation. This process has taken about 17 months following the launch. There are three instruments aboard each COSMIC satellite: the GPS Occultation Experiment (GOX), the Tri-Band Beacon (TBB), and the Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP). These three instruments constitute a unique suite of instruments for studying the Earth's ionosphere. The GOX instrument operates by inferring the slant total electron content (the integral of the electron density along the line-of-sight) between the COSMIC satellites and the GPS satellites as a function of tangent height above the Earth's limb. These data can be inverted to produce electron density profiles in the E and F regions of the ionosphere. The TBB is a three frequency radio beacon that radiates coherently at 150, 400, and 1067 MHz. When the relative phases of the signals are measured between the COSMIC satellites and ground-based or space-based receivers, the total electron content along the line-of-sight can be determined. By making the measurements from a set of receivers, the two-dimensional distribution of electrons beneath the satellite can be determined using tomographic techniques. The TIP instrument measures the optical signature of the natural decay of the ionosphere produced via ecombination of the O+ ions and electrons. The TIP measurements can be used to characterize the morphology and dynamics of the global ionosphere. Additionally, the TIP measurements can be inverted in conjunction with the GPS occultation measurements, using tomographic techniques, to produce the two

  18. Neural network and wavelets in prediction of cosmic ray variability: The North Africa as study case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrouk, Neïla; Bennaceur, Raouf

    2010-04-01

    Since the Earth is permanently bombarded with energetic cosmic rays particles, cosmic ray flux has been monitored by ground based neutron monitors for decades. In this work an attempt is made to investigate the decomposition and reconstructions provided by Morlet wavelet technique, using data series of cosmic rays variabilities, then to constitute from this wavelet analysis an input data base for the neural network system with which we can then predict decomposition coefficients and all related parameters for other points. Thus the latter are used for the recomposition step in which the plots and curves describing the relative cosmic rays intensities are obtained in any points on the earth in which we do not have any information about cosmic rays intensities. Although neural network associated with wavelets are not frequently used for cosmic rays time series, they seems very suitable and are a good choice to obtain these results. In fact we have succeeded to derive a very useful tool to obtain the decomposition coefficients, the main periods for each point on the Earth and on another hand we have now a kind of virtual NM for these locations like North Africa countries, Maroc, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Cairo. We have found the aspect of very known 11-years cycle: T1, we have also revealed the variation type of T2 and especially T3 cycles which seem to be induced by particular Earth's phenomena.

  19. Energetic ion and cosmic ray characteristics of a magnetic cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, T. R.; Beeck, J.; Marsden, R. G.; Tranquille, C.; Wenzel, K.-P.; McKibben, R. B.; Smith, E. J.

    The large interplanetary shock event of February 11, 1982, has yielded ISEE-3 energetic ion and magnetic field data as well as ground-based neutron-monitor cosmic-ray data. The timing and the onset of the Forbush decrease associated with this shock event coincide with the arrival at the earth of its magnetic cloud component; the duration of the decrease, similarly, corresponds to that of the cloud's passage past the earth. The large scattering mean free path readings suggest that while magnetic cloud ions can easily travel along magnetic field lines, they cannot travel across them, so that they cannot escape the cloud after entering it. Similarly, the cloud field lines prevented cosmic ray entrance, and could have prevented their reaching the earth. The cloud is therefore a major basis for the Forbush decrease.

  20. Toward a descriptive model of galactic cosmic rays in the heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Evenson, Paul; Fillius, W.; Jokipii, J. R.; Mckibben, R. B.; Robinson, Paul A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Researchers review the elements that enter into phenomenological models of the composition, energy spectra, and the spatial and temporal variations of galactic cosmic rays, including the so-called anomalous cosmic ray component. Starting from an existing model, designed to describe the behavior of cosmic rays in the near-Earth environment, researchers suggest possible updates and improvements to this model, and then propose a quantitative approach for extending such a model into other regions of the heliosphere.

  1. Influence of Earth-directed Coronal Mass Ejections on the Sun’s Shadow Observed by the Tibet-III Air Shower Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amenomori, M.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, D.; Chen, T. L.; Chen, W. Y.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z. Y.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; He, Z. T.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Jia, H. Y.; Jiang, L.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Kozai, M.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, A. F.; Li, H. J.; Li, W. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J. S.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Meng, X. R.; Miyazaki, T.; Munakata, K.; Nakajima, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Niwa, T.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Ozawa, S.; Qian, X. L.; Qu, X. B.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sako, T. K.; Shao, J.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, H.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamauchi, K.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, A. F.; Zhai, L. M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Tibet ASγ Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    We examine the possible influence of Earth-directed coronal mass ejections (ECMEs) on the Sun’s shadow in the 3 TeV cosmic-ray intensity observed by the Tibet-III air shower (AS) array. We confirm a clear solar-cycle variation of the intensity deficit in the Sun’s shadow during ten years between 2000 and 2009. This solar-cycle variation is overall reproduced by our Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the Sun’s shadow based on the potential field model of the solar magnetic field averaged over each solar rotation period. We find, however, that the magnitude of the observed intensity deficit in the Sun’s shadow is significantly less than that predicted by MC simulations, particularly during the period around solar maximum when a significant number of ECMEs is recorded. The χ 2 tests of the agreement between the observations and the MC simulations show that the difference is larger during the periods when the ECMEs occur, and the difference is reduced if the periods of ECMEs are excluded from the analysis. This suggests the first experimental evidence of the ECMEs affecting the Sun’s shadow observed in the 3 TeV cosmic-ray intensity.

  2. Relative likelihood for life as a function of cosmic time

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, Abraham; Batista, Rafael A.; Sloan, David, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: rafael.alvesbatista@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: david.sloan@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2016-08-01

    Is life most likely to emerge at the present cosmic time near a star like the Sun? We address this question by calculating the relative formation probability per unit time of habitable Earth-like planets within a fixed comoving volume of the Universe, dP ( t )/ dt , starting from the first stars and continuing to the distant cosmic future. We conservatively restrict our attention to the context of ''life as we know it'' and the standard cosmological model, ΛCDM . We find that unless habitability around low mass stars is suppressed, life is most likely to exist near ∼more » 0.1 M {sub ⊙} stars ten trillion years from now. Spectroscopic searches for biosignatures in the atmospheres of transiting Earth-mass planets around low mass stars will determine whether present-day life is indeed premature or typical from a cosmic perspective.« less

  3. Space-atmospheric interactions of energetic cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isar, Paula Gina

    2015-02-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic rays are the most energetic particles in the Universe of which origin still remain a mystery since a century from their descovery. They are unique messengers coming from far beyond our Milky Way Galaxy, which provides insights into the fundamental matter, energy, space and time. As subatomic particles flying through space to nearly light speed, the ultra-high energy cosmic rays are so rare that they strike the Earth's atmosphere at a rate of up to only one particle per square kilometer per year or century. While the atmosphere is used as a giant calorimeter where cosmic rays induced air showers are initiated and the medium through which Cherenkov or fluorescence light or radio waves propagate, all cosmic ray measurements (performed either from space or ground) rely on an accurate atmospheric monitoring and understanding of atmospheric effects. The interdisciplinary link between Astroparticle Physics and Atmospheric Environment through the ultra-high energy comic rays space - atmospheric interactions, based on the present ground- and future space-based cosmic ray observatories, will be presented.

  4. Inferred Cosmic-Ray Spectrum from Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Observations of the Earths Limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Recent accurate measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) species by ATIC-2, CREAM, and PAMELA reveal an unexpected hardening in the proton and He spectra above a few hundred GeV, a gradual softening of the spectra just below a few hundred GeV, and a harder spectrum of He compared to that of protons. These newly-discovered features may offer a clue to the origin of high-energy CRs. We use the Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the -ray emission from the Earth's limb for an indirect measurement of the local spectrum of CR protons in the energy range approx. 90 GeV-6 TeV (derived from a photon energy range 15 GeV-1 TeV). Our analysis shows that single power law and broken power law spectra fit the data equally well and yield a proton spectrum with index 2.68 +/- 0.04 and 2.61 +/- 0.08 above approx. 200 GeV, respectively.

  5. The Astrobiological Case for Our Cosmic Ancestry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    With steadily mounting evidence that points to a cosmic origin of terrestrial life, a cultural barrier prevails against admitting that such a connection exists. Astronomy continues to reveal the presence of organic molecules and organic dust on a huge cosmic scale, amounting to a third of interstellar carbon tied up in this form. Just as the overwhelming bulk of organics on Earth stored over geological timescales are derived from the degradation of living cells, so it seems most likely that interstellar organics in large measure also derive from biology. As we enter a new decade -- the year 2010 -- a clear pronouncement of our likely alien ancestry and of the existence of extraterrestrial life on a cosmic scale would seem to be overdue.

  6. The astrobiological case for our cosmic ancestry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    2010-04-01

    With steadily mounting evidence that points to a cosmic origin of terrestrial life, a cultural barrier prevails against admitting that such a connection exists. Astronomy continues to reveal the presence of organic molecules and organic dust on a huge cosmic scale, amounting to a third of interstellar carbon tied up in this form. Just as the overwhelming bulk of organics on Earth stored over geological timescales are derived from the degradation of living cells, so it seems likely that interstellar organics in large measure also derive from biology. As we enter a new decade - the year 2010 - a clear pronouncement of our likely alien ancestry and of the existence of extraterrestrial life on a cosmic scale would seem to be overdue.

  7. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Astrophysical aspects of cosmic-ray research (first 75 years and outlook for the future)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Vitalii L.

    1988-06-01

    (Invited talk at the 20th International Cosmic Ray Conference, Moscow, 2-15 August 1987) The basic topics discussed here are the primary cosmic rays near the earth, cosmic rays in the universe, the origin of cosmic rays, a galactic model with a halo, and some prospects for future research.

  8. Study of the Geoeffectiveness and Galactic Cosmic-Ray Response of VarSITI-ISEST Campaign Events in Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, O. P. M.; Badruddin

    2017-09-01

    We analyze and compare the geomagnetic and galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) response of selected solar events, particularly the campaign events of the group International Study of Earth-affecting Solar Transients (ISEST) of the program Variability of the Sun and Its Terrestrial Impact (VarSITI). These selected events correspond to Solar Cycle 24, and we identified various of their features during their near-Earth passage. We evaluated the hourly data of geomagnetic indices and ground-based neutron monitors and the concurrent data of interplanetary plasma and field parameters. We recognized distinct features of these events and solar wind parameters when the geomagnetic disturbance was at its peak and when the cosmic-ray intensity was most affected. We also discuss the similarities and differences in the geoeffectiveness and GCR response of the solar and interplanetary structures in the light of plasma and field variations and physical mechanism(s), which play a crucial role in influencing the geomagnetic activity and GCR intensity.

  9. Evaluating Galactic Cosmic Ray Environment Models Using RaD-X Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, R. B.; Mertens, C. J.; Slaba, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays enter Earth's atmosphere after interacting with the geomagnetic field. The primary galactic cosmic rays spectrum is fundamentally changed as it interacts with Earth's atmosphere through nuclear and atomic interactions. At points deeper in the atmosphere, such as at airline altitudes, the radiation environment is a combination of the primary galactic cosmic rays and the secondary particles produced through nuclear interactions. The RaD-X balloon experiment measured the atmospheric radiation environment above 20 km during 2 days in September 2015. These experimental measurements were used to validate and quantify uncertainty in physics-based models used to calculate exposure levels for commercial aviation. In this paper, the Badhwar-O'Neill 2014, the International Organization for Standardization 15390, and the German Aerospace Company galactic cosmic ray environment models are used as input into the same radiation transport code to predict and compare dosimetric quantities to RaD-X measurements. In general, the various model results match the measured tissue equivalent dose well, with results generated by the German Aerospace Center galactic cosmic ray environment model providing the best comparison. For dose equivalent and dose measured in silicon, however, the models were compared less favorably to the measurements.

  10. Cross section parameterizations for cosmic ray nuclei. 1: Single nucleon removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1992-01-01

    Parameterizations of single nucleon removal from electromagnetic and strong interactions of cosmic rays with nuclei are presented. These parameterizations are based upon the most accurate theoretical calculations available to date. They should be very suitable for use in cosmic ray propagation through interstellar space, the Earth's atmosphere, lunar samples, meteorites, spacecraft walls and lunar and martian habitats.

  11. The Near-Earth Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the effects of the Near-Earth space radiation environment on NASA missions. Included in this presentation is a review of The Earth s Trapped Radiation Environment, Solar Particle Events, Galactic Cosmic Rays and Comparison to Accelerator Facilities.

  12. Mining cosmic dust from the blue ice lakes of Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurette, M.; Brownlee, D. E.; Fehrenback, L.; Hammer, C.; Jehano, C.; Thomsen, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Extraterrestrial material, most of which invisible settles to Earth's surface as dust particles smaller than a millimeter in size were investigated. Particles of 1/10 millimeter size fall at a rate of one/sq m/yr collection of extraterrestrial dust is important because the recovered cosmic dust particles can provide important information about comets. Comets are the most important source of dust in the solar system and they are probably the major source of extraterrestrial dust that is collectable at the Earth's surface. A new collection site for cosmic dust, in an environment where degradation by weathering is minimal is reported. It is found that the blue ice lakes on the Greenland ice cap provide an ideal location for collection of extraterrestrial dust particles larger than 0.1 mm in size. It is found that the lakes contain large amounts of cosmic dust which is much better preserved than similar particles recovered from the ocean floor.

  13. Determination and study of the cosmic-ray composition above 100 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Sinnis, G.; Haines, T.J.; Hoffman, C.M.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to develop a new technique using ground-based measurements to determine the cosmic-ray composition at energies around 10{sup 15} eV (the knee in the cosmic-ray spectrum). Cosmic rays are high-energy nuclei that continuously bombard the earth. Though cosmic rays were first detected in the 1870s it wasn`t until 1915 that their cosmic origin was established. At present, the authors still do not know the source of cosmic rays. At energies above 50 TeVmore » (1 TeV = 1 trillion electron-volts) they do not know the composition of the cosmic rays. At about 5 PeV (1PeV = 10{sup 15} eV) the cosmic ray spectrum steepens. Knowledge of the composition above and below this point can help determine the origin of cosmic rays.« less

  14. Cosmic ray injection spectrum at the galactic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagutin, Anatoly; Tyumentsev, Alexander; Volkov, Nikolay

    The spectra of cosmic rays measured at Earth are different from their source spectra. A key to understanding this difference, being crucial for solving the problem of cosmic-ray origin, is the determination of how cosmic-ray (CR) particles propagate through the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). If the medium is a quasi-homogeneous the propagation process can be described by a normal diffusion model. However, during a last few decades many evidences, both from theory and observations, of the existence of multiscale structures in the Galaxy have been found. Filaments, shells, clouds are entities widely spread in the ISM. In such a highly non-homogeneous (fractal-like) ISM the normal diffusion model certainly is not kept valid. Generalization of this model leads to what is known as "anomalous diffusion". The main goal of the report is to retrieve the cosmic ray injection spectrum at the galactic sources in the framework of the anomalous diffusion (AD) model. The anomaly in this model results from large free paths ("Levy flights") of particles between galactic inhomogeneities. In order to evaluate the CR spectrum at the sources, we carried out new calculation of the CR spectra at Earth. AD equation in terms of fractional derivatives have been used to describe CR propagation from the nearby (r≤1 kpc) young (t≤ 1 Myr) and multiple old distant (r > 1 kpc) sources. The assessment of the key model parameters have been based on the results of the particles diffusion in the cosmic and laboratory plasma. We show that in the framework of the anomalous diffusion model the locally observed basic features of the cosmic rays (difference between spectral exponents of proton, He and other nuclei, "knee" problem, positron to electron ratio) can be explained if the injection spectrum at the main galactic sources of cosmic rays has spectral exponent p˜ 2.85. The authors acknowledge support from The Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant No. 14-02-31524.

  15. Biomarker response to galactic cosmic ray-induced NOx and the methane greenhouse effect in the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet orbiting an M dwarf star.

    PubMed

    Grenfell, John Lee; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Patzer, Beate; Rauer, Heike; Segura, Antigona; Stadelmann, Anja; Stracke, Barbara; Titz, Ruth; Von Paris, Philip

    2007-02-01

    Planets orbiting in the habitable zone of M dwarf stars are subject to high levels of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), which produce nitrogen oxides (NOx) in Earth-like atmospheres. We investigate to what extent these NO(Mx) species may modify biomarker compounds such as ozone (O3) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as related compounds such as water (H2O) (essential for life) and methane (CH4) (which has both abiotic and biotic sources). Our model results suggest that such signals are robust, changing in the M star world atmospheric column due to GCR NOx effects by up to 20% compared to an M star run without GCR effects, and can therefore survive at least the effects of GCRs. We have not, however, investigated stellar cosmic rays here. CH4 levels are about 10 times higher on M star worlds than on Earth because of a lowering in hydroxyl (OH) in response to changes in the ultraviolet. The higher levels of CH4 are less than reported in previous studies. This difference arose partly because we used different biogenic input. For example, we employed 23% lower CH4 fluxes compared to those studies. Unlike on Earth, relatively modest changes in these fluxes can lead to larger changes in the concentrations of biomarker and related species on the M star world. We calculate a CH4 greenhouse heating effect of up to 4K. O3 photochemistry in terms of the smog mechanism and the catalytic loss cycles on the M star world differs considerably compared with that of Earth.

  16. High-Energy Cosmic Rays from Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morlino, Giovanni

    Cosmic rays are charged relativistic particles that reach the Earth with extremely high energies, providing striking evidence of the existence of effective accelerators in the Universe. Below an energy around ˜ 1017 eV, cosmic rays are believed to be produced in the Milky Way, while above that energy, their origin is probably extragalactic. In the early 1930s, supernovae were already identified as possible sources for the galactic component of cosmic rays. After the 1970s this idea has gained more and more credibility, thanks to the development of the diffusive shock acceleration theory, which provides a robust theoretical framework for particle energization in astrophysical environments. Afterward, mostly in recent years, much observational evidence has been gathered in support of this framework, converting a speculative idea in a real paradigm. In this chapter the basic pillars of this paradigm will be illustrated. This includes the acceleration mechanism, the nonlinear effects produced by accelerated particles onto the shock dynamics needed to reach the highest energies, the escape process from the sources, and the transportation of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. The theoretical picture will be corroborated by discussing several observations which support the idea that supernova remnants are effective cosmic ray factories.

  17. Isotopic Evidence for Multi-stage Cosmic-ray Exposure Histories of Lunar Meteorites: Long Residence on the Moon and Short Transition to the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Keisuke; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Yoneda, Shigekazu

    2017-06-01

    It is known that most lunar meteorites have complicated cosmic-ray exposure experiences on the Moon and in space. In this study, cosmic-ray irradiation histories of six lunar meteorites, Dhofar 489, Northwest Africa 032 (NWA 032), NWA 479, NWA 482, NWA 2995, and NWA 5000, were characterized from neutron-captured isotopic shifts of Sm and Gd, and from the abundances of long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides like 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, and 41Ca. Sm and Gd isotopic data of all of six meteorites show significant isotopic shifts of 149Sm-150Sm and 157Gd-158Gd caused by accumulation of neutron capture reactions due to cosmic-ray irradiation, corresponding to the neutron fluences of (1.3-9.6) × 1016 n cm-2. In particular, very large Sm and Gd isotopic shifts of NWA 482 are over those of a lunar regolith 70002, having the largest isotopic shifts among the Apollo regolith samples, corresponding to cosmic-ray exposure duration over 800 million years in the lunar surface (2π irradiation). Meanwhile, the concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides for individual six meteorites show the short irradiation time less than one million years as their bodies in space (4π irradiation). Our data also support the results of previous studies, revealing that most of lunar meteorites have long exposure ages at shallow depths on the Moon and short transit times from the Moon to the Earth.

  18. The Earth Education Program Sunship™ Earth: A Mixed Methods Study of the Long-Term Influence on Environmental Attitudes and Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bires, Nancy K.

    2013-01-01

    There have been a limited number of studies on the short-term influence of environmental and earth education programs, however, not much information is available about the long-term influence of these programs on participants' environmental attitudes and actions. This mixed methods study explores the long-term influence of the earth education…

  19. Radiation Hazard from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, Ashraf

    2006-03-01

    Space radiation is a major hazard to astronauts in long-duration human space explosion. Astronauts are exposed to an enormous amount of radiation during their missions away from the Earth in outer space. Deep space is a rich environment of protons, gamma rays and cosmic rays. A healthy 40 years old man staying on Earth away from large doses of radiation stands a 20% chance of dying from cancer. If the same person travels into a 3- year Mars mission, the added risk should increase by 19%. This indicates that there is 39% chance of having cancer after he comes back to Earth. Female astronaut chances to get cancer is even almost double the above percentage. The greatest threat to astronauts en route to the red planet is galactic cosmic rays (GCR). GCRs penetrate through the skin of spaceships and people like tiny firearm bullets, breaking the strands of DNA molecules, damaging genes, and killing cells. Understanding the nature of the GCRs, their effect on biological cells, and their interactions with different shielding materials is the key point to shield against them in long space missions. In this paper we will present a model to evaluate the biological effects of GCRs and suggestion different ways to shield against them.

  20. Ultra-heavy cosmic rays: Theoretical implications of recent observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, J. B.; Hainebach, K. L.; Schramm, D. N.; Anglin, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Extreme ultraheavy cosmic ray observations (Z greater or equal 70) are compared with r-process models. A detailed cosmic ray propagation calculation is used to transform the calculated source distributions to those observed at the earth. The r-process production abundances are calculated using different mass formulae and beta-rate formulae; an empirical estimate based on the observed solar system abundances is used also. There is the continued strong indication of an r-process dominance in the extreme ultra-heavy cosmic rays. However it is shown that the observed high actinide/Pt ratio in the cosmic rays cannot be fit with the same r-process calculation which also fits the solar system material. This result suggests that the cosmic rays probably undergo some preferential acceleration in addition to the apparent general enrichment in heavy (r-process) material. As estimate also is made of the expected relative abundance of superheavy elements in the cosmic rays if the anomalous heavy xenon in carbonaceous chondrites is due to a fissioning superheavy element.

  1. The dawn of the particle astronomy era in ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Bauleo, Pablo M; Martino, Julio Rodríguez

    2009-04-16

    Cosmic rays are charged particles arriving at the Earth from space. Those at the highest energies are particularly interesting because the physical processes that could create or accelerate them are at the limit of our present knowledge. They also open the window to particle astronomy, as the magnetic fields along their paths are not strong enough to deflect their trajectories much from a straight line. The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest cosmic-ray detector on Earth, and as such is beginning to resolve past observational disagreements regarding the origin and propagation of these particles.

  2. The Galactic Magnetic Field and Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Federico R.

    The Galactic Magnetic Field is a peeving and importune screen between Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays and us cosmologists, engaged in the combat to unveil their properties and origin, as it deviates their paths towards the Earth in unpredictable ways. I will, in this order: briefly review the available field models on the market; explain a little trick which allows one to obtain cosmic rays deflection variances without even knowing what the (random) GMF model is; and argue that there is a lack of anisotropy in the large scales cosmic rays signal, which the Galactic field can do nothing about.

  3. Superbubbles and Local Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streitmatter, Robert E.; Jones, Frank C.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the possibility that distinctive features of the local cosmic ray spectra and composition are influenced by the Solar system being embedded within the cavity of an ancient superbubble. Shifts in the measured cosmic ray composition between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 20) eV as well as the "knee" and "second knee" may be understood in this picture.

  4. Aerial Neutron Detection of Cosmic-Ray Interactions with the Earth's Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Maurer

    2008-09-18

    We have demonstrated the ability to measure the neutron flux produced by the cosmic-ray interaction with nuclei in the ground surface using aerial neutron detection. High energy cosmic-rays (primarily muons with GeV energies) interact with the nuclei in the ground surface and produce energetic neutrons via spallation. At the air-surface interface, the neutrons produced by spallation will either scatter within the surface material, become thermalized and reabsorbed, or be emitted into the air. The mean free path of energetic neutrons in air can be hundreds of feet as opposed to a few feet in dense materials. As such, the fluxmore » of neutrons escaping into the air provides a measure of the surface nuclei composition. It has been demonstrated that this effect can be measured at long range using neutron detectors on low flying helicopters. Radiological survey measurements conducted at Government Wash in Las Vegas, Nevada, have shown that the neutron background from the cosmic-soil interactions is repeatable and directly correlated to the geological data. Government Wash has a very unique geology, spanning a wide variety of nuclide mixtures and formations. The results of the preliminary measurements are presented.« less

  5. COSMIC-RAY SMALL-SCALE ANISOTROPIES AND LOCAL TURBULENT MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    López-Barquero, V.; Farber, R.; Xu, S.

    2016-10-10

    Cosmic-ray anisotropy has been observed in a wide energy range and at different angular scales by a variety of experiments over the past decade. However, no comprehensive or satisfactory explanation has been put forth to date. The arrival distribution of cosmic rays at Earth is the convolution of the distribution of their sources and of the effects of geometry and properties of the magnetic field through which particles propagate. It is generally believed that the anisotropy topology at the largest angular scale is adiabatically shaped by diffusion in the structured interstellar magnetic field. On the contrary, the medium- and small-scalemore » angular structure could be an effect of nondiffusive propagation of cosmic rays in perturbed magnetic fields. In particular, a possible explanation for the observed small-scale anisotropy observed at the TeV energy scale may be the effect of particle propagation in turbulent magnetized plasmas. We perform numerical integration of test particle trajectories in low- β compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence to study how the cosmic rays’ arrival direction distribution is perturbed when they stream along the local turbulent magnetic field. We utilize Liouville’s theorem for obtaining the anisotropy at Earth and provide the theoretical framework for the application of the theorem in the specific case of cosmic-ray arrival distribution. In this work, we discuss the effects on the anisotropy arising from propagation in this inhomogeneous and turbulent interstellar magnetic field.« less

  6. Cosmic-Ray Energetics and Mass Processing - Bonding

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-20

    Research that started aboard balloons a century ago will soon culminate in a three-year stint aboard the International Space Station as scientists work on solving a fundamental astrophysics mystery: What gives cosmic rays such incredible energies, and how does that affect the composition of the universe? The Cosmic-Ray Energetics and Mass investigation, known as CREAM, places a highly successful balloon-borne instrument aboard the International Space Station where it gathers an order of magnitude (ten times) more data, which has lower background interference because Earth's atmosphere is no longer interfering. CREAM's instruments measure the charges of cosmic rays ranging from hydrogen up through iron nuclei, over a broad energy range. The modified balloon instrument is carried aloft on a SpaceX Dragon Lab cargo supply mission and placed on the Japanese Exposed Module for a period of at least three years.

  7. Cosmic Radiation Detection and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Chavez, Juan; Troncoso, Maria

    Cosmic rays consist of high-energy particles accelerated from remote supernova remnant explosions and travel vast distances throughout the universe. Upon arriving at earth, the majority of these particles ionize gases in the upper atmosphere, while others interact with gas molecules in the troposphere and producing secondary cosmic rays, which are the main focus of this research. To observe these secondary cosmic rays, a detector telescope was designed and equipped with two silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Each SiPM is coupled to a bundle of 4 wavelength shifting optical fibers that are embedded inside a plastic scintillator sheet. The SiPM signals were amplified using a fast preamplifier with coincidence between detectors established using a binary logic gate. The coincidence events were recorded with two devices; a digital counter and an Arduino micro-controller. For detailed analysis of the SiPM waveforms, a DRS4 sensory digitizer captured the waveforms for offline analysis with the CERN software package Physics Analysis Workstation in a Linux environment. Results from our experiments would be presented. Hartnell College STEM Internship Program.

  8. Response of Atmospheric Biomarkers to NOx-Induced Photochemistry Generated by Stellar Cosmic Rays for Earth-like Planets in the Habitable Zone of M Dwarf Stars

    PubMed Central

    Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; von Paris, Philip; Patzer, A. Beate C.; Lammer, Helmut; Stracke, Barbara; Gebauer, Stefanie; Schreier, Franz; Rauer, Heike

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Understanding whether M dwarf stars may host habitable planets with Earth-like atmospheres and biospheres is a major goal in exoplanet research. If such planets exist, the question remains as to whether they could be identified via spectral signatures of biomarkers. Such planets may be exposed to extreme intensities of cosmic rays that could perturb their atmospheric photochemistry. Here, we consider stellar activity of M dwarfs ranging from quiet up to strong flaring conditions and investigate one particular effect upon biomarkers, namely, the ability of secondary electrons caused by stellar cosmic rays to break up atmospheric molecular nitrogen (N2), which leads to production of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the planetary atmosphere, hence affecting biomarkers such as ozone (O3). We apply a stationary model, that is, without a time dependence; hence we are calculating the limiting case where the atmospheric chemistry response time of the biomarkers is assumed to be slow and remains constant compared with rapid forcing by the impinging stellar flares. This point should be further explored in future work with time-dependent models. We estimate the NOx production using an air shower approach and evaluate the implications using a climate-chemical model of the planetary atmosphere. O3 formation proceeds via the reaction O+O2+M→O3+M. At high NOx abundances, the O atoms arise mainly from NO2 photolysis, whereas on Earth this occurs via the photolysis of molecular oxygen (O2). For the flaring case, O3 is mainly destroyed via direct titration, NO+O3→NO2+O2, and not via the familiar catalytic cycle photochemistry, which occurs on Earth. For scenarios with low O3, Rayleigh scattering by the main atmospheric gases (O2, N2, and CO2) became more important for shielding the planetary surface from UV radiation. A major result of this work is that the biomarker O3 survived all the stellar-activity scenarios considered except for the strong case, whereas the biomarker

  9. Messengers from the Early Solar System - Comets as Carriers of Cosmic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Viewed from a cosmic perspective, Earth is a dry planet yet its oceans are enriched in deuterium by a large factor relative to nebular hydrogen. Can comets have delivered Earth s water? The question of exogenous delivery of water and organics to Earth and other young planets is of critical importance for understanding the origin of Earth s water, and for assessing the possible existence of exo-planets similar to Earth. Strong gradients in temperature and chemistry in the proto-planetary disk, coupled with dynamical models, imply that comets from the Oort Cloud and Kuiper Disk reservoirs should have diverse composition. The primary volatiles in comets (ices native to the nucleus) provide the preferred metric, and taxonomies based on them are now beginning to emerge [1, 2, 3]. The measurement of cosmic parameters such as the nuclear spin temperatures for H2O, NH3, and CH4, and of enrichment factors for isotopologues (D/H in water and hydrogen cyanide, N-14/N-15 in CN and hydrogen cyanide) provide additional important tests for the origin of cometary material.

  10. Isotopic Evidence for Multi-stage Cosmic-ray Exposure Histories of Lunar Meteorites: Long Residence on the Moon and Short Transition to the Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Keisuke; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko

    It is known that most lunar meteorites have complicated cosmic-ray exposure experiences on the Moon and in space. In this study, cosmic-ray irradiation histories of six lunar meteorites, Dhofar 489, Northwest Africa 032 (NWA 032), NWA 479, NWA 482, NWA 2995, and NWA 5000, were characterized from neutron-captured isotopic shifts of Sm and Gd, and from the abundances of long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides like {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, and {sup 41}Ca. Sm and Gd isotopic data of all of six meteorites show significant isotopic shifts of {sup 149}Sm–{sup 150}Sm and {sup 157}Gd–{sup 158}Gd caused by accumulation of neutron capturemore » reactions due to cosmic-ray irradiation, corresponding to the neutron fluences of (1.3–9.6) × 10{sup 16} n cm{sup −2}. In particular, very large Sm and Gd isotopic shifts of NWA 482 are over those of a lunar regolith 70002, having the largest isotopic shifts among the Apollo regolith samples, corresponding to cosmic-ray exposure duration over 800 million years in the lunar surface (2 π irradiation). Meanwhile, the concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides for individual six meteorites show the short irradiation time less than one million years as their bodies in space (4 π irradiation). Our data also support the results of previous studies, revealing that most of lunar meteorites have long exposure ages at shallow depths on the Moon and short transit times from the Moon to the Earth.« less

  11. Using the information of cosmic rays to predict influence epidemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z. D.

    1985-08-01

    A correlation between the incidence of influenza pandemics and increased cosmic ray activity is made. A correlation is also made between the occurrence of these pandemics and the appearance of bright novae, e.g., Nova Eta Car. Four indices based on increased cosmic ray activity and novae are proposed to predict future influenza pandemics and viral antigenic shifts.

  12. Using the information of cosmic rays to predict influence epidemic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Z. D.

    1985-01-01

    A correlation between the incidence of influenza pandemics and increased cosmic ray activity is made. A correlation is also made between the occurrence of these pandemics and the appearance of bright novae, e.g., Nova Eta Car. Four indices based on increased cosmic ray activity and novae are proposed to predict future influenza pandemics and viral antigenic shifts.

  13. Terrestrial effects of high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atri, Dimitra

    On geological timescales, the Earth is likely to be exposed to higher than the usual flux of high energy cosmic rays (HECRs) from astrophysical sources such as nearby supernovae, gamma ray bursts or by galactic shocks. These high-energy particles strike the Earth's atmosphere, initiating an extensive air shower. As the air shower propagates deeper, it ionizes the atmosphere by producing charged secondary particles and photons. Increased ionization leads to changes in atmospheric chemistry, resulting in ozone depletion. This increases the flux of solar UVB radiation at the surface, which is potentially harmful to living organisms. Increased ionization affects the global electrical circuit, which could enhance the low-altitude cloud formation rate. Secondary particles such as muons and thermal neutrons produced as a result of hadronic interactions of the primary cosmic rays with the atmosphere are able to reach the ground, enhancing the biological radiation dose. The muon flux dominates the radiation dose from cosmic rays causing damage to DNA and an increase in mutation rates and cancer, which can have serious biological implications for surface and sub-surface life. Using CORSIKA, we perform massive computer simulations and construct lookup tables for 10 GeV - 1 PeV primaries, which can be used to quantify these effects from enhanced cosmic ray exposure to any astrophysical source. These tables are freely available to the community and can be used for other studies. We use these tables to study the terrestrial implications of galactic shock generated by the infall of our galaxy toward the Virgo cluster. Increased radiation dose from muons could be a possible mechanism explaining the observed periodicity in biodiversity in paleobiology databases.

  14. Satellite Constellations for Space Weather and Ionospheric Studies: Overview of the COSMIC and COSMIC-2 Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, W. S.; Pedatella, N. M.; Weiss, J.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements from constellations of low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are proving highly useful for ionospheric science and space weather studies. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC), a joint US/Taiwan mission launched in April 2006, is a six micro-satellite constellation carrying Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) receivers. COSMIC has collected a large amount of useful data from these scientific payloads and is still currently collecting up to 1,000 RO measurement events per day on average. The GPS RO dual-frequency L-band phase and amplitude measurements can be used to observe absolute Total Electron Content (TEC) and scintillation on lines of sight between the LEO and GPS satellites, and electron density profiles via the RO method. The large number and complete global and local time coverage of COSMIC data are allowing scientists to observe ionospheric and plasmaspheric phenomena that are difficult to see with other instruments. The success of COSMIC has prompted U.S. agencies and Taiwan to execute a COSMIC follow-on mission (called COSMIC-2) that will put twelve satellites with GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) RO payloads into orbit on two launches in the 2017-20 time frame. The first launch in 2017 will place six satellites in a 520-km altitude 24 deg inclination orbit, which is ideal for low latitude ionospheric research and space weather forecasting. The planned second launch (not currently funded) places six additional satellites in a 750 km 72 deg inclination orbit to provide global coverage and increased sampling density. COSMIC-2 will make use of an advanced radio occultation receiver with an innovative beam-forming antenna design, and is expected to produce at least 10,000 high-quality atmospheric and ionospheric profiles per day from GPS and GLONASS signals to support operational weather prediction, climate monitoring, and space weather forecasting. Each COSMIC-2 spacecraft

  15. Measuring the Cosmic Particle Radiation from electrons to actinides - HNX/TIGERISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, John

    2017-01-01

    The Heavy Nuclei eXplorer (HNX) mission will measure the abundances of nuclei from Carbon (Z =6) to Curium (Z =96) in the cosmic radiation with the resolution to identify the atomic number of each detected nucleus. HNX will measure a significant number of actinides. HNX utilizes two high-precision instruments, the Extremely-heavy Cosmic-ray Composition Observer (ECCO) and the Cosmic-Ray Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (CosmicTIGER), located in a SpaceX DragonLab capsule orbiting the Earth. This talk will discuss the motivating science, the HNX mission, the design and performance of the HNX instruments, and another new instrument, TIGERISS (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder on the ISS), that will be proposed as an intermediate between SuperTIGER and HNX.

  16. The shape of the extragalactic cosmic ray spectrum from galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Harari, Diego; Mollerach, Silvia; Roulet, Esteban, E-mail: harari@cab.cnea.gov.ar, E-mail: mollerach@cab.cnea.gov.ar, E-mail: roulet@cab.cnea.gov.ar

    2016-08-01

    We study the diffusive escape of cosmic rays from a central source inside a galaxy cluster to obtain the suppression in the outgoing flux appearing when the confinement times get comparable or larger than the age of the sources. We also discuss the attenuation of the flux due to the interactions of the cosmic rays with the cluster medium, which can be sizeable for heavy nuclei. The overall suppression in the total cosmic ray flux expected on Earth is important to understand the shape of the extragalactic contribution to the cosmic ray spectrum for E / Z < 1 EeVmore » . This suppression can also be relevant to interpret the results of fits to composition-sensitive observables measured at ultra-high energies.« less

  17. The DNA of Bacteria of the World Ocean and the Earth in Cosmic Dust at the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Grebennikova, T. V.; Syroeshkin, A. V.; Shubralova, E. V.; Eliseeva, O. V.; Kostina, L. V.; Kulikova, N. Y.; Latyshev, O. E.; Morozova, M. A.; Yuzhakov, A. G.; Chichaeva, M. A.; Tsygankov, O. S.

    2018-01-01

    Cosmic dust samples from the surface of the illuminator of the International Space Station (ISS) were collected by a crew member during his spacewalk. The sampler with tampon in a vacuum container was delivered to the Earth. Washouts from the tampon's material and the tampon itself were analyzed for the presence of bacterial DNA by the method of nested PCR with primers specific to DNA of the genus Mycobacteria, DNA of the strains of capsular bacteria Bacillus, and DNA encoding 16S ribosomal RNA. The results of amplification followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of the bacteria of the genus Mycobacteria and the extreme bacterium of the genus Delftia in the samples of cosmic dust. It was shown that the DNA sequence of one of the bacteria of the genus Mycobacteria was genetically similar to that previously observed in superficial micro layer at the Barents and Kara seas' coastal zones. The presence of the wild land and marine bacteria DNA on the ISS suggests their possible transfer from the stratosphere into the ionosphere with the ascending branch of the global electric circuit. Alternatively, the wild land and marine bacteria as well as the ISS bacteria may all have an ultimate space origin. PMID:29849510

  18. The DNA of Bacteria of the World Ocean and the Earth in Cosmic Dust at the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Grebennikova, T V; Syroeshkin, A V; Shubralova, E V; Eliseeva, O V; Kostina, L V; Kulikova, N Y; Latyshev, O E; Morozova, M A; Yuzhakov, A G; Zlatskiy, I A; Chichaeva, M A; Tsygankov, O S

    2018-01-01

    Cosmic dust samples from the surface of the illuminator of the International Space Station (ISS) were collected by a crew member during his spacewalk. The sampler with tampon in a vacuum container was delivered to the Earth. Washouts from the tampon's material and the tampon itself were analyzed for the presence of bacterial DNA by the method of nested PCR with primers specific to DNA of the genus Mycobacteria , DNA of the strains of capsular bacteria Bacillus , and DNA encoding 16S ribosomal RNA. The results of amplification followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of the bacteria of the genus Mycobacteria and the extreme bacterium of the genus Delftia in the samples of cosmic dust. It was shown that the DNA sequence of one of the bacteria of the genus Mycobacteria was genetically similar to that previously observed in superficial micro layer at the Barents and Kara seas' coastal zones. The presence of the wild land and marine bacteria DNA on the ISS suggests their possible transfer from the stratosphere into the ionosphere with the ascending branch of the global electric circuit. Alternatively, the wild land and marine bacteria as well as the ISS bacteria may all have an ultimate space origin.

  19. Effect of near-earth thunderstorms electric field on the intensity of ground cosmic ray positrons/electrons in Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X. X.; Wang, X. J.; Huang, D. H.; Jia, H. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the correlation between the ground cosmic ray intensity and near-earth thunderstorms electric field at YBJ (located at YangBaJing, Tibet, China, 4300 m a. s. l.). The variations of the secondary cosmic ray intensity are found to be highly dependent on the strength and polarity of the electric field. In negative fields and in positive fields greater than 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons increases with increasing electric field strength. And these values increase more obviously when involving a shower with lower primary energy or a higher zenith angle. While in positive fields ranging from 0 to 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons declines and the amplitude is up to 3.1% for vertical showers. A decrease of intensity occurs in inclined showers within the range of 0-500 V/cm, which is accompanied by smaller amplitudes. In this paper, the intensity changes are analyzed, especially concerning those decreasing phenomena in positive electric fields. Our simulation results could be helpful in understanding the decreases observed in some ground-based experiments (such as the Carpet air shower array and ARGO-YBJ), and also be useful in understanding the acceleration mechanisms of secondary charged particles caused by an atmospheric electric field.

  20. Cosmic ray modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal Mishra, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of cosmic rays to and inside the heliosphere, encounter an outward moving solar wind with cyclic magnetic field fluctuation and turbulence, causing convection and diffusion in the heliosphere. Cosmic ray counts from the ground ground-based neutron monitors at different cut of rigidity show intensity changes, which are anti-correlated with sunspot numbers. They also lose energy as they propagate towards the Earth and experience various types of modulations due to different solar activity indices. In this work, we study the first three harmonics of cosmic ray intensity on geo-magnetically quiet days over the period 1965-2014 for Beijing, Moscow and Tokyo neutron monitoring stations located at different cut off rigidity. The amplitude of first harmonic remains high for low cutoff rigidity as compared to high cutoff rigidity on quiet days. The diurnal amplitude significantly decreases during solar activity minimum years. The diurnal time of maximum significantly shifts to an earlier time as compared to the corotational direction having different cutoff rigidities. The time of maximum for first harmonic significantly shifts towards later hours and for second harmonic it shifts towards earlier hours at low cutoff rigidity station as compared to the high cut off rigidity station on quiet days. The amplitude of second/third harmonics shows a good positive correlation with solar wind velocity, while the others (i.e. amplitude and phase) have no significant correlation on quiet days. The amplitude and direction of the anisotropy on quiet days does not show any significant dependence on high-speed solar wind streams for these neutron monitoring stations of different cutoff rigidity threshold. Keywords: cosmic ray, cut off rigidity, quiet days, harmonics, amplitude, phase.

  1. The isotopic composition of cosmic ray calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krombel, K. E.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the high energy cosmic ray experiment on the international sun earth explorer 3 (ISEE-3) spacecraft have been used to study the isotopic composition of cosmic ray calcium at an energy of approx. 260 MeV/amu. The arriving calcium is found to consist of (32 + or - 6)%. A propagation model consistent with both the light and the subiron secondary element abundances was used for the interpretation of the observed calcium composition. The measured 42Ca+43Ca+44Ca abundance is consistent with the calculated secondary production, while the 40Ca abundance implies a source ratio of 40Ca/Fe = (7.0 + or - 1.7)%.

  2. Atmospheric cosmic rays and solar energetic particles at aircraft altitudes.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, K; Friedberg, W; Sauer, H H; Smart, D F

    1996-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays, which are thought to be produced and accelerated by a variety of mechanisms in the Milky Way galaxy, interact with the solar wind, the earth's magnetic field, and its atmosphere to produce hadron, lepton, and photon fields at aircraft altitudes that are quite unlike anything produced in the laboratory. The energy spectra of these secondary particles extend from the lowest possible energy to energies over an EeV. In addition to cosmic rays, energetic particles, generated on the sun by solar flares or coronal mass ejections, bombard the earth from time to time. These particles, while less energetic than cosmic rays, also produce radiation fields at aircraft altitudes which have qualitatively the same properties as cosmic rays. The authors have calculated atmospheric cosmic-ray angular fluxes, spectra, scalar fluxes, and ionization, and compared them with experimental data. Agreement with these data is seen to be good. These data have been used to calculate equivalent doses in a simplified human phantom at aircraft altitudes and the estimated health risks to aircraft crews. The authors have also calculated the radiation doses from several large solar energetic particle events (known as GLEs, or Ground Level Events), which took place in 1989, including the very large event known as GLE 42, which took place on September 29th and 30th of that year. The spectra incident on the atmosphere were determined assuming diffusive shock theory. Unfortunately, there are essentially no experimental data with which to compare these calculations.

  3. Quantification of seasonal biomass effects on cosmic-ray soil water content determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baatz, R.; Bogena, H. R.; Hendricks Franssen, H.; Huisman, J. A.; Qu, W.; Montzka, C.; Korres, W.; Vereecken, H.

    2013-12-01

    The novel cosmic-ray soil moisture probes (CRPs) measure neutron flux density close to the earth surface. High energy cosmic-rays penetrate the Earth's atmosphere from the cosmos and become moderated by terrestrial nuclei. Hydrogen is the most effective neutron moderator out of all chemical elements. Therefore, neutron flux density measured with a CRP at the earth surface correlates inversely with the hydrogen content in the CRP's footprint. A major contributor to the amount of hydrogen in the sensor's footprint is soil water content. The ability to measure changes in soil water content within the CRP footprint at a larger-than-point scale (~30 ha) and at high temporal resolution (hourly) make these sensors an appealing measurement instrument for hydrologic modeling purposes. Recent developments focus on the identification and quantification of major uncertainties inherent in CRP soil moisture measurements. In this study, a cosmic-ray soil moisture network for the Rur catchment in Western Germany is presented. It is proposed to correct the measured neutron flux density for above ground biomass yielding vegetation corrected soil water content from cosmic-ray measurements. The correction for above ground water equivalents aims to remove biases in soil water content measurements on sites with high seasonal vegetation dynamics such as agricultural fields. Above ground biomass is estimated as function of indices like NDVI and NDWI using regression equations. The regression equations were obtained with help of literature information, ground-based control measurements, a crop growth model and globally available data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). The results show that above ground biomass could be well estimated during the first half of the year. Seasonal changes in vegetation water content yielded biases in soil water content of ~0.05 cm3/cm3 that could be corrected for with the vegetation correction. The vegetation correction has particularly

  4. Anthropogenic disturbance of element cycles at the Earth's surface.

    PubMed

    Sen, Indra S; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard

    2012-08-21

    The extent to which humans are modifying Earth's surface chemistry can be quantified by comparing total anthropogenic element fluxes with their natural counterparts (Klee and Graedel, 2004). We quantify anthropogenic mass transfer of 77 elements from mining, fossil fuel burning, biomass burning, construction activities, and human apportionment of terrestrial net primary productivity, and compare it to natural mass transfer from terrestrial and marine net primary productivity, riverine dissolved and suspended matter fluxes to the ocean, soil erosion, eolian dust, sea-salt spray, cosmic dust, volcanic emissions, and for helium, hydrodynamic escape from the Earth's atmosphere. We introduce an approach to correct for losses during industrial processing of elements belonging to geochemically coherent groups, and explicitly incorporate uncertainties of element mass fluxes through Monte Carlo simulations. We find that at the Earth's surface anthropogenic fluxes of iridium, osmium, helium, gold, ruthenium, antimony, platinum, palladium, rhenium, rhodium and chromium currently exceed natural fluxes. For these elements mining is the major factor of anthropogenic influence, whereas petroleum burning strongly influences the surficial cycle of rhenium. Our assessment indicates that if anthropogenic contributions to soil erosion and eolian dust are considered, anthropogenic fluxes of up to 62 elements surpass their corresponding natural fluxes.

  5. Near-Earth Space Radiation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Michael A.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; O'Brien, T. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Review of models of the near-Earth space radiation environment is presented, including recent developments in trapped proton and electron, galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event models geared toward spacecraft electronics applications.

  6. Near-Earth Object (NEO) Hazard Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental problem regarding NEO hazards is that the Earth and other planets, as well as their moons, share the solar system with a vast number of small planetary bodies and orbiting debris. Objects of substantial size are typically classified as either comets or asteroids. Although the solar system is quite expansive, the planets and moons (as well as the Sun) are occasionally impacted by these objects. We live in a cosmic shooting gallery where collisions with Earth occur on a regular basis. Because the number of smaller comets and asteroids is believed to be much greater than larger objects, the frequency of impacts is significantly higher. Fortunately, the smaller objects, which are much more numerous, are usually neutralized by the Earth's protective atmosphere. It is estimated that between 1000 and 10,000 tons of debris fall to Earth each year, most of it in the form of dust particles and extremely small meteorites. With no atmosphere, the Moon's surface is continuously impacted with dust and small debris. On November 17 and 18, 1999, during the annual Leonid meteor shower, several lunar surface impacts were observed by amateur astronomers in North America. The Leonids result from the Earth's passage each year through the debris ejected from Comet Tempel-Tuttle. These annual showers provide a periodic reminder of the possibility of a much more consequential cosmic collision, and the heavily cratered lunar surface acts a constant testimony to the impact threat. The impact problem and those planetary bodies that are a threat have been discussed in great depth in a wide range of publications and books, such as The Spaceguard Survey , Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, and Cosmic Catastrophes. This paper gives a brief overview on the background of this problem and address some limitations of ground-based surveys for detection of small and/or faint near-Earth objects.

  7. Wind Observations of Anomalous Cosmic Rays from Solar Minimum to Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.; McDonald, F. B.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first observation near Earth of the time behavior of anomalous cosmic-ray N, O, and Ne ions through the period surrounding the maximum of the solar cycle. These observations were made by the Wind spacecraft during the 1995-2002 period spanning times from solar minimum through solar maximum. Comparison of anomalous and galactic cosmic rays provides a powerful tool for the study of the physics of solar modulation throughout the solar cycle.

