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Sample records for earth element fractionation

  1. Rare Earth Element Fractionation During Evaporation of Chondritic Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Davis, A. M.; Clayton, R. N.

    1993-07-01

    Evaporation experiments suggest that enrichments in the heavy isotopes of oxygen, magnesium, and silicon in some CAIs are caused by kinetic effects during evaporation [1]. Volatility-fractionated REE patterns found in some CAIs have been modeled with some success using equilibrium thermodynamics [2,3], but little is known about kinetic effects on REE patterns. We have begun an investigation of REE fractionation under conditions where large isotope effects are produced by the kinetic isotope effect. We synthesized a starting material containing CI chondritic relative proportions of MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, CaO, TiO2, and FeO, and doped it with 100 ppm each of the REE. Samples of this material were evaporated in a vacuum furnace [4] at 10^-6 torr and 1800 or 2000 degrees C for periods of a few seconds to 5 hr. The mass fraction evaporated ranged from 7.6 to 95.4%. Most residues consist of olivine and glass. Chemical compositions of the residues were determined by electron and ion microprobe. Results for selected elements are shown in Fig. 1. There is no significant evaporation of Ca, Al, and Ti up to 95% mass loss; the evaporation behavior of Mg, Si, and Fe is similar to that found by Hashimoto [5]. There is no significant evaporation of most of the REE up to 95% mass loss. Ce is much more volatile than the other REE under these conditions: a tenfold negative Ce anomaly developed between 60 and 70% mass loss and the anomaly reached 5 X 10^-4 at 95% mass loss. A small Pr anomaly (50% Pr loss) also appeared in the highest-mass-loss residue. Thermodynamic calculations show that Ce has approximately the same volatility as other LREE under solar nebular oxygen fugacity, but is much more volatile than the other REE under oxidizing conditions [6]. We suspect that conditions in the residue in our vacuum evaporation experiments became oxidizing because evaporation reactions involving most major element oxides involve release of oxygen. The four known HAL-type hibonite

  2. Bishop tuff revisited: new rare Earth element data consistent with crystal fractionation.

    PubMed

    Cameron, K L

    1984-06-22

    The Bishop Tuff of eastern California is the type example of a high-silica rhyolite that, according to Hildreth, supposedly evolved by liquid-state differentiation. New analyses establish that the Bishop Tuff "earlyllate" rare earth element trend reported by Hildreth mimics the relations between groundmass glasses and whole rocks for allanite-bearing pumice. Differences in elemental concentrations between whole rock and groundmass are the result of phenocryst precipitation; thus the data of Hildreth are precisely those expected to result from crystal fractionation.

  3. Geochemical fractions of rare earth elements in soil around a mine tailing in Baotou, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth mine tailing dumps are environmental hazards because tailing easily leaches and erodes by water and wind. To assess the influence of mine tailing on the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, sixty-seven surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different locations near China’s largest rare earth mine tailing. The total concentration of REEs in surface soils ranged from 156 to 5.65 × 104 mg·kg−1 with an average value of 4.67 × 103 mg·kg−1, which was significantly higher than the average value in China (181 mg·kg−1). We found obvious fractionation of both light and heavy REEs, which was supported by the North American Shale Composite (NASC) and the Post-Archean Average Australian Shale (PAAS) normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (LaN/YbN, LaN/SmN and GdN/YbN). A slightly positive Ce anomaly and a negative Eu anomaly were also found. For all 14 REEs in soils, enrichment was intensified by the mine tailing sources and influenced by the prevailing wind. PMID:26198417

  4. Geochemical fractions of rare earth elements in soil around a mine tailing in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2015-07-22

    Rare earth mine tailing dumps are environmental hazards because tailing easily leaches and erodes by water and wind. To assess the influence of mine tailing on the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, sixty-seven surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different locations near China's largest rare earth mine tailing. The total concentration of REEs in surface soils ranged from 156 to 5.65 × 10(4) mg·kg(-1) with an average value of 4.67 × 10(3) mg·kg(-1), which was significantly higher than the average value in China (181 mg·kg(-1)). We found obvious fractionation of both light and heavy REEs, which was supported by the North American Shale Composite (NASC) and the Post-Archean Average Australian Shale (PAAS) normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La(N)/Yb(N), La(N)/Sm(N) and Gd(N)/Yb(N)). A slightly positive Ce anomaly and a negative Eu anomaly were also found. For all 14 REEs in soils, enrichment was intensified by the mine tailing sources and influenced by the prevailing wind.

  5. Fractionation in the solar nebula - Condensation of yttrium and the rare earth elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V.

    1975-01-01

    The condensation of Y and the rare earth elements (REE) from the solar nebula may be controlled by thermodynamic equilibrium between gas and condensed solids. Highly fractionated REE patterns may result if condensates are removed from the gas before condensation is complete. It is found that the fractionation is not a smooth function of REE ionic radius but varies in an extremely irregular pattern. Both Yb and Eu are predicted to be extremely depleted in the early condensate without the requirement of condensation in the divalent state. The model is discussed with respect to a highly fractionated pattern observed by Tanaka and Masuda (1973), in a pink Ca-Al-rich inclusion from the Allende meteorite and can account for the abundances of each REE determined. According to the model this inclusion represents a condensate from a previously fractionated gas rather than from a gas of solar composition. Before the condensation of this inclusion, an earlier condensate was formed and was removed from equilibrium with the gas.

  6. Efficient mobilization and fractionation of rare-earth elements by aqueous fluids upon slab dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsay, A.; Zajacz, Z.; Sanchez-Valle, C.

    2014-07-01

    The characteristic REE fractionation pattern in arc magmas compared to MOR-basalts results from the selective mobilization of light rare-earth elements (LREE) by slab-derived mobile components. However, the nature and composition of the slab flux, and the actual mechanisms responsible for the transfer of rare-earth elements (REE) from the slab to the mantle wedge remain unclear. We present experimental data on the solubility of selected REE in ligand-bearing aqueous fluids and a hydrous haplogranitic melt at 2.6 GPa and 600-800 °C, spanning the conditions relevant to slab dehydration and melting. The solubilities of REE in aqueous fluids increase more than an order of magnitude with temperature increasing from 600 to 800 °C. Addition of ligands such as Cl-, F-, CO32-, SO42- in relatively small concentrations (0.3-1.5 m [mol/kg H2O]) has a pronounced effect further enhancing REE solubilities. Each ligand yields a characteristic REE pattern by preferential dissolution of either the light or the heavy REE. For example, the addition of NaCl to the aqueous fluids yields highly elevated LREE/HREE ratios (La/Yb=17.4±4.3), whereas the addition of fluoride and sulfate ligands significantly increases the solubility of all REE with moderate LREE/HREE fractionation (La/Yb∼4). The addition of Na2CO3 results in preferential increase of HREE solubilities, and yields La/Yb ratio of 1.6±0.5 by flattening the moderately fractionated REE pattern seen in pure aqueous fluids. The solubilities in hydrous haplogranite melt are moderate in comparison to those observed in aqueous fluids and do not lead to pronounced REE fractionation. Therefore, REE can be effectively mobilized and fractionated by aqueous fluids, compared to felsic hydrous melts. Furthermore, the aqueous fluid chemistry has a major role in determining REE mobilities and fractionation upon slab dehydration in addition to the significant control exerted by temperature. Our results show that chloride-bearing slab

  7. Thulium anomalies and rare earth element patterns in meteorites and Earth: Nebular fractionation and the nugget effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphas, Nicolas; Pourmand, Ali

    2015-08-01

    This study reports the bulk rare earth element (REEs, La-Lu) compositions of 41 chondrites, including 32 falls and 9 finds from carbonaceous (CI, CM, CO and CV), enstatite (EH and EL) and ordinary (H, L and LL) groups, as well as 2 enstatite achondrites (aubrite). The measurements were done in dynamic mode using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (MC-ICPMS), allowing precise quantification of mono-isotopic REEs (Pr, Tb, Ho and Tm). The CI-chondrite-normalized REE patterns (LaN/LuN; a proxy for fractionation of light vs. heavy REEs) and Eu anomalies in ordinary and enstatite chondrites show more scatter in more metamorphosed (petrologic types 4-6) than in unequilibrated (types 1-3) chondrites. This is due to parent-body redistribution of the REEs in various carrier phases during metamorphism. A model is presented that predicts the dispersion of elemental and isotopic ratios due to the nugget effect when the analyzed sample mass is limited and elements are concentrated in minor grains. The dispersion in REE patterns of equilibrated ordinary chondrites is reproduced well by this model, considering that REEs are concentrated in 200 μm-size phosphates, which have high LaN/LuN ratios and negative Eu anomalies. Terrestrial rocks and samples from ordinary and enstatite chondrites display negative Tm anomalies of ∼-4.5% relative to CI chondrites. In contrast, CM, CO and CV (except Allende) show no significant Tm anomalies. Allende CV chondrite shows large excess Tm (∼+10%). These anomalies are similar to those found in group II refractory inclusions in meteorites but of much smaller magnitude. The presence of Tm anomalies in meteorites and terrestrial rocks suggests that either (i) the material in the inner part of the solar system was formed from a gas reservoir that had been depleted in refractory dust and carried positive Tm anomalies or (ii) CI chondrites are enriched in refractory dust and are not representative of solar composition for

  8. Rare earth element distributions and fractionation in plankton from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Strady, Emilie; Kim, Intae; Radakovitch, Olivier; Kim, Guebuem

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations were measured for the first time in plankton from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. The REE concentrations in phytoplankton (60-200 μm) were 5-15 times higher than those in four size fractions of zooplankton: 200-500 μm, 500-1000 μm, 1000-2000 μm and >2000 μm. The concentrations within these zooplankton fractions exhibited the same ranges with some variation attributed to differences in zooplankton taxonomy. The REE concentrations in plankton were poorly related to the reported REE concentrations of seawater, but they correlated well with the calculated REE(3+), concentrations especially with regard to middle REE (MREEs) and heavy REEs (HREEs). Plankton and seawater revealed different PAAS-normalised REE distributions, with the greatest differences observed in the light REEs. Interestingly, a comparison of PAAS-normalized sediment particles from the study of Fowler et al. (1992) showed concentrations of the same order of magnitude and a similar REE distribution without MREE enrichment. Based on this comparison, we propose a conceptual model that emphasizes the importance of biological scavenging of REEs (especially LREEs) in surface waters.

  9. Ocean particle chemistry: The fractionation of rare earth elements between suspended particles and seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Sholkovitz, E.R. ); Landing, W.M.; Lewis, B.L. )

    1994-03-01

    Sargasso Sea suspended particles were sequentially digested with three chemical treatments (acetic acid, mild HCl/HNO[sub 3], and HF/HNO[sub 3]/HCl in a bomb). The latter two treatments dissolve detrital minerals, while the acetic acid removes surface coatings (organic matter and Mn oxides). The rare earth element (REE) composition of the surface coatings, in marked contrast to the crust-like REE composition of the two detrital phases, is extensively fractionated with respect to both filtered seawater and the crust. Surface coatings are responsible for the removal and fractionation of REEs from seawater and, as such, play a key role in the marine geochemical cycles of trace elements. Relative to seawater, the surface coatings are systematically enriched tenfold across the trivalent REEs from Lu to La and develop large positive Ce-anomalies. The Ce-anomalies of the coatings switch from being negative (seawater-like) in the upper 100 m to being strongly positive at greater depths. The ingrowth of Ce and LREEs on particle surfaces reflects the in situ oxidation of dissolved Ce(III) to particulate Ce(IV), and the preferential removal of LREE(III)s over HREE(III)s. REEs(III) fractionation of this type is consistent with particle/solution models. Both processes appear to be related to the in situ formation of Mn oxide particles from the oxidation of dissolved Mn(II) in the upper 200 m of the water column. Preferential removal of LREEs in the upper waters is countered by their preferential release at depth due to remineralization of surface coatings on particles. A new method is explored for estimating the residence time of suspended particles by combining Ce concentration data of dissolved and surface-bound phases with the Ce(III) oxidation rate measurements of MOFFETT (1990). A Ce-based residence time of thirteen days is similar in magnitude to the value calculated from U-[sup 234]Th disequilibria in the Sargasso Sea.

  10. Rare earth elements in intertidal sediments of Bohai Bay, China: concentration, fractionation and the influence of sediment texture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Gao, Xuelu; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung

    2014-07-01

    Surface sediments from intertidal Bohai Bay were assessed using a four-step sequential extraction procedure to determine their concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) and the chemical forms in which those elements were present. The normalized ratios La/Gd and La/Yb showed that LREE contents were not significantly higher than the middle REEs or HREE contents. A negative Ce anomaly and positive Eu were observed in sand and silty sand sediments, whereas no significant Ce or Eu anomaly was found in clayey silt sediments. Residual fraction of REEs accounted for the majority of their total concentrations. Middle REEs were more easily leached than other REEs, especially in clayey silt sediment. REEs contents in the surface sediment from the intertidal Bohai Sea were consistent with data from the upper continental crust and China shallow sea sediments, indicating that they were generally unaffected by heavily anthropogenic effects from adjacent areas.

  11. Role of ligands in accumulation and fractionation of rare Earth elements in plants: examples of phosphate and citrate.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Chaosheng; Yan, Juncai; Zhang, Zili; Sun, Qin

    2005-10-01

    Few studies have been carried out on the effects of ligands on rare earth element (REE) bioaccumulation processes. In this study, the effects of phosphate (Pi, an inorganic ligand) and citrate (an organic ligand) on accumulation and fractionation of REEs in wheat were investigated using aqueous culture with extraneous mixed REEs (MRE). The results show that initial Pi solution culture at various levels followed by exposure to a fixed-MRE solution did not significantly change the total concentrations of REEs (SigmaREE) in roots, whereas the SigmaREE in leaves dramatically decreased with increasing levels of Pi applied. Simultaneous culture of wheat with mixture of MRE and citrate solutions caused obvious decreases of the SigmaREE in both roots and leaves. Compared with MRE, significant fractionations of REEs were found in wheat organs when no ligand was applied. Notable middle REE (MREE) enrichment and M-type tetrad effect were observed in the roots, and heavy REE (HREE) enrichment and W-type tetrad effect existed in the leaves. Pi treatments did not significantly affect the fractionations of REEs in the roots, but enrichment of HREEs in the leaves slightly increased at the highest level of Pi applied. Fractionations of REEs in both roots and leaves decreased with increasing levels of citrate applied; at higher levels of citrate (> or =150 microM), no above fractionation features were observed in wheat, but light REE (LREE) enrichment existed in the roots and leaves. The results indicate that ligands might play important roles in accumulation and fractionation of REEs during bioaccumulation processes.

  12. Fractionation of rare-earth elements in allanite and monazite as related to geology of the Mt. Wheeler mine area, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, D.E.; Bastron, H.

    1967-01-01

    Rare-earth contents of 20 allanites and 13 monazites, accessory minerals from a restricted outcrop area of intrusive granitic rocks, are reported. A quantity called sigma (??), which is the sum of the atomic percentages of La, Ce and Pr, is used as an index of composition with respect to the rare-earth elements. Values of sigma vary from 61.3 to 80.9 at.% for these allanites and monazites, representing an appreciable range of composition in terms of the rare-earth elements. Degree of fractionation of rare earths varies directly with CaO content of the granitic rocks, which in turn depends largely on proximity of limestone. Four xenoliths included in the study suggest that spotty mosaic equilibria are superimposed on the regional gradients and that locally the degree of fractionation of rare earths responds to whole rock composition over distances of a few yards or less. The chemistry of the granitic rocks under study appears to be similar in some respects to that of alkalio rocks and carbonatites. Allanites from the most calcium-rich rocks show a pronounced concentration of the most basic rare earths, and whole-rock concentrations of such rare constituents as total cerium earths, Zr, F, Ti, Ba and Sr increase sympathetically with whole-rock calcium. The explanation for the concentration gradients observed in this chemical system must involve assimilation more than magmatic differentiation. ?? 1967.

  13. Mobility and fractionation of rare earth elements during supergene weathering and gossan formation and chemical modification of massive sulfide gossan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leybourne, Matthew I.; Peter, Jan M.; Layton-Matthews, Daniel; Volesky, John; Boyle, Dan R.

    2006-03-01

    Primary massive sulfide gossans (MSG) in the Bathurst Mining Camp (BMC), New Brunswick, Canada, are characterized by relative enrichment of Au, Sb, and As, formation of jarosite group minerals (jarosite, plumbojarosite, and argentojarosite) and little or no fractionation in the rare earth elements (REE), including preservation of large positive Eu anomalies (average [Eu/Eu*] NASC = 4.14 in MSG; 6.61 in massive sulfide mineralization; 0.60 in host rocks). The chemical and mineralogical characteristics of MSG (e.g., Halfmile Lake deposit) imply low pH (<3) and relatively oxidizing conditions during gossan formation; oxidation of a volcanogenic massive sulfide body (comprising pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite) with a falling water table. The lack of light REE or heavy REE fractionation and preservation of positive Eu anomalies characteristic of the original (465 Ma) hydrothermal fluid is consistent with relatively large water-rock ratios during massive sulfide mineralization oxidation, and removal of the REE predominantly as sulfate complexes (LnSO 4+, Ln(SO 4) 2-). Low pH groundwaters recovered from past producing mines in the BMC display REE patterns reflecting those inferred to have occurred during gossan formation. Gossan at the Restigouche deposit, in contrast to the Halfmile Lake deposit, displays mineralogical and chemical evidence for having been chemically reworked since primary gossan formation. Evidence for chemical reworking includes loss of primary massive sulfide mineralization textures, replacement of plumbojarosite with anglesite, almost complete removal of jarosite minerals, loss of Au, Sb, and As and apparent preferential removal of Eu, resulting in loss of positive Eu anomalies for most samples (average [Eu/Eu*] NASC = 1.21 in the gossan, with many displaying strong negative anomalies; 3.65 in massive sulfide mineralization; 0.54 in host rocks). Based on geochemical modeling, conditions inferred for the chemical reworking of

  14. Elemental partitioning and isotopic fractionation of Zn between metal and silicate and geochemical estimation of the S content of the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, Brandon; Siebert, Julien; Pringle, Emily A.; Moynier, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Zinc metal-silicate fractionation provides experimental access to the conditions of core formation and Zn has been used to estimate the S contents of the Earth's core and of the bulk Earth, assuming that they share similar volatility and that Zn was not partitioned into the Earth's core. Therefore, Zn provides both direct and indirect information into the origin and eventual fate of volatile and siderophile elements on Earth. However, the partitioning of Zn between metal and silicate - as well as the associated isotopic fractionation - is not well known. We have conducted a suite of partitioning experiments to characterize Zn elemental partitioning and isotopic fractionation between metal and silicate as a function of time, temperature, and composition. Experiments were conducted at 2 GPa and temperatures from 1473 K to 2273 K in a piston cylinder apparatus, with run durations from 5 to 240 min for four distinct starting materials. Chemical and isotopic equilibrium is achieved within 10 min of experimental outset. Zinc metal-silicate isotopic fractionation displays no resolvable dependence on temperature, composition, or oxygen fugacity within the data set. Therefore, the Zn isotopic composition of silicate phases can be used as a proxy for bulk telluric bodies. Partitioning results from this study and data from literature were used to robustly parameterize Zn metal-silicate partitioning as a function of temperature, pressure, and redox state. Using this parametric characterization and viable formation conditions, we have estimated a range of Zn contents in the cores of iron meteorite parent bodies (i.e. iron meteorites) of ∼0.1-150 ppm, in good agreement with natural observations. We have also calculated the first geochemical estimates for the Zn contents of the Earth's core and of the bulk Earth, at 242 ± 107 ppm and 114 ± 34 ppm (respectively), that consider the slightly siderophile behavior of Zn. These estimates of the Zn contents of the Earth's core and

  15. The fractionation and geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements measured in ambient size-resolved PM in an integrated iron and steelmaking industry zone.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qili; Li, Liwei; Yang, Jiamei; Liu, Baoshuang; Bi, Xiaohui; Wu, Jianhui; Zhang, YuFen; Yao, Lin; Feng, Yinchang

    2016-09-01

    Improved understanding of the fractionation and geochemical characteristic of rare earth elements (REEs) from steel plant emissions is important due to the unclear atmospheric signature of these elements and their adverse impact on human health and the environment. In this study, ambient particulate matter of different sizes was collected from one site in an integrated iron and steelmaking industrial zone (HG) and one urban background site with no direct industrial emissions (ZWY) during a 1-year sampling campaign in China. The total concentrations of REEs for TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were 27.248, 14.989, 3.542 ng/m(3) in HG and 6.326, 5.274, 1.731 ng/m(3), respectively, in ZWY, which revealed the local influence of the steelmaking activities to the air quality. With respect to ZWY, the REEs in HG site are obviously fractionated in the coarser fraction, and LREEs account for more than 80 % of the total REE burden in all of the samples. Additionally, the REEs in HG and ZWY show a homogeneous trend with successively increased LREE/HREE ratios from the coarse particles to the fine particles. In our samples, La, Ce, Nd, and Sm are the most enriched rare earth elements, especially in the HG site. Moreover, ternary diagrams of LaCeSm indicate that the REEs in HG are potentially contributed by steelworks, carrier vehicles, coal combustion, and road dust re-suspension.

  16. The capacity of hydrous fluids to transport and fractionate incompatible elements and metals within the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, John; Locmelis, Marek; Afonso, Juan Carlos; Rushmer, Tracy; Fiorentini, Marco L.

    2014-06-01

    silicate melts and aqueous fluids are thought to play critical roles in the chemical differentiation of the Earth's crust and mantle. Yet their relative effects are poorly constrained. We have addressed this issue by measuring partition coefficients for 50 trace and minor elements in experimentally produced aqueous fluids, coexisting basanite melts, and peridotite minerals. The experiments were conducted at 1.0-4.0 GPa and 950-1200°C in single capsules containing (either 40 or 50 wt %) H2O and trace element-enriched basanite glass. This allowed run products to be easily identified and analyzed by a combination of electron microprobe and LAM-ICP-MS. Fluid and melt compositions were reconstructed from mass balances and published solubility data for H2O in silicate melts. Relative to the basanite melt, the solutes from H2O-fluids are enriched in SiO2, alkalis, Ba, and Pb, but depleted in FeO, MgO, CaO, and REE. With increasing pressure, the mutual solubility of fluids and melts increases rapidly with complete miscibility between H2O and basanitic melts occurring between 3.0 and 4.0 GPa at 1100°C. Although LREE are favored over HREE in the fluid phase, they are less soluble than the HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti). Thus, the relative depletions of HFSE that are characteristic of arc magmas must be due to a residual phase that concentrates HFSE (e.g., rutile). Otherwise, H2O-fluids have the capacity to impart many of the geochemical characteristics that distinguish some rocks and melts from the deep mantle lithosphere (e.g., MARID and lamproites).

  17. Distribution of rare earth elements in anionic, cationic and particulate fractions in boreal humus-rich streams affected by acid sulphate soils.

    PubMed

    Aström, Mats; Corin, Nina

    2003-01-01

    The abundance, fractionation and physicochemical forms of rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in five boreal humus-rich streams (dissolved organic carbon, DOC = 14-40 mg/l) affected by acid sulphate soils. The sampling was carried out during high-water flow in autumn when the acid sulphate soils are extensively flushed. The analytical procedures included ion-exchange experiments in field and ICP-MS determination. There was a general decrease in pH (range 4.5-6.2) and increase in the REE concentrations (La range 0.82-23 microg/l) as the proportion of the catchment cover of acid sulphate soils increased, explained by high amounts of REEs in the acidic runoff from such soils. In each stream, four different REE fractions were identified: (1) A cationic fraction, which is dominant in the REE-rich runoff from the acid sulphate soils and which is depleted in HREEs due to hydrochemical and/or geochemical processes, (2) an anionic fraction identified as humus-REE complexes, which in general is more abundant the higher the DOC concentrations and which also becomes increasingly abundant across the lanthanide series, (3) a fraction having a well-developed MREE enrichment, presumably consisting of colloidal REEs, and (4) a minor uncharacterised particle-associated fraction. The REE pool in the streams thus consists of several coexisting and contrasting REE species. The identification and quantification of such species is a prerequisite for the precise and accurate characterisation of the REE hydrochemistry of the streams.

  18. Impact of plant species, substrate types and porosity on the fractionation of rare-earth elements in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semhi, K.; Clauer, N.; Chaudhuri, S.

    2009-04-01

    The distribution and content of rare-earth elements (REEs) were determined in two radish species (Raphanus sativus and Raphanus raphanistrum) that were grown under laboratory-controlled conditions, in three substrates consisting in illite for one and in smectite for the two others, the two latter being of the same type but with different porosities. The plants were split into two segments: the leaves and the stems+roots. The results indicate that both species pick up systematically higher amounts of REEs when grown in the illite substrate, considering that the smectite contains about 3 times more REEs. In R. sativus, the REE concentration of the leaves and of the stems+roots, whatever the substrate, ranges from 1.4 to 1.9 g/g. After normalization to the substrate in which they grew, the distribution patterns for the leaves of those from illite substrate are nearly flat, but irregular with a positive Eu anomaly. Those for the stems+roots are similar, but enriched in heavy REEs, also with a positive Eu anomaly. The REE concentrations of the leaves and the stems+roots of R. sativus grown in smectite are analytically similar at 1.6 and 1.4 g/g, respectively. The REE distribution patterns for the two organs, normalized again to those of the substrate, are very similar, flat with a distinct Eu anomaly. The heavy REE of the stems+roots of R. sativus grown on illite are enriched relative to those of the leaves, and a distinct positive Eu anomaly is observed in both the leaves and stems+roots from species grown on both illite and smectite. In the case of R. raphanistrum, the REE concentrations of the leaves and the stems+roots for those grown in the illite substrate were found to be significantly different at 11.0 and 6.6 g/g, respectively. The REE distribution patterns for the two different plant organs normalized to those of the substrates were found to be quite similar, all being quite flat, with a more or less pronounced Ce negative anomaly, and a prominent

  19. Effects of organic ligands on fractionation of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic plants: an application to the determination of binding capacities by humic acid for modeling.

    PubMed

    Ding, ShiMing; Liang, Tao; Zhang, ChaoSheng; Yan, JunCai; Zhang, ZiLi

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed the fractionation processes of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic plants, with a heavy REE (HREE, the elements from Gd to Lu) enrichment in leaves. In this study, effects on the HREE enrichment in soybean leaves with additions of carboxylic acids (acetate, malate, citrate, NTA, EDTA and DTPA) and two soil humic acids (HAs) were investigated. REE speciation in carboxylic acid and HA solutions was simulated using Visual MINTEQ and Model V, respectively. The results showed that the effects caused by carboxylic acids were strongly dependent on the differences between their binding strengths for light REEs (LREEs, the elements from La to Eu) and those for HREEs. A good correlation existed between these effects and the changes of free REE ions in solutions. This relationship was also observed for the HA treatments, provided that the intrinsic equilibrium constants of REEs for cation-proton exchange with HA (i.e., pK(MHA)) in Model V were estimated using a free-energy relationship with the stability constants for REE complexation with lactic acid. It is suggested that this set of pK(MHA) values is more suitable for use in Model V for the simulation of REE complexation with HA.

  20. Fractionation of Volatile Elements by Heating of Solid Allende: Implications for the Source Material of Earth, Moon, and the Eucrite Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, K. P.; Palme, H.

    1993-07-01

    CI-chondrites have average solar-system abundances of moderately volatile (Na, K, Rb, Sn, etc.) and highly volatile (Cs, Pb, etc.) elements. In most other types of chondrites and in samples from differentiated planetary bodies, these elements are more or less depleted relative to CI chondrites. Volatile-element fractionation occurred either by evaporation or incomplete condensation [1]. Recent data on the isotopic composition of K indicate that depletion of volatiles did not occur by evaporation from a melt of CI-chondritic composition [2]. Evaporative loss from a solid, however, would not necessarily lead to isotopic fractionation of K in the residue [e.g., 3]. In order to study loss of volatile elements from solids, we performed a series of heating experiments under variable oxygen fugacities at temperatures of 1050 degrees C to 1300 degrees C. Residues were analyzed by INAA [4]. We report here additional analyses (K, Rb, Cs, Sn, Pb) of these residues by isotope dilution-SSMS. Results (including Na data from INAA) are shown in Fig. 1. Results at other oxygen fugacities are similar, i.e., there is no strong dependence on fO2, contrary to the results for Au, As, and Zn [4]. Elements are arranged in the order of decreasing condensation temperatures. Depletions increase with increasing temperature and, at least for the 1050 degrees C experiment, with decreasing condensation temperature. The CI- normalized Allende pattern has no strong depletions of Cs and Pb, unlike the experimental results, indicating that evaporation from a solid cannot produce patterns observed in volatile-element-depleted meteorites. Even heating at temperatures as low as 1050 degrees C, affecting alkali elements only slightly, leads to large losses of lead, which are an order of magnitude greater than required for producing CV chondrite patterns. Depletions of these elements apparently occurred in the solar nebula before accretion by incomplete condensation or removal of gas during condensation

  1. Controls on the distribution and fractionation of yttrium and rare earth elements in core sediments from the Mandovi estuary, western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajith, A.; Rao, V. Purnachandra; Kessarkar, Pratima M.

    2015-01-01

    Mineralogy, major elements (Fe, Mn and Al), rare earths and yttrium (REY) of bulk sediments were analyzed in four gravity cores recovered along the main channel of the Mandovi estuary, western India, to determine the sources and controls on REY distribution. The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) ages of total organic carbon indicated modern age for the sediments of the upper estuary and, maximum mean ages of 1588 years AD and 539 years AD for the bottom sediments of the cores in the lower estuary and bay, respectively. The sediments of the upper/middle estuary showed abundant hematite, magnetite and goethite and high Fe, Mn, total-REE (ΣREE) and Y, while those in the lower estuary/bay showed abundant silicate minerals and relatively low Fe, Mn, ΣREE and Y. ΣREE showed significant correlation with clay and silt fractions and Y, Al and organic carbon (OC) content of the sediments. The light to heavy REE ratios (LREE/HREE) of sediments were lower than in Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS). The PAAS-normalized rare earths and yttrium (REY; Y inserted between Dy and Ho) patterns of sediments showed middle REE (MREE)- and HREE-enrichment with positive Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*) and variable Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*). The REY of sediments is primarily controlled by its texture and REE of source sediment, which is ore material-dominated in the upper/middle estuary and silicate material-dominated in the lower estuary/bay. Low LREE/HREE ratios suggest that very fine-grained sediments were carried away from the estuary because of high-energy conditions. Fractionations of REY (Y/Ho, Sm/Nd, Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu*) are controlled by different mechanisms. High Y/Ho ratios in clayey silts are due to redistribution of Y and Ho by adsorption onto organic-rich, clays. Variations in Sm/Nd ratios are similar to that of Eu/Eu* in cores from the lower estuary/bay and are controlled by mineral constituents of the sediments. Positive Ce and Eu anomalies are inherited from ore material, and ore

  2. Condensation and fractionation of rare earths in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, A. M.; Grossman, L.

    1979-01-01

    The condensation behavior of the rare earth elements in the solar nebula is calculated on the basis of the most recent thermodynamic data in order to construct a model explaining group II rare earth element patterns in Allende inclusions. Models considered all involve the removal of large fractions of the more refractory heavy rare earth elements in an early condensate, followed by the condensation of the remainder at a lower temperature. It is shown that the model of Boynton (1975) in which one rare earth element component is dissolved nonideally in perovskite according to relative activity coefficients can not reasonably be made to fit the observed group II patterns. A model in which two rare earth components control the patterns and dissolve ideally in perovskite is proposed and shown to be able to account for the 20 patterns by variations of the perovskite removal temperature and the relative proportions of the two components.

  3. Alkali metal and rare earth element evolution of rock-forming minerals from the Gatumba area pegmatites (Rwanda): Quantitative assessment of crystal-melt fractionation in the regional zonation of pegmatite groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulsbosch, Niels; Hertogen, Jan; Dewaele, Stijn; André, Luc; Muchez, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    This study presents a general model for the evaluation of Rayleigh fractional crystallisation as the principal differentiation mechanism in the formation of regionally zoned common and rare-element pegmatites. The magmatic evolution of these systems from a granitic source is reconstructed by means of alkali element and rare earth element (REE) analyses of rock-forming minerals (feldspars, micas and tourmaline), which represent a whole sequence of regional pegmatite zonation. The Gatumba pegmatite field (Rwanda, Central Africa) is chosen as case study area because of its well-developed regional zonation sequence. The pegmatites are spatially and temporally related to peraluminous G4-granites (986 ± 10 Ma). The regional zonation is developed around a G4-granite and the proximal pegmatites grade outwardly into biotite, two-mica and muscovite pegmatites. Rare-element (Nb-Ta-Sn) pegmatites occur most distal from the granite.

  4. Scarcity of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    de Boer, M A; Lammertsma, K

    2013-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are important for green and a large variety of high-tech technologies and are, therefore, in high demand. As a result, supply with REEs is likely to be disrupted (the degree of depends on the REE) in the near future. The 17 REEs are divided into heavy and light REEs. Other critical elements besides REEs, identified by the European Commission, are also becoming less easily available. Although there is no deficiency in the earth's crust of rare earth oxides, the economic accessibility is limited. The increased demand for REEs, the decreasing export from China, and geopolitical concerns on availability contributed to the (re)opening of mines in Australia and the USA and other mines are slow to follow. As a result, short supply of particularly terbium, dysprosium, praseodymium, and neodymium is expected to be problematic for at least the short term, also because they cannot be substituted. Recycling REEs from electronic waste would be a solution, but so far there are hardly any established REE recycling methods. Decreasing the dependency on REEs, for example, by identifying possible replacements or increasing their efficient use, represents another possibility.

  5. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  6. Alkali element constraints on Earth-Moon relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Drake, M. J.; Jones, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Given their range of volatilities, alkali elements are potential tracers of temperature-dependent processes during planetary accretion and formation of the Earth-Moon system. Under the giant impact hypothesis, no direct connection between the composition of the Moon and the Earth is required, and proto-lunar material does not necessarily experience high temperatures. Models calling for multiple collisions with smaller planetesimals derive proto-lunar materials mainly from the Earth's mantle and explicitly invoke vaporization, shock melting and volatility-related fractionation. Na/K, K/Rb, and Rb/Cs should all increase in response to thermal volatization, so theories which derive the Moon substantially from Earth's mantle predict these ratios will be higher in the Moon than in the primitive mantle of the Earth. Despite the overall depletion of volatile elements in the Moon, its Na/K and K/Rb are equal to or less than those of Earth. A new model presented here for the composition of Earth's continental crust, a major repository of the alkali elements, suggests the Rb/Cs of the Moon is also less than that of Earth. Fractionation of the alkali elements between Earth and Moon are in the opposite sense to predictions based on the relative volatilities of these elements, if the Moon formed by high-T processing of Earth's mantle. Earth, rather than the Moon, appears to carry a signature of volatility-related fractionation in the alkali elements. This may reflect an early episode of intense heating on Earth with the Moon's alkali budget accreting from cooler material.

  7. Trace and rare earth elements fractionation in volcanic- and sediment-hosted Mn ores: a study case of Sardinia (western Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinisi, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    It is widely accepted that, regardless of the geological environment (continental, marine or hydrothermal), the occurrences of clay minerals and/or mineral phases with clay-type crystal structure (as zeolites and Mn-oxides), play a key role in the trace elements and REEs uptake processes. The REE resources are produced mostly from ion-adsorption type REE deposits of southern China that are formed by weathering of granitic rocks and subsequent chemical adsorption of REE on clay minerals. A significant group of minerals with a high metal uptake capacity is represented by Mn oxides. Their "tunnel" structure, in fact, allows both the absorption (inside the minerals) and adsorption (outside the minerals) of cations and anions producing metal accumulations with economic and environmental significance. However, the ores, mainly that forming within sedimentary environment, often have impurities due to presence of minerals unrelated to mineralization. These minerals can significantly alter the compositional features of the ores and suggest misleading conclusions. In Sardinia (Italy, western Mediterranean), Mn-oxide mineralizations occur and recently their origin has been discussed and identified (Sinisi et al. 2012). In this study the mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Sardinian sediment-hosted and volcanic-hosted Mn-ore are exhibit exploring the possibility that they can represent exploitable trace and REE mineralizations. High contents of metals characterize these Mn deposits. Besides some trace elements (Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, As, Pb, and U) that commonly typify the Mn oxi-hydroxide ores, all rare earth elements showed high concentrations in the Sardinian deposits, comparable to those of the main actually exploited REE sinks. For this reason, a simple statistical data treatment (R-mode Factor Analysis) was performed on fifteen and nineteen samples of sediment-hosted and volcanic-hosted Mn ore respectively, in order to identify both the mineral phases trapping trace

  8. [Study on the contents and fractionation of rare earth elements in filtering water and suspensions in Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia Sections of Yellow River by HR-ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Jun; Han, Dan; Liu, Ying

    2013-04-01

    In the present paper, high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) was applied to analyse the contents of rare earth elements (REE) in the filtering water and suspensions from 12 sampling sites in Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia Sections of Yellow River, and the fractionation of REE in suspensions was also studied. The results demonstrated that the contents of REE in filtering water were very low, and the element with highest content of elements was La(32.0 ng x L(-1)). The average concentration of total REE (sigmaREE) in filtering water was 47.5 ng x L(-1), and the Baotou-Dengkou (S1) and Sanhuhekou (S2) sampling sites had a higher sigmaREE of 130.0 and 100.0 ng x L(-1), which implied that there might be external REE sources in the filtering water. And in suspensions, the average content of sigmaREE was 167.8 mg x kg(-1), which was similar to the Chinese soil background value. While the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) content in Shenchuanqiao (S11) of Gansu province were significantly higher than other stations, which indicated that it might have external HREE sources. The chondrite-normalized patterns of REE in suspensions from the study area were similar to that of Chinese soil, with light rare earth elements enrichment, and moderate Eu depletion and a bit of Ce depletion. It was showed that the contents of REE in suspensions were mainly from soil weathering.

  9. Isotopic fractionation of alkali earth metals during carbonate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yotsuya, T.; Ohno, T.; Muramatsu, Y.; Shimoda, G.; Goto, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The alkaline earth metals such as magnesium, calcium and strontium play an important role in a variety of geochemical and biological processes. The element ratios (Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in marine carbonates have been used as proxies for reconstruction of the past environment. Recently several studies suggested that the study for the isotopic fractionation of the alkaline earth metals in marine carbonates has a potentially significant influence in geochemical research fields (e.g. Eisenhauer et al., 2009). The aim of this study is to explore the influence of carbonate polymorphs (Calcite and Aragonite) and environmental factors (e.g., temperature, precipitation rate) on the level of isotopic fractionation of the alkaline earth metals. We also examined possible correlations between the level of isotopic fractionation of Ca and that of other alkaline earth metals during carbonate precipitation. In order to determine the isotope fractionation factor of Mg, Ca and Sr during carbonate precipitation, calcite and aragonite were synthesized from calcium bicarbonate solution in which the amount of magnesium was controlled based on Kitano method. Calcium carbonates were also prepared from the mixture of calcium chlorite and sodium hydrogen carbonate solutions. The isotope fractionation factors were measured by MC-ICPMS. Results suggested that the level of isotopic fractionation of Mg during carbonate precipitation was correlated with that of Sr and that the change of the carbonate crystal structure could make differences of isotopic fractionations of Mg and Ca, however no difference was found in the case of Sr. In this presentation, the possible mechanism will be discussed.

  10. Recycling of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Tom; Bertau, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Any development of an effective process for rare earth (RE) recycling has become more and more challenging, especially in recent years. Since 2011, when commodity prices of REs had met their all-time maximum, prices have dropped rapidly by more than 90 %. An economic process able to offset these fluctuations has to take unconventional methods into account beside well-known strategies like acid/basic leaching or solvent extraction. The solid-state chlorination provides such an unconventional method for mobilizing RE elements from waste streams. Instead of hydrochloric acid this kind of chlorination decomposes NH4Cl thermally to release up to 400 °C hot HCl gas. After cooling the resulting solid metal chlorides may be easily dissolved in pH-adjusted water. Without producing strongly acidic wastes and with NH4Cl as cheap source for hydrogen chloride, solid-state chlorination provides various advantages in terms of costs and disposal. In the course of the SepSELSA project this method was examined, adjusted and optimized for RE recycling from fluorescent lamp scraps as well as Fe14Nd2B magnets. Thereby many surprising influences and trends required various analytic methods to examine the reasons and special mechanisms behind them.

  11. Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2002-01-01

    Data on rare earth (including yttrium) mines, deposits, and occurrences were compiled as part of an effort by the USGS and the University of Arizona Center for Mineral Resources to summarize current knowledge on the supply and demand outlook and related topics for this group of elements. Economic competition and environmental concerns are increasingly constraining the mining and processing of rare earths from the Mountain Pass mine in California. For many years, the deposit at Mountain Pass was the world's dominant source of rare earth elements and the United States was essentially self-sufficient. Starting approximately 10 years ago, the U.S. has become increasingly dependent (> 90 percent of separated rare earths) upon imports from China, now the dominant source of rare earths. A knowledge of the known economic and noneconomic sources of rare earths is basic to evaluating the outlook for rare earth supply and associated issues.

  12. Moving KML geometry elements within Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang-feng; Wang, Xi-feng; Pan, Xin

    2014-11-01

    During the process of modeling and visualizing geospatial information on the Google Earth virtual globe, there is an increasing demand to carry out such operations as moving geospatial objects defined by KML geometry elements horizontally or vertically. Due to the absence of the functionality and user interface for performing the moving transformation, it is either hard or impossible to interactively move multiple geospatial objects only using the existing Google Earth desktop application, especially when the data sets are in large volume. In this paper, we present a general framework and associated implementation methods for moving multiple KML geometry elements within Google Earth. In our proposed framework, we first load KML objects into the Google Earth plug-in, and then extract KML geometry elements from the imported KML objects. Subsequently, we interactively control the movement distance along a specified orientation by employing a custom user interface, calculate the transformed geographic location for each KML geometry element, and adjust geographic coordinates of the points in each KML objects. And finally, transformed KML geometry elements can be displayed in Google Earth for 3D visualization and spatial analysis. A key advantage of the proposed framework is that it provides a simple, uniform and efficient user interface for moving multiple KML geometry elements within Google Earth. More importantly, the proposed framework and associated implementations can be conveniently integrated into other customizable Google Earth applications to support interactively visualizing and analyzing geospatial objects defined by KML geometry elements.

  13. Systematic variation of rare-earth elements in cerium-earth minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murata, K.J.; Rose, H.J.; Carron, M.K.; Glass, J.J.

    1957-01-01

    In a continuation of a study reported previously, rare-earth elements and thorium have been determined in monazite, allanite, cerite, bastnaesite, and a number of miscellaneous cerium-earth minerals. A quantity called sigma (???), which is the sum of the atomic percentages of La, Ce, and Pr, is proposed as an index of composition of all cerium-earth minerals with respect to the rare-earth elements. The value of ??? for all of the minerals analysed falls between 58 and 92 atomic per cent. Monazites, allanites, and cerites cover the entire observed range, whereas bastnaesites are sharply restricted to the range between 80 and 92 atomic per cent. The minimum value of ??? for a cerium-earth mineral corresponds to the smallest possible unit-cell size of the mineral. In monazite, this structurally controlled minimum value of ??? is estimated to be around 30 atomic per cent. Neodymium, because of its abundance, and yttrium, because of its small size, have dominant roles in contraction of the structure. In the other direction, the limit of variation in composition will be reached when lanthanum becomes the sole rare-earth element in a cerium-earth mineral. Cerium-earth minerals from alkalic rocks are all characterized by values of ??? greater than 80 atomic per cent, indicating that the processes that formed these rocks were unusually efficient in fractionating the rare-earth elements-efficient in the sense that a highly selected assemblage is produced without eliminating the bulk of these elements. Analyses of inner and outer parts of two large crystals of monazite from different deposits show no difference in ??? in one crystal and a slightly smaller value of ??? in the outer part of the other crystal compared to the inner part. The ??? of monazites from pegmatites that intrude genetically related granitic rocks in North Carolina is found to be either higher or lower than the ??? of monazites in the intruded host rock. These results indicate that the fractionation of the

  14. Mineral resource of the month: rare earth elements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The article provides information on rare earth elements, which are group of 17 natural metallic elements. The rare earth elements are scandium, yttrium and lanthanides and classified into light rare earth elements (LREE) and heavy rate earth elements (HREE). The principal ores of the rare earth elements are identified. An overview of China's production of 97 percent of the rare earths in the world is provided. Commercial applications of rare earths are described.

  15. Rare earth elements in Hamersley BIF minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibert, Chantal

    2016-07-01

    Minerals from the Hamersley banded iron formation, Western Australia, were analyzed for Y and rare earth elements (YREEs) by laser ablation ICP-MS to investigate diagenetic pathways, from precursor phases to BIF minerals. One group of apatites carries the seawater REE signature, giving evidence that P and REEs, thoroughly scavenged from the water column by Si-ferrihydrite particles, were released upon microbial Fe3+ reductive dissolution of Si-ferrihydrite in pore-water and finally sequestered mainly in authigenic apatite. The absence of fractionation between apatite and seawater suggests that REE were first incorporated into an amorphous calcium phosphate as fully hydrated cations, i.e. as outer-sphere complexes. The iron oxides and carbonates carry only a small fraction of the whole-rock REE budget. Their REE patterns are distinctly enriched in Yb and show some M-type tetrad effect consistent with experimental Kd(REE) between solid and saline solution with low carbonate ion concentrations. It is deduced that hematite formed at an incipient stage of Fe2+-catalyzed dissolution of Si-ferrihydrite, via a dissolution-reprecipitation pathway. The REE pattern of greenalite, found as sub-micron particles in quartz in a chert-siderite sample, is consistent with its authigenic origin by precipitation in pore-water after dissolution of a small amount of Si-ferrihydrite. Magnetite carries very low YREEs (ppb-level), has an homogeneous pattern distinctly enriched in the mid-REEs compared to hematite, and includes a late population depleted in light-REEs, Ba and As. Magnetite forming aggregates and massive laminae is tentatively interpreted as reflecting some fluid-aided hematite-magnetite re-equilibration or transformation at low-grade metamorphic temperatures.

  16. TWO EXTRASOLAR ASTEROIDS WITH LOW VOLATILE-ELEMENT MASS FRACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jura, M.; Xu, S.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Koester, D. E-mail: sxu@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu

    2012-05-01

    Using ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, we extend our previous ground-based optical determinations of the composition of the extrasolar asteroids accreted onto two white dwarfs, GD 40 and G241-6. Combining optical and ultraviolet spectra of these stars with He-dominated atmospheres, 13 and 12 polluting elements are confidently detected in GD 40 and G241-6, respectively. For the material accreted onto GD 40, the volatile elements C and S are deficient by more than a factor of 10 and N by at least a factor of 5 compared to their mass fractions in primitive CI chondrites and approach what is inferred for bulk Earth. A similar pattern is found for G241-6 except that S is undepleted. We have also newly detected or placed meaningful upper limits for the amount of Cl, Al, P, Ni, and Cu in the accreted matter. Extending results from optical studies, the mass fractions of refractory elements in the accreted parent bodies are similar to what is measured for bulk Earth and chondrites. Thermal processing, perhaps interior to a snow line, appears to be of central importance in determining the elemental compositions of these particular extrasolar asteroids.

  17. Rare earth element scavenging in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Robert H.; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    1990-10-01

    Examinations of rare earth element (REE) adsorption in seawater, using a variety of surface-types, indicated that, for most surfaces, light rare earth elements (LREEs) are preferentially adsorbed compared to the heavy rare earths (HREEs). Exceptions to this behavior were observed only for silica phases (glass surfaces, acid-cleaned diatomaceous earth, and synthetic SiO 2). The affinity of the rare earths for surfaces can be strongly affected by thin organic coatings. Glass surfaces which acquired an organic coating through immersion in Tampa Bay exhibited adsorptive behavior typical of organic-rich, rather than glass, surfaces. Models of rare earth distributions between seawater and carboxylate-rich surfaces indicate that scavenging processes which involve such surfaces should exhibit a strong dependence on pH and carbonate complexation. Scavenging models involving carboxylate surfaces produce relative REE abundance patterns in good general agreement with observed shale-normalized REE abundances in seawater. Scavenging by carboxylate-rich surfaces should produce HREE enrichments in seawater relative to the LREEs and may produce enrichments of lanthanum relative to its immediate trivalent neighbors. Due to the origin of distribution coefficients as a difference between REE solution complexation (which increases strongly with atomic number) and surface complexation (which apparently also increases with atomic number) the relative solution abundance patterns of the REEs produced by scavenging reactions can be quite complex.

  18. What about the rare-earth elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is insufficient understanding of the nutritional physiology of pecan trees and orchards; thus, affecting nutmeat yield and quality, disease resistance and alternate bearing. An analysis of the rare-earth element composition of pecan and related hickory cousins found that they hyperaccumulate ...

  19. Rare earth element diffusion in natural enstatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, Daniele J.; Liang, Yan

    2007-03-01

    diopside [Van Orman, J.A., Grove, T.L., Shimizu, N., 2001. Rare earth element diffusion in diopside; influence of temperature, pressure, and ionic radius, and an elastic model for diffusion in silicates. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol.141, 687-703]. These differences in diffusive behavior of REE between diopside and enstatite, as well as Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ in enstatite, can result in significant REE fractionation between coexisting pyroxenes during partial melting, melt migration, and subsolidus reequilibration processes in the Earth's mantle and that of the Moon.

  20. Cosmochemical fractionation by collisional erosion during the Earth's accretion

    PubMed Central

    Boujibar, Asmaa; Andrault, Denis; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Bouhifd, Mohamed Ali; Monteux, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Early in the Solar System's history, energetic collisions of differentiated bodies affected the final composition of the terrestrial planets through partial destruction. Enstatite chondrites (EC) are the best candidates to represent the primordial terrestrial precursors as they present the most similar isotopic compositions to Earth. Here we report that collisional erosion of >15% of the early Earth's mass can reconcile the remaining compositional differences between EC and the Earth. We base our demonstration on experimental melting of an EC composition at pressures between 1 bar and 25 GPa. At low pressures, the first silicate melts are highly enriched in incompatible elements Si, Al and Na, and depleted in Mg. Loss of proto-crusts through impacts raises the Earth's Mg/Si ratio to its present value. To match all major element compositions, our model implies preferential loss of volatile lithophile elements and re-condensation of refractory lithophile elements after the impacts. PMID:26395157

  1. Rare earth elements and permanent magnets (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, Peter C.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth (RE) magnets have become virtually indispensible in a wide variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, medical, and military. RE elements are essential ingredients in these high performance magnets based on intermetallic compounds RECo5, RE2TM17 (TM: transition metal), and RE2TM14B. Rare earth magnets are known for their superior magnetic properties—high induction, and coercive force. These properties arise due to the extremely high magnetocrystalline anisotropy made possible by unique 3d-4f interactions between transition metals and rare earths. For more than 40 years, these magnets remain the number one choice in applications that require high magnetic fields in extreme operating conditions—high demagnetization forces and high temperature. EEC produces and specializes in RECo5 and RE2TM17 type sintered magnets. Samarium and gadolinium are key RE ingredients in the powder metallurgical magnet production processes which include melting, crushing, jet milling, pressing, sintering, and heat treating. The magnetic properties and applications of these magnets will be discussed. We will also briefly discuss the past, current, and future of the permanent magnet business. Currently, over 95% of all pure rare earth oxides are sourced from China, which currently controls the market. We will provide insights regarding current and potential new magnet technologies and designer choices, which may mitigate rare earth supply chain issues now and into the future.

  2. Rare earth elements in synthetic zircon. 1. synthesis, and rare earth element and phosphorus doping.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchar, J. M.; Finch, R. J.; Hoskin, W. O.; Watson, E. B.; Cherniak, D. J.; Mariano, A. N.; Chemical Engineering; George Washington Univ.; Univ. of Canterbury; Australian National Univ.; Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst.

    2001-05-01

    Sedimentary mineral assemblages commonly contain detrital zircon crystals as part of the heavy-mineral fraction. Age spectra determined by U-Pb isotopic analysis of single zircon crystals within a sample may directly image the age composition--but not the chemical composition--of the source region. Rare earth element (REE) abundances have been measured for zircons from a range of common crustal igneous rock types from different tectonic environments, as well as kimberlite, carbonatite, and high-grade metamorphic rocks, to assess the potential of using zircon REE characteristics to infer the rock types present in sediment source regions. Except for zircon with probable mantle affinities, zircon REE abundances and normalized patterns show little intersample and intrasample variation. To evaluate the actual variation in detrital zircon REE composition in a true sediment of known mixed provenance, zircons from a sandstone sample from the Statfjord Formation (North Sea) were analyzed. Despite a provenance including high-grade metasediment and granitoids and a range in zircon age of 2.82 b.y., the zircon REEs exhibit a narrow abundance range with no systematic differences in pattern shape. These evidences show zircon REE patterns and abundances are generally not useful as indicators of provenance.

  3. Note: Portable rare-earth element analyzer using pyroelectric crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Imashuku, Susumu Fuyuno, Naoto; Hanasaki, Kohei; Kawai, Jun

    2013-12-15

    We report a portable rare-earth element analyzer with a palm-top size chamber including the electron source of a pyroelectric crystal and the sample stage utilizing cathodoluminescence (CL) phenomenon. The portable rare-earth element analyzer utilizing CL phenomenon is the smallest reported so far. The portable rare-earth element analyzer detected the rare-earth elements Dy, Tb, Er, and Sm of ppm order in zircon, which were not detected by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. We also performed an elemental mapping of rare-earth elements by capturing a CL image using CCD camera.

  4. Anthropogenic Cycles of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X.; Graedel, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    This research will develop quantitatively resolved anthropogenic cycles and in-use stocks for the rare earth metals specifically cerium, lanthanum and dysprosium in Japan, China, and the U.S. for the year of 2007. Rare earth elements (REE) is a group of 17 scare metals widely used in a growing number of emerging technologies and have been in high demand for emerging technologies as raw materials during past the three decades. New market participants from newly industrializing countries, primarily China, have had strong impacts on the demand of share. Consequently, the importance to sustain a reliable, steady, uninterrupted supply on global market triggered comprehensive research to recognize and understand the life cycles of rare earths. Moreover, because China plays a dominant role in mining production since 1990, it requires the assessment for the countries, which are almost completely dependent on imports from China with respect to rare earth resources. The study aims to analyze the flows and stocks of rare earth elements individually as elemental form in spite of their natural geological co-occurrence and mixed composition in applications. By applying the method of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) work has been done on evaluating current and historical flows of specific technologically significant materials, for example, copper, zinc, nickel, etc., determining the stocks available in different types of reservoirs (e.g., lithosphere, in-use) and the flows among the reservoirs, developing scenarios of possible futures of metal use, and assessing the environmental and policy implications of the results. Therefore, REE as a new target deserves inclusion because of its potential demand-supply conflict and importance to secure the competitive advantage of technical innovation in future. This work will generate a quantitatively resolved anthropogenic life cycle and in-use stocks for REE for the main target countries for a chosen year, 2007, providing flows and stocks from

  5. Rare earth element patterns in biotite, muscovite and tourmaline minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Lepel, E.A.

    1986-04-21

    Rare earth element concentrations in the minerals biotite and muscovite from the mica schist country rocks of the Etta pegmatite and tourmalines from the Bob Ingersoll pegmatite have been measured by INAA and CNAA. The concentrations range from 10/sup -4/ g/g to 10/sup -10g//sub g/. The REE patterns of biotite, muscovite and tourmaline reported herein are highly fractionated from light to heavy REE. The REE concentrations in biotite and muscovite are high and indigenous. The pegmatite tourmalines contain low concentrations of REE. Variations in tourmaline REE patterns reflect the geochemical evolution of pegmatite melt/fluid system during crystallization.

  6. Leapfrog/Finite Element Method for Fractional Diffusion Equation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhengang; Zheng, Yunying

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a fully discrete leapfrog/Galerkin finite element method for the numerical solution of the space fractional order (fractional for simplicity) diffusion equation. The generalized fractional derivative spaces are defined in a bounded interval. And some related properties are further discussed for the following finite element analysis. Then the fractional diffusion equation is discretized in space by the finite element method and in time by the explicit leapfrog scheme. For the resulting fully discrete, conditionally stable scheme, we prove an L 2-error bound of finite element accuracy and of second order in time. Numerical examples are included to confirm our theoretical analysis. PMID:24955431

  7. Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system

    SciTech Connect

    Lenton, T.M.; Held, H.; Lucht, W.; Rahmstorf, S.; Kriegler, E. |; Hall, J.W.; Schellnhuber, H.J. |

    2008-02-12

    The term 'tipping point' commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here the authors introduce the term 'tipping element' to describe large-scale components of the Earth system that may pass a tipping point. They critically evaluate potential policy-relevant tipping elements in the climate system under anthropogenic forcing, drawing on the pertinent literature and a recent international workshop to compile a short list, and they assess where their tipping points lie. An expert elicitation is used to help rank their sensitivity to global warming and the uncertainty about the underlying physical mechanisms. Then the authors explain how, in principle, early warning systems could be established to detect the proximity of some tipping points.

  8. Rare earth elements in river waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    To characterize the input to the oceans of rare earth elements (REE) in the dissolved and the suspended loads of rivers, the REE concentrations were measured in samples of Amazon, Indus, Mississippi, Murray-Darling, and Ohio rivers and in samples of smaller rivers that had more distinct drainage basin lithology and water chemistry. It was found that, in the suspended loads of small rivers, the REE pattern was dependent on drainage basin geology, whereas the suspended loads in major rivers had relatively uniform REE patterns and were heavy-REE depleted relative to the North American Shale composite (NASC). The dissolved loads in the five major rivers had marked relative heavy-REE enrichments, relative to the NASC and the suspended material, with the (La/Yb)N ratio of about 0.4 (as compared with the ratio of about 1.9 in suspended loads).

  9. Rare Earth Elements in Global Aqueous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, C.; Karamalidis, A.; Dzombak, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    We are examining the occurrence and abundance of rare earth elements (REE) associated with produced waters from shale gas development, and factors controlling aqueous REE concentrations in geochemical environments, to provide information for: (1) potential recovery of REE as a valuable byproduct, and (2) utilization of unique REE signatures as a risk assessment tool. REE include the lanthanide series of elements - excluding short-lived, radioactive promethium - and yttrium. These elements are critical to a wide variety of high-tech, energy efficient applications such as phosphors, magnets, and batteries. Escalating costs of REE resulting from divergent supply and demand patterns motivates the first goal. The second goal relates to the search for a reliable, naturally occurring tracer to improve understanding of fluid migration and water-rock interactions during hydraulic fracturing and natural gas recovery. We compiled data from 100 studies of REE occurrence and concentrations in groundwaters, ocean waters, river waters, and lake waters. In the groundwater systems documented, total dissolved REE concentrations ranged over eight orders of magnitude; however the average concentrations across the lanthanides varied by less than two orders of magnitude. This leads to exceptional inter-element correlations, with a median correlation coefficient greater than 0.98, implying potential usefulness of REE ratios for groundwater signatures. Reports describing reactions governing REE solubilization were also investigated. We assembled information about important solution chemistries and performed equilibrium modeling using PHREEQC to examine common hypotheses regarding the factors controlling REE compositions. In particular, effects of pH, Eh, and common complexing ligands were evaluated. Produced and connate waters of the Marcellus shale are well characterized for their major chemical elements. There is a dearth of knowledge, however, regarding the occurrence of REE in

  10. Rare earth element analysis indicates micropollutants in an urban estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajerin, T. J.; Johannesson, K. H.; Kolker, A.; Burdige, D. J.; Chevis, D.

    2011-12-01

    Rare earth element analysis of Bayou Bienvenue waters shows anomalously high gadolinium, Gd, concentrations relative to its nearest neighbors in the REE series, europium and terbium. The anomalously high Gd concentrations indicate anthropogenic input from waste-water treatment plants in the area as anthropogenic Gd input can be traced back to its use as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging in hospitals. Others have shown that anomalously high levels of Gd in natural waters are likely to be associated with other micropollutants that also occur in hospital effluent and that are not removed in the wastewater treatment process, including pharmaceuticals in the form of steroids, antihistamines, and antibiotics. Estuaries serve as many important ecological roles and have been shown to act as a filter for pollutants. To better understand the transport, biogeochemical cycling, and ultimate fate of trace elements in estuaries, I collected surface water samples from Bayou Bienvenue, a wetland triangle that covers an area of 427 acres directly adjacent to New Orleans, Louisiana. Water samples from Bayou Bienvenue were collected along the salinity gradient and subsequently filtered through progressively smaller pore-size filters. The resulting fractions were analyzed for trace element concentions, including the REEs, by magnetic sector ICP-MS. The attached figure shows the Gd anomaly present in the particulate (>0.45μm) fraction. Upper continental crust (UCC)-normalized plots of colloidal REEs (0.02μm - 0.45μm) fraction is lacking this anomaly indicating anthropogenic Gd is found chiefly in the particulate fraction in Bayou Bienvenue. No clear relationship between Gd concentration and salinity was apparent.

  11. The chemistry of rare earth elements in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, J. W.; Bartholomay, H. A.; Fegley, B.

    1984-01-01

    The high concentration of rare earth elements (REE) in primitive CaS suggests that the REE along with the other normally lithophile elements form stable sulfides under the unusual conditions which existed during the formation of enstatite chrondites. In order to acquire a more quantitative framework in which to interpret these data, the behavior of the REE in systems with solar, or slightly fractionated solar, composition is being studied. These new data introduce modest changes in the behavior of some of the REE when compared to previous studies. For example, the largest differences are in the stabilities of the gaseous monoxides of Ce, Eu, Tb, Ho, and Tm, all of which now appear to be less stable than previously thought, and YbO(g) which is somewhat more stable. Much more significant are the changes in REE distribution in the gas phase in fractionated systems, especially those made more reducing by changing the C/O ratio from the solar value of 0.6 to about 1.0. In almost all cases, the exceptions being Eu, Tm and Yb whose elemental gaseous species dominate, the monosulfides become more abundant. Moreover, the solid oxides of Eu, Tm and Yb become less stable under more reducing conditions which, in effect, should reduce the condensation temperature of all REE in more reduced systems.

  12. Google Earth locations of USA and seafloor hydrothermal vents with associated rare earth element data

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Fowler

    2016-02-10

    Google Earth .kmz files that contain the locations of geothermal wells and thermal springs in the USA, and seafloor hydrothermal vents that have associated rare earth element data. The file does not contain the actual data, the actual data is available through the GDR website in two tier 3 data sets entitled "Compilation of Rare Earth Element Analyses from US Geothermal Fields and Mid Ocean Ridge (MOR) Hydrothermal Vents" and "Rare earth element content of thermal fluids from Surprise Valley, California"

  13. Germanium and Rare Earth Element accumulation in woody bioenergy crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Germanium and REEs are strategic elements that are used for high tech devices and engineered systems, however these elements are hardly concentrated into mineable ore deposits. Since these elements occur widely dispersed in the earth crust with concentrations of several mgṡkg-1 (Ge 1.6 mgṡkg-1, Nd 25 mgṡkg-1) a new possibility to gain these elements could be phytomining, a technique that uses plants to extract elements from soils via their roots. Since knowledge about accumulating plant species is quite limited we conducted research on the concentrations of strategic elements in wood and leaves of fast growing tree species (Salix spec., Populus spec., Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer pseudoplatanus). In total 35 study sites were selected in the mining affected area around Freiberg (Saxony, Germany), differing in their species composition and degree of contamination with toxic trace metals (Pb, As, Cd). On each site plant tissues (wood and leaves, respectively) of different species were sampled. In addition soil samples were taken from a soil depth of 0 - 30 cm and 30 - 60 cm. The aim of our work was to investigate correlations between the concentrations of the target elements in plant tissues and soil characteristics like pH, texture, nutrients and concentrations in six operationally defined soil fractions (mobile, acid soluble, oxidizable, amorphic oxides, crystalline oxides, residual or siliceous). Concentrations of elements in soil extracts and plant tissues were measured with ICP-MS. The element Nd was selected as representative for the group of REEs, since this element showed a high correlation with the concentrations of the other REE We found that the concentration of Nd in the leaves (0.31 mgṡkg-1Nd) were several times higher than in herbaceous species (0.05 mgṡkg-1 Nd). The concentration of Ge in leaves were ten times lower than that of Nd whereas in herbaceous species Nd and Ge were in equal magnitude. Within the tree

  14. Size distribution of rare earth elements in coal ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Clinton T.; Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Adams, Monique; Holland, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are utilized in various applications that are vital to the automotive, petrochemical, medical, and information technology industries. As world demand for REEs increases, critical shortages are expected. Due to the retention of REEs during coal combustion, coal fly ash is increasingly considered a potential resource. Previous studies have demonstrated that coal fly ash is variably enriched in REEs relative to feed coal (e.g, Seredin and Dai, 2012) and that enrichment increases with decreasing size fractions (Blissett et al., 2014). In order to further explore the REE resource potential of coal ash, and determine the partitioning behavior of REE as a function of grain size, we studied whole coal and fly ash size-fractions collected from three U.S commercial-scale coal-fired generating stations burning Appalachian or Powder River Basin coal. Whole fly ash was separated into , 5 um, to 5 to 10 um and 10 to 100 um particle size fractions by mechanical shaking using trace-metal clean procedures. In these samples REE enrichments in whole fly ash ranges 5.6 to 18.5 times that of feedcoals. Partitioning results for size separates relative to whole coal and whole fly ash will also be reported. 

  15. Rare earths and other trace elements in Luna 16 soil.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Haskin, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis has been made of four small samples of material brought to earth by the Luna 16 mission, with the aim to determine rare earths and other trace elements in these samples. The analytical results are tabulated, and the rare earth abundances are compared with the average for chondrites. A comparison is also made with the results of similar analyses of Apollo samples.

  16. How PNNL Extracts Rare Earth Elements from Geothermal Brine

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-12

    By looking at a problem at a nanoscale level, PNNL researchers are developing an economic way to extract valuable rare earth elements from geothermal fluids. This novel approach may help meet the high demand for rare earth elements that are used in many clean energy technologies.

  17. [Content of rare earth elements in wild Hypericum japonicum Thunb].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhen-Lin; Rui, Yu-Kui; Tian, Zhi-Huan

    2009-06-01

    Rare earth elements are important nutritional elements for human health, and today more and more attention has been paid to the effective components in Chinese traditional medicine, especially to rare earth elements. Fifteen rare earth elements in wild hypericum japonicum Thunb were analyzed by the methods of ICP-MS. The results showed that the concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Tm, Lu and Y ranged from 6 ng x g(-1) x DW to 14 522 ng x g(-1) x DW, and among them the concentrations of La, Ce and Nd were higher than 2 000 ng x g(-1) x DW. Compared with the concentration of rare earth elements in rice, corn, wheat and barley, the total concentration of rare earth elements in hypericum japonicum Thunb was much higher, which could be the mechanism of curative effect of hypericum japonicum Thunb on liverish diseases. The character of elements and the content of rare earth elements in soil should be responsible for the difference, but the distributive mechanism of rare earth elements in hypericum japonicum Thunb should be further studied.

  18. Biogeochemistry of the rare-earth elements with particular reference to hickory trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, W.O.; Bastron, H.; Murata, K.J.

    1958-01-01

    Hickory trees concentrate the rare-earth elements in their leaves to a phenomenal degree and may contain as much as 2300 p.p.m. of total rare earths based on the dry weight of the leaves. The average proportions of the individual elements (atomic percent of the total rare-earth elements) in the leaves are: Y 36, La 16, Ce 14, Pr 2, Nd 20, Sm 1, Eu 0.7, Gd 3, Tb 0.6, Dy 3, Ho 0.7, Er 2, Tm 0.2, Yb 1, and Lu 0.2. The similarity in the proportions of the rare-earth elements in the leaves and in the exchange complex of the soil on which the hickory trees grow indicates that the trees do not fractionate the rare earths appreciably. The variation of the rare-earth elements in the leaves and soils can be explained generally in terms of the relative abundance of the cerium group and the yttrium group, except for the element cerium. The large fluctuations in the proportion of cerium [Ce/(La + Nd) atomic ratios of 0.16 to 0.86] correlate with oxidation-reduction conditions in the soil profile. The substitution of dilute H2SO3 for dilute HC1 in the determination of available rare-earth elements brings about a large increase in the proportion of cerium that is extracted from an oxygenated subsoil. These relationships strongly suggest that quadrivalent cerium is present in oxygenated subsoil and is less available to plants than the other rare-earth elements that do not undergo such a change in valence. A few parts per billion of rare-earth elements have been detected in two samples of ground water. ?? 1958.

  19. Volatile element depletion and K-39/K-41 fractionation in lunar soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, S. E.; Tilton, G. R.; Wright, J. E.; Lee-Hu, C.-N.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence for selective loss and isotopic fractionation (in the case of K) of volatile elements during formation of agglutinates by micrometeoritic bombardment of lunar soils is presented. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of volatile elements (K, Rb, Pb) and nonvolatile elements (U, Th, Ba, Sr, rare earths) in separates taken from soils 14163, 14259, 15041, 68501, and 71500 are examined. Rayleigh fractionation calculations applied to K-39/K-41 isotopic data indicate ten-fold recycling of bulk soil, to account for observed isotopic anomalies. The lunar soil fines fraction seems to be a site of deposition for volatile or labile Pb produced during agglutination. Local fines (below 75 microns) are viewed as representative of the parent material for agglutinates formed in situ by micrometeoritic impact. Magnetic separation of agglutinates from soil 68501 revealed a bimodal population, with one class comprising welded blocky magnetic glasses.

  20. Diagenetic uptake of rare earth elements by conodont apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Algeo, T. J.; Cao, L.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Li, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The rare earth element (REE) composition of bioapatite has long been used as a proxy for ancient seawater chemistry and paleomarine environmental reconstruction, based on the assumption of preservation of a hydrogenous (seawater-derived) REE signal. Recent work, however, has begun to question the provenance of REEs in conodonts, emphasizing the importance of REEs released by the lithogenous fraction of the sediment and subsequently adsorbed onto conodont apatite in the burial environment. Here, we investigate patterns of REE and trace-element abundance in conodonts and their host sediments from the Early to Late Ordovician Huanghuachang and Chenjiahe sections of Hubei Province, South China. Several lines of evidence indicate that REEs in the conodont samples were acquired mainly from clay minerals in the host sediment during burial diagenesis: (1) REEs in conodonts show a strong positive correlation to Th and other lithogenic elements; (2) conodonts and whole-rock samples show general patterns of REE and trace-element enrichment that are highly similar to each other and bear no resemblance to seawater elemental concentrations; (3) similar patterns are observed in Triassic conodonts and whole-rock samples; and (4) Y/Ho ratios in conodonts are mostly <40 (mean ~33), values that are consistent with derivation of >90% of REEs from lithogenous sources. Conodonts show pronounced middle rare earth element (MREE) enrichment, a pattern that is unambiguously of diagenetic origin owing to its association with lower Y/Ho ratios. With increasing MREE enrichment of conodont samples, U concentrations and LaN/YbN ratios shift from high to low, and Mn concentrations from low to high. These patterns suggest that conodont diagenesis was initiated at shallow burial depths under suboxic conditions (i.e., in the zone of Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reduction) but continued at greater burial depths, with most acquisition of secondary REEs at later diagenetic stages. Our findings indicate that (1

  1. Earth, Air, Fire and Water in Our Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lievesley, Tara

    2007-01-01

    The idea that everything is made of the four "elements", earth, air, fire and water, goes back to the ancient Greeks. In this article, the author talks about the origins of ideas about the elements. The author provides an account that attempts to summarise thousands of years of theoretical development of the elements in a thousand words or so.

  2. Rare earth element enrichment using membrane based solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.; Zunita, M.; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical, catalytic, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of rare earth elements are required in broad applications. Rare earth elements have similar physical and chemical properties thus it is difficult to separate one from each other. Rare earth element is relatively abundant in earth's crust but rarely occur in high concentrated deposits. Traditionally, ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques have been developed to separate and purify single rare earth solutions or compounds. Recently, membrane starts to gain attention for rare earth separation by combining membrane and proven technologies such as solvent extraction. Membrane-based process offers selective, reliable, energy efficient and easy to scale up separation. During membrane-based separation process, one phase passes through membrane pores while the other phase is rejected. There is no direct mixing of two phases thus the solvent loss is very low. Membrane can also lower solvent physical properties requirement (viscosity, density) and backmixing, eliminate flooding phenomenon and provide large interfacial area for mass transfer. This paper will summarize research efforts in developing membrane technology for rare earth element separation. Special attention will be given to solvent extraction related process as the commonly used method for rare earth element separation. Furthermore, membrane configuration and its potentials will also be discussed.

  3. Fractionation of moderately volatile elements in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, J. T.; Chou, C.-L.

    1974-01-01

    The CI chondrites are the most volatile-rich meteorites. Relative to the CI chondrites, the ordinary chondrites have lower abundances of refractory and volatile elements. Four types of fractionations are summarized in a table. Ordinary-chondrite/CI abundance ratios for moderately volatile elements in H- and L-group chondrites are presented in a graph. Possible explanations for the observed relations are considered, giving attention to several processes which could result in the separation of nebular solids and gases.

  4. Normalized rare earth elements in water, sediments, and wine: identifying sources and environmental redox conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, David Z.; Bau, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of the rare earth elements (REE) in surface waters and sediments, when normalized on an element-by-element basis to one of several rock standards and plotted versus atomic number, yield curves that reveal their partitioning between different sediment fractions and the sources of those fractions, for example, between terrestrial-derived lithogenous debris and seawater-derived biogenous detritus and hydrogenous metal oxides. The REE of ancient sediments support their partitioning into these same fractions and further contribute to the identification of the redox geochemistry of the sea water in which the sediments accumulated. The normalized curves of the REE that have been examined in several South American wine varietals can be interpreted to reflect the lithology of the bedrock on which the vines may have been grown, suggesting limited fractionation during soil development.

  5. Implications of Competition for Rare Earth Elements (REE) in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-15

    Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202- 4302. Respondents should be aware that...2010). 3 Marc Humphries , ―Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain,‖ Congressional Research Service Report for Congress R41347 (September 30...101026_Verrastro_Geopolitics_web.pdf (accessed October 14, 2010). 10 Humphries , ―Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain,‖ (September 30, 2010): 4

  6. Fractionated space infrastructure for long-term earth observation missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jing; Guo, Jian; Gill, E. K. A.

    A fractionated spacecraft is a space system that distributes its functionalities, such as computation, communication, data storage, payload and even power generation, over several independent satellite modules that share those functionalities through a wireless link. This paper exploits this innovational architecture to design a space infrastructure that is able to accept and support multiple Earth Observation (EO) payload modules. In this paper the functional, physical and organizational architectures of the infrastructure are presented. To start with, EO programs utilizing monolithic spacecraft especially SPOT and Landsat programs are reviewed and analyzed to derive the inherent EO functional requirements. Then these functional requirements are integrated into an EO scenario based on a reference orbit typically for EO missions. Next, novel architectures of fractionated spacecraft are reviewed and the inherent non traditional attributes are summarized and classified in such a way to show their close interrelation with the EO functional requirements. Then four resources components: high bandwidth downlink component, data relay satellite communication component, mission data processor component and large volume data storage component are identified and designated to establish the EO space infrastructure. Based on those four components different physical architectures are designed for the specific scenario and then are evaluated using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with eight selection criteria. Afterwards, the best option has been identified, which comprises four heterogeneous modules assigned to host those four resources components separately. Finally, this physical architecture is organized by means of the Multi-Agent System (MAS) theory, which fulfills best the EO non traditional requirements. The proposed organization is tailored for the autonomous operations of the fractionated infrastructure and is based on the peer-to-peer architecture. From a physica

  7. Core-Mantle Partitioning of Volatile Elements and the Origin of Volatile Elements in Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin; Pando, K.; Danielson, L.; Nickodem, K.

    2014-01-01

    Depletions of volatile siderophile elements (VSE; Ga, Ge, In, As, Sb, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cu, Cd) in mantles of Earth and Moon, constrain the origin of volatile elements in these bodies, and the overall depletion of volatile elements in Moon relative to Earth. A satisfactory explanation has remained elusive [1,2]. We examine the depletions of VSE in Earth and Moon and quantify the amount of depletion due to core formation and volatility of potential building blocks. We calculate the composition of the Earth's PUM during continuous accretion scenarios with constant and variable fO2. Results suggest that the VSE can be explained by a rather simple scenario of continuous accretion leading to a high PT metal-silicate equilibrium scenario that establishes the siderophile element content of Earth's PUM near the end of accretion [3]. Core formation models for the Moon explain most VSE, but calculated contents of In, Sn, and Zn (all with Tc < 750 K) are all still too high after core formation, and must therefore require an additional process to explain the depletions in the lunar mantle. We discuss possible processes including magmatic degassing, evaporation, condensation, and vapor-liquid fractionation in the lunar disk.

  8. Investigating Rare Earth Element Systematics in the Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Torres, M. E.; Kim, J. H.; Verba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The lanthanide series of elements (the 14 rare earth elements, REEs) have similar chemical properties and respond to different chemical and physical processes in the natural environment by developing unique patterns in their concentration distribution when normalized to an average shale REE content. The interpretation of the REE content in a gas-bearing black shale deposited in a marine environment must therefore take into account the paleoredox conditions of deposition as well as any diagenetic remobilization and authigenic mineral formation. We analyzed 15 samples from a core of the Marcellus Shale (Whipkey ST1, Greene Co., PA) for REEs, TOC, gas-producing potential, trace metal content, and carbon isotopes of organic matter in order to determine the REE systematics of a black shale currently undergoing shale gas development. We also conducted a series of sequential leaching experiments targeting the phosphatic fractions in order to evaluate the dominant host phase of REEs in a black shale. Knowledge of the REE system in the Marcellus black shale will allow us to evaluate potential REE release and behavior during hydraulic fracturing operations. Total REE content of the Whipkey ST1 core ranged from 65-185 μg/g and we observed three distinct REE shale-normalized patterns: middle-REE enrichment (MREE/MREE* ~2) with heavy-REE enrichment (HREE/LREE ~1.8-2), flat patterns, and a linear enrichment towards the heavy-REE (HREE/LREE ~1.5-2.5). The MREE enrichment occurred in the high carbonate samples of the Stafford Member overlying the Marcellus Formation. The HREE enrichment occurred in the Union Springs Member of the Marcellus Formation, corresponding to a high TOC peak (TOC ~4.6-6.2 wt%) and moderate carbonate levels (CaCO3 ~4-53 wt%). Results from the sequential leaching experiments suggest that the dominant host of the REEs is the organic fraction of the black shale and that the detrital and authigenic fractions have characteristic MREE enrichments. We present our

  9. Early Earth`s climate: Cloud feedback from reduced land fraction and ozone concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, G.S.