  8. The estimation of galactic cosmic ray penetration and dose rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrell, M. O.; Wright, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    This study is concerned with approximation methods that can be readily applied to estimate the absorbed dose rate from cosmic rays in rads - tissue or rems inside simple geometries of aluminum. The present work is limited to finding the dose rate at the center of spherical shells or behind plane slabs. The dose rate is calculated at tissue-point detectors or for thin layers of tissue. This study considers cosmic-rays dose rates for both free-space and earth-orbiting missions.

  9. Anisotropy and corotation of galactic cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Amenomori, M; Ayabe, S; Bi, X J; Chen, D; Cui, S W; Danzengluobu; Ding, L K; Ding, X H; Feng, C F; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z Y; Gao, X Y; Geng, Q X; Guo, H W; He, H H; He, M; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Huang, Q; Jia, H Y; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren; Le, G M; Li, A F; Li, J Y; Lou, Y-Q; Lu, H; Lu, S L; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Mu, J; Munakata, K; Nagai, A; Nanjo, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Onuma, H; Ouchi, T; Ozawa, S; Ren, J R; Saito, T; Saito, T Y; Sakata, M; Sako, T K; Sasaki, T; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Torii, S; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Wang, B; Wang, H; Wang, X; Wang, Y G; Wu, H R; Xue, L; Yamamoto, Y; Yan, C T; Yang, X C; Yasue, S; Ye, Z H; Yu, G C; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhang, H M; Zhang, J L; Zhang, N J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X X

    2006-10-20

    The intensity of Galactic cosmic rays is nearly isotropic because of the influence of magnetic fields in the Milky Way. Here, we present two-dimensional high-precision anisotropy measurement for energies from a few to several hundred teraelectronvolts (TeV), using the large data sample of the Tibet Air Shower Arrays. Besides revealing finer details of the known anisotropies, a new component of Galactic cosmic ray anisotropy in sidereal time is uncovered around the Cygnus region direction. For cosmic-ray energies up to a few hundred TeV, all components of anisotropies fade away, showing a corotation of Galactic cosmic rays with the local Galactic magnetic environment. These results have broad implications for a comprehensive understanding of cosmic rays, supernovae, magnetic fields, and heliospheric and Galactic dynamic environments.

  10. Semianalytic calculation of cosmic microwave background anisotropies from wiggly and superconducting cosmic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybak, I. Yu.; Avgoustidis, A.; Martins, C. J. A. P.

    2017-11-01

    We study how the presence of world-sheet currents affects the evolution of cosmic string networks, and their impact on predictions for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies generated by these networks. We provide a general description of string networks with currents and explicitly investigate in detail two physically motivated examples: wiggly and superconducting cosmic string networks. By using a modified version of the CMBact code, we show quantitatively how the relevant network parameters in both of these cases influence the predicted CMB signal. Our analysis suggests that previous studies have overestimated the amplitude of the anisotropies for wiggly strings. For superconducting strings the amplitude of the anisotropies depends on parameters which presently are not well known—but which can be measured in future high-resolution numerical simulations.

  11. A high-resolution study of ultra-heavy cosmic-ray nuclei (A0178)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Oceallaigh, C.; Domingo, V.; Wenzel, K. P.

    1984-01-01

    The main objective of the experiment is a detailed study of the charge spectra of ultraheavy cosmic-ray nuclei from zinc (Z = 30) to uranium (Z = 92) and beyond using solid-state track detectors. Special emphasis will be placed on the relative abundances in the region Z or - 65, which is thought to be dominated by r-process nucleosynthesis. Subsidiary objectives include the study of the cosmic-ray transiron spectrum a search for the postulated long-lived superheavy (SH) nuclei (Z or = 110), such as (110) SH294, in the contemporary cosmic radiation. The motivation behind the search for super-heavy nuclei is based on predicted half-lives that are short compared to the age of the Earth but long compared to the age of cosmic rays. The detection of such nuclei would have far-reaching consequences for nuclear structure theory. The sample of ultraheavy nuclei obtained in this experiment will provide unique opportunities for many tests concerning element nucleosynthesis, cosmic-ray acceleration, and cosmic-ray propagation.

  12. Microanalytical study of some cosmic dust discovered in sea-floor sediments in China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shijie, Z.; Hanchang, P.; Zhong, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The study of cosmic dust can provide useful data in the investigation of the origin of the Earth and the evolution of celestial bodies. Three types of cosmic dust (ferriginous, siliceous, and glassy) were discovered in the seafloor sediments near China. Their chemical composition and microstructure were examined by X-ray diffraction, fractography, and electron microscopy. The major mineral in an iron-containing cosmic dust is magnetite. The silicate spheres contain sundry metals and metal oxides. Glassy microtektites are similar in composition to tektites, and are found in all the major meteorite areas worldwide.

  13. Inferred cosmic-ray spectrum from Fermi large area telescope γ-ray observations of Earth's limb.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Albert, A; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Bottacini, E; Bouvier, A; Brandt, T J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chaves, R C G; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dalton, M; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; Di Venere, L; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Gomez-Vargas, G A; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hewitt, J W; Horan, D; Hou, X; Hughes, R E; Inoue, Y; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Kawano, T; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Roth, M; Schaal, M; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Takahashi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Tronconi, V; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yang, Z

    2014-04-18

    Recent accurate measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) species by ATIC-2, CREAM, and PAMELA reveal an unexpected hardening in the proton and He spectra above a few hundred GeV, a gradual softening of the spectra just below a few hundred GeV, and a harder spectrum of He compared to that of protons. These newly discovered features may offer a clue to the origin of high-energy CRs. We use the Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the γ-ray emission from Earth's limb for an indirect measurement of the local spectrum of CR protons in the energy range ∼90  GeV-6  TeV (derived from a photon energy range 15 GeV-1 TeV). Our analysis shows that single power law and broken power law spectra fit the data equally well and yield a proton spectrum with index 2.68±0.04 and 2.61±0.08 above ∼200  GeV, respectively.

  14. Cosmic Dust Collection Facility: Scientific objectives and programmatic relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, Fred (Editor); Brownlee, D. E.; Bunch, T. E.; Grounds, D.; Grun, E.; Rummel, Y.; Quaide, W. L.; Walker, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The science objectives are summarized for the Cosmic Dust Collection Facility (CDCF) on Space Station Freedom and these objectives are related to ongoing science programs and mission planning within NASA. The purpose is to illustrate the potential of the CDCF project within the broad context of early solar system sciences that emphasize the study of primitive objects in state-of-the-art analytical and experimental laboratories on Earth. Current knowledge about the sources of cosmic dust and their associated orbital dynamics is examined, and the results are reviewed of modern microanalytical investigations of extraterrestrial dust particles collected on Earth. Major areas of scientific inquiry and uncertainty are identified and it is shown how CDCF will contribute to their solution. General facility and instrument concepts that need to be pursued are introduced, and the major development tasks that are needed to attain the scientific objectives of the CDCF project are identified.

  15. Influence of slip-surface geometry on earth-flow deformation, Montaguto earth flow, southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guerriero, L.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Revellio, P.; Grelle, G.; Pinto, F.; Guadagno, F.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated relations between slip-surface geometry and deformational structures and hydrologic features at the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy between 1954 and 2010. We used 25 boreholes, 15 static cone-penetration tests, and 22 shallow-seismic profiles to define the geometry of basal- and lateral-slip surfaces; and 9 multitemporal maps to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of normal faults, thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, strike-slip faults, flank ridges, folds, ponds, and springs. We infer that the slip surface is a repeating series of steeply sloping surfaces (risers) and gently sloping surfaces (treads). Stretching of earth-flow material created normal faults at risers, and shortening of earth-flow material created thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, and ponds at treads. Individual pairs of risers and treads formed quasi-discrete kinematic zones within the earth flow that operated in unison to transmit pulses of sediment along the length of the flow. The locations of strike-slip faults, flank ridges, and folds were not controlled by basal-slip surface topography but were instead dependent on earth-flow volume and lateral changes in the direction of the earth-flow travel path. The earth-flow travel path was strongly influenced by inactive earth-flow deposits and pre-earth-flow drainages whose positions were determined by tectonic structures. The implications of our results that may be applicable to other earth flows are that structures with strikes normal to the direction of earth-flow motion (e.g., normal faults and thrust faults) can be used as a guide to the geometry of basal-slip surfaces, but that depths to the slip surface (i.e., the thickness of an earth flow) will vary as sediment pulses are transmitted through a flow.

  16. Review of the Theoretical and Experimental Status of Dark Matter Identification with Cosmic-Ray Antideuterons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aramaki, T.; Boggs, S.; Bufalino, S.; Dal, L.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Fuke, H.; Grefe, M.; Hailey, C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen increased theoretical and experimental effort towards the first-ever detection of cosmic-ray antideuterons, in particular as an indirect signature of dark matter annihilation or decay. In contrast to indirect dark matter searches using positrons, antiprotons, or gamma-rays, which suffer from relatively high and uncertain astrophysical backgrounds, searches with antideuterons benefit from very suppressed conventional backgrounds, offering a potential breakthrough in unexplored phase space for dark matter. This article is based on the first dedicated cosmic-ray antideuteron workshop, which was held at UCLA in June 2014. It reviews broad classes of dark matter candidates that result in detectable cosmic-ray antideuteron fluxes, as well as the status and prospects of current experimental searches. The coalescence model of antideuteron production and the influence of antideuteron measurements at particle colliders are discussed. This is followed by a review of the modeling of antideuteron propagation through the magnetic fields, plasma currents, and molecular material of our Galaxy, the solar system, the Earth's geomagnetic field, and the atmosphere. Finally, the three ongoing or planned experiments that are sensitive to cosmic-ray antideuterons, BESS, AMS-02, and GAPS, are detailed. As cosmic-ray antideuteron detection is a rare event search, multiple experiments with orthogonal techniques and backgrounds are essential. Therefore, the combination of AMS-02 and GAPS antideuteron searches is highly desirable. Many theoretical and experimental groups have contributed to these studies over the last decade, this review aims to provide the first coherent discussion of the relevant dark matter theories that antideuterons probe, the challenges to predictions and interpretations of antideuteron signals, and the experimental efforts toward cosmic antideuteron detection.

  17. Primary gamma rays. [resulting from cosmic ray interaction with interstellar matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    Within this galaxy, cosmic rays reveal their presence in interstellar space and probably in source regions by their interactions with interstellar matter which lead to gamma rays with a very characteristic energy spectrum. From the study of the intensity of the high energy gamma radiation as a function of galactic longitude, it is already clear that cosmic rays are almost certainly not uniformly distributed in the galaxy and are not concentrated in the center of the galaxy. The galactic cosmic rays appear to be tied to galactic structural features, presumably by the galactic magnetic fields which are in turn held by the matter in the arm segments and the clouds. On the extragalactic scale, it is now possible to say that cosmic rays are not universal at the density seen near the earth. The diffuse celestial gamma ray spectrum that is observed presents the interesting possibility of cosmological studies and possible evidence for a residual universal cosmic ray density, which is much lower than the present galactic cosmic ray density.

  18. Cosmic physics data analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, R. Jeffrey

    1993-01-01

    A data analysis program was carried out to investigate the intensity, propagation, and origin of primary Cosmic Ray Galactic electrons. Scanning was carried out on two new balloon flight experiments as well as the border area of previous experiments. The identification and evaluation of the energies of the primary electrons were carried out. A new analysis of these data were incorporated into an overall evaluation of the roll of electrons in the problem of the origin of cosmic rays. Recent measurements indicate that the earth may be within the expanding Geminga supernova shock wave which is expected to have a major effect upon the propagation and the energy spectrum of galactic electrons. Calculations with the Geminga model indicate that the cut-off energy may be very close to the observed highest energy electrons in our analysis.

  19. Modulation of Cosmic Ray Precipitation Related to Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.; Ruzmaikin, A.

    1998-01-01

    High energy cosmic rays may influence the formation of clouds, and thus can have an impact on weather and climate. Cosmic rays in the solar wind are incident on the magnetosphere boundary and are then transmitted through the magnetosphere and atmosphere to reach the upper troposphere.

  20. Ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment (A0178)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A.; Osullivan, D.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K. P.; Jansen, F.; Domingo, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) is based on a modular array of 192 side viewing solid state nuclear track detector stacks. These stacks were mounted in sets of four in 48 pressure vessels using 16 peripheral LDEF trays. The geometry factor for high energy cosmic ray nuclei, allowing for Earth shadowing, was 30 sq m sr, giving a total exposure factor of 170 sq m sr y at an orbital inclination of 28.4 degs. Scanning results indicate that about 3000 cosmic ray nuclei in the charge region with Z greater than 65 were collected. This sample is more than ten times the current world data in the field (taken to be the data set from the HEAO-3 mission plus that from the Ariel-6 mission) and is sufficient to provide the world's first statistically significant sample of actinide cosmic rays. Results are presented including a sample of ultra heavy cosmic ray nuclei, analysis of pre-flight and post-flight calibration events and details of track response in the context of detector temperature history. The integrated effect of all temperature and age related latent track variations cause a maximum charge shift of + or - 0.8e for uranium and + or - 0.6e for the platinum-lead group. Astrophysical implications of the UHCRE charge spectrum are discussed.

  1. JUPITER AS A GIANT COSMIC RAY DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, P. B.; Stark, C. R.; Helling, Ch., E-mail: pr33@st-andrews.ac.uk

    We explore the feasibility of using the atmosphere of Jupiter to detect ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). The large surface area of Jupiter allows us to probe cosmic rays of higher energies than previously accessible. Cosmic ray extensive air showers in Jupiter's atmosphere could in principle be detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi observatory. In order to be observed, these air showers would need to be oriented toward the Earth, and would need to occur sufficiently high in the atmosphere that the gamma rays can penetrate. We demonstrate that, under these assumptions, Jupiter provides an effective cosmicmore » ray ''detector'' area of 3.3 × 10{sup 7} km{sup 2}. We predict that Fermi-LAT should be able to detect events of energy >10{sup 21} eV with fluence 10{sup –7} erg cm{sup –2} at a rate of about one per month. The observed number of air showers may provide an indirect measure of the flux of cosmic rays ≳ 10{sup 20} eV. Extensive air showers also produce a synchrotron signature that may be measurable by Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Simultaneous observations of Jupiter with ALMA and Fermi-LAT could be used to provide broad constraints on the energies of the initiating cosmic rays.« less

  2. Low-energy cosmic ray protons from nuclear interactions of cosmic rays with the interstellar medium.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H. T.

    1973-01-01

    The intensity of low-energy (less than 100 MeV) protons from nuclear interactions of higher-energy (above 100 MeV) cosmic rays with the interstellar medium is calculated. The resultant intensity in the 10- to 100-MeV range is larger by a factor of 3-5 than the observed proton intensity near earth. The calculated intensity from nuclear interactions constitutes a lower limit on the actual proton intensity in interstellar space.

  3. Cosmic Education: Linking the Human to the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebhardt-Seele, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Describes cosmic education as the Montessori guide for educating 6- to 12-year-olds. Discusses practical consequences of Montessori's ideas, including the selection of the "great story," the need for physics at the elementary level to teach the laws of nature, the citizen's responsibility for the earth's survival, the importance of…

  4. Voids and the Cosmic Web: cosmic depression & spatial complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Weygaert, Rien

    2016-10-01

    Voids form a prominent aspect of the Megaparsec distribution of galaxies and matter. Not only do theyrepresent a key constituent of the Cosmic Web, they also are one of the cleanest probesand measures of global cosmological parameters. The shape and evolution of voids are highly sensitive tothe nature of dark energy, while their substructure and galaxy population provides a direct key to thenature of dark matter. Also, the pristine environment of void interiors is an important testing groundfor our understanding of environmental influences on galaxy formation and evolution. In this paper, we reviewthe key aspects of the structure and dynamics ofvoids, with a particular focus on the hierarchical evolution of the void population. We demonstratehow the rich structural pattern of the Cosmic Web is related to the complex evolution and buildupof voids.

  5. Life as a Cosmic Phenomenon: 2. the Panspermic Trajectory of Homo Sapiens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokoro, Gensuke; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    We discuss the origin and evolution of Homo sapiens in a cosmic context, and in relation to the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of panspermia for which there is now overwhelming evidence. It is argued that the first bacteria (archea) incident on the Earth via the agency of comets 3.8-4 billion years ago continued at later times to be augmented by viral genes (DNA, RNA) from space that eventually led to the evolutionary patterns we see in present-day biology. We argue that the current evolutionary status of Homo sapiens as well as its future trajectory is circumscribed by evolutionary processes that were pre-determined on a cosmic scale -- over vast distances and enormous spans of cosmic time. Based on this teleological hypothesis we postulate that two distinct classes of cosmic viruses (cosmic viral genes) are involved in accounting for the facts relating to the evolution of life.

  6. Galactic cosmic ray gradients, field-aligned and latitudinal, among Voyagers 1/2 and IMP-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelof, E. C.; Decker, R. B.; Krimigis, S. M.; Venkatesan, D.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation represents a summary of a comprehensive analysis of the same subject conducted by Roelof et al. (1981). It is pointed out that the tandem earth-Jupiter trajectories of the Voyager 1/2 spacecraft, combined with baseline measurements from the earth-orbiting IMP 7/8 spacecraft, provide the first opportunity for unambiguously separating latitude from radial or field-aligned effects in galactic cosmic ray gradients. Attention is given to the method of data analysis, and the separation of field-aligned and latitudinal gradients. It is found that latitudinal gradients approximately equal to or greater than 1 percent per deg in the cosmic ray intensity were a common feature of the interplanetary medium between 1 and 5 AU in 1977-78. Except in the most disturbed periods, cosmic ray intensities are well-ordered in field-aligned structures.

  7. Energetic particle influences in Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, Karen; Harrison, R. Giles; Nicoll, Keri; Rycroft, Michael; Briggs, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Energetic particles from outer space, known as galactic cosmic rays, constantly ionise the entire atmosphere. During strong solar storms, solar energetic particles can also reach the troposphere and enhance ionisation. Atmospheric ionisation generates cluster ions. These facilitate current flow in the global electric circuit, which arises from charge separation in thunderstorms driven by meteorological processes. Energetic particles, whether solar or galactic in origin, may influence the troposphere and stratosphere through a range of different mechanisms, each probably contributing a small amount. Some of the suggested processes potentially acting over a wide spatial area in the troposphere include enhanced scavenging of charged aerosol particles, modification of droplet or droplet-droplet behavior by charging, and the direct absorption of infra-red radiation by the bending and stretching of hydrogen bonds inside atmospheric cluster-ions. As well as reviewing the proposed mechanisms by which energetic particles modulate atmospheric properties, we will also discuss new instrumentation for measurement of energetic particles in the atmosphere.

  8. Temperature Effect in Secondary Cosmic Rays (MUONS) Observed at the Ground: Analysis of the Global MUON Detector Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mendonça, R. R. S.; Braga, C. R.; Echer, E.; Dal Lago, A.; Munakata, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Kozai, M.; Kato, C.; Rockenbach, M.; Schuch, N. J.; Jassar, H. K. Al; Sharma, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.; Evenson, P.; Sabbah, I.

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of cosmic ray intensity variation seen by muon detectors at Earth's surface can help us to understand astrophysical, solar, interplanetary and geomagnetic phenomena. However, before comparing cosmic ray intensity variations with extraterrestrial phenomena, it is necessary to take into account atmospheric effects such as the temperature effect. In this work, we analyzed this effect on the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN), which is composed of four ground-based detectors, two in the northern hemisphere and two in the southern hemisphere. In general, we found a higher temperature influence on detectors located in the northern hemisphere. Besides that, we noticed that the seasonal temperature variation observed at the ground and at the altitude of maximum muon production are in antiphase for all GMDN locations (low-latitude regions). In this way, contrary to what is expected in high-latitude regions, the ground muon intensity decrease occurring during summertime would be related to both parts of the temperature effect (the negative and the positive). We analyzed several methods to describe the temperature effect on cosmic ray intensity. We found that the mass weighted method is the one that best reproduces the seasonal cosmic ray variation observed by the GMDN detectors and allows the highest correlation with long-term variation of the cosmic ray intensity seen by neutron monitors.

  9. Placers of cosmic dust in the blue ice lakes of Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.; Reeh, N.; Brownlee, D. E.; Thomsen, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    A concentration process occurring in the melt zone of the Greenland ice cap has produced the richest known deposit of cosmic dust on the surface of the earth. Extraterrestrial particles collected from this region are well preserved and are collectable in large quantities. The collected particles are generally identical to cosmic spheres found on the ocean floor, but a pure glass type was discovered that has not been seen in deep-sea samples. Iron-rich spheres are conspicuously rare in the collected material.

  10. COSMIC RADIATION AND TUBERCULOSIS. IV. INFLUENCE OF COSMIC RADIATION ON TUBERCULOSIS AT HIGH ALTITUDE (3,130 M) AND AT SEA-LEVEL

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, S.G.

    1964-01-01

    At high altitude (3,130 m) tuberculous mice exposed to cosmic radiation under 10 cm of lead showed significantly greater mean survival time and a significantly greater number of survivors than tuberculous mice exposed to direct cosmic radiation. Tuberculous mice exposed to cosmic radiation at high altitude under 10 cm of lead showed a significantly greater mean survival time than tuberculous mice kept at sea level, exposed to direct cosmic radiation, and to cosmic radiation under 1, 2, and 10 cm of lead. The correlation analysis shows that a decreas in lung lesions is associated with an increase in survival time.more » The decrease in lung lesions is associated with an enlargement of the spleen. At high altitude the female showed a significantly greater number of survivors than the male. At sea level no significant difference was observed. On the average the female showed a significantly greater number of survivors. The beneficial effect of daylight with ultraviolet light on tuberculous mice was manifested in a lower maximum of mortality and in a significant decrease of lung and spleen lesions. (auth)« less

  11. DETERMINATION OF INDUCED RADIOACTIVITY IN THE SECOND COSMIC SPACESHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, V.V.; Sokolov, A.D.

    1961-01-01

    The residual gamma activity in a biological specimen on board the second Soviet cosmic spaceship was determined. The biological specimens were in the form of cylinders (3.8-cm dia., 4-cm long) with a total weight of 86 g. The activity of the specimens was measured after return to earth, and it was found that if there was a residual gamma activity 15 days after the return to earth it did not exceed 10-/sup 10/ g equivalents of Ra. (OTS)

  12. Organic Matter in Cosmic Dust

    PubMed Central

    Sandford, Scott A.; Engrand, Cecile; Rotundi, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Organics are observed to be a significant component of cosmic dust in nearly all environments were dust is observed. In many cases only remote telescope observations of these materials are obtainable and our knowledge of the nature of these materials is very basic. However, it is possible to obtain actual samples of extraterrestrial dust in the Earth’s stratosphere, in Antarctic ice and snow, in near-Earth orbit, and via spacecraft missions to asteroids and comets. It is clear that cosmic dust contains a diverse population of organic materials that owe their origins to a variety of chemical processes occurring in many different environments. The presence of isotopic enrichments of D and 15N suggests that many of these organic materials have an interstellar/protosolar heritage. The study of these samples is of considerable importance since they are the best preserved materials of the early Solar System available. PMID:29422977

  13. Cosmic-Ray Energetics and Mass Processing - Unbagging and Inspection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-22

    Research that started aboard balloons a century ago will soon culminate in a three-year stint aboard the International Space Station as scientists work on solving a fundamental astrophysics mystery: What gives cosmic rays such incredible energies, and how does that affect the composition of the universe? The Cosmic-Ray Energetics and Mass investigation, known as CREAM, places a highly successful balloon-borne instrument aboard the International Space Station where it gathers an order of magnitude (ten times) more data, which has lower background interference because Earth's atmosphere is no longer interfering. CREAM's instruments measure the charges of cosmic rays ranging from hydrogen up through iron nuclei, over a broad energy range. The modified balloon instrument is carried aloft on a SpaceX Dragon Lab cargo supply mission and placed on the Japanese Exposed Module for a period of at least three years.

  14. Cosmic-ray transport in the heliosphere: A global perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florinski, Vladimir

    2013-02-01

    Earth is shielded from the hazardous galactic radiation in the form or cosmic ray ions by the outwardly flow of the solar wind plasma and by the geomagnetic field. Understanding the effects of the global structure of the heliosphere on the transport of energetic charged particles remains an important challenge in space physics. The expanding bubble of the supersonic solar wind cools the populations of GeV ions that penetrate deeply into the interplanetary space. Beyond the solar wind lies the heliosheath that is believed to act as a long-term storage reservoir for the cosmic rays. The heliosheath and its magnetic field topology play an important role in modulating cosmic rays at large heliocentric distances. Understanding this role is crucial for interpreting the the puzzling Voyager spacecraft observations near the edge of the solar system.

  15. Galactic-cosmic-ray-produced 3He in a ferromanganese crust: any supernova 60Fe excess on earth?

    PubMed

    Basu, S; Stuart, F M; Schnabel, C; Klemm, V

    2007-04-06

    An excess of 60Fe in 2.4-3.2 x 10(6) year old ferromanganese crust (237 KD) from the deep Pacific Ocean has been considered as evidence for the delivery of debris from a nearby supernova explosion to Earth. Extremely high ;{3}He/;{4}He (up to 6.12 x 10(-3)) and 3He concentrations (up to 8 x 10(9) atoms/g) measured in 237 KD cannot be supernova-derived. The helium is produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and delivered in micrometeorites that have survived atmospheric entry to be trapped by the crust. 60Fe is produced by GCR reactions on Ni in extraterrestrial material. The maximum (3)He/(60)Fe of 237 KD (80-850) is comparable to the GCR (3)He/(60)Fe production ratio (400-500) predicted for Ni-bearing minerals in iron meteorites. The excess 60Fe can be plausibly explained by the presence of micrometeorites trapped by the crust, rather than injection from a supernova source.

  16. A predictive analytic model for the solar modulation of cosmic rays

    DOE PAGES

    Cholis, Ilias; Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim

    2016-02-23

    An important factor limiting our ability to understand the production and propagation of cosmic rays pertains to the effects of heliospheric forces, commonly known as solar modulation. The solar wind is capable of generating time- and charge-dependent effects on the spectrum and intensity of low-energy (≲10 GeV) cosmic rays reaching Earth. Previous analytic treatments of solar modulation have utilized the force-field approximation, in which a simple potential is adopted whose amplitude is selected to best fit the cosmic-ray data taken over a given period of time. Making use of recently available cosmic-ray data from the Voyager 1 spacecraft, along withmore » measurements of the heliospheric magnetic field and solar wind, we construct a time-, charge- and rigidity-dependent model of solar modulation that can be directly compared to data from a variety of cosmic-ray experiments. Here, we provide a simple analytic formula that can be easily utilized in a variety of applications, allowing us to better predict the effects of solar modulation and reduce the number of free parameters involved in cosmic-ray propagation models.« less

  17. Cosmic strings and superconducting cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Edmund

    1988-01-01

    The possible consequences of forming cosmic strings and superconducting cosmic strings in the early universe are discussed. Lecture 1 describes the group theoretic reasons for and the field theoretic reasons why cosmic strings can form in spontaneously broken gauge theories. Lecture 2 discusses the accretion of matter onto string loops, emphasizing the scenario with a cold dark matter dominated universe. In lecture 3 superconducting cosmic strings are discussed, as is a mechanism which leads to the formation of structure from such strings.

  18. Progress towards a measurement of the UHE cosmic ray electron flux using the CREST Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musser, Jim; Wakely, Scott; Coutu, Stephane; Geske, Matthew; Nutter, Scott; Tarle, Gregory; Park, Nahee; Schubnell, Michael; Gennaro, Joseph; Muller, Dietrich

    2012-07-01

    Electrons of energy beyond about 3 TeV have never been detected in the flux of cosmic rays at Earth despite strong evidence of their presence in a number of supernova remnants (e.g., SN 1006). The detection of high energy electrons at Earth would be extremely significant, yielding information about the spatial distribution of nearby cosmic ray sources. With the Cosmic Ray Electron Synchrotron Telescope (CREST), our collaboration has adopted a novel approach to the detection of electrons of energies between 2 and 50 TeV which results in a substantial increase in the acceptance and sensitivity of the apparatus relative to its physics size. The first LDB flight of the CREST detector took place in January 2012, with a float duration of approximately 10 days. In this paper we describe the flight performance of the instrument, and progress in the analysis of the data obtained in this flight.

  19. THE TEMPERATURE EFFECT IN SECONDARY COSMIC RAYS (MUONS) OBSERVED AT THE GROUND: ANALYSIS OF THE GLOBAL MUON DETECTOR NETWORK DATA

    SciTech Connect

    De Mendonça, R. R. S.; Braga, C. R.; Echer, E.

    2016-10-20

    The analysis of cosmic ray intensity variation seen by muon detectors at Earth's surface can help us to understand astrophysical, solar, interplanetary and geomagnetic phenomena. However, before comparing cosmic ray intensity variations with extraterrestrial phenomena, it is necessary to take into account atmospheric effects such as the temperature effect. In this work, we analyzed this effect on the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN), which is composed of four ground-based detectors, two in the northern hemisphere and two in the southern hemisphere. In general, we found a higher temperature influence on detectors located in the northern hemisphere. Besides that, we noticedmore » that the seasonal temperature variation observed at the ground and at the altitude of maximum muon production are in antiphase for all GMDN locations (low-latitude regions). In this way, contrary to what is expected in high-latitude regions, the ground muon intensity decrease occurring during summertime would be related to both parts of the temperature effect (the negative and the positive). We analyzed several methods to describe the temperature effect on cosmic ray intensity. We found that the mass weighted method is the one that best reproduces the seasonal cosmic ray variation observed by the GMDN detectors and allows the highest correlation with long-term variation of the cosmic ray intensity seen by neutron monitors.« less

  20. An Inexpensive Cosmic Ray Detector for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldader, Jeffrey D.; Choi, Seulah

    2010-01-01

    Finding ways to demonstrate--in a high school classroom--that subatomic particles from space produce other particles capable of reaching the Earth's surface is not a trivial task. In this paper, we describe a Geiger-Muller tube-based cosmic ray coincidence detector we produced at a total cost of less than $200, using two tubes purchased used…

  1. Virtual impact: visualizing the potential effects of cosmic impact in human history

    SciTech Connect

    Masse, W Bruce; Janecky, David R; Forte, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    Current models indicate that catastrophic impacts by asteroids and comets capable of killing more than one quarter of Earth's human population have occurred on average once every million years; smaller impacts, such the 1908 Tunguska impact that leveled more than 2,000 square km of Siberian forest, occur every 200-300 years. Therefore, cosmic impact likely significantly affected hominine evolution and conceivably played a role in Holocene period human culture history. Regrettably, few archaeologists are trained to appreciate the nature and potential effects of cosmic impact. We have developed a conceptual model for an extensible set of educational and research tools basedmore » on virtual reality collaborative environments to engage archaeologists and the general public on the topic of the role of cosmic impact in human history. Our initial focus is on two documented asteroid impacts in Argentina during the period of 4000 to 1000 B.C. Campo del Cicio resulted in an energy release of around 2-3 megatons (100-150 times the Hiroshima atomic weapon), and left several craters and a strewn field covering 493 km{sup 2} in northeastern Argentina. Rio Cuarto was likely more than 1000 megatons and may have devastated an area greater than 50,000 km{sup 2} in central Argentina. We are focusing on reconstructions of these events and their potential effects on contemporary hunter and gatherers. Our vinual reality tools also introduce interactive variables (e.g., impactor physical properties, climate, vegetation, topography, and social complexity) to allow researchers and students to better investigate and evaluate the factors that significantly influence cosmic impact effects.« less

  2. Heliospheric Impact on Cosmic Rays Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Bhupendra Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Heliospheric Impact on Cosmic RaysModulation B. K. Tiwari Department of Physics, A. P. S. University, Rewa (M.P.), btiwari70@yahoo.com Cosmic rays (CRs) flux at earth is modulated by the heliosphereric magnetic field and the structure of the heliosphere, controls by solar outputs and their variability. Sunspots numbers (SSN) is often treated as a primary indicator of solar activity (SA). GCRs entering the helioshphere are affected by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and solar wind speed, their modulation varies with the varying solar activity. The observation based on data recoded from Omniweb data Centre for solar- interplanetary activity indices and monthly mean count rate of cosmic ray intensity (CRI) data from neutron monitors of different cut-off rigidities(Rc) (Moscow Rc=2.42Gv and Oulu Rc=0.80Gv). During minimum solar activity periodof solar cycle 23/24, the sun is remarkably quiet, weakest strength of the IMF and least dense and slowest, solar wind speed, whereas, in 2003, highest value of yearly averaged solar wind speed (~568 Km/sec) associated with several coronal holes, which generate high speed wind stream has been recorded. It is observed that GCRs fluxes reduces and is high anti-correlated with SSN (0.80) and IMF (0.86). CRI modulation produces by a strong solar flare, however, CME associated solar flare produce more disturbance in the interplanetary medium as well as in geomagnetic field. It is found that count rate of cosmic ray intensity and solar- interplanetary parameters were inverse correlated and solar indices were positive correlated. Keywords- Galactic Cosmic rays (GCRs), Sunspot number (SSN), Solar activity (SA), Coronal Mass Ejection (CME), Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)

  3. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    SciTech Connect

    Gaite, José, E-mail: jose.gaite@upm.es

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description ofmore » the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ''smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.« less

  4. On the size and velocity distribution of cosmic dust particles entering the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo‐Sánchez, J. D.; Feng, W.; Nesvorný, D.; Janches, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The size and velocity distribution of cosmic dust particles entering the Earth's atmosphere is uncertain. Here we show that the relative concentrations of metal atoms in the upper mesosphere, and the surface accretion rate of cosmic spherules, provide sensitive probes of this distribution. Three cosmic dust models are selected as case studies: two are astronomical models, the first constrained by infrared observations of the Zodiacal Dust Cloud and the second by radar observations of meteor head echoes; the third model is based on measurements made with a spaceborne dust detector. For each model, a Monte Carlo sampling method combined with a chemical ablation model is used to predict the ablation rates of Na, K, Fe, Mg, and Ca above 60 km and cosmic spherule production rate. It appears that a significant fraction of the cosmic dust consists of small (<5 µg) and slow (<15 km s−1) particles. PMID:27478282

  5. Extrapolating cosmic ray variations and impacts on life: Morlet wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrouk, N.; Bennaceur, R.

    2009-07-01

    Exposure to cosmic rays may have both a direct and indirect effect on Earth's organisms. The radiation may lead to higher rates of genetic mutations in organisms, or interfere with their ability to repair DNA damage, potentially leading to diseases such as cancer. Increased cloud cover, which may cool the planet by blocking out more of the Sun's rays, is also associated with cosmic rays. They also interact with molecules in the atmosphere to create nitrogen oxide, a gas that eats away at our planet's ozone layer, which protects us from the Sun's harmful ultraviolet rays. On the ground, humans are protected from cosmic particles by the planet's atmosphere. In this paper we give estimated results of wavelet analysis from solar modulation and cosmic ray data incorporated in time-dependent cosmic ray variation. Since solar activity can be described as a non-linear chaotic dynamic system, methods such as neural networks and wavelet methods should be very suitable analytical tools. Thus we have computed our results using Morlet wavelets. Many have used wavelet techniques for studying solar activity. Here we have analysed and reconstructed cosmic ray variation, and we have better depicted periods or harmonics other than the 11-year solar modulation cycles.

  6. Feasibility of Cosmic-Ray Muon Intensity Measurements for Tunnel Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    BUR-’TR-3110 TECHNICAL REPORT BRL-TR-3110 mBRL I• FEASIBILITY OF COSMIC - RAY MUON INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR TUNNEL DETECTION AIVARS CELIN. , JUNE...Feasibility of Cosmic - Ray Muon Intensity Measurements f or Tunnel Detection 612786H20001 4.AUTNOR(S) Aivars Celmins 7. PERORMING ORGANIZATION NAMe(S) AND... cosmic - ray muon intensity depends on the amount, of material above the point of reference and is therefore influenced by anomalies in rock density

  7. Cosmic Ray-Air Shower Measurement from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1997-01-01

    A feasibility study has been initiated to observe from space the highest energy cosmic rays above 1021 eV. A satellite observatory concept, the Maximum-energy Auger (Air)-Shower Satellite (MASS), is recently renamed as the Orbital Wide-angle Collector (OWL) by taking its unique feature of using a very wide field-of-view (FOV) optics. A huge array of imaging devices (about 10(exp 6) pixels) is required to detect and record fluorescent light profiles of cosmic ray cascades in the atmosphere. The FOV of MASS could extend to as large as about 60 in. diameter, which views (500 - 1000 km) of earth's surface and more than 300 - 1000 cosmic ray events per year could be observed above 1020 eV. From far above the atmosphere, the MASS/OWL satellite should be capable of observing events at all angles including near horizontal tracks, and would have considerable aperture for high energy photon and neutrino observation. With a large aperture and the spatial and temporal resolution, MASS could determine the energy spectrum, the mass composition, and arrival anisotropy of cosmic rays from 1020 eV to 1022 eV; a region hitherto not explored by ground-based detectors such as the Fly's Eye and air-shower arrays. MASS/OWL's ability to identify cosmic neutrinos and gamma rays may help providing evidence for the theory which attributes the above cut-off cosmic ray flux to the decay of topological defects. Very wide FOV optics system of MASS/OWL with a large array of imaging devices is applicable to observe other atmospheric phenomena including upper atmospheric lightning. The wide FOV MASS optics being developed can also improve ground-based gamma-ray observatories by allowing simultaneous observation of many gamma ray sources located at different constellations.

  8. UH cosmic rays and solar system material - The elements just beyond iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, J. P.; Schramm, D. N.; Blake, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis of cosmic-ray elements between the iron peak and the rare-earth region is examined, and compositional changes introduced by propagation in interstellar space are calculated. Theories on the origin of elements heavier than iron are reviewed, a supernova model of explosive nucleosynthesis is adopted for the ultraheavy (UH) cosmic rays, and computational results for different source distributions are compared with experimental data. It is shown that both the cosmic-ray data and the nucleosynthesis calculations are not yet of sufficient precision to pinpoint the processes occurring in cosmic-ray source regions, that the available data do provide boundary conditions for cosmic-ray nucleosynthesis, and that these limits may apply to the origin of elements in the solar system. Specifically, it is concluded that solar-system abundances appear to be consistent with a superposition of the massive-star core-helium-burning s-process plus explosive-carbon-burning synthesis for the elements from Cu to As and are explained adequately by the s- and r-processes for heavier elements.

  9. A possible mechanism for the capture of microparticles by the earth and other planets of the solar system. [planetary gravitation effects on cosmic dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibenedetto, F.

    1973-01-01

    By application of Lyttleton's theory for the formation of comets, it is shown that a possible mechanism for the origin and formation of a concentration of cosmic particles around the earth and the other planets of the solar system exists. In the vicinity of the neutral point, where the velocity of colliding particles is not greater than 6 km/s, it is found that if the solid particles after collision must remain in a solid state, there can be no possibility of accretion for Mercury, Mars, and the Moon, where the maximum value of the distance of the center of the planet to the asymptotic trajectory is less than the radius of the planet. On the other hand, the capture radii of microparticles in solid form varies from a minimum of 2.95 planetary radii for Venus and 3.47 for the Earth, to about 986 for Jupiter.

  10. Direct observations of galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Dietrich

    2012-08-01

    The mysterious " radiation ... entering our atmosphere from above" discovered by Hess in 1912 is now known to be dominated by relativistic charged particles, mostly with energies in the GeV-range, but extending to energies higher by many orders of magnitude. As none of these particles can penetrate the earth's atmosphere without interaction, detailed studies of their composition and energy spectra require observations with high-altitude balloons or spacecraft. This became possible only towards the middle of the 20th century. The direct measurements have now revealed much detail about the Galactic cosmic rays below 1015eV, but do not yet provide much overlap with the air-shower region of energies. A historic overview of the measurements is given, beginning with the realization that the majority of the cosmic rays are protons. The discovery and astrophysical significance of the heavier nuclei, and of the ultra-heavy nuclei beyond iron and up to the actinides, are then described, and measurements of the isotopic composition are discussed. Observations of the individual energy spectra are reviewed, and finally, the detection of electrons, positrons, and anti-protons in the cosmic rays, and the searches for exotic or unusual phenomena are summarized. Emphasis is given to the fact that all of these discoveries have become possible through the evolution of increasingly sophisticated detection techniques, a process that is continuing through the present time. The precise knowledge of the abundance distributions of the elements in the cosmic rays and of their isotopic composition permits a comparison with the "universal abundance scale" and provides strong constraints on the origin of the cosmic-ray material in the interstellar medium. "Clock-isotopes" reveal the time history of the particles. The shapes of the energy spectra of the individual cosmic-ray components are related to evolving ideas about particle acceleration and propagation in the Galaxy. In conclusion

  11. Detection of Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic Rays with the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Raphael; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays interact with the Earth's atmosphere and produce great numbers of secondary particles forming an extensive air shower. These air showers emit radiation in the radio frequency range which delivers important information about the processes of radio emission in extensive air showers and properties of the primary cosmic rays, e.g. arrival direction, energy and mass with a duty cycle close to 100%. The radio extension of the world's largest cosmic-ray experiment, the Pierre Auger Observatory, is called the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA). In addition to the particle and fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory, AERA investigates the electromagnetic component of extensive air showers using 153 autonomous radio stations on an area of 17km2 .

  12. [Observation on twins of cosmic radiation influence as a risk factor].

    PubMed

    Vişănescu, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    During flight, cosmic radiation is capable to penetrate the walls of airplanes and produce mutations in human chromosomes. To evaluate the correlations between cosmic radiation and the pathology of flying personnel. Two twin patients, one with 15 years work as a flight crew member, and the other with regular work on the ground. The patients were examined clinically, biochemically and with imaging methods. The genetic and environmental contribution to their pathology was noted. The patient, working in flight, received additional genetic tests to refute or to confirm the presence of chromosome alterations induced by the cosmic radiation. The patient, member of the flight crew, presented hypercholesterolemia, more evident structure modifications of the mammary gland, but chromosome alterations were not present. Having a first grade relative with dyslipidemia and uterine cancer, the structural or blood homeostasis modifications of the flight crew member can be either due to a high, genetically transmitted, susceptibility to the effects of the plane's microclimate and possibly to effects of lifestyle.

  13. Intensity of Upward Muon Flux Due to Cosmic-Ray Neutrinos Produced in the Atmosphere

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.; Robinson, H.; Schwartz, M.; Cool, R.

    1963-06-01

    Calculations were performed to determine the upward going muon flux leaving the earth's surface after production by cosmic-ray neutrinos in the crust. Only neutrinos produced in the earth's atmosphere are considered. Rates of the order of one per 100 sq m/day might be expected if an intermediate boson exists and has a mass less than 2 Bev. (auth)

  14. Milagro Contributions to XXVI International Cosmic Ray Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, C.M.; Haines, T.J.; Sinnis, G.

    1999-08-01

    Milagrito, a prototype for the Milagro detector, operated for 15 months in 1997--8 and collected 8.9 x 10{sup 9} events. It was the first extensive air shower (EAS) array sensitive to showers initiated by primaries with energy below 1 TeV. The shadows of the sun and moon observed with cosmic rays can be used to study systematic pointing shifts and measure the angular resolution of EAS arrays. Below a few TeV, the paths of cosmic rays coming toward the earth are bent by the helio- and geo-magnetic fields. This is expected to distort and displace the shadows of the sunmore » and the moon. The moon shadow, offset from the nominal (unreflected) position, has been observed with high statistical significance in Milagrito. This can be used to establish energy calibrations, as well as to search for the anti-matter content of the VHE cosmic ray flux. The shadow of the sun has also been observed with high significance.« less

  15. Scientific Set of Instruments "Solar Cosmic Rays"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, S. N.; Bogomolov, A. V.; Galkin, V. I.; Denisov, Yu. I.; Podorolsky, A. N.; Ryumin, S. P.; Kudela, K.; Rojko, J.

    A set of scientific instruments SCR (Solar Cosmic Rays) was developed by the scientists of SINP MSU and IEP SAS in order to study relations between the radiation conditions in the near-Earth space and solar activity. This set of instruments was installed on board the satellites CORONAS-I and CORONAS-F launched to the orbit on March 2, 1994, and July 30, 2001, respectively. Detailed description of the instruments is presented.

  16. Difference between even and odd 11-year cycles in cosmic ray intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otaola, J. A.; Perez-Enriquez, R.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Cosmic ray data for the period 1946-1984 are used to determine the run of the cosmic ray intensity over three complete solar cycles. The analysis shows a tendency towards a regular alternation of cosmic ray intensity cycles with double and single maxima. Whereas a saddle-like shape is characteristic of even cycles, odd cycles are characterized by a peak-like shape. The importance of this behavior is discussed in terms of different processes influencing cosmic ray transport in the heliosphere.

  17. Influence of the backreaction of streaming cosmic rays on magnetic field generation and thermal instability

    SciTech Connect

    Nekrasov, Anatoly K.; Shadmehri, Mohsen, E-mail: anekrasov@ifz.ru, E-mail: nekrasov.anatoly@gmail.com, E-mail: m.shadmehri@gu.ac.ir

    2014-06-10

    Using a multifluid approach, we investigate streaming and thermal instabilities of the electron-ion plasma with homogeneous cold cosmic rays propagating perpendicular to the background magnetic field. Perturbations are also considered to be across the magnetic field. The backreaction of cosmic rays resulting in strong streaming instabilities is taken into account. It is shown that, for sufficiently short wavelength perturbations, the growth rates can exceed the growth rate of cosmic-ray streaming instability along the magnetic field, found by Nekrasov and Shadmehri, which is in turn considerably larger than the growth rate of the Bell instability. The thermal instability is shown notmore » to be subject to the action of cosmic rays in the model under consideration. The dispersion relation for the thermal instability has been derived, which includes sound velocities of plasma and cosmic rays and Alfvén and cosmic-ray streaming velocities. The relation between these parameters determines the kind of thermal instability ranging from the Parker to the Field instabilities. The results obtained can be useful for a more detailed investigation of electron-ion astrophysical objects, such as supernova remnant shocks, galaxy clusters, and others, including the dynamics of streaming cosmic rays.« less

  18. Measurement of Separate Cosmic-Ray Electron and Positron Spectra with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K.; McEnery, J. E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Ackemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    We measured separate cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Because the instrument does not have an onboard magnet, we distinguish the two species by exploiting Earth's shadow, which, is offset in opposite directions for opposite charges due to Earth's magnetic field. We estimate and subtract the cosmic-ray proton background using two different methods that produce consistent results. We report the electron-only spectrum, the positron-only spectrum, and the positron fraction between 20 and 200 Ge V. We confirm that the fraction rises with energy in the 20-100 Ge V range. The three new spectral points between 100 and 200 GeV are consistent with a fraction that is continuing to rise with energy.

  19. Measurement of Separate Cosmic-Ray Electron and Positron Spectra with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We measured separate cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Because the instrument does not have an onboard magnet, we distinguish the two species by exploiting the Earth's shadow, which is offset in opposite directions for opposite charges due to the Earth's magnetic field. We estimate and subtract the cosmic-ray proton background using two different methods that produce consistent results. We report the electron-only spectrum, the positron-only spectrum, and the positron fraction between 20 GeV and 200 GeV, We confirm that the fraction rises with energy in the 20-100 GeV range and determine for the first time that it continues to rise between 100 and 200 GeV,

  20. Measurement of separate cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra with the fermi large area telescope.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hadasch, D; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Llena Garde, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sbarra, C; Schalk, T L; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S

    2012-01-06

    We measured separate cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Because the instrument does not have an onboard magnet, we distinguish the two species by exploiting Earth's shadow, which is offset in opposite directions for opposite charges due to Earth's magnetic field. We estimate and subtract the cosmic-ray proton background using two different methods that produce consistent results. We report the electron-only spectrum, the positron-only spectrum, and the positron fraction between 20 and 200 GeV. We confirm that the fraction rises with energy in the 20-100 GeV range. The three new spectral points between 100 and 200 GeV are consistent with a fraction that is continuing to rise with energy.

  1. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground Based Computation and Control Systems and Human Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as on human health and safety, as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in earth surface, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools (e.g. ground based test methods as well as high energy particle transport and reaction codes) needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex electronic systems as well as effects on human health and safety. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles, and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with spacecraft materials, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth's surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  2. High-Energy Cosmic Ray Self-Confinement Close to Extra-Galactic Sources.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Pasquale; Amato, Elena; D'Angelo, Marta

    2015-09-18

    The ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays observed on the Earth are most likely accelerated in extra-Galactic sources. For the typical luminosities invoked for such sources, the electric current associated to the flux of cosmic rays that leave them is large. The associated plasma instabilities create magnetic fluctuations that can efficiently scatter particles. We argue that this phenomenon forces cosmic rays to be self-confined in the source proximity for energies Ecosmic rays are confined close to their sources for energies E

  3. Inconstant sun: how solar evolution has affected cosmic and ultraviolet radiation exposure over the history of life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Karam, P Andrew

    2003-03-01

    Four billion years ago, sea-level UV exposure was more than 400 times as intense as today, the dose from solar cosmic rays was five times present levels, and galactic cosmic rays accounted for only about 10% their current contribution to sea-level radiation doses. Exposure to cosmic radiation accounts for about 10% of natural background radiation exposure today and includes dose from galactic cosmic rays and solar charged particles. There is little exposure to ionizing wavelengths of UV due to absorption by ozone. The sun has evolved significantly over its life; in the past there were higher levels of particulate radiation and lower UV emissions from the sun, and a stronger solar wind reduced radiation dose in the inner solar system from galactic cosmic rays. Finally, since the early atmosphere contained little to no oxygen, surface levels of UV radiation were far higher in the past.

  4. Influence of cosmic radiation and/or microgravity on development of Carausius morosus.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Bucker, H; Facius, R; Horneck, G; Graul, E H; Berger, H; Ruther, W; Heinrich, W; Beaujean, R; Enge, W; Alpatov, A M; Ushakov, I A; Zachvatkin YuA; Mesland, D A

    1989-01-01

    Eggs of Carausius morosus were exposed to spaceflight conditions in two spaceflight missions, the German 7 day Spacelab Mission D1 and the Soviet 12.56 day Biosatellite Mission "COSMOS 1887". During spaceflight the eggs continued their development. Eggs of five different ages representing different sensitivity to radiation and different capacity to regeneration were used to investigate the influence of cosmic radiation and/or microgravity on insect development. Using the Biostack concept--eggs in monolayers sandwiched between nuclear track detectors--and the 1 g reference centrifuge of BIORACK in D1 we were able to separate effects of heavy ions of the cosmic radiation from microgravity effects and also from combined effects of these two factors in space. After retrieval, hatching rates, embryonic and larval growth kinetics and anomaly frequencies were determined. Microgravity leads to a reduced hatching rate of eggs exposed in the early stages of development. Hatching was normal in eggs which were exposed on the 1 g reference centrifuge. Hits by heavy ions caused body anomalies. The combined action of heavy ions and microgravity resulted in an unexpectedly high frequency of anomalies. These results obtained from the Spacelab Mission D1, were confirmed in an experiment onboard of COSMOS 1887. In addition to the previous analysis, embryonic development before hatching was followed which showed no major difference between flight and the ground control specimens. Since a reconfirmation of reduced hatching rates was observed in COSMOS 1887, too, the above results suggest some microgravity induced functional impairment of the hatching activity, rather than blockage in embryonic development.

  5. Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation and solar energetic particles.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, D

    2007-01-01

    Several investigations of the radiation field at aircraft altitudes have been undertaken during solar cycle 23 which occurred in the period 1993-2003. The radiation field is produced by the passage of galactic cosmic rays and their nuclear reaction products as well as solar energetic particles through the Earth's atmosphere. Galactic cosmic rays reach a maximum intensity when the sun is least active and are at minimum intensity during solar maximum period. During solar maximum an increased number of coronal mass ejections and solar flares produce high energy solar particles which can also penetrate down to aircraft altitudes. It is found that the very complicated field resulting from these processes varies with altitude, latitude and stage of solar cycle. By employing several active and passive detectors, the whole range of radiation types and energies were encompassed. In-flight data was obtained with the co-operation of many airlines and NASA. The EURADOS Aircraft Crew in-flight data base was used for comparison with the predictions of various computer codes. A brief outline of some recent studies of exposure to radiation in Earth orbit will conclude this contribution.

  6. Alteration of Organic Compounds in Small Bodies and Cosmic Dusts by Cosmic Rays and Solar Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Kaneko, Takeo; Mita, Hajime; Obayashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Sarker, Palash K.; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Okabe, Takuto; Eto, Midori; Kanda, Kazuhiro

    2012-07-01

    A wide variety of complex organic compounds have been detected in extraterrestrial bodies like carbonaceous chondrites and comets, and their roles in the generation of terrestrial life are discussed. It was suggested that organics in small bodies were originally formed in ice mantles of interstellar dusts in dense cloud. Irradiation of frozen mixture of possible interstellar molecules including CO (or CH _{3}OH), NH _{3} and H _{2}O with high-energy particles gave complex amino acid precursors with high molecular weights [1]. Such complex organic molecules were taken in planetesimals or comets in the early solar system. In prior to the generation of the terrestrial life, extraterrestrial organics were delivered to the primitive Earth by such small bodies as meteorites, comets and space dusts. These organics would have been altered by cosmic rays and solar radiation (UV, X-rays) before the delivery to the Earth. We examined possible alteration of amino acids, their precursors and nucleic acid bases in interplanetary space by irradiation with high energy photons and heavy ions. A mixture of CO, NH _{3} and H _{2}O was irradiated with high-energy protons from a van de Graaff accelerator (TIT, Japan). The resulting products (hereafter referred to as CAW) are complex precursors of amino acids. CAW, amino acids (dl-Isovaline, glycine), hydantoins (amino acid precursors) and nucleic acid bases were irradiated with continuous emission (soft X-rays to IR; hereafter referred to as soft X-rays irradiation) from BL-6 of NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility (Univ. Hyogo). They were also irradiated with heavy ions (eg., 290 MeV/u C ^{6+}) from HIMAC accelerator (NIRS, Japan). After soft X-rays irradiation, water insoluble materials were formed. After irradiation with soft X-rays or heavy ions, amino acid precursors (CAW and hydantoins) gave higher ratio of amino acids were recovered after hydrolysis than free amino acids. Nucleic acid bases showed higher stability than free

  7. Measurement of Cosmic-Ray TeV Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubnell, Michael; Anderson, T.; Bower, C.; Coutu, S.; Gennaro, J.; Geske, M.; Mueller, D.; Musser, J.; Nutter, S.; Park, N.; Tarle, G.; Wakely, S.

    2011-09-01

    The Cosmic Ray Electron Synchrotron Telescope (CREST) high-altitude balloon experiment is a pathfinding effort to detect for the first time multi-TeV cosmic-ray electrons. At these energies distant sources will not contribute to the local electron spectrum due to the strong energy losses of the electrons and thus TeV observations will reflect the distribution and abundance of nearby acceleration sites. CREST will detect electrons indirectly by measuring the characteristic synchrotron photons generated in the Earth's magnetic field. The instrument consist of an array of 1024 BaF2 crystals viewed by photomultiplier tubes surrounded by a hermetic scintillator shield. Since the primary electron itself need not traverse the payload, an effective detection area is achieved that is several times the nominal 6.4 m2 instrument. CREST is scheduled to fly in a long duration circumpolar orbit over Antarctica during the 2011-12 season.

  8. DNA sequencing and predictions of the cosmic theory of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2013-01-01

    The theory of cometary panspermia, developed by the late Sir Fred Hoyle and the present author argues that life originated cosmically as a unique event in one of a great multitude of comets or planetary bodies in the Universe. Life on Earth did not originate here but was introduced by impacting comets, and its further evolution was driven by the subsequent acquisition of cosmically derived genes. Explicit predictions of this theory published in 1979-1981, stating how the acquisition of new genes drives evolution, are compared with recent developments in relation to horizontal gene transfer, and the role of retroviruses in evolution. Precisely-stated predictions of the theory of cometary panspermia are shown to have been verified.

  9. DNA Sequencing and Predictions of the Cosmic Theory of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    The theory of cometary panspermia, developed by the late Sir Fred Hoyle and the present author argues that life originated cosmically as a unique event in one of a great multitude of comets or planetary bodies in the Universe. Life on Earth did not originate here but was introduced by impacting comets, and its further evolution was driven by the subsequent acquisition of cosmically derived genes. Explicit predictions of this theory published in 1979-1981, stating how the acquisition of new genes drives evolution, are compared with recent developments in relation to horizontal gene transfer, and the role of retroviruses in evolution. Precisely-stated predictions of the theory of cometary panspermia are shown to have been verified.

  10. Detection prospects for the Cosmic Neutrino Background using laser interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domcke, Valerie; Spinrath, Martin

    2017-06-01

    The cosmic neutrino background is a key prediction of Big Bang cosmology which has not been observed yet. The movement of the earth through this neutrino bath creates a force on a pendulum, as if it were exposed to a cosmic wind. We revise here estimates for the resulting pendulum acceleration and compare it to the theoretical sensitivity of an experimental setup where the pendulum position is measured using current laser interferometer technology as employed in gravitational wave detectors. We discuss how a significant improvement of this setup can be envisaged in a micro gravity environment. The proposed setup could also function as a dark matter detector in the sub-MeV range, which currently eludes direct detection constraints.

  11. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, and Human Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with the atmosphere, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth s surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Finally, accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as human health and the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combinations with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport

  12. Definition of parameters of daily anisotropy of cosmic rays according to the world network of neutron monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, V. G.; Starodubtsev, S. A.; Potapova, V. D.

    2013-02-01

    In our previous works we have created the method of determination of parameters of cosmic ray daily anisotropy in the interplanetary environment based on the data provided by only single station - cosmic ray spectrograph named after A.I.Kuzmin. This method allows to predict the ingress of the Earth into large-scale solar wind disturbances with a probability of more than 70% and in advance time of about from several hours up to 2 days. Now it became possible to use the data of the neutron monitor networks, which can be seen in the neutron monitor database (NMDB) in real time. In this case the well-known method of global survey is applied for determination of cosmic ray anisotropy. Usage of the data of the cosmic ray station network allows to determine parameters of daily cosmic ray anisotropy with a greater accuracy.

  13. Relationship between the Neoproterozoic snowball Earth and Cambrian explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, S.; Yoshihara, A.; Isozaki, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Origin of snowball Earth has been debated in terms of greenhouse gas (e.g., Hoffman and Schrag), obliqueness of Earth's rotation axis (Williams, 1975), true polar wander (Evans, 2003), Galactic cosmic ray radiation (Shaviv and Veizer, 2003; Svensmark, 2006), or weakened geomagnetism (Maruyama and Yoshihara, 2003). A major difficulty for the greenhouse gas hypothesis is the on-off switch causing decrease and increase of appropriate amounts of CO2 by plume- and plate tectonics, and also in available amount of CO2 in atmosphere to be consistent with the observations. In contrast, the cosmic ray radiation models due to the star burst peaked at 2.5- 2.1 Ga and 1.4-0.8 Ga can explain on-off switch more easily than the greenhouse gas model. Cosmic ray radiations, however, must be modified by the geomagnetic intensity, fluctuating 150"% to < 10"% of the present-day level through geologic time. Our compilation suggests the idea of extensive glaciation appeared when the intensity decreased below 50% of the present-day value, as typically seen in the Neoproterozoic time. This proposes the idea of extensive cloudiness by increased cosmic rays in the Neoproterozoic to cause the snowball Earth. Time difference between the Neoproterozoic snowball Earth and Cambrian explosion is as large as 250 millions years, and this refuses their direct close-relationship. Role of frequent mass extinctions, i.e., 8 times during 100 m.y. from 585 Ma to 488 Ma, during the Ediacaran and Cambrian, has been proposed (Zhu et al., 2007). This frequency is one order of magnitude higher compared to that in the post-Ordovician time. Yet, the Cambrian explosion cannot be explained by mass extinction which replaced the vacant niches shortly after the mass extinction and never created a new animal with a new body plan. A new model proposed herein is derived from weakened geomagnetism and resultant extensive cosmic radiation to alter gene and genome for a long period over advancement of low magnetic

  14. Observation of the 60Fe Nucleosynthesis-Clock Isotope in Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Lave, K. A.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    2016-01-01

    Iron-60 (60Fe) is a radioactive isotope in cosmic rays that serves as a clock to infer an upper limit on the time between nucleosynthesis and acceleration. We have used the ACE-CRIS instrument to collect 3.55 105 iron nuclei, with energies 195 to 500 megaelectron volts per nucleon, of which we identify 15 60Fe nuclei. The 60Fe56Fe source ratio is (7.5 2.9) 105. The detection of supernova-produced 60Fe in cosmic rays implies that the time required for acceleration and transport to Earth does not greatly exceed the 60Fe half-life of 2.6 million years and that the 60Fe source distance does not greatly exceed the distance cosmic rays can diffuse over this time, 1 kiloparsec. A natural place for 60Fe origin is in nearby clusters of massive stars.

  15. Search for Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Origins and for Cosmological Antimatter with BESS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Yoshimura, K.; Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The balloon-borne experiment with a superconducting spectrometer (BESS) has performed cosmic-ray observations as a US-Japan cooperative space science program, and has provided fundamental data on cosmic rays to study elementary particle phenomena in the early Universe. The BESS experiment has measured the energy spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons to investigate signatures of possible exotic origins such as dark matter candidates or primordial black holes. and searched for heavier antinuclei that might reach Earth from antimatter domains formed in the early Universe. The apex of the BESS program was reached with the Antarctic flight of BESS-Polar II, during the 2007- 2008 Austral Summer, that obtained over 4.7 billion cosmic-ray events from 24.5 days of observation. The flight took place at the expected solar minimum, when the sensitivity of the low-energy antiproton measurements to a primary source is greatest. Here, we report the scientific restults, focusing on the long-duration flights of BESS-Polar I (2004) and BESS-Polar II (2007-2008).

  16. Detection of low tension cosmic superstrings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernoff, David F.; Tye, S.-H. Henry

    2018-05-01

    Cosmic superstrings of string theory differ from conventional cosmic strings of field theory. We review how the physical and cosmological properties of the macroscopic string loops influence experimental searches for these relics from the epoch of inflation. The universe's average density of cosmic superstrings can easily exceed that of conventional cosmic strings having the same tension by two or more orders of magnitude. The cosmological behavior of the remnant superstring loops is qualitatively distinct because the string tension is exponentially smaller than the string scale in flux compactifications in string theory. Low tension superstring loops live longer, experience less recoil (rocket effect from the emission of gravitational radiation) and tend to cluster like dark matter in galaxies. Clustering enhances the string loop density with respect to the cosmological average in collapsed structures in the universe. The enhancement at the Sun's position is ~ 105. We develop a model encapsulating the leading order string theory effects, the current understanding of the string network loop production and the influence of cosmological structure formation suitable for forecasting the detection of superstring loops via optical microlensing, gravitational wave bursts and fast radio bursts. We evaluate the detection rate of bursts from cusps and kinks by LIGO- and LISA-like experiments. Clustering dominates rates for G μ < 10‑11.9 (LIGO cusp), G μ<10‑11.2 (LISA cusp), G μ < 10‑10.6 (LISA kink); we forecast experimentally accessible gravitational wave bursts for G μ>10‑14.2 (LIGO cusp), G μ>10‑15 (LISA cusp) and G μ>10‑ 14.1 (LISA kink).

  17. Visible and Ultraviolet Detectors for High Earth Orbit and Lunar Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.

    1989-01-01

    The current status of detectors for the visible and UV for future large observatories in earth orbit and the moon is briefly reviewed. For the visible, CCDs have the highest quantum efficiency, but are subject to contamination of the data by cosmic ray hits. For the moon, the level of hits can be brought down to that at the earth's surface by shielding below about 20 meters of rock. For high earth orbits above the geomagnetic shield, CCDs might be able to be used by combining many short exposures and vetoing the cosmic ray hits, otherwise photoemissive detectors will be necessary. For the UV, photoemissive detectors will be necessary to reject the visible; to use CCDs would require the development of UV-efficient filters which reject the visible by many orders of magnitude. Development of higher count rate capability would be desirable for photoemissive detectors.

  18. IR lasers in a struggle against dangerous cosmic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Boris A.

    2001-03-01

    Humanity can struggle with the small dangerous cosmic objects in our time and its parameter knowledge are needed. A present paper deals with prospects for the perspective of the laser methods applications for a dangerous asteroids discovering and a remote sensing and for the course correction systems of the influence expedients. The cosmic IR lasers will be used for remote sensing measurement of the various cosmic objects parameters: dimensions are more than 50 m, velocity is more than 10 km/s. The laser methods have the good perspectives among a large fleet of diagnostics technical means. The more effective CO2-laser parameters were defined for the solar systems smaller bodies velocity analysis. The laser is supplied with modulated laser radiation and an automatic tuning optical system. The CO2-lidars are needed for the asteroids detections and remote sensing at the distances of 30,000 km to 1 Mkm. A laser Doppler anemometer method with adaptive selection is used. The power calculations were made for the various asteroids in a cosmic space. The possibilities are estimated for remote sensing and for the course correction systems of the influence expedients also. The such system must be good for the distances nearby 12600 km, as the asteroids velocity can be more than 70 km/s.

  19. Stars and Cosmic Rays Observed from Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-12

    In this five-minute exposure taken from the surface of Mars by NASA Spirit rover, stars appear as streaks due to the rotation of the planet, and instantaneous cosmic-ray hits appear as points of light. Spirit took the image with its panoramic camera on March 11, 2004, after waking up during the martian night for a communication session with NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter. Other exposures were also taken. The images tested the capabilities of the rover for night-sky observations. Scientists will use the results to aid planning for possible future astronomical observations from Mars. The difference in Mars' rotation, compared to Earth's, gives the star trails in this image a different orientation than they would have in a comparable exposure taken from Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05551

  20. Deriving the solar activity cycle modulation on cosmic ray intensity observed by Nagoya muon detector from October 1970 until December 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mendonça, Rafael R. S.; Braga, Carlos. R.; Echer, Ezequiel; Dal Lago, Alisson; Rockenbach, Marlos; Schuch, Nelson J.; Munakata, Kazuoki

    2017-10-01

    It is well known that the cosmic ray intensity observed at the Earth's surface presents an 11 and 22-yr variations associated with the solar activity cycle. However, the observation and analysis of this modulation through ground muon detectors datahave been difficult due to the temperature effect. Furthermore, instrumental changes or temporary problems may difficult the analysis of these variations. In this work, we analyze the cosmic ray intensity observed since October 1970 until December 2012 by the Nagoya muon detector. We show the results obtained after analyzing all discontinuities and gaps present in this data and removing changes not related to natural phenomena. We also show the results found using the mass weighted method for eliminate the influence of atmospheric temperature changes on muon intensity observed at ground. As a preliminary result of our analyses, we show the solar cycle modulation in the muon intensity observed for more than 40 years.

  1. Detection prospects for the Cosmic Neutrino Background using laser interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Domcke, Valerie; Spinrath, Martin, E-mail: valerie.domcke@apc.univ-paris7.fr, E-mail: martin.spinrath@cts.nthu.edu.tw

    The cosmic neutrino background is a key prediction of Big Bang cosmology which has not been observed yet. The movement of the earth through this neutrino bath creates a force on a pendulum, as if it were exposed to a cosmic wind. We revise here estimates for the resulting pendulum acceleration and compare it to the theoretical sensitivity of an experimental setup where the pendulum position is measured using current laser interferometer technology as employed in gravitational wave detectors. We discuss how a significant improvement of this setup can be envisaged in a micro gravity environment. The proposed setup couldmore » also function as a dark matter detector in the sub-MeV range, which currently eludes direct detection constraints.« less

  2. Cosmic ray signatures of a 2-3 Myr old local supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachelrieß, M.; Neronov, A.; Semikoz, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    The supernova explosion which deposited Fe 60 isotopes on Earth 2-3 million years ago should have also produced cosmic rays which contribute to the locally observed cosmic ray flux. We show that the contribution of this "local source" causes the "anomalies" observed in the positron and antiproton fluxes and explains why their spectral shapes agree with that of the proton flux. At the same time, this local source component accounts for the difference in the slopes of the spectra of cosmic ray nuclei as the result of the slightly varying relative importance of the "local" and the average component for distinct CR nuclei. Such a "local supernova" model for the spectra of nuclei can be tested via a combined measurement of the energy dependence of the boron-to-carbon (primary-to-secondary cosmic rays) ratio and of the antiproton spectrum: while the antiproton spectrum is predicted to extend approximately as a power law into the TeV range without any softening break, the B/C ratio is expected to show a "plateau" at a level fixed by the observed positron excess in the 30-300 GeV range. We discuss the observability of such a plateau with dedicated experiments for the measurement of the cosmic ray composition in the 10 TeV energy range (NUCLEON, ISS-CREAM).

  3. Investigation of the basic characteristics of electrostatic shielding from cosmic radiations on the artificial earth satellite Kosmos 605. I. Measurement procedure and the complex of scientific apparatus. [1. 4 x 10/sup 7/ V/m

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, E.E.; Molchanov, E.D.; Pekhterev, Yu.G.

    1975-01-01

    The complex of scientific apparatus installed on board the artifical earth satellite Kosmos 605 for the creation of electric fields near the satellite with intensities up to 1.4 x 10/sup 7/ V/m and for direct measurements of conduction currents of a high voltage vacuum interval for the purpose of determining the basic characteristics of electrostatic shielding from cosmic radiations is described.

  4. Cosmic Journeys: To the Edge of Gravity, Space, and Time ...

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    We are embarking upon a cosmic journey. From the safety of our home planet Earth, scientists plan to explore the very limits of the known Universe. Our travels will take us to where space and time cease to exist as we know them, and to where the secrets of the past and future lie captured in the starlight of the present across an expanse of billions of light-years. Cosmic Journeys, a new series of NASA space science missions, will take us to the limits of gravity, space, and time. This virtual journey will use the power of resolution far greater than what current telescopes can muster to transport us to the rim of a black hole, to eagle-eye views of the galaxies and voids that pervade the Universe, and to the earliest moments of time, just fractions of a second after the Big Bang. The goal of our Cosmic Journeys is to solve the mystery of gravity, a force that is all around us but cannot be seen.

  5. Cosmic gamma-rays and cosmic nuclei above 1 TeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    Work on cosmic gamma rays and cosmic nuclei above I TeV is described and evaluated. The prospect that gamma ray astronomy above I TeV will give new insights into high energy cosmic ray origin within our galaxy is particularly bright.

  6. Astronomy: A small star with an Earth-like planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Drake

    2015-11-01

    A rocky planet close in size to Earth has been discovered in the cosmic vicinity of our Sun. The small size and proximity of the associated star bode well for studies of the planet's atmosphere. See Letter p.204

  7. PREFACE: 23rd European Cosmic Ray Symposium (and 32nd Russian Cosmic Ray Conference)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlykin, A. D.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Lidvansky, A. S.; Meroshnichenko, L. I.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Panov, A. D.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2013-02-01

    The 23rd European Cosmic Ray Symposium (ECRS) took place in Moscow at the Lomonosov Moscow State University (3-7 July 2012), and was excellently organized by the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, with the help of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Council on the Complex Problem of Cosmic Rays of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The first symposia were held in 1968 in Lodz, Poland (high energy, extensive air showers and astrophysical aspects) and in Bern (solar and heliospheric phenomena) and the two 'strands' joined together in 1976 with the meeting in Leeds. Since then the symposia, which have been very successful, have covered all the major topics with some emphasis on European collaborations and on meeting the demands of young scientists. Initially, a driving force was the need to overcome the divisions caused by the 'Cold War' but the symposia continued even when that threat ceased and they have shown no sign of having outlived their usefulness. 2012 has been an important year in the history of cosmic ray studies, in that it marked the centenary of the discovery of enigmatic particles in the perilous balloon ascents of Victor Hess. A number of conferences have taken place in Western Europe during the year, but this one took place in Moscow as a tribute to the successful efforts of many former USSR and other Eastern European scientists in discovering the secrets of the subject, often under very difficult conditions. The symposium covers a wide range of scientific issues divided into the following topics: PCR-IPrimary cosmic rays I (E < 1015 eV) PCR-IIPrimary cosmic rays II (E > 1015 eV) MNCosmic ray muons and neutrinos GAGeV and TeV gamma astronomy SHEnergetic particles in the heliosphere (solar and anomalous CRs and GCR modulation) GEOCosmic rays and geophysics (energetic particles in the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth) On a personal note, as I step down as co-founder and chairman of the

  8. Cosmic archaeology with gravitational waves from cosmic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yanou; Lewicki, Marek; Morrissey, David E.; Wells, James D.

    2018-06-01

    Cosmic strings are generic cosmological predictions of many extensions of the standard model of particle physics, such as a U (1 )' symmetry-breaking phase transition in the early Universe or remnants of superstring theory. Unlike other topological defects, cosmic strings can reach a scaling regime that maintains a small fixed fraction of the total energy density of the Universe from a very early epoch until today. If present, they will oscillate and generate gravitational waves with a frequency spectrum that imprints the dominant sources of total cosmic energy density throughout the history of the Universe. We demonstrate that current and future gravitational wave detectors, such as LIGO and LISA, could be capable of measuring the frequency spectrum of gravitational waves from cosmic strings and discerning the energy composition of the Universe at times well before primordial nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background where standard cosmology has yet to be tested. This work establishes a benchmark case that gravitational waves may provide an unprecedented, powerful tool for probing the evolutionary history of the very early Universe.

  9. Cosmic mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Barger, Vernon; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2018-03-01

    We argue that if ultrahigh-energy (E ≳1010GeV) cosmic rays are heavy nuclei (as indicated by existing data), then the pointing of cosmic rays to their nearest extragalactic sources is expected for 1010.6 ≲ E /GeV ≲1011. This is because for a nucleus of charge Ze and baryon number A, the bending of the cosmic ray decreases as Z / E with rising energy, so that pointing to nearby sources becomes possible in this particular energy range. In addition, the maximum energy of acceleration capability of the sources grows linearly in Z, while the energy loss per distance traveled decreases with increasing A. Each of these two points tend to favor heavy nuclei at the highest energies. The traditional bi-dimensional analyses, which simultaneously reproduce Auger data on the spectrum and nuclear composition, may not be capable of incorporating the relative importance of all these phenomena. In this paper we propose a multi-dimensional reconstruction of the individual emission spectra (in E, direction, and cross-correlation with nearby putative sources) to study the hypothesis that primaries are heavy nuclei subject to GZK photo-disintegration, and to determine the nature of the extragalactic sources. More specifically, we propose to combine information on nuclear composition and arrival direction to associate a potential clustering of events with a 3-dimensional position in the sky. Actually, both the source distance and maximum emission energy can be obtained through a multi-parameter likelihood analysis to accommodate the observed nuclear composition of each individual event in the cluster. We show that one can track the level of GZK interactions on an statistical basis by comparing the maximum energy at the source of each cluster. We also show that nucleus-emitting-sources exhibit a cepa stratis structure on Earth which could be pealed off by future space-missions, such as POEMMA. Finally, we demonstrate that metal-rich starburst galaxies are highly-plausible candidate

  10. Cosmic Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov Websites

    [Argonne Logo] [DOE Logo] Cosmic Gamma-Rays Home Publications Talks People Students Argonne > ; HEP > Cosmic Gamma-Rays Projects VERITAS Past Projects TrICE What's New CTA Cosmic Gamma-Rays The

  11. From cosmic ray physics to cosmic ray astronomy: Bruno Rossi and the opening of new windows on the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonolis, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Bruno Rossi is considered one of the fathers of modern physics, being also a pioneer in virtually every aspect of what is today called high-energy astrophysics. At the beginning of 1930s he was the pioneer of cosmic ray research in Italy, and, as one of the leading actors in the study of the nature and behavior of the cosmic radiation, he witnessed the birth of particle physics and was one of the main investigators in this fields for many years. While cosmic ray physics moved more and more towards astrophysics, Rossi continued to be one of the inspirers of this line of research. When outer space became a reality, he did not hesitate to leap into this new scientific dimension. Rossi's intuition on the importance of exploiting new technological windows to look at the universe with new eyes, is a fundamental key to understand the profound unity which guided his scientific research path up to its culminating moments at the beginning of 1960s, when his group at MIT performed the first in situ measurements of the density, speed and direction of the solar wind at the boundary of Earth's magnetosphere, and when he promoted the search for extra-solar sources of X rays. A visionary idea which eventually led to the breakthrough experiment which discovered Scorpius X-1 in 1962, and inaugurated X-ray astronomy.

  12. Response of atmospheric biomarkers to NO(x)-induced photochemistry generated by stellar cosmic rays for earth-like planets in the habitable zone of M dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Grenfell, John Lee; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; von Paris, Philip; Patzer, A Beate C; Lammer, Helmut; Stracke, Barbara; Gebauer, Stefanie; Schreier, Franz; Rauer, Heike

    2012-12-01

    Understanding whether M dwarf stars may host habitable planets with Earth-like atmospheres and biospheres is a major goal in exoplanet research. If such planets exist, the question remains as to whether they could be identified via spectral signatures of biomarkers. Such planets may be exposed to extreme intensities of cosmic rays that could perturb their atmospheric photochemistry. Here, we consider stellar activity of M dwarfs ranging from quiet up to strong flaring conditions and investigate one particular effect upon biomarkers, namely, the ability of secondary electrons caused by stellar cosmic rays to break up atmospheric molecular nitrogen (N(2)), which leads to production of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) in the planetary atmosphere, hence affecting biomarkers such as ozone (O(3)). We apply a stationary model, that is, without a time dependence; hence we are calculating the limiting case where the atmospheric chemistry response time of the biomarkers is assumed to be slow and remains constant compared with rapid forcing by the impinging stellar flares. This point should be further explored in future work with time-dependent models. We estimate the NO(x) production using an air shower approach and evaluate the implications using a climate-chemical model of the planetary atmosphere. O(3) formation proceeds via the reaction O+O(2)+M→O(3)+M. At high NO(x) abundances, the O atoms arise mainly from NO(2) photolysis, whereas on Earth this occurs via the photolysis of molecular oxygen (O(2)). For the flaring case, O(3) is mainly destroyed via direct titration, NO+O(3)→NO(2)+O(2), and not via the familiar catalytic cycle photochemistry, which occurs on Earth. For scenarios with low O(3), Rayleigh scattering by the main atmospheric gases (O(2), N(2), and CO(2)) became more important for shielding the planetary surface from UV radiation. A major result of this work is that the biomarker O(3) survived all the stellar-activity scenarios considered except for the strong

  13. Unusual Cosmic Ray Variations During the Forbush Decreases of June 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, E.; Smponias, A.; Lytrosyngounis, I.; Lingri, D.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Sgouropoulos, C.

    2018-04-01

    Although the current Solar Cycle 24 is characterized by low solar activity, an intense geomagnetic storm (G4) was recorded in June 2015. It was a complex phenomenon that began on 22 June 2015 as the result of intense solar activity, accompanied by several flares and coronal mass ejections that interacted with the Earth's magnetic field. A Forbush decrease was also recorded at the neutron monitors of the worldwide network, with an amplitude of 8.4%, and in its recovery phase, a second Forbush decrease followed, with an amplitude of 4.0% for cosmic rays of 10 GV obtained with the global survey method. The Dst index reached a minimum value of -204 nT that was detected on 23 June 2015 at 05:00 - 06:00 UT, while the Kp index reached the value eight. For our analysis, we used hourly cosmic-ray intensity data recorded by polar, mid-, and high-latitude neutron monitor stations obtained from the High Resolution Neutron Monitor Database. The cosmic-ray anisotropy variation at the ecliptic plane was also estimated and was found to be highly complex. We study and discuss the unusual and complex cosmic-ray and geomagnetic response to these solar events.

  14. Quantifying cosmic variance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, Simon P.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.

    2010-10-01

    We determine an expression for the cosmic variance of any `normal' galaxy survey based on examination of M* +/- 1 mag galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) data cube. We find that cosmic variance will depend on a number of factors principally: total survey volume, survey aspect ratio and whether the area surveyed is contiguous or comprising independent sightlines. As a rule of thumb cosmic variance falls below 10 per cent once a volume of 107h-30.7Mpc3 is surveyed for a single contiguous region with a 1:1 aspect ratio. Cosmic variance will be lower for higher aspect ratios and/or non-contiguous surveys. Extrapolating outside our test region we infer that cosmic variance in the entire SDSS DR7 main survey region is ~7 per cent to z < 0.1. The equation obtained from the SDSS DR7 region can be generalized to estimate the cosmic variance for any density measurement determined from normal galaxies (e.g. luminosity densities, stellar mass densities and cosmic star formation rates) within the volume range 103-107h-30.7Mpc3. We apply our equation to show that two sightlines are required to ensure that cosmic variance is <10 per cent in any ASKAP galaxy survey (divided into Δ z ~ 0.1 intervals, i.e. ~1Gyr intervals for z < 0.5). Likewise 10 MeerKAT sightlines will be required to meet the same conditions. GAMA, VVDS and zCOSMOS all suffer less than 10 per cent cosmic variance (~3-8 per cent) in Δ z intervals of 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5, respectively. Finally we show that cosmic variance is potentially at the 50-70 per cent level, or greater, in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Ultra Deep Field depending on assumptions as to the evolution of clustering. 100 or 10 independent sightlines will be required to reduce cosmic variance to a manageable level (<10 per cent) for HST ACS or HST WFC3 surveys, respectively (in Δ z ~ 1 intervals). Cosmic variance is therefore a significant factor in the z > 6 HST studies currently underway.

  15. Solar cosmic ray hazard to interplanetary and earth-orbital space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yucker, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    A statistical treatment of the radiation hazards to astronauts due to solar cosmic ray protons is reported to determine shielding requirements for solar proton events. More recent data are incorporated into the present analysis in order to improve the accuracy of the predicted mission fluence and dose. The effects of the finite data sample are discussed. Mission fluence and dose versus shield thickness data are presented for mission lengths up to 3 years during periods of maximum and minimum solar activity; these correspond to various levels of confidence that the predicted hazard will not be exceeded.

  16. Los Alamos, Toshiba probing Fukushima with cosmic rays

    ScienceCinema

    Morris, Christopher

    2018-01-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has announced an impending partnership with Toshiba Corporation to use a Los Alamos technique called muon tomography to safely peer inside the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi reactors and create high-resolution images of the damaged nuclear material inside without ever breaching the cores themselves. The initiative could reduce the time required to clean up the disabled complex by at least a decade and greatly reduce radiation exposure to personnel working at the plant. Muon radiography (also called cosmic-ray radiography) uses secondary particles generated when cosmic rays collide with upper regions of Earth's atmosphere to create images of the objects that the particles, called muons, penetrate. The process is analogous to an X-ray image, except muons are produced naturally and do not damage the materials they contact. Muon radiography has been used before in imaginative applications such as mapping the interior of the Great Pyramid at Giza, but Los Alamos's muon tomography technique represents a vast improvement over earlier technology.

  17. IMF Prediction with Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, J. W.; Evenson, P. A.; Kuwabara, T.; Pei, C.

    2013-12-01

    Cosmic rays impacting Earth have passed through and interacted with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) surrounding Earth, and in some sense they carry information on the three-dimensional structure of that field. This work uses neutron monitor data in an effort to extract that information and use it to predict the future behavior of the IMF, especially the north-south component (Bz) which is so crucial in determining geomagnetic activity. We consider 161 events from a published list of interplanetary coronal mass ejections and compare hourly averages of the predicted field with the actual field measured later. We find that the percentage of events with 'good' predictions of Bz (in the sense of having a positive correlation between the prediction and the subsequent measurement) varies from about 85% for predictions 1 hour into the future to about 60% for predictions 4 hours into the future. We present several ideas for how the method might be improved in future implementations. Supported by NASA grant NNX08AQ01G and NSF grant ANT-0739620.

  18. Contribution from individual nearby sources to the spectrum of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrati, R.; Attallah, R.

    2014-04-01

    In the last few years, very important data on high-energy cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from high-precision space-born and ground-based experiments have attracted a great deal of interest. These particles represent a unique probe for studying local comic-ray accelerators because they lose energy very rapidly. These energy losses reduce the lifetime so drastically that high-energy cosmic-ray electrons can attain the Earth only from rather local astrophysical sources. This work aims at calculating, by means of Monte Carlo simulation, the contribution from some known nearby astrophysical sources to the cosmic-ray electron/positron spectra at high energy (≥ 10 GeV). The background to the electron energy spectrum from distant sources is determined with the help of the GALPROP code. The obtained numerical results are compared with a set of experimental data.

  19. Cosmic void clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lares, M.; Luparello, H. E.; Garcia Lambas, D.; Ruiz, A. N.; Ceccarelli, L.; Paz, D.

    2017-10-01

    Cosmic voids are of great interest given their relation to the large scale distribution of mass and the way they trace cosmic flows shaping the cosmic web. Here we show that the distribution of voids has, in consonance with the distribution of mass, a characteristic scale at which void pairs are preferentially located. We identify clumps of voids with similar environments and use them to define second order underdensities. Also, we characterize its properties and analyze its impact on the cosmic microwave background.

  20. Water, air, Earth and cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2015-06-01

    In the context of the origin of life, rocks are considered mainly for catalysis and adsorption-desorption processes. Here it is shown how some rocks evolve in energy and might induce synthesis of molecules of biological interest. Radioactive rocks are a source of thermal energy and water radiolysis producing molecular hydrogen, H2. Mafic and ultramafic rocks evolve in water and dissolved carbon dioxide releasing thermal energy and H2. Peridotites and basalts contain ferromagnesian minerals which transform through exothermic reactions with the generation of heat. These reactions might be triggered by any heating process such as radioactive decay, hydrothermal and subduction zones or post-shock of meteorite impacts. H2 might then be generated from endothermic hydrolyses of the ferromagnesian minerals olivine and pyroxene. In both cases of mafic and radioactive rocks, production of CO might occur through high temperature hydrogenation of CO2. CO, instead of CO2, was proven to be necessary in experiments synthesizing biological-type macromolecules with a gaseous mixture of CO, N2 and H2O. In the geological context, N2 is present in the environment, and the activation source might arise from cosmic radiation and/or radionuclides. Ferromagnesian and radioactive rocks might consequently be a starting point of an hydrothermal chemical evolution towards the abiotic formation of biological molecules. The two usually separate worlds of rocks and life are shown to be connected through molecular and thermodynamic chemical evolution. This concept has been proposed earlier by the author (Bassez J Phys: Condens Matter 15:L353-L361, 2003, 2008a, 2008b; Bassez Orig Life Evol Biosph 39(3-4):223-225, 2009; Bassez et al. 2011; Bassez et al. Orig Life Evol Biosph 42(4):307-316, 2012, Bassez 2013) without thermodynamic details. This concept leads to signatures of prebiotic chemistry such as radionuclides and also iron and magnesium carbonates associated with serpentine and/or talc

  1. Voyager measurements of the isotopic composition of cosmic-ray aluminum and implications for the propagation of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukasiak, A.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Webber, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    We report a new measurement of the cosmic-ray isotopic composition of aluminum in the low-energy range form 75 to 206 MeV per nucleon.This measurement was made using the high-energy telescope of the CRS experiment on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft during the time period from 1977 to 1993 with an average solar modulation level about 497 MV, roughly the same as at Earth near sunspot minimum. We obtain approximately 430 Al events of which approximately 35 are Al-26 and 395 are Al-27. The Al isotopes were separated with an average mass resolution sigma of 0.35 amu. Our interpretation of the isotopic composition of cosmic-ray aluminum is based on a standard Leaky-Box model for the interstellar propagation of cosmic-ray nuclei using the latest cross sections of the New Mexico-Saclay collaboration as well as a disk-halo diffusion model. From our observed ratio Al-26/Al-27 of 8.3 +/- 2.4 % we deduce an average interstellar density of about 0.52 (+0.26, -0.2) atoms per cu cm. This density is larger than the value of 0.28 (+0.14, -0.11) atoms per cu cm we found from an analysis of the observed abundance of the longer lived Be-10 made using data from the Voyager detectors over almost the same time interval and using essentially the same propagation program.

  2. Solar induced long- and short-term variations of the cosmic ray intensity in the past, and predictions and opportunities for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, K. G.; McDonald, F. B.; Beer, J.

    2009-12-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide data from the past 10,000 years, and the instrumental cosmic ray data since 1936 provide detailed information on the possible consequences of the present long and deep solar minimum. Furthermore, the cosmic ray transport equation has been used to estimate the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) throughout the past 10,000 years. This paper presents a series of figures that document the behavior of both the cosmic radiation and the IMF at Earth in the past. In particular, the 11-year cycles in both quantities for the past 600 years are displayed; and estimates given of the cosmic ray spectrum at Earth for situations that history tells us may occur in the near future. Over the longer term, a minimum of the Hallstatt cycle (2200 yr periodicity) of solar activity occurred ~500 years ago and the Sun is now on a steadily rising plane of activity. The historic record shows that the cosmic ray intensity has decreased extremely rapidly after earlier prolonged deep minima and this suggests rapid and large changes in the heliospheric conditions that we may see replicated. The paper will also display data from the deep, isolated solar minimum of 1956 that exhibited unusual low energy cosmic ray fluxes, and a highly anomalous cosmic ray gradient in the inner heliosphere. Paleo-cosmic ray evidence will also be displayed of an episode of intense solar energetic particle (SEP) events in the interval of reduced solar activity, 1892-1900, that may possibly be repeated. If the present long, deep solar minimum is a precursor to a “Grand Minimum” such as the Dalton minimum, it will provide a much improved insight into the spectrum of the cosmic radiation in interstellar space, and to the cosmic ray modulation process in the heliosphere. With this in mind, the paper suggests key measurements, and speculates on experimental conditions that may be markedly different from those encountered in the instrumental era.

  3. Inverse Flux versus Pressure of Muons from Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitrago, D.; Armendariz, R.

    2017-12-01

    When an incoming cosmic ray proton or atom collides with particles in earth's atmosphere a shower of secondary muons is created. Cosmic ray muon flux was measured at the Queensborough Community College using a QuarkNet detector consisting of three stacked scintillator muon counters and a three-fold coincidence trigger. Data was recorded during a three-day period during a severe weather storm that occurred from March 13-17, 2017. A computer program was created in Python to read the muon flux rate and atmospheric pressure sensor readings from the detector's data acquisition board. The program converts the data from hexadecimal to decimal, re-bins the data in a more suitable format, creates and overlays plots of muon flux with atmospheric pressure. Results thus far show a strong correlation between muon flux and atmospheric pressure. More data analysis will be done to verify the above conclusion.

  4. Galactic Cosmic Ray Intensity in the Upcoming Minimum of the Solar Activity Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainev, M. B.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Kalinin, M. S.; Svirzhevskaya, A. K.; Svirzhevskii, N. S.

    2018-03-01

    During the prolonged and deep minimum of solar activity between cycles 23 and 24, an unusual behavior of the heliospheric characteristics and increased intensity of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) near the Earth's orbit were observed. The maximum of the current solar cycle 24 is lower than the previous one, and the decline in solar and, therefore, heliospheric activity is expected to continue in the next cycle. In these conditions, it is important for an understanding of the process of GCR modulation in the heliosphere, as well as for applied purposes (evaluation of the radiation safety of planned space flights, etc.), to estimate quantitatively the possible GCR characteristics near the Earth in the upcoming solar minimum ( 2019-2020). Our estimation is based on the prediction of the heliospheric characteristics that are important for cosmic ray modulation, as well as on numeric calculations of GCR intensity. Additionally, we consider the distribution of the intensity and other GCR characteristics in the heliosphere and discuss the intercycle variations in the GCR characteristics that are integral for the whole heliosphere (total energy, mean energy, and charge).

  5. Observation of galactic cosmic ray spallation events from the SoHO mission 20-yr operation of LASCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutchmy, S.; Tavabi, E.; Urtado, O.

    2018-07-01

    A shower of secondary cosmic ray (CR) particles is produced at high altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere, so the primordial galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are never directly measured outside the Earth magnetosphere and atmosphere. They approach the Earth and other planets in the complex pattern of rigidity's dependence, generally excluded by the magnetosphere. GCRs revealed by images of single nuclear reactions also called spallation events are described here. Such an event was seen on 2015 November 29 using a unique Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraphs C3 space coronagraph routine image taken during the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) mission observing uninterruptedly at the Lagrangian L1 point. The spallation signature of a GCR identified well outside the Earth's magnetosphere is obtained for the first time. The resulting image includes different diverging linear `tracks' of varying intensity, leading to a single pixel; this frame identifies the site on the silicon CCD chip of the coronagraph camera. There was no solar flare reported at that time, nor coronal mass ejection and no evidence of optical debris around the spacecraft. More examples of smaller CR events have been discovered through the 20 yr of continuous observations from SoHO. This is the first spallation event from a CR, recorded outside the Earth's magnetosphere. We evaluate the probable energy of these events suggesting a plausible galactic source.

  6. Observation of galactic cosmic ray spallation events from the SoHO mission 20-Year operation of LASCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutchmy, S.; Tavabi, E.; Urtado, O.

    2018-05-01

    A shower of secondary Cosmic Ray (CR) particles is produced at high altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere, so the primordial Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) are never directly measured outside the Earth magnetosphere and atmosphere. They approach the Earth and other planets in the complex pattern of rigidity's dependence, generally excluded by the magnetosphere. GCRs revealed by images of single nuclear reactions also called spallation events are described here. Such an event was seen on Nov. 29, 2015 using a unique LASCO C3 space coronagraph routine image taken during the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) mission observing uninterruptedly at the Lagrangian L1 point. The spallation signature of a GCR identified well outside the Earth's magnetosphere is obtained for the 1st time. The resulting image includes different diverging linear "tracks" of varying intensity, leading to a single pixel; this frame identifies the site on the silicon CCD chip of the coronagraph camera. There was no solar flare reported at that time, nor Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) and no evidence of optical debris around the spacecraft. More examples of smaller CR events have been discovered through the 20 years of continuous observations from SoHO. This is the first spallation event from a CR, recorded outside the Earth's magnetosphere. We evaluate the probable energy of these events suggesting a plausible galactic source.

  7. Cosmic Rays and Clouds, 1. Formation of Lead Mesoatoms In Neutron Monitor By Soft Negative Muons and Expected Atmospheric Electric Field Effect In The Cosmic Ray Neutron Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L. I.; Dorman, I. V.

    We extend our model (Dorman and Dorman, 1995) of cosmic ray atmospheric electric field effect on the case of neutron monitor. We take into account that about 0.07 of neu- tron monitor counting rate caused by negative soft muons captured by lead nucleons and formed mesoatoms with generation of several MeV energy neutrons from lead. In this case the neutron monitor or neutron supermonitor works as analyzer which de- tects muons of only one, negative sign. It is very important because the atmospheric electric field effect have opposite signs for positive and negative muons that main part of this effect in the muon telescope or in ionization chamber is compensated and we can observe only small part of total effect of one sign muons. On the basis of our gen- eral theory of cosmic ray meteorological effects with taking into account of negative soft muon acceleration and deceleration in the Earth atmosphere (in dependence of di- rection and intensity of electric field) we discuss the possibility of existing this effect in cosmic ray neutron component and made some rough estimations. REFERENCES: Dorman L.I. and Dorman I.V., 1995. "Cosmic-ray atmospheric electric field effects". Canadian J. of Physics, Vol. 73, pp. 440-443.

  8. Constraining the p¯/p ratio in TeV cosmic rays with observations of the Moon shadow by HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Albert, A.; Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Avila Rojas, D.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Braun, J.; Brisbois, C.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Capistrán, T.; Carramiñana, A.; Casanova, S.; Castillo, M.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; Coutiño de León, S.; De León, C.; De la Fuente, E.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Dichiara, S.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engel, K.; Enríquez-Rivera, O.; Fleischhack, H.; Fraija, N.; Galván-Gámez, A.; García-González, J. A.; González Muñoz, A.; González, M. M.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hernandez, S.; Hona, B.; Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, F.; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Iriarte, A.; Jardin-Blicq, A.; Joshi, V.; Kaufmann, S.; Lara, A.; Lee, W. H.; León Vargas, H.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longinotti, A. L.; Luis-Raya, G.; Luna-García, R.; López-Coto, R.; Malone, K.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, O.; Martinez-Castellanos, I.; Martínez-Castro, J.; Martínez-Huerta, H.; Matthews, J. A.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Mostafá, M.; Nellen, L.; Newbold, M.; Nisa, M. U.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Pelayo, R.; Pretz, J.; Pérez-Pérez, E. G.; Ren, Z.; Rho, C. D.; Rivière, C.; Rosa-González, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Salesa Greus, F.; Sandoval, A.; Schneider, M.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Seglar Arroyo, M.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Springer, R. W.; Surajbali, P.; Taboada, I.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, I.; Villaseñor, L.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Wood, J.; Yapici, T.; Yodh, G. B.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.; HAWC Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    An indirect measurement of the antiproton flux in cosmic rays is possible as the particles undergo deflection by the geomagnetic field. This effect can be measured by studying the deficit in the flux, or shadow, created by the Moon as it absorbs cosmic rays that are headed toward the Earth. The shadow is displaced from the actual position of the Moon due to geomagnetic deflection, which is a function of the energy and charge of the cosmic rays. The displacement provides a natural tool for momentum/charge discrimination that can be used to study the composition of cosmic rays. Using 33 months of data comprising more than 80 billion cosmic rays measured by the High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory, we have analyzed the Moon shadow to search for TeV antiprotons in cosmic rays. We present our first upper limits on the p ¯/p fraction, which in the absence of any direct measurements provide the tightest available constraints of ˜1 % on the antiproton fraction for energies between 1 and 10 TeV.

  9. Ground albedo neutrons produced by cosmic radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, M.

    1983-05-01

    Day-to-day variations of cosmic-ray-produced neutron fluxes near the earth's ground surface are measured by using three sets of paraffin-moderated BF3 counters, which are installed in different locations, 3 m above ground, ground level, and 20 cm under ground. Neutron flux decreases observed by these counters when snowcover exists show that there are upward-moving neutrons, that is, ground albedo neutron near the ground surface. The amount of albedo neutrons is estimated to be about 40 percent of total neutron flux in the energy range 1-10 to the 6th eV.

  10. CosmicSIG science and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinto, Angela V.

    2014-03-01

    Recent activities of the Cosmic Ray Science Interest Group (CosmicSIG) of the Physics of the Cosmos PAG will be reviewed. CosmicSIG was formed to provide an assessment to NASA HQ and the PCOS program office of the status of current and future missions in the area of cosmic-ray astrophysics. CosmicSIG also strives to act as a focal point and forum for the cosmic ray community.

  11. Observation of Galactic and Solar Cosmic Rays from October 13, 1959 to February 17, 1961 with Explorer VII (Satellite 1959 Iota)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Wei Ching

    1961-01-01

    This paper gives a comprehensive summary of cosmic-ray intensity observations at high latitudes over North America and over Australia in the altitude range 550 to 1100 km by means of Geiger tubes in Explorer VII (Earth satellite 1959 Iota). The time period covered is October 13, 1959 to February 17, 1961. Of special interest are the observational data on some 20 solar cosmic-ray events including major events of early April 1960, early September 1960, and of mid-November 1960. Detailed study of the latitude dependence of solar cosmic ray intensity will be presented in a later companion paper.

  12. Exploring Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Rays with the Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, Jason; Supertiger Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Elements heavier than iron are primarily synthesized by neutron capture. These elements can be accelerated as cosmic-rays and measuring their abundances at Earth can yield information about galactic cosmic-rays' sources, the acceleration processes and the composition of the universe beyond the boundaries of our solar system. The Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER) and its larger successor SuperTIGER was designed to measure the abundance of these ultra-heavy cosmic rays between Z=10 and Z=60. These detectors utilize scintillators with a wavelength shifter bar and PMT readout system as well as aerogel and acrylic Cherenkov detectors to identify the charge and energy of a particle and utilize a scintillating fiber hodoscope to provide trajectory information. In this talk I will review the results from this highly successful program, give the status for the next SuperTIGER flight planned for a December 2017 launch from Antarctica, and discuss the future direction of the program.