    1995-06-15

    Two features of early Earth - reduced ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration and land fraction are investigated with a general circulation model (GCM). These features are components of a paradox (Faint-Young Sun paradox) which has intrigued researchers for more than two decades. In this study, land fraction and O{sub 3} concentrations are uniformly reduced by 100 percent. The reduction of O{sub 3} takes place in the troposphere and stratosphere with all other variables held constant including present-day land fraction. Two sensitivity tests under global ocean conditions are reported: one case with implied oceanic poleward transports of heat, the other case with no implied oceanic poleward transports of heat. The results show that the removal of land under present-day conditions increases cloud fractions and cool surface temperatures, unless heat is transported poleward by oceans. In a third sensitivity test with zero O{sub 3} concentrations, global mean air temperatures are increased by 2 K because of an increase in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric clouds. The clouds enhance the greenhouse effect within the troposphere, increasing downward longwave radiation to the surface, melting sea ice and snow. Similar studies using radiative-convective models which do not include interactive clouds do not show such surface warming. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Attenuation of rare earth elements in a boreal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, Mats E.; Österholm, Peter; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Nystrand, Miriam; Peltola, Pasi; Nordmyr, Linda; Boman, Anton

    2012-11-01

    This study focuses on attenuation of rare earth elements (REE) when a boreal creek, acidified and loaded with REE and other metals as a result of wetland drainage, empties into a brackish-water estuary (salinity < 6‰). Surface water was collected in a transect from the creek mouth to the outer estuary, and settling (particulate) material in sediment traps moored at selected locations in the estuary. Ultrafiltration, high-resolution ICP-MS and modeling were applied on the waters, and a variety of chemical reagents were used to extract metals from the settling material. Aluminium, Fe and REE transported by the acidic creek were extensively removed in the inner/central estuary where the acidic water was neutralised, whereas Mn was relatively persistent in solution and thus redistributed to particles and deposited further down the estuary. The REE removal was caused by several contemporary mechanisms: co-precipitation with oxyhydroxides (mainly Al but also Fe), complexation with flocculating humic substances and sorption to suspended particles. Down estuary the dissolved REE pool, remaining after removal, was fractionated: the <1 kDa pool became depleted in the middle REE and the colloidal (0.45 μm-1 kDa) pool depleted in the middle and heavy REE. This fractionation was controlled by the removal process, such that those REE with highest affinity for the settling particles became most depleted in the remaining dissolved pool. Modeling, based on Visual MINTEQ version 3.0 and the Stockholm Humic Model after revision and updating, predicted that the dissolved (<0.45 μm) REE pool in the estuary is bound almost entirely to humic substances. Acid sulphate soils, the source of the REE and other metals in the creek water, are widespread on coastal plains worldwide and therefore the REE attenuation patterns and mechanisms identified in the studied estuary are relevant for recognition of similar geochemical processes and conditions in a variety of coastal locations.

  11. Bioleaching of rare earth elements from monazite sand.

    PubMed

    Brisson, Vanessa L; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Three fungal strains were found to be capable of bioleaching rare earth elements from monazite, a rare earth phosphate mineral, utilizing the monazite as a phosphate source and releasing rare earth cations into solution. These organisms include one known phosphate solubilizing fungus, Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015, as well as two newly isolated fungi: an Aspergillus terreus strain ML3-1 and a Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F. Although monazite also contains the radioactive element Thorium, bioleaching by these fungi preferentially solubilized rare earth elements over Thorium, leaving the Thorium in the solid residual. Adjustments in growth media composition improved bioleaching performance measured as rare earth release. Cell-free spent medium generated during growth of A. terreus strain ML3-1 and Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F in the presence of monazite leached rare earths to concentrations 1.7-3.8 times those of HCl solutions of comparable pH, indicating that compounds exogenously released by these organisms contribute substantially to leaching. Organic acids released by the organisms included acetic, citric, gluconic, itaconic, oxalic, and succinic acids. Abiotic leaching with laboratory prepared solutions of these acids was not as effective as bioleaching or leaching with cell-free spent medium at releasing rare earths from monazite, indicating that compounds other than the identified organic acids contribute to leaching performance.

  12. MaRGEE: Move and Rotate Google Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dordevic, Mladen M.; Whitmeyer, Steven J.

    2015-12-01

    Google Earth is recognized as a highly effective visualization tool for geospatial information. However, there remain serious limitations that have hindered its acceptance as a tool for research and education in the geosciences. One significant limitation is the inability to translate or rotate geometrical elements on the Google Earth virtual globe. Here we present a new JavaScript web application to "Move and Rotate Google Earth Elements" (MaRGEE). MaRGEE includes tools to simplify, translate, and rotate elements, add intermediate steps to a transposition, and batch process multiple transpositions. The transposition algorithm uses spherical geometry calculations, such as the haversine formula, to accurately reposition groups of points, paths, and polygons on the Google Earth globe without distortion. Due to the imminent deprecation of the Google Earth API and browser plugin, MaRGEE uses a Google Maps interface to facilitate and illustrate the transpositions. However, the inherent spatial distortions that result from the Google Maps Web Mercator projection are not apparent once the transposed elements are saved as a KML file and opened in Google Earth. Potential applications of the MaRGEE toolkit include tectonic reconstructions, the movements of glaciers or thrust sheets, and time-based animations of other large- and small-scale geologic processes.

  13. Modeling rammed earth wall using discrete element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, T.-T.; Bui, Q.-B.; Limam, A.; Morel, J.-C.

    2016-03-01

    Rammed earth is attracting renewed interest throughout the world thanks to its "green" characteristics in the context of sustainable development. Several research studies have thus recently been carried out to investigate this material. Some of them attempted to simulate the rammed earth's mechanical behavior by using analytical or numerical models. Most of these studies assumed that there was a perfect cohesion at the interface between earthen layers. This hypothesis proved to be acceptable for the case of vertical loading, but it could be questionable for horizontal loading. To address this problem, discrete element modeling seems to be relevant to simulate a rammed earth wall. To our knowledge, no research has been conducted thus far using discrete element modeling to study a rammed earth wall. This paper presents an assessment of the discrete element modeling's robustness for rammed earth walls. Firstly, a brief description of the discrete element modeling is presented. Then the parameters necessary for discrete element modeling of the material law of the earthen layers and their interfaces law following the Mohr-Coulomb model with a tension cut-off and post-peak softening were given. The relevance of the model and the material parameters were assessed by comparing them with experimental results from the literature. The results showed that, in the case of vertical loading, interfaces did not have an important effect. In the case of diagonal loading, model with interfaces produced better results. Interface characteristics can vary from 85 to 100% of the corresponding earthen layer's characteristics.

  14. Alkali elements in the Earth's core: Evidence from enstatite meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lodders, K.

    1995-01-01

    The abundances of alkali elements in the Earth's core are predicted by assuming that accretion of the Earth started from material similar in composition to enstatite chondrites and that enstatite achondrites (aubrites) provide a natural laboratory to study core-mantle differentiation under extremely reducing conditions. If core formation on the aubrite parent body is comparable with core formation on the early Earth, it is found that 2600 (+/- 1000) ppm Na, 550 (+/- 260) ppm K, 3.4 (+/- 2.1) ppm Rb, and 0.31 (+/- 0.24) ppm Cs can reside in the Earth's core. The alkali-element abundances are consistent with those predicted by independent estimates based on nebula condensation calculations and heat flow data.

  15. Rare earth elements as a fingerprint of soil components solubilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davranche, M.; Grybos, M.; Gruau, G.; Pédrot, M.; Dia, A.

    2009-04-01

    The retention of rare earth element (REE) in the soil profile are mainly controlled by three factors, (i) the stability of the primary REE-carrying minerals, (ii) the presence of secondary phases as clays and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides and (ii) the concentration of colloidal organic matter (OM). Considering that each soil phases (mineral or organic) displays (ii) various surface properties, such as specific area, surface sites density and nature and (ii) their own REE distribution inherited from the rock weathering, their mobilization through various chemical reactions (dissolution, colloidal release….) may involve the development of various shaped REE patterns in the soil solutions. REE fractionation from the different soil phases may therefore be used to identify the response of the soil system to a particular chemical process such as reductive and/or acidic dissolution. To test this purpose, an organic-rich wetland soil sample was incubated under anaerobic condition at both pH 5 and uncontrolled pH. The REE patterns developed in the soil solution were then compared to the REE patterns obtained through either aerobic at pH 3 and 7 incubations or a chemical reduction experiment (using hydroxylamine). REE patterns in anaerobic and aerobic at pH 7 experiments exhibited the same middle rare earth element (MREE) downward concavity significant of the complexation of REE with soil OM. By contrast, under acidic condition, the REE pattern exhibited a positive Eu anomaly due to the dissolution of soil feldspar. Finally, REE pattern obtained from the chemical reducing experiment showed an intermediary flat shape corresponding to a mixing between the soil organic and mineral phases dissolution. The comparison of the various REE pattern shapes allowed to conclude that (i) biological reduction of wetland soil involved amorphous Fe(III) colloids linked to OM and, (ii) that the REE mobility was controlled by the dynamic of OM in wetland soil. They also evidence the potential of

  16. Rare earth elements in scleractinian cold-water corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddatz, J.; Liebetrau, V.; Hathorne, E. C.; Rüggeberg, A.; Dullo, W.; Frank, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Rare Earth Elements (REE) have a great potential to trace continental input, particle scavenging and the oxidation state of seawater. These REE are recorded in the skeleton of the cosmopolitan cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa. Here we use an online preconcentration ICP-MS method (Hathorne et al. 2012) to measure REE concentrations in seawater and associated cold-water coral carbonates in order to investigate their seawater origin. Scleractinian cold-water corals were collected in-situ and alive and with corresponding seawater samples covering from the European Continental Margin. The seawater REE patterns are characterized by the typical negative cerium anomaly of seawater, but are distinct for the northern Norwegian Margin and the Oslo Fjord, probably related to continental input. Initial results for the corresponding coral samples suggest that these distinct REE patterns of ambient seawater are recorded by the coral skeletons although some fractionation during incorporation into the aragonite occurs. This indicates that scleractinian cold-water corals can serve as a valuable archive for seawater derived REE signatures, as well radiogenic Nd isotope compositions. In a second step we analysed fossil coral samples from various locations, which were oxidatively and reductively cleaned prior to analysis. Initial results reveal that sediment-buried fossil (early Pleistocene to Holocene) coral samples from the Norwegian Margin and the Porcupine Seabight (Challenger Mound, IODP Site 1317) do not show the expected seawater REE patterns. In particular, the fossil coral-derived REE patterns lack a negative cerium anomaly suggesting that fossil coral-REE patterns do not represent ambient seawater. Thus, we suggest that the oxidative-reductive cleaning method widely used for cleaning of marine carbonates such as foraminifera prior to measurements of seawater-derived trace metal and isotope compositions are not sufficient for REE and Nd isotopes in sediment-buried coral

  17. Magnetic Nanofluid Rare Earth Element Extraction Process Report, Techno Economic Analysis, and Results for Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Pete McGrail

    2016-03-14

    This GDR submission is an interim technical report and raw data files from the first year of testing on functionalized nanoparticles for rare earth element extraction from geothermal fluids. The report contains Rare Earth Element uptake results (percent removal, mg Rare Earth Element/gram of sorbent, distribution coefficient) for the elements of Neodymium, Europium, Yttrium, Dysprosium, and Cesium. A detailed techno economic analysis is also presented in the report for a scaled up geothermal rare earth element extraction process. All rare earth element uptake testing was done on simulated geothermal brines with one rare earth element in each brine. The rare earth element uptake testing was conducted at room temperature.

  18. Rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes in sedimentary organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freslon, Nicolas; Bayon, Germain; Toucanne, Samuel; Bermell, Sylvain; Bollinger, Claire; Chéron, Sandrine; Etoubleau, Joel; Germain, Yoan; Khripounoff, Alexis; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Rouget, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    We report rare earth element (REE) and neodymium (Nd) isotope data for the organic fraction of sediments collected from various depositional environments, i.e. rivers (n = 25), estuaries (n = 18), open-ocean settings (n = 15), and cold seeps (n = 12). Sedimentary organic matter (SOM) was extracted using a mixed hydrogen peroxide/nitric acid solution (20%-H2O2-0.02 M-HNO3), after removal of carbonate and oxy-hydroxide phases with dilute hydrochloric acid (0.25 M-HCl). A series of experimental tests indicate that extraction of sedimentary organic compounds using H2O2 may be complicated occasionally by partial dissolution of sulphide minerals and residual carbonates. However, this contamination is expected to be minor for REE because measured concentrations in H2O2 leachates are about two-orders of magnitude higher than in the above mentioned phases. The mean REE concentrations determined in the H2O2 leachates for samples from rivers, estuaries, coastal seas and open-ocean settings yield relatively similar levels, with ΣREE = 109 ± 86 ppm (mean ± s; n = 58). The organic fractions leached from cold seep sediments display even higher concentration levels (285 ± 150 ppm; mean ± s; n = 12). The H2O2 leachates for most sediments exhibit remarkably similar shale-normalized REE patterns, all characterized by a mid-REE enrichment compared to the other REE. This suggests that the distribution of REE in leached sedimentary organic phases is controlled primarily by biogeochemical processes, rather than by the composition of the source from which they derive (e.g. pore, river or sea-water). The Nd isotopic compositions for organic phases leached from river sediments are very similar to those for the corresponding detrital fractions. In contrast, the SOM extracted from marine sediments display εNd values that typically range between the εNd signatures for terrestrial organic matter (inferred from the analysis of the sedimentary detrital fractions) and marine organic matter

  19. Determination of thorium and of rare earth elements in cerium earth minerals and ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carron, M.K.; Skinner, D.L.; Stevens, R.E.

    1955-01-01

    The conventional oxalate method for precipitating thorium and the rare earth elements in acid solution exhibits definite solubilities of these elements. The present work was undertaken to establish conditions overcoming these solubilities and to find optimum conditions for precipitating thorium and the rare earth elements as hydroxides and sebacates. The investigations resulted in a reliable procedure applicable to samples in which the cerium group elements predominate. The oxalate precipitations are made from homogeneous solution at pH 2 by adding a prepared solution of anhydrous oxalic acid in methanol instead of the more expensive crystalline methyl oxalate. Calcium is added as a carrier. Quantitative precipitation of thorium and the rare earth elements is ascertained by further small additions of calcium to the supernatant liquid, until the added calcium precipitates as oxalate within 2 minutes. Calcium is removed by precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and rare earths at room temperature by adding ammonium hydroxide to pH > 10. Thorium is separated as the sebacate at pH 2.5, and the rare earths are precipitated with ammonium sebacate at pH 9. Maximum errors for combined weights of thorium and rare earth oxides on synthetic mixtures are ??0.6 mg. Maximum error for separated thoria is ??0.5 mg.

  20. Concentrations of rare-earth elements in soils of the Prioksko-Terrasnyi state biospheric reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, L. V.; Asainova, Zh. S.; Yoshida, S.; Ivanov, I. V.

    2012-10-01

    The concentrations of rare-earth elements were studied in the profiles of soddy podburs and mucky-humus gley soils. The soil horizons differed significantly in the contents of Corg (0-26%), the physical clay (<0.01 mm) fraction (3-31%), the acidity (pH 4 to 5.5), and the presence/absence of Al-Fe-humus accumulations. The most significant relationship was observed between the concentrations of rare-earth elements and the physical clay content, particularly for Nd: x(Nd, mg/kg) = 7 + 1.6 y (fraction <0.01 mm, %). Weak biogenic accumulations in the upper horizons were observed for Nd, Ce, and Dy; Nd, Pr, and La accumulated in the Al-Fe-humus illuvial horizon. The concentrations of rare-earth elements in the studied soils formed the following sequence (mg/kg): Nd (20-101)-Ce (10-44)-La, Sm, Gd, Dy, Yb (3-20)-Pr (1-4)-Ho (0.1-0.4)-Tm, Lu, and Tl (0.0). A clear trend was observed to higher contents of even-numbered elements as compared with odd-numbered elements, excluding La.

  1. Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    light rare earths (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium , neodymium, promethium, samarium) and heavy rare earths (europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium...rare earth elements cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium , and neodymium. However, the Mountain Pass mine will not immediately be able to refine rare earth

  2. Multi-objective optimization of chromatographic rare earth element separation.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Hans-Kristian; Holmqvist, Anders; Nilsson, Bernt

    2015-10-16

    The importance of rare earth elements in modern technological industry grows, and as a result the interest for developing separation processes increases. This work is a part of developing chromatography as a rare earth element processing method. Process optimization is an important step in process development, and there are several competing objectives that need to be considered in a chromatographic separation process. Most studies are limited to evaluating the two competing objectives productivity and yield, and studies of scenarios with tri-objective optimizations are scarce. Tri-objective optimizations are much needed when evaluating the chromatographic separation of rare earth elements due to the importance of product pool concentration along with productivity and yield as process objectives. In this work, a multi-objective optimization strategy considering productivity, yield and pool concentration is proposed. This was carried out in the frame of a model based optimization study on a batch chromatography separation of the rare earth elements samarium, europium and gadolinium. The findings from the multi-objective optimization were used to provide with a general strategy for achieving desirable operation points, resulting in a productivity ranging between 0.61 and 0.75 kgEu/mcolumn(3), h(-1) and a pool concentration between 0.52 and 0.79 kgEu/m(3), while maintaining a purity above 99% and never falling below an 80% yield for the main target component europium.

  3. Heterogeneous accretion and the moderately volatile element budget of Earth.

    PubMed

    Schönbächler, M; Carlson, R W; Horan, M F; Mock, T D; Hauri, E H

    2010-05-14

    Several models exist to describe the growth and evolution of Earth; however, variables such as the type of precursor materials, extent of mixing, and material loss during accretion are poorly constrained. High-precision palladium-silver isotope data show that Earth's mantle is similar in 107Ag/109Ag to primitive, volatile-rich chondrites, suggesting that Earth accreted a considerable amount of material with high contents of moderately volatile elements. Contradictory evidence from terrestrial chromium and strontium isotope data are reconciled by heterogeneous accretion, which includes a transition from dominantly volatile-depleted to volatile-rich materials with possibly high water contents. The Moon-forming giant impact probably involved the collision with a Mars-like protoplanet that had an oxidized mantle, enriched in moderately volatile elements.

  4. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters.

    PubMed

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  5. Miocene Coral Skeleton Rare Earth Element Patterns Reflect River Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz-Kraus, R.; Brachert, T. C.; Jochum, K. P.

    2010-12-01

    Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns of modern coral skeletons usually reflect the REE composition of ambient seawater which is characterized by heavy REE enriched relative to light REE with NASC (North American Shale Composite) normalized La/Lu ratios of typically <0.4. The REE concentration in coral aragonite is enriched by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude compared to ambient seawater. Here we report trace element data including REE of coral skeletons of Late Miocene age (~9 Ma, Tortonian) from Crete (Eastern Mediterranean). Analyses were done using a 213 nm Nd:YAG laser coupled to an Element2 ICP-MS along the growth axis of the coral skeletons. The profiles show that Ba/Ca ratios have a seasonally induced pattern with high values around the winter months which are identified by δ18O analyses. REE/Ca ratios co-vary with Ba/Ca ratios. Since the Ba/Ca ratio is a proxy used to monitor river discharge, the co-variation suggests the REE/Ca ratio to be a proxy of comparable quality. NASC-normalized REE patterns of the Tortonian corals have negative Ce anomalies like modern corals. However, the Tortonian corals have REE patterns highly enriched in LREE with (La/Lu)N ratios of 4 to 30 which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher compared to modern corals. Al concentrations are low (<10 ppm) and do not correlate with REE concentrations indicating an insignificant fraction of terrigenous material included in the skeleton. Applying distribution coefficients typical for modern corals, the REE composition of the Tortonian ambient water yields (La/Lu)N of about 2 to 16. This range can be explained by binary mixing of modern Eastern Mediterranean sea surface water ((La/Lu)N=0.35, sea surface salinity (SSS) ~38 ‰) with highly LREE-enriched river water ((La/Lu)N >3, salinity ~0.5 ‰) transporting suspended and colloid phases, also highly enriched, especially in LREE, at a ratio of ~9 (seawater):1 (river water). The river water component is considered because paleoenvironmental

  6. Biologically mediated isotope fractionations - Biochemistry, geochemical significance and preservation in the earth's oldest sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schidlowski, M.

    1983-01-01

    Preferential metabolization of isotopically light carbon and sulfur has resulted in a fractionation of the stable isotopes of these elements on a global scale, with the light species (C-12, S-32) markedly concentrated in biogenic materials. Since the biological effects are basically retained when carbon and sulfur are incorporated in sediments, the respective fractionations are propagated into the rock section of the geochemical cycle, this having consequently caused a characteristic bipartition of both elements between 'light' and 'heavy' crustal reservoirs. Preservation of the biological isotope effects in sedimentary rocks makes it possible to trace the underlying biochemical processes back over most of the geological record. According to the available evidence, biological (autotrophic) carbon fixation arose prior to 3.5(if not 3.8) billion years ago, while the emergence of dissimilatory sulfate reduction antedates the appearance of the oldest presumably bacteriogenic sulfur isotope patterns in rocks between 2.7 and 2.8 billion years old. Hence, biological control of the terrestrial carbon and sulfur cycles has been established very early in the earth's history.

  7. Coal fly ash as a resource for rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Franus, Wojciech; Wiatros-Motyka, Małgorzata M; Wdowin, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have been recognised as critical raw materials, crucial for many clean technologies. As the gap between their global demand and supply increases, the search for their alternative resources becomes more and more important, especially for the countries which depend highly on their import. Coal fly ash (CFA), which when not utilised is considered waste, has been regarded as the possible source of many elements, including REE. Due to the increase in the energy demand, CFA production is expected to grow, making research into the use of this material a necessity. As Poland is the second biggest coal consumer in the European Union, the authors have studied different coal fly ashes from ten Polish power plants for their rare earth element content. All the fly ashes have a broadly similar distribution of rear earth elements, with light REE being dominant. Most of the samples have REE content relatively high and according to Seredin and Dai (Int J Coal Geol 94: 67-93, 2012) classification can be considered promising REE raw materials.

  8. Uncovering the end uses of the rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T E

    2013-09-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging and conventional established technologies. However, quantitative knowledge of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in future availability of the resources. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supply vulnerable to short term disruption. We have drawn upon the published literature and unpublished materials in different languages to derive the first quantitative annual domestic production by end use of individual rare earth elements from 1995 to 2007. The information is illustrated in Sankey diagrams for the years 1995 and 2007. Other years are available in the supporting information. Comparing 1995 and 2007, the production of the rare earth elements in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. The information can provide a solid foundation for industries, academic institutions and governments to make decisions and develop strategies.

  9. Rare earth element budgets in subduction-zone fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsay, A.; Zajacz, Z.; Sanchez-Valle, C.

    2012-12-01

    Subduction zone fluids play a fundamental role in the geochemical cycle of the Earth. The nature and composition of these fluids are determined by complex processes and still poorly understood. As a result of a variety of metasomatic and partial melting events, arc-related magmas display a typical trace element abundance spectrum, in which the rare earth elements' (REE) signature is an important record of petrogenetic processes. Therefore, investigating the behavior of REE in fluids at high pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions is crucial for constraining fluid composition, as well as understanding subduction-zone processes in general. However, up to date, the experimental studies on REE solubility and speciation are limited to quite low P-T conditions (300 °C, saturated water vapor pressure) [1]. The theoretical predictions of the stability of REE complexes have been performed up to 350 °C [2] and 1000 °C, 0.5 GPa [3] by the extrapolation of thermodynamic data obtained at ambient conditions. In this study we present new experimental data on REE silicate (REE2Si2O7) solubility in aqueous quartz saturated fluids, containing various ligands, at conditions relevant for subducting slabs (600, 700, 800 °C, 2.6 GPa). The aim of the experiments was to investigate the relative effect of temperature and ligands on the solubility of REE. The experiments were conducted in an end-loaded piston-cylinder apparatus and the fluids were in situ sampled at P-T in the form of primary fluid inclusions in quartz [4]. The gold capsule was typically loaded with a chip of synthetic REE silicate (La,Nd,Gd,Dy,Er,Yb)2Si2O7, an aqueous fluid (~20 wt.%) and a piece of natural quartz. During the experiment (24-48 h) a thermal gradient along the capsule promoted intensive dissolution of quartz at the hottest part and precipitation of new quartz at the cooler part of the capsule, allowing the primary fluid inclusions to be trapped (~30-50 μm). Rubidium and cesium were added to the

  10. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND ELEMENT FRACTIONATION IN EV Lac

    SciTech Connect

    Laming, J. Martin; Hwang, Una

    2009-12-10

    We present a 100 ks Suzaku observation of the dMe flare star EV Lac, in which the star was captured undergoing a moderate 1500 s flare. During the flare, the count rate increased by about a factor of 50 and the spectrum showed overall enhanced element abundances relative to quiescence. While the quiescent element abundances confirm the inverse first ionization potential (FIP) effect previously documented for EV Lac, with relatively higher depletions for low FIP elements, abundances during the flare spectra show a composition closer to that of the stellar photosphere. We discuss these results in the context of models that explain abundance fractionation in the stellar chromosphere as a result of the ponderomotive force due to Alfven waves. Stars with FIP or inverse FIP effects arising from differently directed ponderomotive forces may have quite different abundance signatures in their evaporated chromospheric plasma during flares, if the same ponderomotive force also affects thermal conduction downward from the corona. The regulation of the thermal conductivity by the ponderomotive force requires a level of turbulence that is somewhat higher than is normally assumed, but plausible in filamentary conduction models.

  11. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  12. Biological availability and environmental behaviour of Rare Earth Elements in soils of Hesse, Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loell, M.; Duering, R.-A.; Felix-Henningsen, P.

    2009-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) comprise a group of 17 transition metals with very similar chemical and physical properties. They include the elements scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La) and the 14 elements (cerium to lutetium) that follow La in the periodic table. Their average abundance in the earth's crust varies from 0,01 to 0,02% so they are as common as Cu and Pb. Beside their widespread use in industry, REEs are applied in Chinese agriculture. Their beneficial effects both on crop yield and on animal production are reported in various investigations. As a result - by using microelement fertilisers and manure - REEs enter the pedosphere while their fate and behaviour in the environment up to now remains unexamined. The first aim of our investigation was to evaluate the concentration of REEs in agricultural used soils in central Germany (Hesse) by ICP-MS. In addition to their total concentration (aqua regia digestion) their bioavailable contents - determined by EDTA (potentially available fraction) and ammonium nitrate extraction (mobile fraction) - were analysed. The occurrence of the three REE fractions in different soils will be discussed and influencing soil properties (e.g. pH-value, content of clay and organic carbon) will be revealed. Additionally the uptake of REEs by grassland plants was determined and resulting transfer factors will be presented.

  13. Contamination in the Rare-Earth Element Orthophosphate Reference Samples

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John J.; Hanchar, John M.; Picolli, Phillip M.; Schrier, Marc D.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Jarosewich, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    Several of the fourteen rare-earth element (plus Sc and Y) orthophosphate standards grown at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 1980s and widely distributed by the Smithsonian Institution’s Department of Mineral Sciences, are significantly contaminated by Pb. The origin of this impurity is the Pb2P2O7 flux that is derived from the thermal decomposition of PbHPO4. The lead pyrophosphate flux is used to dissolve the oxide starting materials at elevated temperatures (≈1360 °C) prior to the crystal synthesis. Because these rare-earth element standards are extremely stable under the electron beam and considered homogenous, they have been of enormous value to electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The monoclinic, monazite structure, orthophosphates show a higher degree of Pb incorporation than the tetragonal xenotime structure, orthophosphates. This paper will attempt to describe and rationalize the extent of the Pb contamination in these otherwise excellent materials. PMID:27446762

  14. Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the compositional and phase relationships among minerals in which rare earth elements (REE) occur as essential constituents (e.g., bastnaesite, monazite, xenotime, aeschynite, allanite). Particular consideration is given to the vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals and to the REE partitioning between minerals as related to the acid-base tendencies and mineral stabilities. It is shown that the treatment of coupled substitutions as vector quantities facilitates graphical representation of mineral composition spaces.

  15. Trace Element Inputs to the Upper West Pacific from Nd Isotopes and Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, M. K.; Pahnke, K.; Schnetger, B.; Brumsack, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Neodymium isotopes (143Nd/144Nd, expressed as ɛNd) and rare earth element (REE) concentrations in the ocean trace water mass transport and margin-seawater exchange processes. The distinct ɛNd and REE signatures of the lithogenic components of margin sediments of the West Pacific allow characterization of trace element inputs to the Pacific Ocean. We present dissolved ɛNdand REE concentrations from twelve vertical profiles of a transect from South Korea to Fiji. Near South Korea, surface waters are marked by unradiogenic ɛNd (as low as -7.3), high REE concentrations (e.g., Nd = 15.3 pmol/kg) and low salinity. Towards the open ocean, these parameters gradually change towards typical Pacific open ocean values (ɛNd = -3.3, [Nd] = 5.55 pmol/kg). Subsurface waters show REE depletions, followed by the typical REE increase with increasing water depth. These distributions indicate trace element input near South Korea and enhanced subsurface scavenging, as indicated by strong heavy REE to light REE fractionation. In the tropical West Pacific (10°N-15°S), high surface and subsurface water ɛNd values (+0.7) and positive Eu anomalies trace the influence of volcanic islands. Yet, absolute REE concentrations are extremely low at these depths (e.g., Nd = 2.77 pmol/kg). Using shale-normalized Nd/Er and Ho/Dy ratios, that show a much stronger surface to subsurface decrease in coastal waters compared to the open ocean, we suggest enhanced scavenging in this area. Eastward flowing intermediate waters (NPIW, AAIW) have ɛNd values up to +1.9 (NPIW) and +3.7 (AAIW) higher than those entering the tropical West Pacific from north and south, respectively. Modified ɛNd at intermediate depths and no change in REE patterns suggest that boundary exchange along volcanic island margins modifies the seawater ɛNd without changing the REE budget.

  16. Uncovering the global life cycles of the rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T E

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements.

  17. Uncovering the Global Life Cycles of the Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T. E.

    2011-11-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements.

  18. Determination of the Light Element Fraction in MSL APXS Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrett, G. M.; Pradler, I.; Campbell, J. L.; Gellert, R.; Leshin, L. A.; Schmidt, M. E.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    Additional light invisible components (ALICs), measured using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS), represent all light elements (e.g. CO3, OH, H2O) present in a sample below Na, excluding bound oxygen. The method for quantifying ALICs was originally developed for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) APXS (Mallet et al, 2006; Campbell et al, 2008). This method has been applied to data collected by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) APXS up to sol 269 using a new terrestrial calibration. ALICs are investigated using the intensity ratio of Pu L-alpha Compton and Rayleigh scatter peaks (C/R). Peak areas of the scattered X-rays are determined by the GUAPX fitting program. This experimental C/R is compared to a Monte Carlo simulated C/R. The ratio of simulated and experimental C/R values is called the K-value. ALIC concentrations are calculated by comparing the K-value to the fraction of all invisibles present; the invisible fraction is produced from the spectrum fit by GUAPX. This method is applied to MSL spectra with long integration duration (greater than 3 hours) and with energy resolution less than 180 eV at 5.9 keV. These overnight spectra encompass a variety of geologic materials examined by the Curiosity Rover, including volcanic and sedimentary lithologies. Transfer of the K-value calibration produced in the lab to the flight APXS has been completed and temperature, geometry and spectrum duration effects have been thoroughly examined. A typical limit of detection of ALICs is around 5 wt% with uncertainties of approximately 5 wt%. Accurate elemental concentrations are required as input to the Monte Carlo program (Mallet et al, 2006; Lee, 2010). Elemental concentrations are obtained from the GUAPX code using the same long duration, good resolution spectra used for determining the experimental C/R ratios (Campbell et al. 2012). Special attention was given to the assessment of Rb, Sr, and Y as these element peaks overlap the scatter peaks. Mineral effects

  19. Low Earth orbit satellite attitude control by fractional control laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailil, A.; Mrani, N.; Abid, M.; Touati, M. Mliha; Choukri, S.; Elalami, N.

    2004-11-01

    Dans cet article, le controle d'attitude trois-axes d'un satellite par roues de reaction est etabli par les methodes fractionnaires. Dans le but d'expliquer les avantages de ces methodes, une etude comparative a etablie entre la methode lineaire quadratique (LQR) et la methode fractionnaire (FOC). Le but de cette etude est de realiser une loi de controle efficace satisfaisant des specifications donnees, et maintenant la stabilite et les performances requises meme en presence des incertitudes sur les parametres intrinsiques du systeme et sous l'effet des perturbations externes. Mots-cles : controle fractionnaire ; controle d'attitude trois-axes ; roues de reaction ; systeme quasi-bilineaire ; controle optimal. Abstract Fractional order control (FOC) methods are applied to the three-axis reaction wheels satellite attitude control. In order to show the advantages of this method, a comparative study between a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and a FOC is established through two principal fractional control laws. The aim of this paper is to establish an efficient control law which satisfies a given specifications, and maintains sufficient stability and accuracy even under the strong effects of intrinsic parameters uncertainties, and also external perturbations. Keywords: fractional control; 3-axis attitude control; reaction wheels; quasi-bilinear system; optimal control

  20. Siderophile Element Compositions of Lunar Impact Breccias: Implications for the Cataclysm and Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M.; Bennett, V.; Ryder, G.

    2001-12-01

    Highly siderophile element signatures of the two main textural and compositional groups of Apollo 17 impact melt breccias (poikilitics and aphanites) are consistent with EH chondrite impactor(s). Similar siderophile element signatures in both types of breccias implies either that multiple EH chondritic impactors were delivered to the Serenitatis region of the Moon within a narrow time interval, or that the two groups of breccias are petrogenetically related to a single impact event. To the extent that these breccias can be linked with the Serenitatis basin-forming event, this identifies one type of planetesimal responsible for creating a large nearside lunar basin, possibly during a terminal cataclysm. Owing to its larger size and greater gravitational focusing, the Earth would have experienced a significantly greater cratering rate (20x) and mass accretion rate (100x) compared to the Moon. If there was a terminal cataclysm, the Earth must have been hit by several large impacts during the crucial period in which the oldest preserved continental crust was forming and early life was evolving. If EH chondrites are found to be an important population for creating the 3.8 to 4.0 Ga lunar basins, their fractionated HSE pattern may have contributed to mantle heterogeneity on Earth. However, the dry and highly reduced nature of EH chondrites would preclude a significant contribution from these planetesimals to the volatile budget of the Earth and the oxidation of the terrestrial mantle. Additional studies of highly siderophile elements in lunar impact breccias and ancient terrestrial rocks are needed to establish the composition of infalling planetesimals on the early Earth and Moon, and the contribution of large impact events to the subsequent evolution of the Earth and other terrestrial planets.

  1. The Earth Based Ground Stations Element of the Lunar Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Fatig, Curtis; Schier, James; Lee, Charles

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) is responsible for developing a concept for building and supporting a lunar outpost with several exploration capabilities such as rovers, colonization, and observatories. The lunar outpost is planned to be located at the Moon's South Pole. The LAT Communications and Navigation Team (C&N) is responsible for defining the network infrastructure to support the lunar outpost. The following elements are needed to support lunar outpost activities: A Lunar surface network based on industry standard wireless 802.xx protocols, relay satellites positioned 180 degrees apart to provide South Pole coverage for the half of the lunar 28-day orbit that is obscured from Earth view, earth-based ground stations deployed at geographical locations 120 degrees apart. This paper will focus on the Earth ground stations of the lunar architecture. Two types of ground station networks are discussed. One provides Direct to Earth (DTE) support to lunar users using Kaband 23/26Giga-Hertz (GHz) communication frequencies. The second supports the Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) that will be using Ka-band 40/37GHz (Q-band). This paper will discuss strategies to provide a robust operational network in support of various lunar missions and trades of building new antennas at non-NASA facilities, to improve coverage and provide site diversification for handling rain attenuation.

  2. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM LIGHT ELEMENT VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Cunningham, B.B.

    1957-12-17

    A process is described for removing light element impurities from plutonium. It has been found that plutonium contaminated with impurities may be purified by converting the plutonium to a halide and purifying the halide by a fractional distillation whereby impurities may be distilled from the plutonium halide. A particularly effective method includes the step of forming a lower halide such as the trior tetrahalide and distilling the halide under conditions such that no decomposition of the halide occurs. Molecular distillation methods are particularly suitable for this process. The apparatus may comprise an evaporation plate with means for heating it and a condenser surface with means for cooling it. The condenser surface is placed at a distance from the evaporating surface less than the mean free path of molecular travel of the material being distilled at the pressure and temperature used. The entire evaporating system is evacuated until the pressure is about 10/sup -4/ millimeters of mercury. A high temperuture method is presented for sealing porous materials such as carbon or graphite that may be used as a support or a moderator in a nuclear reactor. The carbon body is subjected to two surface heats simultaneously in an inert atmosphere; the surface to be sealed is heated to 1500 degrees centigrade; and another surface is heated to 300 degrees centigrade, whereupon the carbon vaporizes and flows to the cooler surface where it is deposited to seal that surface. This method may be used to seal a nuclear fuel in the carbon structure.

  3. Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented that mainly treats minerals in which the rare-earth elements are essential constituents, e.g., bastnaesite, monazite, xenotime, aeschynite, allanite. The chemical mechanisms and limits of REE substitution in some rock-forming minerals (zircon, apatite, titanite, garnet) are also derived. Vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals is examined and some comments on REE-partitioning between minerals as related to acid-based tendencies and mineral stabilities are presented. As the same or analogous coupled substitutions involving the REE occur in a wide variety of mineral structures, they are discussed together.

  4. Standard reference water samples for rare earth element determinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Antweiler, R.C.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Taylor, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    Standard reference water samples (SRWS) were collected from two mine sites, one near Ophir, CO, USA and the other near Redding, CA, USA. The samples were filtered, preserved, and analyzed for rare earth element (REE) concentrations (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). These two samples were acid mine waters with elevated concentrations of REEs (0.45-161 ??g/1). Seventeen international laboratories participated in a 'round-robin' chemical analysis program, which made it possible to evaluate the data by robust statistical procedures that are insensitive to outliers. The resulting most probable values are reported. Ten to 15 of the participants also reported values for Ba, Y, and Sc. Field parameters, major ion, and other trace element concentrations, not subject to statistical evaluation, are provided.