  13. Indications of negative evolution for the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Andrew M.; Ahlers, Markus; Hooper, Dan

    2015-09-14

    Using recent measurements of the spectrum and chemical composition of the highest energy cosmic rays, we consider the sources of these particles. We find that these data strongly prefer models in which the sources of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays inject predominantly intermediate mass nuclei, with comparatively few protons or heavy nuclei, such as iron or silicon. If the number density of sources per comoving volume does not evolve with redshift, the injected spectrum must be very hard (α≃1) in order to fit the spectrum observed from Earth. Such a hard spectral index would be surprising and difficult to accommodate theoretically.more » In contrast, much softer spectral indices, consistent with the predictions of Fermi acceleration (α≃2), are favored in models with negative source evolution. Furthermore with this theoretical bias, these observations thus favor models in which the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays are preferentially located within the low-redshift universe.« less

  14. Observation of the ⁶⁰Fe nucleosynthesis-clock isotope in galactic cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Binns, W R; Israel, M H; Christian, E R; Cummings, A C; de Nolfo, G A; Lave, K A; Leske, R A; Mewaldt, R A; Stone, E C; von Rosenvinge, T T; Wiedenbeck, M E

    2016-05-06

    Iron-60 ((60)Fe) is a radioactive isotope in cosmic rays that serves as a clock to infer an upper limit on the time between nucleosynthesis and acceleration. We have used the ACE-CRIS instrument to collect 3.55 × 10(5) iron nuclei, with energies ~195 to ~500 mega-electron volts per nucleon, of which we identify 15 (60)Fe nuclei. The (60)Fe/(56)Fe source ratio is (7.5 ± 2.9) × 10(-5) The detection of supernova-produced (60)Fe in cosmic rays implies that the time required for acceleration and transport to Earth does not greatly exceed the (60)Fe half-life of 2.6 million years and that the (60)Fe source distance does not greatly exceed the distance cosmic rays can diffuse over this time, ⪍1 kiloparsec. A natural place for (60)Fe origin is in nearby clusters of massive stars. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS): ACCESS Accommodation Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L. (Editor); Wefel, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 NASA Administrator selected the first high-energy particle physics experiment for the Space Station, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to place a magnetic spectrometer in Earth orbit and search for cosmic antimatter. A natural consequence of this decision was that NASA would begin to explore cost-effective ways through which the design and implementation of AMS might benefit other promising payload experiments. The first such experiment to come forward was Advanced Cosmic-Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS) in 1996. It was proposed as a new mission concept in space physics to attach a cosmic-ray experiment of weight, volume, and geometry similar to the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS), and replace the latter as its successor when the AMS is returned to Earth. This was to be an extension of NASA's suborbital balloon program, with balloon payloads serving as the precursor flights and heritage for ACCESS. The balloon programs have always been a cost-effective NASA resource since the particle physics instrumentation for balloon and space applications are directly related. The next step was to expand the process, pooling together expertise from various NASA centers and universities while opening up definition of the ACCESS science goals to the international community through the standard practice of peer review. This process is still ongoing, and the accommodation study presented here will discuss the baseline definition of ACCESS as we understand it today.

  16. Calculation of Cosmic Ray Induced Single Event Upsets: Program CRUP, Cosmic Ray Upset Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-14

    1.., 0 .j ~ u M ~ t R A’- ~~ ’ .~ ; I .: ’ 1 J., ) ’- CALCULATION OF COSMIC RAY INDUCED SINGLE EVEI’o"T UPSETS: PROGRAM CRUP , COSMIC RAY UPSET...neceuety end Identity by blo..;k number) 0Thls report documents PROGR.Al\\1 CRUP , COSMIC RAY UPSET PROGRAM. The computer program calculates cosmic...34. » » •-, " 1 » V »1T"~ Calculation of Cosmic Ray Induced Single Event Upsets: PROGRAM CRUP , COSMIC RAY UPSET PROGRAM I. INTRODUCTION Since the

  17. Special Relativity in the School Laboratory: A Simple Apparatus for Cosmic-Ray Muon Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, P.; Hedgeland, H.

    2015-01-01

    We use apparatus based on two Geiger-Müller tubes, a simple electronic circuit and a Raspberry Pi computer to illustrate relativistic time dilation affecting cosmic-ray muons travelling through the atmosphere to the Earth's surface. The experiment we describe lends itself to both classroom demonstration to accompany the topic of special relativity…

  18. Dangerous Near-Earth Asteroids and Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Grigoryan, A. E.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs; Astreoids and Meteorites) is discussed. To have an understanding on the probablity of encounters with such objects, one may use two different approaches: 1) historical, based on the statistics of existing large meteorite craters on the Earth, estimation of the source meteorites size and the age of these craters to derive the frequency of encounters with a given size of meteorites and 2) astronomical, based on the study and cataloging of all medium-size and large bodies in the Earth's neighbourhood and their orbits to estimate the probability, angles and other parameters of encounters. Therefore, we discuss both aspects and give our present knowledge on both phenomena. Though dangerous NEOs are one of the main source for cosmic catastrophes, we also focus on other possible dangers, such as even slight changes of Solar irradiance or Earth's orbit, change of Moon's impact on Earth, Solar flares or other manifestations of Solar activity, transit of comets (with impact on Earth's atmosphere), global climate change, dilution of Earth's atmosphere, damage of ozone layer, explosion of nearby Supernovae, and even an attack by extraterrestrial intelligence.

  19. The Outer Heliosphere: Solar Wind, Cosmic Ray and VLF Radio Emission Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft now 45 astronomical units (AU) from Earth continue to monitor the outer heliosphere field and particles environment on a daily basis during their journey to the termination shock of the solar wind. Strong transient shocks continue to be detected in the solar wind plasma. The largest of these are associated with Global Merged Interaction Regions (GMIR's) which, in turn, block cosmic ray entry into the inner heliosphere and are apparently responsible for triggering the two major episodes of VLF radio emissions now thought to come from the heliopause. Distance estimates to the termination shock are consistent with those determined from observations of anomalous cosmic rays. Current observations and implications for heliospheric structure are discussed.

  20. The Global Survey Method Applied to Ground-level Cosmic Ray Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, A.; Eroshenko, E.; Yanke, V.; Oleneva, V.; Abunin, A.; Abunina, M.; Papaioannou, A.; Mavromichalaki, H.

    2018-04-01

    The global survey method (GSM) technique unites simultaneous ground-level observations of cosmic rays in different locations and allows us to obtain the main characteristics of cosmic-ray variations outside of the atmosphere and magnetosphere of Earth. This technique has been developed and applied in numerous studies over many years by the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation (IZMIRAN). We here describe the IZMIRAN version of the GSM in detail. With this technique, the hourly data of the world-wide neutron-monitor network from July 1957 until December 2016 were processed, and further processing is enabled upon the receipt of new data. The result is a database of homogeneous and continuous hourly characteristics of the density variations (an isotropic part of the intensity) and the 3D vector of the cosmic-ray anisotropy. It includes all of the effects that could be identified in galactic cosmic-ray variations that were caused by large-scale disturbances of the interplanetary medium in more than 50 years. These results in turn became the basis for a database on Forbush effects and interplanetary disturbances. This database allows correlating various space-environment parameters (the characteristics of the Sun, the solar wind, et cetera) with cosmic-ray parameters and studying their interrelations. We also present features of the coupling coefficients for different neutron monitors that enable us to make a connection from ground-level measurements to primary cosmic-ray variations outside the atmosphere and the magnetosphere. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the current version of the GSM as well as further possible developments and improvements. The method developed allows us to minimize the problems of the neutron-monitor network, which are typical for experimental physics, and to considerably enhance its advantages.

  1. Heliospheric Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays; Diurnal Variability Abstract Details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalu, D. F.; Okpala, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    We have studied the variability of Cosmic rays flux during solar quiet days at mid and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. By using the five (5) quietest days for each month and the five disturbed days for each month, the monthly mean diurnal variation of cosmic ray anisotropy have been derived for the period 1999-2015, which covers part of cycles 23, and cycle 24. This study seeks to understand the heliospheric contribution to the variation of these Cosmic rays on quietest days, three stations (Inuvik, Moscow, Rome) Neutron Monitors were employed. This study seeks to understand the important features of the high latitude and mid latitude diurnal wave, and how solar and geomagnetic activity may be influencing the wave characteristics. Cosmic ray wave characteristics were obtained by discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The mean, diurnal amplitude, phase and dispersion for each month's diurnal wave were calculated and profiled. There was clear indication that the terrestrial effect on the variability of the monthly mean was more associated with geomagnetic activity rather than rigidity of the cosmic rays. Correlation of the time series of these wave characteristic with solar and geomagnetic activity index showed better association with solar activity.

  2. Collecting Comet Samples by ER-2 Aircraft: Cosmic Dust Collection During the Draconid Meteor Shower in October 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastien, Ron; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriquez, M.; Frank, D.; Gonzalez, C.; Robinson, G.-A.; Zolensky, M.; Brown, P.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Broce, S.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Many tons of dust grains, including samples of asteroids and comets, fall from space into the Earth's atmosphere each day. NASA periodically collects some of these particles from the Earth's stratosphere using sticky collectors mounted on NASA's high-flying aircraft. Sometimes, especially when the Earth experiences a known meteor shower, a special opportunity is presented to associate cosmic dust particles with a known source. NASA JSC's Cosmic Dust Collection Program has made special attempts to collect dust from particular meteor showers and asteroid families when flights can be planned well in advance. However, it has rarely been possible to make collections on very short notice. In 2012, the Draconid meteor shower presented that opportunity. The Draconid meteor shower, originating from Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, has produced both outbursts and storms several times during the last century, but the 2012 event was not predicted to be much of a show. Because of these predictions, the Cosmic Dust team had not targeted a stratospheric collection effort for the Draconids, despite the fact that they have one of the slowest atmospheric entry velocities (23 km/s) of any comet shower, and thus offer significant possibilities of successful dust capture. However, radar measurements obtained by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar during the 2012 Draconids shower indicated a meteor storm did occur October 8 with a peak at 16:38 (+/-5 min) UTC for a total duration of approximately 2 hours.

  3. Calibration of impact ionization cosmic dust detectors: first tests to investigate how the dust density influences the signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasmin Sterken, Veerle; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Hillier, Jon; Fielding, Lee; Lovett, Joseph; Armes, Steven; Fechler, Nina; Srama, Ralf; Bugiel, Sebastian; Hornung, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    Impact ionization experiments have been performed since more than 40 years for calibrating cosmic dust detectors. A linear Van de Graaff dust accelerator was used to accelerate the cosmic dust analogues of submicron to micron-size to speeds up to 80 km s^-1. Different materials have been used for calibration: iron, carbon, metal-coated minerals and most recently, minerals coated with conductive polymers. While different materials with different densities have been used for instrument calibration, a comparative analysis of dust impacts of equal material but different density is necessary: porous or aggregate-like particles are increasingly found to be present in the solar system: e.g. dust from comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko [Fulle et al 2015], aggregate particles from the plumes of Enceladus [Gao et al 2016], and low-density interstellar dust [Westphal 2014 et al, Sterken et al 2015]. These recalibrations are relevant for measuring the size distributions of interplanetary and interstellar dust and thus mass budgets like the gas-to-dust mass ratio in the local interstellar cloud.We report about the calibrations that have been performed at the Heidelberg dust accelerator facility for investigating the influence of particle density on the impact ionization charge. We used the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer for the target, and compared hollow versus compact silica particles in our study as a first attempt to investigate experimentally the influence of dust density on the signals obtained. Also, preliminary tests with carbon aerogel were performed, and (unsuccessful) attempts to accelerate silica aerogel. In this talk we explain the motivation of the study, the experiment set-up, the preparation of — and the materials used, the results and plans and recommendations for future tests.Fulle, M. et al 2015, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Volume 802, Issue 1, article id. L12, 5 pp. (2015)Gao, P. et al 2016, Icarus, Volume 264, p. 227-238Westphal, A. et al 2014, Science

  4. Spallation processes and nuclear interaction products of cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Silberberg, R; Tsao, C H

    1990-08-01

    Most cosmic-ray nuclei heavier than helium have suffered nuclear collisions in the interstellar gas, with transformation of nuclear composition. The isotopic and elemental composition at the sources has to be inferred from the observed composition near the Earth. The source composition permits tests of current ideas on sites of origin, nucleosynthesis in stars, evolution of stars, the mixing and composition of the interstellar medium and injection processes prior to acceleration. The effects of nuclear spallation, production of radioactive nuclides and the time dependence of their decay provide valuable information on the acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays, their nuclear transformations, and their confinement time in the Galaxy. The formation of spallation products that only decay by electron capture and are relatively long-lived permits an investigation of the nature and density fluctuations (like clouds) of the interstellar medium. Since nuclear collisions yield positrons, antiprotons, gamma rays and neutrinos, we shall discuss these topics briefly.

  5. Measurement of cosmic ray positron and negatron spectra between 50 and 800 MeV. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    A balloon-borne magnetic spectrometer was used to measure the spectra of cosmic ray positrons and negatrons at energies between 50 and 800 MeV. Comparisons of the separate positron and negatron spectra observed near the earth with their expected intensities in interstellar space can be used to investigate the complex (and variable) interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the expanding solar wind. The present measurements, which have established finite values or upper limits for the positron and negatron spectral between 50 and 800 MeV, have confirmed earlier evidence for the existence of a dominant component of negatrons from primary sources in the galaxy. The present results are shown to be consistent with the hypothesis that the positron component is in fact mainly attributable to collisions between cosmic ray nuclei and the interstellar gas. The estimate of the absolute intensities confirm the indications from neutron monitors that in 1972 the interplanetary cosmic ray intensities were already recovering toward their high levels observed in 1965.

  6. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  7. Our Cosmic Insignificance

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2014-01-01

    The universe that surrounds us is vast, and we are so very small. When we reflect on the vastness of the universe, our humdrum cosmic location, and the inevitable future demise of humanity, our lives can seem utterly insignificant. Many philosophers assume that such worries about our significance reflect a banal metaethical confusion. They dismiss the very idea of cosmic significance. This, I argue, is a mistake. Worries about cosmic insignificance do not express metaethical worries about objectivity or nihilism, and we can make good sense of the idea of cosmic significance and its absence. It is also possible to explain why the vastness of the universe can make us feel insignificant. This impression does turn out to be mistaken, but not for the reasons typically assumed. In fact, we might be of immense cosmic significance—though we cannot, at this point, tell whether this is the case. PMID:25729095

  8. Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions: Near Earth manifestations of the plasma universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faelthammar, Carl-Gunne

    1986-01-01

    As the universe consists almost entirely of plasma, the understanding of astrophysical phenomena must depend critically on the understanding of how matter behaves in the plasma state. In situ observations in the near Earth cosmical plasma offer an excellent opportunity of gaining such understanding. The near Earth cosmical plasma not only covers vast ranges of density and temperature, but is the site of a rich variety of complex plasma physical processes which are activated as a results of the interactions between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. The geomagnetic field connects the ionosphere, tied by friction to the Earth, and the magnetosphere, dynamically coupled to the solar wind. This causes an exchange of energy an momentum between the two regions. The exchange is executed by magnetic-field-aligned electric currents, the so-called Birkeland currents. Both directly and indirectly (through instabilities and particle acceleration) these also lead to an exchange of plasma, which is selective and therefore causes chemical separation. Another essential aspect of the coupling is the role of electric fields, especially magnetic field aligned (parallel) electric fields, which have important consequences both for the dynamics of the coupling and, especially, for energization of charged particles.

  9. Influence of fortnightly earth tides at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Dzurisin, D.

    1980-11-01

    Analysis of 52 historic eruptions confirms the premise that fortnightly earth tides play a significant role in triggering activity at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Since January 1832, nearly twice as many eruptions have occurred nearer fortnightly tidal maximum than tidal minimum (34 vs 18). A straightforward significance test indicates that the likelihood of a fortnightly tidal influence on Kilauea eruptions is roughly 90%. This is not the case for Mauna Loa Volcano, where 37 historic eruptions have been distributed randomly with respect to the fortnightly tide. At Kilauea, stresses induced by fortnightly earth tides presumably act in concert with volcanic andmore » tectonic stresses to trigger shallow magma movements along preexisting zones of weakness. Differences in structure or internal plumbing may limit the effectiveness of this mechanism at Mauna Loa. Tidal effects seem to be less marked at shields than at some island-arc volcanoes, possibly because higher average volcanic stress rates in Hawaii more often override the effects of tidal stresses.« less

  10. Influence of fortnightly earth tides at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, D.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of 52 historic eruptions confirms the premise that fortnightly earth tides play a significant role in triggering activity at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Since January 1832, nearly twice as many eruptions have occurred nearer fortnightly tidal maximum than tidal minimum (34 vs. 18). A straightforward significance test indicates that the likelihood of a fortnightly tidal influence on Kilauea eruptions is roughly 90%. This is not the case for Mauna Loa Volcano, where 37 historic eruptions have been distributed randomly with respect to the fortnightly tide. At Kilauea, stresses induced by fortnightly earth tides presumably act in concert with volcanic and tectonic stresses to trigger shallow magma movements along preexisting zones of weakness. Differences in structure or internal plumbing may limit the effectiveness of this mechanism at Mauna Loa. Tidal effects seem to be less marked at shields than at some island-arc volcanoes, possibly because higher average volcanic stress rates in Hawaii more often override the effects of tidal stresses.-Author

  11. Test of the cosmic evolution using Gaussian processes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Xia, Jun-Qing, E-mail: zhangmj@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: xiajq@bnu.edu.cn

    2016-12-01

    Much focus was on the possible slowing down of cosmic acceleration under the dark energy parametrization. In the present paper, we investigate this subject using the Gaussian processes (GP), without resorting to a particular template of dark energy. The reconstruction is carried out by abundant data including luminosity distance from Union2, Union2.1 compilation and gamma-ray burst, and dynamical Hubble parameter. It suggests that slowing down of cosmic acceleration cannot be presented within 95% C.L., in considering the influence of spatial curvature and Hubble constant. In order to reveal the reason of tension between our reconstruction and previous parametrization constraint formore » Union2 data, we compare them and find that slowing down of acceleration in some parametrization is only a ''mirage'. Although these parameterizations fits well with the observational data, their tension can be revealed by high order derivative of distance D. Instead, GP method is able to faithfully model the cosmic expansion history.« less

  12. Simulations of ultra-high energy cosmic rays in the local Universe and the origin of cosmic magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackstein, S.; Vazza, F.; Brüggen, M.; Sorce, J. G.; Gottlöber, S.

    2018-04-01

    We simulate the propagation of cosmic rays at ultra-high energies, ≳1018 eV, in models of extragalactic magnetic fields in constrained simulations of the local Universe. We use constrained initial conditions with the cosmological magnetohydrodynamics code ENZO. The resulting models of the distribution of magnetic fields in the local Universe are used in the CRPROPA code to simulate the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We investigate the impact of six different magneto-genesis scenarios, both primordial and astrophysical, on the propagation of cosmic rays over cosmological distances. Moreover, we study the influence of different source distributions around the Milky Way. Our study shows that different scenarios of magneto-genesis do not have a large impact on the anisotropy measurements of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. However, at high energies above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK)-limit, there is anisotropy caused by the distribution of nearby sources, independent of the magnetic field model. This provides a chance to identify cosmic ray sources with future full-sky measurements and high number statistics at the highest energies. Finally, we compare our results to the dipole signal measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. All our source models and magnetic field models could reproduce the observed dipole amplitude with a pure iron injection composition. Our results indicate that the dipole is observed due to clustering of secondary nuclei in direction of nearby sources of heavy nuclei. A light injection composition is disfavoured, since the increase in dipole angular power from 4 to 8 EeV is too slow compared to observation by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  13. The solar wind structures associated with cosmic ray decreases and particle acceleration in 1978-1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.; Vonrosenvinge, T. T.

    1992-01-01

    The time histories of particles in the energy range 1 MeV to 1 GeV at times of all greater than 3 percent cosmic ray decreases in the years 1978 to 1982 are studied. Essentially all 59 of the decreases commenced at or before the passages of interplanetary shocks, the majority of which accelerated energetic particles. We use the intensity-time profiles of the energetic particles to separate the cosmic ray decreases into four classes which we subsequently associate with four types of solar wind structures. Decreases in class 1 (15 events) and class 2 (26 events) can be associated with shocks which are driven by energetic coronal mass ejections. For class 1 events the ejecta is detected at 1 AU whereas this is not the case for class 2 events. The shock must therefore play a dominant role in producing the depression of cosmic rays in class 2 events. In all class 1 and 2 events (which comprise 69 percent of the total) the departure time of the ejection from the sun (and hence the location) can be determined from the rapid onset of energetic particles several days before the shock passage at Earth. The class 1 events originate from within 50 deg of central meridian. Class 3 events (10 decreases) can be attributed to less energetic ejections which are directed towards the Earth. In these events the ejecta is more important than the shock in causing a depression in the cosmic ray intensity. The remaining events (14 percent of the total) can be attributed to corotating streams which have ejecta material embedded in them.

  14. Back-tracking of primary particle trajectories for muons detected at the Earth surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutenko, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Investigations of cosmic rays on the surface of the Earth allow to derive information of applied character on the conditions of the interplanetary magnetic field and of the geomagnetic field. For this purpose, it is necessary to collate trajectories of particles detected in the ground-based detector to trajectories of primary cosmic rays in the heliosphere. This problem is solved by means of various back-tracking methods. In this work, one of such methods is presented.

  15. The influence of lateral Earth structure on glacial isostatic adjustment in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Glenn A.; Latychev, Konstantin; Schaeffer, Andrew; Crowley, John W.; Lecavalier, Benoit S.; Audette, Alexandre

    2018-05-01

    We present the first results that focus on the influence of lateral Earth structure on Greenland glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) using a model that can explicitly incorporate 3-D Earth structure. In total, eight realisations of lateral viscosity structure were developed using four global seismic velocity models and two global lithosphere (elastic) thickness models. Our results show that lateral viscosity structure has a significant influence on model output of both deglacial relative sea level (RSL) changes and present-day rates of vertical land motion. For example, lateral structure changes the RSL predictions in the Holocene by several 10 s of metres in many locations relative to the 1-D case. Modelled rates of vertical land motion are also significantly affected, with differences from the 1-D case commonly at the mm/yr level and exceeding 2 mm/yr in some locations. The addition of lateral structure was unable to account for previously identified data-model RSL misfits in northern and southern Greenland, suggesting limitations in the adopted ice model (Lecavalier et al. 2014) and/or the existence of processes not included in our model. Our results show large data-model discrepancies in uplift rates when applying a 1-D viscosity model tuned to fit the RSL data; these discrepancies cannot be reconciled by adding the realisations of lateral structure considered here. In many locations, the spread in model output for the eight different 3-D Earth models is of similar amplitude or larger than the influence of lateral structure (as defined by the average of all eight model runs). This reflects the differences between the four seismic and two lithosphere models used and implies a large uncertainty in defining the GIA signal given that other aspects that contribute to this uncertainty (e.g. scaling from seismic velocity to viscosity) were not considered in this study. In order to reduce this large model uncertainty, an important next step is to develop more accurate

  16. Cosmic ray experimental observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Mcdonald, F. B.

    1974-01-01

    The current experimental situation in cosmic ray studies is discussed, with special emphasis on the development of new detector systems. Topics covered are the techniques for particle identification, energy measurements, gas Cerenkov counters, magnet spectrometers, ionization spectrometers, track detectors, nuclear emulsions, multiparameter analysis using arrays of detectors, the Goddard ionization spectrometer, charge spectra, relative abundances, isotope composition, antinuclei in cosmic rays, electrons, the measurement of cosmic ray arrival directions, and the prehistory of cosmic rays.

  17. Los Alamos, Toshiba probing Fukushima with cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Christopher

    2014-06-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has announced an impending partnership with Toshiba Corporation to use a Los Alamos technique called muon tomography to safely peer inside the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi reactors and create high-resolution images of the damaged nuclear material inside without ever breaching the cores themselves. The initiative could reduce the time required to clean up the disabled complex by at least a decade and greatly reduce radiation exposure to personnel working at the plant. Muon radiography (also called cosmic-ray radiography) uses secondary particles generated when cosmic rays collide with upper regions of Earth's atmosphere to create imagesmore » of the objects that the particles, called muons, penetrate. The process is analogous to an X-ray image, except muons are produced naturally and do not damage the materials they contact. Muon radiography has been used before in imaginative applications such as mapping the interior of the Great Pyramid at Giza, but Los Alamos's muon tomography technique represents a vast improvement over earlier technology.« less

  18. Terrestrial Effects of High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atri, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    On geological timescales, the Earth is likely to be exposed to an increased flux of high energy cosmic rays (HECRs) from astrophysical sources such as nearby supernovae, gamma ray bursts or by galactic shocks. These high-energy particles strike the Earth's atmosphere initiating an extensive air shower. As the air shower propagates deeper, it ionizes the atmosphere by producing charged secondary particles. Increased ionization could lead to changes in atmospheric chemistry, resulting in ozone depletion. This could increase the flux of solar UVB radiation at the surface, which is potentially harmful to living organisms. Increased ionization affects the global electrical circuit can could possibly enhance the low-altitude cloud formation rate. Secondary particles such as muons and thermal neutrons produced as a result of nuclear interactions are able to reach the ground, enhancing the biological radiation dose. The muon flux dominates radiation dose from cosmic rays causing DNA damage and increase in the mutation rates, which can have serious biological implications for terrestrial and sub-terrestrial life. This radiation dose is an important constraint on the habitability of a planet. Using CORSIKA, we perform massive computer simulations and construct lookup tables from 10 GeV - 1 PeV primaries (1 PeV - 0.1 ZeV in progress), which can be used to quantify these effects. These tables are freely available to the community and can be used for other studies, not necessarily relevant to Astrobiology. We use these tables to study the terrestrial implications of galactic shock generated by the infall of our galaxy toward the Virgo cluster. This could be a possible mechanism explaining the observed periodicity in biodiversity in paleobiology databases.

  19. Equatorial secondary cosmic ray observatory to study space weather and terrestrial events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vichare, Geeta; Bhaskar, Ankush; Datar, Gauri; Raghav, Anil; Nair, K. U.; Selvaraj, C.; Ananthi, M.; Sinha, A. K.; Paranjape, M.; Gawade, T.; Anil Kumar, C. P.; Panneerselvam, C.; Sathishkumar, S.; Gurubaran, S.

    2018-05-01

    Recently, equatorial secondary cosmic ray observatory has been established at Equatorial Geophysical Research Laboratory (EGRL), Tirunelveli, (Geographic Coordinates: 8.71°N, 77.76°E), to study secondary cosmic rays (SCR) produced due to the interaction of primary cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. EGRL is a regional center of Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG), located near the equator in the Southern part of India. Two NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors are installed inside the temperature controlled environment. One detector is cylindrical in shape of size 7.62 cm × 7.62 cm and another one is rectangular cuboid of 10.16 cm × 10.16 cm × 40.64 cm size. Besides NaI(Tl) detectors, various other research facilities such as the Geomagnetic observatory, Medium Frequency Radar System, Digital Ionosonde, All-sky airglow imager, Atmospheric electricity laboratory to measure the near-Earth atmospheric electric fields are also available at EGRL. With the accessibility of multi- instrument facilities, the objective is set to understand the relationship between SCR and various atmospheric and ionospheric processes, during space weather and terrestrial events. For gamma-ray spectroscopy, it is important to test the performance of the NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors and to calibrate the gamma-ray spectrum in terms of energy. The present article describes the details of the experimental setup installed near the equator to study cosmic rays, along with the performance testing and calibration of the detectors under various conditions. A systematic shift in the gain is observed with varying temperature of the detector system. It is found that the detector's response to the variations in the temperature is not just linear or non-linear type, but it depends on the history of the variation, indicating temperature hysteresis effects on NaI detector and PMT system. This signifies the importance of isothermal environment while studying SCR flux using NaI(Tl) detectors

  20. Investigating the Present Day Cosmic Dust Flux at the Earth's Surface: Initial Results from the Kwajalein Micrometeorite Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Price, M. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Russell, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of impact craters on the Long Duration Exposure Facility satellite indicate a present day micrometeoroid flux of approx. 30,000 tonnes [1 after 2]. But what portion of this material arrives at the Earth's surface as micrometeorites? Studies of available micrometeorite collections from deep sea sediments [e.g. 3], Greenland blue ice [e.g. 4] and the South Pole water well [e.g. 1] may be complicated by terrestrial weathering and, in some cases, collection bias (magnetic separation for deep sea sediments) and poorly constrained ages. We have recently set up a micrometeorite collection station on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean, using high volume air samplers to collect particles directly from the atmosphere. By collecting in this way, the terrestrial age of the particles is known, the weathering they experience is minimal, and we are able to constrain particle arrival times. Collecting at this location also exploits the considerably reduced anthropogenic background [5]. Method: High volume air samplers were installed on top of the two-story airport building on Kwajalein. These were fitted with polycarbonate membrane filters with 5µm diameter perforations. The flow rates were set to 0.5m3/min, and filters were changed once a week. After collection, filters were washed to remove salt and concentrate particles [see 5] in preparation for analysis by SEM. Results and Discussion: A selection of filters have been prepared and surveyed. Due to their ease of identification our initial investigations have focused on particles resembling cosmic spherules. The spheres can be divided into three main groups: 1. Silicate spherules rich in Al, Ca, K and Na (to varying degrees), 2. Silicate spherules rich in Mg and Fe and 3. Fe-rich spherules. Group 1 spherules are often vesiculated and can occur as aggregates. They are similar in appearance and composition to volcanic microspheres [e.g. 6] and are thus likely terrestrial in

  1. Cosmic Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The cosmic ray division participation in the cooperative agreement was activated in the second year. The scientific goals will be analysis of cosmic ray data from the Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiments (JACEE). Measurements of primary cosmic rays in the JACEE emulsion chambers will be made to derive for each detected particle the deposited energy in the chamber and the primary charge (atomic number). The data will be corrected to the primary flux above the atmosphere, and the composition and energy spectra will be derived. The spectra of the individual elements will be interpreted in context with the supernova shock and other models of cosmic ray acceleration. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. A cosmic microwave background feature consistent with a cosmic texture.

    PubMed

    Cruz, M; Turok, N; Vielva, P; Martínez-González, E; Hobson, M

    2007-12-07

    The Cosmic Microwave Background provides our most ancient image of the universe and our best tool for studying its early evolution. Theories of high-energy physics predict the formation of various types of topological defects in the very early universe, including cosmic texture, which would generate hot and cold spots in the Cosmic Microwave Background. We show through a Bayesian statistical analysis that the most prominent 5 degrees -radius cold spot observed in all-sky images, which is otherwise hard to explain, is compatible with having being caused by a texture. From this model, we constrain the fundamental symmetry-breaking energy scale to be (0) approximately 8.7 x 10(15) gigaelectron volts. If confirmed, this detection of a cosmic defect will probe physics at energies exceeding any conceivable terrestrial experiment.

  3. Some unsung heroines (and a few heroes) of cosmic ray physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2013-02-01

    The women physicists whose work will be featured are Marietta Blau, Madelaine Forro Barnothy, Phyllis Freier, and Connie Dilworth. The "gluons" that connected their lives to each other (and to the author) included Georges Lemaitre, Manuel Sandoval Vallarta, Cecil Powell, Guiseppi Occhialini, Ken Greisen, Beatrice Tinsley, Hannelore Sexl, and perhaps Elizabeth Rona. Most of the stories are not entirely happy ones. For instance it was Sandoval Vallarta who offered Blau (and her mother) refuge in Mexico when they had to leave Vienna. Vallarta was also Lemaitre's collaborator in calculations of how cosmic rays got to us through the earth's magnetic field. The sad part there is that somehow Lemaitre was never disabused of the view that cosmic rays were direct remnants of his primordial atom and not primarily protons. The result was his gradual exile from main-stream scientific communities.

  4. Analysis of gamma radiation from a radon source. II: Indications of influences of both solar and cosmic neutrinos on beta decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Steinitz, G.; Fischbach, E.

    2018-07-01

    In the first article in this series, we reported an analysis of 29,000 hourly measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon gas in a sealed container at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem (Sturrock et al., 2012). We now report an analysis of a full 10 years of operation that yields over 85,000 hourly gamma measurements. To avoid possible confusion with seasonal environmental influences, we pay special attention to oscillations with frequencies in a band relevant to solar rotation, identifying two striking oscillations with frequencies 11.35 year-1 and 12.63 year-1, which we have found to be prominent also in decay data acquired at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Sturrock et al., 2016). The 12.63 year-1 frequency agrees with the synodic rotational frequency (the frequency as observed on Earth) of the radiative zone as determined by helioseismology. Significantly, the more prominent rotational oscillations occur in pairs separated by 1 year-1, indicating that the solar sources of modulation rotate about axes that are oblique with respect to the normal to the ecliptic. It is notable that one of a triplet of such oscillations has exactly the same frequency (9.43 year-1) as the most significant oscillation in Super-Kamiokande measurements, suggesting that the experiment is responding to the influence of neutrinos. As found in our previous article, the annual oscillation is (counter-intuitively) stronger by day (with phase of maximum near 0.5, i.e. mid-year, suggestive of a cosmic source) than by night (with phase of maximum near zero, as expected for a solar source). This day-night asymmetry in the measurements may be understood in terms of a combined influence of asymmetries in the experiment and in the relevant nuclear processes. Spectrograms (with axes local hour of day and frequency) formed from the ambient temperature and pressure and the supply voltage differ significantly from the corresponding spectrogram

  5. Unmelted cosmic metal particles in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyam Prasad, Mokkapati; Rudraswami, N. G.; De Araujo, Agnelo A.; Khedekar, Vijay D.

    2017-06-01

    Fe-Ni metal is a common constituent of most meteorites and is an indicator of the thermal history of the respective meteorites, it is a diagnostic tool to distinguish between groups/subgroups of meteorites. In spite of over a million micrometeorites collected from various domains, reports of pure metallic particles among micrometeorites have been extremely rare. We report here the finding of a variety of cosmic metal particles such as kamacite, plessite, taenite, and Fe-Ni beads from deep-sea sediments of the Indian Ocean, a majority of which have entered the Earth unaffected by frictional heating during atmospheric entry. Such particles are known as components of meteorites but have never been found as individual entities. Their compositions suggest precursors from a variety of meteorite groups, thus providing an insight into the metal fluxes on the Earth. Some particles have undergone heating and oxidation to different levels during entry developing features similar to I-type cosmic spherules, suggesting atmospheric processing of individual kamacites/taenite grains as another hitherto unknown source for the I-type spherules. The particles have undergone postdepositional aqueous alteration transforming finally into the serpentine mineral cronstedtite. Aqueous alteration products of kamacite reflect the local microenvironment, therefore they have the potential to provide information on the composition of water in the solar nebula, on the parent bodies or on surfaces of planetary bodies. Our observations suggest it would take sustained burial in water for tens of thousands of years under cold conditions for kamacites to alter to cronstedtite.

  6. Observation of cosmic-ray anisotropy in the decade below 1 PeV with a pentagon array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, S. Mortazavi; Bahmanabadi, M.

    2018-03-01

    The study of the anisotropy of the arrival directions is an essential tool to investigate the origin and propagation of cosmic rays primaries. A pentagon array has been designed to collect data around the knee region of cosmic ray spectrum. The experimental results of this array obtained from October 2016 to October 2017. During this period, more than 5.3 ×105 extensive air shower events at energies in the decade below 1 PeV has been accumulated by this array at Sharif University of Technology in Tehran (3 5 ° 4 3'N , 5 1 ° 2 0'E , 1200m a .s .l =890 g cm-2 ). In analyzing the data set, we have used appropriate techniques of analysis and considered environmental effects. We report the analysis of the sidereal anisotropy of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). In this analysis, in addition to the Compton- Getting effect due to the motion of the earth in the Galaxy, an anisotropy has been observed which is due to a unidirectional anisotropy of cosmic ray flow along the Galactic arms.

  7. Analytical Model for Estimating the Zenith Angle Dependence of Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    A new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA) version 4.0" was developed to facilitate instantaneous estimation of not only omnidirectional but also angular differential energy spectra of cosmic ray fluxes anywhere in Earth's atmosphere at nearly any given time. It consists of its previous version, PARMA3.0, for calculating the omnidirectional fluxes and several mathematical functions proposed in this study for expressing their zenith-angle dependences. The numerical values of the parameters used in these functions were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). The angular distributions of ground-level muons at large zenith angles were specially determined by introducing an optional function developed on the basis of experimental data. The accuracy of PARMA4.0 was closely verified using multiple sets of experimental data obtained under various global conditions. This extension enlarges the model's applicability to more areas of research, including design of cosmic-ray detectors, muon radiography, soil moisture monitoring, and cosmic-ray shielding calculation. PARMA4.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in the open-access EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic-ray Spectrum (EXPACS).

  8. CENTAURUS A: THE EXTRAGALACTIC SOURCE OF COSMIC RAYS WITH ENERGIES ABOVE THE KNEE

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, Peter L.; De Souza, Vitor, E-mail: plbiermann@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br

    2012-02-10

    The origin of cosmic rays at all energies is still uncertain. In this paper, we present and explore an astrophysical scenario to produce cosmic rays with energy ranging from below 10{sup 15} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} eV. We show here that just our Galaxy and the radio galaxy Cen A, each with their own galactic cosmic-ray particles but with those from the radio galaxy pushed up in energy by a relativistic shock in the jet emanating from the active black hole, are sufficient to describe the most recent data in the PeV to near ZeV energy range. Data aremore » available over this entire energy range from the KASCADE, KASCADE-Grande, and Pierre Auger Observatory experiments. The energy spectrum calculated here correctly reproduces the measured spectrum beyond the knee and, contrary to widely held expectations, no other extragalactic source population is required to explain the data even at energies far below the general cutoff expected at 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV, the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min turnoff due to interaction with the cosmological microwave background. We present several predictions for the source population, the cosmic-ray composition, and the propagation to Earth which can be tested in the near future.« less

  9. Progress report on the ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment (AO178)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A.; Osullivan, D.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Jansen, F.; Domingo, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) is based on a modular array of 192 side-viewing solid state nuclear track detector stacks. These stacks were mounted in sets of four in 48 pressure vessels employing sixteen peripheral Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) trays. The extended duration of the LDEF mission has resulted in a greatly enhanced scientific yield from the UHCRE. The geometry factor for high energy cosmic ray nuclei, allowing for Earth shadowing, was 30 sq m-sr, giving a total exposure factor of 170 sq m-sr-y at an orbital inclination of 28.4 degrees. Scanning results indicate that about 3000 cosmic ray nuclei in the charge region with Z greater than 65 were collected. This sample is more than ten times the current world data in the field (taken to be the data set from the HEAO-3 mission plus that from the Ariel-6 mission) and is sufficient to provide the world's first statistically significant sample of actinide (Z greater than 88) cosmic rays. Results to date are presented including details of ultra-heavy cosmic ray nuclei, analysis of pre-flight and post-flight calibration events and details of track response in the context of detector temperature history. The integrated effect of all temperature and age related latent track variations cause a maximum charge shift of +/- 0.8 e for uranium and +/- 0.6 e for the platinum-lead group. The precision of charge assignment as a function of energy is derived and evidence for remarkably good charge resolution achieved in the UHCRE is considered. Astrophysical implications of the UHCRE charge spectrum are discussed.

  10. CREST: a New Multi-TeV Cosmic-Ray Electron Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutu, Stephane; Wakely, Scott; Anderson, Tyler; Bower, Charles; Geske, Matthew; Mueller, Dietrich; Musser, James; Nutter, Scott; Schubnell, Michael; Tarle, Gregory; Yagi, Atsushi

    Recent observations of TeV gamma rays from supernova remnants, coupled with measurements of non-thermal X-ray emission, are interpreted as evidence for shock acceleration of cosmic rays in supernova remnants. While it is often assumed that the particles accelerated in these sources include electrons up to multi-TeV energies, direct cosmic-ray electron observations are currently restricted to energies below about 2 TeV. Any attempt to extend the energy range is hampered by limited exposure and low fluxes. However, significant intensities at these energies would indicate the presence of relatively nearby acceleration sites. We describe a new balloonborne detector, the Cosmic Ray Electron Synchrotron Telescope (CREST). This instrument achieves high sensitivity by detecting the synchrotron x-ray photons emitted by an electron in the Earth's magnetic field, rather than the primary electron itself. A 5.3 m2 array of 1024 BaF2 crystals surrounded by veto scintillators will be flown by balloon in Antarctica in 2009, preceded by a prototype test flight from Ft Sumner, NM, in Spring 2008. We expect to explore the TeV energy region of primary electrons, with sensitivity up to about 50 TeV. Here we describe the CREST science, instrument design and performance.

  11. INTEGRAL hard X-ray spectra of the cosmic X-ray background and Galactic ridge emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türler, M.; Chernyakova, M.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Lubiński, P.; Neronov, A.; Produit, N.; Walter, R.

    2010-03-01

    Aims: We derive the spectra of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) and of the Galactic ridge X-ray emission (GRXE) in the ~20-200 keV range from the data of the IBIS instrument aboard the INTEGRAL satellite obtained during the four dedicated Earth-occultation observations in early 2006. Methods: We analyze the modulation of the IBIS/ISGRI detector counts induced by the passage of the Earth through the field of view of the instrument. Unlike previous studies, we do not fix the spectral shape of the various contributions, but model instead their spatial distribution and derive for each of them the expected modulation of the detector counts. The spectra of the diffuse emission components are obtained by fitting the normalizations of the model lightcurves to the observed modulation in different energy bins. Because of degeneracy, we guide the fits with a realistic choice of the input parameters and a constraint for spectral smoothness. Results: The obtained CXB spectrum is consistent with the historic HEAO-1 results and falls slightly below the spectrum derived with Swift/BAT. A 10% higher normalization of the CXB cannot be completely excluded, but it would imply an unrealistically high albedo of the Earth. The derived spectrum of the GRXE confirms the presence of a minimum around 80 keV with improved statistics and yields an estimate of ~0.6 M⊙ for the average mass of white dwarfs in the Galaxy. The analysis also provides updated normalizations for the spectra of the Earth's albedo and the cosmic-ray induced atmospheric emission. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the potential of INTEGRAL Earth-occultation observations to derive the hard X-ray spectra of three fundamental components: the CXB, the GRXE and the Earth emission. Further observations would be extremely valuable to confirm our results with improved statistics.

  12. Cosmic Origins: A Traveling Science Exhibit and Education Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Morrow, C. A.; Harold, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Space Science Institute of Boulder, Colorado, is developing a 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Cosmic Origins, which will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Cosmic Origins will have three interrelated exhibit areas: Star Formation, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about the wide range of conditions for life on Earth and how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Visitors will also learn about the tools scientists' use, such as space-based and ground-based telescopes, to improve our understanding of the cosmos. Exhibit content will address age-old questions that form the basis of NASA's Origins and Astrobiology programs: Where did we come from? Are we alone? In addition to the exhibit, our project will include workshops for educators and docents at host sites, as well as a public Web site that will use a virtual rendering of exhibit content. The exhibit's size will permit it to visit medium sized museums in underserved regions of the country. It will begin its 3-year tour to 9 host museums and science centers in early 2005. A second 3-year tour is also planned for 2008. The Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) will manage the exhibit's national tour. Current partners in the Cosmic Origins project include ASTC, the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Lawrence Hall of Science, NASA Astrobiology Institute, NASA missions (e.g. PlanetQuest, SIRTF, and Kepler), New York Hall of Science, the SETI Institute, and the Space Telescope Science Institute. The exhibition is supported by grants from NSF and NASA. This report will focus on the Planet Quest part of the exhibition.

  13. Calculation of cosmic ray induced single event upsets: Program CRUP (Cosmic Ray Upset Program)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, P.

    1983-09-01

    This report documents PROGRAM CRUP, COSMIC RAY UPSET PROGRAM. The computer program calculates cosmic ray induced single-event error rates in microelectronic circuits exposed to several representative cosmic-ray environments.

  14. Cosmic ray intensity gradients in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckibben, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Recent progress in the determination of cosmic-ray intensity gradients is reviewed. Direct satellite measurements of the integral gradient are described together with various types of indirect measurements, including measurements of the Ar-37/Ar-39 ratio in samples from the Lost City meteorite, studies of anisotropies in neutron-monitor counting rates, and analysis of the sidereal diurnal anisotropy observed at a single point on earth. Nucleonic radial gradients and electron gradients measured by satellites in differential energy windows are discussed, and theoretical studies of the physical processes involved in these gradients are summarized. Observations of intensity gradients in heliographic latitude are reported.

  15. Cosmic ray diffusion: Report of the Workshop in Cosmic Ray Diffusion Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T. J.; Jones, F. C.

    1975-01-01

    A workshop in cosmic ray diffusion theory was held at Goddard Space Flight Center on May 16-17, 1974. Topics discussed and summarized are: (1) cosmic ray measurements as related to diffusion theory; (2) quasi-linear theory, nonlinear theory, and computer simulation of cosmic ray pitch-angle diffusion; and (3) magnetic field fluctuation measurements as related to diffusion theory.

  16. Separation of the Galactic Cosmic Rays and Inner Earth Radiation Belt Contributions to the Daily Dose Onboard the International Space Station in 2005-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lishnevskii, A. E.; Benghin, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The DB-8 detectors of the ISS radiation monitoring system (RMS) have operated almost continuously onboard the ISS service module since August 2001 till December 2014. The RMS data obtained were used for the daily monitoring of the radiation environment aboard the station. This paper considers the technique of RMS data analysis that allows one to distinguish the contributions of galactic cosmic rays and the Earth's inner radiation belt to the daily dose based on the dosimetry data obtained as a result of the station's passage in areas of the highest geomagnetic latitudes. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the dosimetry data based on this technique for 2005-2011, as well as a comparison with similar results the authors obtained previously using the technique based on an analysis of the dosimetry data obtained during station passages in the area of the South Atlantic Anomaly.

  17. Goddard Visiting Scientist Program for the Space and Earth Sciences Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Frank

    1992-01-01

    Progress reports of the Visiting Scientist Program covering the period from 1 Jul. - 30 Sep. 1992 are included. Topics covered include space science and earth science. Other topics covered include cosmic rays, magnetic clouds, solar wind, satellite data, high resolution radiometer, and microwave scattering.

  18. Extrusive and Intrusive Magmatism Greatly Influence the Tectonic Mode of Earth-Like Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourenco, D.; Tackley, P. J.; Rozel, A.; Ballmer, M.

    2017-09-01

    Plate tectonics on Earth-like planets is typically modelling using a strongly temperature-dependent visco-plastic rheology. Previous analyses have generally focussed on purely thermal convection. However, we have shown that the influence of compositional heterogeneity in the form of continental or oceanic crust can greatly influence plate tectonics by making it easier (i.e. it occurs at a lower yield stress or friction coefficient). Here we present detailed results on this topic, in particular focussing on the influence of intrusive vs. extrusive magmatism on the tectonic mode.

  19. Cosmic strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Cosmic strings are linear topological defects which are predicted by some grand unified theories to form during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe. They are the basis for the only theories of galaxy formation aside from quantum fluctuations from inflation based on fundamental physics. In contrast to inflation, they can also be observed directly through gravitational lensing and their characterisitc microwave background anisotropy. It was recently discovered that details of cosmic string evolution are very differnt from the so-called standard model that was assumed in most of the string-induced galaxy formation calculations. Therefore, the details of galaxy formation in the cosmic string models are currently very uncertain.

  20. Cosmic ray propagation and containment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1976-01-01

    The cosmic rays, an active gaseous component of the disk of the galaxy, are considered along with their propagation and containment as a part of the general dynamics of the disk. The sources of cosmic rays are a matter of speculation. The disk is inflated by the cosmic ray gas pressure comparable to the magnetic pressure, but the rate of inflation is unknown. The time spent by the individual cosmic ray particles in the disk is inversely proportional to the cosmic ray production rate. It is evident from the decay of Be(1c) that the cosmic rays circulate through a volume of space perhaps ten times the thickness of the gaseous disk, suggesting a magnetic halo extending out approximately 1 kpc from either face of the disk. The cosmic rays may be responsible for the halo by inflating the magnetic fields of the disk. Extension of the fields to 1 kpc would imply a high production rate and short life of cosmic rays in the dense gaseous disk of the galaxy.

  1. A Cosmic Variance Cookbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moster, Benjamin P.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2011-04-01

    Deep pencil beam surveys (<1 deg2) are of fundamental importance for studying the high-redshift universe. However, inferences about galaxy population properties (e.g., the abundance of objects) are in practice limited by "cosmic variance." This is the uncertainty in observational estimates of the number density of galaxies arising from the underlying large-scale density fluctuations. This source of uncertainty can be significant, especially for surveys which cover only small areas and for massive high-redshift galaxies. Cosmic variance for a given galaxy population can be determined using predictions from cold dark matter theory and the galaxy bias. In this paper, we provide tools for experiment design and interpretation. For a given survey geometry, we present the cosmic variance of dark matter as a function of mean redshift \\bar{z} and redshift bin size Δz. Using a halo occupation model to predict galaxy clustering, we derive the galaxy bias as a function of mean redshift for galaxy samples of a given stellar mass range. In the linear regime, the cosmic variance of these galaxy samples is the product of the galaxy bias and the dark matter cosmic variance. We present a simple recipe using a fitting function to compute cosmic variance as a function of the angular dimensions of the field, \\bar{z}, Δz, and stellar mass m *. We also provide tabulated values and a software tool. The accuracy of the resulting cosmic variance estimates (δσ v /σ v ) is shown to be better than 20%. We find that for GOODS at \\bar{z}=2 and with Δz = 0.5, the relative cosmic variance of galaxies with m *>1011 M sun is ~38%, while it is ~27% for GEMS and ~12% for COSMOS. For galaxies of m * ~ 1010 M sun, the relative cosmic variance is ~19% for GOODS, ~13% for GEMS, and ~6% for COSMOS. This implies that cosmic variance is a significant source of uncertainty at \\bar{z}=2 for small fields and massive galaxies, while for larger fields and intermediate mass galaxies, cosmic variance is

  2. On the correlation between the recent star formation rate in the Solar Neighbourhood and the glaciation period record on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, R.; de la Fuente Marcos, C.

    2004-11-01

    Shaviv [New Astron. 8 (2003) 39; J. Geophys. Res. 108 (2003) 3] has shown evidence for a correlation between variations in the Galactic cosmic ray flux reaching Earth and the glaciation period record on Earth during the last 2 Gyr. If the flux of cosmic rays is mainly the result of Type II supernovae, an additional correlation between the star formation history of the Solar Neighbourhood and the timing of past ice ages is expected. Higher star formation rate implies increased cosmic ray flux and this may translate into colder climate through a rise in the average low altitude cloud cover. Here we reanalyze the correlation between this star formation history and the glaciation period record on Earth using a volume limited open cluster sample. Numerical modeling and recent observational data indicate that the correlation is rather strong but only if open clusters within 1.5 kpc from the Sun are considered. Under this constraint, our statistical analysis not only suggests a strong correlation in the timing of the events (enhanced star formation and glaciation episodes), but also in the severity and length of the episodes. In particular, the snowball Earth scenario appears to be connected with the strongest episode of enhanced star formation recorded in the Solar Neighbourhood during the last 2 Gyr.

  3. Level crossing analysis of cosmic microwave background radiation: a method for detecting cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Movahed, M. Sadegh; Khosravi, Shahram, E-mail: m.s.movahed@ipm.ir, E-mail: khosravi@ipm.ir

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we study the footprint of cosmic string as the topological defects in the very early universe on the cosmic microwave background radiation. We develop the method of level crossing analysis in the context of the well-known Kaiser-Stebbins phenomenon for exploring the signature of cosmic strings. We simulate a Gaussian map by using the best fit parameter given by WMAP-7 and then superimpose cosmic strings effects on it as an incoherent and active fluctuations. In order to investigate the capability of our method to detect the cosmic strings for the various values of tension, Gμ, a simulated puremore » Gaussian map is compared with that of including cosmic strings. Based on the level crossing analysis, the superimposed cosmic string with Gμ∼>4 × 10{sup −9} in the simulated map without instrumental noise and the resolution R = 1' could be detected. In the presence of anticipated instrumental noise the lower bound increases just up to Gμ∼>5.8 × 10{sup −9}.« less

  4. COSMIC RADIATION AND TUBERCULOSIS. V. INFLUENCE OF COSMIC RADIATION ON TUBERCULOSIS AT HIGH ALTITUDE (2,300m) AND AT SEA-LEVEL

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, S.G.

    1964-02-01

    Tuberculous mice exposed to cosmic radiation at 2,300 m showed a significantly greater mean survival time and a significantly greater number of survivors than tuberculous mice exposed to cosmic radiation at sea-level. At high altitude as well as at sea-level the female showed a significantly greater mean survival than the male. The mean survival time of the male or female at high altitude is significantly greater than that of the male or female at sealevel. At high altitude there is no significant difference in montality between male and female. At sea-level the female showed a significantly greater number of survivorsmore » than the male. The pooled data showed a significantly greater number of survivors of the female. At high altitude as well as at sea- level the lung lesions diminished, whereas the spleen lesions increased significantly with increasing survival time. (auth)« less

  5. High Energy Cosmic Electrons: Messengers from Nearby Cosmic Ray Sources or Dark Matter?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the recent discoveries by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope in reference to high energy cosmic electrons, and whether their source is cosmic rays or dark matter. Specific interest is devoted to Cosmic Ray electrons anisotropy,

  6. Preliminary results of simulation of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays in ground-based experiments on plant objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belisheva, Natalia; Petrashova, Dina; Shchegolev, Boris

    The most dangerous for the astronauts and cosmonauts are the cosmic rays and drastic decrease of the tension of geomagnetic field (GMF) on the Earth orbit and in the open space. The tension in the interplanetary magnetic field is 10 nT, whereas the tension of GMF is 10 (4) nT on the Earth surface. We carried out the preliminary experiments for study the effects of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays (CR) on the plant objects (Vigna radiata, Phaseolus vulgaris, Allium cepa and A. fistulosum, Cucumis sativis). GMF was weakened by using special shielding chamber made on the basis of the amorphous alloy magnetic material. The camera is able to weaken the GMF from 48 μT till 0.192 μT. Modulation of the energetic range of the neutron component of secondary CR was performed with using of the shielding by graphite and by paraffin. The influence of hypo magnetic field and the neutron intensity were studied on the germination of seeds, the growth, the length and the side branches of the roots in the experimental samples. We found that the sensitivity to the hypo magnetic field and to the variations in energetic range of neutrons can vary from object to object. For instance, exposure of the hypo magnetic field on black bean and mung bean stimulated the growth of the roots while do not affect on the white bean. Likewise sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris (black and white bean) and Vigna radiata (mung bean) to exposure of nucleon component of cosmic rays on the Earth's surface are differed. It was found that modification of energetic range of CR by using graphite shielding leads to a change in sign of correlation between the length of roots in all experimental samples and the nucleon component of CR compared with the control samples. This is evidence that physiology of biological objects significantly are modified in hypo magnetic environment, as well as under exposure of the CR in different energetic ranges during the space flights. Our

  7. Measuring the Galactic Cosmic Ray flux with the LISA Pathfinder radiation monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Castelli, E.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, A. M.; Danzmann, K.; de Deus Silva, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Finetti, N.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Freschi, M.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Grzymisch, J.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C. J.; Lobo, J. A.; Lloro, I.; Liu, L.; Lopez-Zaragoza, J. P.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Mance, D.; Meshskar, N.; Martín, V.; Martin-Polo, L.; Martino, J.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Robertson, D. I.; Rivas, F.; Russano, G.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J. I.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Wissel, L.; Wittchen, A.; Zweifel, P.

    2018-03-01

    Test mass charging caused by cosmic rays will be a significant source of acceleration noise for space-based gravitational wave detectors like LISA. Operating between December 2015 and July 2017, the technology demonstration mission LISA Pathfinder included a bespoke monitor to help characterise the relationship between test mass charging and the local radiation environment. The radiation monitor made in situ measurements of the cosmic ray flux while also providing information about its energy spectrum. We describe the monitor and present measurements which show a gradual 40% increase in count rate coinciding with the declining phase of the solar cycle. Modulations of up to 10% were also observed with periods of 13 and 26 days that are associated with co-rotating interaction regions and heliospheric current sheet crossings. These variations in the flux above the monitor detection threshold ( ≈ 70 MeV) are shown to be coherent with measurements made by the IREM monitor on-board the Earth orbiting INTEGRAL spacecraft. Finally we use the measured deposited energy spectra, in combination with a GEANT4 model, to estimate the galactic cosmic ray differential energy spectrum over the course of the mission.

  8. Cosmic-ray propagation and containment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1977-01-01

    The cosmic rays are an active gaseous component of the disk of the galaxy, and their propagation and containment is a part of the general dynamics of the disk. The sources of cosmic rays are a matter of speculation. The disk is inflated by the cosmic-ray gas pressure, P, comparable to the magnetic pressure B super 2/ 8 pi, but the rate of inflation is unknown. The time spent by the individual cosmic-ray particles in the disk is inversely proportional to the cosmic-ray production rate and may be anything from 100,000 to more than 10 million years. It is evident from the decay of Be(10) that the cosmic rays circulate through a volume of space perhaps ten times the thickness of the gaseous disk, suggesting a magnetic halo extending out approximately 1 kpc from either face of the disk. The cosmic rays may be responsible for the halo by inflating the magnetic fields of the disk. Extension of the fields to 1 kpc would imply a high production rate and short life of cosmic rays in the dense gaseous disk of the galaxy.

  9. Steady state and dynamical structure of a cosmic-ray-modified termination shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, D. J.; Zank, G. P.

    1993-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model is developed for the structure of a cosmic-ray-modified termination shock. The model is based on the two-fluid equations of diffuse shock acceleration (Drury and Volk, 1981). Both the steady state structure of the shock and its interaction with outer heliospheric disturbances are considered. Under the assumption that the solar wind is decelerated by diffusing interstellar cosmic rates, it is shown that the natural state of the termination shock is a gradual deceleration and compression, followed by a discontinuous jump to a downstream state which is dominated by the pressure contribution of the cosmic rays. A representative model is calculated for the steady state which incorporates both interstellar cosmic ray mediation and diffusively accelerated anomalous ions through a proposed thermal leakage mechanism. The interaction of large-scale disturbances with the equilibrium termination shock model is shown to result in some unusual downstream structure, including transmitted shocks and cosmic-ray-modified contact discontinuities. The structure observed may be connected to the 2-kHz outer heliospheric radio emission (Cairns et al., 1992a, b). The time-dependent simulations also demonstrate that interaction with solar wind compressible turbulence (e.g., traveling interplanetary shocks, etc.) could induce the termination shock to continually fluctuate between cosmic-ray-dominated and gas-dynamic states. This fluctuation may represent a partial explanation of the galactic cosmic ray modulation effect and illustrates that the Pioneer and Voyager satellites will encounter an evolving shock whose structure and dynamic properties are strongly influence by the mediation of interstellar and anomalous cosmic rays.

  10. Steady state and dynamical structure of a cosmic-ray-modified termination shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, D. J.; Zank, G. P.

    1993-11-01

    A hydrodynamic model is developed for the structure of a cosmic-ray-modified termination shock. The model is based on the two-fluid equations of diffuse shock acceleration (Drury and Volk, 1981). Both the steady state structure of the shock and its interaction with outer heliospheric disturbances are considered. Under the assumption that the solar wind is decelerated by diffusing interstellar cosmic rates, it is shown that the natural state of the termination shock is a gradual deceleration and compression, followed by a discontinuous jump to a downstream state which is dominated by the pressure contribution of the cosmic rays. A representative model is calculated for the steady state which incorporates both interstellar cosmic ray mediation and diffusively accelerated anomalous ions through a proposed thermal leakage mechanism. The interaction of large-scale disturbances with the equilibrium termination shock model is shown to result in some unusual downstream structure, including transmitted shocks and cosmic-ray-modified contact discontinuities. The structure observed may be connected to the 2-kHz outer heliospheric radio emission (Cairns et al., 1992a, b). The time-dependent simulations also demonstrate that interaction with solar wind compressible turbulence (e.g., traveling interplanetary shocks, etc.) could induce the termination shock to continually fluctuate between cosmic-ray-dominated and gas-dynamic states. This fluctuation may represent a partial explanation of the galactic cosmic ray modulation effect and illustrates that the Pioneer and Voyager satellites will encounter an evolving shock whose structure and dynamic properties are strongly influence by the mediation of interstellar and anomalous cosmic rays.

  11. Searching for New Physics with Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.; Scully, Sean T.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays that produce giant extensive showers of charged particles and photons when they interact in the Earth's atmosphere provide a unique tool to search for new physics. Of particular interest is the possibility of detecting a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approximately 10 (exp -35) m. We discuss here the possible signature of Lorentz invariance violation on the spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays as compared with present observations of giant air showers. We also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive detection techniques to improve searches for Lorentz invariance violation in the future. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory, we derive a best fit to the LIV parameter of 3 .0 + 1.5 - 3:0 x 10 (exp -23) ,corresponding to an upper limit of 4.5 x 10-23 at a proton Lorentz factor of approximately 2 x 10(exp 11) . This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models.

  12. Estimates of radiation exposure from solar cosmic rays in SST altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foelsche, T.

    1974-01-01

    Factors influencing crew and passenger exposure to solar and galactic cosmic rays that is expected to occur during flights of supersonic transport aircraft are discussed, and some possibilities are considered for decreasing such exposure.

  13. Cosmic Dust Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, J.; Watts, L.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Wentworth, S.; Dodson, A.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1997-07-01

    Since May 1981, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used aircraft to collect cosmic dust (CD) particles from Earth's stratosphere. Specially designed dust collectors are prepared for flight and processed after flight in an ultraclean (Class-100) laboratory constructed for this purpose at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Particles are individually retrieved from the collectors, examined and cataloged, and then made available to the scientific community for research. Cosmic dust thereby joins lunar samples and meteorites as an additional source of extraterrestrial materials for scientific study. This catalog summarizes preliminary observations on 468 particles retrieved from collection surfaces L2021 and L2036. These surfaces were flat plate Large Area Collectors (with a 300 cm2 surface area each) which was coated with silicone oil (dimethyl siloxane) and then flown aboard a NASA ER-2 aircraft during a series of flights that were made during January and February of 1994 (L2021) and June 7 through July 5 of 1994 (L2036). Collector L2021 was flown across the entire southern margin of the US (California to Florida), and collector L2036 was flown from California to Wallops Island, VA and on to New England. These collectors were installed in a specially constructed wing pylon which ensured that the necessary level of cleanliness was maintained between periods of active sampling. During successive periods of high altitude (20 km) cruise, the collectors were exposed in the stratosphere by barometric controls and then retracted into sealed storage container-s prior to descent. In this manner, a total of 35.8 hours of stratospheric exposure was accumulated for collector L2021, and 26 hours for collector L2036.

  14. The TUS Detector of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays on Board the Lomonosov Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, P. A.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Khrenov, B. A.; Garipov, G. K.; Kalmykov, N. N.; Petrov, V. L.; Sharakin, S. A.; Shirokov, A. V.; Yashin, I. V.; Zotov, M. Y.; Biktemerova, S. V.; Grinyuk, A. A.; Grebenyuk, V. M.; Lavrova, M. V.; Tkachev, L. G.; Tkachenko, A. V.; Park, I. H.; Lee, J.; Jeong, S.; Martinez, O.; Salazar, H.; Ponce, E.; Saprykin, O. A.; Botvinko, A. A.; Senkovsky, A. N.; Puchkov, A. E.

    2017-11-01

    The origin and nature of extreme energy cosmic rays (EECRs), which have energies above the 5\\cdot10^{19} eV—the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) energy limit, is one of the most interesting and complicated problems in modern cosmic-ray physics. Existing ground-based detectors have helped to obtain remarkable results in studying cosmic rays before and after the GZK limit, but have also produced some contradictions in our understanding of cosmic ray mass composition. Moreover, each of these detectors covers only a part of the celestial sphere, which poses problems for studying the arrival directions of EECRs and identifying their sources. As a new generation of EECR space detectors, TUS (Tracking Ultraviolet Set-up), KLYPVE and JEM-EUSO, are intended to study the most energetic cosmic-ray particles, providing larger, uniform exposures of the entire celestial sphere. The TUS detector, launched on board the Lomonosov satellite on April 28, 2016 from Vostochny Cosmodrome in Russia, is the first of these. It employs a single-mirror optical system and a photomultiplier tube matrix as a photo-detector and will test the fluorescent method of measuring EECRs from space. Utilizing the Earth's atmosphere as a huge calorimeter, it is expected to detect EECRs with energies above 10^{20} eV. It will also be able to register slower atmospheric transient events: atmospheric fluorescence in electrical discharges of various types including precipitating electrons escaping the magnetosphere and from the radiation of meteors passing through the atmosphere. We describe the design of the TUS detector and present results of different ground-based tests and simulations.

  15. The Cosmic Connection

    Science.gov Websites

    Macy High School We have a simple cosmic ray detector that can be built by high school teachers. This cosmic rays vary with elevation. In addition, it is a valuable tool to teach elementary measurement

  16. Cosmic-Ray Extremely Distributed Observatory: a global cosmic ray detection framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushchov, O.; Homola, P.; Dhital, N.; Bratek, Ł.; Poznański, P.; Wibig, T.; Zamora-Saa, J.; Almeida Cheminant, K.; Alvarez Castillo, D.; Góra, D.; Jagoda, P.; Jałocha, J.; Jarvis, J. F.; Kasztelan, M.; Kopański, K.; Krupiński, M.; Michałek, M.; Nazari, V.; Smelcerz, K.; Smolek, K.; Stasielak, J.; Sułek, M.

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of the Cosmic-Ray Extremely Distributed Observatory (CREDO) is the detection and analysis of extended cosmic ray phenomena, so-called super-preshowers (SPS), using existing as well as new infrastructure (cosmic-ray observatories, educational detectors, single detectors etc.). The search for ensembles of cosmic ray events initiated by SPS is yet an untouched ground, in contrast to the current state-of-the-art analysis, which is focused on the detection of single cosmic ray events. Theoretical explanation of SPS could be given either within classical (e.g., photon-photon interaction) or exotic (e.g., Super Heavy Dark Matter decay or annihilation) scenarios, thus detection of SPS would provide a better understanding of particle physics, high energy astrophysics and cosmology. The ensembles of cosmic rays can be classified based on the spatial and temporal extent of particles constituting the ensemble. Some classes of SPS are predicted to have huge spatial distribution, a unique signature detectable only with a facility of the global size. Since development and commissioning of a completely new facility with such requirements is economically unwarranted and time-consuming, the global analysis goals are achievable when all types of existing detectors are merged into a worldwide network. The idea to use the instruments in operation is based on a novel trigger algorithm: in parallel to looking for neighbour surface detectors receiving the signal simultaneously, one should also look for spatially isolated stations clustered in a small time window. On the other hand, CREDO strategy is also aimed at an active engagement of a large number of participants, who will contribute to the project by using common electronic devices (e.g., smartphones), capable of detecting cosmic rays. It will help not only in expanding the geographical spread of CREDO, but also in managing a large manpower necessary for a more efficient crowd-sourced pattern recognition scheme to

  17. Stable laws and cosmic ray physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genolini, Y.; Salati, P.; Serpico, P. D.; Taillet, R.

    2017-04-01

    Context. In the new "precision era" for cosmic ray astrophysics, scientists making theoretical predictions cannot content themselves with average trends, but need to correctly take into account intrinsic uncertainties. The space-time discreteness of the cosmic ray sources, together with a substantial ignorance of their precise epochs and locations (with the possible exception of the most recent and close ones) play an important role in this sense. Aims: We elaborate a statistical theory to deal with this problem, relating the composite probability P(Ψ) to obtain a flux Ψ at the Earth and the single-source probability p(ψ) to contribute with a flux ψ. The main difficulty arises from the fact that p(ψ) is a "heavy tail" distribution, characterized by power-law or broken power-law behavior up to very large fluxes, for which the central limit theorem does not hold, and leading to distributions different from Gaussian. The functional form of the distribution for the aggregated flux is nonetheless unchanged by its own convolution, that is, it belongs to the so-called stable laws class. Methods: We analytically discuss the regime of validity of the stable laws associated with the distributions arising in cosmic ray astrophysics, as well as the limitations to the treatment imposed by causal considerations and partial source catalog knowledge. We validate our results with extensive Monte Carlo simulations, for different regimes of propagation parameters and energies. Results: We find that relatively simple recipes provide a satisfactory description of the probability P(Ψ). We also find that a naive Gaussian fit to simulation results would underestimate the probability of very large fluxes, that is, several times above the average, while overestimating the probability of relatively milder excursions. At large energies, large flux fluctuations are prevented by causal considerations, while at low energies, a partial knowledge of the recent and nearby population of

  18. Solar activity beyond the disk and variations of the cosmic ray gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belov, A. V.; Dorman, L. I.; Eroshenko, E. A.; Ishkov, V. N.; Oleneva, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    Part of galactic cosmic rays (CR) observed near the Earth and on the Earth come from beyond-disk regions of circumsolar space. But CR of those energies which undergo substantial modulation cover too large a path across the lines of force of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in order that they could provide an effective transfer of information about beyond-disk solar activity. And if it is still possible, the most probable channel for transferring such information must be a neutral layer of heliomagnetosphere in which the transverse CR transport is facilitated by their drift in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. A simple diffusion model for an expected CR variation in a neutral layer near the Earth is discussed. It is of importance that variations of the CR gradient are not at all always accompanied by considerable variations of IMF and solar wind velocity at the point of observation.

  19. Studying Stratospheric Temperature Variation with Cosmic Ray Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohang; He, Xiaochun

    2015-04-01

    The long term stratospheric cooling in recent decades is believed to be equally important as surface warming as evidence of influences of human activities on the climate system. Un- fortunatly, there are some discrepancies among different measurements of stratospheric tem- peratures, which could be partially caused by the limitations of the measurement techniques. It has been known for decades that cosmic ray muon flux is sensitive to stratospheric temperature change. Dorman proposed that this effect could be used to probe the tempera- ture variations in the stratophere. In this talk, a method for reconstructing stratospheric temperature will be discussed. We verify this method by comparing the stratospheric tem- perature measured by radiosonde with the ones derived from cosmic ray measurement at multiple locations around the globe.

  20. Background-Source Cosmic-Photon Elevation Scaling and Cosmic-Neutron/Photon Date Scaling in MCNP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutt, J.; Anderson, C.; McKinney, G.

    Cosmic neutron and photon fluxes are known to scale exponentially with elevation. Consequently, cosmic neutron elevation scaling was implemented for use with the background-source option shortly after its introduction into MCNP6, whereby the neutron flux weight factor was adjusted by the elevation scaling factor when the user-specified elevation differed from the selected background.dat grid-point elevation. At the same time, an elevation scaling factor was suggested for the cosmic photon flux, however, cosmic photon elevation scaling is complicated by the fact that the photon background consists of two components: cosmic and terrestrial. Previous versions of the background.dat file did not provide any way to separate these components. With Rel. 4 of this file in 2015, two new columns were added that provide the energy grid and differential cosmic photon flux separately from the total photon flux. Here we show that the cosmic photon flux component can now be scaled independently and combined with the terrestrial component to form the total photon flux at a user-specified elevation in MCNP6. Cosmic background fluxes also scale with the solar cycle due to solar modulation. This modulation has been shown to be nearly sinusoidal over time, with an inverse effect - increased modulation leads to a decrease in cosmic fluxes. This effect was initially included with the cosmic source option in MCNP6 and has now been extended for use with the background source option when: (1) the date is specified in the background.dat file, and (2) when the user specifies a date on the source definition card. A description of the cosmic-neutron/photon date scaling feature will be presented along with scaling results for past and future date extrapolations.

  1. Towards a Unified Source-Propagation Model of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M.; Molla, M.

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that the cosmic ray energy spectrum is multifractal with the analysis of cosmic ray fluxes as a function of energy revealing a first “knee” slightly below 1016 eV, a second knee slightly below 1018 eV and an “ankle” close to 1019 eV. The behaviour of the highest energy cosmic rays around and above the ankle is still a mystery and precludes the development of a unified source-propagation model of cosmic rays from their source origin to Earth. A variety of acceleration and propagation mechanisms have been proposed to explain different parts of the spectrum the most famous of course being Fermi acceleration in magnetised turbulent plasmas (Fermi 1949). Many others have been proposd for energies at and below the first knee (Peters & Cimento (1961); Lagage & Cesarsky (1983); Drury et al. (1984); Wdowczyk & Wolfendale (1984); Ptuskin et al. (1993); Dova et al. (0000); Horandel et al. (2002); Axford (1991)) as well as at higher energies between the first knee and the ankle (Nagano & Watson (2000); Bhattacharjee & Sigl (2000); Malkov & Drury (2001)). The recent fit of most of the cosmic ray spectrum up to the ankle using non-extensive statistical mechanics (NESM) (Tsallis et al. (2003)) provides what may be the strongest evidence for a source-propagation system deviating significantly from Boltmann statistics. As Tsallis has shown (Tsallis et al. (2003)), the knees appear as crossovers between two fractal-like thermal regimes. In this work, we have developed a generalisation of the second order NESM model (Tsallis et al. (2003)) to higher orders and we have fit the complete spectrum including the ankle with third order NESM. We find that, towards the GDZ limit, a new mechanism comes into play. Surprisingly it also presents as a modulation akin to that in our own local neighbourhood of cosmic rays emitted by the sun. We propose that this is due to modulation at the source and is possibly due to processes in the shell of the originating supernova. We

  2. Planetary Defense: Catastrophic Health Insurance for Planet Earth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    unclassified, and is cleared for public release. iii Contents Chapter Page Disclaimer...7Ekronkg/1996_B2.html. 5 Bob Kobres, “Meteor Defense,” Whole Earth Review (Fall 1987): 70–73. 6 Victor Clube and Bill Napier, Cosmic Winter ( Basil ...li, China - Whole family crushed to death. 06/30/1908 Tunguska, Siberia - Fire, 2 people killed. (referenced throughout paper) 04/28/1927 Aba , Japan

  3. Cosmic impact: What are the odds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. W.

    2009-12-01

    Firestone et al. (PNAS 104, 16016-16021, 2007) propose that the impact of a ~4 km diameter comet (or multiple bodies making up a similar mass) led to the Younger Dryas cooling and extinction of megafauna in North America, 12,900 years ago. Even more provocatively, Firestone et al. (Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes, Bear & Co. Books, 2006, 392pp), suggest that a nearby supernova may have produced a comet shower leading to the impact event, either by disturbing the Oort Cloud or by direct injection of 4-km comet-like bodies to the solar neighborhood. Here we show: (a) A supernova shockwave or mass ejection is not capable of triggering a shower of comets from the Oort Cloud. (b) An Oort Cloud shower from whatever cause would take 100,000 years or more for the perturbed comets to arrive in the inner solar system, and the peak flux would persist for some hundreds of thousands more years. (c) Even if all 20 solar masses or so of ejected matter from a SN were in the form of 4-km diameter balls, the probability of even one such ball hitting the Earth from an event 100 light years away would be about 3e-5. (d) A 4-km diameter ball traveling fast enough to get here from 100 LY away in some tens of thousands of years would deliver the energy of a 50 km diameter impactor traveling at typical Earth-impact velocity (~20 km/sec). We review the current impact flux on the Earth from asteroids and comets, and show that the probability of an impact of a 4-km diameter asteroid in an interval of 13,000 years is about one in a thousand, and the probability of a comet impact of that size is a few in a million. An "impact shower" caused by the injection or breakup of comets or asteroids in the inner solar system by whatever means would take tens to hundreds of thousands of years to clear out, thus the population of NEOs we see now with our telescopic surveys is what we’ve had for the last few tens of thousands of years, at least. Faced with such low odds, the evidence that such a large

  4. Cosmic Ray Induced Neutron Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overholt, Andrew

    2011-11-01

    After cancer studies performed on flight crews during the 1970s, it was found that cosmic rays produce a signficant flux of thermal neutrons at airplane altitudes. In the case of high energy cosmic rays these biologically threatening neutrons are increased at ground level. Our work models the flux of neutrons produced by high energy cosmic rays, exploring the possibility of biological impact due to extended periods of increase high energy cosmic ray flux.

  5. Constraints on cosmic strings due to black holes formed from collapsed cosmic string loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, R. R.; Gates, Evalyn

    1993-01-01

    The cosmological features of primordial black holes formed from collapsed cosmic string loops are studied. Observational restrictions on a population of primordial black holes are used to restrict f, the fraction of cosmic string loops which collapse to form black holes, and mu, the cosmic string mass-per-unit length. Using a realistic model of cosmic strings, we find the strongest restriction on the parameters f and mu is due to the energy density in 100MeV photons radiated by the black holes. We also find that inert black hole remnants cannot serve as the dark matter. If earlier, crude estimates of f are reliable, our results severely restrict mu, and therefore limit the viability of the cosmic string large-scale structure scenario.

  6. D-term inflation, cosmic strings, and consistency with cosmic microwave background measurements.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Jonathan; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2005-01-14

    Standard D-term inflation is studied in the framework of supergravity. D-term inflation produces cosmic strings; however, it can still be compatible with cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements without invoking any new physics. The cosmic strings contribution to the CMB data is not constant, nor dominant, contrary to some previous results. Using current CMB measurements, the free parameters (gauge and superpotential couplings, as well as the Fayet-Iliopoulos term) of D-term inflation are constrained.

  7. COSMIC DUST AGGREGATION WITH STOCHASTIC CHARGING

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.; Shotorban, Babak, E-mail: Lorin_Matthews@baylor.edu

    2013-10-20

    The coagulation of cosmic dust grains is a fundamental process which takes place in astrophysical environments, such as presolar nebulae and circumstellar and protoplanetary disks. Cosmic dust grains can become charged through interaction with their plasma environment or other processes, and the resultant electrostatic force between dust grains can strongly affect their coagulation rate. Since ions and electrons are collected on the surface of the dust grain at random time intervals, the electrical charge of a dust grain experiences stochastic fluctuations. In this study, a set of stochastic differential equations is developed to model these fluctuations over the surface ofmore » an irregularly shaped aggregate. Then, employing the data produced, the influence of the charge fluctuations on the coagulation process and the physical characteristics of the aggregates formed is examined. It is shown that dust with small charges (due to the small size of the dust grains or a tenuous plasma environment) is affected most strongly.« less

  8. Background-Source Cosmic-Photon Elevation Scaling and Cosmic-Neutron/Photon Date Scaling in MCNP6

    DOE PAGES

    Tutt, James Robert; Anderson, Casey Alan; McKinney, Gregg Walter

    2017-10-26

    Here, cosmic neutron and photon fluxes are known to scale exponentially with elevation. Consequently, cosmic neutron elevation scaling was implemented for use with the background-source option shortly after its introduction into MCNP6, whereby the neutron flux weight factor was adjusted by the elevation scaling factor when the user-specified elevation differed from the selected background.dat grid-point elevation. At the same time, an elevation scaling factor was suggested for the cosmic photon flux, however, cosmic photon elevation scaling is complicated by the fact that the photon background consists of two components: cosmic and terrestrial. Previous versions of the background.dat file did notmore » provide any way to separate these components. With Rel. 4 of this file in 2015, two new columns were added that provide the energy grid and differential cosmic photon flux separately from the total photon flux. Here we show that the cosmic photon flux component can now be scaled independently and combined with the terrestrial component to form the total photon flux at a user-specified elevation in MCNP6.« less

  9. Background-Source Cosmic-Photon Elevation Scaling and Cosmic-Neutron/Photon Date Scaling in MCNP6

    SciTech Connect

    Tutt, James Robert; Anderson, Casey Alan; McKinney, Gregg Walter

    Here, cosmic neutron and photon fluxes are known to scale exponentially with elevation. Consequently, cosmic neutron elevation scaling was implemented for use with the background-source option shortly after its introduction into MCNP6, whereby the neutron flux weight factor was adjusted by the elevation scaling factor when the user-specified elevation differed from the selected background.dat grid-point elevation. At the same time, an elevation scaling factor was suggested for the cosmic photon flux, however, cosmic photon elevation scaling is complicated by the fact that the photon background consists of two components: cosmic and terrestrial. Previous versions of the background.dat file did notmore » provide any way to separate these components. With Rel. 4 of this file in 2015, two new columns were added that provide the energy grid and differential cosmic photon flux separately from the total photon flux. Here we show that the cosmic photon flux component can now be scaled independently and combined with the terrestrial component to form the total photon flux at a user-specified elevation in MCNP6.« less

  10. A mechanism for inducing climatic variations through the stratosphere - Screening of cosmic rays by solar and terrestrial magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of heliomagnetic and geomagnetic fields to bring about climatic variations of long period is examined theoretically. A chemical relationship between low-energy cosmic rays and ozone balance in the stratosphere is sought as a crucial clue to historical changes in earth climate. A perturbation analysis is developed to arrive at zone depletion and reduction of stratospheric solar heating resulting from increased NOx concentration; temperature feedback and opacity feedback are allowed for. Modulation of galactic cosmic-radiation fluxes and ozone destruction in the stratosphere, colder surface temperatures associated with reduced magnetic shielding, and redistribution with height of total ozone decrease are explored.

  11. Efficient cold outflows driven by cosmic rays in high-redshift galaxies and their global effects on the IGM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samui, Saumyadip; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2018-05-01

    We present semi-analytical models of galactic outflows in high-redshift galaxies driven by both hot thermal gas and non-thermal cosmic rays. Thermal pressure alone may not sustain a large-scale outflow in low-mass galaxies (i.e. M ˜ 108 M⊙), in the presence of supernovae feedback with large mass loading. We show that inclusion of cosmic ray pressure allows outflow solutions even in these galaxies. In massive galaxies for the same energy efficiency, cosmic ray-driven winds can propagate to larger distances compared to pure thermally driven winds. On an average gas in the cosmic ray-driven winds has a lower temperature which could aid detecting it through absorption lines in the spectra of background sources. Using our constrained semi-analytical models of galaxy formation (that explains the observed ultraviolet luminosity functions of galaxies), we study the influence of cosmic ray-driven winds on the properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at different redshifts. In particular, we study the volume filling factor, average metallicity, cosmic ray and magnetic field energy densities for models invoking atomic cooled and molecular cooled haloes. We show that the cosmic rays in the IGM could have enough energy that can be transferred to the thermal gas in presence of magnetic fields to influence the thermal history of the IGM. The significant volume filling and resulting strength of IGM magnetic fields can also account for recent γ-ray observations of blazars.

  12. Study of the long time-scale variability of cosmic rays with the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, Alba; James, Irina; Salvini, Paola

    The long term modulation of the cosmic ray intensity includes both Sun and celestial anisotropies. The solar activity is due to high energy flares producing a decrease (known as Forbush Decrease, FD) in the cosmic ray intensity, with a time scale of the order of a few days, often accompained by a Ground Level Enhancement, due to direct Sun emission during the solar flare. The celestial anisotropies are due to the Earth motion in the cosmic rays reference system (solar anisotropy: Compton-Getting effect) and to the solar system location inside the Galaxy (sidereal anisotropies). These anisotropies are studied in ground-base experiments by means of EAS arrays, and the high energy solar emission is mainly studied from ground by neutron monitors. In the ARGO-YBJ experiment these phenomena are investigated by means of the "scaler mode" technique: the detector counting rates of four low multiplicity channels from singles to four-fold coincidences are recorded in a fixed time window of 0.5 s. The signal corresponds to a significant enhancement of the observed counting rate, after correcting the data for enviromental and instrumental parameters. In this paper we present the sensitivity of the ARGO-YBJ detector and the first results for both solar physics and cosmic ray anisotropy studies.

  13. Influence of land-surface evapotranspiration on the earth's climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, J.; Mintz, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Land-surface evapotranspiration is shown to strongly influence global fields of rainfall, temperature and motion by calculations using a numerical model of the atmosphere, confirming the general belief in the importance of evapotranspiration-producing surface vegetation for the earth's climate. The current version of the Goddard Laboratory atmospheric general circulation model is used in the present experiment, in which conservation equations for mass, momentum, moisture and energy are expressed in finite-difference form for a spherical grid to calculate (1) surface pressure field evolution, and (2) the wind, temperature, and water vapor fields at nine levels between the surface and a 20 km height.

  14. Deepening Cosmic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    This article is a special blend of research, theory, and practice, with clear insight into the origins of Cosmic Education and cosmic task, while recalling memories of student explorations in botany, in particular, episodes from Mr. Leonard's teaching. Mr. Leonard speaks of a storytelling curriculum that eloquently puts perspective into dimensions…

  15. The influence of the observatory latitude on the study of ultra high energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Anjos, Rita C. dos; De Souza, Vitor; De Almeida, Rogerio M.

    2017-07-01

    Recent precision measurements of the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) arrival directions, spectrum and parameters related to the mass of the primary particle have been done by the HiRes, Pierre Auger and Telescope Array (TA) Observatories. In this paper, distributions of arrival directions of events in the nearby Universe are assumed to correlate with sources in the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS), IRAS 1.2 Jy Survey, Palermo Swift-BAT and Swift-BAT catalogs, and the effect of the latitude of the observatory on the measurement of the energy spectrum and on the capability of measuring anisotropy is studied. The differences between givenmore » latitudes on the northern and southern hemispheres are quantified. It is shown that the latitude of the observatory: a) has an influence on the total flux measured and b) imposes an important limitation on the capability of measuring an anisotropic sky.« less

  16. Cosmic Rays: "A Thin Rain of Charged Particles."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are balloons and electroscopes, understanding cosmic rays, cosmic ray paths, isotopes and cosmic-ray travel, sources of cosmic rays, and accelerating cosmic rays. Some of the history of the discovery and study of cosmic rays is presented. (CW)

  17. Measurement of secondary cosmic ray intensity at Regener-Pfotzer height using low-cost weather balloons and its correlation with solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Ritabrata; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Pal, Partha Sarathi; Bhowmick, Debashis; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2017-09-01

    Cosmic ray flux in our planetary system is primarily modulated by solar activity. Radiation effects of cosmic rays on the Earth strongly depend on latitude due to the variation of the geomagnetic field strength. To study these effects we carried out a series of measurements of the radiation characteristics in the atmosphere due to cosmic rays from various places (geomagnetic latitude: ∼14.50°N) in West Bengal, India, located near the Tropic of Cancer, for several years (2012-2016) particularly covering the solar maximum in the 24th solar cycle. We present low energy (15-140 keV) secondary radiation measurement results extending from the ground till the near space (∼40 km) using a scintillator detector on board rubber weather balloons. We also concentrate on the cosmic ray intensity at the Regener-Pfotzer maxima and find a strong anti-correlation between this intensity and the solar activity even at low geomagnetic latitudes.

  18. Cosmic strings and ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharjee, Pijushpani

    1989-01-01

    The flux is calculated of ultrahigh energy protons due to the process of cusp evaporation from cosmic string loops. For the standard value of the dimensionless cosmic string parameter epsilon is identical to G(sub mu) approx. = 10(exp -6), the flux is several orders of magnitude below the observed cosmic ray flux of ultrahigh energy protons. However, the flux at any energy initially increases as the value of epsilon is decreased. This at first suggests that there may be a lower limit on the value of epsilon, which would imply a lower limit on the temperature of a cosmic string forming phase transition in the early universe. However, the calculation shows that this is not the case -- the particle flux at any energy reaches its highest value at epsilon approx. = 10(exp -15) and it then decreases for further decrease of the value of epsilon. This is due to the fact that for too small values of epsilon (less than 10(exp -15)), the energy loss of the loops through the cusp evaporation process itself (rather than gravitational energy loss of the loops) becomes the dominant factor that controls the behavior of the number density of the loops at the relevant times of emission of the particles. The highest flux at any energy remains at least four orders of magnitude below the observed flux. There is thus no lower limit on epsilon.

  19. Robust constraint on cosmic textures from the cosmic microwave background.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Stephen M; Johnson, Matthew C; Mortlock, Daniel J; Peiris, Hiranya V

    2012-06-15

    Fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) contain information which has been pivotal in establishing the current cosmological model. These data can also be used to test well-motivated additions to this model, such as cosmic textures. Textures are a type of topological defect that can be produced during a cosmological phase transition in the early Universe, and which leave characteristic hot and cold spots in the CMB. We apply bayesian methods to carry out a rigorous test of the texture hypothesis, using full-sky data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. We conclude that current data do not warrant augmenting the standard cosmological model with textures. We rule out at 95% confidence models that predict more than 6 detectable cosmic textures on the full sky.

  20. The First Results About Earthquake Study with FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. Y.; Oyama, K.; Jhuang, H. K.; Istep, M.; Hsiao, C. C.; Wang, Y. H.

    2007-12-01

    To improve the global weather prediction and space weather monitoring, six microsatellites termed the Formosa Satellite 3 - Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC) were launched into a circular low-Earth orbit (LEO) from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, at 0140 UTC on 15 April 2006. Each microsatellite of the joint Taiwan-US satellite constellation mission has a GPS occultation experiment (GOX) payload to operate the atmospheric and ionospheric radio occultation, a tiny ionospheric photometer (TIP) to observe the nighttime ionospheric airglow OI 135.6 nm emission, and a tri-band beacon (TBB) to tomographically estimate fine structures of ionospheric electron density on the satellite-to-receiver plane. While the GOX daily observes about 2500 vertical electron density profiles up to the satellite altitude, the TIP provides accurate horizontal gradients of nighttime electron density. In this study, anomalies in the ionospheric electron density structure and dynamics concurrently observed by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC and co-located ground- based GPS receivers before recent large earthquakes are presented and discussed.

  1. Model-independent Constraints on Cosmic Curvature and Opacity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guo-Jian; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Xia, Jun-Qing

    2017-09-20

    In this paper, we propose to estimate the spatial curvature of the universe and the cosmic opacity in a model-independent way with expansion rate measurements, H ( z ), and type Ia supernova (SNe Ia). On the one hand, using a nonparametric smoothing method Gaussian process, we reconstruct a function H ( z ) from opacity-free expansion rate measurements. Then, we integrate the H ( z ) to obtain distance modulus μ {sub H}, which is dependent on the cosmic curvature. On the other hand, distances of SNe Ia can be determined by their photometric observations and thus are opacity-dependent.more » In our analysis, by confronting distance moduli μ {sub H} with those obtained from SNe Ia, we achieve estimations for both the spatial curvature and the cosmic opacity without any assumptions for the cosmological model. Here, it should be noted that light curve fitting parameters, accounting for the distance estimation of SNe Ia, are determined in a global fit together with the cosmic opacity and spatial curvature to get rid of the dependence of these parameters on cosmology. In addition, we also investigate whether the inclusion of different priors for the present expansion rate ( H {sub 0}: global estimation, 67.74 ± 0.46 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}, and local measurement, 73.24 ± 1.74 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}) exert influence on the reconstructed H ( z ) and the following estimations of the spatial curvature and cosmic opacity. Results show that, in general, a spatially flat and transparent universe is preferred by the observations. Moreover, it is suggested that priors for H {sub 0} matter a lot. Finally, we find that there is a strong degeneracy between the curvature and the opacity.« less

  2. The microphysics and macrophysics of cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2013-05-15

    This review paper commemorates a century of cosmic ray research, with emphasis on the plasma physics aspects. Cosmic rays comprise only ∼10{sup −9} of interstellar particles by number, but collectively their energy density is about equal to that of the thermal particles. They are confined by the Galactic magnetic field and well scattered by small scale magnetic fluctuations, which couple them to the local rest frame of the thermal fluid. Scattering isotropizes the cosmic rays and allows them to exchange momentum and energy with the background medium. I will review a theory for how the fluctuations which scatter the cosmicmore » rays can be generated by the cosmic rays themselves through a microinstability excited by their streaming. A quasilinear treatment of the cosmic ray–wave interaction then leads to a fluid model of cosmic rays with both advection and diffusion by the background medium and momentum and energy deposition by the cosmic rays. This fluid model admits cosmic ray modified shocks, large scale cosmic ray driven instabilities, cosmic ray heating of the thermal gas, and cosmic ray driven galactic winds. If the fluctuations were extrinsic turbulence driven by some other mechanism, the cosmic ray background coupling would be entirely different. Which picture holds depends largely on the nature of turbulence in the background medium.« less

  3. The COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code (COSMIC) for use in data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuttleworth, J.; Rosolem, R.; Zreda, M.; Franz, T.

    2013-08-01

    Soil moisture status in land surface models (LSMs) can be updated by assimilating cosmic-ray neutron intensity measured in air above the surface. This requires a fast and accurate model to calculate the neutron intensity from the profiles of soil moisture modeled by the LSM. The existing Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) model is sufficiently accurate but too slow to be practical in the context of data assimilation. Consequently an alternative and efficient model is needed which can be calibrated accurately to reproduce the calculations made by MCNPX and used to substitute for MCNPX during data assimilation. This paper describes the construction and calibration of such a model, COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code (COSMIC), which is simple, physically based and analytic, and which, because it runs at least 50 000 times faster than MCNPX, is appropriate in data assimilation applications. The model includes simple descriptions of (a) degradation of the incoming high-energy neutron flux with soil depth, (b) creation of fast neutrons at each depth in the soil, and (c) scattering of the resulting fast neutrons before they reach the soil surface, all of which processes may have parameterized dependency on the chemistry and moisture content of the soil. The site-to-site variability in the parameters used in COSMIC is explored for 42 sample sites in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS), and the comparative performance of COSMIC relative to MCNPX when applied to represent interactions between cosmic-ray neutrons and moist soil is explored. At an example site in Arizona, fast-neutron counts calculated by COSMIC from the average soil moisture profile given by an independent network of point measurements in the COSMOS probe footprint are similar to the fast-neutron intensity measured by the COSMOS probe. It was demonstrated that, when used within a data assimilation framework to assimilate COSMOS probe counts into the Noah land surface model at the

  4. Advanced Cosmic Ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Wefel, John P.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 the first high-energy particle physics experiment for the Space Station, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), was selected by NASA's Administrator as a joint collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The AMS program was chartered to place a magnetic spectrometer in Earth orbit and search for cosmic antimatter. A natural consequence of this decision was that NASA would begin to explore cost-effective ways through which the design and implementation of AMS might benefit other promising payload experiments which were evolving from the Office of Space Science. The first such experiment to come forward was ACCESS in 1996. It was proposed as a new mission concept in space physics to place a cosmic-ray experiment of weight, volume, and geometry similar to the AMS on the ISS, and replace the latter as its successor when the AMS is returned to Earth. This was to be an extension of NASA's sub-orbital balloon program, with balloon payloads serving as the precursor flights and heritage for ACCESS. The balloon programs have always been a cost-effective NASA resource since the particle physics instrumentation for balloon and space applications are directly related. The next step was to expand the process, pooling together expertise from various NASA centers and universities while opening up definition of the ACCESS science goals to the international community through the standard practice of peer-review. This process is still on-going and the Accommodation Study presented here will discuss the baseline definition of ACCESS as we understand it today. Further detail on the history, scope, and background of the study is provided in Appendix A.

  5. Separation of the electron and proton cosmic-ray components by means of a calorimeter in the PAMELA satellite-borne experiment for the case of particle detection within a large aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Karelin, A. V., E-mail: karelin@hotbox.ru; Borisov, S. V.; Voronov, S. A.

    2013-06-15

    The PAMELA satellite-borne experiment is designed to study cosmic rays over a broad energy range. The apparatus has been in near-Earth cosmic space from June 2006 to the present time. It is equipped with a magnetic spectrometer for determining the sign of the particle charge and rigidity. In solving some problems, however, information from the magnetic spectrometer becomes inaccessible, so that it is necessary to employ a calorimeter to separate the electron and nuclear cosmic-ray components. A procedure for separating these components for particles arriving off the magnetic-spectrometer aperture is considered.

  6. Time-dependent evolution of cosmic-ray-modified shock structure: Transition to steady state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, D. J.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.

    1994-03-01

    Steady state solutions to the two-fluid equations of cosmic-ray-modified shock structure were investigated first by Drury and Volk (1981). Their analysis revealed, among other properties, that there exist regions of upstream parameter space where the equations possess three different downstream solutions for a given upstream state. In this paper we investigate whether or not all these solutions can occur as time-asymptotic states in a physically realistic evolution. To do this, we investigate the time-dependent evolution of the two-fluid cosmic-ray equations in going from a specified initial condition to a steady state. Our results indicate that the time-asymptotic solution is strictly single-valued, and it undergoes a transition from weakly to strongly cosmic-ray-modified at a critical value of the upstream cosmic ray energy density. The expansion of supernova remnant shocks is considered as an example, and it is shown that the strong to weak transition is in fact more likely. The third intermediate solution is shown to influence the time-dependent evolution of the shock, but it is not found to be a stable time-asymptotic state. Timescales for convergence to these states and their implications for the efficiency of shock acceleration are considered. We also investigate the effects of a recently introduced model for the injection of seed particles into the shock accelerated cosmic-ray population. The injection is found to result in a more strongly cosmic-ray-dominated shock, which supports our conclusion that for most classes of intermediate and strong cosmic-ray-modified shocks, the downstream cosmic-ray pressure component is at least as large as the thermal gas pressure, independent of the upstream state. As a result, cosmic rays almost always play a significant role in determining the shock structure and dissipation and they cannot be regarded as test particles.

  7. Time-dependent evolution of cosmic-ray-modified shock structure: Transition to steady state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, D. J.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.

    1994-01-01

    Steady state solutions to the two-fluid equations of cosmic-ray-modified shock structure were investigated first by Drury and Volk (1981). Their analysis revealed, among other properties, that there exist regions of upstream parameter space where the equations possess three different downstream solutions for a given upstream state. In this paper we investigate whether or not all these solutions can occur as time-asymptotic states in a physically realistic evolution. To do this, we investigate the time-dependent evolution of the two-fluid cosmic-ray equations in going from a specified initial condition to a steady state. Our results indicate that the time-asymptotic solution is strictly single-valued, and it undergoes a transition from weakly to strongly cosmic-ray-modified at a critical value of the upstream cosmic ray energy density. The expansion of supernova remnant shocks is considered as an example, and it is shown that the strong to weak transition is in fact more likely. The third intermediate solution is shown to influence the time-dependent evolution of the shock, but it is not found to be a stable time-asymptotic state. Timescales for convergence to these states and their implications for the efficiency of shock acceleration are considered. We also investigate the effects of a recently introduced model for the injection of seed particles into the shock accelerated cosmic-ray population. The injection is found to result in a more strongly cosmic-ray-dominated shock, which supports our conclusion that for most classes of intermediate and strong cosmic-ray-modified shocks, the downstream cosmic-ray pressure component is at least as large as the thermal gas pressure, independent of the upstream state. As a result, cosmic rays almost always play a significant role in determining the shock structure and dissipation and they cannot be regarded as test particles.

  8. CMEs, the Tail of the Solar Wind Magnetic Field Distribution, and 11-yr Cosmic Ray Modulation at 1 AU. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Ling, A. G.; Richardson, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    Using a recent classification of the solar wind at 1 AU into its principal components (slow solar wind, high-speed streams, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for 1972-2000, we show that the monthly-averaged galactic cosmic ray intensity is anti-correlated with the percentage of time that the Earth is imbedded in CME flows. We suggest that this correlation results primarily from a CME related change in the tail of the distribution function of hourly-averaged values of the solar wind magnetic field (B) between solar minimum and solar maximum. The number of high-B (square proper subset 10 nT) values increases by a factor of approx. 3 from minimum to maximum (from 5% of all hours to 17%), with about two-thirds of this increase due to CMEs. On an hour-to-hour basis, average changes of cosmic ray intensity at Earth become negative for solar wind magnetic field values square proper subset 10 nT.