  5. Mimicking the magnetic properties of rare earth elements using superatoms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bo; Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Castleman, A W

    2015-04-21

    Rare earth elements (REs) consist of a very important group in the periodic table that is vital to many modern technologies. The mining process, however, is extremely damaging to the environment, making them low yield and very expensive. Therefore, mimicking the properties of REs in a superatom framework is especially valuable but at the same time, technically challenging and requiring advanced concepts about manipulating properties of atom/molecular complexes. Herein, by using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we provide original idea and direct experimental evidence that chosen boron-doped clusters could mimic the magnetic characteristics of REs. Specifically, the neutral LaB and NdB clusters are found to have similar unpaired electrons and magnetic moments as their isovalent REs (namely Nd and Eu, respectively), opening up the great possibility in accomplishing rare earth mimicry. Extension of the superatom concept into the rare earth group not only further shows the power and advance of this concept but also, will stimulate more efforts to explore new superatomic clusters to mimic the chemistry of these heavy atoms, which will be of great importance in designing novel building blocks in the application of cluster-assembled nanomaterials. Additionally, based on these experimental findings, a novel "magic boron" counting rule is proposed to estimate the numbers of unpaired electrons in diatomic LnB clusters.

  6. Accumulation of rare earth elements by siderophore-forming Arthrobacter luteolus isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara, India.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, E S Challaraj; Ananthi, T; Anandkumar, B; Maruthamuthu, S

    2012-03-01

    In this study, Arthrobacter luteolus, isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara (Quilon district, Kerala, India), were found to produce catechol-type siderophores. The bacterial strain accumulated rare earth elements such as samarium and scandium. The siderophores may play a role in the accumulation of rare earth elements. Catecholate siderophore and low-molecular-weight organic acids were found to be present in experiments with Arthrobacter luteolus. The influence of siderophore on the accumulation of rare earth elements by bacteria has been extensively discussed.

  7. Trace elemental imaging of rare earth elements discriminates tissues at microscale in flat fossils.

    PubMed

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Dutheil, Didier B; Cohen, Serge X; Thiaudière, Dominique; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Clément, Gaël; Bertrand, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible. Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix. A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation. Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions. Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues. We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues. Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements. Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies.

  8. Trace Elemental Imaging of Rare Earth Elements Discriminates Tissues at Microscale in Flat Fossils

    PubMed Central

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Dutheil, Didier B.; Cohen, Serge X.; Thiaudière, Dominique; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Clément, Gaël; Bertrand, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible. Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix. A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation. Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions. Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues. We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues. Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements. Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies. PMID:24489809

  9. Bacterial Cell Surface Adsorption of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Y.; Park, D.; Reed, D.; Fujita, Y.; Yung, M.; Anderko, A.; Eslamimanesh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) play a critical role in many emerging clean energy technologies, including high-power magnets, wind turbines, solar panels, hybrid/electric vehicle batteries and lamp phosphors. In order to sustain demand for such technologies given current domestic REE shortages, there is a need to develop new approaches for ore processing/refining and recycling of REE-containing materials. To this end, we have developed a microbially-mediated bioadsorption strategy with application towards enrichment of REE from complex mixtures. Specifically, the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was genetically engineered to display lanthanide binding tags (LBTs), short peptides that possess high affinity and specificity for rare earth elements, on its cell surface S-layer protein. Under optimal conditions, LBT-displayed cells adsorbed greater than 5-fold more REE than control cells lacking LBTs. Competition binding experiments with a selection of REEs demonstrated that our engineered cells could facilitate separation of light- from heavy- REE. Importantly, binding of REE onto our engineered strains was much more favorable compared to non-REE metals. Finally, REE bound to the cell surface could be stripped off using citrate, providing an effective and non-toxic REE recovery method. Together, this data highlights the potential of our approach for selective REE enrichment from REE containing mixtures.

  10. Determination of rare earth elements in high purity rare earth oxides by liquid chromatography, thermionic mass spectrometry and combined liquid chromatography/thermionic mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stijfhoorn, D. E.; Stray, H.; Hjelmseth, H.

    1993-03-01

    A high-performance liquid Chromatographie (HPLC) method for the determination of rare earth elements in rocks has been modified and used for the determination of rare earth elements (REE) in high purity rare earth oxides. The detection limit was 1-1.5 ng or 2-3 mg/kg when a solution corresponding to 0.5 mg of the rare earth oxide was injected. The REE determination was also carried out by adding a mixture of selected REE isotopes to the sample and analysing the collected HPLC-fractions by mass spectrometry (MS) using a thermionic source. Since the matrix element was not collected, interference from this element during the mass spectrometric analysis was avoided. Detection limits as low as 0.5 mg/kg could then be obtained. Detection limits as low as 0.05 mg/kg were possible by MS without HPLC-pre-separation, but this approach could only be used for those elements that were not affected by the matrix. Commercial samples of high purity Nd 2O 3, Gd 2O 3 and Dy 2O 3 were analysed in this study, and a comparison of results obtained by HPLC, combined HPLC/MS and direct MS are presented.

  11. Rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes in world river sediments revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayon, G.; Toucanne, S.; Skonieczny, C.; André, L.; Bermell, S.; Cheron, S.; Dennielou, B.; Etoubleau, J.; Freslon, N.; Gauchery, T.; Germain, Y.; Jorry, S. J.; Ménot, G.; Monin, L.; Ponzevera, E.; Rouget, M.-L.; Tachikawa, K.; Barrat, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decades, rare earth elements (REE) and their radioactive isotopes have received tremendous attention in sedimentary geochemistry, as tracers for the geological history of the continental crust and provenance studies. In this study, we report on elemental concentrations and neodymium (Nd) isotopic compositions for a large number of sediments collected near the mouth of rivers worldwide, including some of the world's major rivers. Sediments were leached for removal of non-detrital components, and both clay and silt fractions were retained for separate geochemical analyses. Our aim was to re-examine, at the scale of a large systematic survey, whether or not REE and Nd isotopes could be fractionated during Earth surface processes. Our results confirmed earlier assumptions that river sediments do not generally exhibit any significant grain-size dependent Nd isotopic variability. Most sediments from rivers draining old cratonic areas, sedimentary systems and volcanic provinces displayed similar Nd isotopic signatures in both clay and silt fractions, with ΔεNd(clay-silt) < |1|. A subtle decoupling of Nd isotopes between clays and silts was identified however in a few major river systems (e.g. Nile, Mississippi, Fraser), with clays being systematically shifted towards more radiogenic values. This observation suggests that preferential weathering of volcanic and/or sedimentary rocks relative to more resistant lithologies may occur in river basins, possibly leading locally to Nd isotopic decoupling between different size fractions. Except for volcanogenic sediments, silt fractions generally displayed homogeneous REE concentrations, exhibiting relatively flat shale-normalized patterns. However, clay fractions were almost systematically characterized by a progressive enrichment from the heavy to the light REE and a positive europium (Eu) anomaly. In agreement with results from previous soil investigations, the observed REE fractionation between clays and silts

  12. Behavior of Rare Earth Elements in Fractured Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.

    2003-12-01

    An understanding of the geochemistry of potential host rocks is very important in the site evaluation for construction of an underground geologic repository for radioactive waste. Because of similar valence and ionic radii and high similarity in electronic structure with trivalent actinides (such as Am3+ and Cm3+), the rare earth elements (REEs) have been used to predict the behavior of actinide-series elements in solution. For Am and Cm, which occur only in the trivalent states in most waste-disposal repository environments, the analogy with the REEs is particularly relevant. Krauskopf calculated the retardation factors for radionuclides in various rock materials based on some compiled data. But, in general, because the transuranic actinides do not occur naturally in appreciable quantities, their behaviors in repository environments cannot be predicted from evidence of their movement in geologic environments (mainly in groundwater) over geologic timespans. Predictions about long-term future behavior of transuranic actinides have therefore been made by extrapolation from short-term observations of their chemical properties in laboratory experiments or in field tests, but such extrapolation is fraught with uncertainty. In order to verify the behavior of Eu in various geological environments, we estimated the abundance of rare earth elements in three gneiss bodies originated from different geological environments and volcanic tuff. We also carried out some leaching experiment of fracture-filling calcite precipitated due to changes of geochemical environment in paleo-groundwater. Of the three gneisses, two gneisses are granitic-granodioritic origin and the other is tonaltic-trondjemitic origin. As a result, we could observe that Eu had a close relationship with fracture-filling calcite precipitation due to water-rock interaction. Our results show that Eu is the most variable element of REEs for the hydrogeological environment such as change of oxidation-reduction and

  13. Composition, characteristic and activity of rare earth element-bound polysaccharide from tea.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Wang, C; Zhao, G; Wei, Z; Tao, Y; Liang, X

    2001-09-01

    The compositions and structural characteristics of rare earth elements-bound polysaccharides from tea (REE-TPS) were studied with the methods of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Gas Chromatography (GC) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The results show that polysaccharide from tea (TPS) was a sort of glycoprotein and coordinated with Rare Earth Elements (REE) closely. The sugar fraction was composed of Rha, Ara, Xyl, Fuc, Glc, and Gal. There existed almost all natural amino acids with Glx, Asx, and Hyp as the major parts in the protein fraction. The REEs in REE-TPS were mainly composed of La, Ce, and Nd, especially, more than 75% of them was La. The coordination atom of the first coordination shell of La in REE-TPS was oxygen, the coordination number of which was 6, and the average distance between the atoms was 2.52 A. The second shell was formed from sulfur atoms, the coordination number and the average distance were 3 and 2.91 A, respectively. The bio-experiments show that REE-TPS could decrease the content of blood glucose in mice significantly.

  14. Rare earth elements in the phosphatic-enriched sediment of the Peru shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Baedecker, P.A.; Crock, J.G.; Burnett, W.C.; Loebner, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Apatite-enriched materials from the Peru shelf have been analyzed for their major oxide and rare earth element (REE) concentrations. The samples consist of (1) the fine fraction of sediment, mostly clay material, (2) phosphatic pellets and fish debris, which are dispersed throughout the fine-grained sediment, (3) tabular-shaped phosphatic crusts, which occur within the uppermost few centimeters of sediment, and (4) phosphatic nodules, which occur on the seafloor. The bulk REE concentrations of the concretions suggest that these elements are partitioned between the enclosed detrital material and the apatite fraction. Analysis of the fine-grained sediment with which the samples are associated suggested that this detrital fraction in the concretions should have shale REE values; the analysis of the fish debris suggested that the apatite fraction might have seawater values. The seawater contribution of REE's is negligible in the nodules and crust, in which the apatite occurs as a fine-grained interstitial cement. That is, the concentration of REE's and the REE patterns are predominantly a function of the amount of enclosed fine-grained sediment. By contrast, the REE pattern of the pelletal apatite suggests a seawater source and the absolute REE concentrations are relatively high. The REE P2O5 ratios of the apatite fraction of these samples thus vary from approximately zero (in the case of the crust and nodules) to as much as approximately 1.2 ?? 10-3 (in the case of the pellets). The range of this ratio suggests that rather subtle variations in the depositional environment might cause a significant variation in the REE content of this authigenic fraction of the sediment. Pelletal glauconite was also recovered from one sediment core. Its REE concentrations closely resemble those of the fish debris. ?? 1988.

  15. Colors of a Second Earth: Estimating the Fractional Areas of Ocean, Land, and Vegetation of Earth-like Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yuka; Kawahara, Hajime; Suto, Yasushi; Taruya, Atsushi; Fukuda, Satoru; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Turner, Edwin L.

    2010-06-01

    Characterizing the surfaces of rocky exoplanets via their scattered light will be an essential challenge in investigating their habitability and the possible existence of life on their surfaces. We present a reconstruction method for fractional areas of different surface types from the colors of an Earth-like exoplanet. We create mock light curves for Earth without clouds using empirical data. These light curves are fitted to an isotropic scattering model consisting of four surface types: ocean, soil, snow, and vegetation. In an idealized situation where the photometric errors are only photon shot noise, we are able to reproduce the fractional areas of those components fairly well. The results offer some hope for detection of vegetation via the distinct spectral feature of photosynthesis on Earth, known as the red edge. In our reconstruction method, Rayleigh scattering due to the atmosphere plays an important role, and for terrestrial exoplanets with an atmosphere similar to our Earth, it is possible to estimate the presence of oceans and an atmosphere simultaneously.

  16. COLORS OF A SECOND EARTH: ESTIMATING THE FRACTIONAL AREAS OF OCEAN, LAND, AND VEGETATION OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yuka; Kawahara, Hajime; Suto, Yasushi; Taruya, Atsushi; Fukuda, Satoru; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Turner, Edwin L.

    2010-06-01

    Characterizing the surfaces of rocky exoplanets via their scattered light will be an essential challenge in investigating their habitability and the possible existence of life on their surfaces. We present a reconstruction method for fractional areas of different surface types from the colors of an Earth-like exoplanet. We create mock light curves for Earth without clouds using empirical data. These light curves are fitted to an isotropic scattering model consisting of four surface types: ocean, soil, snow, and vegetation. In an idealized situation where the photometric errors are only photon shot noise, we are able to reproduce the fractional areas of those components fairly well. The results offer some hope for detection of vegetation via the distinct spectral feature of photosynthesis on Earth, known as the red edge. In our reconstruction method, Rayleigh scattering due to the atmosphere plays an important role, and for terrestrial exoplanets with an atmosphere similar to our Earth, it is possible to estimate the presence of oceans and an atmosphere simultaneously.

  17. Revisiting the rare earth elements in foraminiferal tests [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, Brian A.; Klinkhammer, Gary P.; Mix, Alan C.

    2005-10-01

    Are the rare earth elements (REEs) in foraminifera a valuable proxy for use in paleoceanographic and climate change studies? In order to investigate this, we attempted a comprehensive study of REEs in planktonic and benthic foraminifera. Several different cleaning protocols were tested. Although the hydroxylamine used to clean all foraminifera in this study removes an unidentified source of REE contamination, it seems to remobilize metal oxides that are otherwise unaffected in flow-through dissolution. The calculated REE distribution coefficients, KD(REE)s, are between 100 and 500 for both planktonic and benthic foraminifera. These KDs are high compared to other elements in biogenic calcite but can be explained through a general model of element incorporation during foraminiferal calcification. From data taken from eight core tops in the southeast Pacific, we conclude that the REEs in planktonic foraminifera are, indeed, useful as a proxy for upper ocean water mass and mixed layer biogenic productivity. Alternatively, the REEs in benthic foraminifera are useful as a proxy for carbon flux to the sea floor. These proxies should be robust down core unless the sediments have undergone anoxic diagenesis, which stabilizes Fe carbonate thus overprinting the primary REE signature. However, it is clear from REE distributions in foraminiferal tests if anoxic conditions have occurred.

  18. Lunar anorthosites: rare-Earth and other elemental abundances.

    PubMed

    Wakita, H; Schmitt, R A

    1970-11-27

    Elemental abundances of major (Ti, Al, Fe, and Ca), minor (Na, Mn, and Cr), and trace elements [14 rare-earth elements (REE), Y, In, Cd, Rb, Cs, Ba, Co, and Sc] in lunar anorthosites separated from Apollo 11 sample 10085 coarse fines have been determined by means of instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The REE distribution pattern of lunar anorthosites, relative to ordinary chondrites, has a positive Eu anomaly. On the assumption that (i) the lunar composition is similar to that of ordinary chondritic meteorites low in total Fe ( approximately 13 percent); (ii) lunar anorthosites are derived from highland cratering events and are representative of the highlands; and (iii) the moon differentiated into olivine, hypersthene, and basaltic and anorthositic phases, and plagioclase crysstallization began after approximately 93 percent solidification, then mass balance calculations yield approximately 30-kilometer and approximately 10-kilometer thicknesses for the lunar highlands for the melting and chemical differentiation of the entire moon and of the upper 200 kilometers, respectively. Corresponding thicknesses of the basaltic basement rocks were approximately 5 kilometers and approximately 2 kilometers, respectively. Alternatively, if the anorthosites of this study are representative of the highlands and the onset of plagioclase crystallization occurred after approximately 50 percent solidification of the initially melted moon, calculations with REE and Ba partition coefficients suggest that the REE and Ba abundances in the primeval moon were similar to those observed in basaltic achondrites.

  19. [Essential trace elements distribution in food micro algae Spirulina platensis biomass fractions].

    PubMed

    Zaretskaia, E S; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Mazo, V K; Zorin, S N; Aleshko-Ozhevskiĭ, Iu P

    2004-01-01

    Distribution of some trace elements elements (zinc, selenium, iron, manganese, chromium) was characterized in enriched biomass of food micro algae Spirulina platensis by means of water-methanol fractionation. The majority of said trace elements was shown to be incorporated in intercellular hydrophylic fraction, e.g. could be connected to cellular proteins. This result enable the conclusion, that Spirulina is a suitable matrix for biotechnological incorporation of new food trace elements preparations.

  20. Origin of Terrestrial Water: Hydrogen/Deuterium Fractionation into Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Buseck, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen isotopic compositions are among the most important constraints on the origin of Earth's water. Earth's bulk water content, which is small but not negligible, is significantly greater than what the thermal gradient of the solar nebula disk would suggest for planetesimal materials condensed at one astronomical unit. The proto-solar nebula is a likely source of early Earth's water, with probable contributions from one or more of the following: water-rich planetesimals, ordinary and carbonaceous meteorites, comets, asteroids, and interplanetary dust particles. However, all of these sources have been questioned, and the proposed proto-solar nebular origin has been disputed in light of the large difference in hydrogen isotopic composition between it and terrestrial water. Current opposition to the solar nebular hypothesis is based on the critical assumption that no processes in the interior of the early Earth changed the isotopic composition of hydrogen. Nevertheless, a hypothesized hydrogenation reaction of liquid iron (2Fe + xH2 ↔ 2FeHx) during core formation likely provided a fractionation mechanism between hydrogen and deuterium (D). We propose that modern D/H ratios at Earth's surface resulted from this isotopic fractionation and that terrestrial water originated from oxidation of proto-solar hydrogen dissolved in the magma ocean in the early Earth by coexisting oxides (such as FeO). Thus, the isotopic composition of water on Earth can be mainly explained by internal terrestrial processes.

  1. The elements of the Earth's magnetism and their secular changes between 1550 and 1915

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritsche, H.

    1983-01-01

    The results of an investigation about the magnetic agents outside the Earth's surface as well as the Earth's magnetic elements for the epochs 1550, 1900, 1915 are presented. The secular changes of the Earth's magnetic elements during the time interval 1550 - 1900 are also included.

  2. The Marine Geochemistry of the Rare Earth Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    C3): 2045-2056. BACON, M.P., P.G. BREWER, D.W. SPENCER, T.W. MURRAY & T. GODDARD (1980). Lead - 210 , polonium - 210 , manganese and iron in the Cariaco...191 La and Pr 197 Ce: its oxidation and reduction 197 Eu 207 4.5. Conclusions 210 CHAPTER 5. Behaviour of the Rare Earth Elements in anoxic waters of...0.142 140Ce(n, )14ICe 0.58 0.48 2.89 0.0053 41Pr(n,e.)142Pr 11.5 14.1 57.4 0.17 l46Nd(n,a-)l47Nd 1.4 3.2 6.98 0.0039 152Sni(n,a)153Sm 210 2530 1047

  3. Rare earth elements in parasol mushroom Macrolepiota procera.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Sapkota, Atindra; Mędyk, Małgorzata; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate occurrence and distribution of 16 rare earth elements (REEs) in edible saprobic mushroom Macrolepiota procera, and to estimate possible intake and risk to human consumer. Mushrooms samples were collected from sixteen geographically diverse sites in the northern regions of Poland. The results showed that for Ce as the most abundant among the RREs in edible caps, the mean concentration was at 0.18±0.29mgkg(-1)dry biomass. The mean concentration for Σ16 REEs determined in caps of fungus was 0.50mgkg(-1)dry biomass and in whole fruiting bodies was 0.75mgkg(-1)dry biomass. From a point of view by consumer, the amounts of REEs contained in edible caps of M. procera could be considered small. Hence, eating a tasty caps of this fungus would not result in a health risk for consumer because of exposure to the REEs.

  4. Rare Earth elements in individual minerals in Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Crozaz, Ghislaine

    1993-01-01

    Shergottites (i.e., Shergotty, Zagami, EETA79001, ALHA77005, and LEW88516) are an important set of achondrites because they comprise the majority of the SNC group of meteorites (nine, in total, known to us), which are likely to be samples of the planet Mars. Study of these meteorites may therefore provide valuable information about petrogenetic processes on a large planetary body other than Earth. Rare earth element (REE) distributions between various mineral phases were found to be useful in geochemically modeling the petrogenesis of various rock types (terrestrial and meteoritic). However, with the exception of a few ion microprobe studies and analyses of mineral separates, there has previously not been any comprehensive effort to characterize and directly compare REE in individual minerals in each of the five known shergottites. Ion microprobe analyses were made on thin sections of each of the shergottites. Minerals analyzed were pyroxenes (pigeonite and augite), maskelynite, and whitlockite. The REE concentrations in each mineral type in each shergottite is given.

  5. Core-Mantle Partitioning of Volatile Elements and the Origin of Volatile Elements in Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L.; Nickodem, K.

    2014-01-01

    Depletions of siderophile elements in mantles have placed constraints on the conditions on core segregation and differentiation in bodies such as Earth, Earth's Moon, Mars, and asteroid 4 Vesta. Among the siderophile elements there are a sub-set that are also volatile (volatile siderophile elements or VSE; Ga, Ge, In, As, Sb, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cu, Cd), and thus can help to constrain the origin of volatile elements in these bodies, and in particular the Earth and Moon. One of the fundamental observations of the geochemistry of the Moon is the overall depletion of volatile elements relative to the Earth, but a satisfactory explanation has remained elusive. Hypotheses for Earth include addition during accretion and core formation and mobilized into the metallic core, multiple stage origin, or addition after the core formed. Any explanation for volatile elements in the Earth's mantle must also be linked to an explanation of these elements in the lunar mantle. New metal-silicate partitioning data will be applied to the origin of volatile elements in both the Earth and Moon, and will evaluate theories for exogenous versus endogenous origin of volatile elements.

  6. Effects of rare earth elements on the distribution of mineral elements and heavy metals in horseradish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Qing

    2008-09-01

    In order to investigate the effects of rare earth elements (REEs) on horseradish, the distribution of the mineral elements and heavy metals in different organs of horseradish have been studied by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Meanwhile, three variable major parameters, namely the concentration of REEs, the type of REEs, and the growth stage of plant were chosen. The results indicated that the test REEs, Ce(III) and Tb(III), could be accumulated in leaves, stems and roots of horseradish. In addition, we found that the content of mineral elements was increased in horseradish treated with 20mgl(-1) of Ce(III), but not those with the 20mgl(-1) of Tb(III). Moreover, the content of mineral elements in horseradish was decreased with the increasing concentration of REEs (100, 300mgl(-1)). Furthermore, we found that there were the opposite effects on the content of the heavy metals in horseradish treated with REEs. Finally, we found that the effect of REEs on the accumulation of REEs, and the content of mineral elements or heavy metals of horseradish during vigorous growth stage, no matter positive or negative, was more obvious than that of the other growth stages. These results demonstrated that the distribution behaviors of mineral elements and heavy metals in horseradish can be affected by the type and concentration of REEs, and the growth period of plant.

  7. Separation/Preconcentration Techniques for Rare Earth Elements Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Jiang, Zucheng

    2016-10-01

    The main aim of this chapter exactly characterizes the contribution. The analytical chemistry of the rare earth elements (REEs) very often is highly complicated and the determination of a specific element is impossible without a sample pre-concentration. Sample preparation can be carried out either by separation of the REEs from the matrix or by concentrating the REEs. The separation of REEs from each other is mainly made by chromatography. At the beginning of REE analysis, the method of precipitation/coprecipitation was applied for the treatment of REE mixtures. The method is not applicable for the separation of trace amounts of REEs. The majority of the methods used are based on the distribution of REEs in a two-phase system, a liquid-liquid or a liquid-solid system. Various techniques have been developed for the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), in particular the liquid phase micro-extraction. The extraction is always combined with a pre-concentration of the REEs in a single drop of extractant or in a hollow fiber filled with the extractant. Further modified techniques for special applications and for difficult REE separation have been developed. Compared to the LLE, the solid phase micro-extraction is preferred. The method is robust and easy to handle, in which the solid phase loaded with the REEs can be used directly for subsequent determination methods. At present, very new solid materials, like nanotubes, are developed and tested for solid phase extraction.

  8. Rare earth elements in sinters from the geothermal waters (hot springs) on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jin-Liang; Zhao, Zhen-Hong; Chen, Feng; Hu, Hai-Ping

    2014-10-01

    The mineralogical and geochemical composition of sinters from the geothermal areas on the Tibetan Plateau was determined. They occur as siliceous, salty and calcareous sinters but biogenic siliceous sinters were also found. The analyses indicate that there are no distinct inter -element relationships between individual rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements. Formed from the same geothermal water, the mineralogical and chemical composition of the sinters is influenced by their genesis and formation conditions. The REE distributions depend on the origin of the sinters. Fe-Mn phases in sinters tend to scavenge more REEs from geothermal water. Neither the REE fractionation nor the Ce anomaly seems to be associated with Fe-Mn phases in the sinters. The fourth tetrads of some sinters display weak W-type (concave) effects. In contrast, the third tetrads present large effects in some sinters due to positive Gd anomalies. The origin of the positive Eu anomalies in some sinters seems to be caused by preferential dissolution of feldspars during water-rock interaction. The complexing ligands in geothermal water may contribute significantly to the fractionation of REEs in sinters. The dominant CO32- and HCO3- complexing in geothermal water favors enrichment of heavy REEs in calcareous sinters.

  9. Pb and rare earth element diffusion in xenotime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.

    2006-05-01

    Diffusion of Pb and the rare earth elements Sm, Dy and Yb have been characterized in synthetic xenotime under dry conditions. The synthetic xenotime was grown via a Na 2CO 3-MoO 3 flux method. The sources of diffusant for the rare earth diffusion experiments were REE phosphate powders, with experiments run using sources containing a single REE. For Pb, the source consisted a mixture of YPO 4 and PbTiO 3. Experiments were performed by placing source and xenotime in Pt capsules, and annealing capsules in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 30 min to several weeks, at temperatures from 1000 to 1500 °C. The REE and Pb distributions in the xenotime were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relations are obtained for diffusion in xenotime, normal to (101): D=1.5×10exp⁡(-441±12 kJmol/R⁢T)ms.D=9.0×10exp⁡(-349±16 kJmol/R⁢T)ms.D=3.9×10exp⁡(-362±13 kJmol/R⁢T)ms. Diffusivities among the REE do not differ greatly in xenotime over the investigated temperature range, in contrast to findings for the REE in zircon [Cherniak, D.J., Hanchar, J.M., Watson, E.B., 1997. Rare earth diffusion in zircon. Chem. Geol. 134, 289-301.], where the LREE diffuse more slowly, and with higher activation energies for diffusion, than the heavier rare earths. In zircon, these differences among diffusion of the rare earths are attributed to the relatively large size of the REE with respect to Zr, for which they likely substitute in the zircon lattice. With the systematic increase in ionic radius from the heavy to lighter REE, this size mismatch becomes more pronounced and diffusivities of the LREE are as consequence slower. Although xenotime is isostructural with zircon, the REE are more closely matched in size to Y, so in xenotime this effect appears much smaller and the REE diffuse at similar rates. In addition, the process of diffusion in xenotime likely involves simple REE + 3 → Y + 3 exchange, without charge compensation as needed

  10. Rare Earth Elements reveal past earthquakes on limestone normal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manighetti, I.; Boucher, E.; Chauvel, C.; Schlagenhauf, A.; Benedetti, L.

    2009-12-01

    In 2008, we suggested that the chemical composition of the rocks which form well preserved, seismically exhumed fault scarps might record past major earthquakes (Carcaillet et al., 2008) because those scarp surfaces consist of a vertical succession of zones that have been exposed at different times by the repeating earthquakes, thus weathered over different time spans. In this pioneer study, we validated this hypothesis using the changes in chemical compositions (major and trace elements) of 15 carbonate rock samples collected from the base to the top of the seismically exhumed, 10 m-high Magnola normal fault scarp (Abruzzes, Central Italy). However, the number of available samples was insufficient to fully assess the validity of the model. Here we present trace element data on 27 additional samples collected systematically every 25 cm along the Magnola scarp, as well as on 7 scarp samples buried below the colluvium hence representing the first 4 meters of the scarp before exhumation. The scarp rocks buried in the first meter of the ground appear significantly enriched in Rare Earth elements (REE): they contain 60% more REE than the rocks located either deeper in the ground or immediately above the ground level. This concentration peak most probably results from enrichment of the scarp rocks by interaction with the impurity-doped, acidic, upper soil. Above the ground surface and along the scarp, most element concentrations (70%) decrease up-dip, generally by more than 50%; we attribute this trend to leaching and dissolution-recrystallization of purer calcite through time. The top of the scarp having been exposed for a longer period of time, its surface lost more of the trace elements contained in the rocks. However, the upward decrease in REE contents is not linear and 4 REE concentration peaks can be recognized along the exposed scarp. The position of these 4 peaks coincide with the zones identified by Schlagenhauf et al. (2009) and Palumbo et al. (2004) as

  11. Rare earth elements exploitation, geopolitical implications and raw materials trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemin, Marie-Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) correspond to seventeen elements of the periodic table. They are used in high technology, cracking, electric cars' magnet, metal alloy for batteries, and also in phone construction or ceramics for electronic card. REEs are an important resource for high technology. This project targets 16 years old students in the subject "personalized aid" and will last six weeks. The purpose of this project is to develop autonomy and research in groups for a transdisciplinary work. This project gathers knowledge in geology, geography and economics. During the first session students analyze the geology applications of the REE. They begin the analysis with learning the composition in different rocks such as basalt and diorite to make the link with crystallization. Then they compare it with adakite to understand the formation of these rocks. In the second session, they study REE exploitation. We can find them as oxides in many deposits. The principal concentrations of rare earth elements are associated with uncommon varieties of igneous rocks, such as carbonatites. They can use Qgis, to localize this high concentration. In the third session, they study the environmental costs of REE exploitation. Indeed, the exploitation produces thorium and carcinogenic toxins: sulphates, ammonia and hydrochloric acid. Processing one ton of rare earths produces 2,000 tons of toxic waste. This session focuses, first, on Baotou's region, and then on an example they are free to choose. In the fourth session, they study the geopolitical issues of REE with a focus on China. In fact this country is the largest producer of REE, and is providing 95% of the overall production. REE in China are at the center of a geopolitical strategy. In fact, China implements a sort of protectionism. Indeed, the export tax on REE is very high so, as a foreign company, it is financially attractive to establish a manufacturing subsidiary in China in order to use REE. As a matter of fact

  12. Targeting heavy rare earth elements in carbonatite complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broom-Fendley, S.; Wall, F.; Gunn, A. G.; Dowman, E.

    2012-04-01

    The world's main sources of the rare earth elements (REE) are concentrated in carbonatite complexes. These have the advantages of high grade and tonnage, combined with low thorium contents, yet they are generally enriched in light rare earths (LREE). The heavy rare earths (HREE, which include Eu-Lu and Y) are more highly sought after because of their role in new and green technologies. HREE are predominantly extracted from ion-adsorption clays in China. These are small, low grade deposits, which are often illegally mined by artisans. Increased government control, environmental legislation and local demand for REE in China have led to high prices and global concerns about the security of supply of the HREE. Alternative sources of the HREE are poorly documented. We present a review of such targets, including: (1) 'abnormal' carbonatites; (2) areas around LREE-rich complexes such as breccia, fenite and latter stage veins; and (3) weathered carbonatites. At Lofdal, Namibia, carbonatite dykes contain xenotime-(Y) together with LREE minerals. The original chemistry of the carbonatite magma, coupled with late-stage magma and fluid evolution, seem to be controlling factors [1, 2]. The Khibina carbonatite, Kola Peninsula, Russia, is an example of where early LREE carbonatites become increasing HREE-enriched as magmas evolve to carbo-hydrothermal fluids [3]. Around carbonatite complexes in Malawi HREE enrichment can be found in breccia and in fenite. Breccia around Songwe shows areas with high Y/La ratios within the matrix caused by narrow zones of xenotime enrichment. Fenite around Kangankunde and Chilwa Island has higher HREE:LREE ratios than the carbonatite [4]. At weathered complexes, such as at Mount Weld in Western Australia, changes in both HREE concentration and LREE:HREE ratios are observed. In currently unworked sections of the deposit, the HREE mineral churchite (YPO4.H2O) has formed concentrations due to groundwater flow [5]. These areas of enrichment are

  13. An enriched finite element method to fractional advection-diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Shengzhi; Lian, Yanping; Ying, Yuping; Tang, Shaoqiang; Wagner, Gregory J.; Liu, Wing Kam

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, an enriched finite element method with fractional basis [ 1,x^{α }] for spatial fractional partial differential equations is proposed to obtain more stable and accurate numerical solutions. For pure fractional diffusion equation without advection, the enriched Galerkin finite element method formulation is demonstrated to simulate the exact solution successfully without any numerical oscillation, which is advantageous compared to the traditional Galerkin finite element method with integer basis [ 1,x] . For fractional advection-diffusion equation, the oscillatory behavior becomes complex due to the introduction of the advection term which can be characterized by a fractional element Peclet number. For the purpose of addressing the more complex numerical oscillation, an enriched Petrov-Galerkin finite element method is developed by using a dimensionless fractional stabilization parameter, which is formulated through a minimization of the residual of the nodal solution. The effectiveness and accuracy of the enriched finite element method are demonstrated by a series of numerical examples of fractional diffusion equation and fractional advection-diffusion equation, including both one-dimensional and two-dimensional, steady-state and time-dependent cases.

  14. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements and other trace elements in the Amazon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2014-05-01

    Rivers transport large amounts of dissolved and suspended particulate material from the catchment area to the oceans and are a major source of trace metals to seawater. The Amazon River is the world's largest river and supplies approximately 20% of the oceans' freshwater (Molinier et al., 1997). However, the behavior of trace elements, especially particle-reactive elements such as the rare earth elements (REE), within the river as well as in the estuary is not well constrained and rather little is known about their transport mechanisms. This study aims at understanding the transport properties of particle-reactive elements in the Amazon River and some of its major tributaries, including the Rio Solimões, Rio Negro, Tapajos, Xingu and Jari Rivers. Samples were taken at 12 stations, seven of which were located in the Amazon mainstream, while the other five stations sampled its tributaries. To account for the effects of variable discharge, the samples were collected during periods of high and low discharge. We present data for major and trace elements, including REE, of the dissolved and suspended load of these samples. First results indicate that the shale-normalized REE pattern of the dissolved load (filtered through 0.2 µm membranes) of the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões confirm earlier studies (Elderfield et al., 1990; Gerard et al., 2003) and show an enrichment of the middle REE relative to the light and heavy REE (LaSN/GdSN: 0.25 - 0.32; GdSN/YbSN: 1.54 - 1.78). In contrast to the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões, which are considered to be whitewater rivers, blackwater rivers, such as the Rio Negro, have a flat REE pattern with higher REE concentrations than whitewater rivers. The third water-type found in the Amazon Basin is clearwater, e.g. Rio Tapajos, with REE patterns in between those of the other two types, i.e. LaSN/GdSN: 0.55 - 0.70; GdSN/YbSN: 1.26 - 1.55. A similar behavior can be identified for other major and trace elements. While

  15. Automated Quantitative Rare Earth Elements Mineralogy by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindern, Sven; Meyer, F. Michael

    2016-09-01

    Increasing industrial demand of rare earth elements (REEs) stems from the central role they play for advanced technologies and the accelerating move away from carbon-based fuels. However, REE production is often hampered by the chemical, mineralogical as well as textural complexity of the ores with a need for better understanding of their salient properties. This is not only essential for in-depth genetic interpretations but also for a robust assessment of ore quality and economic viability. The design of energy and cost-efficient processing of REE ores depends heavily on information about REE element deportment that can be made available employing automated quantitative process mineralogy. Quantitative mineralogy assigns numeric values to compositional and textural properties of mineral matter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with a suitable software package for acquisition of backscatter electron and X-ray signals, phase assignment and image analysis is one of the most efficient tools for quantitative mineralogy. The four different SEM-based automated quantitative mineralogy systems, i.e. FEI QEMSCAN and MLA, Tescan TIMA and Zeiss Mineralogic Mining, which are commercially available, are briefly characterized. Using examples of quantitative REE mineralogy, this chapter illustrates capabilities and limitations of automated SEM-based systems. Chemical variability of REE minerals and analytical uncertainty can reduce performance of phase assignment. This is shown for the REE phases parisite and synchysite. In another example from a monazite REE deposit, the quantitative mineralogical parameters surface roughness and mineral association derived from image analysis are applied for automated discrimination of apatite formed in a breakdown reaction of monazite and apatite formed by metamorphism prior to monazite breakdown. SEM-based automated mineralogy fulfils all requirements for characterization of complex unconventional REE ores that will become

  16. Rare Earth Element Partitioning in Lunar Minerals: An Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntosh, E. C.; Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The partitioning behavior of rare earth elements (REE) between minerals and melts is widely used to interpret the petrogenesis and geologic context of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples. REE are important tools for modelling the evolution of the lunar interior. The ubiquitous negative Eu anomaly in lunar basalts is one of the main lines of evidence to support the lunar magma ocean (LMO) hypothesis, by which the plagioclase-rich lunar highlands were formed as a flotation crust during differentiation of a global-scale magma ocean. The separation of plagioclase from the mafic cumulates is thought to be the source of the Eu depletion, as Eu is very compatible in plagioclase. Lunar basalts and volcanic glasses are commonly depleted in light REEs (LREE), and more enriched in heavy REEs (HREE). However, there is very little experimental data available on REE partitioning between lunar minerals and melts. In order to interpret the source of these distinctive REE patterns, and to model lunar petrogenetic processes, REE partition coefficients (D) between lunar minerals and melts are needed at conditions relevant to lunar processes. New data on D(sub REE) for plagioclase, and pyroxenes are now available, but there is limited available data for olivine/melt D(sub REE), particularly at pressures higher than 1 bar, and in Fe-rich and reduced compositions - all conditions relevant to the lunar mantle. Based on terrestrial data, REE are highly incompatible in olivine (i.e. D much less than 1), however olivine is the predominant mineral in the lunar interior, so it is important to understand whether it is capable of storing even small amounts of REE, and how the REEs might be fractionatied, in order to understand the trace element budget of the lunar interior. This abstract presents results from high-pressure and temperature experiments investigating REE partitioning between olivine and melt in a composition relevant to lunar magmatism.