  9. Phantom energy: dark energy with w <--1 causes a cosmic doomsday.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Robert R; Kamionkowski, Marc; Weinberg, Nevin N

    2003-08-15

    We explore the consequences that follow if the dark energy is phantom energy, in which the sum of the pressure and energy density is negative. The positive phantom-energy density becomes infinite in finite time, overcoming all other forms of matter, such that the gravitational repulsion rapidly brings our brief epoch of cosmic structure to a close. The phantom energy rips apart the Milky Way, solar system, Earth, and ultimately the molecules, atoms, nuclei, and nucleons of which we are composed, before the death of the Universe in a "big rip."

  10. Cosmic ray knee and new physics at the TeV scale

    SciTech Connect

    Barceló, Roberto; Masip, Manuel; Mastromatteo, Iacopo, E-mail: rbarcelo@ugr.es, E-mail: masip@ugr.es, E-mail: mastroma@sissa.it

    2009-06-01

    We analyze the possibility that the cosmic ray knee appears at an energy threshold where the proton-dark matter cross section becomes large due to new TeV physics. It has been shown that such interactions could break the proton and produce a diffuse gamma ray flux consistent with MILAGRO observations. We argue that this hypothesis implies knees that scale with the atomic mass for the different nuclei, as KASKADE data seem to indicate. We find that to explain the change in the spectral index in the flux from E{sup −2.7} to E{sup −3.1} the cross section must grow like E{sup 0.4+β}more » above the knee, where β = 0.3–0.6 parametrizes the energy dependence of the age (τ∝E{sup −β}) of the cosmic rays reaching the Earth. The hypothesis also requires mbarn cross sections (that could be modelled with TeV gravity) and large densities of dark matter (that could be clumped around the sources of cosmic rays). We argue that neutrinos would also exhibit a threshold at E = (m{sub χ}/m{sub p}) E{sub knee} ≈ 10{sup 8} GeV where their interaction with a nucleon becomes strong. Therefore, the observation at ICECUBE or ANITA of standard neutrino events above this threshold would disprove the scenario.« less

  11. The Cosmic Connection

    Science.gov Websites

    The Nuclear Science Division has produced a 25 minute video called The Cosmic Connection. The narrator and author is Tim Middleton, a teacher from Austin, Texas. This video describes cosmic rays and and Mount Diablo are shown. The video is suitable for grades 6 - 12. It can be found at http

  12. COSMIC program documentation experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalar, M. C.

    1970-01-01

    A brief history of COSMIC as it relates to the handling of program documentation is summarized; the items that are essential for computer program documentation are also discussed. COSMIC documentation and program standards handbook is appended.

  13. The HZE radiation problem. [highly-charged energetic galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Radiation-exposure limits have yet to be established for missions envisioned in the framework of the Space Exploration Initiative. The radiation threat outside the earth's magnetosphere encompasses protons from solar particle events and the highly charged energetic particles constituting galactic cosmic rays; radiation biology entails careful consideration of the extremely nonuniform patterns of such particles' energy deposition. The ability to project such biological consequences of exposure to energetic particles as carcinogenicity currently involves great uncertainties from: (1) different regions of space; (2) the effects of spacecraft structures; and (3) the dose-effect relationships of single traversals of energetic particles.

  14. Amplitudes of solar modulation of low energy cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Paizis, C.

    1982-01-01

    There have been differences of opinion regarding the origin and behavior of the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays. It has been shown that the return to solar maximum intensity levels beginning in early 1978 was dominated by Forbush decreases. These Forbush decreases were caused by radially moving interplanetary shocks resulting from large solar flares. The present investigation is concerned with solar modulation effects which were observed during the previous solar minimum. The effects were associated with high-speed streams in the solar wind. These streams caused the formation of corotating interaction regions with both forward and reverse shocks. The modulation effects seen near earth are intimately connected with these shocks.

  15. Cosmic radiation dose in aircraft--a neutron track etch detector.

    PubMed

    Vuković, B; Radolić, V; Miklavcić, I; Poje, M; Varga, M; Planinić, J

    2007-01-01

    Cosmic radiation bombards us at high altitude by ionizing particles. The radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles produced in interaction of the galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of atmosphere of the Earth. The radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard ATR 42 and A 320 aircrafts (flight level of 8 and 11 km, respectively) was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A 320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Other experiments, or dose rate measurements with the neutron dosimeter, consisting of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter, were performed on five intercontinental flights. Comparison of the dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level showed that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose. The dose rate measurements on the flights from the Middle Europe to the South and Middle America, then to Korea and Japan, showed that the flights over or near the equator region carried less dose rate; this was in accordance with the known geomagnetic latitude effect.

  16. Determining Thunderstorm Electric Fields using Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, B.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.; Ebert, U.; Rutjes, C.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a novel non-intrusive way to investigate electric fields in thunderclouds.Energetic cosmic rays penetrating the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. The front of the shower is a plasma cloud that contains 10^6 or more free electrons and positrons moving towards the Earth's surface at the speed of light. The electric fields that exists in thunderclouds induces electric currents in the plasma cloud that emit radio waves. The radio footprint for intensity, linear and circular polarization thus contains the finger print of the atmospheric electric fields along the path of the air shower.Here we report on the analysis of many cosmic-ray radio footprints as have been measured at LOFAR, a dense array of simple radio antennas (several thousands of dual-polarized antennas) primarily developed for radio-astronomy observations. We show that this method can be used to determine the charge structure in thunderclouds and discuss the accuracy of the method. We have observed seasonal dependencies.

  17. Cosmic Dawn Science Interest Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Cosmic Origins Program Analysis Group

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic Dawn was identified as one of the three science objectives for this decade in the _New Worlds, New Horizons_ Decadal report, and it will likely continue to be a research focus well into the next decade. Cosmic Dawn refers to the interval during which the Universe transitioned from a nearly completely neutral state back to a nearly fully ionized state and includes the time during which the first stars formed and the first galaxies assembled.The Cosmic Dawn Science Interest Group (SIG) was formed recently under the auspices of the Cosmic Origins Program Analysis Group (COPAG). The Cosmic Dawn SIG focusses on the science cases, observations, and technology development needed to address the "great mystery" of Cosmic Origins. The reach of this SIG is broad, involving the nature of the first stars and the detectability of gamma-ray bursts at high redshifts, the extent to which the first galaxies and first supermassive black holes grew together, and the technology required to pursue these questions.For further information, consult the Cosmic Dawn SIG Web site http://cd-sig.jpl.nasa.gov/ and join the mailing list (by contacting the author).Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  18. Influence of rare earth content on Mm-based AB 5 metal hydride alloys for Ni-MH batteries-An X-ray fluorescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, M. V.; Raju, M.; Manimaran, K.; Balachandran, G.; Nair, Lekshmi M.

    AB 5-type MH alloys with Mm (Misch metal) as the A part (with varied rare earth contents in Mm) were investigated for rare earth by XRF analysis and battery performance by life cycle tests with an objective of understanding the influence of rare earth content on electrochemical hydrogen storage. The La/Ce ratio was found to vary from 0.51 to 18.73. The capacity output varied between 179 and 266 mAh g -1. The results show that the La/Ce ratio has a strong influence on the performance, with the best performance realized with samples having an La/Ce ratio of around 12. La enhancement facilitates easy activation due to refinement in grain size and interstitial dimensions. Also, an orderly influence on crystalline structure could be seen. The study demonstrates that the rare earth content is an essential factor in determining the maximum capacity output because of its influence on crystal orientation as well as an increase in the radius of the interstitials, lattice constants and cell volumes.

  19. Radioresistance of Adenine to Cosmic Rays.

    PubMed

    Vignoli Muniz, Gabriel S; Mejía, Christian F; Martinez, Rafael; Auge, Basile; Rothard, Hermann; Domaracka, Alicja; Boduch, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The presence of nucleobases in carbonaceous meteorites on Earth is an indication of the existence of this class of molecules in outer space. However, space is permeated by ionizing radiation, which can have damaging effects on these molecules. Adenine is a purine nucleobase that amalgamates important biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and ATP. Adenine has a unique importance in biochemistry and therefore life. The aim of this work was to study the effects of cosmic ray analogues on solid adenine and estimate its survival when exposed to corpuscular radiation. Adenine films were irradiated at GANIL (Caen, France) and GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) by 820 MeV Kr 33+ , 190 MeV Ca 10+ , 92 MeV Xe 23+ , and 12 MeV C 4+ ion beams at low temperature. The evolution of adenine molecules under heavy ion irradiation was studied by IR absorption spectroscopy as a function of projectile fluence. It was found that the adenine destruction cross section (σ d ) follows an electronic stopping power (S e ) power law under the form: CS e n ; C is a constant, and the exponential n is a dimensionless quantity. Using the equation above to fit our results, we determined σ d  = 4 × 10 -17 S e 1.17 , with S e in kiloelectronvolts per micrometer (keV μm -1 ). New IR absorption bands arise under irradiation of adenine and can be attributed to HCN, CN - , C 2 H 4 N 4 , CH 3 CN, and (CH 3 ) 3 CNC. These findings may help to understand the stability and chemistry related to complex organic molecules in space. The half-life of solid adenine exposed to the simulated interstellar medium cosmic ray flux was estimated as (10 ± 8) × 10 6 years. Key Words: Heavy ions-Infrared spectroscopy-Astrochemistry-Cosmic rays-Nucleobases-Adenine. Astrobiology 17, 298-308.

  20. Crest - A Balloon-borne Instrument To Measure Cosmic-ray Electrons Above TeV Energies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubnell, Michael; Anderson, T.; Bower, C.; Coutu, S.; Geske, M.; Müller, D.; Musser, J.; Nutter, S.; Park, N.; Tarlé, G.; Wakely, S.; Yagi, A.

    2009-01-01

    The observation of high energy (E > 1 TeV) electrons in the cosmic radiation provides important information on the distribution and energetics of local cosmic-ray sources. Galactic cosmic-ray electrons are thought to be shock accelerated in supernova remnants as evident from observations of non-thermal X-rays and TeV gamma rays. Their locally observed energy spectrum above 1 TeV is expected to reflect the distribution and abundance of nearby acceleration sites. However, the rates at these energies are low and the direct detection would require unfeasibly large balloons or satellite born detectors. CREST, a balloon-borne detector array of 1024 BaF2 crystals, overcomes this hurdle: it will measure the intensity and spectrum of multi-TeV electrons by detecting synchrotron photons emitted from electrons passing through the earth's magnetic field. Thus CREST's acceptance is several times its geometric area providing sensitivity up to about 50 TeV. Following an engineering flight in spring of 2009, CREST will be flown in a circumpolar orbit on an upcoming Antarctic long-duration balloon flight. This work is supported by NASA and CSBF.

  1. Human response to high-background radiation environments on Earth and in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, M.; Manti, L.

    The main long-term goal of the space exploration program is the colonization of the planets of the Solar System The high cosmic radiation equivalent dose rate represents a major problem for a stable and safe colonization of the planets The dose rate on Mars ranges between 60 and 150 mSv year depending on the Solar cycle and altitude and can reach values as high as 360 mSv year on the Moon The average dose rate on the Earth is about 3 mSv year reduced to about 1 mSv year excluding the internal exposure to Rn daughters However some areas of the Earth have anomalously high levels of background radiation Values 200-400 times higher than the world average are found in regions where monazite sand deposits are abundant Population in Tibet experience a high cosmic radiation background Epidemiological studies did not detect any adverse health effects in the populations living in those high-background radiation areas on Earth Chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from the population living in the high-background radiation areas have been measured in several studies because the chromosomal damage represents an early biomarker of cancer risk Similar cytogenetic studies have been recently performed in cohort of astronauts involved in single or repeated space flights over many years A comparison of the cytogenetic findings in populations exposed at high dose rate on Earth or in space will be described

  2. Acoustic instability driven by cosmic-ray streaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    1994-01-01

    We study the linear stability of compressional waves in a medium through which cosmic rays stream at the Alfven speed due to strong coupling with Alfven waves. Acoustic waves can be driven unstable by the cosmic-ray drift, provided that the streaming speed is sufficiently large compared to the thermal sound speed. Two effects can cause instability: (1) the heating of the thermal gas due to the damping of Alfven waves driven unstable by cosmic-ray streaming; and (2) phase shifts in the cosmic-ray pressure perturbation caused by the combination of cosmic-ray streaming and diffusion. The instability does not depend on the magnitude of the background cosmic-ray pressure gradient, and occurs whether or not cosmic-ray diffusion is important relative to streaming. When the cosmic-ray pressure is small compared to the gas pressure, or cosmic-ray diffusion is strong, the instability manifests itself as a weak overstability of slow magnetosonic waves. Larger cosmic-ray pressure gives rise to new hybrid modes, which can be strongly unstable in the limits of both weak and strong cosmic-ray diffusion and in the presence of thermal conduction. Parts of our analysis parallel earlier work by McKenzie & Webb (which were brought to our attention after this paper was accepted for publication), but our treatment of diffusive effects, thermal conduction, and nonlinearities represent significant extensions. Although the linear growth rate of instability is independent of the background cosmic-ray pressure gradient, the onset of nonlinear eff ects does depend on absolute value of DEL (vector differential operator) P(sub c). At the onset of nonlinearity the fractional amplitude of cosmic-ray pressure perturbations is delta P(sub C)/P(sub C) approximately (kL) (exp -1) much less than 1, where k is the wavenumber and L is the pressure scale height of the unperturbed cosmic rays. We speculate that the instability may lead to a mode of cosmic-ray transport in which plateaus of uniform cosmic

  3. Variations in atmospheric transparency under the action of galactic cosmic rays as a possible cause of their effect on the formation of cloudiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, I. V.; Jungner, H.

    2011-10-01

    The possible mechanism by which cosmic rays affect the formation of neutral water droplets and ice crystals in the Earth's atmosphere has been considered. This mechanism is based on changes in atmospheric transparency and vertical temperature distribution. It has been indicated that a change in the optical thickness for visible and IR radiation by several percents, which can take place when cosmic-ray particles penetrate into the atmosphere, results in a change in the temperature vertical distribution, affecting the growth of water droplets, concentration of active condensation nuclei, and the formation of ice particles. This mechanism makes it possible to explain the correlation between the intensity of galactic cosmic rays at low altitudes and the absence of this correlation at middle altitudes.

  4. Cosmic ray transport in astrophysical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Schlickeiser, R.

    2015-09-15

    Since the development of satellite space technology about 50 years ago the solar heliosphere is explored almost routinely by several spacecrafts carrying detectors for measuring the properties of the interplanetary medium including energetic charged particles (cosmic rays), solar wind particle densities, and electromagnetic fields. In 2012, the Voyager 1 spacecraft has even left what could be described as the heliospheric modulation region, as indicated by the sudden disappearance of low energy heliospheric cosmic ray particles. With the available in-situ measurements of interplanetary turbulent electromagnetic fields and of the momentum spectra of different cosmic ray species in different interplanetary environments, themore » heliosphere is the best cosmic laboratory to test our understanding of the transport and acceleration of cosmic rays in space plasmas. I review both the historical development and the current state of various cosmic ray transport equations. Similarities and differences to transport theories for terrestrial fusion plasmas are highlighted. Any progress in cosmic ray transport requires a detailed understanding of the electromagnetic turbulence that is responsible for the scattering and acceleration of these particles.« less

  5. Diffusion of strongly magnetized cosmic ray particles in a turbulent medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ptuskin, V. S.

    1985-01-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) propagation in a turbulent medium is usually considered in the diffusion approximation. Here, the diffusion equation is obtained for strongly magnetized particles in the general form. The influence of a large-scale random magnetic field on CR propagation in interstellar medium is discussed. Cosmic rays are assumed to propagate in a medium with a regular field H and an ensemble of random MHD waves. The energy density of waves on scales smaller than the free path 1 of CR particles is small. The collision integral of the general form which describes interaction between relativistic particles and waves in the quasilinear approximation is used.

  6. Fitting cosmic microwave background data with cosmic strings and inflation.

    PubMed

    Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Urrestilla, Jon

    2008-01-18

    We perform a multiparameter likelihood analysis to compare measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra with predictions from models involving cosmic strings. Adding strings to the standard case of a primordial spectrum with power-law tilt ns, we find a 2sigma detection of strings: f10=0.11+/-0.05, where f10 is the fractional contribution made by strings in the temperature power spectrum (at l=10). CMB data give moderate preference to the model ns=1 with cosmic strings over the standard zero-strings model with variable tilt. When additional non-CMB data are incorporated, the two models become on a par. With variable ns and these extra data, we find that f10<0.11, which corresponds to Gmicro<0.7x10(-6) (where micro is the string tension and G is the gravitational constant).

  7. Cosmic superstrings: Observable remnants of brane inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Mark Charles

    Brane inflation provides a natural dynamical model for the physics which underlie the inflationary paradigm. Besides their inflationary predictions, brane models imply another observable consequence: cosmic strings. In this dissertation I outline the background of how cosmic strings arise in brane inflationary models and how the properties of the strings and the models are mutually tied (Chapter 2). I then use cosmological observations to put limits on the properties of any actually-existing cosmic string network (Chapter 3). Next, I study the question of how cosmic superstrings, as the cosmic strings arising from string theory are known, could be distinct from classical gauge- theory cosmic strings. In particular, I propose an analytical model for the cosmological evolution of a network of binding cosmic strings (Chapter 4); I also describe the distinctive gravitational lensing phenomena that are caused by binding strings (Chapter 5). Finally, I lay out the background for the numerical study of a gauge theory model for the dynamics of cosmic superstring binding (Chapter 6).

  8. Dose equivalent on the Moon contributed from cosmic rays and their secondary particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayatsu, K.; Hareyama, Makoto; Hasebe, N.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamashita, N.

    Estimation of radiation dose on and under the lunar surface is quite important for human activity on the Moon and in the future lunar bases. Radiation environment on the Moon is much different from that on the Earth. Galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles directly penetrate the lunar surface because of no atmosphere and no magnetic field around the Moon. Then, those generate many secondary particles such as gamma rays, neutrons and other charged particles by interaction with soils under the lunar surface. Therefore, the estimation of radiation dose from them on the surface and the underground of the Moon are essential for safety human activities. In this study the ambient dose equivalent in the ICRU sphere at the surface and various depths of the Moon is estimated based on the latest galactic cosmic ray spectrum and its generating secondary particles calculated by the Geant4 code. On the surface the most dominant contribution for the dose are not protons and heliums, but heavy components of galactic cosmic rays such as iron, while in the ground, secondary neutrons are the most dominant. In particular, the dose from neutrons becomes maximal at 50 - 100 g/cm2 of lunar soil depth, because fast neutrons with about 1.0 MeV are mostly produced at this depth and give a large dose. On the surface, the dose originated from GCR is quite sensitive for solar cycle activity, while that from secondary neutrons is not so sensitive. Inversely, under the surface, the dose from neutron is much sensitive for solar activity related to the flux of galactic cosmic rays. This difference should be considered to shield cosmic radiation for human activity on the Moon.

  9. Influence of accretion on lead in the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galer, Stephen J. G.; Goldstein, Steven L.

    The Pb abundance and isotope composition of the Earth is fundamentally altered from bulk solar system values by the processes occurring during accretion. The most important of the possible processes are volatile element loss and core formation, or some form of inhomogeneous accretion/condensation. The final result is an Earth highly impoverished in 204Pb and other Pb isotopes in primordial abundance. Depending on the exact timing, some radiogenic Pb is also lost either to space or to the core; the degree of loss occurs in the same order as the parent decay constants, namely 207Pb > 206Pb > 208Pb. In this contribution, we explore the likely effects accretion had on the Pb isotope composition of the present day bulk silicate Earth and its secular isotope evolution. This is used to address a number of questions: (1) What can be learned about accretion from the Pb isotope composition of the bulk silicate Earth? (2) Can effects of accretion reconcile the classical "Pb paradox" of a 206Pb-rich bulk silicate Earth? (3) What exactly is the meaning of the "age of the Earth" within the context of Pb isotopes? By consideration of a number of accretion scenarios it is demonstrated that Pb isotopes yield information only on the following two coupled quantities: Firstly, the accretion interval Δ T, the time between initial condensation of the solar nebula (at 4.566Ga) and when accretion-produced U/Pb fractionation (whether loss of Pb to the core or to space) in the silicate Earth ceased. Secondly, the mean 238U/204 Pb ratio μ during accretion—no details of changes in μ during the accretion interval can be resolved. The effects of accretion are thus adequately considered in terms of a simple two-stage model described by μ over ΔT followed by a postaccretion μ. The systematics of μ and ΔT are then examined for the cases of present day terrestrial reservoirs and Archean leads. These estimates of μ and ΔT for the present and past silicate Earth are not compatible with

  10. On the motion of a quantum particle in the spinning cosmic string space–time

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanabadi, H., E-mail: h.hasanabadi@shahroodut.ac.ir; Afshardoost, A.; Zarrinkamar, S.

    2015-05-15

    We analyze the energy spectrum and the wave function of a particle subjected to magnetic field in the spinning cosmic string space–time and investigate the influence of the spinning reference frame and topological defect on the system. To do this we solve Schrödinger equation in the spinning cosmic string background. In our work, instead of using an approximation in the calculations, we use the quasi-exact ansatz approach which gives the exact solutions for some primary levels. - Highlights: • Solving the Schrödinger equation in the spinning cosmic string space time. • Proposing a quasi-exact analytical solution to the general formmore » of the corresponding equation. • Generalizing the previous works.« less

  11. A relationship between galactic cosmic radiation and tree rings.

    PubMed

    Dengel, Sigrid; Aeby, Dominik; Grace, John

    2009-11-01

    Here, we investigated the interannual variation in the growth rings formed by Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) trees in northern Britain (55 degrees N, 3 degrees W) over the period 1961-2005 in an attempt to disentangle the influence of atmospheric variables acting at different times of year. Annual growth rings, measured along the north radius of freshly cut (frozen) tree discs and climatological data recorded at an adjacent site were used in the study. Correlations were based on Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients between the annual growth anomaly and these climatic and atmospheric factors. Rather weak correlations between these variables and growth were found. However, there was a consistent and statistically significant relationship between growth of the trees and the flux density of galactic cosmic radiation. Moreover, there was an underlying periodicity in growth, with four minima since 1961, resembling the period cycle of galactic cosmic radiation. * We discuss the hypotheses that might explain this correlation: the tendency of galactic cosmic radiation to produce cloud condensation nuclei, which in turn increases the diffuse component of solar radiation, and thus increases the photosynthesis of the forest canopy.

  12. Evidence for a mixed mass composition at the 'ankle' in the cosmic-ray spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; D'Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gaté, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hasankiadeh, Q.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Lebrun, P.; Legumina, R.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Naranjo, I.; Navas, S.; Nellen, L.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, H.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollant, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stasielak, J.; Strafella, F.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Torri, M.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valbuena-Delgado, A.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yelos, D.; Younk, P.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    We report a first measurement for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays of the correlation between the depth of shower maximum and the signal in the water Cherenkov stations of air-showers registered simultaneously by the fluorescence and the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Such a correlation measurement is a unique feature of a hybrid air-shower observatory with sensitivity to both the electromagnetic and muonic components. It allows an accurate determination of the spread of primary masses in the cosmic-ray flux. Up till now, constraints on the spread of primary masses have been dominated by systematic uncertainties. The present correlation measurement is not affected by systematics in the measurement of the depth of shower maximum or the signal in the water Cherenkov stations. The analysis relies on general characteristics of air showers and is thus robust also with respect to uncertainties in hadronic event generators. The observed correlation in the energy range around the 'ankle' at lg ⁡ (E /eV) = 18.5- 19.0 differs significantly from expectations for pure primary cosmic-ray compositions. A light composition made up of proton and helium only is equally inconsistent with observations. The data are explained well by a mixed composition including nuclei with mass A > 4. Scenarios such as the proton dip model, with almost pure compositions, are thus disfavored as the sole explanation of the ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray flux at Earth.

  13. Impact of Cosmic-Ray Transport on Galactic Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farber, R.; Ruszkowski, M.; Yang, H.-Y. K.; Zweibel, E. G.

    2018-04-01

    The role of cosmic rays generated by supernovae and young stars has very recently begun to receive significant attention in studies of galaxy formation and evolution due to the realization that cosmic rays can efficiently accelerate galactic winds. Microscopic cosmic-ray transport processes are fundamental for determining the efficiency of cosmic-ray wind driving. Previous studies modeled cosmic-ray transport either via a constant diffusion coefficient or via streaming proportional to the Alfvén speed. However, in predominantly cold, neutral gas, cosmic rays can propagate faster than in the ionized medium, and the effective transport can be substantially larger; i.e., cosmic rays can decouple from the gas. We perform three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of patches of galactic disks including the effects of cosmic rays. Our simulations include the decoupling of cosmic rays in the cold, neutral interstellar medium. We find that, compared to the ordinary diffusive cosmic-ray transport case, accounting for the decoupling leads to significantly different wind properties, such as the gas density and temperature, significantly broader spatial distribution of cosmic rays, and higher wind speed. These results have implications for X-ray, γ-ray, and radio emission, and for the magnetization and pollution of the circumgalactic medium by cosmic rays.

  14. Cosmic Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic Topology is the name given to the study of the overall shape of the universe, which involves both global topological features and more local geometrical properties such as curvature. Whether space is finite or infinite, simply-connected or multi-connected like a torus, smaller or greater than the portion of the universe that we can directly observe, are questions that refer to topology rather than curvature. A striking feature of some relativistic, multi-connected "small" universe models is to create multiples images of faraway cosmic sources. While the most recent cosmological data fit the simplest model of a zero-curvature, infinite space model, they are also consistent with compact topologies of the three homogeneous and isotropic geometries of constant curvature, such as, for instance, the spherical Poincaré Dodecahedral Space, the flat hypertorus or the hyperbolic Picard horn. After a "dark age" period, the field of Cosmic Topology has recently become one of the major concerns in cosmology, not only for theorists but also for observational astronomers, leaving open a number of unsolved issues.

  15. Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Edward C.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Prince, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is research in cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics at the Space Radiation Laboratory (SRL) of the California Institute of Technology. The primary activities discussed involve the development of new instrumentation and techniques for future space flight. In many cases these instrumentation developments were tested in balloon flight instruments designed to conduct new investigations in cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics. The results of these investigations are briefly summarized. Specific topics include a quantitative investigation of the solar modulation of cosmic ray protons and helium nuclei, a study of cosmic ray positron and electron spectra in interplanetary and interstellar space, the solar modulation of cosmic rays, an investigation of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of cosmic ray isotopic abundances, and a balloon measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray boron, carbon, and nitrogen.

  16. A roadmap for the detection and characterization of other Earths.

    PubMed

    Fridlund, Malcolm; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Liseau, Réne; Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Franck; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The European Space Agency and other space agencies such as NASA recognize that the question with regard to life beyond Earth in general, and the associated issue of the existence and study of exoplanets in particular, is of paramount importance for the 21(st) century. The new Cosmic Vision science plan, Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, which is built around four major themes, has as its first theme: "What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life?" This main theme is addressed through further questions: 1) How do gas and dust give rise to stars and planets? 2) How will the search for and study of exoplanets eventually lead to the detection of life outside Earth (biomarkers)? 3) How did life in the Solar System arise and evolve? Although ESA has busied itself with these issues since the beginning of the Darwin study in 1996, it has become abundantly clear that, as these topics have evolved, only a very large effort, addressed from the ground and from space with the utilization of different instruments and space missions, can provide the empirical results required for a complete understanding. The good news is that the problems can be addressed and solved within a not-too-distant future. In this short essay, we present the present status of a roadmap related to projects that are related to the key long-term goal of understanding and characterizing exoplanets, in particular Earth-like planets.

  17. Maria Montessori's Cosmic Vision, Cosmic Plan, and Cosmic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grazzini, Camillo

    2013-01-01

    This classic position of the breadth of Cosmic Education begins with a way of seeing the human's interaction with the world, continues on to the grandeur in scale of time and space of that vision, then brings the interdependency of life where each growing human becomes a participating adult. Mr. Grazzini confronts the laws of human nature in…

  18. A Study of Heavy Trans-Iron Primary Cosmic Rays (Z More than or Equal to 55) with a Fast Film Cerenkov Detector. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinsky, L. S.

    1972-01-01

    The detection and measurement of the cosmic ray charge spectrum for nuclei heavier than iron (Fe, Z = 26) are discussed. These trans-iron nuclei are of great interest for several reasons. They promise to be one of the more sensitive clocks for use in determining the age of cosmic rays. The discovery of radioactive nuclides and their decay products in the primary flux, will allow an estimation of the elapsed time since these cosmic rays were synthesized. In addition, the relatively short interaction length of the very heavy trans-iron particles makes their relative abundance a source of information regarding the amount of interstellar matter that they had to traverse to reach the earth. A study of the trans-iron cosmic rays may provide clues as to the very processes of nucleosyntheses by which the bulk of the trans-iron nuclei in the universe are produced. This in turn may shed light on the mechanics of the supernova, which is postulated to be the major source of all cosmic rays. Finally, trans-iron cosmic ray experiments may demonstrate the existence of the recently postulated super-heavy nuclei.

  19. Cosmic Ray Exposure Ages of Stony Meteorites: Space Erosion or Yarkovsky?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2014-01-01

    Space erosion from dust impacts may set upper limits on the cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of stony meteorites. A meteoroid orbiting within the asteroid belt is bombarded by both cosmic rays and interplanetary dust particles. Galactic cosmic rays penetrate only the first few meters of the meteoroid; deeper regions are shielded. The dust particle impacts create tiny craters on the meteoroid's surface, wearing it away by space erosion (abrasion) at a particular rate. Hence a particular point inside a meteoroid accumulates cosmic ray products only until that point wears away, limiting CRE ages. The results would apply to other regolith-free surfaces in the solar system as well, so that abrasion may set upper CRE age limits which depend on the dusty environment. Calculations based on N. Divine's dust populations and on micrometeoroid cratering indicate that stony meteoroids in circular ecliptic orbits at 2 AU will record 21Ne CRE ages of approx.176 x 10(exp 6) years if dust masses are in the range 10(exp -21) - 10(exp -3) kg. This is in broad agreement with the maximum observed CRE ages of approx. 100 x 10(exp 6) years for stones. High erosion rates in the inner solar system may limit the CRE ages of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) to approx. 120 x 10(exp 6) years. If abrasion should prove to be approx. 6 times quicker than found here, then space erosion may be responsible for many of the measured CRE ages of main belt stony meteorites. In that case the CRE ages may not measure the drift time to the resonances due to the Yarkovsky effects as in the standard scenario, and that for some reason Yarkovsky is ineffective.

  20. Holocene Indian Ocean Cosmic Impacts: The Megatsunami Chevron Evidence From Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, W.; Bryant, E.; Gusiakov, V.; Abbott, D.; Rambolamana, G.; Raza, H.; Courty, M.; Breger, D.; Gerard-Little, P.; Burckle, L.

    2006-12-01

    The 2.6 million year Quaternary period terrestrial physical record lacks definitive crater evidence for major regional catastrophic impacts by asteroids and comets other than the 10.5-km diameter Botsumtwi structure in Ghana and the 14.0-km diameter Zhamanshin structure in Kazakhstan [1] dating between about 900 and 1100 kya. Current cosmic impact rate models suggest that an average of between 3-6 globally catastrophic impacts should have occurred on the Earth during the Quaternary, along with several additional significant regional impacts in addition to Zhamanshin and Botsumtwi. These models and data indicate that the great majority of the "missing" major impact locations would likely have occurred in poorly studied oceanic settings. Only recently have Late Quaternary and Holocene period coastal paleo-megatsunami chevron deposits been defined in the Caribbean and along the western coasts of Australia, along with the suggestion that some may have been created by oceanic cosmic impacts in distinction to those caused by landslips, eruptions, and seismic events. We investigate the possibility that many or most megatsunami chevrons occurring along the southern coast of Madagascar were caused by two or more major Holocene Indian Ocean cosmic impacts. This hypothesis is based on an initial study of the worldwide archaeological and anthropological record, and the preliminary study of satellite images of the chevrons, selected Indian Ocean deep-sea cores, sea-floor bathymetry, and physical examination of the Madagascar deposits themselves. Candidate Indian Ocean impact structures are identified and correlated with the southern Madagascar megatsunami chevron deposits. [1] Masse, W.B. 2007 The Archaeology and Anthropology of Quaternary Period Cosmic Impact. In Bobrowsky, P.T. & Rickman, H. (eds.)Comets/Asteroid Impacts and Human Society. Springer, Berlin (in press).

  1. Separation of gravitational-wave and cosmic-shear contributions to cosmic microwave background polarization.

    PubMed

    Kesden, Michael; Cooray, Asantha; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2002-07-01

    Inflationary gravitational waves (GW) contribute to the curl component in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Cosmic shear--gravitational lensing of the CMB--converts a fraction of the dominant gradient polarization to the curl component. Higher-order correlations can be used to map the cosmic shear and subtract this contribution to the curl. Arcminute resolution will be required to pursue GW amplitudes smaller than those accessible by the Planck surveyor mission. The blurring by lensing of small-scale CMB power leads with this reconstruction technique to a minimum detectable GW amplitude corresponding to an inflation energy near 10(15) GeV.

  2. Interplanetary charged particle models (1974). [and the effects of cosmic exposure upon spacecraft and spacecraft components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divine, N.

    1975-01-01

    The design of space vehicles for operation in interplanetary space is given, based on descriptions of solar wind, solar particle events, and galactic cosmic rays. A state-of-the-art review is presented and design criteria are developed from experiment findings aboard interplanetary and high-altitude earth-orbiting spacecraft. Solar cells were found to be particularly sensitive. Solar protons may also impact the reliability of electric propulsion systems and spacecraft surfaces, as well as causing interference, detector saturation, and spurious signals. Galactic cosmic-ray impact can lead to similar electronic failure and interference and may register in photographic films and other emulsions. It was concluded that solar wind electron measurements might result from differential charging when shadowed portions of the spacecraft acquired a negative charge from electron impact.

  3. The Parker Instability with Cosmic-Ray Streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintz, Evan; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2018-06-01

    Recent studies have found that cosmic-ray transport plays an important role in feedback processes such as star formation and the launching of galactic winds. Although cosmic-ray buoyancy is widely held to be a destabilizing force in galactic disks, the effect of cosmic-ray transport on the stability of stratified systems has yet to be analyzed. We perform a stability analysis of a stratified layer for three different cosmic-ray transport models: decoupled (Classic Parker), coupled with γ c = 4/3 but not streaming (Modified Parker), and finally coupled with streaming at the Alfvén speed. When the compressibility of the cosmic rays is decreased the system becomes much more stable, but the addition of cosmic-ray streaming to the Parker instability severely destabilizes it. Through comparison of these three cases and analysis of the work contributions for the perturbed quantities of each system, we demonstrate that cosmic-ray heating of the gas is responsible for the destabilization of the system. We find that a 3D system is unstable over a larger range of wavelengths than the 2D system. Therefore, the Parker instability with cosmic-ray streaming may play an important role in cosmic-ray feedback.

  4. Influence of gravity on deformation of blocks in Earth's crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataurova, A. A.; Stefanov, Yu. P.; Bakeev, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The article presents the results of numerical calculations of deformation using an Earth's crust model fragment under the influence of gravitational force. It is shown that plastic deformation in low-strength blocks changes the stress-strain state in the medium and produces a surface deflection which is hundred meters deep. The deflection is defined by the properties of the medium, its extent, and conditions at the lateral boundaries. The order of load application beyond the elastic limit affects the development of deformation, which should be taken into account when formulating problems and performing numerical simulations. The problem has been solved using a two-dimensional elastoplastic approach.

  5. On quasi-periodic variations of low-energy cosmic rays observed near earth.

    PubMed

    Kudela, Karel; Langer, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) may partially, especially at high altitudes, contribute to the dosimetric characteristics. Along with irregular CR variations as Forbush decreases and solar particle events are, the quasi-periodic variations may be of some relevance too. A very short review (with references to original papers) of the present knowledge of various types of such variations is presented, namely (i) diurnal wave, (ii) ~27 d variability due to the solar rotation, (iii) Rieger-type periodicity, and (iv) quasi-biennial oscillations as well as waves on longer time scales related to solar activity and to polarity of magnetic field of the Sun. Variability is illustrated in measurements of secondary CR on the ground including the high-altitude observations at Lomnický štít. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. In Search of Cosmic Rays: A Student Physics Project Aimed at Finding the Origin of Cosmic Rays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonelli, Jamie; Mahoney, Sean; Streich, Derek; Liebl, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Describes an ongoing project, the Cosmic Ray Observatory Project (CROP), being conducted by the University of Nebraska in partnership with several high schools. Each school group has installed cosmic ray detectors, and initial activities have included calibrating equipment, gathering preliminary data, and learning about cosmic ray showers. Aims to…

  7. Analytical Model for Estimating Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes Nearly Anytime and Anywhere in the World: Extension of PARMA/EXPACS.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    By extending our previously established model, here we present a new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA) version 3.0," which can instantaneously estimate terrestrial cosmic ray fluxes of neutrons, protons, ions with charge up to 28 (Ni), muons, electrons, positrons, and photons nearly anytime and anywhere in the Earth's atmosphere. The model comprises numerous analytical functions with parameters whose numerical values were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower (EAS) simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). The accuracy of the EAS simulation was well verified using various experimental data, while that of PARMA3.0 was confirmed by the high R2 values of the fit. The models to be used for estimating radiation doses due to cosmic ray exposure, cosmic ray induced ionization rates, and count rates of neutron monitors were validated by investigating their capability to reproduce those quantities measured under various conditions. PARMA3.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in an open-access software program EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic ray Spectrum (EXPACS). Because of these features, the new version of PARMA/EXPACS can be an important tool in various research fields such as geosciences, cosmic ray physics, and radiation research.

  8. Galactic cosmic ray composition and energy spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Galactic cosmic ray nuclei represent a significant risk to long-duration spaceflight outside the magnetosphere. We review briefly existing measurements of the composition and energy spectra of heavy cosmic ray nuclei, pointing out which species and energy ranges are most critical to assessing cosmic ray risks for spaceflight. Key data sets are identified and a table of cosmic ray abundances is presented for elements from H to Ni (Z = 1 to 28). Because of the 22-year nature of the solar modulation cycle, data from the approaching 1998 solar minimum is especially important to reducing uncertainties in the cosmic ray radiation hazard. It is recommended that efforts to model this hazard take advantage of approaches that have been developed to model the astrophysical aspects of cosmic rays.

  9. Cosmic strings and galaxy formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertschinger, Edmund

    1989-01-01

    The cosmogonical model proposed by Zel'dovich and Vilenkin (1981), in which superconducting cosmic strings act as seeds for the origin of structure in the universe, is discussed, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. Consideration is given to the formation of cosmic strings, the microscopic structure of strings, gravitational effects, cosmic string evolution, and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Simulation results are presented in graphs, and several outstanding issues are listed and briefly characterized.

  10. The cosmic spiderweb: equivalence of cosmic, architectural and origami tessellations

    PubMed Central

    Hidding, Johan; Konstantatou, Marina; van de Weygaert, Rien

    2018-01-01

    For over 20 years, the term ‘cosmic web’ has guided our understanding of the large-scale arrangement of matter in the cosmos, accurately evoking the concept of a network of galaxies linked by filaments. But the physical correspondence between the cosmic web and structural engineering or textile ‘spiderwebs’ is even deeper than previously known, and also extends to origami tessellations. Here, we explain that in a good structure-formation approximation known as the adhesion model, threads of the cosmic web form a spiderweb, i.e. can be strung up to be entirely in tension. The correspondence is exact if nodes sampling voids are included, and if structure is excluded within collapsed regions (walls, filaments and haloes), where dark-matter multistreaming and baryonic physics affect the structure. We also suggest how concepts arising from this link might be used to test cosmological models: for example, to test for large-scale anisotropy and rotational flows in the cosmos. PMID:29765637

  11. The cosmic spiderweb: equivalence of cosmic, architectural and origami tessellations.

    PubMed

    Neyrinck, Mark C; Hidding, Johan; Konstantatou, Marina; van de Weygaert, Rien

    2018-04-01

    For over 20 years, the term 'cosmic web' has guided our understanding of the large-scale arrangement of matter in the cosmos, accurately evoking the concept of a network of galaxies linked by filaments. But the physical correspondence between the cosmic web and structural engineering or textile 'spiderwebs' is even deeper than previously known, and also extends to origami tessellations. Here, we explain that in a good structure-formation approximation known as the adhesion model, threads of the cosmic web form a spiderweb, i.e. can be strung up to be entirely in tension. The correspondence is exact if nodes sampling voids are included, and if structure is excluded within collapsed regions (walls, filaments and haloes), where dark-matter multistreaming and baryonic physics affect the structure. We also suggest how concepts arising from this link might be used to test cosmological models: for example, to test for large-scale anisotropy and rotational flows in the cosmos.

  12. The cosmic spiderweb: equivalence of cosmic, architectural and origami tessellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyrinck, Mark C.; Hidding, Johan; Konstantatou, Marina; van de Weygaert, Rien

    2018-04-01

    For over 20 years, the term `cosmic web' has guided our understanding of the large-scale arrangement of matter in the cosmos, accurately evoking the concept of a network of galaxies linked by filaments. But the physical correspondence between the cosmic web and structural engineering or textile `spiderwebs' is even deeper than previously known, and also extends to origami tessellations. Here, we explain that in a good structure-formation approximation known as the adhesion model, threads of the cosmic web form a spiderweb, i.e. can be strung up to be entirely in tension. The correspondence is exact if nodes sampling voids are included, and if structure is excluded within collapsed regions (walls, filaments and haloes), where dark-matter multistreaming and baryonic physics affect the structure. We also suggest how concepts arising from this link might be used to test cosmological models: for example, to test for large-scale anisotropy and rotational flows in the cosmos.

  13. Neutron Monitors as a Tool for Specifying Solar Energetic Particle Effects on Earth and in Near-Earth Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Kuwabara, T.; Pyle, R.; Ruffolo, D.; Saiz, A.

    2007-12-01

    Neutron monitors are ground-based instruments that record the byproducts of collisions between cosmic rays and molecules in Earth's atmosphere. When linked together in real-time coordinated arrays, these instruments can make valuable contributions to the specification of major solar energetic particle events. Neutron monitors can provide the earliest alert of elevated radiation levels in Earth's atmosphere caused by the arrival of relativistic solar particles (Ground Level Enhancement or GLE). Early detection of GLE is of interest to the aviation industry because of the associated radiation hazard for pilots and air crews, especially for those flying polar routes. Network observations can also be used to map, in principle in real time, the distribution of radiation in Earth's atmosphere, taking into account the particle anisotropy which can be very large in early phases of the event. Observations from the large GLE of January 20, 2005 and December 13, 2006 will be used to illustrate these applications of neutron monitors. Supported by NSF grant ATM-0527878, the Thailand Research Fund, and the Mahidol University Postdoctoral Fellowship Program.

  14. Laser fiber-optic sensors for investigation of influences ultra weak cosmic radiation on the people.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzhavin, Yu.; Ignatiev, A.

    The present work describes investigation of influences ultra weak cosmic radiation on the people, using laser fiber-optic bio sensors. Potential of the people measurements is made on the basis of two Mach-Zender interferometers. The measuring and reference channels of the device are made in the form of signal-mode light guides with w-profile, which retain the polarization of light [1].The effect of measurements leads to axial compression of the w-fiber guides in the measuring channel. The measured signal is recorded by the relative displasement of the structure of the interference pattern, which is caused by phase modulation of a coherent light wave [2] propagating in the measuring channel. The light guides in the measuring channel reeled up on a flat surface on a cirle by a diameter 1.8 meter. Length light guides made 100 meters. The people approached on distance of 0.3 meters to flat surfased. It has been demonstrated that the method based on calculation of the mutual correlation function of the output signals of the interferometers makes it possible to raise the signal/noise ratio of the device by eliminating irregular noise waves and reproducing an accurate shape of the measured signal.As the light source, we have used single-frequency semiconductor injection laser which external resonator was used and one of a resonator mirrors was the w-lightguide end with reflection structure deposited on it .The w-lightguidess had the cup-off wave length 1,1 um, the degree of retention of polarization 99 %. It has been demonstrated experimentally that the of the developed sensor, under constant level of the cosmic radiation measured bio potential of the people was defined from age, weight, and psychological of the condition. REFERENCES 1.Yu.I .Rzhavin et.al. Proceeding SPIE , vol. 2349 , pp.154-157 2. Yu.I.Rzhavin Proceeding SPIE , vol. 4827 , pp.253-257

  15. Models of Cosmic-Ray Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, M. M.

    2001-08-01

    Two models of cosmic-ray genesis are compared: (a) the author s red-dwarf hypothesis requiring the injection of seed particles from coronal mass ejections (CME) prior to shock acceleration, and (b) the direct acceleration of thermal ions and of grains in the ISM, proposed by Meyer, Drury and Ellison. Both models agree that shocks in the expanding envelopes of supernova remnants are principally responsible for acceleration to cosmic-ray energies. Both are designed to overcome the mismatch between the source composition of the Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and the composition of the thermal ISM gas. Model (a) utilizes the prolific emissions of energetic particles from active dMe and dKe stars via their CME as the agents of seed-particle injection into the ISM. The composition of these seed particles is governed by the FIP (first-ionization potential) selection mechanism that operates for both Galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles. Hence it is consistent with the cosmic-ray source composition. Model (b) relies on the sputtering and acceleration of grains in the ISM (along with acceleration of thermal ions) to provide the known source composition. This model considers the FIP ordering of GCR abundances as purely coincidental, and it attributes the relative source abundances to selection according to volatility. Recent cosmic-ray observations in favor of each model are cited.

  16. Spaced-based Cosmic Ray Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2016-03-01

    The bulk of cosmic ray data has been obtained with great success by balloon-borne instruments, particularly with NASA's long duration flights over Antarctica. More recently, PAMELA on a Russian Satellite and AMS-02 on the International Space Station (ISS) started providing exciting measurements of particles and anti-particles with unprecedented precision upto TeV energies. In order to address open questions in cosmic ray astrophysics, future missions require spaceflight exposures for rare species, such as isotopes, ultra-heavy elements, and high (the ``knee'' and above) energies. Isotopic composition measurements up to about 10 GeV/nucleon that are critical for understanding interstellar propagation and origin of the elements are still to be accomplished. The cosmic ray composition in the knee (PeV) region holds a key to understanding the origin of cosmic rays. Just last year, the JAXA-led CALET ISS mission, and the DAMPE Chinese Satellite were launched. NASA's ISS-CREAM completed its final verification at GSFC, and was delivered to KSC to await launch on SpaceX. In addition, a EUSO-like mission for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and an HNX-like mission for ultraheavy nuclei could accomplish a vision for a cosmic ray observatory in space. Strong support of NASA's Explorer Program category of payloads would be needed for completion of these missions over the next decade.

  17. New temperature and pressure retrieval algorithm for high-resolution infrared solar occultation spectroscopy: analysis and validation against ACE-FTS and COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Kevin S.; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Boone, Chris D.; Strong, Kimberly

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the initial selection of a high-resolution solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to fly to Mars on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, we have been developing algorithms for retrieving volume mixing ratio vertical profiles of trace gases, the primary component of which is a new algorithm and software for retrieving vertical profiles of temperature and pressure from the spectra. In contrast to Earth-observing instruments, which can rely on accurate meteorological models, a priori information, and spacecraft position, Mars retrievals require a method with minimal reliance on such data. The temperature and pressure retrieval algorithms developed for this work were evaluated using Earth-observing spectra from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) FTS, a solar occultation instrument in orbit since 2003, and the basis for the instrument selected for a Mars mission. ACE-FTS makes multiple measurements during an occultation, separated in altitude by 1.5-5 km, and we analyse 10 CO2 vibration-rotation bands at each altitude, each with a different usable altitude range. We describe the algorithms and present results of their application and their comparison to the ACE-FTS data products. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) provides vertical profiles of temperature up to 40 km with high vertical resolution. Using six satellites and GPS radio occultation, COSMIC's data product has excellent temporal and spatial coverage, allowing us to find coincident measurements with ACE with very tight criteria: less than 1.5 h and 150 km. We present an intercomparison of temperature profiles retrieved from ACE-FTS using our algorithm, that of the ACE Science Team (v3.5), and from COSMIC. When our retrievals are compared to ACE-FTS v3.5, we find mean differences between -5 and +2 K and that our retrieved profiles have no seasonal or zonal biases but do have a warm bias in the stratosphere and a cold bias in the

  18. Ionization Processes in the Atmosphere of Titan (Research Note). III. Ionization by High-Z Nuclei Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gronoff, G.; Mertens, C.; Lilensten, J.; Desorgher, L.; Fluckiger, E.; Velinov, P.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The Cassini-Huygens mission has revealed the importance of particle precipitation in the atmosphere of Titan thanks to in-situ measurements. These ionizing particles (electrons, protons, and cosmic rays) have a strong impact on the chemistry, hence must be modeled. Aims. We revisit our computation of ionization in the atmosphere of Titan by cosmic rays. The high-energy high-mass ions are taken into account to improve the precision of the calculation of the ion production profile. Methods. The Badhwahr and O Neill model for cosmic ray spectrum was adapted for the Titan model. We used the TransTitan model coupled with the Planetocosmics model to compute the ion production by cosmic rays. We compared the results with the NAIRAS/HZETRN ionization model used for the first time for a body that differs from the Earth. Results. The cosmic ray ionization is computed for five groups of cosmic rays, depending on their charge and mass: protons, alpha, Z = 8 (oxygen), Z = 14 (silicon), and Z = 26 (iron) nucleus. Protons and alpha particles ionize mainly at 65 km altitude, while the higher mass nucleons ionize at higher altitudes. Nevertheless, the ionization at higher altitude is insufficient to obscure the impact of Saturn s magnetosphere protons at a 500 km altitude. The ionization rate at the peak (altitude: 65 km, for all the different conditions) lies between 30 and 40/cu cm/s. Conclusions. These new computations show for the first time the importance of high Z cosmic rays on the ionization of the Titan atmosphere. The updated full ionization profile shape does not differ significantly from that found in our previous calculations (Paper I: Gronoff et al. 2009, 506, 955) but undergoes a strong increase in intensity below an altitude of 400 km, especially between 200 and 400 km altitude where alpha and heavier particles (in the cosmic ray spectrum) are responsible for 40% of the ionization. The comparison of several models of ionization and cosmic ray spectra (in

  19. Conceptual design of a coherent optical system of modular imaging collectors (COSMIC). [telescope array deployed by space shuttle in 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nein, M. E.; Davis, B. G.

    1982-01-01

    The Coherent Optical System of Modular Imaging Collectors (COSMIC) is the design concept for a phase-coherent optical telescope array that may be placed in earth orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1990s. The initial system module is a minimum redundancy array whose photon collecting area is three times larger than that of the Space Telescope, and possesses a one-dimensional resoution of better than 0.01 arcsec in the visible range. Thermal structural requirements are assessed. Although the coherent beam combination requirements will be met by an active control system, the COSMIC structural/thermal design must meet more stringent performance criteria than even those of the Space Telescope.

  20. The origin and early evolution of life on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.; Miller, Stanley L.; Lazcano, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    Results of the studies that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive earth environments are reviewed with emphasis on those environments in which life is thought to have originated. The evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on the earth and the prebiotic significance of organic compounds found in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar-system bodies such as comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites are assessed. The environmental models of the Hadean and early Archean earth are discussed, as well as the prebiotic formation of organic monomers and polymers essential to life. The processes that may have led to the appearance in the Archean of the first cells are considered, and possible effects of these processes on the early steps of biological evolution are analyzed. The significance of these results to the study of the distribution of life in the universe is evaluated.

  1. Toward detection of supernova event near the earth based on high-resolution analysis of cosmogenic nuclide 10Be in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiguchi, S.; Suganuma, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Yamaguchi, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Cosmic rays react with substances in the Earth's atmosphere and form cosmogenic nuclides. The flux would abruptly increase with nearby supernova or terrestrial magnetic events such as reversal or excursion of terrestrial magnetism. The Earth must have been exposed to cosmic ray radiation for as long as 10 Ma, if any, by nearby supernova activities (Kataoka et al., 2014). Increased and prolonged activity of cosmic rays would affect Earth's climate through forming greenhouse gases and biosphere through damaging DNA. Therefore, interests have been growing as to whether and how past supernova events have ever left any fingerprints on them. However, detection of nearby supernova is still under debate (e.g., Knie et al., 2004) To detect long-term record of past supernova activities, we utilize cosmogenic nuclide 10Be because of its short residence time (1-2yr) in the atmosphere, simple transport process, and adequate half-life (1.36 kyr) which is nearly equivalent to the duration of present-day deep water circulation. Sediment samples collected from the equatorial western Pacific (706-825 kyr in age) were finely powdered and decomposed by mixed acids (HNO3, HF, and HClO4). Authigenic phase was also separated from bulk powders by leaching with a weak acid. Because quantitative separation of Be from samples is essential toward high-quality 10Be analysis, both Be-bearing fractions were applied to optimized anion exchange chromatography for Be separation, and Be abundance was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The 10Be abundance (10Be/9Be ratios) were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. The authigenic phase showed temporal curve that is similar to that of bulk samples (Suganuma et al., 2012), reflecting the influence of relative paleo-intensity and utility of authigenic method. Increased data set in terms of sampling interval (density) and total age range would allow us to judge whether it could detect past supernova activities and how it appears when

  2. [The evolutionary role of nitric oxide in circadian activity and defense of the organism from cosmic rays].

    PubMed

    Iamshanov, V A

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic rays are one of the constantly acting factors influencing on genetic apparatus and depending from sun activity, which have the circadian rhythm. The nature creates a number of mechanisms, which defend the organism from cosmic rays and free radicals as consequence. However, the malfunctions of these mechanisms damage the genetic apparatus, accelerate the aging and bring to a number of illnesses. It is supposed that to neutralise the free radicals as cosmic rays consequence the organism uses its own free radicals, which have the physiological functions, for example, the nitric oxide. To limit the nitric oxide production, the mechanism of melatonin formation is used, which has a circadian rhythm.

  3. Evidence for a mixed mass composition at the ‘ankle’ in the cosmic-ray spectrum

    DOE PAGES

    Aab, Alexander

    2016-09-28

    Here, we report a first measurement for ultra-high energy cosmic rays of the correlation between the depth of shower maximum and the signal in the water Cherenkov stations of air-showers registered simultaneously by the fluorescence and the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Such a correlation measurement is a unique feature of a hybrid air-shower observatory with sensitivity to both the electromagnetic and muonic components. It allows an accurate determination of the spread of primary masses in the cosmic-ray flux. Up till now, constraints on the spread of primary masses have been dominated by systematic uncertainties. The present correlation measurement is not affected by systematics in the measurement of the depth of shower maximum or the signal in the water Cherenkov stations. The analysis relies on general characteristics of air showers and is thus robust also with respect to uncertainties in hadronic event generators. The observed correlation in the energy range around the `ankle' atmore » $$\\lg(E/{\\rm eV})=18.5-19.0$$ differs significantly from expectations for pure primary cosmic-ray compositions. A light composition made up of proton and helium only is equally inconsistent with observations. The data are explained well by a mixed composition including nuclei with mass $A > 4$. Scenarios such as the proton dip model, with almost pure compositions, are thus disfavoured as the sole explanation of the ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray flux at Earth.« less

  4. Study of cosmic dust particles on board LDEF: The FRECOPA experiments AO138-1 and AO138-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandeville, J. C.; Borg, Janet

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments, within the French Cooperative Payload (FRECOPA) and devoted to the detection of cosmic dust, were flown on the LDEF. A variety of sensors and collecting devices have made possible the study of impact processes on materials of technological interest. Preliminary examination of hypervelocity impact features gives valuable data on size distribution and nature of interplanetary dust particles in low earth orbit, within the 0.5 to 300 micrometer size range. Most of the events detected on the trailing face of LDEF are expected to be the result of impacts of meteoritic particles only. So far, chemical analysis of craters by EDS clearly shows evidence of elements (Na, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Fe) consistent with cosmic origin. Systematic occurrence of C and O in crater residues is an important result, to be compared with the existence of CHON particles detected in P-Halley comet nucleus. Crater size distribution is in good agreement with results from other dust experiments flown on LDEF. However, no crater smaller than 1.5 micron was observed, thus suggesting a cutoff in the near earth particle distribution. Possible origin and orbital evolution of micrometeoroids is discussed.

  5. Contribution of cosmic ray particles to radiation environment at high mountain altitude: Comparison of Monte Carlo simulations with experimental data.

    PubMed

    Mishev, A L

    2016-03-01

    A numerical model for assessment of the effective dose due to secondary cosmic ray particles of galactic origin at high mountain altitude of about 3000 m above the sea level is presented. The model is based on a newly numerically computed effective dose yield function considering realistic propagation of cosmic rays in the Earth magnetosphere and atmosphere. The yield function is computed using a full Monte Carlo simulation of the atmospheric cascade induced by primary protons and α- particles and subsequent conversion of secondary particle fluence (neutrons, protons, gammas, electrons, positrons, muons and charged pions) to effective dose. A lookup table of the newly computed effective dose yield function is provided. The model is compared with several measurements. The comparison of model simulations with measured spectral energy distributions of secondary cosmic ray neutrons at high mountain altitude shows good consistency. Results from measurements of radiation environment at high mountain station--Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala (42.11 N, 23.35 E, 2925 m a.s.l.) are also shown, specifically the contribution of secondary cosmic ray neutrons. A good agreement with the model is demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Statistical reconstruction for cosmic ray muon tomography.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Larry J; Blanpied, Gary S; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Fraser, Andrew M; Hengartner, Nicolas W; Klimenko, Alexei V; Morris, Christopher L; Orum, Chris; Sossong, Michael J

    2007-08-01

    Highly penetrating cosmic ray muons constantly shower the earth at a rate of about 1 muon per cm2 per minute. We have developed a technique which exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering of these particles to perform nondestructive inspection without the use of artificial radiation. In prior work [1]-[3], we have described heuristic methods for processing muon data to create reconstructed images. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood/expectation maximization tomographic reconstruction algorithm designed for the technique. This algorithm borrows much from techniques used in medical imaging, particularly emission tomography, but the statistics of muon scattering dictates differences. We describe the statistical model for multiple scattering, derive the reconstruction algorithm, and present simulated examples. We also propose methods to improve the robustness of the algorithm to experimental errors and events departing from the statistical model.

  7. Observation of the large scale cosmic-ray anisotropy at TeV energies with the Milagro detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolterman, Brian E.

    the level of 3×10 -4 , consistent with the Compton-Getting effect expected due to the Earth's motion around the Sun through the cosmic-ray ether.

  8. Measurement of cosmic-ray muons with the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory, a network of smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbroucke, J.; BenZvi, S.; Bravo, S.; Jensen, K.; Karn, P.; Meehan, M.; Peacock, J.; Plewa, M.; Ruggles, T.; Santander, M.; Schultz, D.; Simons, A. L.; Tosi, D.

    2016-04-01

    Solid-state camera image sensors can be used to detect ionizing radiation in addition to optical photons. We describe the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory (DECO), an app and associated public database that enables a network of consumer devices to detect cosmic rays and other ionizing radiation. In addition to terrestrial background radiation, cosmic-ray muon candidate events are detected as long, straight tracks passing through multiple pixels. The distribution of track lengths can be related to the thickness of the active (depleted) region of the camera image sensor through the known angular distribution of muons at sea level. We use a sample of candidate muon events detected by DECO to measure the thickness of the depletion region of the camera image sensor in a particular consumer smartphone model, the HTC Wildfire S. The track length distribution is fit better by a cosmic-ray muon angular distribution than an isotropic distribution, demonstrating that DECO can detect and identify cosmic-ray muons despite a background of other particle detections. Using the cosmic-ray distribution, we measure the depletion thickness to be 26.3 ± 1.4 μm. With additional data, the same method can be applied to additional models of image sensor. Once measured, the thickness can be used to convert track length to incident polar angle on a per-event basis. Combined with a determination of the incident azimuthal angle directly from the track orientation in the sensor plane, this enables direction reconstruction of individual cosmic-ray events using a single consumer device. The results simultaneously validate the use of cell phone camera image sensors as cosmic-ray muon detectors and provide a measurement of a parameter of camera image sensor performance which is not otherwise publicly available.

  9. THE HIGHEST-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS CANNOT BE DOMINANTLY PROTONS FROM STEADY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ke; Kotera, Kumiko

    The bulk of observed ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays could be light or heavier elements and originate from an either steady or transient population of sources. This leaves us with four general categories of sources. Energetic requirements set a lower limit on single-source luminosities, while the distribution of particle arrival directions in the sky sets a lower limit on the source number density. The latter constraint depends on the angular smearing in the skymap due to the magnetic deflections of the charged particles during their propagation from the source to the Earth. We contrast these limits with the luminosity functions from surveysmore » of existing luminous steady objects in the nearby universe and strongly constrain one of the four categories of source models, namely, steady proton sources. The possibility that cosmic rays with energy >8 × 10{sup 19} eV are dominantly pure protons coming from steady sources is excluded at 95% confidence level, under the safe assumption that protons experience less than 30° magnetic deflection on flight.« less

  10. The EUSO program: Imaging of ultra-high energy cosmic rays by high-speed UV-video from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuglesang, Christer; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The Extreme-Energy Cosmic Rays (EECR), with energy above 5•1019 eV, are very interesting objects to study that can provide new information about our universe. At the same time EECRs are exceptionally challenging to study because they are so rare. To obtain a reasonably large statistical sample, the JEM-EUSO collaboration aims to place a telescope into space. Various technologies are being developed and studied to achieve this goal. Several pathfinders are used for validation and testing. In particular, during 2017 a long-duration super-pressure balloon flight will observe the first high energy cosmic rays from above using the fluorescence technique, and a small test unit, Mini-EUSO, will be sent to ISS to measure the UV-background from Earth night side. In addition, these missions will provide various scientific results.

  11. Neutron Environment Calculations for Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Atwell, W.

    2001-01-01

    The long term exposure of astronauts on the developing International Space Station (ISS) requires an accurate knowledge of the internal exposure environment for human risk assessment and other onboard processes. The natural environment is moderated by the solar wind, which varies over the solar cycle. The HZETRN high charge and energy transport code developed at NASA Langley Research Center can be used to evaluate the neutron environment on ISS. A time dependent model for the ambient environment in low earth orbit is used. This model includes GCR radiation moderated by the Earth's magnetic field, trapped protons, and a recently completed model of the albedo neutron environment formed through the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. Using this code, the neutron environments for space shuttle missions were calculated and comparisons were made to measurements by the Johnson Space Center with onboard detectors. The models discussed herein are being developed to evaluate the natural and induced environment data for the Intelligence Synthesis Environment Project and eventual use in spacecraft optimization.

  12. A Bitter Pill: The Cosmic Lithium Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis describes the production of the lightest nuclides in the first three minutes of cosmic time. We will discuss the transformative influence of the WMAP and Planck determinations of the cosmic baryon density. Coupled with nucleosynthesis theory, these measurements make tight predictions for the primordial light element abundances: deuterium observations agree spectacularly with these predictions, helium observations are in good agreement, but lithium observations (in ancient halo stars) are significantly discrepant-this is the ``lithium problem.'' Over the past decade, the lithium discrepancy has become more severe, and very recently the solution space has shrunk. A solution due to new nuclear resonances has now been essentially ruled out experimentally. Stellar evolution solutions remain viable but must be finely tuned. Observational systematics are now being probed by qualitatively new methods of lithium observation. Finally, new physics solutions are now strongly constrained by the combination of the precision baryon determination by Planck, and the need to match the D/H abundances now measured to unprecedented precision at high redshift. Supported in part by NSF grant PHY-1214082.

  13. Cosmic Education: The Child's Discovery of a Global Vision and a Cosmic Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Susan Mayclin

    2015-01-01

    Susan Mayclin Stephenson tackles a large subject, Cosmic Education, which Montessori defined as a "unifying global and universal view[s] of the past, present and future." Stephenson takes the reader from birth to the end of the elementary age with examples of how the child grows into an understanding of Cosmic Education through their…

  14. New upper limit on strange quark matter abundance in cosmic rays with the PAMELA space experiment.

    PubMed

    Adriani, O; Barbarino, G C; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Donato, C; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Formato, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergè, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N

    2015-09-11

    In this work we present results of a direct search for strange quark matter (SQM) in cosmic rays with the PAMELA space spectrometer. If this state of matter exists it may be present in cosmic rays as particles, called strangelets, having a high density and an anomalously high mass-to-charge (A/Z) ratio. A direct search in space is complementary to those from ground-based spectrometers. Furthermore, it has the advantage of being potentially capable of directly identifying these particles, without any assumption on their interaction model with Earth's atmosphere and the long-term stability in terrestrial and lunar rocks. In the rigidity range from 1.0 to ∼1.0×10^{3}  GV, no such particles were found in the data collected by PAMELA between 2006 and 2009. An upper limit on the strangelet flux in cosmic rays was therefore set for particles with charge 1≤Z≤8 and mass 4≤A≤1.2×10^{5}. This limit as a function of mass and as a function of magnetic rigidity allows us to constrain models of SQM production and propagation in the Galaxy.

  15. Cosmic rays in the heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The different types of cosmic ray particles and their role in the heliosphere are briefly described. The rates of various energetic particles were examined as a function of time and used to derive various differential energy gradients. The Pioneer and Voyager cosmic ray observations throughout the heliosphere are indeed giving a perspective on the three-dimensional character and size of the heliosphere. Most clearly the observations are emphasizing the role that transient variations in the outer heliosphere, and most likely the heliospheric boundary shock, play in the 11 year solar cycle modulation of cosmic rays.

  16. Historical Building Stability Monitoring by Means of a Cosmic Ray Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Zenoni, Aldo; INFN Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia

    Cosmic ray radiation is mostly composed, at sea level, by high energy muons, which are highly penetrating particles capable of crossing kilometers of rock. The ubiquitous and steady presence at the Earth's surface and the high penetration capability have motivated the use of cosmic ray radiation also in fields beyond particle physics, from geology, archaeology, speleology to industrial applications and homeland security. In particular, in recent years, the novel technique of muon tomography has been proposed, with the aim of performing non invasive inspection of large non accessible volumes, material atomic number Z and density discrimination, and three dimension imagemore » reconstruction of the inspected volume. In the present paper, after a short recall of the physical principles and mathematical formalism on which muon tomography is based, a number of examples of application of the novel technique in industry and homeland security issues is given. Moreover, a new application of cosmic rays detection techniques in the field of civil engineering is proposed. The aim is the monitoring of the stability of large structures, in particular the static monitoring of historical buildings, where conservation constraints are more severe and the time evolution of the deformation phenomena under study may be of the order of months or years. The new technique may be seen, in some way, as the reverse problem of muon tomography. As a significant case study, the monitoring of the wooden vaulted roof of the Palazzo della Loggia in the town of Brescia, in Italy, has been considered. The feasibility as well as the performances and limitations of a monitoring system based on cosmic ray tracking have been studied by Monte Carlo simulation and discussed in comparison with more traditional monitoring systems. (authors)« less

  17. Characteristic of the radiation field in low Earth orbit and in deep space.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Guenther

    2008-01-01

    The radiation exposure in space by cosmic radiation can be reduced through careful mission planning and constructive measures as example the provision of a radiation shelter, but it cannot be completely avoided. The reason for that are the extreme high energies of particles in this field and the herewith connected high penetration depth in matter. For missions outside the magnetosphere ionizing radiation is recognized as the key factor through its impact on crew health and performance. In absence of sporadic solar particle events the radiation exposure in Low Earth orbit (LEO) inside Spacecraft is determined by the galactic cosmic radiation (protons and heavier ions) and by the protons inside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), an area where the radiation belt comes closer to the earth surface due to a displacement of the magnetic dipole axes from the Earth's center. In addition there is an albedo source of neutrons produced as interaction products of the primary galactic particles with the atoms of the earth atmosphere. Outside the spacecraft the dose is dominated by the electrons of the horns of the radiation belt located at about 60" latitude in Polar Regions. The radiation field has spatial and temporal variations in dependence of the Earth magnetic field and the solar cycle. The complexity of the radiation field inside a spacecraft is further increased through the interaction of the high energy components with the spacecraft shielding material and with the body of the astronauts. In interplanetary missions the radiation belt will be crossed in a couple of minutes and therefore its contribution to their radiation exposure is quite small, but subsequently the protection by the Earth magnetic field is lost, leaving only shielding measures as exposure reduction means. The report intends to describe the radiation field in space, the interaction of the particles with the magnetic field and shielding material and give some numbers on the radiation exposure in low earth

  18. Cosmic ray anisotropies at high energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinic, N. J.; Alarcon, A.; Teran, F.

    1986-01-01

    The directional anisotropies of the energetic cosmic ray gas due to the relative motion between the observers frame and the one where the relativistic gas can be assumed isotropic is analyzed. The radiation fluxes formula in the former frame must follow as the Lorentz invariance of dp/E, where p, E are the 4-vector momentum-energy components; dp is the 3-volume element in the momentum space. The anisotropic flux shows in such a case an amplitude, in a rotating earth, smaller than the experimental measurements from say, EAS-arrays for primary particle energies larger than 1.E(14) eV. Further, it is shown that two consecutive Lorentz transformations among three inertial frames exhibit the violation of dp/E invariance between the first and the third systems of reference, due to the Wigner rotation. A discussion of this result in the context of the experimental anisotropic fluxes and its current interpretation is given.

  19. Calculations of cosmogenic nuclide production rates in the Earth's atmosphere and their inventories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, K.

    1986-01-01

    The production rates of cosmogenic isotopes in the Earth's atmosphere and their resulting terrestrial abundances have been calculated, taking into account both geomagnetic and solar-modulatory effects. The local interstellar flux was assumed to be that of Garcia-Munoz, et al. Solar modulation was accounted for using the heliocentric potential model and expressed in terms of the Deep River neutron monitor count rates. The geomagnetic field was presented by vertical cutoffs calculated by Shea and Smart and the non-vertical cutoffs calculated using ANGRI. The local interstellar particle flux was first modulated using the heliocentric potential field. The modulated cosmic-ray fluxes reaching the earth's orbit then interacted with the geomagnetic field as though it were a high-pass filter. The interaction of the cosmic radiation with the Earth's atmosphere was calculated utilizing the Bolztmann transport equation. Spallation cross sections for isotope production were calculated using the formalism of Silberberg and Tsao and other cross sections were taken from standard sources. Inventories were calculated by accounting from the variation in solar modulation and geomagnetic field strength with time. Results for many isotope, including C-14, Be-7 and Be-10 are in generally good agreement with existing data. The C-14 inventory, for instance, amounts to 1.75/sq cm(e)/s, in excellent agreement with direct estimates.

  20. Fun Times with Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Who would have thought cosmic rays could be so hip? Although discovered 90 years ago on death-defying manned balloon flights hip even by twenty-first-century extremesport standards cosmic rays quickly lost popularity as way-cool telescopes were finding way-too-cool phenomena across the electromagnetic spectrum. Yet cosmic rays are back in vogue, boasting their own set of superlatives. Scientists are tracking them down with new resolve from the Arctic to Antarctica and even on the high western plains of Argentina. Theorists, too, now see cosmic rays as harbingers of funky physics. Cosmic rays are atomic and subatomic particles - the fastest moving bits of matter in the universe and the only sample of matter we have from outside the solar system (with the exception of interstellar dust grains). Lower-energy cosmic rays come from the Sun. Mid-energy particles come from stellar explosions - either spewed directly from the star like shrapnel, or perhaps accelerated to nearly the speed of light by shock waves. The highest-energy cosmic rays, whose unequivocal existence remains one of astronomy's greatest mysteries, clock in at a staggering 10(exp 19) to 10(exp 22) electron volts. This is the energy carried in a baseball pitch; seeing as how there are as many atomic particles in a baseball as there are baseballs in the Moon, that s one powerful toss. No simple stellar explosion could produce them. At a recent conference in Albuquerque, scientists presented the first observational evidence of a possible origin for the highest-energy variety. A team led by Elihu Boldt at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center found that five of these very rare cosmic rays (there are only a few dozen confirmed events) come from the direction of four 'retired' quasar host galaxies just above the arm of the Big Dipper, all visible with backyard telescopes: NGC 3610, NGC 3613, NGC 4589, and NGC 5322. These galaxies are billions of years past their glory days as the brightest beacons in the universe

  1. High energy physics in cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Lawrence W.

    2013-02-07

    In the first half-century of cosmic ray physics, the primary research focus was on elementary particles; the positron, pi-mesons, mu-mesons, and hyperons were discovered in cosmic rays. Much of this research was carried out at mountain elevations; Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees, Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and Mt. Evans/Echo Lake in Colorado, among other sites. In the 1960s, claims of the observation of free quarks, and satellite measurements of a significant rise in p-p cross sections, plus the delay in initiating accelerator construction programs for energies above 100 GeV, motivated the Michigan-Wisconsin group to undertake a serious cosmic raymore » program at Echo Lake. Subsequently, with the succession of higher energy accelerators and colliders at CERN and Fermilab, cosmic ray research has increasingly focused on cosmology and astrophysics, although some groups continue to study cosmic ray particle interactions in emulsion chambers.« less

  2. Tracking the Momentum Flux of a CME and Quantifying Its Influence on Geomagnetically Induced Currents at Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savani, N. P.; Vourlidas, A.; Pulkkinen, A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Lavraud, B.; Owens, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a coronal mass ejection (CME) propagating toward Earth on 29 March 2011. This event is specifically chosen for its predominately northward directed magnetic field, so that the influence from the momentum flux onto Earth can be isolated. We focus our study on understanding how a small Earth-directed segment propagates. Mass images are created from the white-light cameras onboard STEREO which are also converted into mass height-time maps (mass J-maps). The mass tracks on these J-maps correspond to the sheath region between the CME and its associated shockfront as detected by in situ measurements at L1. A time series of mass measurements from the STEREOCOR-2A instrument is made along the Earth propagation direction. Qualitatively, this mass time series shows a remarkable resemblance to the L1 in situ density series. The in situ measurements are used as inputs into a three-dimensional (3-D) magnetospheric space weather simulation from the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. These simulations display a sudden compression of the magnetosphere from the large momentum flux at the leading edge of the CME, and predictions are made for the time derivative of the magnetic field (dBdt) on the ground. The predicted dBdt values were then compared with the observations from specific equatorially located ground stations and showed notable similarity. This study of the momentum of a CME from the Sun down to its influence on magnetic ground stations on Earth is presented as a preliminary proof of concept, such that future attempts may try to use remote sensing to create density and velocity time series as inputs to magnetospheric simulations.

  3. Underground measurements on secondary cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, C. W.; Fenton, A. G.; Fenton, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements made at the Poatina cosmic ray station (41.8 S 149.9 E, 347 m.w.e.) from August 1983 to July 1984 are summarized. The cosmic ray primary particles responsible for events detected at the station have a median primary energy of 1.2 TeV. The motivation for part of this work came from the reported detection of narrow angle anisotropies in the arrival direction of cosmic rays.

  4. The AMS tracking detector for cosmic-ray physics in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquin, Maurice; AMS Tracker Collaboration

    2005-04-01

    AMS-02 is a general-purpose spectrometer designed to measure cosmic rays and gamma rays in near-Earth orbit. The main scientific motivations are the search for cosmic anti-matter, the search for dark matter, precision measurements on the relative abundance of different nuclei and isotopes, as well as the measurement of very high-energy gamma rays. Constructed by a large international collaboration of institutes from America, Asia and Europe, it will collect data on the International Space Station for a period of at least three years. In this contribution, I first identify the various detector requirements necessary to carry out this ambitious program. In particular, a large-area silicon microstrip detector inside a 0.8 T superconducting magnet is well suited to measure rigidity p/Z and specific energy loss d E/d x of cosmic rays, as well as the direction and energy of converted gamma rays. I review the advantage of such a silicon-tracking detector, taking into account the constraints of the space environment. The collaboration has gained extensive operating experience with double-sided silicon sensors in beam tests, and above all with AMS-01, a precursor spectrometer flown in the cargo bay of the Shuttle Discovery. During the entire 10-day STS-91 mission, the Silicon Tracker functioned without fault and with good spatial resolution. From the lessons learned with AMS-01, improvements were made to the design and assembly procedure of the 2500 sensors of AMS-02. As a result, the charge identification has been extended from Oxygen ( Z=8) to Iron ( Z=26). The physics reach of the new spectrometer is presented.

  5. Cosmic-Ray-Exposure Ages of Diogenites and the Collisional History of the HED Parent Body or Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welten, K. C.; Lindner, L.; vanderBorg, K.; Loeken, T.; Scherer, P.; Schultz, L.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic-ray-exposure ages of meteorites provide information on the collisional history of their parent bodies and the delivery mechanism of meteorites to Earth. The exposure-age distributions of ordinary chondrites show distinct patterns for H, L, and LL types, consistent with their origin on different parent bodies. The exposure-age distributions of howardites, eucrites. and diogenites (HEDS) show a common pattern with major peaks at 22 Ma and 38 Ma This provides additional evidence for a common origin of the HED meteorites, possibly 4 Vesta, although orbital dynamics calculations showed that the delivery of meteorites from Vesta to Earth is difficult. However, the discovery of several kilometer-sized Vesta-like asteroids in the region between Vesta and the 3:1 resonance suggested that these seem more likely parent bodies of the HEDs than Vesta itself. This implies that the exposure-age clusters may represent samples of several parent bodies. Therefore, the near-absence of diogenites with ages <20 Ma might be of interest for the composition of these kilometer-sized fragments of Vesta. Here we present cosmic-ray-exposure ages of 20 diogenites, including 9 new meteorites. In addition, we calculate the probability for each peak to occur by chance, assuming a constant production rate of HED fragments.

  6. Gravitational waves and cosmic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemens, Xavier

    2002-08-01

    Cosmic strings are potential candidates for a variety of interesting cosmological phenomena such as gamma ray bursts, gravitational wave bursts and ultra high energy cosmic rays. The predictions of cosmic string models, however, depend sensitively on the so far unresolved question of the size of the small-scale structure. This thesis deals largely with this problem. First, I present a gravitational back-reaction model that assumes the interaction between all Fourier modes that make up a given perturbation on a long cosmic string. This calculation leads to the generally accepted value of the small scale structure cutoff. It also, however, leads to paradoxical behaviour when applied to two oppositely moving modes: As one of the modes is stretched conformally the gravitational power radiated approaches a constant. This result is in contradiction with our expectation for the straight string limit in which no power is radiated. A more careful investigation of this problem reveals that, in the case of two oppositely moving modes, the gravitational power is exponentially suppressed when the wavelengths of the modes are sufficiently different. I use this result to construct an improved gravitational back-reaction model in which modes of very different wavelengths do not interact. This model leads to a new small scale structure cutoff which is sensitive to the initial spectrum of perturbations present on the string. I also tentatively examine the consequences of this result for the evolution of cosmic string loops. Finally, I investigate the effect of the presence of small scale structure on the gravitational wave-bursts produced at cosmic string cusps.

  7. Research in particles and fields. [cosmic rays, gamma rays, and cosmic plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.; Buffington, A.; Davis, L., Jr.; Prince, T. A.; Vogt, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Research activities in cosmic rays, gamma rays, and astrophysical plasmas are reviewed. Energetic particle and photon detector systems flown on spacecraft and balloons were used to carry out the investigations. Specific instruments mentioned are: the high energy isotope spectrometer telescope, the electron/isotope spectrometer, the heavy isotope spectrometer telescope, and magnetometers. Solar flares, planetary magnetospheres, element abundance, the isotopic composition of low energy cosmic rays, and heavy nuclei are among the topics receiving research attention.

  8. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of January 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are discussed. Marketing and customer service activities in this period are presented as is the progress report of NASTRAN maintenance and support. Tables of disseminations and budget summary conclude the report.

  9. Mapping of cosmic radiation dose in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Poje, M; Vuković, B; Radolić, V; Miklavčić, I; Faj, D; Varga Pajtler, M; Planinić, J

    2012-01-01

    The Earth is continually bombarded by high-energy particles coming from the outer space and the sun. These particles, termed cosmic radiation, interact with nuclei of atmospheric constituents and decrease in intensity with depth in the atmosphere. Measurements of photon and gamma radiation, performed with a Radiameter at 1 m above the ground, indicated dose rates of 50-100 nSv/h. The neutron dose rate was measured with the CR-39 track etch detector calibrated by the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF) facility. Correlation between neutron dose rates and altitudes at 36 sites was examined in order to obtain a significant positive correlation coefficient; the resulting linear regression enabled estimation of a neutron dose at particular altitude. The measured neutron dose rate in Osijek (altitude of 89 m, latitude of 45.31° N) was 110 nSv/h. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Testing the weak gravity-cosmic censorship connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisford, Toby; Horowitz, Gary T.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2018-03-01

    A surprising connection between the weak gravity conjecture and cosmic censorship has recently been proposed. In particular, it was argued that a promising class of counterexamples to cosmic censorship in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Λ theory would be removed if charged particles (with sufficient charge) were present. We test this idea and find that indeed if the weak gravity conjecture is true, one cannot violate cosmic censorship this way. Remarkably, the minimum value of charge required to preserve cosmic censorship appears to agree precisely with that proposed by the weak gravity conjecture.

  11. Exobiology in Earth orbit: The results of science workshops held at NASA, Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrees, D. (Editor); Brownlee, D. (Editor); Tarter, J. (Editor); Usher, D. (Editor); Irvine, W. (Editor); Klein, H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Workshops on Exobiology in Earth Orbit were held to explore concepts for orbital experiments of exobiological interest and make recommendations on which classes of experiments should be carried out. Various observational and experimental opportunities in Earth orbit are described including those associated with the Space Shuttle laboratories, spacecraft deployed from the Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicles, the Space Station, and lunar bases. Specific science issues and technology needs are summarized. Finally, a list of recommended experiments in the areas of observational exobiology, cosmic dust collection, and in situ experiments is presented.

  12. Hubble Sees NGC 3447: 2 Galaxies in a Cosmic Dance Defy Conventions

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Two galaxies in a cosmic dance defy conventions. 60 million light-years away in the constellation of Leo, the more diffuse and patchy blue glow covering the right side of the frame is known as NGC 3447B, while the smaller clump to the upper left is NGC 3447A. Known together as NGC 3447, we’re unsure what each looked like before they began to tear one another apart. So close that they are strongly influenced and distorted by the gravitational forces between them, the galaxies to twist themselves into the unusual and unique shapes seen here. NGC 3447A appears to display the remnants of a central bar structure and some disrupted spiral arms, both properties characteristic of certain spiral galaxies. Some identify NGC 3447B as a former spiral galaxy, while others categorize it as being an irregular galaxy. Credit: NASA/Hubble NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  13. Cosmic Rays in Intermittent Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Shukurov, Anvar; Seta, Amit; Bushby, Paul J.

    The propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields is a diffusive process driven by the scattering of the charged particles by random magnetic fluctuations. Such fields are usually highly intermittent, consisting of intense magnetic filaments and ribbons surrounded by weaker, unstructured fluctuations. Studies of cosmic-ray propagation have largely overlooked intermittency, instead adopting Gaussian random magnetic fields. Using test particle simulations, we calculate cosmic-ray diffusivity in intermittent, dynamo-generated magnetic fields. The results are compared with those obtained from non-intermittent magnetic fields having identical power spectra. The presence of magnetic intermittency significantly enhances cosmic-ray diffusion over a wide range of particlemore » energies. We demonstrate that the results can be interpreted in terms of a correlated random walk.« less

  14. What is your Cosmic Connection to the Elements?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Lochner, James; Rohrbach, Gail; Cochrane, Kim

    2003-01-01

    This information and activity booklet describes the roles of the Big Bang, types of stars, supernovae, cosmic ray interactions, and radioactive decay in the formation of the elements. The booklet includes instructions for the following classroom activities, intended for students in Grades 9-12: Grandma's Apple Pie; Cosmic Shuffle; Nickel-odeon; Kinesthetic Big Bang; Elemental Haiku; Cosmic Ray Collisions; Cosmic Abundances; and What's Out There.

  15. Cosmic dust collection with a sub-satellite tethered to a space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corso, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The number concentration and density of 1 micron and submicron sized grains in interplanetary space, as well as their relation to the larger zodical dust particles, and the importance of the Beta meteoroid phenomenon are currently being questioned. The best approach to collecting large numbers of intact micron and submicron sized cosmic dust particles in real time while avoiding terrestrial and man made contamination would be to employ a tethered subsatellite from a space station down into the Earth's atmosphere. Such a subsatellite tied to the space shuttle by a 100 km long tether is being developed. It is also possible that a permanent space station would allow the use of a tether even longer that 100 km. It should be noted that the same tethered collectors could also be employed to study the composition and flux of man made Earth orbiting debris in any direction within 100 km or so of the space station.

  16. Cosmic dust collection with a sub satellite tethered to a Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corso, George J.

    1987-01-01

    The number concentration and density of 1 micron and submicron sized grains in interplanetary space, as well as their relation to the larger zodical dust particles, and the importance of the beta meteoroid phenomenon are currently being questioned. The best approach to collecting large numbers of intact micron and submicron sized cosmic dust particles in real time while avoiding terrestrial and man made contamination would be to employ a tethered subsatellite from a space station down into the earth's atmosphere. Such a subsatellite tied to the space shuttle by a 100 km long tether is being developed. It is also possible that a permanent space station would allow the use of a tether even longer than 100 km. It should be noted that the same tethered collectors could also be employed to study the composition and flux of man made earth orbiting debris in any direction within 100 km or so of the space station.

  17. Isotopic composition of cosmic ray nitrogen at 1.5 GeV/amu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, R.; Meyer, P.

    1975-01-01

    For any location, the earth's magnetic field acts as a filter for incoming cosmic rays, allowing only particles above a certain rigidity. The relative isotopic composition of abundant elements can be measured with a detector sensitive to the velocity of particles in the penumbra of the earth's magnetic field. In this paper, the nitrogen velocity spectrum is compared with that of carbon plus oxygen as a reference, since in this case Z-dependent effects are minimal. The form of the energy spectrum of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, needed for proper correction, was measured in the same experiment. The results were obtained using a scintillator-Cerenkov counter telescope with a geometric factor of 0.25 sq in sr, flown twice on high-altitude balloons from Palestine, Texas, obtaining an exposure factor of 20 sq m sr hr. Results are presented on the isotopic composition of nitrogen at about 1.5GeV/amu.

  18. Fermi large area telescope observations of the cosmic-ray induced γ -ray emission of the Earth’s atmosphere

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2009-12-29

    In this paper, we report on measurements of the cosmic-ray induced γ-ray emission of Earth’s atmosphere by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The Large Area Telescope has observed the Earth during its commissioning phase and with a dedicated Earth limb following observation in September 2008. These measurements yielded ~6.4 × 10 6 photons with energies > 100 MeV and ~ 250 hours total live time for the highest quality data selection. This allows the study of the spatial and spectral distributions of these photons with unprecedented detail. In additon, the spectrum of the emission—oftenmore » referred to as Earth albedo gamma-ray emission—has a power-law shape up to 500 GeV with spectral index Γ = 2.79 ± 0.06 .« less

  19. Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation and Earth: A Brief Review and Census of Intermittent Intense Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Thomas, Brian C.

    2011-05-01

    Cosmic radiation backgrounds are a constraint on life, and their distribution will affect the Galactic Habitable Zone. Life on Earth has developed in the context of these backgrounds, and characterizing event rates will elaborate the important influences. This in turn can be a base for comparison with other potential life-bearing planets. In this review, we estimate the intensities and rates of occurrence of many kinds of strong radiation bursts by astrophysical entities, ranging from gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances to the Sun itself. Many of these present potential hazards to the biosphere; on timescales long compared with human history, the probability of an event intense enough to disrupt life on the land surface or in the oceans becomes large. Both photons (e.g., X-rays) and high-energy protons and other nuclei (often called "cosmic rays") constitute hazards. For either species, one of the mechanisms that comes into play even at moderate intensities is the ionization of Earth's atmosphere, which leads through chemical changes (specifically, depletion of stratospheric ozone) to increased ultraviolet B flux from the Sun reaching the surface. UVB is extremely hazardous to most life due to its strong absorption by the genetic material DNA and subsequent breaking of chemical bonds. This often leads to mutation or cell death. It is easily lethal to the microorganisms that lie at the base of the food chain in the ocean. We enumerate the known sources of radiation and characterize their intensities at Earth and rates or upper limits on these quantities. When possible, we estimate a "lethal interval," our best estimate of how often a major extinction-level event is probable given the current state of knowledge; we base these estimates on computed or expected depletion of stratospheric ozone. In general, moderate-level events are dominated by the Sun, but the far more severe infrequent events are probably dominated by gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. We note

  20. Astrophysical ionizing radiation and Earth: a brief review and census of intermittent intense sources.

    PubMed

    Melott, Adrian L; Thomas, Brian C

    2011-05-01

    Cosmic radiation backgrounds are a constraint on life, and their distribution will affect the Galactic Habitable Zone. Life on Earth has developed in the context of these backgrounds, and characterizing event rates will elaborate the important influences. This in turn can be a base for comparison with other potential life-bearing planets. In this review, we estimate the intensities and rates of occurrence of many kinds of strong radiation bursts by astrophysical entities, ranging from gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances to the Sun itself. Many of these present potential hazards to the biosphere; on timescales long compared with human history, the probability of an event intense enough to disrupt life on the land surface or in the oceans becomes large. Both photons (e.g., X-rays) and high-energy protons and other nuclei (often called "cosmic rays") constitute hazards. For either species, one of the mechanisms that comes into play even at moderate intensities is the ionization of Earth's atmosphere, which leads through chemical changes (specifically, depletion of stratospheric ozone) to increased ultraviolet B flux from the Sun reaching the surface. UVB is extremely hazardous to most life due to its strong absorption by the genetic material DNA and subsequent breaking of chemical bonds. This often leads to mutation or cell death. It is easily lethal to the microorganisms that lie at the base of the food chain in the ocean. We enumerate the known sources of radiation and characterize their intensities at Earth and rates or upper limits on these quantities. When possible, we estimate a "lethal interval," our best estimate of how often a major extinction-level event is probable given the current state of knowledge; we base these estimates on computed or expected depletion of stratospheric ozone. In general, moderate-level events are dominated by the Sun, but the far more severe infrequent events are probably dominated by gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. We note

  1. Neutron production by cosmic-ray muons in various materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukovsky, K. V.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Sobolevsky, N. M.; Yudin, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    The results obtained by studying the background of neutrons produced by cosmic-raymuons in underground experimental facilities intended for rare-event searches and in surrounding rock are presented. The types of this rock may include granite, sedimentary rock, gypsum, and rock salt. Neutron production and transfer were simulated using the Geant4 and SHIELD transport codes. These codes were tuned via a comparison of the results of calculations with experimental data—in particular, with data of the Artemovsk research station of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Moscow, Russia)—as well as via an intercomparison of results of calculations with the Geant4 and SHIELD codes. It turns out that the atomic-number dependence of the production and yield of neutrons has an irregular character and does not allow a description in terms of a universal function of the atomic number. The parameters of this dependence are different for two groups of nuclei—nuclei consisting of alpha particles and all of the remaining nuclei. Moreover, there are manifest exceptions from a power-law dependence—for example, argon. This may entail important consequences both for the existing underground experimental facilities and for those under construction. Investigation of cosmic-ray-induced neutron production in various materials is of paramount importance for the interpretation of experiments conducted at large depths under the Earth's surface.

  2. Industrial radiography with cosmic-ray muons: A progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilboy, W. B.; Jenneson, P. M.; Simons, S. J. R.; Stanley, S. J.; Rhodes, D.

    2007-09-01

    Cosmic-ray produced muons arrive at the surface of the earth with enormous energies ranging up to 1012 GeV. There have been sporadic attempts to exploit their extreme penetration through matter to probe the internal structures of very large objects, including an Egyptian pyramid and a volcano but their very low intensity per unit area ( ≈1 cm-2 per min) generally restricts the practicably attainable spatial resolution to large dimensions. Nevertheless the more intense low energy region of the muon spectrum has recently been shown to be capable of detecting high-Z objects with dimensions of the order of 10 cm hidden inside large transport containers in measurement times of minutes. These various developments have encouraged further studies of potential industrial uses of cosmic-ray muons in industrial applications. In order to gain maximum benefit from the low muon flux large area detectors are required and plastic scintillators offer useful advantages in size, cost and simplicity. Scintillator slabs up to 1 m2 square and 76.2 mm thick are undergoing testing for applications in the nuclear industry. The most direct approach employs photomultiplier tubes at each corner to measure the relative sizes of muon induced pulses to determine the location of each muon track passing through the scintillator. The performance of this technique is reported and its imaging potential is assessed.

  3. Signals from the planets, via the Sun to the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, J.-E.

    2013-12-01

    The best method for identification of planetary forcing of the Earth's climate is to investigate periodic variations in climate time series. Some natural frequencies in the Earth climate system seem to be synchronized to planetary cycles, and amplified to a level of detection. The response by the Earth depends on location, and in global averaged series, some planetary signals may be below detection. Comparing sea level rise with sunspot variations, we find phase variations, and even a phase reversal. A periodogram of the global temperature shows that the Earth amplifies other periods than observed in sunspots. A particular case is that the Earth amplifies the 22 yr Hale period, and not the 11 yr Schwabe period. This may be explained by alternating peak or plateau appearance of cosmic ray counts. Among longer periods, the Earth amplifies the 60 yr planetary period and keeps the phase during centennials. The recent global warming may be interpreted as a rising branch of a millennium cycle, identified in ice cores and sediments and also recorded in history. This cycle peaks in the second half of this century, and then a 500 yr cooling trend will start. An expected solar grand minimum due to a 200 yr cycle will introduce additional cooling in the first part of this century.

  4. Cause of Cambrian Explosion - Terrestrial or Cosmic?

    PubMed

    Steele, Edward J; Al-Mufti, Shirwan; Augustyn, Kenneth A; Chandrajith, Rohana; Coghlan, John P; Coulson, S G; Ghosh, Sudipto; Gillman, Mark; Gorczynski, Reginald M; Klyce, Brig; Louis, Godfrey; Mahanama, Kithsiri; Oliver, Keith R; Padron, Julio; Qu, Jiangwen; Schuster, John A; Smith, W E; Snyder, Duane P; Steele, Julian A; Stewart, Brent J; Temple, Robert; Tokoro, Gensuke; Tout, Christopher A; Unzicker, Alexander; Wainwright, Milton; Wallis, Jamie; Wallis, Daryl H; Wallis, Max K; Wetherall, John; Wickramasinghe, D T; Wickramasinghe, J T; Wickramasinghe, N Chandra; Liu, Yongsheng

    2018-08-01

    We review the salient evidence consistent with or predicted by the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe (H-W) thesis of Cometary (Cosmic) Biology. Much of this physical and biological evidence is multifactorial. One particular focus are the recent studies which date the emergence of the complex retroviruses of vertebrate lines at or just before the Cambrian Explosion of ∼500 Ma. Such viruses are known to be plausibly associated with major evolutionary genomic processes. We believe this coincidence is not fortuitous but is consistent with a key prediction of H-W theory whereby major extinction-diversification evolutionary boundaries coincide with virus-bearing cometary-bolide bombardment events. A second focus is the remarkable evolution of intelligent complexity (Cephalopods) culminating in the emergence of the Octopus. A third focus concerns the micro-organism fossil evidence contained within meteorites as well as the detection in the upper atmosphere of apparent incoming life-bearing particles from space. In our view the totality of the multifactorial data and critical analyses assembled by Fred Hoyle, Chandra Wickramasinghe and their many colleagues since the 1960s leads to a very plausible conclusion - life may have been seeded here on Earth by life-bearing comets as soon as conditions on Earth allowed it to flourish (about or just before 4.1 Billion years ago); and living organisms such as space-resistant and space-hardy bacteria, viruses, more complex eukaryotic cells, fertilised ova and seeds have been continuously delivered ever since to Earth so being one important driver of further terrestrial evolution which has resulted in considerable genetic diversity and which has led to the emergence of mankind. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved Abel transform inversion: First application to COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragon-Angel, A.; Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Juan, J.; Sanz, J.

    2007-05-01

    In this paper the first results of Ionospheric Tomographic inversion are presented, using the Improved Abel Transform on the COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 constellation of 6 LEO satellites, carrying on-board GPS receivers.[- 4mm] The Abel transform inversion is a wide used technique which in the ionospheric context makes it possible to retrieve electron densities as a function of height based of STEC (Slant Total Electron Content) data gathered from GPS receivers on board of LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellites. Within this precise use, the classical approach of the Abel inversion is based on the assumption of spherical symmetry of the electron density in the vicinity of an occultation, meaning that the electron content varies in height but not horizontally. In particular, one implication of this assumption is that the VTEC (Vertical Total Electron Content) is a constant value for the occultation region. This assumption may not always be valid since horizontal ionospheric gradients (a very frequent feature in some ionosphere problematic areas such as the Equatorial region) could significantly affect the electron profiles. [- 4mm] In order to overcome this limitation/problem of the classical Abel inversion, a studied improvement of this technique can be obtained by assuming separability in the electron density (see Hernández-Pajares et al. 2000). This means that the electron density can be expressed by the multiplication of VTEC data and a shape function which assumes all the height dependency in it while the VTEC data keeps the horizontal dependency. Actually, it is more realistic to assume that this shape fuction depends only on the height and to use VTEC information to take into account the horizontal variation rather than considering spherical symmetry in the electron density function as it has been carried out in the classical approach of the Abel inversion.[-4mm] Since the above mentioned improved Abel inversion technique has already been tested and proven to be a useful

  6. Cosmic rays and the electric field of thunderclouds: Evidence for acceleration of particles (runaway electrons)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaerdinov, N. S.; Lidvansky, A. S.; Petkov, V. B.

    2005-07-01

    We present the data on correlations of the intensity of the soft component of cosmic rays with the local electric field of the near-earth atmosphere during thunderstorm periods at the Baksan Valley (North Caucasus, 1700 m a.s.l.). The large-area array for studying the extensive air showers of cosmic rays is used as a particle detector. An electric field meter of the 'electric mill' type (rain-protected) is mounted on the roof of the building in the center of this array. The data were obtained in the summer seasons of 2000-2002. We observe strong enhancements of the soft component intensity before some lightning strokes. At the same time, the analysis of the regression curve 'intensity versus field' discovers a bump at the field sign that is opposite to the field sign corresponding to acceleration of electrons. It is interpreted as a signature of runaway electrons from the region of the strong field (with opposite sign) overhead.

  7. Cosmic-ray anisotropy studies with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Frank

    2014-03-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory detects tens of billions of energetic muons per year produced by cosmic-ray interactions with the atmosphere. The size of this sample has allowed IceCube to observe a significant anisotropy in arrival direction for cosmic rays with median energies between 20 and 400 TeV. This anisotropy is characterized by a large scale structure of per-mille amplitude accompanied by structures with smaller amplitudes and with typical angular sizes between 10° and 20°. IceTop, the surface component of IceCube, has observed a similar anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays, extending the study to PeV energies. The better energy resolution of IceTop allows for additional studies of the anisotropy, for example a comparison of the energy spectrum in regions of a cosmic-ray excess or deficit to the rest of the sky. We present an update on the cosmic-ray anisotropy observed with IceCube and IceTop and the results of first studies of the energy spectrum at locations of cosmic-ray excess or deficit.

  8. Studies of neutron and proton nuclear activation in low-Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The expected induced radioactivity of experimental material in low Earth orbit was studied for characteristics of activating particles such as cosmic rays, high energy Earth albedo neutrons, trapped protons, and secondary protons and neutrons. The activation cross sections for the production of long lived radioisotopes and other existing nuclear data appropriate to the study of these reactions were compiled. Computer codes which are required to calculate the expected activation of orbited materials were developed. The decreased computer code used to predict the activation of trapped protons of materials placed in the expected orbits of LDEF and Spacelab II. Techniques for unfolding the fluxes of activating particles from the measured activation of orbited materials are examined.