  17. Effects of spraying rare earths on contents of rare Earth elements and effective components in tea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongfeng; Wang, Changhong; Ye, Sheng; Qi, Hongtao; Zhao, Guiwen

    2003-11-05

    Rare earth (RE) fertilizer is widely applied in China to increase the yield and the quality of crops including tea. However, the effects of spraying RE fertilizer on the contents of rare earth elements (REE) and effective components in tea are unknown. The results from basin and field experiments show that the values of the REE concentrations in new shoots of tea plants and the concentration of REE in the soil (REE/REEs) either from control basins or from treatment basins were smaller than those in other parts of tea plant and similar between control and treatment. The longer the interval between spraying RE fertilizer and picking the shoots of tea plants, the less the effects from spraying. About 80% summation operator REE (the sum of the concentrations of 15 REE) in tea, whether it came from spraying or not, was insoluble in the infusion. About 10% the soluble REE of summation operator REE in tea infusion was bound to polysaccharide, and the amount of REE bound polysaccharide decreased over time. At least a 25 day safety interval is needed between spraying and picking if the microelement fertilizer is used, in order to enhance tea output and to ensure tea safety.

  18. β-decay of neutron-rich Z∼60 nuclei and the origin of rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Nishimura, S.; Lorusso, G.; Baba, H.; Doornenbal, P.; Isobe, T.; Söderström, P. A.; Sakurai, H.; Xu, Z. Y.; Browne, F.; Daido, R.; Fang, Y. F.; Yagi, A.; Nishibata, H.; Odahara, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Ideguchi, E.; Aoi, N.; Tanaka, M.; Collaboration: EURICA Collaboration; and others

    2014-05-02

    A large fraction of the rare-earth elements observed in the solar system is produced in the astrophysical rapid neutron capture process (r-process). However, current stellar models cannot completely explain the relative abundance of these elements partially because of nuclear physics uncertainties. To address this problem, a β-decay spectroscopy experiment was performed at RI Beam Factory (RIBF) at RIKEN, aimed at studying a wide range of very neutron-rich nuclei with Z∼60 that are progenitors of the rare-earth elements with mass number A∼460. The experiment provides a test of nuclear models as well as experimental inputs for r-process calculations. This contribution presents the experimental setup and some preliminary results of the experiment.

  19. Spectroscopy of Luminescent Crystals Containing Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Meng-Ling; Lii, Kwang-Hwa; Chang, Bor-Chen

    2013-06-01

    We have studied the spectroscopy of luminescent crystals containing rare earth elements such as KEuGe_2O_6, Cs_3EuSi_6O_{15}, K_4[(UO_2)Eu_2(Ge_2O_7)_2], and R_2(C_8H_{10}O_4)_3 (R= Y, Tb, or Eu). The emission and excitation spectra of these compounds were recorded at ambient temperature. These spectra are consistent with the structures which were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystals containing hybrid luminescent centers were also synthesized and interesting energy transfer mechanisms were observed. For example, dramatic luminescence quenching was found in KEu_xNd_{1-x}Ge_2O_6 (x= 0.98, 0.96, 0.94, and 0.84) as well as in Cs_3Eu_{0.98}Nd_{0.02}Si_6O_{15}, while different compositions of Y_xEu_yTb_{2-x-y}(C_8H_{10}O_4)_3 exhibit different emission colors. Emission lifetimes were also measured for these compounds, and the results shed light on the energy transfer mechanisms. Detailed results of our research will be presented. P.-L. Chen, P.-Y. Chiang, H.-C. Yeh, B.-C. Chang, and K.-H. Lii, Dalton Trans., 1721 (2008). M.-Y. Hung, Y.-H. Chen, B.-C. Chang, and K.-H. Lii, Chem. Mater. 17, 5743 (2005).

  20. Rare earth element components in atmospheric particulates in the Bayan Obo mine region.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Qian; Li, Kexin

    2014-05-01

    The Bayan Obo mine, located in Inner Mongolia, China, is the largest light rare earth body ever found in the world. The research for rare earth elements (REEs) enrichment in atmospheric particulates caused by mining and ore processing is fairly limited so far. In this paper, atmospheric particulates including total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) were collected around the Bayan Obo mine region, in August 2012 and March 2013, to analyze the levels and distributions of REEs in particles. The total concentrations of REEs for TSP were 149.8 and 239.6 ng/m(3), and those for PM10 were 42.8 and 68.9 ng/m(3), in August 2012 and March 2013, respectively. Enrichment factor was calculated for all 14 REEs in the TSP and PM10 and the results indicated that REEs enrichment in atmosphere particulates was caused by anthropogenic sources and influenced by the strong wind in springtime. The spatial distribution of REEs in TSP showed a strong gradient concentration in the prevailing wind direction. REE chondrite normalized patterns of TSP and PM10 were similar and the normalized curves inclined to the right side, showing the conspicuous fractionation between the light REEs and heavy REE, which supported by the chondrite normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La(N)/Yb(N), La(N)/Sm(N), Gd(N)/Yb(N)).

  1. Rare earth element geochemistry of outcrop and core samples from the Marcellus Shale

    DOE PAGES

    Noack, Clinton W.; Jain, Jinesh C.; Stegmeier, John; ...

    2015-06-26

    In this paper, we studied the geochemistry of the rare earth elements (REE) in eleven outcrop samples and six, depth-interval samples of a core from the Marcellus Shale. The REE are classically applied analytes for investigating depositional environments and inferring geochemical processes, making them of interest as potential, naturally occurring indicators of fluid sources as well as indicators of geochemical processes in solid waste disposal. However, little is known of the REE occurrence in the Marcellus Shale or its produced waters, and this study represents one of the first, thorough characterizations of the REE in the Marcellus Shale. In thesemore » samples, the abundance of REE and the fractionation of REE profiles were correlated with different mineral components of the shale. Namely, samples with a larger clay component were inferred to have higher absolute concentrations of REE but have less distinctive patterns. Conversely, samples with larger carbonate fractions exhibited a greater degree of fractionation, albeit with lower total abundance. Further study is necessary to determine release mechanisms, as well as REE fate-and-transport, however these results have implications for future brine and solid waste management applications.« less

  2. Rare earth element geochemistry of outcrop and core samples from the Marcellus Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Noack, Clinton W.; Jain, Jinesh C.; Stegmeier, John; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Karamalidis, Athanasios K.

    2015-06-26

    In this paper, we studied the geochemistry of the rare earth elements (REE) in eleven outcrop samples and six, depth-interval samples of a core from the Marcellus Shale. The REE are classically applied analytes for investigating depositional environments and inferring geochemical processes, making them of interest as potential, naturally occurring indicators of fluid sources as well as indicators of geochemical processes in solid waste disposal. However, little is known of the REE occurrence in the Marcellus Shale or its produced waters, and this study represents one of the first, thorough characterizations of the REE in the Marcellus Shale. In these samples, the abundance of REE and the fractionation of REE profiles were correlated with different mineral components of the shale. Namely, samples with a larger clay component were inferred to have higher absolute concentrations of REE but have less distinctive patterns. Conversely, samples with larger carbonate fractions exhibited a greater degree of fractionation, albeit with lower total abundance. Further study is necessary to determine release mechanisms, as well as REE fate-and-transport, however these results have implications for future brine and solid waste management applications.

  3. Rare earth element geochemistry of outcrop and core samples from the Marcellus Shale.

    PubMed

    Noack, Clinton W; Jain, Jinesh C; Stegmeier, John; Hakala, J Alexandra; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the geochemistry of the rare earth elements (REE) was studied in eleven outcrop samples and six, depth-interval samples of a core from the Marcellus Shale. The REE are classically applied analytes for investigating depositional environments and inferring geochemical processes, making them of interest as potential, naturally occurring indicators of fluid sources as well as indicators of geochemical processes in solid waste disposal. However, little is known of the REE occurrence in the Marcellus Shale or its produced waters, and this study represents one of the first, thorough characterizations of the REE in the Marcellus Shale. In these samples, the abundance of REE and the fractionation of REE profiles were correlated with different mineral components of the shale. Namely, samples with a larger clay component were inferred to have higher absolute concentrations of REE but have less distinctive patterns. Conversely, samples with larger carbonate fractions exhibited a greater degree of fractionation, albeit with lower total abundance. Further study is necessary to determine release mechanisms, as well as REE fate-and-transport, however these results have implications for future brine and solid waste management applications.

  4. Binary rare earth element-Ni/Co metallic glasses with distinct β-relaxation behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z. G.; Wang, Z.; Wang, W. H.

    2015-10-21

    We report the formation of a series of rare earth element (RE)-Ni/Co binary metallic glasses (MGs) with unusual distinct β-relaxation peak compared with that of most of the reported MGs which usually exhibit as an excess wing or a shoulder. The β-relaxation behavior of RE-Ni/Co MGs is sensitive to the composition and the atomic radii of the RE and can be tuned through changing the fraction of RE-Ni (or Co) atomic pairs. The novel RE-Ni/Co MGs with distinct β-relaxation can serve as model system to investigate the nature of the β-relaxation as well as its relations with other physical and mechanical properties of MGs.

  5. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in a passive treatment system built for acid mine drainage remediation.

    PubMed

    Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Valente, Teresa; Marques, Rosa; Sequeira Braga, Maria Amália; Pamplona, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were used to assess attenuation processes in a passive system for acid mine drainage treatment (Jales, Portugal). Hydrochemical parameters and REE contents in water, soils and sediments were obtained along the treatment system, after summer and winter. A decrease of REE contents in the water resulting from the interaction with limestone after summer occurs; in the wetlands REE are significantly released by the soil particles to the water. After winter, a higher water dynamics favors the AMD treatment effectiveness and performance since REE contents decrease along the system; La and Ce are preferentially sequestered by ochre sludge but released to the water in the wetlands, influencing the REE pattern of the creek water. Thus, REE fractionation occurs in the passive treatment systems and can be used as tracer to follow up and understand the geochemical processes that promote the remediation of AMD.

  6. Enhanced phytoextraction of germanium and rare earth elements - a rhizosphere-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    with white lupin and cereals like barley (Hordeum vulgare) and millet (Panicum miliaceum) significantly enhanced the uptake of all investigated elements in co-cultured species due to interspecific root interactions. Concentrations of the investigated rare earth elements in shoots were significantly correlated to concentrations of Fe, Mn and P in shoots. Enhanced uptake of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. Accordingly, processes in the rhizosphere of plants seem to play a key role controlling availability of REEs in the soil-plant system, since presence of white lupin clearly increased the uptake of REEs in shoots of barley and millet even to a level comparable with white lupin and this was most probably caused by attacking fractions of elements in soil hardly accessible for barley and millet. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany.

  7. Recovery and Separation of Rare Earth Elements Using Salmon Milt

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yoshio; Kondo, Kazuhiro; Miyaji, Asami; Watanabe, Yusuke; Fan, Qiaohui; Honma, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Recycling rare earth elements (REEs) used in advanced materials such as Nd magnets is important for the efficient use of REE resources when the supply of several REEs is limited. In this work, the feasibility of using salmon milt for REE recovery and separation was examined, along with the identification of the binding site of REEs in salmon milt. Results showed that (i) salmon milt has a sufficiently high affinity to adsorb REEs and (ii) the adsorption capacity of the milt is 1.04 mEq/g, which is comparable with that of commercial cation exchange resin. Heavier REEs have higher affinity for milt. A comparison of stability constants and adsorption patterns of REEs discussed in the literature suggests that the phosphate is responsible for the adsorption of REE in milt. The results were supported by dysprosium (Dy) and lutetium (Lu) LIII-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The REE-P shell was identified for the second neighboring atom, which shows the importance of the phosphate site as REE binding sites. The comparison of REE adsorption pattern and EXAFS results between the milt system and other adsorbent systems (cellulose phosphate, Ln-resin, bacteria, and DNA-filter hybrid) revealed that the coordination number of phosphate is correlated with the slope of the REE pattern. The separation column loaded with milt was tested to separate REE for the practical use of salmon milt for the recovery and separation of REE. However, water did not flow through the column possibly because of the hydrophobicity of the milt. Thus, sequential adsorption–desorption approach using a batch-type method was applied for the separation of REE. As an example of the practical applications of REE separation, Nd and Fe(III) were successfully separated from a synthetic solution of Nd magnet waste by a batch-type method using salmon milt. PMID:25490035

  8. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits–A deposit model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements are not as rare in nature as their name implies, but economic deposits with these elements are not common and few deposits have been large producers. In the past 25 years, demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically because of their wide and diverse use in high-technology applications. Yet, presently the global production and supply of rare earth elements come from only a few sources. China produces more than 95 percent of the world's supply of rare earth elements. Because of China's decision to restrict exports of these elements, the price of rare earth elements has increased and industrial countries are concerned about supply shortages. As a result, understanding the distribution and origin of rare earth elements deposits, and identifying and quantifying our nation's rare earth elements resources have become priorities. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. The general mineral deposit model summarized here is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits are discussed together because of their spatial association, common enrichment in incompatible elements, and similarities in genesis. A wide variety of commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, such as rare earth elements, niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other enrichments include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium.

  9. Recovery of rare earth elements from the sulfothermophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria using aqueous acid.

    PubMed

    Minoda, Ayumi; Sawada, Hitomi; Suzuki, Sonoe; Miyashita, Shin-ichi; Inagaki, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Takaiku; Tsuzuki, Mikio

    2015-02-01

    The demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically in recent years because of their numerous industrial applications, and considerable research efforts have consequently been directed toward recycling these materials. The accumulation of metals in microorganisms is a low-cost and environmentally friendly method for the recovery of metals present in the environment at low levels. Numerous metals, including rare earth elements, can be readily dissolved in aqueous acid, but the efficiency of metal biosorption is usually decreased under the acidic conditions. In this report, we have investigated the use of the sulfothermophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria for the recovery of metals, with particular emphasis on the recovery of rare earth metals. Of the five different growth conditions investigated where G. sulphuraria could undergo an adaptation process, Nd(III), Dy(III), and Cu(II) were efficiently recovered from a solution containing a mixture of different metals under semi-anaerobic heterotrophic condition at a pH of 2.5. G. sulphuraria also recovered Nd(III), Dy(III), La(III), and Cu(II) with greater than 90% efficiency at a concentration of 0.5 ppm. The efficiency remained unchanged at pH values in the range of 1.5-2.5. Furthermore, at pH values in the range of 1.0-1.5, the lanthanoid ions were collected much more efficiently into the cell fractions than Cu(II) and therefore successfully separated from the Cu(II) dissolved in the aqueous acid. Microscope observation of the cells using alizarin red suggested that the metals were accumulating inside of the cells. Experiments using dead cells suggested that this phenomenon was a biological process involving specific activities within the cells.

  10. Speciation of adsorbed yttrium and rare earth elements on oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecki, Wojciech; Sverjensky, Dimitri A.

    2008-08-01

    The distribution of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREE) between natural waters and oxide mineral surfaces depends on adsorption reactions, which in turn depend on the specific way in which YREE are coordinated to mineral surfaces. Recent X-ray studies have established that Y 3+ is adsorbed to the rutile (1 1 0) surface as a distinctive tetranuclear species. However, the hydrolysis state of the adsorbed cation is not known from experiment. Previous surface complexation models of YREE adsorption have suggested two to four cation hydrolysis states coexisting on oxide surfaces. In the present study, we investigate the applicability of the X-ray results to rare earth elements and to several oxides in addition to rutile using the extended triple-layer surface complexation model. The reaction producing a hydrolyzed tetranuclear surface species 4>SOH+M+2HO=(>SOH)2_M(OH)2++4H was found to account for a significant fraction of the adsorbed Y 3+, La 3+, Nd 3+, Gd 3+, and Yb 3+ on rutile, hematite, alumina and silica over wide ranges of pH and ionic strength. Where adsorption data were available as a function of surface coverage for hematite and silica, an additional reaction involving a mononuclear species could be used to account for the higher surface coverages. However, it is also possible that some of the higher surface coverage data refer to surface precipitation rather than adsorption. The results of the present study provide an internally consistent basis for describing YREE adsorption which could be used to investigate more complex systems in which YREE compete both in aqueous solution and on mineral surfaces with alkaline earths and ligands such as carbonate, sulfate, chloride and organic species, in order to build a predictive adsorption model applicable to natural waters.

  11. Skeleton versus fine earth: what information is stored in the mobile extracellular soil DNA fraction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascher, Judith; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Agnelli, Alberto; Corti, Guiseppe; Pietramellara, Giacomo

    2010-05-01

    The soil genome consists of an intracellular and an extracellular fraction. Recently, soil extracellular DNA (eDNA) has been shown to be quantitatively relevant, with a high survival capacity and mobility, playing a crucial role in the gene transfer by transformation, in the formation of bacterial biofilm and as a source of nutrients for soil microorganisms. The eDNA fraction can be discriminated and classified by its interaction with clay minerals, humic acids and Al/Fe oxihydroxides, resulting in differently mobile components. The eDNA extractable in water, classified as DNA free in the extracellular soil environment or adsorbed on soil colloids (eDNAfree/adsorbed), is hypothesized to be the most mobile DNA in soil. Challenging to assess the information stored in this DNA fraction, eDNAfree/adsorbed was recovered from fine earth (< 4 mm) and highly altered rock fragments or skeleton (4-10 mm) of six consecutive horizons (A1-BCb2) of a forest soil profile by washing the two soil fractions with H2O. Quantitative analysis have been conducted in terms of DNA yields (fluorimeter and spectrophotometer), molecular weight and fragment length distribution (gel electrophoresis), and qualitative analysis in terms of the composition and distribution of fungal and bacterial communities (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis- fingerprinting). The mobile soil eDNA, extracted from each horizon, was characterised by low molecular weight (< 2 kb) and amounts ranging from 3.96 (±0.179) to 0.17 (±0.023) µg g-1 for the fine earth and from 1.42 (±0.111) to 0.11 (±0.007) µg g-1 for the skeleton. Genetic fingerprinting of eDNA recovered from fine earth and skeleton revealed characteristic fungal and bacterial communities of each horizon, but also similarities among the microbial communities of both soil fractions and horizons. This could be interpreted also as a result of the movement of eDNA along the soil profile and from fine earth to skeleton. The molecular characterization

  12. Fractionation of elements in soils, sludges and sediments: batch and dynamic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, P. S.; Spivakov, B. Ya

    2008-07-01

    Methods and approaches employed in the fractionation of elements according to their physicochemical mobility and bioavailability in soils, sludges and sediments are generalised. Comparative analysis of sequential extraction schemes for heavy metals, arsenic, selenium and phosphorus is performed. Special consideration is given to the flow-through fractionation and kinetic aspects of selective leaching.

  13. Determination of element affinities by density fractionation of bulk coal samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Querol, X.; Klika, Z.; Weiss, Z.; Finkelman, R.B.; Alastuey, A.; Juan, R.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F.; Kolker, A.; Chenery, S.R.N.

    2001-01-01

    A review has been made of the various methods of determining major and trace element affinities for different phases, both mineral and organic in coals, citing their various strengths and weaknesses. These include mathematical deconvolution of chemical analyses, direct microanalysis, sequential extraction procedures and density fractionation. A new methodology combining density fractionation with mathematical deconvolution of chemical analyses of whole coals and their density fractions has been evaluated. These coals formed part of the IEA-Coal Research project on the Modes of Occurrence of Trace Elements in Coal. Results were compared to a previously reported sequential extraction methodology and showed good agreement for most elements. For particular elements (Be, Mo, Cu, Se and REEs) in specific coals where disagreement was found, it was concluded that the occurrence of rare trace element bearing phases may account for the discrepancy, and modifications to the general procedure must be made to account for these.

  14. Core-Mantle Partitioning of Volatile Siderophile Elements and the Origin of Volatile Elements in the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickodem, K.; Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Lee, C.

    2012-01-01

    There are currently several hypotheses on the origin of volatile siderophile elements in the Earth. One hypothesis is that they were added during Earth s accretion and core formation and mobilized into the metallic core [1], others claim multiple stage origin [2], while some hypothesize that volatiles were added after the core already formed [3]. Several volatile siderophile elements are depleted in Earth s mantle relative to the chondrites, something which continues to puzzle many scientists. This depletion is likely due to a combination of volatility and core formation. The Earth s core is composed of Fe and some lighter constituents, although the abundances of these lighter elements are unknown [4]. Si is one of these potential light elements [5] although few studies have analyzed the effect of Si on metal-silicate partitioning, in particular the volatile elements. As, In, Ge, and Sb are trace volatile siderophile elements which are depleted in the mantle but have yet to be extensively studied. The metal-silicate partition coefficients of these elements will be measured to determine the effect of Si. Partition coefficients depend on temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and metal and silicate composition and can constrain the concentrations of volatile, siderophile elements found in the mantle. Reported here are the results from 13 experiments examining the partitioning of As, In, Ge, and Sb between metallic and silicate liquid. These experiments will examine the effect of temperature, and metal-composition (i.e., Si content) on these elements in or-der to gain a greater understanding of the core-mantle separation which occurred during the Earth s early stages. The data can then be applied to the origin of volatile elements in the Earth.

  15. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AMERICIUM AND CURIUM FROM RARE EARTH ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Baybarz, R.D.; Lloyd, M.H.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to methods of separating americium and curium values from rare earth values. In accordance with the invention americium, curium, and rare earth values are sorbed on an anion exchange resin. A major portion of the rare earth values are selectively stripped from the resin with a concentrated aqueous solution of lithium chloride, and americium, curium, and a minor portion of rare earth values are then stripped from the resin with a dilute aqueous solution of lithium chloride. The americium and curium values are further purified by increasing the concentration of lithium chloride in the solution to at least 8 molar and selectively extracting rare earth values from the resulting solution with a monoalkylphosphoric acid. (AEC)

  16. Elemental Fractionation During Rapid Accretion of the Moon Triggered by a Giant Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, Y.; Zahnle, K. J.; Hashimoto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, Ida et al. made an N-body simulation of lunar accretion from a protolunar disk formed by a giant impact. One of their important conclusions is that the accretion time of the Moon is as short as one month. Such rapid accretion is a necessary consequence of the high surface density of a lunar mass disk accreting just beyond the Roche limit (about 3Re); the Safronov accretion time (a few days) is even shorter. The energy of accretion always exceeds the gravitational binding energy of newly arriving matter. Hence, without an energy sink, the accreting body is thermally unstable. For the Earth and other planets, radiation acts as the sink. However, in such a short accretion time, the Moon cannot radiate the accretional energy. Even radiating at a silicate cloudtop temperature of roughly 2000 K, it would take more than 100 yr to radiatively cool the Moon. The plausible alternative heat sinks are heat capacity, latent heat of vaporization, and thermal escape of the gas to space (i.e., hydrodynamic blowoff). The latter becomes plausible for the Moon because the scale height at 2000 K (about 300 km) is a significant fraction of the lunar radius. The early stages of lunar (or "lunatesimal") growth release relatively little energy and can occur simply by heating the material, especially if the accreting material is originally cold. However, the material is unlikely to be cold, because the disk itself is hot and cooling time is long, while the lunar accretion time iss very short. Therefore, the moon is likely to accrete condensed material just after it condenses. Accordingly, the newly accreted material will be on the verge of vaporization and will have very little heat capacity to spare. The immediate heat sink is the latent heat of vaporization. Most of the vapor will escape from the moon, because the thermal energy in the gas can be used to drive escape. However, vaporization is generally incomplete. the latent heat of vaporization exceeds the energy of accretion

  17. Distribution of rare earth elements in an alluvial aquifer affected by acid mine drainage: the Guadiamar aquifer (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Olías, M; Cerón, J C; Fernández, I; De la Rosa, J

    2005-05-01

    This work analyses the spatial distribution, the origin, and the shale-normalised fractionation patterns of the rare earth elements (REE) in the alluvial aquifer of the Guadiamar River (south-western Spain). This river received notoriety in April 1998 for a spill that spread a great amount of slurry (mainly pyrites) and acid waters in a narrow strip along the river course. Groundwaters and surface waters were sampled to analyse, among other elements, the REEs. Their spatial distribution shows a peak close to the mining region, in an area with low values of pH and high concentrations of sulphates and other metals such as Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, and Cd. The patterns of shale-normalised fractionation at the most-contaminated points show an enrichment in the middle rare earth elements (MREE) with respect to the light (LREE) and heavy (HREE) ones, typical of acid waters. The Ce-anomaly becomes more negative as pH increases, due to the preferential fractionation of Ce in oxyhydroxides of Fe.

  18. Trace elements in ocean ridge basalt glasses - Implications for fractionations during mantle evolution and petrogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertogen, J.; Janssens, M.-J.; Palme, H.

    1980-01-01

    Seven documented and fresh glassy selvages from ocean floor basalt pillows were analyzed for trace elements including Ag, Au, Bi, Br, Ni, Pd, and Zn using radiochemical activation analysis. Glasses from DSDP leg 24, site 238 in the Indian Ocean have a trace element pattern which reflects secondary processes at a shallow depth. Chemical fractionations in petrogenesis of tholeiitic basalts indicate that (Ir, Os), Au, Pd, Ni, and Re are strongly fractionated in igneous processes; the unfractionated chondritic mantle pattern thus imposes constraints on mantle evolution models. Finally, the limited Rb/Cs fractionation in oceanic tholeiites reflects the low abundance of volatiles and hydrous silicates in normal ocean ridge basalts.

  19. Distribution of 28 elements in size fractions of lunar mare and highlands soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V.; Wasson, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    Four volatile, six siderophile and 18 generally lithophile elements were determined in six sieve fractions of mare soil 15100 (moderately mature) and seven sieve fractions of highlands soil 66080 (highly mature). Previous work (Boynton et al., 1976) showed that the volatile elements in lunar soils were enriched in the finest size fraction relative to the coarsest factors by up to about 20. The present investigation tests Boynton's interpretation that the distribution pattern of the volatiles indicates the presence of two components: a volume-correlated component having volatile concentrations independent of grain size and a surface-correlated component with concentration increasing with decreasing grain size.

  20. Relative sensitivity of rare earth elements in spark-source mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roaldset, E

    1970-07-01

    A method for calculating the relative sensitivity factors for the rare earth elements in geological material is outlined. A close correlation is found between the relative sensitivity factors calculated and isotopic mass and the first ionization potential for the elements. The points are grouped in the vicinity of a regression line, which may be used to determine the relative sensitivity factors for all the rare earth elements.

  1. Volatile elements in chondrites - Metamorphism or nebular fractionation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Gros, J.; Higuchi, H.; Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E.

    1978-01-01

    Three of the most highly metamorphosed meteorites of their respective classes, Shaw (LL7), Karoonda (C5), and Coolidge (C4), were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation analysis for Ag, Au, Bi, Br, Cd, Cs, Ge, In, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn. Comparison with data by Lipschutz and coworkers (1977) on artificially heated primitive meteorites shows that the natural metamorphism of meteorites cannot have taken place in a system open to volatiles. Shaw, metamorphosed at 1300 C for more than 1 million yr, is less depleted in In, Bi, Ag, Te, Zn, and Tl than Krymka heated at 1000 C for 1 week. Karoonda, metamorphosed at 600 C for many millennia, is less depleted in Bi and Tl than Allende heated at 600 C for 1 week. Data on primordial noble gases also show that the volatile-element patterns of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites were established by nebular condensation and changed little, if at all, during metamorphism. For enstatite chondrites, the evidence is still incomplete but seems to favor a nebular origin of the volatile pattern.

  2. Fractionation of trace elements in total atmospheric deposition by filtrating-bulk passive sampling.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Holgado, F; Palomo-Marín, M R; Calvo-Blázquez, L; Cereceda-Balic, F; Pinilla-Gil, E

    2014-07-01

    We have developed and validated a new simple and effective methodology for fractionation of soluble and insoluble forms of trace elements in total atmospheric deposition. The proposed methodology is based on the modification of a standard total deposition passive sampler by integrating a quartz fiber filter that retains the insoluble material, allowing the soluble fraction to pass through and flow to a receiving bottle. The quartz filter containing the insoluble fraction and the liquid containing the soluble fraction are then separately assayed by standardized ICP-MS protocols. The proposed atmospheric elemental fractionation sampler (AEFS) was validated by analyzing a Coal Fly Ash reference material with proper recoveries, and tested for field fractionation of a set of 10 key trace elements in total atmospheric deposition at the industrial area of Puchuncaví-Ventanas, Chile. The AEFS was proven useful for pollution assessment and also to identify variability of the soluble and insoluble fractions of the selected elements within the study area, improving the analytical information attainable by standard passive samplers for total deposition without the need of using sophisticated and high cost wet-only/dry only collectors.

  3. Rare Earth elements as sediment tracers in Mangrove ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, A. L.; Swathi, S.

    2013-05-01

    Rare earth elements have been widely used as geochemical source fingerprints of rocks and sediments to study processes involving cosmo-chemistry, igneous petrology, tectonic setting and for investigations of water-rock interactions and weathering processes including transport of weathering products to the oceans.Many studies have addressed the use of REEs in investigating the environmental impact of human activity and demonstrated that the REE natural distribution in sediment from densely industrialised and populated regions can be altered by anthropogenic influences.The coastal wetlands like Mangroves are ultimate sinks for all the material derived from the terrestrial and marine environment.The high productivity and low ratio of sediment respiration to net primary production gives mangrove sediments the potential for long-term sequestration of these pollutants/metals before reaching the coastal ocean. Geochemical study of REE in these sedimentary systems is useful for determining the nature of the biogeochemical processes. In particular, REE show a great sensitivity to pH changes, redox conditions and adsorption/ desorption reactions. So, they may be used as markers of discharge provenance, weathering processes, changes in environmental conditions in the water and sediments of Mangrove/wetland systems. Our study aims to establish the abundance, distribution and enrichment of REEs to track the sediment sources and biogeochemical processes occurring in the mangrove environment.Core sediments were collected from the different environmental settings within the Pichavaram mangrove area.Higher REE concentration in Pichavaram sediments indicated greater input from sources like terrestrial weathering and anthropogenic activities which in turn are affected by saline mixing and dynamic physico-chemical processes occurring in the mangrove environment. REE enrichment order was attributed to the alkaline pH (7-8.5) and reducing conditions prevailing in the mangrove

  4. Modelling of Rare Earth Elements Complexation With Humic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourret, O.; Davranche, M.; Gruau, G.; Dia, A.

    2006-12-01

    The binding of rare earth elements (REE) to humic acid (HA) was studied by combining Ultrafiltration and ICP- MS techniques. REE-HA complexation experiments were performed at various pH conditions (ranging from 2 to 10.5) using a standard batch equilibration method. Results show that the amount of REE bound to HA strongly increase with increasing pH. Moreover, a Middle REE (MREE) downward concavity is evidenced by REE distribution patterns at acidic pH. Modelling of the experimental data using Humic Ion Binding Model VI provided a set of log KMA values (i.e. the REE-HA complexation constants specific to Model VI) for the entire REE series. The log KMA pattern obtained displays a MREE downward concavity. Log KMA values range from 2.42 to 2.79. These binding constants are in good agreement with the few existing datasets quantifying the binding of REE with humic substances except a recently published study which evidence a lanthanide contraction effect (i.e. continuous increase of the constant from La to Lu). The MREE downward concavity displayed by REE-HA complexation pattern determined in this study compares well with results from REE-fulvic acid (FA) and REE-acetic acid complexation studies. This similarity in the REE complexation pattern shapes suggests that carboxylic groups are the main binding sites of REE in HA. This conclusion is further supported by a detailed review of published studies for natural, organic-rich, river- and ground-waters which show no evidence of a lanthanide contraction effect in REE pattern shape. Finally, application of Model VI using the new, experimentally determined log KMA values to World Average River Water confirms earlier suggestions that REE occur predominantly as organic complexes (> 60 %) in the pH range between 5-5.5 and 7-8.5 (i.e. in circumneutral pH waters). The only significant difference as compared to earlier model predictions made using estimated log KMA values is that the experimentally determined log KMA values

  5. Composition of the earth's upper mantle-I. Siderophile trace elements in ultramafic nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.W.; Wandless, G.A.; Petrie, R.K.; Irving, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Seven siderophile elements (Au, Ge, Ir, Ni, Pd, Os, Re) were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in 19 ultramafic rocks, which are spinel lherzollites-xenoliths from North and Central America, Hawaii and Australia, and garnet Iherzolitexenoliths from Lesotho. Abundances of the platinum metals are very uniform in spinel lherzolites averaging 3.4 ?? 1.2 ppb Os, 3.7 ?? 1.1 ppb Ir, and 4.6 ?? 2.0 ppb Pd. Sheared garnet lherzolite PHN 1611 has similar abundances of these elements, but in 4 granulated garnet lherzolites, abundances are more variable. In all samples, the Pt metals retain cosmic ( Cl-chondrite) ratios. Abundances of Au and Re vary more than those of Pt metals, but the Au/Re ratio remains close to the cosmic value. The fact that higher values of Au and Re approach cosmic proportions with respect to the Pt metals, suggests that Au and Re have been depleted in some ultramafic rocks from an initially chondrite-like pattern equivalent to about 0.01 of Cl chondrite abundances. The relative enrichment of Au and Re in crustal rocks is apparently the result of crust-mantle fractionation and does not require a special circumstance of core-mantle partitioning. Abundances of moderately volatile elements Ni, Co and Ge are very uniform in all rocks, and are much higher than those of the highly siderophile elements Au, Ir, Pd, Os and Re. When normalized to Cl chondrites, abundances of Ni and Co are nearly identical, averaging 0.20 ?? 0.02 and 0.22 ?? 0.02, respectively; but Ge is only 0.027 ?? 0.004. The low abundance of Ge relative to Ni and Co is apparently a reflection of the general depletion of volatile elements in the Earth. The moderately siderophile elements cannot be derived from the same source as the highly siderophile elements because of the marked difference in Cl chondrite-normalized abundances and patterns. We suggest that most of the Ni, Co and Ge were enriched in the silicate by the partial oxidation of pre-existing volatile-poor Fe

  6. Review of rare earth element concentrations in oil shales of the Eocene Green River Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of the lanthanide series or rare earth elements and yttrium were determined for lacustrine oil shale samples from the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of Colorado and the Uinta Basin of Utah. Unprocessed oil shale, post-pyrolysis (spent) shale, and leached shale samples were examined to determine if oil-shale processing to generate oil or the remediation of retorted shale affects rare earth element concentrations. Results for unprocessed Green River oil shale samples were compared to data published in the literature on reference materials, such as chondritic meteorites, the North American shale composite, marine oil shale samples from two sites in northern Tibet, and mined rare earth element ores from the United States and China. The Green River oil shales had lower rare earth element concentrations (66.3 to 141.3 micrograms per gram, μg g-1) than are typical of material in the upper crust (approximately 170 μg g-1) and were also lower in rare earth elements relative to the North American shale composite (approximately 165 μg g-1). Adjusting for dilution of rare earth elements by organic matter does not account for the total difference between the oil shales and other crustal rocks. Europium anomalies for Green River oil shales from the Piceance Basin were slightly lower than those reported for the North American shale composite and upper crust. When compared to ores currently mined for rare earth elements, the concentrations in Green River oil shales are several orders of magnitude lower. Retorting Green River oil shales led to a slight enrichment of rare earth elements due to removal of organic matter. When concentrations in spent and leached samples were normalized to an original rock basis, concentrations were comparable to those of the raw shale, indicating that rare earth elements are conserved in processed oil shales.

  7. State of rare earth elements in different environmental components in mining areas of China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tao; Li, Kexin; Wang, Lingqing

    2014-03-01

    China has relatively abundant rare earth elements (REEs) reserves and will continue to be one of the major producers of REEs for the world market in the foreseeable future. However, due to the large scale of mining and refining activities, large amounts of REEs have been released to the surrounding environment and caused harmful effects on local residents. This paper summarizes the data about the contents and translocation of REEs in soils, waters, atmosphere, and plants in REE mining areas of China and discusses the characteristics of their forms, distribution, fractionation, and influencing factors. Obviously high concentrations of REEs with active and bioavailable forms are observed in all environmental media. The mobility and bioavailability of REEs are enhanced. The distribution patterns of REEs in soils and water bodies are all in line with their parent rocks. Significant fractionation phenomenon among individual members of REEs was found in soil-plant systems. However, limited knowledge was available for REEs in atmosphere. More studies focusing on the behavior of REEs in ambient air of REE mining areas in China are highly suggested. In addition, systematic study on the translocation and circulation of REEs in various media in REEs mining areas and their health risk assessment should be carried out. Standard analytical methods of REEs in environments need to be established, and more specific guideline values of REEs in foods should also be developed.

  8. RARE EARTH ELEMENTS: A REVIEW OF PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, RECYCLING, AND ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the lanthanides. Two other elements, scandium and yttrium, have a similar physiochemistry to the lanthanides, are commonly found in the same mineral assemblages, and are often refe...

  9. Minor and trace element geochemistry of volcanic rocks dredged from the Galapagos spreading center: role of crystal fractionation and mantle heterogeneity.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Frey, F.A.; Thompson, G.; Rindge, S.

    1981-01-01

    A wide range of rock types (abyssal tholeiite, Fe-Ti-rich basalt, andesite, and rhyodacite) were dredged from near 95oW and 85oW on the Galapagos spreading center. Computer modeling of major element compositions has shown that these rocks could be derived from common parental magmas by successive degrees of fractional crystallization. However, the P2O5/K2O ratio implies distinct mantle source compositions for the two areas. These source regions also have different rare earth element (REE) abundance patterns. The sequence of fractionated lavas differs for the two areas and indicates earlier fractionation of apatite and titanomagnetite in the lavas from 95oW. The mantle source regions for these two areas are interpreted to be depleted in incompatible (and volatile?) elements, although the source region beneath 95oW is less severely depleted in La and K. -Authors

  10. Potentially toxic element fractionation in technosoils using two sequential extraction schemes.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Bashar; Motelica-Heino, Mikael

    2014-04-01

    This study reports the chemical fractionation of several potentially toxic elements (Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Sb) in contaminated technosoils of two former smelting and mining areas using two sequential extraction schemes. The extraction schemes used in this study were the Tessier's scheme and a modified BCR scheme. The fractions were rearranged into four equivalent fractions defined as acid soluble, reducible, oxidizable, and residual to compare the results obtained from two sequential extraction schemes. Surface soils were samples from a waste landfill contaminated with Zn, Pb, and Cd located at Mortagne-du-Nord (MDN; North France) and from a settling basin contaminated with PTE such as As, Pb, and Sb located at La Petite Faye (LPF; Limoges, France). The study of the Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Sb partitioning in the acid soluble, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fractions of the technosoils revealed that Zn, Cd, and Pb were mainly associated with the acid soluble and reducible fractions for MDN site, while As, Sb, and Pb were associated with residual fraction for LPF site. Fractionation results indicate that the percentages of Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Sb extracted in Fe-Mn oxide bound fraction of Tessier's scheme were always higher than those extracted by modified BCR scheme. This may be attributed to the stronger Tessier's scheme conditions used to extract this fraction. In contrast the percentages of Zn, Pb, Cd, As, and Sb extracted in the organic fraction of the modified BCR scheme were always higher than those of the Tessier's scheme. The order of mobility of PTE was as follows: Cd > Zn > Pb in MDN site and As > Sb > Pb in LPF site. PTE were distributed in all soil fractions, with the most relevant enrichments in extractable and residual fractions. A significant amount of Cd, Pb, and Zn were rather mobile, which suggests that these elements can be readily available to plants and soil organisms.

  11. Amphibole-melt trace element partitioning of fractionating calc-alkaline magmas in the lower crust: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandedkar, Rohit H.; Hürlimann, Niklaus; Ulmer, Peter; Müntener, Othmar

    2016-09-01

    Amphibole is one of the most important hydrous minerals of the middle and lower continental crust and plays a key role in the formation of intermediate to silica-rich magmas. This study reports a consistent set of amphibole trace element partition coefficients derived from fractional crystallization experiments at 0.7 GPa in a piston cylinder apparatus. Starting materials were doped with trace elements on the 20-40 ppm level and measured using laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS. Amphibole is stable from 1010 to 730 °C and systematically changes its composition from pargasite to magnesiohornblende to cummingtonite, while coexisting liquids vary from andesite to dacite and rhyolite. Amphibole-liquid partition coefficients increase systematically with decreasing temperature and increasing SiO2 in the liquid. Potassium displays an inverse behavior and partitioning decreases with decreasing temperature. Rare earth element (REE) partition coefficients, assumed to occupy the M4 site within the amphibole structure, increase continuously up to one order of magnitude. The calculated lattice parameters, ideal cation radius ( r 0) and Young's modulus ( E) remain nearly constant with decreasing temperature. The high-field strength elements Zr and Hf that occupy the M2 site of the amphibole structure reveal a fivefold increase in partition coefficients with decreasing temperature and constant lattice parameters r 0 and E. Partition coefficients correlate with edenite, tschermaks and cummingtonite exchange vectors indicating that the maximum partition coefficient ( D 0) for an ideal cation radius increases with decreasing edenite component, while the latter decreases linearly with temperature. Regressing Amph/L D Ca against trace elements results in fair to excellent correlations ( r 2 0.55-0.99) providing a predictive tool to implement the trace element partition coefficients in numerical geochemical modeling. Our data result in positive correlations between Amph/L D Nb/Ta and Amph/L D

  12. The role of chondrules in nebular fractionations of volatiles and other elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, J. N.

    1994-01-01

    For at least 30 years, cosmochemists have been grappling with the question of how and why groups of geochemically and volatility related elements became fractionated in the major chondrite groups. At least five relatively independent fractionations are known. Virtually everyone who has thought about these facts has been attempted to attribute at least some of the fractionations to the physical separation or mixing of the visible components. By far the most abundant of these components in meteorites is chondrules, and indeed chondrules have long been suspected of playing a direct role in fractionation of volatile elements. The question addressed here is whether chondrules formed before or after chemical components became separated is of fundamental importance to our understanding of the early solar system, as the answer constrains how, when, where, and from what chondrules formed, and tells us about how materials were processed in the nebula.

  13. Rare-earth elements in the Permian Phosphoria Formation: Paleo proxies of ocean geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Perkins, R.B.; Rowe, H.D.

    2007-01-01

    The geochemistry of deposition of the Meade Peak Member of the Phosphoria Formation (MPM) in southeast Idaho, USA, a world-class sedimentary phosphate deposit of Permian age that extends over 300,000 km2, is ascertained from its rare earth element (REE) composition. Ratios of REE:Al2O3 suggest two sources-seawater and terrigenous debris. The seawater-derived marine fraction identifies bottom water in the Phosphoria Sea as O2-depleted, denitrifying (suboxic) most of the time, and seldom sulfate-reducing (anoxic). This interpretation is supported by earlier research that showed progressively greater ratios in the marine sediment fraction of Cr:Ni>V:Ni???Mo:Ni, relative to their ratios in seawater; for which marine Cr, V, and Mo can have a dominantly O2-depleted bottom-water source and Ni a photic-zone, largely algal, source. The water chemistry was maintained by a balance between bacterial oxidation of organic matter settling through the water column, determined largely by primary productivity in the photic zone, and the flux of oxidants into the bottom water via advection of seawater from the open ocean. Samples strongly enriched in carbonate fluorapatite, the dominant REE host mineral, have variable Er/Sm, Tm/Sm, and Yb/Sm ratios. Their distribution may represent greater advection of seawater between the Phosphoria Sea and open ocean during deposition of two ore zones than a center waste and greater upwelling of nutrient-enriched water into the photic zone. However, the mean rate of deposition of marine Ni, a trace nutrient of algae, and PO43-, a limiting nutrient, indicate that primary productivity was probably high throughout the depositional history. An alternative interpretation of the variable enrichments of Er, Tm, and Yb, relative to Sm, is that they may reflect temporally variable carbonate alkalinity of open-ocean seawater in Permian time. A more strongly negative Ce anomaly for all phosphatic units than the Ce anomaly of modern pelletal phosphate is

  14. Application of membrane processes in fractionation of elements in river water.

    PubMed

    Wu, N; Wyart, Y; Rose, J; Angeletti, B; Moulin, P

    2015-01-01

    The influence of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents from one microelectronic industrial zone on element concentrations and partitioning in river water was investigated. The stepwise membrane filtration is used to distinguish different size fractions including large particulate (>18 μm), particulate (0.2-18 μm), colloidal/nanoparticle (10 kDa-0.2 μm) and truly dissolved fractions (<10 kDa) in river water samples and WWTP effluents. Results demonstrated that anthropogenic inputs (WWTP effluents and industrial area) had an important influence on concentrations and partitioning of some elements in river water. Mass balance results showed that membrane filtration processes could realize a good fractionation for many elements (good recoveries) in water samples. Flux decline during 0.2 μm and 10 kDa filtrations were analyzed, and corresponding fouling mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Rare Earth Element Partition Coefficients from Enstatite/Melt Synthesis Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwandt, Craig S.; McKay, Gordon A.

    1997-01-01

    Enstatite (En(80)Fs(19)Wo(01)) was synthesized from a hypersthene normative basaltic melt doped at the same time with La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb and Lu. The rare earth element concentrations were measured in both the basaltic glass and the enstatite. Rare earth element concentrations in the glass were determined by electron microprobe analysis with uncertainties less than two percent relative. Rare earth element concentrations in enstatite were determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry with uncertainties less than five percent relative. The resulting rare earth element partition signature for enstatite is similar to previous calculated and composite low-Ca pigeonite signatures, but is better defined and differs in several details. The partition coefficients are consistent with crystal structural constraints.

  16. Input impedance and gain of monopole elements with disk ground planes on flat earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, M. M.

    1990-12-01

    This paper extends previously reported results for a quarterwave monopole element on a disk ground plane in free space to the case where the disk ground plane rests on flat earth. Numerical results are obtained by utilizing Richmond's method of moments computer program for disk ground planes over flat earth.

  17. Experimental Parameters Affecting Stripping of Rare Earth Elements from Loaded Sorptive Media in Simulated Geothermal Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Dean Stull

    2016-05-24

    Experimental results from several studies exploring the impact of pH and acid volume on the stripping of rare earth elements (REEs) loaded onto ligand-based media via an active column. The REEs in this experiment were loaded onto the media through exposure to a simulated geothermal brine with known mineral concentrations. The data include the experiment results, rare earth element concentrations, and the experimental parameters varied.

  18. (BRI) Direct and Inverse Design Optimization of Magnetic Alloys with Minimized Use of Rare Earth Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-02

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0091 (BRI) Direct and Inverse Design Optimization of Magnetic Alloys with Minimized Use of Rare Earth Elements George...2012 – 31/10/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE (BRI) Direct and Inverse Design Optimization of Magnetic Alloys with Minimized Use of Rare Earth Elements... Science and Eng., Raleigh, NC (Profs. Justin Schwartz and Carl C. Koch). Their team performed all manufacturing and experimental measurements. 14

  19. A new mixed element method for a class of time-fractional partial differential equations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Li, Hong; Gao, Wei; He, Siriguleng; Fang, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    A kind of new mixed element method for time-fractional partial differential equations is studied. The Caputo-fractional derivative of time direction is approximated by two-step difference method and the spatial direction is discretized by a new mixed element method, whose gradient belongs to the simple (L (2)(Ω)(2)) space replacing the complex H(div; Ω) space. Some a priori error estimates in L (2)-norm for the scalar unknown u and in (L (2))(2)-norm for its gradient σ. Moreover, we also discuss a priori error estimates in H (1)-norm for the scalar unknown u.

  20. A New Mixed Element Method for a Class of Time-Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Gao, Wei; He, Siriguleng; Fang, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    A kind of new mixed element method for time-fractional partial differential equations is studied. The Caputo-fractional derivative of time direction is approximated by two-step difference method and the spatial direction is discretized by a new mixed element method, whose gradient belongs to the simple (L2(Ω)2) space replacing the complex H(div; Ω) space. Some a priori error estimates in L2-norm for the scalar unknown u and in (L2)2-norm for its gradient σ. Moreover, we also discuss a priori error estimates in H1-norm for the scalar unknown u. PMID:24737957

  1. Finite element method for nonlinear Riesz space fractional diffusion equations on irregular domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Yuan, Z.; Nie, Y.; Wang, J.; Zhu, X.; Liu, F.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we consider two-dimensional Riesz space fractional diffusion equations with nonlinear source term on convex domains. Applying Galerkin finite element method in space and backward difference method in time, we present a fully discrete scheme to solve Riesz space fractional diffusion equations. Our breakthrough is developing an algorithm to form stiffness matrix on unstructured triangular meshes, which can help us to deal with space fractional terms on any convex domain. The stability and convergence of the scheme are also discussed. Numerical examples are given to verify accuracy and stability of our scheme.

  2. SEPARATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS FROM RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Kohman, T.P.

    1961-11-21

    A process of separating neptunium and plutonium values from rare earths and alkaline earth fission products present on a solid mixed actinide carrier (Th or U(IV) oxalate or fluoride) --fission product carrier (LaF/sub 3/, CeF/sub 3/, SrF/sub 2/, CaF/sub 2/, YF/sub 3/, La oxalate, cerous oxalate, Sr oxalate, Ca oxalate or Y oxalate) by extraction of the actinides at elevated temperature with a solution of ammonium fluoride and/or ammonium oxalate is described. Separation of the fission-product-containing carriers from the actinide solution formed and precipitation of the neptunium and plutonium from the solution with mineral acid are also accomplished. (AEC)

  3. An Integrated Rare Earth Elements Supply Chain Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-24

    Disruption in the global supply of rare earths poses a significant concern for America‘s energy security and clean energy objectives, its future defense...World Trade Organization rules by limiting clean energy imports, while incentivizing clean energy exports.54 If accurate, this speculation supports...resource scarcity and secure our supply chains. The NSS further declares the U.S. ―has a window of opportunity to lead in the development of clean energy technology

  4. Rare earth and high field strength element partitioning between iron-rich clinopyroxenes and felsic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olin, P. H.; Wolff, J. A.

    2010-11-01

    Rare earth elements are commonly assumed to substitute only for Ca in clinopyroxene because of the similarity of ionic radii for REE3+ and Ca2+ in eightfold coordination. The assumption is valid for Mg-rich clinopyroxenes for which observed mineral/melt partition coefficients are readily predicted by the lattice strain model for substitution onto a single site (e.g., Wood and Blundy 1997). We show that natural Fe-rich pyroxenes in both silica-undersaturated and silica-oversaturated magmatic systems deviate from this behavior. Salites (Mg# 48-59) in phonolites from Tenerife, ferrohedenbergites (Mg# 14.2-16.2) from the rhyolitic Bandelier Tuff, and ferroaugites (Mg# 9.6-32) from the rhyolitic Rattlesnake Tuff have higher heavy REE contents than predicted by single-site substitution. The ionic radius of Fe2+ in sixfold coordination is substantially greater than that of Mg2+; hence, we propose that, in Fe-rich clinopyroxenes, heavy REE are significantly partitioned between eightfold Ca sites and sixfold Fe and Mg sites such that Yb and Lu exist dominantly in sixfold coordination. We also outline a REE-based method of identifying pyroxene/melt pairs in systems with multiple liquid and crystal populations, based upon the assumption that LREE and MREE reside exclusively in eightfold coordination in pyroxene. Contrary to expectations, interpolation of mineral/melt partition coefficient data for heavy REE does not predict the behavior of Y. We speculate that mass fractionation effects play a role in mineral/melt lithophile trace element partitioning that is detectable among pairs of isovalent elements with near-identical radii, such as Y and Ho, Zr and Hf, and Nb and Ta.

  5. Volatility Fractionation of REE and Other Trace Elements During Vacuum Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. M.; Hashimoto, A.

    1995-09-01

    Volatility-fractionated REE patterns were first recognized in calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in meteorites over 20 years ago [1]. Such REE patterns can be modeled quite well by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations [2,3,4], but kinetic effects on fractionation of trace elements between gas and solids or liquids have remained less well-known. We have previously reported on experiments in which melts of initial REE-doped chondritic composition [5] and perovskite composition [6] were evaporated in vacuo. In both series of experiments, residues were formed that had large negative Ce anomalies and small negative Pr and Eu anomalies, but no other significant REE fractionations were observed. In an effort to produce more extensive fractionation of REE and other refractory elements, we made a new, more refractory, starting material (stoichiometric CaTiO3 doped with a number of refractory trace elements in chondritic proportions to a total "trace" element level of 5 wt%) and evaporated it under vacuum at a higher temperature (2150 degrees C) than the earlier experiments (1800-2000 degrees C). The results are shown in Fig. 1. Despite the high temperature, the two most extreme evaporation residues reached the solidus during evaporation; the other residues with lower degrees of evaporation remained liquid until cooled at the end of the experiment. The most extreme residue consists largely of mixed Sc, Y and Zr oxides; most of the Ti and nearly all of the Ca have evaporated. In this residue, there are large depletions in Sr, Nb, Ba, Ce and Eu and smaller depletions of La, Pr, Nd, Sm and Yb compared to Sc, Zr and most heavy REE. There is, however, little fractionation of the heavy REE from one another. The chemical composition and even the physical state of the residues change with degree of evaporation, undoubtedly affecting evaporation rates of trace elements. For example, even though the experiments are all carried out at a single temperature and both Ce and Eu

  6. Rare earth element recycling from waste nickel-metal hydride batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiuli; Zhang, Junwei; Fang, Xihui

    2014-08-30

    With an increase in number of waste nickel-metal hydride batteries, and because of the importance of rare earth elements, the recycling of rare earth elements is becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we investigate the effects of temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time to optimize leaching conditions and determine leach kinetics. The results indicate that an increase in temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time enhance the leaching rate of rare earth elements. A maximum rare earth elements recovery of 95.16% was achieved at optimal leaching conditions of 70°C, solid/liquid ratio of 1:10, 20% hydrochloric acid concentration, -74μm particle size, and 100min leaching time. The experimental data were best fitted by a chemical reaction-controlled model. The activation energy was 43.98kJ/mol and the reaction order for hydrochloric acid concentration was 0.64. The kinetic equation for the leaching process was found to be: 1-(1-x)(1/3)=A/ρr0[HCl](0.64)exp-439,8008.314Tt. After leaching and filtration, by adding saturated oxalic solution to the filtrate, rare earth element oxalates were obtained. After removing impurities by adding ammonia, filtering, washing with dilute hydrochloric acid, and calcining at 810°C, a final product of 99% pure rare earth oxides was obtained.

  7. Solar Wind Fractionation — Isotopic and Elemental — and Implications for Solar Compositions and Future Genesis Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Heber, V. S.; Burnett, D. S.

    2010-03-01

    Fractionation between solar wind and the solar photosphere is substantial, both for elements and isotopes. GENESIS measurements are key to understanding these fractionations, which will in turn provide more accurate solar compositions.

  8. The formation of sulfate and elemental sulfur aerosols under varying laboratory conditions: implications for early earth.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, H Langley; Hasenkopf, Christa A; Trainer, Melissa G; Farmer, Delphine K; Jimenez, Jose L; McKay, Christopher P; Toon, Owen B; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2010-10-01

    The presence of sulfur mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) in sediments more than 2.45 × 10(9) years old is thought to be evidence for an early anoxic atmosphere. Photolysis of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) by UV light with λ < 220 nm has been shown in models and some initial laboratory studies to create a S-MIF; however, sulfur must leave the atmosphere in at least two chemically different forms to preserve any S-MIF signature. Two commonly cited examples of chemically different sulfur species that could have exited the atmosphere are elemental sulfur (S(8)) and sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) aerosols. Here, we use real-time aerosol mass spectrometry to directly detect the sulfur-containing aerosols formed when SO(2) either photolyzes at wavelengths from 115 to 400 nm, to simulate the UV solar spectrum, or interacts with high-energy electrons, to simulate lightning. We found that sulfur-containing aerosols form under all laboratory conditions. Further, the addition of a reducing gas, in our experiments hydrogen (H(2)) or methane (CH(4)), increased the formation of S(8). With UV photolysis, formation of S(8) aerosols is highly dependent on the initial SO(2) pressure; and S(8) is only formed at a 2% SO(2) mixing ratio and greater in the absence of a reductant, and at a 0.2% SO(2) mixing ratio and greater in the presence of 1000 ppmv CH(4). We also found that organosulfur compounds are formed from the photolysis of CH(4) and moderate amounts of SO(2). The implications for sulfur aerosols on early Earth are discussed. Key Words: S-MIF-Archean atmosphere-Early Earth-Sulfur aerosols.

  9. Rare earth element abundances in rocks and minerals from the Fiskenaesset Complex, West Greenland. [comparison with lunar anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, P.; Fishlock, S. J.; Laul, J. C.; Cooper, T. D.; Conard, R. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports activation-analysis determinations of rare-earth-element (REE) and other trace-element concentrations in selected rocks, plagioclase, and mafic separates from the Fiskenaesset Complex. The REE abundances are found to be very low and atypical in comparison with other terrestrial anorthosites. The plagioclases are shown to be characterized by a deficiency in heavy RE elements relative to light ones and a positive Eu anomaly, while the mafic separates are enriched in heavy rare earths and have no Eu anomaly, except in one sample. It is found that the bulk and trace-element abundances of the plagioclases are similar to those observed in some lunar anorthosites, but the degree of Eu anomaly is less in the plagioclases. The data are taken as confirmation of the idea that fractionation processes were involved in the origin of the Complex, and it is concluded that the Complex may have been produced from a magma generated by partial melting of a garnet-bearing source.

  10. Aquifer-specific Rare Earth Element patterns in groundwater of the Thuringian basin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonschinski, M.; Merten, D.; Büchel, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Thuringian basin is the major geological structural unit in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It consists of sandstones, limestones, clays, gypsum and salts, that were deposited from the Upper Permian until the Lower Jurassic (approximately 250 to 180 million years ago). The largest deposits are Buntsandstein, Muschelkalk and Keuper, all of Triassic age. Important aquifers are located in the Buntsandstein formations, which are cropping out widespread in the southeastern part and the northeastern part of the basin. These aquifers contain large resources of drinking water for the region. The hydrochemical properties of the groundwater with special emphasis on Rare Earth Elements (REE) are the main focus of this study. To investigate possible interactions between aquifers in the Buntsandstein with aquifers in adjoining formations, waters from Zechstein and Muschelkalk are considered, additionally. Since the REE in water in many case are originated from the minerals of the host rocks, REE fractionation pattern could provide information regarding the lithology of the solid aquifer material (Möller, 2002). Furthermore, interaction processes between solid and liquid phases or complexation in the water phase could be identified by REE fractionations (Ingri et al., 2000). Nevertheless, waters in circumneutral pH conditions could feature many different fractionation patterns (Johannesson & Zhou, 1997) making the interpretation difficult. Due to very low concentrations of REE in water at neutral pH condition, an enrichment procedure is necessary prior to REE determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The used method is based on the procedure of Shabani et al. (1990) and yields enrichment factors of about 500. REE fractionation patterns were determined for different water types such as Na-Cl type originating from Zechstein, Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 and Ca-SO4 from Buntsandstein or Ca-HCO3 from Muschelkalk aquifers. The patterns are specific for

  11. Experimental productivity rate optimization of rare earth element separation through preparative solid phase extraction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Hans-Kristian; Max-Hansen, Mark; Jönsson, Christian; Borg, Niklas; Nilsson, Bernt

    2014-06-27

    Separating individual rare earth elements from a complex mixture with several elements is difficult and this is emphasized for the middle elements: Samarium, Europium and Gadolinium. In this study we have accomplished an overloaded one-step separation of these rare earth elements through preparative ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with an bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid impregnated column and nitric acid as eluent. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry unit was used for post column element detection. The main focus was to optimize the productivity rate, subject to a yield requirement of 80% and a purity requirement of 99% for each element, by varying the flow rate and batch load size. The optimal productivity rate in this study was 1.32kgSamarium/(hmcolumn(3)), 0.38kgEuropium/(hmcolumn(3)) and 0.81kgGadolinium/(hmcolumn(3)).

  12. Highly siderophile element constraints on accretion and differentiation of the Earth-Moon system.

    PubMed

    Day, James M D; Pearson, D Graham; Taylor, Lawrence A

    2007-01-12

    A new combined rhenium-osmium- and platinum-group element data set for basalts from the Moon establishes that the basalts have uniformly low abundances of highly siderophile elements. The data set indicates a lunar mantle with long-term, chondritic, highly siderophile element ratios, but with absolute abundances that are over 20 times lower than those in Earth's mantle. The results are consistent with silicate-metal equilibrium during a giant impact and core formation in both bodies, followed by post-core-formation late accretion that replenished their mantles with highly siderophile elements. The lunar mantle experienced late accretion that was similar in composition to that of Earth but volumetrically less than (approximately 0.02% lunar mass) and terminated earlier than for Earth.

  13. Rare earth element partitioning between hydrous ferric oxides and acid mine water during iron oxidation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Taylor, H.E.; Kimball, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ferrous iron rapidly oxidizes to Fe (III) and precipitates as hydrous Fe (III) oxides in acid mine waters. This study examines the effect of Fe precipitation on the rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of acid mine waters to determine the pH range over which REEs behave conservatively and the range over which attenuation and fractionation occur. Two field studies were designed to investigate REE attenuation during Fe oxidation in acidic, alpine surface waters. To complement these field studies, a suite of six acid mine waters with a pH range from 1.6 to 6.1 were collected and allowed to oxidize in the laboratory at ambient conditions to determine the partitioning of REEs during Fe oxidation and precipitation. Results from field experiments document that even with substantial Fe oxidation, the REEs remain dissolved in acid, sulfate waters with pH below 5.1. Between pH 5.1 and 6.6 the REEs partitioned to the solid phases in the water column, and heavy REEs were preferentially removed compared to light REEs. Laboratory experiments corroborated field data with the most solid-phase partitioning occurring in the waters with the highest pH. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Competition between humic acid and carbonates for rare earth elements complexation.

    PubMed

    Pourret, Olivier; Davranche, Mélanie; Gruau, Gérard; Dia, Aline

    2007-01-01

    The competitive binding of rare earth elements (REE) to humic acid (HA) and carbonates was studied experimentally at various pH and alkalinity values by combining ultrafiltration and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. The results show that the REE species occur as binary humate or carbonate complexes but not as ternary REE-carbonate-humate as previously proposed. The results also reveal the strong pH and alkalinity dependence of the competition as well as the existence of a systematic fractionation across the REE series. Specifically, carbonate complexation is at a maximum at pH 10 and increase with increasing alkalinity and with the atomic number of the REE (LuCO(3)>LaCO(3)). Modeling of the data using Model VI and recently published stability constants for complexation of REE by humic acid well reproduced the experimental data, confirming the ability of Model VI to accurately determine REE speciation in natural waters. This modeling also confirms the reliability of recently published stability constants. This work shed more light not only on the competition between carbonates and HA for REE complexation but also on the reliability of WHAM 6 and Model VI for calculating the speciation of REE with organic matter in alkaline organic-rich water.

  15. Vanadium oxide bronzes containing rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, V.L.; Zubkov, V.G.; Fedyukov, A.S.; Zainulin, Yu.G.

    1988-05-01

    We attempted to make phases having the general formula Ln/sub x/V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ (Ln = La, Eu, Yb) without success; the specimens usually consisted of three phases: the rare-earth orthovanadate LnVO/sub 4/, vanadium(V) oxide, and VO/sub 2/. To shift the process to give Ln/sub x/V/sub 2/O/sub 5/, heat treatment was applied to mixtures of the initial high-purity substances. The x-ray patterns were recorded with a DRON-UM1 apparatus with Cr K..cap alpha.. radiation and were processed by the Poroshok program. The IR spectra were recorded with UR-20 spectrometer with oil mulls.

  16. Mobile DNA Elements: The Seeds of Organic Complexity on Earth.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Laleh; Pedram, Mehrdad; AmirPhirozy, Akbar; Bonyadi, Khadijeh

    2015-10-01

    Mobile DNA or transposable elements (TEs) are genomic sequences capable of moving themselves independently into different parts of the genome. Viral invasion of eukaryotic genomes is assumed to be the main source of TEs. Selfish transposition of these elements could be a serious threat to the host cell, as they can insert themselves into the middle of coding genes and/or induce genomic instability. In response, through millions of years of evolution, cells have come up with various mechanisms such as genomic imprinting, DNA methylation, heterochromatin formation, and RNA interference to deactivate them. Interestingly, these processes have also greatly contributed to important cellular functions involved in cell differentiation, development, and differential gene expression. Propagation of TE copies during the course of evolution have resulted in increasing the genome size and providing proper space and flexibility in shaping the genome by creating new genes and establishing essential cellular structures such as heterochromatin, centromere, and telomeres. Yet, these elements are mostly labeled for playing a role in pathogenesis of human diseases. Here, we attempt to introduce TEs as factors necessary for making us human rather than just selfish sequences or obligatory guests invading our DNA.

  17. Isotopic fractionation of the major elements of molten basalt by chemical and thermal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Frank M.; Watson, E. Bruce; Mendybaev, Ruslan; Dauphas, Nicolas; Georg, Bastian; Watkins, James; Valley, John

    2009-07-01

    Samples produced in piston cylinder experiments were used to document the thermal isotopic fractionation of all the major elements of basalt except for aluminum and the fractionation of iron isotopes by chemical diffusion between a natural basalt and rhyolite. The thermal isotopic fractionations are summarized in terms of a parameter Ω i defined as the fractionation in per mil per 100 °C per atomic mass units difference between the isotopes. For molten basalt we report ΩCa = 1.6, ΩFe = 1.1, ΩSi = 0.6, ΩO = 1.5. In an earlier paper we reported ΩMg = 3.6. These fractionations represent a steady state balance between thermal diffusion and chemical diffusion with the mass dependence of the thermal diffusion coefficient being significantly larger than the mass dependence of the chemical diffusion coefficients for isotopes of the same element. The iron isotopic measurements of the basalt-rhyolite diffusion couple showed significant fractionation that are parameterized in terms of a parameter βFe = 0.03 when the ratio of the diffusion coefficients D54 and D56 of 54Fe and 56Fe is expressed in terms of the atomic mass as D54/ D56 = (56/54). This value of βFe is smaller than what we had measured earlier for lithium, magnesium and calcium (i.e., βLi = 0.215, βCa = 0.05, βMg = 0.05) but still significant when one takes into account the high precision with which iron isotopic compositions can be measured (i.e., ±0.03‰) and that iron isotope fractionations at magmatic temperatures from other causes are extremely small. In a closing section we discuss technological and geological applications of isotopic fractionations driven by either or both chemical and thermal gradients.

  18. [Application of ICP-MS to Detect Rare Earth Elements in Three Economic Macroalgaes in China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-fang; Shang, De-rong; Zhai, Yu-xiu; Ning, Jin-song; Ding, Hai-yan; Sheng, Xiao-feng

    2015-11-01

    In order to investigate the content and distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in main economic macroalgaes in our country, fifteen rare earth elements in three economic macroalgaes (including 30 samples of kelp, 30 samples of laver and 15 samples of Enteromorpha) were detected using ICP-MS method. Results showed that the total content of REE in different species of macroalgaes was different. The highest total content of REE was in Enteromorpha (16,012.0 ng · g⁻¹), while in kelp and laver, the total REE was similar for two macroalgaes (3887.4 and 4318.1 ng · g⁻¹ respectively). The content of fifteen rare earth elements in kelp ranged from 7.9 to 1496.4 ng · g⁻¹; in laver, it ranged from 8.2 to 1836.6 ng · g⁻¹. For Enteromorpha, the concentration of 15 rare earth elements were between 19.2 and 6014.5 ng · g⁻¹. In addition, the content and distribution of different rare earth elements in different macroalgaes was also different. For kelp, the highest content of REE was Ce (1 496.4 ng · g⁻¹), and the second was La (689.1 ng · g⁻¹). For laver, the highest was Y (1836.6 ng · g⁻¹), and the second was Ce (682.2 ng · g⁻¹). For Enteromorpha, the highest was Ce (6014.5 ng · g⁻¹), and the second was La (2902.9 ng · g⁻¹). Present results also showed that three macroalgaes accumulated the light rare earth elements much more than the high rare earth elements. The light rare earth elements occupied 90.9%, 87.3% and 91.1% for kelp, laver and Enteromorpha respectively. The result that the Enteromorpha had high content of rare earth elements could provide important support for opening new research directions for the utilization of Enteromorpha.

  19. Comparative study of yttrium and rare-earth element behaviours in fluorine-rich hydrothermal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bau, Michael; Dulski, Peter

    1995-03-01

    The mineral ‘fluorite’ is utilized as a probe to investigate the behaviour of the pseudolanthanide yttrium with respect to the lanthanides (rare-earth elements, REE) in fluorine-rich hydrothermal solutions. Hydrothermal vein fluorites are characterized by the close association of Y and REE, but in contrast to igneous and clastic rocks they show variable and non-chondritic Y/Ho ratios of up to 200. This suggests that Y and Ho, although similar in charge and size, may be fractionated in fluorine-rich medium-temperature aqueous fluids. In such solutions Y acts as a pseudolanthanide heavier than Lu. Y/Ho ratios of hydrothermal siderites are slightly below those of chondrites, suggesting that in (bi)carbonate-rich siderite-precipitating solutions Y may act as a Sm-like light pseudolanthanide. This indicates that Y-Ho fractionation is not a source-related phenomenon but depends on fluid composition. Based on these results it is strongly recommended that discussions of normalized REE patterns in general should be extended to normalized Rare-Earth-and-Yttrium (REY) patterns (Y inserted between Dy and Ho), because the slightly variable behaviour of the pseudolanthanide yttrium with respect to the REE may provide additional geochemical information. Available thermodynamic data suggest a negative correlation between Y/Ho and La/Ho during migration of a fluorite-precipitating hydrothermal solution. Cogenetic fluorites, therefore, should display either similar Y/Ho and similar La/Ho ratios, or a negative correlation between these ratios. This criterion may help to choose samples suitable for Sm-Nd isotopic studies prior to isotope analysis. However, in cogenetic hydrothermal vein fluorites the range of Y/Ho ratios is often almost negligible compared to the range of La/Ho ratios. This may be explained by modification of REE distributions by post-precipitation processes involving (partial) loss of a separate LREE-enriched phase. The presence of variable amounts of such an

  20. Research of the entry of rare earth elements Eu3+ and La3+ into plant cell.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongsheng; Zeng, Fuli; Yi, An; Ping, Shi; Jing, Lanhua

    2003-03-01

    Whether rare earth elements can enter into plant cells remains controversial. This article discusses the ultracellular structural localization of lanthanum (La(3+)) and europium (Eu(3+)) in the intact plant cells fed by rare earth elements Eu(3+) and La(3+). Eu-TTA fluorescence analysis of the plasmalemma, cytoplast, and mitochondria showed that Eu(3+) fluorescence intensities in such structures significantly increased. Eu(3+) can directly enter or be carried by the artificial ion carrier A23187 into plant cells through the calcium ion (Ca(2+)) channel and then partially resume the synthesis of amaranthin in the Amaranthus caudatus growing in the dark. Locations of rare earth elements La(3+) and Eu(3+) in all kinds of components of cytoplasmatic organelles were determined with transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The results of energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis indicated that Eu(3+) and La(3+) can be absorbed into plant cells and bind to the membranes of protoplasm, chloroplast, mitochondrion, cytoplast, and karyon. These results provide experimental evidence that rare earth elements can be absorbed into plant cells, which would be the basis for interpreting physiological and biochemical effects of rare earth elements on plant cells.

  1. Leaching of rare earth elements from fluorescent powder using the tea fungus Kombucha.

    PubMed

    Hopfe, Stefanie; Flemming, Katrin; Lehmann, Falk; Möckel, Robert; Kutschke, Sabine; Pollmann, Katrin

    2017-02-17

    In most modern technologies such as flat screens, highly effective magnets and lasers, as well as luminescence phosphors, Rare Earth Elements (REE) are used. Unfortunately no environmentally friendly recycling process exists so far. In comparison to other elements the interaction of microorganisms with REE has been studied to a less extent. However, as REE are ubiquitously present in nature it can be assumed that microorganisms play an important role in the biogeochemistry of REE. This study investigates the potential of organic acid-producing microbes for extracting REE from industrial waste. In Germany, 175 tons of fluorescent phosphor (FP) are collected per year as a distinct fraction from the recycling of compact fluorescent lamps. Because the FP contains about 10% of REE-oxides bound in the so-called triband dyes it is a readily accessible secondary resource of REE. Using the symbiotic mixed culture Kombucha, consisting of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria, REE were leached at a significant rate. The highest leaching-rates were observed in shake cultures using the entire Kombucha-consortium or its supernatant as leaching agent compared to experiments using the isolates Zygosaccharomyces lentus and Komagataeibacter hansenii as leaching organisms. During the cultivation, the pH decreased as a result of organic acid production (mainly acetic and gluconic acid). Thus, the underlying mechanism of the triband dye solubilisation is probably linked to the carboxyl-functionality or a proton excess. In accordance with the higher solubility of REE-oxides compared to REE-phosphates and -aluminates, the red dye Y2O3:Eu(2+) containing relatively expensive REE was shown to be preferentially solubilized. These results show that it is possible to dissolve the REE-compounds of FP with the help of microbial processes. Moreover, they provide the basis for the development of an eco-friendly alternative to the currently applied methods that use strong inorganic acids or toxic

  2. Trends in the Rare Earth Element Content of U.S.-Based Coal Combustion Fly Ashes.

    PubMed

    Taggart, Ross K; Hower, James C; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2016-06-07

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical and strategic materials in the defense, energy, electronics, and automotive industries. The reclamation of REEs from coal combustion fly ash has been proposed as a way to supplement REE mining. However, the typical REE contents in coal fly ash, particularly in the United States, have not been comprehensively documented or compared among the major types of coal feedstocks that determine fly ash composition. The objective of this study was to characterize a broad selection of U.S. fly ashes of varied geological origin in order to rank their potential for REE recovery. The total and nitric acid-extractable REE content for more than 100 ash samples were correlated with characteristics such as the major element content and coal basin to elucidate trends in REE enrichment. Average total REE content (defined as the sum of the lanthanides, yttrium, and scandium) for ashes derived from Appalachian sources was 591 mg kg(-1) and significantly greater than in ashes from Illinois and Powder River basin coals (403 and 337 mg kg(-1), respectively). The fraction of critical REEs (Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Y, and Er) in the fly ashes was 34-38% of the total and considerably higher than in conventional ores (typically less than 15%). Powder River Basin ashes had the highest extractable REE content, with 70% of the total REE recovered by heated nitric acid digestion. This is likely due to the higher calcium content of Powder River Basin ashes, which enhances their solubility in nitric acid. Sc, Nd, and Dy were the major contributors to the total REE value in fly ash, based on their contents and recent market prices. Overall, this study shows that coal fly ash production could provide a substantial domestic supply of REEs, but the feasibility of recovery depends on the development of extraction technologies that could be tailored to the major mineral content and origins of the feed coal for the ash.

  3. Rare earths and other trace elements in Apollo 14 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Ziege, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    REE and other trace elements have been determined in igneous rocks 14053, 14072, and 14310, in breccias 14063 and 14313, and in fines 14163. All materials analyzed have typical depletions of Eu except for feldspar fragments from the breccias and igneous fragments from 14063. Igneous rocks 14072 and 14053 have REE concentrations very similar to Apollo 12 basalts; 14310 has the highest REE concentrations yet observed for a large fragment of lunar basalt. The effects of crystallization of a basaltic liquid as a closed system on the concentrations of Sm and Eu in feldspar are considered. Small anorthositic fragments may have originated by simple crystallization from very highly differentiated basalt (KREEP) or by closed-system crystallization in a less differentiated starting material. Application of independent models of igneous differentiation to Sm and Eu in massive anorthosite 15415 and to Sm and Eu in lunar basalts suggests a common starting material with a ratio of concentrations of Sm and Eu about the same as that in chondrites and with concentrations of those elements about 15 times enriched over chondrites.

  4. Enrichment of trace elements in the clay size fraction of mining soils.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Patrícia; Valente, Teresa; Braga, M Amália Sequeira; Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L

    2016-04-01

    Reactive waste dumps with sulfide minerals promote acid mine drainage (AMD), which results in water and soil contamination by metals and metalloids. In these systems, contamination is regulated by many factors, such as mineralogical composition of soil and the presence of sorption sites on specific mineral phases. So, the present study dedicates itself to understanding the distribution of trace elements in different size fractions (<2-mm and <2-μm fractions) of mining soils and to evaluate the relationship between chemical and mineralogical composition. Cerdeirinha and Penedono, located in Portugal, were the waste dumps under study. The results revealed that the two waste dumps have high degree of contamination by metals and arsenic and that these elements are concentrated in the clay size fraction. Hence, the higher degree of contamination by toxic elements, especially arsenic in Penedono as well as the role of clay minerals, jarosite, and goethite in retaining trace elements has management implications. Such information must be carefully thought in the rehabilitation projects to be planned for both waste dumps.

  5. U.S. trade dispute with China over rare earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. government has brought a new trade case against China over rare earth elements (REE) as well as tungsten and molybdenum, President Barack Obama announced on 13 March. Japan and the European Union also have taken similar actions against China about REEs, which are a group of 17 chemically similar metallic elements that are used in a variety of electronic, optical, magnetic, and catalytic applications. REEs are plentiful in the Earth's crust, although China currently has about 37% of the world's reserves and accounts for more than 95% of the world's production of the elements, according to the British Geological Survey. The United States has requested consultations with China at the World Trade Organization (WTO) concerning "China's unfair export restraints on rare earths, as well as tungsten and molybdenum," the Office of the United States Trade Representative announced in a 13 March statement.