  9. Late Eocene rings around the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    The suggestion of O'Keefe (1980) that the terminal Eocene event was caused by rings of tektite material encircling the earth is discussed. It is argued that the assumption that the tektites are of lunar volcanic origin is unwarranted and contrary to existing data, including the lack of lunar rocks of suitable composition, the lack of lunar rocks of the correct age, the lack of evidence that the North American tektites fell throughout a sedimentary rock column of a few million years, and the nondetection of a tektite with a measurable cosmic ray exposure age. Alternatively, it is suggested that the terminal Eocene event may be associated with volcanic ash, air-fall tuff and bentonite in the late Eocene. O'Keefe replies that the hypothesis of the terrestrial origin of the tektites conflicts with the laws of physics, for example in the glass structure and shaping of the tektites. Furthermore, evidence is cited for lunar rocks of the proper major-element composition and ages, and it is noted that the proposed solar Poynting-Robertson effect would account for the particle fall distributions and cosmic ray ages.

  10. Antideuterons in cosmic rays: sources and discovery potential

    SciTech Connect

    Herms, Johannes; Ibarra, Alejandro; Vittino, Andrea

    Antibaryons are produced in our Galaxy in collisions of high energy cosmic rays with the interstellar medium and in old supernova remnants, and possibly, in exotic sources such as primordial black hole evaporation or dark matter annihilations and decays. The search for signals from exotic sources in antiproton data is hampered by large backgrounds from spallation which, within theoretical errors, can solely account for the current data. Due to the higher energy threshold for antideuteron production, which translates into a suppression of the low energy flux from spallations, antideuteron searches have been proposed as a probe for exotic sources. Wemore » perform in this paper a comprehensive analysis of the antideuteron fluxes at the Earth expected from known and hypothetical sources in our Galaxy, and we calculate their maximal values consistent with current antiproton data from AMS-02. We find that supernova remnants generate a negligible flux, whereas primordial black hole evaporation and dark matter annihilations or decays may dominate the total flux at low energies. On the other hand, we find that the (detection of cosmic antideuterons) would require, for the scenarios studied in this paper and assuming optimistic values of the coalescence momentum and solar modulation, an increase of the experimental sensitivity compared to ongoing and planned instruments by at least a factor of 2. Finally, we briefly comment on the prospects for antihelium-3 detection.« less

  11. Evaluation of Galactic Cosmic Ray Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Heiblim, Samuel; Malott, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Models of the galactic cosmic ray spectra have been tested by comparing their predictions to an evaluated database containing more than 380 measured cosmic ray spectra extending from 1960 to the present.

  12. Testing Galactic Cosmic Ray Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Models of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Environment are used for designing and planning space missions. The existing models will be reviewed. Spectral representations from these models will be compared with measurements of galactic cosmic ray spectra made on balloon flights and satellite flights over a period of more than 50 years.

  13. Testing Galactic Cosmic Ray Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Models of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Environment are used for designing and planning space missions. The exising models will be reviewed. Spectral representations from these models will be compared with measurements of galactic cosmic ray spectra made on balloon flights and satellite flights over a period of more than 50 years.

  14. Analytical functions to predict cosmic-ray neutron spectra in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji

    2006-09-01

    Estimation of cosmic-ray neutron spectra in the atmosphere has been an essential issue in the evaluation of the aircrew doses and the soft-error rates of semiconductor devices. We therefore performed Monte Carlo simulations for estimating neutron spectra using the PHITS code in adopting the nuclear data library JENDL-High-Energy file. Excellent agreements were observed between the calculated and measured spectra for a wide altitude range even at the ground level. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the simulation results, we propose analytical functions that can predict the cosmic-ray neutron spectra for any location in the atmosphere at altitudes below 20 km, considering the influences of local geometries such as ground and aircraft on the spectra. The accuracy of the analytical functions was well verified by various experimental data.

  15. Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector: a joint analysis from big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei-Ming; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Cai, Rong-Gen; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong

    2017-06-01

    We investigate constraints on Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector from a joint analysis of big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. The effect of Lorentz invariance violation during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis changes the predicted helium-4 abundance, which influences the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background at the recombination epoch. In combination with the latest measurement of the primordial helium-4 abundance, the Planck 2015 data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies give a strong constraint on the deformation parameter since adding the primordial helium measurement breaks the degeneracy between the deformation parameter and the physical dark matter density.

  16. Cosmic vacuum energy decay and creation of cosmic matter.

    PubMed

    Fahr, Hans-Jörg; Heyl, Michael

    2007-09-01

    In the more recent literature on cosmological evolutions of the universe, the cosmic vacuum energy has become a nonrenouncable ingredient. The cosmological constant Lambda, first invented by Einstein, but later also rejected by him, presently experiences an astonishing revival. Interestingly enough, it acts like a constant vacuum energy density would also do. Namely, it has an accelerating action on cosmic dynamics, without which, as it appears, presently obtained cosmological data cannot be conciliated with theory. As we are going to show in this review, however, the concept of a constant vacuum energy density is unsatisfactory for very basic reasons because it would claim for a physical reality that acts upon spacetime and matter dynamics without itself being acted upon by spacetime or matter.

  17. Goddard Visiting Scientist Program for the Space and Earth Sciences Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Frank

    1992-01-01

    A visiting scientist program was conducted in the space and earth sciences at GSFC. Research was performed in the following areas: astronomical observations; broadband x-ray spectral variability; ground-based spectroscopic and photometric studies; Seyfert galaxies; active galactic nuclei (AGN); massive stellar black holes; the differential microwave radiometer (DMR) onboard the cosmic background explorer (COBE); atmospheric models; and airborne and ground based radar observations. The specific research efforts are detailed by tasks.

  18. Weakly ionized cosmic gas: Ionization and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, M.; Mendis, D. A.; Chow, V. W.

    1994-01-01

    Since collective plasma behavior may determine important transport processes (e.g., plasma diffusion across a magnetic field) in certain cosmic environments, it is important to delineate the parameter space in which weakly ionized cosmic gases may be characterized as plasmas. In this short note, we do so. First, we use values for the ionization fraction given in the literature, wherein the ionization is generally assumed to be due primarily to ionization by cosmic rays. We also discuss an additional mechanism for ionization in such environments, namely, the photoelectric emission of electrons from cosmic dust grains in an interstellar Far Ultra Violet (FUV) radiation field. Simple estimates suggest that under certain conditions this mechanism may dominate cosmic ray ionization, and possibly also the photoionization of metal atoms by the interstellar FUV field, and thereby lead to an enhanced ionization level.

  19. Acceleration of cosmic rays in supernova-remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorfi, E. A.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that supernova-explosions are the dominant source of cosmic rays up to an energy of 10 to the 14th power eV/nucleon. Moreover, these high energy particles provide a major contribution to the energy density of the interstellar medium (ISM) and should therefore be included in calculations of interstellar dynamic phenomena. For the following the first order Fermi mechanism in shock waves are considered to be the main acceleration mechanism. The influence of this process is twofold; first, if the process is efficient (and in fact this is the cas) it will modify the dynamics and evolution of a supernova-remnant (SNR), and secondly, the existence of a significant high energy component changes the overall picture of the ISM. The complexity of the underlying physics prevented detailed investigations of the full non-linear selfconsistent problem. For example, in the context of the energy balance of the ISM it has not been investigated how much energy of a SN-explosion can be transfered to cosmic rays in a time-dependent selfconsistent model. Nevertheless, a lot of progress was made on many aspects of the acceleration mechanism.

  20. Observation of the thunderstorm-related ground cosmic ray flux variations by ARGO-YBJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gao, W.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; D'Alessandro, F.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    A correlation between the secondary cosmic ray flux and the near-earth electric field intensity, measured during thunderstorms, has been found by analyzing the data of the ARGO-YBJ experiment, a full coverage air shower array located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (4300 m a. s. l., Tibet, China). The counting rates of showers with different particle multiplicities (m =1 , 2, 3, and ≥4 ) have been found to be strongly dependent upon the intensity and polarity of the electric field measured during the course of 15 thunderstorms. In negative electric fields (i.e., accelerating negative charges downwards), the counting rates increase with increasing electric field strength. In positive fields, the rates decrease with field intensity until a certain value of the field EFmin (whose value depends on the event multiplicity), above which the rates begin increasing. By using Monte Carlo simulations, we found that this peculiar behavior can be well described by the presence of an electric field in a layer of thickness of a few hundred meters in the atmosphere above the detector, which accelerates/decelerates the secondary shower particles of opposite charge, modifying the number of particles with energy exceeding the detector threshold. These results, for the first time to our knowledge, give a consistent explanation for the origin of the variation of the electron/positron flux observed for decades by high altitude cosmic ray detectors during thunderstorms.

  1. Re-evaluation of cosmic ray cutoff terminology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, D. J.; Humble, J. E.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.; Lund, N.; Rasmussen, I. L.; Byrnak, B.; Goret, P.; Petrou, N.

    1985-01-01

    The study of cosmic ray access to locations inside the geomagnetic field has evolved in a manner that has led to some misunderstanding and misapplication of the terminology originally developed to describe particle access. This paper presents what is believed to be a useful set of definitions for cosmic ray cutoff terminology for use in theoretical and experimental cosmic ray studies.

  2. A Demonstration Device for Cosmic Rays Telescopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    We describe a hands-on accurate demonstrator for cosmic rays realized by six high school students. The main aim is to show the relevance and the functioning of the principal parts of a cosmic ray telescope (muon detector), with the help of two large sized wooden artefacts. The first one points out how cosmic rays can be tracked in a muon…

  3. Measurements of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation with a Bonner sphere spectrometer at 79 degrees N.

    PubMed

    Rühm, Werner; Mares, V; Pioch, C; Weitzenegger, E; Vockenroth, R; Paretzke, H G

    2009-04-01

    Air crew members and airline passengers are continuously exposed to cosmic radiation during their flights. Particles ejected by the sun during so-called solar particle events (SPEs) in periods of high solar activity can contribute to this exposure. In rare cases the dose from a single SPE might even exceed the annual dose limit of 1 mSv above which dose monitoring of air crews is legally required in Germany. Measurements performed by means of neutron monitors have already shown that the relative intensity of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation is enhanced during an SPE, particularly at regions close to the magnetic poles of the Earth where shielding of the cosmic radiation by the geomagnetic field is low. Here we describe a Bonner sphere spectrometer installed at the Koldewey station at 79 degrees N, i.e. about 1,000 km from the geographic North pole, which is designed to provide first experimental data on the time-dependent energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the atmosphere during an SPE. This will be important to calculate doses from these neutrons to air crew members. The system is described in detail and first results are shown that were obtained during quiet periods of sun activity.

  4. Unaltered cosmic spherules in a 1.4-Gyr-old sandstone from Finland.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, A; Greshake, A; Pesonen, L J; Pihlaja, P

    1998-09-10

    Micrometeorites-submillimetre-sized particles derived from asteroids and comets-occur in significant quantities in deep sea sediments, and the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. The most abundant micrometeorites are cosmic spherules, which contain nickel-rich spinels that were crystallized and oxidized during atmospheric entry, therefore recording the oxygen content in the uppermost atmosphere. But the use of micrometeorites for detecting past changes in the flux of incoming extraterrestrial matter, and as probes of the evolution of the atmosphere, has been hampered by the fact that most objects with depositional ages higher than 0.5 Myr show severe chemical alteration. Here we report the discovery of unaltered cosmic spherules in a 1.4-Gyr-old sandstone (red bed) from Finland. From this we infer that red beds, a common lithology in the Earth's history, may contain substantial unbiased populations of fossil micrometeorites. The study of such populations would allow systematic research on variations in the micrometeorite flux from the early Proterozoic era to recent times (a time span of about 2.5 Gyr), and could help to better constrain the time when the atmospheric oxygen content was raised to its present level.

  5. Application of shock wave data to earth and planetary science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that shock wave data for: (1) low temperature condensable gases H2 and He, (2) H2O, CH4, NH3, CO, CO2, and N2 ices, and (3) silicates, metals, oxides and sulfides have many applications in geophysics and planetary science. The present paper is concerned with such applications. The composition of planetary interiors is discussed, taking into account the division of the major constituent of the planets in three groups on the basis of 'cosmic abundance' arguments, the H-He mixtures in the case of Jupiter and Saturn, shock wave data for hydrogen, and constraints on the internal structure of Uranus and Neptune. Attention is also given to the earth's mantle, shock wave data for mantle materials, the earth's core, impacts on planetary surfaces, elastic wave velocities as a function of pressure along the Hugoniot of iron, and reactions which yield the CO2 bearing atmospheres for Venus, earth, and Mars.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF DISSIPATION RANGE POWER SPECTRA AND PLASMA-WAVE POLARIZATION ON COSMIC-RAY SCATTERING MEAN FREE PATH

    SciTech Connect

    Schlickeiser, R.; Lazar, M.; Vukcevic, M., E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.d, E-mail: mlazar@tp4.ruhr-uni-bochum.d, E-mail: vuk.mira@gmail.co

    2010-08-20

    The influence of the polarization state and the dissipation range spectral steepening of slab plasma waves on the scattering mean free path of single-charged cosmic-ray particles is investigated in a turbulence model, where the crucial scattering of cosmic-ray particles with small pitch-angle cosines is caused by resonant cyclotron interactions with slab plasma waves. Analytical expressions for the mean free path of protons, antiprotons, negatrons, and positrons are derived for the case of constant frequency-independent magnetic helicity values {sigma} and different values of the dissipation range spectral index k for characteristic interplanetary and interstellar plasma conditions. The positron mean free pathmore » is not affected by the dissipation range spectral index k as these particles can only cyclotron-resonate for rigidity values larger than R {sub 0} = m{sub p}c = 938 MV. Proton and antiproton mean free paths are only slightly affected by the dissipation range spectral index k at small rigidities R < R {sub 0}. The negatron mean free path is severely affected by the dissipation range spectral index k at rigidities smaller than R {sub 0}. At high rigidities R >> R {sub 0}, all particle species approach the same power-law dependence {proportional_to}R {sup 2-s} determined by the inertial range spectral index s = 5/3. The magnetic helicity value {sigma} affects the value of the mean free path. At all rigidities, the ratio of the antiproton to proton mean free paths equals the constant (1 + {sigma})/(1 - {sigma}), which also agrees with the ratio of the negatron to the proton and positron mean free paths at relativistic rigidities. At relativistic rigidities the positron and proton mean free paths agree, as do the negatron and antiproton mean free paths.« less

  7. The Significance of the Influence of the CME Deflection in Interplanetary Space on the CME Arrival at Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Bin; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong; Liu, Siqing; Wang, Jingjing; Pan, Zonghao; Li, Huimin; Liu, Rui

    2017-08-01

    As one of the most violent astrophysical phenomena, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have strong potential space weather effects. However, not all Earth-directed CMEs encounter the Earth and produce geo-effects. One reason is the deflected propagation of CMEs in interplanetary space. Although there have been several case studies clearly showing such deflections, it has not yet been statistically assessed how significantly the deflected propagation would influence the CME’s arrival at Earth. We develop an integrated CME-arrival forecasting (iCAF) system, assembling the modules of CME detection, three-dimensional (3D) parameter derivation, and trajectory reconstruction to predict whether or not a CME arrives at Earth, and we assess the deflection influence on the CME-arrival forecasting. The performance of iCAF is tested by comparing the two-dimensional (2D) parameters with those in the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop (CDAW) Data Center catalog, comparing the 3D parameters with those of the gradual cylindrical shell model, and estimating the success rate of the CME Earth-arrival predictions. It is found that the 2D parameters provided by iCAF and the CDAW catalog are consistent with each other, and the 3D parameters derived by the ice cream cone model based on single-view observations are acceptable. The success rate of the CME-arrival predictions by iCAF with deflection considered is about 82%, which is 19% higher than that without deflection, indicating the importance of the CME deflection for providing a reliable forecasting. Furthermore, iCAF is a worthwhile project since it is a completely automatic system with deflection taken into account.

  8. The BESS Search for Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Origins and for Cosmological Antimatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, John; Yamamoto, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The apex of the Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer (BESS) program was reached with the Antarctic flight of BESS-Polar II, during the 2007-2008 Austral Summer, that obtained 24.5 days of data on over 4.7 billion cosmic-ray events. The US-Japan BESS Collaboration uses elementary particle measurements to study the early Universe and provides fundamental data on the spectra of light cosmic-ray elements and isotopes. BESS measures the energy spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons to investigate signatures of possible exotic sources, such as dark-matter candidates, and searches for heavier antinuclei that might reach Earth from antimatter domains formed during symmetry breaking processes in the early Universe. Since 1993, BESS has carried out eleven high-latitude balloon flights, two of long duration, that together have defined the study of antiprotons below about 4 GeV, provided standard references for light element and isotope spectra, and set the most sensitive limits on the existence of antideuterons and antihelium. The BESS-Polar II flight took place at Solar Minimum, when the sensitivity of the low-energy antiproton measurements to a primary source is greatest. The rich BESS-Polar II dataset more than doubles the combined data from all earlier BESS flights and has 10-20 times the statistics of BESS data from the previous Solar Minimum. Here, we summarize the scientific results of BESS program, focusing on the results obtained using data from the long-duration flights of BESS-Polar I (2004) and BESS-Polar II.

  9. An Instrument to Measure Elemental Energy Spectra of Cosmic Ray Nuclei Up to 10(exp 16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov,S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    A longstanding goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of cosmic rays up to and through the "knee" (approx. equal to 3 x 10 (exp 15) eV. It is not currently feasible to achieve this goal with an ionization calorimeter because the mass required to be deployed in Earth orbit is very large (at least 50 tonnes). An alternative method will be presented. This is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer using silicon microstrip detector technology. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11)- 10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a design for a new lightweight instrument with a large aperture (KLEM) will be described.

  10. Tracing the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libeskind, Noam I.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Cautun, Marius; Falck, Bridget; Tempel, Elmo; Abel, Tom; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Gonzalez, Roberto; Gottlöber, Stefan; Hahn, Oliver; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Jones, Bernard J. T.; Kitaura, Francisco; Knebe, Alexander; Manti, Serena; Neyrinck, Mark; Nuza, Sebastián E.; Padilla, Nelson; Platen, Erwin; Ramachandra, Nesar; Robotham, Aaron; Saar, Enn; Shandarin, Sergei; Steinmetz, Matthias; Stoica, Radu S.; Sousbie, Thierry; Yepes, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    The cosmic web is one of the most striking features of the distribution of galaxies and dark matter on the largest scales in the Universe. It is composed of dense regions packed full of galaxies, long filamentary bridges, flattened sheets and vast low-density voids. The study of the cosmic web has focused primarily on the identification of such features, and on understanding the environmental effects on galaxy formation and halo assembly. As such, a variety of different methods have been devised to classify the cosmic web - depending on the data at hand, be it numerical simulations, large sky surveys or other. In this paper, we bring 12 of these methods together and apply them to the same data set in order to understand how they compare. In general, these cosmic-web classifiers have been designed with different cosmological goals in mind, and to study different questions. Therefore, one would not a priori expect agreement between different techniques; however, many of these methods do converge on the identification of specific features. In this paper, we study the agreements and disparities of the different methods. For example, each method finds that knots inhabit higher density regions than filaments, etc. and that voids have the lowest densities. For a given web environment, we find a substantial overlap in the density range assigned by each web classification scheme. We also compare classifications on a halo-by-halo basis; for example, we find that 9 of 12 methods classify around a third of group-mass haloes (i.e. Mhalo ∼ 1013.5 h-1 M⊙) as being in filaments. Lastly, so that any future cosmic-web classification scheme can be compared to the 12 methods used here, we have made all the data used in this paper public.

  11. Cosmic ray interactions in starbursting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M.

    High quality gamma-ray and radio observations of nearby galaxies offer an unprecedented opportunity to quantitatively study the properties of their cosmic ray populations. Accounting for various interactions and energy losses, I developed a multi-component, single-zone model of the cosmic ray populations in the central molecular zones of star-forming galaxies. Using observational knowledge of the interstellar medium and star formation, I successfully predicted the radio, gamma-ray, and neutrino spectra for nearby starbursts. Using chi-squared tests to compare the models with observational radio and gamma-ray data, I placed constraints on magnetic field strengths, cosmic ray energy densities, and galactic wind (advection) speeds. The initial models were applied to and tested on the prototypical starburst galaxy M82. To further test the model and to explore the differences in environment between starbursts and active galactic nuclei, I studied NGC 253 and NGC 1068, both nearby giant spiral galaxies which have been detected in gamma-rays. Additionally, I demonstrated that the excess GeV energy gamma-ray emission in the Galactic Center is likely not diffuse emission from an additional population of cosmic rays accelerated in supernova remnants. Lastly, I investigated cosmic ray populations in the starburst nuclei of Arp 220, a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy which displays a high-intensity mode of star formation more common in young galaxies, and I showed that the nuclei are efficient cosmic-ray proton calorimeters.

  12. Propagation of cosmic rays in the galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, R. R.; Stephens, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of a model for analyzing the propagation of cosmic rays are discussed. The requirements for analyzing the relevant observational data on cosmic rays are defines as: (1) the chemical and isotopic composition of cosmic rays as a function of energy, (2) the flux and energy spectrum of the individual nucleonic components, (3) the flux and energy spectrum of the electronic component, (4) the cosmic ray prehistory, and (5) the degree of isotropy in their arrival directions as a function of energy. It is stated that the model which has been able to bring to pass the greatest measure of success is the galactic confinement model.

  13. Development of the cosmic ray techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, B.

    1982-01-01

    It has been found that most advances of cosmic-ray physics have been directly related to the development of observational techniques. The history of observational techniques is discussed, taking into account ionization chambers, refinements applied to ionization chambers to make them suitable for an effective use in the study of cosmic radiation, the Wulf-type electrometer, the electrometer designed by Millikan and Neher, the Geiger-Mueller counter, the experiment of Bothe and Kolhoerster, the coincidence circuit, and a cosmic-ray 'telescope'. Attention is given to a magnetic lens for cosmic rays, a triangular arrangement of Geiger-Mueller counters used to demonstrate the production of a secondary radiation, a stereoscopic cloud-chamber photograph of showers, the cloud-chamber picture which provided the first evidence of the positive electron, and arrangements for studying photon components, mu-mesons, and air showers.

  14. Angular correlation of cosmic neutrinos with ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and implications for their sources

    SciTech Connect

    Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur, E-mail: reetanjalim@uj.ac.za, E-mail: srazzaque@uj.ac.za

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic neutrino events detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory with energy 0∼> 3 TeV have poor angular resolutions to reveal their origin. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), with better angular resolutions at 0>6 EeV energies, can be used to check if the same astrophysical sources are responsible for producing both neutrinos and UHECRs. We test this hypothesis, with statistical methods which emphasize invariant quantities, by using data from the Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array and past cosmic-ray experiments. We find that the arrival directions of the cosmic neutrinos are correlated with 0≥ 10 EeV UHECR arrival directions at confidence level ≈ 90%. The strengthmore » of the correlation decreases with decreasing UHECR energy and no correlation exists at energy 0∼ 6 EeV . A search in astrophysical databases within 3{sup o} of the arrival directions of UHECRs with energy 0≥ 10 EeV, that are correlated with the IceCube cosmic neutrinos, resulted in 18 sources from the Swift-BAT X-ray catalog with redshift z≤ 0.06. We also found 3 objects in the Kühr catalog of radio sources using the same criteria. The sources are dominantly Seyfert galaxies with Cygnus A being the most prominent member. We calculate the required neutrino and UHECR fluxes to produce the observed correlated events, and estimate the corresponding neutrino luminosity (25 TeV–2.2 PeV) and cosmic-ray luminosity (500 TeV–180 EeV), assuming the sources are the ones we found in the Swift-BAT and Kühr catalogs. We compare these luminosities with the X-ray luminosity of the corresponding sources and discuss possibilities of accelerating protons to 0∼> 10 EeV and produce neutrinos in these sources.« less

  15. The isotopic composition of cosmic-ray calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedenbeck, M. E.; George, J. S.; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; Israel, M. H.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; hide

    2001-01-01

    We find that the relative abundance of cosmic ray calcium isotopes in the cosmic-ray source are very similar to those found in solar-system material, in spite of the fact that different types of stars are thought to be responsible for producing these two isotopes. This observation is consistent with the view that cosmic rays are derived from a mixed sample of interstellar matter.

  16. The Concept of Cosmic Tree in Armenian and Iranian Cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Cosmic Tree or Tree of Life is a common motif in various world theologies, mythologies, and philosophies. In the present study we focus on Armenian and Iranian Cosmic Tree. In ancient Armenia, the Tree of Life (Կենաց Ծառ) is a religious symbol and is drawn on walls of fortresses and carved on the armour of warriors. According to ancient Armenians the center of the Universe is located at the crown of the tree or the column, which is the closest to the sky. We explore the idea of cosmic tree in the riddles, prayers, medieval rituals and miniatures. In the riddles, the tree mostly symbolizes the celestial phenomena (Sun, Stars, and Heavens), different units of time (years, months, weeks, days, and seasons), the people, Jerusalem, the apostles and Jesus Christ. The branches of the tree were equally divided on the right and left sides of the stem, with each branch having one leaf, and one leaf on the apex of the tree. Servants stood on each side of the tree with one of their hands up as if they are taking care of the tree. In pre-Islamic Persian mythology, the Gaokerena world tree is a large, sacred Haoma tree which bears all seeds. Ahriman created a frog to invade the tree and destroy it, aiming at preventing all trees from growing on the Earth. As a reaction, God (Ahura Mazda) created two kar fish staring at the frog to guard the tree. The concept of world tree in Persian Mythology is very closely related to the concept of the Tree of Life. Another related issue in ancient mythology of Iran is the myth of Mashya and Mashyane, two trees who were the ancestors of all living beings. This myth can be considered as a prototype for the creation myth where living beings are created by Gods (who have human forms). We come to the conclusion that in both cultures, no matter of the present different religions, the perception of Cosmic Tree is interconnected to the life on our planet and served as a metaphor for common descent in the evolutionary sense.

  17. Neutrino-oscillation search with cosmic-ray neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, D. S.; Cortez, B.; Gaisser, T. K.; Mann, A. K.; Shrock, R. E.; Sulak, L. R.

    1984-03-01

    A sensitive search for neutrino oscillations involving νe, νμ, and ντ may be provided by measurements of the ratio of the total interaction rates of upward- and downward-going cosmic-ray neutrinos within a massive (~10 kton) detector. Assuming mixing between all pairs of νe, νμ, and ντ, the experiment is capable of observing time-averaged probabilities t and t of magnitude set by mixing strengths corresponding to, e.g., the d- to s-quark mixing strength, and of reaching the limit Δm2ij≡|mi2-mj2|~10-4 eV2, where mi, and mj are neutrino mass eigenstates, and Peτ and Pμτ are the probabilities for νe and νμ, respectively, to oscillate into ντ after traversing a distance L~ diameter of the Earth. Possible ambiguities may be resolved through comparison of the ratios NeNμ for the upward- and downward-going neutrinos.

  18. Cosmic logic: a computational model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2016-02-01

    We initiate a formal study of logical inferences in context of the measure problem in cosmology or what we call cosmic logic. We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or Gödel number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies that it is impossible to construct CM machines to compute probabilities on the set of all CO machines using cut-off prescriptions. The cut-off measures can still be used if the set is reduced to include only machines which halt after a finite and predetermined number of steps.

  19. Lunisolar Tides Influence on Electrical Conductivity of the Earth's Crust in the Territory of Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Shevtsov, A. N.; Korotkova, T. G.

    2018-05-01

    The results of studying the influence of lunisolar tides on the electrical conductivity of the Earth's crust in the territory of the Kola Peninsula are presented. Along with the results obtained by the authors, the data of other researchers are also considered. All the studies are based on the analysis of the field produced by the Zevs facility transmitting extremely low frequency (ELF) signals at 82-83 Hz. The measurements were carried out in different years at the Avva-Guba (1998), Lovozero (2009), and Imandra-Varzuga polygon (IVP) monitoring sites (2013) located 180, 90, and 160 km from the transmitter, respectively. The negative correlation between the tides and crustal electrical resistivity is revealed at all the points. This means that tidal rises of the Earth's surface are accompanied by a decrease in resistivity and vice versa. The overview shows that the higher the resistivity of separate Earth's crustal blocks the higher the relative amplitudes of the corresponding tidal responses that are observed.

  20. Radioresistance of Adenine to Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignoli Muniz, Gabriel S.; Mejía, Christian F.; Martinez, Rafael; Auge, Basile; Rothard, Hermann; Domaracka, Alicja; Boduch, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The presence of nucleobases in carbonaceous meteorites on Earth is an indication of the existence of this class of molecules in outer space. However, space is permeated by ionizing radiation, which can have damaging effects on these molecules. Adenine is a purine nucleobase that amalgamates important biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and ATP. Adenine has a unique importance in biochemistry and therefore life. The aim of this work was to study the effects of cosmic ray analogues on solid adenine and estimate its survival when exposed to corpuscular radiation. Adenine films were irradiated at GANIL (Caen, France) and GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) by 820 MeV Kr33+, 190 MeV Ca10+, 92 MeV Xe23+, and 12 MeV C4+ ion beams at low temperature. The evolution of adenine molecules under heavy ion irradiation was studied by IR absorption spectroscopy as a function of projectile fluence. It was found that the adenine destruction cross section (σd) follows an electronic stopping power (Se) power law under the form: CSen; C is a constant, and the exponential n is a dimensionless quantity. Using the equation above to fit our results, we determined σd = 4 × 10-17 Se1.17, with Se in kiloelectronvolts per micrometer (keV μm-1). New IR absorption bands arise under irradiation of adenine and can be attributed to HCN, CN-, C2H4N4, CH3CN, and (CH3)3CNC. These findings may help to understand the stability and chemistry related to complex organic molecules in space. The half-life of solid adenine exposed to the simulated interstellar medium cosmic ray flux was estimated as (10 ± 8) × 106 years.

  1. Noble gas isotopic composition, cosmic ray exposure history, and terrestrial age of the meteorite Allan Hills A81005 from the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, O.; Geiss, J.; Kraehenbuehl, U.; Niedermann, S.

    1986-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the elemental and isotopic abundances of the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in the meteorite Allan Hills A81005 from the moon is presented. In addition to a bulk sample, five grain-size fractions were analyzed. Chemical abundances relevant to the interpretation of the cosmic-ray-produced noble gases were determined and indicate that the grain size fractions are chemically uniform. Except for the fact that the trapped noble gas concentrations appear to be grain size correlated, the isotopic and elemental pattern of the trapped solar wind noble gases in A81005 are very similar to those observed in lunar soils and breccias. The A81005 material resided during (580 + or - 180) Myr in the nuclear active zone of the lunar regolith at an average shielding depth of about 40 g/sq cm. From literature data, it is concluded that the moon-earth transit time lasted less than a few million years. Finally, A81005 was captured by the earth more than 140,000 years ago, as indicated by the abundance of cosmic-ray-produced Kr-81.

  2. Cosmic ray strangelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Jes

    2005-06-01

    Searching for strangelets in cosmic rays may be the best way to test the possible stability of strange quark matter. I review calculations of the astrophysical strangelet flux in the GV TV rigidity range, which will be investigated from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) on the International Space Station, and discuss the merits of strangelets as ultra-high energy cosmic rays at EeV ZeV energies, beyond the Greisen Zatsepin Kuzmin cutoff. I also address some 'counter-arguments' sometimes raised against the possibility of stable strangelets. It will be argued that stability of strange quark matter remains a viable possibility, which must be tested by experiments.

  3. The breakup of a meteorite parent body and the delivery of meteorites to earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1992-01-01

    Whether many of the 10,000 meteorites collected in the Antarctic are unlike those falling elsewhere is contentious. The Antarctic H chondrites, one of the major classes of stony meteorites, include a number of individuals with higher induced thermoluminescence peak temperatures than observed among non-Antarctic H chondrites. The proportion of such individuals decreases with the mean terrestrial age of the meteorites at the various ice fields. These H chondrites have cosmic-ray exposure ages of about 8 million years, experienced little cosmic-ray shielding, and suffered rapid postmetamorphic cooling. Breakup of the H chondrite parent body, 8 million years ago, may have produced two types of material with different size distributions and thermal histories. The smaller objects reached earth more rapidly through more rapid orbital evolution.

  4. Imaging 50,000 Oriented Ovoid Depressions Using LiDAR Elevation Data Elucidates the Enigmatic Character of The Carolina Bays: Wind & Wave, Or Cosmic Impact Detritus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davias, M. E.; Harris, T. H. S.

    2017-12-01

    80 years after aerial photography revealed thousands of aligned oval depressions on the USA's Atlantic Coastal Plain, the geomorphology of the "Carolina bays" remains enigmatic. Geologists and astronomers alike hold that invoking a cosmic impact for their genesis is indefensible. Rather, the bays are commonly attributed to gradualistic fluvial, marine and/or aeolian processes operating during the Pleistocene era. The major axis orientations of Carolina bays are noted for varying statistically by latitude, suggesting that, should there be any merit to a cosmic hypothesis, a highly accurate triangulation network and suborbital analysis would yield a locus and allow for identification of a putative impact site. Digital elevation maps using LiDAR technology offer the precision necessary to measure their exquisitely-carved circumferential rims and orientations reliably. To support a comprehensive geospatial survey of Carolina bay landforms (Survey) we generated about a million km2 of false-color hsv-shaded bare-earth topographic maps as KML-JPEG tile sets for visualization on virtual globes. Considering the evidence contained in the Survey, we maintain that interdisciplinary research into a possible cosmic origin should be encouraged. Consensus opinion does hold a cosmic impact accountable for an enigmatic Pleistocene event - the Australasian tektite strewn field - despite the failure of a 60-year search to locate the causal astroblem. Ironically, a cosmic link to the Carolina bays is considered soundly falsified by the identical lack of a causal impact structure. Our conjecture suggests both these events are coeval with a cosmic impact into the Great Lakes area during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, at 786 ka ± 5 k. All Survey data and imagery produced for the Survey are available on the Internet to support independent research. A table of metrics for 50,000 bays examined for the Survey is available from an on-line Google Fusion Table: https://goo.gl/XTHKC4 . Each bay

  5. Towards understanding the nature of any relationship between Solar Activity and Cosmic Rays with thunderstorm activity and lightning discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Regan, J.; Muller, J.-P.; Matthews, S.

    2012-04-01

    The runaway breakdown hypothesis of lightning discharge has predicted relationships between cosmic rays' interactions with the atmosphere and thunderstorm production and lightning activity. Precipitating energetic particles lead to the injection of MeV-energy electrons into electrified thunderclouds [1,2], resulting in runaway breakdown occurring, and assisting in the process of charge separation [2]. Previous lightning studies show that correlations to solar activity are weak but significant, with better correlations to solar activity and cosmic rays when carried out over smaller geographical areas [3,4,5,6] and over longer timescales [6]. In this work, correlations are explored between variations of SEPs and lightning activity levels at various spatio-temporal scales. Temporal scales span from short-term (days) scales surrounding large Earth-directed coronal mass ejection (CME) events to long-term (years) scales. Similarly, spatial scales span from 1-degree x 1-degree latitudinal-longitudinal grid scales to an entirely global study, for varying timescales. Additionally, investigation of correlation sign and statistical significance by 1-degree latitudinal bands is also employed, allowing a comparative study of lightning activity relative to regions of greatest - and contrasting regions of relative absence of - energetic particle precipitation. These regions are determined from electron and proton flux maps, derived from measurements from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED) onboard the Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) system. Lightning data is obtained from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) for the period 2005 to 2011. The correlations of lightning strike rates are carried out with respect to Relative Sunspot Number (R), 10.7cm Solar radio flux (F10.7), Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) neutron monitor flux, the Ap geomagnetic activity index, and Disturbance Storm Time (DST) index. Correlations show dramatic variations in

  6. Black holes as beads on cosmic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashoorioon, Amjad; Mann, Robert B.

    2014-11-01

    We consider the possibility of the formation of cosmic strings with black holes as beads. We focus on the simplest setup where two black holes are formed on a long cosmic string. It turns out that in the absence of a background magnetic field and for observationally viable values for cosmic string tensions, μ \\lt 2× {{10}-7}, the tension of the strut in between the black holes has to be less than the ones that run into infinity. This result does not change if a cosmological constant is present. However, if a background magnetic field is turned on, we can have stable setups where the tensions of all cosmic strings are equal. We derive the equilibrium conditions in each of these setups depending on whether the black holes are extremal or non-extremal. We obtain cosmologically acceptable solutions with solar mass black holes and an intragalactic-strength cosmic magnetic field.

  7. Progress in high-energy cosmic ray physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollerach, S.; Roulet, E.

    2018-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in our knowledge about high-energy cosmic rays, with an emphasis on the interpretation of the different observational results. We discuss the effects that are relevant to shape the cosmic ray spectrum and the explanations proposed to account for its features and for the observed changes in composition. The physics of air-showers is summarized and we also present the results obtained on the proton-air cross section and on the muon content of the showers. We discuss the cosmic ray propagation through magnetic fields, the effects of diffusion and of magnetic lensing, the cosmic ray interactions with background radiation fields and the production of secondary neutrinos and photons. We also consider the cosmic ray anisotropies, both at large and small angular scales, presenting the results obtained from the TeV up to the highest energies and discuss the models proposed to explain their origin.

  8. Interstellar cyanogen and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Katherine C.; Meyer, David M.; Hawkins, Isabel

    1993-01-01

    We present the results of a recently completed effort to determine the amount of CN rotational excitation in five diffuse interstellar clouds for the purpose of accurately measuring the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). In addition, we report a new detection of emission from the strongest hyperfine component of the 2.64 mm CN rotational transition (N = 1-0) in the direction toward HD 21483. We have used this result in combination with existing emission measurements toward our other stars to correct for local excitation effects within diffuse clouds which raise the measured CN rotational temperature above that of the CMBR. After making this correction, we find a weighted mean value of T(CMBR) = 2.729 (+0.023, -0.031) K. This temperature is in excellent agreement with the new COBE measurement of 2.726 +/- 0.010 K (Mather et al., 1993). Our result, which samples the CMBR far from the near-Earth environment, attests to the accuracy of the COBE measurement and reaffirms the cosmic nature of this background radiation. From the observed agreement between our CMBR temperature and the COBE result, we conclude that corrections for local CN excitation based on millimeter emission measurements provide an accurate adjustment to the measured rotational excitation.

  9. The isotopic composition of cosmic-ray beryllium and its implication for the cosmic ray's age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukasiak, A.; Ferrando, P.; McDonald, F. B.; Webber, W. R.

    1994-03-01

    We report a new measurement of the cosmic-ray isotopic composition of beryllium in the low-energy range from 35 to 113 MeV per nucleon. This measurement was made using the High Energy Telescope of the CRS experiment on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft during the time period from 1977 to 1991. In this overall time period of 14 years the average solar modulation level was about 500 MV. The cosmic-ray beryllium isotopes were completely separated with an average mass resolution sigma of 0.185 amu. The isotope fractions of Be-7, Be-9, and Be-10 obtained are 52.4 +/- 2.9%, 43.3 +/- 3.7%, and 4.3 +/- 1.5%, respectively. The measured cosmic-ray abundances of Be-7 and Be-9 are found to be in agreement with calculations based on standard Leaky-Box model for the interstellar propagation of cosmic-ray nuclei using the recent cross sections of the New Mexico-Saclay collaboration. From our observed ratio Be-10/Be = 4.3 +/- 1.5% we deduce an average interstellar density of about 0.28 (+0.14, -0.11) atoms/cu cm, and a cosmic-ray lifetime for escape of 27 (+19, -9) x 106 years. The surviving fraction of Be-10 is found to be 0.19 +/- 0.07. Modifications to the conclusions of the Leaky-Box model when a diffusion + convection halo model for propagation is used are also considered.

  10. Measurement of electrons from albedo neutron decay and neutron density in near-Earth space.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinlin; Selesnick, Richard; Schiller, Quintin; Zhang, Kun; Zhao, Hong; Baker, Daniel N; Temerin, Michael A

    2017-12-21

    The Galaxy is filled with cosmic-ray particles, mostly protons with kinetic energies greater than hundreds of megaelectronvolts. Around Earth, trapped energetic protons, electrons and other particles circulate at altitudes from about 500 to 40,000 kilometres in the Van Allen radiation belts. Soon after these radiation belts were discovered six decades ago, it was recognized that the main source of inner-belt protons (with kinetic energies of tens to hundreds of megaelectronvolts) is cosmic-ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND). In this process, cosmic rays that reach the upper atmosphere interact with neutral atoms to produce albedo neutrons, which, being prone to β-decay, are a possible source of geomagnetically trapped protons and electrons. These protons would retain most of the kinetic energy of the neutrons, while the electrons would have lower energies, mostly less than one megaelectronvolt. The viability of CRAND as an electron source has, however, been uncertain, because measurements have shown that the electron intensity in the inner Van Allen belt can vary greatly, while the neutron-decay rate should be almost constant. Here we report measurements of relativistic electrons near the inner edge of the inner radiation belt. We demonstrate that the main source of these electrons is indeed CRAND, and that this process also contributes to electrons in the inner belt elsewhere. Furthermore, measurement of the intensity of electrons generated by CRAND provides an experimental determination of the neutron density in near-Earth space-2 × 10 -9 per cubic centimetre-confirming theoretical estimates.

  11. Cosmic radiation and cancer: is there a link?

    PubMed

    Di Trolio, Rossella; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Fumo, Bruno; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic radiation can cause genetic and cytogenetic damage. Certain occupations including airline pilots and cabin crew are acknowledged to have a greater exposure to cosmic radiation. In a systematic search of MEDLINE, performed from 1990 to 2014, we analyzed clinical studies using the keywords: cosmic radiation, cancer, chromosome aberration, pilots and astronauts. Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in a number of studies and appears to be the most consistent finding. However, as with other cancers, it is unclear whether increased exposure to cosmic radiation is a factor in the increased incidence or whether this can be explained by lifestyle factors. Further research is needed to clarify the risk of cancer in relation to cosmic radiation.

  12. The COBE cosmic 3 K anisotropy experiment: A gravity wave and cosmic string probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Charles L.; Smoot, George F.

    1989-01-01

    Among the experiments to be carried into orbit next year, by the COBE satellite, are differential microwave radiometers. They will make sensitive all-sky maps of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation at three frequencies, giving dipole, quadrupole, and higher order multipole measurements of the background radiation. The experiment will either detect, or place significant constraints on, the existence of cosmic strings and long wavelength gravity waves.

  13. Cosmology with cosmic shear observations: a review.

    PubMed

    Kilbinger, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Cosmic shear is the distortion of images of distant galaxies due to weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Universe. Such images are coherently deformed by the tidal field of matter inhomogeneities along the line of sight. By measuring galaxy shape correlations, we can study the properties and evolution of structure on large scales as well as the geometry of the Universe. Thus, cosmic shear has become a powerful probe into the nature of dark matter and the origin of the current accelerated expansion of the Universe. Over the last years, cosmic shear has evolved into a reliable and robust cosmological probe, providing measurements of the expansion history of the Universe and the growth of its structure. We review here the principles of weak gravitational lensing and show how cosmic shear is interpreted in a cosmological context. Then we give an overview of weak-lensing measurements, and present the main observational cosmic-shear results since it was discovered 15 years ago, as well as the implications for cosmology. We then conclude with an outlook on the various future surveys and missions, for which cosmic shear is one of the main science drivers, and discuss promising new weak cosmological lensing techniques for future observations.

  14. Dependence of GAMA galaxy halo masses on the cosmic web environment from 100 deg2 of KiDS weak lensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, Margot M.; Cacciato, Marcello; Dvornik, Andrej; Eardley, Lizzie; Heymans, Catherine; Hoekstra, Henk; Kuijken, Konrad; McNaught-Roberts, Tamsyn; Sifón, Cristóbal; Viola, Massimo; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Bilicki, Maciej; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Choi, Ami; Driver, Simon P.; Erben, Thomas; Grado, Aniello; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; de Jong, Jelte T. A.; Liske, Jochen; McFarland, John; Nakajima, Reiko; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Norberg, Peder; Peacock, John A.; Radovich, Mario; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Schneider, Peter; Sikkema, Gert; van Uitert, Edo; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Valentijn, Edwin A.

    2016-11-01

    Galaxies and their dark matter haloes are part of a complex network of mass structures, collectively called the cosmic web. Using the tidal tensor prescription these structures can be classified into four cosmic environments: voids, sheets, filaments and knots. As the cosmic web may influence the formation and evolution of dark matter haloes and the galaxies they host, we aim to study the effect of these cosmic environments on the average mass of galactic haloes. To this end we measure the galaxy-galaxy lensing profile of 91 195 galaxies, within 0.039 < z < 0.263, from the spectroscopic Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey, using {˜ }100 ° ^2 of overlapping data from the Kilo-Degree Survey. In each of the four cosmic environments we model the contributions from group centrals, satellites and neighbouring groups to the stacked galaxy-galaxy lensing profiles. After correcting the lens samples for differences in the stellar mass distribution, we find no dependence of the average halo mass of central galaxies on their cosmic environment. We do find a significant increase in the average contribution of neighbouring groups to the lensing profile in increasingly dense cosmic environments. We show, however, that the observed effect can be entirely attributed to the galaxy density at much smaller scales (within 4 h-1 Mpc), which is correlated with the density of the cosmic environments. Within our current uncertainties we find no direct dependence of galaxy halo mass on their cosmic environment.

  15. The origin and early evolution of life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Oró, J; Miller, S L; Lazcano, A

    1990-01-01

    We do not have a detailed knowledge of the processes that led to the appearance of life on Earth. In this review we bring together some of the most important results that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive Earth environments, particularly those environments in which life is thought to have originated. To do so, we first discuss the evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on our planet and the prebiotic significance of organic compounds found in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar system bodies such as comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites. This is followed by a discussion on the environmental models of the Hadean and early Archean Earth, as well as on the prebiotic formation of organic monomers and polymers essential to life. We then consider the processes that may have led to the appearance in the Archean of the first cells, and how these processes may have affected the early steps of biological evolution. Finally, the significance of these results to the study of the distribution of life in the Universe is discussed.

  16. Cosmic Impacts, Cosmic Catastrophes. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David

    1990-01-01

    Examined is the science of catastrophism and its role in planetary and earth science. The effects of impacts on earth with extraterrestrial origins are discussed. Perspectives on the age and dynamics of the earth's crust are presented. (CW)

  17. Cosmic-ray detectors on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsley, John

    1988-01-01

    The state of cosmic ray physics is reviewed. It is concluded that the nonexistent lunar magnetic field, the low lunar radiation background, and the lack of an atmosphere on the Moon provide an excellent environment for the study of high energy primary cosmic rays.

  18. Resolution of the COBE Earth sensor anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedler, J.

    1993-01-01

    Since its launch on November 18, 1989, the Earth sensors on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) have shown much greater noise than expected. The problem was traced to an error in Earth horizon acquisition-of-signal (AOS) times. Due to this error, the AOS timing correction was ignored, causing Earth sensor split-to-index (SI) angles to be incorrectly time-tagged to minor frame synchronization times. Resulting Earth sensor residuals, based on gyro-propagated fine attitude solutions, were as large as plus or minus 0.45 deg (much greater than plus or minus 0.10 deg from scanner specifications (Reference 1)). Also, discontinuities in single-frame coarse attitude pitch and roll angles (as large as 0.80 and 0.30 deg, respectively) were noted several times during each orbit. However, over the course of the mission, each Earth sensor was observed to independently and unexpectedly reset and then reactivate into a new configuration. Although the telemetered AOS timing corrections are still in error, a procedure has been developed to approximate and apply these corrections. This paper describes the approach, analysis, and results of approximating and applying AOS timing adjustments to correct Earth scanner data. Furthermore, due to the continuing degradation of COBE's gyroscopes, gyro-propagated fine attitude solutions may soon become unavailable, requiring an alternative method for attitude determination. By correcting Earth scanner AOS telemetry, as described in this paper, more accurate single-frame attitude solutions are obtained. All aforementioned pitch and roll discontinuities are removed. When proper AOS corrections are applied, the standard deviation of pitch residuals between coarse attitude and gyro-propagated fine attitude solutions decrease by a factor of 3. Also, the overall standard deviation of SI residuals from fine attitude solutions decrease by a factor of 4 (meeting sensor specifications) when AOS corrections are applied.

  19. Long term variability of the cosmic ray intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, C. L.; Houston, B. P.; Mayer, C. J.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    In a previous paper Bhat, et al., assess the evidence for the continuing acceleration of cosmic rays in the Loop I supernova remnant. The enhanced gamma-ray emission is found consistent with the Blandford and Cowie model for particle acceleration at the remnant shock wave. The contributions of other supernovae remnants to the galactic cosmic ray energy density are now considered, paying anisotropy of cosmic rays accelerated by local supernovae ( 100 pc). The results are compared with geophysical data on the fluctuations in the cosmic ray intensity over the previous one billion years.

  20. Cosmic Ray Interactions in Shielding Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ankney, Austin S.

    2011-09-08

    This document provides a detailed study of materials used to shield against the hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at Earth’s surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during transport for the MAJORANA collaboration. The materials suitable for cosmic-ray shield design are materials such as lead and iron that will stop the primary protons, and materials like polyethylene, borated polyethylene, concrete and water that will stop the induced neutrons. The interaction of the different cosmic-ray components at ground level (protons, neutrons, muons) with their wide energy range (from kilo-electronmore » volts to giga-electron volts) is a complex calculation. Monte Carlo calculations have proven to be a suitable tool for the simulation of nucleon transport, including hadron interactions and radioactive isotope production. The industry standard Monte Carlo simulation tool, Geant4, was used for this study. The result of this study is the assertion that activation at Earth’s surface is a result of the neutronic and protonic components of the cosmic-ray shower. The best material to shield against these cosmic-ray components is iron, which has the best combination of primary shielding and minimal secondary neutron production.« less