  6. Alkali element depletion by core formation and vaporization on the early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lodders, K.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The depletion of Na, K, Rb, and Cs in the Earth's upper mantle and crust relative to their abundances in chondrites is a long standing problem in geochemistry. Here we consider two commonly invoked mechanisms, namely core formation, and vaporization, for producing the observed depletions. Our models predict that a significant percentage of the Earth's bulk alkali element inventory is in the core (30 percent for Na, 52 percent for K, 74 percent for Rb, and 92 percent for Cs). These predictions agree with independent estimates from nebular volatility trends and (for K) from terrestrial heat flow data. Our models also predict that vaporization and thermal escape during planetary accretion are unlikely to produce the observed alkali element depletion pattern. However, loss during the putative giant impact which formed the Moon cannot be ruled out. Experimental, observational, and theoretical tests of our predictions are also described. Alkali element partitioning into the Earth's core was modeled by assuming that alkali element partitioning during core formation on the aubrite parent body (APB) is analogous to that on the early Earth. The analogy is reasonable for three reasons. First, the enstatite meteorites are the only known meteorites with the same oxygen isotope systematics as the Earth-Moon system. Second, the large core size of the Earth and the V depletion in the mantle requires accretion from planetesimals as reduced as the enstatite chondrites. Third, experimental studies of K partitioning between silicate and metal plus sulfide show that more K goes into the metal plus sulfide at higher pressures than at one atmosphere pressure. Thus partitioning in the relatively low pressure natural laboratory of the APB is a good guide to alkali elemental partitioning during the growth of the Earth.

  7. The estuarine geochemistry of rare earth elements and indium in the Chao Phraya River, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Lerche, Dorte; Alibo, Dia Sotto; Snidvongs, Anond

    2000-12-01

    A new filtration method using a 0.04 μm hollow fiber filter was applied to the river, estuarine, and coastal waters in the Chao Phraya estuary for geochemical investigation. The filtered waters were analyzed for all the lanthanides, Y and In by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The dissolved concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) are significantly lower than those reported previously for other rivers, presumably because of effective removal of river colloids by the ultra-filtration. The variation of dissolved REEs in the estuary is dependent on the season. The light REEs vary considerably in the low salinity ( S < 3) zone presumably due to adsorption-desorption interaction with suspended particles. In January when the river discharge is low, the REEs show maxima in the mid salinity ( S = 5-12) zone suggesting that dissolved REEs are supplied to the waters by either desorption from suspended loads or remineralization of underlying sediments. The rapid removal of the REEs is also taking place in the turbid-clear water transition zone ( S = 12-15), presumably due to biological uptake associated with blooming of Noctilca occurred at the time of January sampling. In the medium to high discharge season (July and November), the dissolved REE(III)s at S > 3 show almost conservative trends being consistent with some of the previous works. Europium is strongly enriched in the river and estuarine waters compared to the South China Sea waters. Thus, the REE source of the Chao Phraya River must be fractionated and modified in entering to the South China Sea. Dissolved In and Ce in the high salinity ( S = 20-25) zone of the estuary are lower than those of the offshore waters, and therefore, the dissolved flux of the Chao Phraya River cannot account for the higher concentrations of dissolved In and Ce in the surface waters of the South China Sea. The negative Ce anomaly is progressively developed with increasing salinity, being consistent with

  8. Zinc isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation and the isotopic composition of the bulk Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Heng; Savage, Paul S.; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Helz, Rosalind T.; Moynier, Frédéric

    2013-05-01

    The zinc stable isotope system has been successfully applied to many and varied fields in geochemistry, but to date it is still not completely clear how this isotope system is affected by igneous processes. In order to evaluate the potential application of Zn isotopes as a proxy for planetary differentiation and volatile history, it is important to constrain the magnitude of Zn isotopic fractionation induced by magmatic differentiation. In this study we present high-precision Zn isotope analyses of two sets of chemically diverse, cogenetic samples from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii, and Hekla volcano, Iceland, which both show clear evidence of having undergone variable and significant degrees of magmatic differentiation. The Kilauea Iki samples display small but resolvable variations in Zn isotope composition (0.26‰<δ66Zn<0.36‰; δ66Zn defined as the per mille deviation of a sample's 66Zn/64Zn compositional ratio from the JMC-Lyon standard), with the most differentiated lithologies exhibiting more positive δ66Zn values. This fractionation is likely a result of the crystallization of olivine and/or Fe-Ti oxides, which can both host Zn in their crystal structures. Samples from Hekla have a similar range of isotopic variation (0.22‰<δ66Zn<0.33‰), however, the degree of fractionation caused by magmatic differentiation is less significant (only 0.07‰) and no correlation between isotope composition and degree of differentiation is seen. We conclude that high temperature magmatic differentiation can cause Zn isotope fractionation that is resolvable at current levels of precision, but only in compositionally-evolved lithologies. With regards to primitive (ultramafic and basaltic) material, this signifies that the terrestrial mantle is essentially homogeneous with respect to Zn isotopes. Utilizing basaltic and ultramafic sample analyses, from different geologic settings, we estimate that the average Zn isotopic composition of Bulk Silicate Earth is δ66Zn=0.28

  9. Addressing Rare-Earth Element Criticality: An Example from the Aviation Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Anthony Y.; Dosch, Christopher; Grossman, Theodore R.; Herzog, Joseph L.; Maricocchi, Antonio F.; Polli, Drew; Lipkin, Don M.

    2014-11-01

    Rare-earth (RE) elements are enablers for a wide range of technologies, including high-strength permanent magnets, energy-efficient lighting, high-temperature thermal barrier coatings, and catalysts. While direct material substitution is difficult in many of these applications because of the specific electronic, optical, or electrochemical properties imparted by the individual rare-earth elements, we describe an example from the aviation industry where supply chain optimization may be an option. Ceramic matrix composite engine components require environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) to protect them from extreme temperatures and adverse reactions with water vapor in the hot gas path. EBC systems based on rare-earth silicates offer a unique combination of environmental resistance, thermal expansion matching, thermal conductivity, and thermal stability across the service temperature window. Several pure rare-earth silicates and solid solutions have been demonstrated in EBC applications. However, all rely on heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs) for phase stability. This article considers the possibility of using separation tailings containing a mixture of HREEs as a source material in lieu of using the high-purity HREE oxides. This option arises because the desired properties of RE-silicate EBCs derive from the average cation size rather than the electronic properties of the individual rare-earth cations. Because separation tailings have not incurred the costs associated with the final stages of separation, they offer an economical alternative to high-purity oxides for this emerging application.

  10. Chemical fractionation of siderophile elements in impactites from Australian meteorite craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attrep, A., Jr.; Orth, C. J.; Quintana, L. R.; Shoemaker, C. S.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Taylor, S. R.

    1991-01-01

    The abundance pattern of siderophile elements in terrestrial and lunar impact melt rocks was used extensively to infer the nature of the impacting projectiles. An implicit assumption made is that the siderophile abundance ratios of the projectiles are approximately preserved during mixing of the projectile constituents with the impact melts. As this mixture occurs during flow of strongly shocked materials at high temperatures, however there are grounds for suspecting that the underlying assumption is not always valid. In particular, fractionation of the melted and partly vaporized material of the projectile might be expected because of differences in volatility, solubility in silicate melts, and other characteristics of the constituent elements. Impactites from craters with associated meteorites offer special opportunities to test the assumptions on which projectile identifications are based and to study chemical fractionation that occurred during the impact process.

  11. Development of Electronic Tongue for Detection of Rare Earth Elements in Natural Surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Subrata; Purkait, Monirul; Roy, Jayanta Kumar; Datta, C.; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Sarkar, D.; Datta, Jagannath; Chowdhury, D. P.

    2011-09-01

    The rare earth elements (like lanthanum) and other metals like zirconium, arsenic, potassium, copper etc. are some of the elements, which are found in the natural surrounding. Since these metals have immense utility in the field of medical science, energy efficient electronic devices, nuclear energy domain, early and easy detection of such metals is very important. In the present work, voltammetric electronic tongue for detection and quantitative determination of these elements has been explored. A sensor array comprising of noble metals (like gold, iridium, rhodium etc) has been developed and it exhibits remarkable sensitivity and promising results for detection and analysis of these elements.

  12. Precious metals and rare earth elements in municipal solid waste--sources and fate in a Swiss incineration plant.

    PubMed

    Morf, Leo S; Gloor, Rolf; Haag, Olaf; Haupt, Melanie; Skutan, Stefan; Di Lorenzo, Fabian; Böni, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    In Switzerland many kinds of waste, e.g. paper, metals, electrical and electronic equipment are separately collected and recycled to a large extent. The residual amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has to be thermally treated before final disposal. Efforts to recover valuable metals from incineration residues have recently increased. However, the resource potential of critical elements in the waste input (sources) and their partitioning into recyclable fractions and residues (fate) is unknown. Therefore, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for 31 elements including precious metals (Au, Ag), platinum metal group elements (Pt, Rh) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, etc.) has been conducted in a solid waste incinerator (SWI) with a state-of-the-art bottom ash treatment according to the Thermo-Re® concept. The SFA allowed the determination of the element partitioning in the SWI, as well as the elemental composition of the MSW by indirect analysis. The results show that the waste-input contains substantial quantities of precious metals, such as 0.4 ± 0.2mg/kg Au and 5.3 ± 0.7 mg/kg Ag. Many of the valuable substances, such as Au and Ag are enriched in specific outputs (e.g. non-ferrous metal fractions) and are therefore recoverable. As the precious metal content in MSW is expected to rise due to its increasing application in complex consumer products, the results of this study are essential for the improvement of resource recovery in the Thermo-Re® process.

  13. Analysis of Rare Earth Elements in Rock and Mineral Samples by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindern, Sven

    2017-02-01

    The group of the rare earth elements (REEs) serves as valuable indicator of numerous geological processes such as magma formation or fluid-rock interaction. The decay systems of the radioactive REE isotopes 138La, 147Sm and 176Lu are used for geochronometric dating of a range of events, starting from first steps of planetary formation to younger steps of geodynamic development. Thus, the abundance of all REEs occurring in a large range of concentrations as well as precise isotope ratios must be analysed in different geomaterials. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ion source and various types of mass spectrometers (MS) represent the basis to fulfil the analytical requirements of geoscientific studies. Today, ICP-quadrupole MS and ICP-sector field MS (SFMS) with a single detector or multiple ion collection (MC-ICP-MS) are standard instruments for REE analyses in the geosciences. Due to the need for in situ analysis, laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS has become an important trace element microprobe technique, which is widely applied for determination of REE concentrations and isotope compositions in geoscientific laboratories. The quality of concentration analysis or isotope ratio determination of REEs by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS is affected by many parameters. Most significant are interferences caused by polyatomic oxide and hydroxide ion species formed in the plasma as well as fractionation effects leading to non-stoichiometric behaviour during element determination or to biased isotope ratio measurements. Laser-induced fractionation and isobaric interferences have to be considered as additional effects for LA-ICP-MS. As analyte elements and matrix are unseparated, mineral standards matching the matrix of samples are a prerequisite for accurate and precise REE concentration and isotope ratio determination. Application of fs lasers instead of the more common ns lasers in LA-ICP-MS systems turns out to be a significant step to reduce laser-induced fractionation and to

  14. [Geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements on sunflower growing area in the west of Jilin Province].

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Jie; Dou, Sen; Wang, Li-Min; Liu, Zhao-Shun

    2011-07-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from the sunflower growing area in the west of Jilin province. A variety of ancillary methods were used to determine the soil element content. Then the rare earth elements geochemistry in soil was studied, and the correlation of REEs in this region with other elements and the quality of plant was investigated. The results show that, (1) REE content of the soil in Nong'an is relatively higher to those in Daan and Tongyu. Distribution pattern of rare earth elements in soil for the right tilt of the light rare earth enrichment patterns which is consistent with the national distribution pattern of rare earth elements; (2) REE contents in the three studying areas in the soil are different, and this primarily relates to the soil parent materials; (3) The REEs which positively correlate with soil available potassium are Se, Fe2O3, Ti, P, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mo, B, F. The protein content of sunflower seeds has a negative correlation with REE. With the exception of Lu, all REEs show a similar correlation.

  15. [Study on speciation and fractionation of rare earth eleinents in surface sediments in Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of Yellow River].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Jun; Lai, Zi-Juan; Liu, Ying

    2013-03-01

    In the present paper, BCR sequential extraction and high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) were performed to analyze the speciation contents of 14 kinds of rare earth elements (REE) in the surface sediments from 12 sampling sites (S1-S12) in Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia Sections of Yellow River, and REE fractionation were also studied. The results indicated that the contents of REE in 12 sediment samples werethe same order. The average contents of 14 rare earth elements were in this order: Ce(66.4)>La(35.8)>Nd(28.6)>Pr(7.88)>Sm(5.87) >Gd(5.01)>Dy (4.53)>Yb(2.86)>Er(2.51)>Eu(1.31)>Ho(0.856)>Tb(0.760)>Tm(0.428)>Lu(0.404), which were similar to the Chinese soil background. The residual fractions of all elements were present at the highest percentages(71.9%-93.9%), which indicated that the bioavailability or environmental impact was low. The percentage of reducible fraction was the lowest, ranged from 0. 20% to 3. 87% with the mean value of 0.83%, while the oxidizable fraction percentage(7.61%) was close to acid-soluble fraction(7.69%). But in Maqu (S12), oxidizable percentage (16.1%) was significantly higher than the acid-soluble fraction (1.73%). Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between total organic carbon (TOC) content and oxidizable percentage, and the correlation coefficients were between 0.763 and 0.914. REE fractionation results showed that: the contents of REE in surface sediments of Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia Sections of Yellow River were mainly from soil weathering, with light-REE enrichment and Eu depletion. The chondrite-normalized curve implied that La and Ce in Jinshawan (S8) and Baotou-Dengkou (S1) and heavy REE at all the sampling points might have external REE sources.

  16. Concentrations of Elements in Sediments and Selective Fractions of Sediments, and in Natural Waters in Contact with Sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Washington, September 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Wagner, Richard J.; Sanzolone, Richard F.; Cox, Steven E.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-eight composite and replicate sediment samples from 8 Lake Roosevelt sites were collected and analyzed for 10 alkali and alkaline earth elements, 2 non-metals, 20 metals, and 4 lanthanide and actinide elements. All elements were detected in all sediment samples except for silver (95 percent of the elements detected for 1,008 analyses), which was detected only in 4 samples. Sequential selective extraction procedures were performed on single composite samples from the eight sites. The percentage of detections for the 31 elements analyzed ranged from 76 percent for the first extraction fraction using a weak extractant to 93 percent for the four-acid dissolution of the sediments remaining after the third sequential selective extraction. Water samples in various degrees of contact with the sediment were analyzed for 10 alkali and alkaline earth elements, 5 non-metals, 25 metals, and 16 lanthanide and actinide elements. The filtered water samples included 10 samples from the reservoir water column at 8 sites, 32 samples of porewater, 55 samples from reservoir water overlying sediments in 8 cores from the site incubated in a field laboratory, and 24 water samples that were filtered after being tumbled with sediments from 8 sites. Overall, the concentrations of only 37 percent of the 6,776 analyses of the 121 water samples were greater than the reporting limit. Selenium, bismuth, chromium, niobium, silver, and zirconium were not detected in any water samples. The percentage of concentrations for the water samples that were above the reporting limit ranged from 14 percent for the lanthanide and actinide elements to 77 percent for the alkali and alkaline earth elements. Concentrations were greater than reporting limits in only 23 percent of the analyses of reservoir water and 29 percent of the analyses of reservoir water overlying incubation cores. In contrast, 47 and 48 percent of the concentrations of porewater and water samples tumbled with sediments, respectively

  17. Chemical Weathering of Black Shales and Rare Earth Element Composition of Surface Waters and Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannigan, R. E.; Johannesson, K. H.

    2001-05-01

    Weathering processes dominate the dissolved and suspended loads of most of the world's major rivers. Among sedimentary rocks, black shales are particularly sensitive to chemical weathering. Therefore, shale systems are useful for investigating the partitioning of chemical elements during chemical weathering. Recent studies, such as those by Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Ravizza and others, link chemical weathering of black shales to changes in marine isotopic composition. Rare earth elements (REE) have a unique chemistry and are ideal for such tracer studies. We explored the effect of modern chemical weathering of black shales on the hydrochemistry of surface and groundwaters in the Mohawk Valley of New York State. This region provides an ideal site for the investigation of trace element remobilization during the chemical weathering of black shales. In this region, surface and groundwaters, in intimate contact with black shales and have high dissolved metal concentrations presumably due to water-rock interactions. The extent to which the dissolved REE composition of the surface and ground waters retains the rock signature is, in someway related to the length of time that the water remains in contact with the rock. We compared the REE compositions of surface and groundwaters in areas draining black shale to those of waters draining regions of dolostone-limestone to explore the extent of metal release due to chemical weathering. Shale normalized REE patterns for stream waters exhibit slight heavy REE enrichments and, at some locations, LREE depletion. REE patterns of the waters normalized to their respective sediments show some LREE depletion. However, waters associated with the Little Falls dolomite show fractionation predominantly enriched in the heavy REEs. Differences between the black shale sites, recorded as light REE depletion and/or middle REE enrichment, may be related to the discharge of the streams and the total dissolved solids. The dissolved REE chemistry of

  18. A semi-discrete finite element method for a class of time-fractional diffusion equations.

    PubMed

    Sun, HongGuang; Chen, Wen; Sze, K Y

    2013-05-13

    As fractional diffusion equations can describe the early breakthrough and the heavy-tail decay features observed in anomalous transport of contaminants in groundwater and porous soil, they have been commonly used in the related mathematical descriptions. These models usually involve long-time-range computation, which is a critical obstacle for their application; improvement of computational efficiency is of great significance. In this paper, a semi-discrete method is presented for solving a class of time-fractional diffusion equations that overcome the critical long-time-range computation problem. In the procedure, the spatial domain is discretized by the finite element method, which reduces the fractional diffusion equations to approximate fractional relaxation equations. As analytical solutions exist for the latter equations, the burden arising from long-time-range computation can effectively be minimized. To illustrate its efficiency and simplicity, four examples are presented. In addition, the method is used to solve the time-fractional advection-diffusion equation characterizing the bromide transport process in a fractured granite aquifer. The prediction closely agrees with the experimental data, and the heavy-tail decay of the anomalous transport process is well represented.

  19. Rare earth element content of thermal fluids from Surprise Valley, California

    DOE Data Explorer

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-09-23

    Rare earth element measurements for thermal fluids from Surprise Valley, California. Samples were collected in acid washed HDPE bottles and acidified with concentrated trace element clean (Fisher Scientific) nitric acid. Samples were pre-concentratated by a factor of approximately 10 using chelating resin with and IDA functional group and measured on magnetic sector ICP-MS. Samples include Seyferth Hot Springs, Surprise Valley Resort Mineral Well, Leonard's Hot Spring, and Lake City Mud Volcano Boiling Spring.

  20. Determination of rare-earth elements in Luna 16 regolith sample by chemical spectral method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroganova, N. S.; Ryabukhin, V. A.; Laktinova, N. V.; Ageyeva, L. V.; Galkina, I. P.; Gatinskaya, N. G.; Yermakov, A. N.; Karyakin, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was made of regolith from layer A of the Luna 16 sample for rare earth elements, by a chemical spectral method. Chemical and ion exchange concentrations were used to determine the content of 12 elements and Y at the level 0.001 to 0.0001 percent with 10 to 15 percent reproducibility of the emission determination. Results within the limits of reproducibility agree with data obtained by mass spectra, activation, and X-ray fluorescent methods.

  1. Chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in aquatic plants of the Yenisei River.

    PubMed

    Bolsunovsky, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    The Yenisei River is contaminated with artificial radionuclides released by one of the Russian nuclear plants. The aquatic plants growing in the radioactively contaminated parts of the river contain artificial radionuclides. The aim of the study was to investigate accumulation of artificial radionuclides and stable elements by submerged plants of the Yenisei River and estimate the strength of their binding to plant biomass by using a new sequential extraction scheme. The aquatic plants sampled were: Potamogeton lucens, Fontinalis antipyretica, and Batrachium kauffmanii. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of the samples of aquatic plants has revealed more than 20 radionuclides. We also investigated the chemical fractionation of radionuclides and stable elements in the biomass and rated radionuclides and stable elements based on their distribution in biomass. The greatest number of radionuclides strongly bound to biomass cell structures was found for Potamogeton lucens and the smallest for Batrachium kauffmanii. For Fontinalis antipyretica, the number of distribution patterns that were similar for both radioactive isotopes and their stable counterparts was greater than for the other studied species. The transuranic elements (239)Np and (241)Am were found in the intracellular fraction of the biomass, and this suggested their active accumulation by the plants.

  2. Imaging Earth's Interior based on Spectral-Element and Adjoint Methods (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromp, J.; Zhu, H.; Bozdag, E.

    2013-12-01

    We use spectral-element and adjoint methods to iteratively improve 3D tomographic images of Earth's interior, ranging from global to continental to exploration scales. The spectral-element method, a high-order finite-element method with the advantage of a diagonal mass matrix, is used to accurately calculate three-component synthetic seismograms in a complex 3D Earth model. An adjoint method is used to numerically compute Frechét derivatives of a misfit function based on the interaction between the wavefield for a reference Earth model and a wavefield obtained by using time-reversed differences between data and synthetics at all receivers as simultaneous sources. In combination with gradient-based optimization methods, such as a preconditioned conjugate gradient or L-BSGF method, we are able to iteratively improve 3D images of Earth's interior and gradually minimize discrepancies between observed and simulated seismograms. Various misfit functions may be chosen to quantify these discrepancies, such as cross-correlation traveltime differences, frequency-dependent phase and amplitude anomalies as well as full-waveform differences. Various physical properties of the Earth are constrained based on this method, such as elastic wavespeeds, radial anisotropy, shear attenuation and impedance contrasts. We apply this method to study seismic inverse problems at various scales, from global- and continental-scale seismic tomography to exploration-scale full-waveform inversion.

  3. Trace-element fractionation in Hadean mantle generated by melt segregation from a magma ocean.

    PubMed

    Caro, Guillaume; Bourdon, Bernard; Wood, Bernard J; Corgne, Alexandre

    2005-07-14

    Calculations of the energetics of terrestrial accretion indicate that the Earth was extensively molten in its early history. Examination of early Archaean rocks from West Greenland (3.6-3.8 Gyr old) using short-lived 146Sm-142Nd chronometry indicates that an episode of mantle differentiation took place close to the end of accretion (4.46 +/- 0.11 Gyr ago). This has produced a chemically depleted mantle with an Sm/Nd ratio higher than the chondritic value. In contrast, application of 176Lu-176Hf systematics to 3.6-3.8-Gyr-old zircons from West Greenland indicates derivation from a mantle source with a chondritic Lu/Hf ratio. Although an early Sm/Nd fractionation could be explained by basaltic crust formation, magma ocean crystallization or formation of continental crust, the absence of coeval Lu/Hf fractionation is in sharp contrast with the well-known covariant behaviour of Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf ratios in crustal formation processes. Here we show using mineral-melt partitioning data for high-pressure mantle minerals that the observed Nd and Hf signatures could have been produced by segregation of melt from a crystallizing magma ocean at upper-mantle pressures early in Earth's history. This residual melt would have risen buoyantly and ultimately formed the earliest terrestrial protocrust.

  4. Radioluminescence and thermoluminescence of rare earth element and phosphorus-doped zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Karali, T.; Can, N.; Townsend, P.D.; Rowlands, A.P.; Hanchar, J.M.

    2000-06-01

    The radioluminescence and thermoluminescence spectra of synthetic zircon crystals doped with individual trivalent rare earth element (REE) ions (Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, and Yb) and P are reported in the temperature range 25 to 673 K. Although there is some intrinsic UV/blue emission from the host lattice, the dominant signals are from the rare-earth sites, with signals characteristic of the REE{sup 3+} states. The shapes of the glow curves are different for each dopant, and there are distinct differences between glow peak temperatures for different rare-earth lines of the same element. Within the overall set of signals there are indications of linear trends in which some glow peak temperatures vary as a function of the ionic size of the rare earth ions. The temperature shifts of the peaks are considerable, up to 200{degree}, and much larger than those cited in other rare-earth-doped crystals of LaF{sub 3} and Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}. The data clearly suggest that the rare-earth ions are active both in the trapping and luminescence steps, and hence the TL occurs within localized defect complexes that include REE{sup 3+} ions.

  5. Composition of the earth's upper mantle. I - Siderophile trace elements in ultramafic nodules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Wandless, G. A.; Petrie, R. K.; Irving, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The considered investigation is concerned with a reexamination of the question of the distribution of siderophile elements in the earth's upper mantle, taking into account a more unified data base which is now available. A comprehensive suite of ultramafic inclusions was collected as part of the Basaltic Volcanism Study Project and has been analyzed by instrument neutron activation analysis for major, minor, and some lithophile trace elements. In addition, 18 of these rocks and the important sheared garnet lherzolite PHN 1611 have been analyzed by means of radiochemical neutron activation analysis for 7 siderophile elements (Au, Ge, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, and Re) and 9 volatile elements (Ag, Bi, Cd, In, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, and Zn). The siderophile element data reveal interesting inter-element correlations, which were not apparent from the compiled abundance tables of Ringwood and Kesson (1976) and Chou (1978).

  6. The Formation of Sulfate and Elemental Sulfur Aerosols Under Varying Laboratory Conditions: Implications for Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, H. Langley; Hasenkopf, Christa A.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Farmer, Delphine K.; Jimenez, Jose L.; McKay, Christopher P.; Toon, Owen B.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of sulfur mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) in sediments more than 2.45 x 10(exp 9) years old is thought to be evidence for an early anoxic atmosphere. Photolysis of sulfur dioxide (SO2) by UV light with lambda < 220 nm has been shown in models and some initial laboratory studies to create a S-MIF; however, sulfur must leave the atmosphere in at least two chemically different forms to preserve any S-MIF signature. Two commonly cited examples of chemically different sulfur species that could have exited the atmosphere are elemental sulfur (S8) and sulfuric acid (H2S04) aerosols. Here, we use real-time aerosol mass spectrometry to directly detect the sulfur-containing aerosols formed when SO2 either photolyzes at wavelengths from 115 to 400 nm, to simulate the UV solar spectrum, or interacts with high-energy electrons, to simulate lightning. We found that sulfur-containing aerosols form under all laboratory conditions. Further, the addition of a reducing gas, in our experiments hydrogen (H2) or methane (CH4), increased the formation of S8. With UV photolysis, formation of S8 aerosols is highly dependent on the initial SO2 pressure; and S8 is only formed at a 2% SO2 mixing ratio and greater in the absence of a reductant, and at a 0.2% SO2 mixing ratio and greater in the presence of 1000 ppmv CH4. We also found that organosulfur compounds are formed from the photolysis of CH4 and moderate amounts of SO2, The implications for sulfur aerosols on early Earth are discussed.

  7. Fluid rare earth element anlayses from wells RN-12 and RN-19, Reykjanes, Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-07-24

    Results for fluid rare earth elment analyses from Reykjanes wells RN-12 and RN-19. The data have not been corrected for flashing. Samples preconcetrated using chelating resin with IDA functional group (InertSep ME-1). Analyzed using and Element magnetic sctor ICP-MS.

  8. Interactions between exogenous rare earth elements and phosphorus leaching in packed soil columns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rare earth elements (REEs) increasingly used in agriculture as an amendment for crop growth may help to lessen environmental losses of phosphorus (P) from heavily fertilized soils. The vertical transport characteristics of P and REEs, lanthanum (La), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), and cerium (Ce), w...

  9. Compilation of Rare Earth Element Analyses from US Geothermal Fields and Mid Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Vents

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-10-01

    Compilation of rare earth element and associated major and minor dissolved constituent analytical data for USA geothermal fields and global seafloor hydrothermal vents. Data is in original units. Reference to and use of this data should be attributed to the original authors and publications according to the provisions outlined therein.

  10. Method to Recover Media Ligand Losses During Sorption of Rare Earth Elements from Simulated Geothermal Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Dean Stull

    2016-05-24

    This document describes the method and results of an in-situ experiment used to confirm that ligand bleed from a sorptive media can be contained. The experiment focused on maintaining the media's sorption of rare earth elements (REE) obtained from a simulated geothermal brine doped with known mineral concentrations.

  11. Technical Information Resource on Rare Earth Elements Now Available to Public and Private Sector Stakeholders

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new EPA technical information resource, “Rare Earth Elements: A Review of Production, Processing, Recycling, and Associated Environmental Issues” has been produced as an introductory resource for those interested in learning more about REE mining and alternatives to meet demand...

  12. Preliminary study on using rare earth elements to trace non-point source phosphorous loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental fate of phosphorus (P) is of concern as P is a primary cause of freshwater eutrophication. Rare earth elements (REEs) have been successfully used in the analysis of soil erosion and pollutant sources, as well as in the analysis of mineral genesis. To better understand the potential...

  13. Tracing sediment movement on semi-arid watershed using Rare Earth Elements 1988

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-tracer method employing rare earth elements (REE) was used to determine sediment yield and to track sediment movement in a small semiarid watershed. A 0.33 ha watershed near Tombstone, AZ was divided into five morphological units, each tagged with one of five REE oxides. Relative contributi...

  14. Elemental fractionation in 785 nm picosecond and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaheen, M. E.; Gagnon, J. E.; Fryer, B. J.

    2015-05-01

    Elemental fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse width laser beams originating from the same laser system. Femtosecond and picosecond laser beams at pulse widths of 130 fs and 110 ps, respectively, and wavelength of 785 nm were used to ablate NIST 610 synthetic glass and SRM 1107 Naval Brass B at the same spot for 800 to 1000 laser pulses at different repetition rates (5 to 50 Hz). Elemental fractionation was found to depend on repetition rate and showed a trend with femtosecond laser ablation that is opposite to that observed in picosecond laser ablation for most measured isotopes. ICP-MS signal intensity was higher in femtosecond than picosecond LA-ICP-MS in both NIST 610 and naval brass when ablation was conducted under the same fluence and repetition rate. The differences in signal intensity were partly related to differences in particle size distribution between particles generated by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses and the consequent differences in transport and ionization efficiencies. The main reason for the higher signal intensity resulting from femtosecond laser pulses was related to the larger crater sizes compared to those created during picosecond laser ablation. Elemental ratios measured using 66Zn/63Cu, 208Pb/238U, 232Th/238U, 66Zn/232Th and 66Zn/208Pb were found to change with the number of laser pulses with data points being more scattered in picosecond than femtosecond laser pulses. Reproducibility of replicate measurements of signal intensities, fractionation and elemental ratios was better for fs-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 3 to 6%) than ps-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 7 to 11%).

  15. Light rare earth element systematics as a tool for investigating the petrogenesis of phoscorite-carbonatite associations, as exemplified by the Phalaborwa Complex, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Lorenzo; Bolhar, Robert; Frei, Dirk; Harlov, Daniel E.; Samuel, Vinod O.

    2017-01-01

    In-situ trace element analyses of fluorapatite, calcite, dolomite, olivine, and phlogopite have been undertaken on representative phoscorite and carbonatite rocks of the Palaeoproterozoic Phalaborwa Complex. Textural and compositional characterization reveals uniformity of fluorapatite and calcite among most of the intrusions, and seems to favor a common genetic origin for the phoscorite-carbonatite association. Representing major repositories for rare earth elements (REE), fluorapatite and calcite exhibit tightly correlated light REE (LREE) abundances, suggesting that partitioning of LREE into these rock forming minerals was principally controlled by simple igneous differentiation. However, light rare earth element distribution in apatite and calcite cannot be adequately explained by equilibrium and fractional crystallization and instead favors a complex crystallization history involving mixing of compositionally distinct magma batches, in agreement with previously reported mineral isotope variability that requires open-system behaviour.

  16. Rare earth element behavior during groundwater-seawater mixing along the Kona Coast of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannesson, Karen H.; Palmore, C. Dianne; Fackrell, Joseph; Prouty, Nancy G.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Chevis, Darren A.; Telfeyan, Katherine; White, Christopher D.; Burdige, David J.

    2017-02-01

    Groundwater and seawater samples were collected from nearshore wells and offshore along the Kona Coast of the Big Island of Hawaii to investigate rare earth element (REE) behavior in local subterranean estuaries. Previous investigations showed that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the predominant flux of terrestrial waters to the coastal ocean along the arid Kona Coast of Hawaii. Groundwater and seawater samples were filtered through 0.45 μm and 0.02 μm pore-size filters to evaluate the importance of colloidal and soluble (i.e., truly dissolved ionic species and/or low molecular weight [LMW] colloids) fractions of the REEs in the local subterranean estuaries. Mixing experiments using groundwater collected immediately down gradient from a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) proximal to the Kaloko-Hanokohau National Historic Park, and more "pristine" groundwater from a well constructed in a lava tube at Kiholo Bay, were conducted with local seawater to study the effect of solution composition (i.e., pH, salinity) on the concentrations and fractionation behavior of the REEs as groundwater mixes with seawater in Kona Coast subterranean estuaries. The mixed waters were also filtered through 0.45 or 0.02 μm filters to ascertain the behavior of colloidal and soluble fractions of the REEs across the salinity gradient in each mixing experiment. Concentrations of the REEs were statistically identical (two-tailed Student t-test, 95% confidence) between the sequentially filtered sample aliquots, indicating that the REEs occur as dissolved ionic species and/or LMW colloids in Kona Coast groundwaters. The mixing experiments revealed that the REEs are released to solution from suspended particles or colloids when Kona Coast groundwater waters mix with local seawater. The order of release that accompanies increasing pH and salinity follows light REE (LREE) > middle REE (MREE) > heavy REE (HREE). Release of REEs in the mixing experiments is driven by decreases in the

  17. Rare earth element behavior during groundwater – seawater mixing along the Kona Coast of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johannesson, Karen H.; Palmore, C. Dianne; Fackrell, Joseph; Prouty, Nancy G.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Chevis, Darren A.; Telfeyan, Katherine; White, Christopher D.; Burdige, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater and seawater samples were collected from nearshore wells and offshore along the Kona Coast of the Big Island of Hawaii to investigate rare earth element (REE) behavior in local subterranean estuaries. Previous investigations showed that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the predominant flux of terrestrial waters to the coastal ocean along the arid Kona Coast of Hawaii. Groundwater and seawater samples were filtered through 0.45 μm and 0.02 μm pore-size filters to evaluate the importance of colloidal and soluble (i.e., truly dissolved ionic species and/or low molecular weight [LMW] colloids) fractions of the REEs in the local subterranean estuaries. Mixing experiments using groundwater collected immediately down gradient from a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) proximal to the Kaloko-Hanokohau National Historic Park, and more “pristine” groundwater from a well constructed in a lava tube at Kiholo Bay, were mixed with local seawater to study the effect of solution composition (i.e., pH, salinity) on the concentrations and fractionation behavior of the REEs as groundwater mixes with seawater in Kona Coast subterranean estuaries. The mixed waters were also filtered through 0.45 or 0.02 μm filters to ascertain the behavior of colloidal and soluble fractions of the REEs across the salinity gradient in each mixing experiment. Concentrations of the REEs were statistically identical (two-tailed Student t-test, 95% confidence) between the sequentially filtered sample aliquots, indicating that the REEs occur as dissolved ionic species and/or LMW colloids in Kona Coast groundwaters. The mixing experiments revealed that the REEs are released to solution from suspended particles or colloids when Kona Coast groundwater waters mix with local seawater. The order of release that accompanies increasing pH and salinity follows light REE (LREE) > middle REE (MREE) > heavy REE (HREE). Release of REEs in the mixing experiments is driven by decreases in the

  18. Potential toxic element fractionation and phytoavailability assessment in technosoils from former smelting and mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasim, Bashar; Motelica-Heino, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    High metal and metalloid concentrations in soils have negative effects on terrestrial ecosystems and generate potential health risk. Mining and smelting activities are the major source of metal contamination by release a huge amounts of these potentially toxic elements (PTE) into the environment. Since the determination of the total concentration of PTE in soils does not give sufficient information about their mobility and toxicity, additional information on their bioavailability and their chemical speciation is required. Our study aimed at reporting the chemical fractionation and phytoavailability assessment of several PTE (Zn, Pb, Cd, As and Sb) in contaminated technosoils of two former smelting and mining areas. Soil samples were taken from a metallophyte grassland contaminated with Zn, Pb and Cd located at Mortagne - du -Nord (MDN) (North France) and from a former mining settling basin contaminated with As, Pb and Sb located at la Petite Faye (LPF) (Limoges district, France). Two sequential extraction schemes were used to evaluate the PTE speciation in various technosoils as operationally defined fractions. The extraction schemes used in this study were the Tessier's scheme and a modified BCR scheme. The fractions were rearranged into four equivalent fractions defined as acid soluble, reducible, oxidisable and residual fraction. To assess the metals and metalloids phytoavailability a series of selective single extraction procedures (CaCl2, NaNO3, NH4NO3, DTPA and EDTA) were used together with short-term germination tests with dwarf beans whose primary leaves were analyzed for their PTE concentration after 21 days of sowing under controlled conditions (16h light/8h darkness regime, 25°C/21°C, relative humidity of 55 - 65% and photon flux of 150 μE m-2s-1). Our results indicates that Zn, Cd and Pb were mainly associated with the acid soluble and reducible fractions for the MDN site, while As, Sb and Pb were mostly associated with residual fraction for the LPF

  19. Scanning Electron Microscope-Cathodoluminescence Analysis of Rare-Earth Elements in Magnets.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Susumu; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Kawai, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) analysis was performed for neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) and samarium-cobalt (Sm-Co) magnets to analyze the rare-earth elements present in the magnets. We examined the advantages of SEM-CL analysis over conventional analytical methods such as SEM-energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and SEM-wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) spectroscopy for elemental analysis of rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets. Luminescence spectra of chloride compounds of elements in the magnets were measured by the SEM-CL method. Chloride compounds were obtained by the dropwise addition of hydrochloric acid on the magnets followed by drying in vacuum. Neodymium, praseodymium, terbium, and dysprosium were separately detected in the NdFeB magnets, and samarium was detected in the Sm-Co magnet by the SEM-CL method. In contrast, it was difficult to distinguish terbium and dysprosium in the NdFeB magnet with a dysprosium concentration of 1.05 wt% by conventional SEM-EDX analysis. Terbium with a concentration of 0.02 wt% in an NdFeB magnet was detected by SEM-CL analysis, but not by conventional SEM-WDX analysis. SEM-CL analysis is advantageous over conventional SEM-EDX and SEM-WDX analyses for detecting trace rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets, particularly dysprosium and terbium.

  20. Rare Earth Element Measurements of Melilite and Fassaite in Allende Cai by Nanosims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, M.; Messenger, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) are concentrated in CAIs by approx. 20 times the chondritic average [e.g., 1]. The REEs in CAIs are important to understand processes of CAI formation including the role of volatilization, condensation, and fractional crystallization [1,2]. REE measurements are a well established application of ion microprobes [e.g., 3]. However the spatial resolution of REE measurements by ion microprobe (approx.20 m) is not adequate to resolve heterogeneous distributions of REEs among/within minerals. We have developed methods for measuring REE with the NanoSIMS 50L at smaller spatial scales. Here we present our initial measurements of REEs in melilite and fassaite in an Allende Type-A CAI with the JSC NanoSIMS 50L. We found that the key parameters for accurate REE abundance measurements differ between the NanoSIMS and conventional SIMS, in particular the oxide-to-element ratios, the relative sensitivity factors, the energy distributions, and requisite energy offset. Our REE abundance measurements of the 100 ppm REE diopside glass standards yielded good reproducibility and accuracy, 0.5-2.5 % and 5-25 %, respectively. We determined abundances and spatial distributions of REEs in core and rim within single crystals of fassaite, and adjacent melilite with 5-10 m spatial resolution. The REE abundances in fassaite core and rim are 20-100 times CI abundance but show a large negative Eu anomaly, exhibiting a well-defined Group III pattern. This is consistent with previous work [4]. On the other hand, adjacent melilite shows modified Group II pattern with no strong depletions of Eu and Yb, and no Tm positive anomaly. REE abundances (2-10 x CI) were lower than that of fassaite. These patterns suggest that fassaite crystallized first followed by a crystallization of melilite from the residual melt. In future work, we will carry out a correlated study of O and Mg isotopes and REEs of the CAI in order to better understand the nature and timescales of its

  1. Interaction of rare earth elements and components of the Horonobe deep groundwater.

    PubMed

    Kirishima, Akira; Kuno, Atsushi; Amamiya, Hiroshi; Kubota, Takumi; Kimuro, Shingo; Amano, Yuki; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Mizuno, Takashi; Sasaki, Takayuki; Sato, Nobuaki

    2017-02-01

    To better understand the migration behavior of minor actinides in deep groundwater, the interactions between doped rare earth elements (REEs) and components of Horonobe deep groundwater were investigated. Approximately 10 ppb of the REEs, i.e. Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, and Yb were doped into a groundwater sample collected from a packed section in a borehole drilled at 140 m depth in the experiment drift of Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory in Hokkaido, Japan. The groundwater sample was sequentially filtered with a 0.2 μm pore filter, and 10 kDa, 3 kDa and 1 kDa nominal molecular weight limit (NMWL) ultrafilters with conditions kept inert. Next, the filtrate solutions were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the concentrations of the REEs retained in solution at each filtration step, while the used filters were analyzed through neutron activation analysis (NAA) and TOF-SIMS element mapping to determine the amounts and chemical species of the trapped fractions of REEs on each filter. A strong relationship between the ratios of REEs retained in the filtrate solutions and the ionic radii of the associated REEs was observed; i.e. smaller REEs occur in larger proportions dissolved in the solution phase under the conditions of the Horonobe groundwater. The NAA and TOF-SIMS analyses revealed that portions of the REEs were trapped by the 0.2 μm pore filter as REE phosphates, which correspond to the species predicted to be predominant by chemical equilibrium calculations for the conditions of the Horonobe groundwater. Additionally, small portions of colloidal REEs were trapped by the 10 kDa and 3 kDa NMWL ultrafilters. These results suggest that phosphate anions play an important role in the chemical behavior of REEs in saline (seawater-based) groundwater, which may be useful for predicting the migration behavior of trivalent actinides released from radioactive waste repositories in the far

  2. Rare earth and trace elements of fossil vertebrate bioapatite as palaeoenvironmental and sedimentological proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žigaitė, Živilė; Fadel, Alexandre; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Jeffries, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth (REE) and trace element compositions of fossil vertebrate dental microremains have been studied in Silurian and Devonian vertebrate dental scales and spines in-situ, using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Samples were selected from the well-known Silurian bone beds of Vesiku and Ohesaare in Saaremaa island of Estonia, and a number of Lower Devonian localities from Spitsbergen (Svalbard), Andrée Land group. Biomineral preservation was assessed using spot semi-quantitative elemental chemistry (SEM-EDS) and electron back-scatter difractometry (EBSD) for cristallinity imaging. The obtained PAAS shale-normalised REE concentrations were evaluated using basic geochemical calculations and quantifications. The REE patterns from the Lower Devonian vertebrate apatite from Andrée Land, Spitsbergen (Wood Bay and Grey Hœk formations) did not show any recognisable taxon-specific behavior, but had rather well expressed differences of REE compositions related to biomineral structure and sedimentary settings, suggesting REE instead to reflect burial environments and sedimentological history. The Eu anomaly recorded in two of the studied localities but not in the other indicate different taphonomic conditions and palaeoenvironment, while La/Sm, La/Yb ratios sugeest considerable influence of terrestrial freshwater during the early diagenesis. The La/Yb and La/Sm plots also agree with the average REE concentrations, reflecting domination of the adsoption over substitution as principal REE uptake mechanism in the fossils which had significantly lower overall REE concentrations, and vice versa. Vesiku (Homerian, Wenlock) microremains yielded very uniform REE patterns with slightly lower overall REE concentrations in enameloid than in dentine, with strong enrichment in middle REE and depletion in heavy REE. Negative Europium (Eu) anomaly was pronounced in all the profiles, but Cerium (Ce) anomalies were not detected suggesting possible

  3. Rare earth element evidence for the petrogenesis of the banded series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, and its anorthosites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loferski, P.J.; Arculus, R.J.; Czamanske, G.K.

    1994-01-01

    A rare earth element (REE) study was made by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry of plagioclase separates from a variety of cumulates stratigraphically spanning the Banded series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Evaluation of parent liquid REE patterns, calculated on the basis of published plagioclase-liquid partition coefficients, shows that the range of REE ratios is too large to be attributable to fractionation of a single magma type. At least two different parental melts were present throughout the Banded series. This finding supports hypotheses of previous workers that the Stillwater Complex formed from two different parent magma types, designated the anorthosite- or A-type liquid and the ultramafic- or U-type liquid. -from Authors

  4. Study on Orbital Decay of Near Earth Satellites with KS Orthogonal Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ps, Sandeep

    STUDY ON ORBITAL DECAY OF NEAR EARTH SATELLITES WITH KS ORTHOGONAL ELEMENTS SANDEEP P S The knowledge of satellite orbit decay and its expected life prior to launch is necessary for mission planning purpose. Several sets of data for various parametric studies is sought quite often, it is necessary to minimize computational time involved for generating decay predictions, keeping the prediction accuracy normally good. A number of factors play dominant role in perturbation modelling for near earth satellites such as oblateness of the Earth, presence of the atmosphere, luni-solar attraction and solar radiation pressure. This paper concerns with the study of orbital decay of near earth satellites with KS orthogonal elements, which provide accurate orbit predictions at low computational time. Perturbations considered are due to oblateness of the Earth and the atmospheric drag. The Earth’s zonal harmonic terms J2 to J6 are included and the drag is modeled with an analytical diurnally oblate atmosphere. Effect of Earth’s geomagnetic and solar activity is included in density and density scale height computations. JACCHIA77 atmospheric model is utilized. The developed software is validated with the orbital data of decayed objects taken from www.space-track.org.

  5. The exact solution of Stokes' second problem including start-up process with fractional element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kaixin; Zhu, Keqin

    2009-10-01

    The start-up process of Stokes’ second problem of a viscoelastic material with fractional element is studied. The fluid above an infinite flat plane is set in motion by a sudden acceleration of the plate to steady oscillation. Exact solutions are obtained by using Laplace transform and Fourier transform. It is found that the relationship between the first peak value and the one of equal-amplitude oscillations depends on the distance from the plate. The amplitude decreases for increasing frequency and increasing distance.

  6. Heavy metals and rare earth elements source-sink in some Egyptian cigarettes as determined by neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Nada, A; Abdel-Wahab, M; Sroor, A; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Abdel-Sabour, M F

    1999-07-01

    Heavy metals and rare earth elements in two types of cigarettes were studied. The contents of trace elements were determined by using delayed neutron activation analysis. In the present study 11 elements have been detected in popular and fine brand cigarettes marketed in Egypt. Evaluation of these elements with their potential hazards for smokers is briefly discussed. The material balance (source and sink) for each element was determined. Also the ratio of element recovery to the total amount was assessed.

  7. The group separation of the rare-earth elements and yttrium from geologic materials by cation-exchange chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Lichte, F.E.; Wildeman, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Demand is increasing for the determination of the rare-earth elements (REE) and yttrium in geologic materials. Due to their low natural abundance in many materials and the interferences that occur in many methods of determination, a separation procedure utilizing gradient strong-acid cation-exchange chromatography is often used to preconcentrate and isolate these elements from the host-rock matrix. Two separate gradient strong-acid cation-exchange procedures were characterized and the major elements as well as those elements thought to provide the greatest interference for the determination of the REE in geologic materials were tested for separation from the REE. Simultaneous inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICAP-AES) measurements were used to construct the chromatograms for the elution studies, allowing the elution patterns of all the elements of interest to be determined in a single fraction of eluent. As a rock matrix, U.S. Geological Survey standard reference BCR-1 basalt was digested using both an acid decomposition procedure and a lithium metaborate fusion. Hydrochloric and nitric acids were tested as eluents and chromatograms were plotted using the ICAP-AES data; and we observed substantial differences in the elution patterns of the REE and as well as in the solution patterns of Ba, Ca, Fe and Sr. The nitric acid elution required substantially less eluent to elute the REE and Y as a group when compared to the hydrochloric acid elution, and provided a clearer separation of the REE from interfering and matrix elements. ?? 1984.

  8. Structural Responses and Finite Element Modeling of Hakka Tulou Rammed Earth Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sranislawski, Daniel

    Hakka Tulous are rammed earth structures that have survived the effects of aging and natural elements upwards of even over a thousand years. These structures have housed the Hakka people of the Fujian Province, China in natural yet modern housing that has provided benefits over newer building materials. The key building material, rammed earth, which is used for the walls of the Hakka Tulou structures, has provided structural stability along with thermal comfort to the respective inhabitants of the Hakka Tulous. Through material testing and analysis this study has examined how the Tulou structures have maintained their structural stability while also providing thermal comfort. Reports of self healing cracks in the rammed earth walls were also analyzed for their validity in this study. The study has found that although the story of the self healing crack cannot be validated, there is reason to believe that with the existence of lime, some type of autogenous healing could occur on a small scale. The study has also found, through the use of nondestructive testing, that both the internal wooden systems (flooring, roof, and column support) and the rammed earth walls, are still structurally sound. Also, rammed earth's high thermal mass along with the use of sufficient shading has allowed for a delay release of heat energy from the walls of the Tulous, thus providing thermal comfort that can be felt during both night and day temperatures. The Hakka Tulou structures have been found to resist destruction from natural disasters such as strong earthquakes even when more modern construction has not. Through finite element modeling, this study has shown that the high volume of rammed earth used in the construction of the Hakka Tulous helps dissipate lateral force energy into much lower stresses for the rammed earth wall. This absorption of lateral force energy allows the rammed earth structures to survive even the strongest of earthquakes experienced in the region. The Hakka

  9. CORONAL SOURCES, ELEMENTAL FRACTIONATION, AND RELEASE MECHANISMS OF HEAVY ION DROPOUTS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Weberg, Micah J.; Lepri, Susan T.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H. E-mail: slepri@umich.edu

    2015-03-10

    The elemental abundances of heavy ions (masses larger than He) in the solar wind provide information about physical processes occurring in the corona. Additionally, the charge state distributions of these heavy ions are sensitive to the temperature profiles of their respective source regions in the corona. Heavy ion dropouts are a relatively new class of solar wind events identified by both elemental and ionic charge state distributions. We have shown that their origins lie in large, closed coronal loops where processes such as gravitational settling dominate and can cause a mass-dependent fractionation pattern. In this study we consider and attempt to answer three fundamental questions concerning heavy ion dropouts: (1) 'where are the source loops located in the large-scale corona?'; (2) 'how does the interplay between coronal processes influence the end elemental abundances?'; and (3) 'what are the most probable release mechanisms'? We begin by analyzing the temporal and spatial variability of heavy ion dropouts and their correlation with heliospheric plasma and magnetic structures. Next we investigate the ordering of the elements inside dropouts with respect to mass, ionic charge state, and first ionization potential. Finally, we discuss these results in the context of the prevailing solar wind theories and the processes they posit that may be responsible for the release of coronal plasma into interplanetary space.

  10. Recombination reactions as a possible mechanism of mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes in the Archean atmosphere of Earth.

    PubMed

    Babikov, Dmitri

    2017-03-21

    A hierarchy of isotopically substituted recombination reactions is formulated for production of sulfur allotropes in the anoxic atmosphere of Archean Earth. The corresponding system of kinetics equations is solved analytically to obtain concise expressions for isotopic enrichments, with focus on mass-independent isotope effects due to symmetry, ignoring smaller mass-dependent effects. Proper inclusion of atom-exchange processes is shown to be important. This model predicts significant and equal depletions driven by reaction stoichiometry for all rare isotopes: (33)S, (34)S, and (36)S. Interestingly, the ratio of capital [Formula: see text] values obtained within this model for (33)S and (36)S is -1.16, very close to the mass-independent fractionation line of the Archean rock record. This model may finally offer a mechanistic explanation for the striking mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes that took place in the Archean atmosphere of Earth.

  11. Concentrations and health risk assessment of rare earth elements in vegetables from mining area in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Maoqiang; Zhao, Jinshan; Li, Suyun; Liu, Danru; Wang, Kebo; Xiao, Peirui; Yu, Lianlong; Jiang, Ying; Song, Jian; Zhou, Jingyang; Wang, Liansen; Chu, Zunhua

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the concentrations of rare earth elements in vegetables and assess human health risk through vegetable consumption, a total of 301 vegetable samples were collected from mining area and control area in Shandong, China. The contents of 14 rare earth elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The total rare earth elements in vegetables from mining and control areas were 94.08 μg kg(-1) and 38.67 μg kg(-1), respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The leaf vegetable had the highest rare earth elements concentration (984.24 μg kg(-1) and 81.24 μg kg(-1) for mining and control areas, respectively) and gourd vegetable had the lowest rare earth elements concentration (37.34 μg kg(-1) and 24.63 μg kg(-1) for mining and control areas, respectively). For both areas, the rare earth elements concentration in vegetables declined in the order of leaf vegetable > taproot vegetable > alliaceous vegetable > gourd vegetable. The rare earth elements distribution patterns for both areas were characterized by enrichment of light rare earth elements. The health risk assessment demonstrated that the estimated daily intakes (0.69 μg kg(-1) d(-1) and 0.28 μg kg(-1) d(-1) for mining and control areas, respectively) of rare earth elements through vegetable consumption were significantly lower than the acceptable daily intake (70 μg kg(-1) d(-1)). The damage to adults can be neglected, but more attention should be paid to the effects of continuous exposure to low levels of rare earth elements on children.

  12. Thermal effects on rare earth element and strontium isotope chemistry in single conodont elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, H. A.; Pearson, D. G.; Griselin, M.

    2001-02-01

    A low-blank, high sensitivity isotope dilution, ICP-MS analytical technique has been used to obtain REE abundance data from single conodont elements weighing as little as 5 μg. Sr isotopes can also be measured from the column eluants enabling Sr isotope ratios and REE abundance to be determined from the same dissolution. Results are comparable to published analyses comprising tens to hundreds of elements. To study the effects of thermal metamorphism on REE and strontium mobility in conodonts, samples were selected from a single bed adjacent to a basaltic dyke and from the internationally used colour alteration index (CAI) "standard set." Our analyses span the range of CAI 1 to 8. Homogeneous REE patterns, "bell-shaped" shale-normalised REE patterns are observed across the range of CAI 1 to 6 in both sample sets. This pattern is interpreted as the result of adsorption during early diagenesis and could reflect original seawater chemistry. Above CAI 6 REE patterns become less predictable and perturbations from the typical REE pattern are likely to be due to the onset of apatite recrystallisation. Samples outside the contact aureole of the dyke have a mean 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of 0.708165, within the broad range of published mid-Carboniferous seawater values. Our analysis indicates conodonts up to CAI 6 record primary geochemical signals that may be a proxy for ancient seawater.

  13. Sulphur isotope fractionation during the reduction of elemental sulphur and thiosulphate by Dethiosulfovibrio spp.

    PubMed

    Surkov, Alexander V; Böttcher, Michael E; Kuever, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Stable sulphur isotope fractionation was investigated during reduction of thiosulphate and elemental sulphur at 28°C by growing batch cultures of the sulphur- and thiosulphate-reducing bacteria Dethiosulfovibrio marinus (type strain DSM 12537) and Dethiosulfovibrio russensis (type strain DSM 12538), using citrate as carbon and energy source. The cell-specific thiosulphate reduction rate in the growth phase was 7.4±3.9 fmol cell(-1) d(-1). The hydrogen sulphide produced was enriched in (32)S by 10.3±1 ‰ compared with total thiosulphate sulphur, close to previous experimental results observed for other sulphate- and non-sulphate-reducing bacteria. Elemental sulphur reduction yields sulphur isotope enrichment factors between-1.3 and-5.2 ‰ for D. russensis and-1.7 and-5.1 ‰ for D. marinus. The smaller fractionation effects are observed in the exponential growth phase (cellular rates between 5 and 70 fmol S° cell(-1) d(-1)) and enhanced discrimination under conditions of citrate depletion and cell lysis (cellular rates between 0.3 and 3 fmol S° cell(-1) d(-1)).

  14. Highly siderophile elements were stripped from Earth's mantle by iron sulfide segregation.

    PubMed

    Rubie, David C; Laurenz, Vera; Jacobson, Seth A; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Palme, Herbert; Vogel, Antje K; Frost, Daniel J

    2016-09-09

    Highly siderophile elements (HSEs) are strongly depleted in the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) but are present in near-chondritic relative abundances. The conventional explanation is that the HSEs were stripped from the mantle by the segregation of metal during core formation but were added back in near-chondritic proportions by late accretion, after core formation had ceased. Here we show that metal-silicate equilibration and segregation during Earth's core formation actually increased HSE mantle concentrations because HSE partition coefficients are relatively low at the high pressures of core formation within Earth. The pervasive exsolution and segregation of iron sulfide liquid from silicate liquid (the "Hadean matte") stripped magma oceans of HSEs during cooling and crystallization, before late accretion, and resulted in slightly suprachondritic palladium/iridium and ruthenium/iridium ratios.

  15. Precious metals and rare earth elements in municipal solid waste – Sources and fate in a Swiss incineration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Morf, Leo S.; Gloor, Rolf; Haag, Olaf; Haupt, Melanie; Skutan, Stefan; Lorenzo, Fabian Di; Böni, Daniel

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► We carefully addressed all the very valuable comments and suggestions of the reviewers. ► We also have shortened the size of the paper and tried simplify it substantially, as requested by the reviewers (introduction 25% reduced!). ► We have decided to take the chance and have replaced the data for the “additional” elements (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Sn, Cr, Ni, Fe, Al) of the earlier MFA (Morf, 2011) with data that belong to the samples of this study. ► We are convinced that with the revision the paper has significantly improved in quality and attractiveness. - Abstract: In Switzerland many kinds of waste, e.g. paper, metals, electrical and electronic equipment are separately collected and recycled to a large extent. The residual amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has to be thermally treated before final disposal. Efforts to recover valuable metals from incineration residues have recently increased. However, the resource potential of critical elements in the waste input (sources) and their partitioning into recyclable fractions and residues (fate) is unknown. Therefore, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for 31 elements including precious metals (Au, Ag), platinum metal group elements (Pt, Rh) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, etc.) has been conducted in a solid waste incinerator (SWI) with a state-of-the-art bottom ash treatment according to the Thermo-Re® concept. The SFA allowed the determination of the element partitioning in the SWI, as well as the elemental composition of the MSW by indirect analysis. The results show that the waste-input contains substantial quantities of precious metals, such as 0.4 ± 0.2 mg/kg Au and 5.3 ± 0.7 mg/kg Ag. Many of the valuable substances, such as Au and Ag are enriched in specific outputs (e.g. non-ferrous metal fractions) and are therefore recoverable. As the precious metal content in MSW is expected to rise due to its increasing application in complex consumer products, the results of this study are

  16. Anomalous abundance and redistribution patterns of rare earth elements in soils of a mining area in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2016-06-01

    The Bayan Obo Mine, the largest rare earth element (REE) deposit ever found in the world, has been mined for nearly 60 years for iron and rare earth elements. To assess the influences of mining activities on geochemical behavior of REEs in soils, 27 surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different directions in the vicinity of the mine area. The total concentrations of REEs in surface soils varied from 149.75 to 18,891.81 mg kg(-1) with an average value of 1906.12 mg kg(-1), which was apparently higher than the average values in China (181 mg kg(-1)). The order of the average concentrations of individual REEs in surface soils was similar to that in Bayan Obo ores, which confirmed that the concentration and distribution of REEs in the soils was influenced by the mining activities. The concentrations of single REE in the soil profiles showed a similar trend with depth with an increase at 0-25 cm section, then decreased and remained relatively stable in the deep part. The normalized curves inclined to the right side, showing the conspicuous fractionation between the light and heavy REEs, which supported by the North American Shale Composite (NASC) and Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La N /Yb N , La N /Sm N , Gd N /Yb N ). Slight positive Ce anomaly and negative Eu anomaly were also observed.

  17. Analytical approach using KS elements to near-earth orbit predictions including drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ram Krishnan

    1991-04-01

    An analytical theory for the motion of near-earth satellite orbits with the air drag effect is evolved in terms of the KS elements, using an analytical oblate exponential atmospheric density model. Due to the symmetry of the KS element equations, only one of the eight equations is integrated analytically to acquire the state vector at the close of each revolution. In the numerical studies performed, it is shown that after 100 revolutions, with a ballistic coefficient of 50, a maximum difference of 39 meters is found in the semimajor axis comparison for a very small eccentricity (0.001) instance having an initial perigee height of 391.425 km.

  18. Trace elements and rare earth elements in wet deposition of Lijiang, Mt. Yulong region, southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junming; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Sillanpää, Mika; Niu, Hewen; Sun, Xuejun; He, Yuanqing; Wang, Shijing; Tripathee, Lekhendra

    2017-02-01

    In order to investigate the compositions and wet deposition fluxes of trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs) in the precipitation of the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, 38 precipitation samples were collected from March to August in 2012 in an urban site of Lijiang city in the Mt. Yulong region. The concentrations of most trace elements and REEs were higher during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season, indicating that the lower concentrations of trace elements and REEs observed during monsoon had been influenced by the dilution effect of increased precipitation. The concentrations of trace elements in the precipitation of Lijiang city were slightly higher than those observed in remote sites of the Tibetan Plateau but much lower than those observed in the metropolises of China, indicating that the atmospheric environment of Lijiang city was less influenced by anthropogenic emissions, and, as a consequence, the air quality was still relatively good. However, the results of enrichment factor and principal component analysis revealed that some anthropogenic activities (e.g., the increasing traffic emissions from the rapid development of tourism) were most likely important contributors to trace elements, while the regional/local crustal sources rather than anthropogenic activities were the predominant contributors to the REEs in the wet deposition of Lijiang city. Our study was relevant not only for assessing the current status of the atmospheric environment in the Mt. Yulong region, but also for specific management actions to be implemented for the control of atmospheric inputs and the health of the environment for the future.

  19. A possible new host mineral of large-ion elements in the Earth's deep interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, K.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2015-12-01

    The radiogenic heat production as well as the secular cooling is essential in order to better understand the thermal history and dynamics in the Earth. Potassium is thought to be one of the important radioactive elements in the Earth's interior. Although these elements are concentrated in the continental and oceanic crusts due to chemical differentiations through partial melting at plate boundaries due to their large ion-radii, they have been considered to return into the deep mantle accompanied with subducting slab through time . However, since there are few studies on host minerals of potassium in the high P,T condition, it has yet to be clear how much and where host rocks of such radioactive elements exist in the Earth. Hence, it is important to understand the fate of the potassium-bearing phase subducted into the deep Earth's interior. Here we have studied the high-pressure stability and elasticity of KMg2Al5SiO12 hexagonal aluminous phase (K-Hex with three different size of cation cites, by means of the density functional computation method. Results indicate that the K-Hex phase remains mechanically stable up to 150 GPa and also energetically more stable than an isochemical form with the calcium-ferrite (K-CF) and calcium-titanate (K-CT) type structure with two different size of cation cites. In addition, when the spinel composition coexists with the K-hollandite (K-Hol) phase, which is ), which is considered to be able to host potassium the K-Hex phase becomes more stable than the K-Hol phase at pressures above ~27 GPa. These demonstrate that the Hex phase is substantially stable in the lower mantle, suggesting that it could be a potential host of potassium and other incompatible large-ion elements.

  20. Study of speciation and size fractionation of trace element between soil solution, bog, river and lake within a boreal watershed (North Karelia, NW Russia) using fractional filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilina, Svetlana M.; Lapitsky, Sergey A.; Alekhin, Yuriy V.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Viers, Jerome

    2010-05-01

    This work is aimed at studying the evolution of migration forms of true dissolved compounds and colloidal entities using an integrated approach of molecular mass distribution and differences in the association of trace elements (TE) with organic matter (OM) or Fe colloids in the system soil water-bog-river-lake. Characterization of TE speciation with colloids during TE migration from the site of colloids origin (bog and soil solutions) towards the transit zone (river) and finally to the deposition, accumulation or transformation zone (lake) is a main fundamental task of this problem. The objects of study include a small stream watershed Vostochniy and the river Palayoki (North Karelia, Russia). The water samplings were performed in July and August 2008 and 2009 and included soil solution, nourishing bog, the middle part of the brook originated from the swamp, the mouth of the brook and the lake Zipringa. We sampled large volumes (50 - 100 liters), and we applied, directly in the in-field-installed "clean laboratory" the sequential frontal filtration and ultrafiltration of samples through the filters of progressively decreasing poresize 100, 20, 10, 5, 0.8, 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 microns; 100 kDa (0.0065 micron), 10 kDa (0.003 micron) and 1 kDa (0.0014 micron). This allowed separation of organic matter, coarse and fine particulate matter and colloids. All filtrates and selected retentates were analyzed for a wide range of macro-and micronutrients using ICP-MS. In filtrates of the river water, a significant decrease of iron concentration occurred in the range of 5 micron to 0.22 micron and from 100 kDa to 1 kDa. For alkali and alkaline earth elements (Mg, K, Ca), as well as for Cu, Ni, Cr the concentrations changed after passing through the 10 kDa membrane. Na concentration remains constant in all filtrates. The filtrates of the soil solution are characterized by a significant decreases in Na, K, after 0.1 micron, Ca, Cu in the range of 0.22 micron - 100 kDa and Mg, Ni in

  1. Transport of rare earth element-tagged soil particles in response to thunderstorm runoff.

    PubMed

    Matisoff, G; Ketterer, M E; Wilson, C G; Layman, R; Whiting, P J

    2001-08-15

    The downslope transport of rare earth element-tagged soil particles remobilized during a spring thunderstorm was studied on both a natural prairie and an agricultural field in southwestern Iowa (U.S.A.). A technique was developed for tagging natural soils with the rare earth elements Eu, Tb, and Ho to approximately 1,000 ppm via coprecipitation with MnO2. Tagged material was replaced in target locations; surficial soil samples were collected following precipitation and runoff; and rare earth element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Diffusion and exponential models were applied to the concentration-distance data to determine particle transport distances. The results indicate that the concentration-distance data are well described by the diffusion model, butthe exponential model does not simulate the rapid drop-off in concentrations near the tagged source. Using the diffusion model, calculated particle transport distances at all hillside locations and at both the cultivated and natural prairie sites were short, ranging from 3 to 73 cm during this single runoff event. This study successfully demonstrates a new tool for studying soil erosion.

  2. Origin of fluorite mineralizations in the Nuba Mountains, Sudan and their rare earth element geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Ibrahim; Baioumy, Hassan; Ouyang, Hegen; Mossa, Hesham; Aly, Hisham Fouad

    2015-12-01

    Among other mineralizations in the basement complex of the Nuba Mountains, fluorite occurs as lenses and veins in a number of localities. The rare earth elements (REE) geochemistry in these fluorites along with their petrography and fluid inclusion was investigated in this study to discuss the origin the fluorites and shed the light on the economic importance of the REE. Fluorites in the Nuba Mountains are classified into four categories based on their petrography. Category I (F1) is characterized by pink color and free of inclusions. Category II (F2) is zoned of alternating pink and colorless zones with euhedral outline or anhedral patchy pink and colorless fluorite enclosing category I fluorite and is usually sieved with submicroscopic silicate minerals. Category III (F3) is colorless, euhedral to anhedral fluorite and associated with quartz and/or orthoclase. Category IV (F4) is colorless, either massive or dispersed, corroded grains associated with calcite and pertain to the late introduced carbonatites in Dumbeir area. Gangue minerals in the studied fluorites include quartz, calcite, orthoclase and muscovite. The ΣREE ranges between 541 and 10,430 ppm with an average of 3234 ppm. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns for fluorite from different localities exhibit LREE enrichment relative to HREE as shown by (La/Yb)N ratios that vary from 16 to 194 and significant positive Eu anomalies that are pronounced with Eu/Eu* from 1.1 to 2.5. The Tb/La and Tb/Ca ratios of fluorites in the present study indicate that they plot mainly in the pegmatitic or high-hydrothermal field with the characteristics of primary crystallization and remobilization trend. The clear heterogeneity of fluorite, abundance of growth zones, irregular shapes of grains, presence of fluorite inclusions in other minerals as well as the relatively high concentration of REE in the studied fluorites are supportive for this interpretation. The relatively high Tb/La (0.002-0.013) and low Tb/Ca (0

  3. Sorption of Yttrium and the Rare Earth Elements on Non-Living Macroalgal Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schijf, J.; Straka, A. M.

    2007-12-01

    We have investigated sorption of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREEs) on tissue of the green macroalga Ulva lactuca, commonly known as sea lettuce. Due to its nearly worldwide distribution in coastal waters, very simple morphology, and prodigious capacity for trace metal uptake from seawater, members of the Ulva genus serve as a basic but representative model of marine organic substrates in this type of study. In order to exclude active biological uptake effects, allowing us to focus on passive chemical mechanisms, we performed our initial experiments with sea lettuce Certified Reference Material consisting of a dehydrated, powdered tissue homogenate. A small quantity of this powder was suspended in NaCl solutions containing all YREEs, except Pm, at pH 3 and T = 25°C. The extent of YREE sorption was determined as a function of pH at constant temperature by titrating the solution with dilute NaOH and measuring the YREE concentrations of 0.2-μm filtered aliquots with an ICP-MS at regular time intervals after each pH adjustment. In NaCl solutions with an ionic strength approaching that of seawater, distribution coefficients, which quantify the proportion of sorbed and dissolved metal concentrations, are a highly linear function of pH in the range 3-8. The slope of the line suggests a sorption mechanism that involves ion exchange with both H+ and Na+ on surface functional groups. The shape of solution YREE patterns indicates that these functional groups are probably carboxylates at low and intermediate pH, but that other groups may contribute at high pH. The identification of carboxylate functional groups appears to be confirmed by preliminary results from EXAFS spectroscopic analyses of individual REE sorbed on the surface of Ulva lactuca tissue under similar conditions, conducted at the ANL Advanced Photon Source. In dilute NaCl solutions the distribution coefficient is largely independent of pH. We believe that prolonged exposure of the tissue to a low

  4. Study of Suspended Solid in Constructed Wetland Using Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Z. X. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) is one of the commonly used technologies in wastewater treatment. By means of the biochemical interactions among water, microscopic organism, aquatic plant and sediments in natural environment CW can remove biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammoniacal nitrogen, suspended solid (SS) and heavy metals. In this study, rare earth elements (REEs) were used as a natural tracer for the study of SS in the CW. The studied CW, Hebao Island free water surface CW, is located in Chiayi County, south Taiwan. The CW is designed for removing SS and BOD due to the pollution from livestock farms in the upstream area. However, the removal of SS was not effective. In some cases, the SS concentration of inflow is even higher than that of outflow. That the sediments on the slope were flushed into the CW was considered as the main problem. After all the refinement, the issue has not improved yet. In the study, the water samples were filtered with 1.0μm filter paper. Then, part of water samples were digested by ultrapure nitric acid to obtain the water representing the total of dissolved and suspended matters. The others were filtered by 0.1μm filter, which represent the matters in dissolved form. REEs and most of metals were subsequently measured with ICP-MS. REEs generally have a unique source and would fractionate in certain regular patterns during biochemical reactions due to lanthanide contraction. They can be an excellent natural tracer in the environmental researches. After normalized by North American Shale Composite, the REEs pattern for the samples with the total of dissolved and suspended matters is characterized by a middle REE (MREE) enrichment and light REE (LREE) depletion. According to the previous theoretical studies, the MREE enrichment could be achieved by a selected adsorption of MREEs by organic matters, which is generally humic substance in natural surface water. It is suggested that the refinement of removal efficiency of SS should focus on

  5. Surface kinetic model for isotopic and trace element fractionation during precipitation of calcite from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    DePaolo, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    A surface reaction kinetic model is developed for predicting Ca isotope fractionation and metal/Ca ratios of calcite as a function of rate of precipitation from aqueous solution. The model is based on the requirements for dynamic equilibrium; i.e. proximity to equilibrium conditions is determined by the ratio of the net precipitation rate (Rp) to the gross forward precipitation rate (Rf), for conditions where ionic transport to the growing crystal surface is not rate-limiting. The value of Rp has been experimentally measured under varying conditions, but the magnitude of Rf is not generally known, and may depend on several factors. It is posited that, for systems with no trace constituents that alter the surface chemistry, Rf can be estimated from the bulk far-from-equilibrium dissolution rate of calcite (Rb or kb), since at equilibrium Rf = Rb, and Rp = 0. Hence it can be inferred that Rf ≈ Rp + Rb. The dissolution rate of pure calcite is measureable and is known to be a function of temperature and pH. At given temperature and pH, equilibrium precipitation is approached when Rp (=Rf - Rb) « Rb. For precipitation rates high enough that Rp » Rb, both isotopic and trace element partitioning are controlled by the kinetics of ion attachment to the mineral surface, which tend to favor more rapid incorporation of the light isotopes of Ca and discriminate weakly between trace metals and Ca. With varying precipitation rate, a transition region between equilibrium and kinetic control occurs near Rp ≈ Rb for Ca isotopic fractionation. According to this model, Ca isotopic data can be used to estimate Rf for calcite precipitation. Mechanistic models for calcite precipitation indicate that the molecular exchange rate is not constant

  6. Surface kinetic model for isotopic and trace element fractionation during precipitation of calcite from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    DePaolo, D.

    2010-10-15

    A surface reaction kinetic model is developed for predicting Ca isotope fractionation and metal/Ca ratios of calcite as a function of rate of precipitation from aqueous solution. The model is based on the requirements for dynamic equilibrium; i.e. proximity to equilibrium conditions is determined by the ratio of the net precipitation rate (R{sub p}) to the gross forward precipitation rate (R{sub f}), for conditions where ionic transport to the growing crystal surface is not rate-limiting. The value of R{sub p} has been experimentally measured under varying conditions, but the magnitude of R{sub f} is not generally known, and may depend on several factors. It is posited that, for systems with no trace constituents that alter the surface chemistry, R{sub f} can be estimated from the bulk far-from-equilibrium dissolution rate of calcite (R{sub b} or k{sub b}), since at equilibrium R{sub f} = R{sub b}, and R{sub p} = 0. Hence it can be inferred that R{sub f} {approx} R{sub p} + R{sub b}. The dissolution rate of pure calcite is measureable and is known to be a function of temperature and pH. At given temperature and pH, equilibrium precipitation is approached when R{sub p} (= R{sub f} - R{sub b}) << R{sub b}. For precipitation rates high enough that R{sub p} >> R{sub b}, both isotopic and trace element partitioning are controlled by the kinetics of ion attachment to the mineral surface, which tend to favor more rapid incorporation of the light isotopes of Ca and discriminate weakly between trace metals and Ca. With varying precipitation rate, a transition region between equilibrium and kinetic control occurs near R{sub p} {approx} R{sub b} for Ca isotopic fractionation. According to this model, Ca isotopic data can be used to estimate R{sub f} for calcite precipitation. Mechanistic models for calcite precipitation indicate that the molecular exchange rate is not constant at constant T and pH, but rather is dependent also on solution saturation state and hence R{sub p

  7. Highly siderophile elements in Earth's mantle as a clock for the Moon-forming impact.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Seth A; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N; O'Brien, David P; Walsh, Kevin J; Rubie, David C

    2014-04-03

    According to the generally accepted scenario, the last giant impact on Earth formed the Moon and initiated the final phase of core formation by melting Earth's mantle. A key goal of geochemistry is to date this event, but different ages have been proposed. Some argue for an early Moon-forming event, approximately 30 million years (Myr) after the condensation of the first solids in the Solar System, whereas others claim a date later than 50 Myr (and possibly as late as around 100 Myr) after condensation. Here we show that a Moon-forming event at 40 Myr after condensation, or earlier, is ruled out at a 99.9 per cent confidence level. We use a large number of N-body simulations to demonstrate a relationship between the time of the last giant impact on an Earth-like planet and the amount of mass subsequently added during the era known as Late Accretion. As the last giant impact is delayed, the late-accreted mass decreases in a predictable fashion. This relationship exists within both the classical scenario and the Grand Tack scenario of terrestrial planet formation, and holds across a wide range of disk conditions. The concentration of highly siderophile elements (HSEs) in Earth's mantle constrains the mass of chondritic material added to Earth during Late Accretion. Using HSE abundance measurements, we determine a Moon-formation age of 95 ± 32 Myr after condensation. The possibility exists that some late projectiles were differentiated and left an incomplete HSE record in Earth's mantle. Even in this case, various isotopic constraints strongly suggest that the late-accreted mass did not exceed 1 per cent of Earth's mass, and so the HSE clock still robustly limits the timing of the Moon-forming event to significantly later than 40 Myr after condensation.

  8. Preliminary phytochemical and elemental analysis of aqueous and fractionated pod extracts of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa)

    PubMed Central

    Auwal, Mohammed Shaibu; Saka, Sanni; Mairiga, Ismail Alhaji; Sanda, Kyari Abba; Shuaibu, Abdullahi; Ibrahim, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa) is used locally for various medicinal purposes by traditionalists and herbalists in northeastern Nigeria. Plants products have been used since ancient times in the management of various conditions. The bark of A. nilotica has been reported to be used traditionally to manage diabetes, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, cancers, tumor of the eye, ear and testicles, induration of liver and spleen and also in treatment of various condylomas. The objective of this study is to determine the phytochemical and elemental constituents of the extracts of A. nilotica pods. Flame emission and atomic absorption spectrometry were also used to determine the presence or absence of micro- and macro-elements in the extracts. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, ethyl acetate and N-butanol fractionated portions of the pod extracts of A. nilotica revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, whereas carbohydrates and tannins were the only constituent in the residue portion. Anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were not present in the extracts. The elemental screening revealed the presence of iron, potassium, manganese, zinc, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, cadmium and copper. Lead, arsenic and molybdenum were not detected in the pod. PMID:25568701

  9. A Study on Removal of Rare Earth Elements from U.S. Coal Byproducts by Ion Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozelle, Peter L.; Khadilkar, Aditi B.; Pulati, Nuerxida; Soundarrajan, Nari; Klima, Mark S.; Mosser, Morgan M.; Miller, Charles E.; Pisupati, Sarma V.

    2016-03-01

    Rare earth elements are known to occur in low concentrations in U.S. coals and coal byproducts. These low concentrations may make rare earth element recovery from these materials unattractive, using only physical separation techniques. However, given the significant production of rare earths through ion exchange extraction in China, two U.S. coal byproducts were examined for ion extraction, using ammonium sulfate, an ionic liquid, and a deep eutectic solvent as lixiviants. Extraction of rare earth elements in each case produced high recoveries of rare earth elements to the solution. This suggests that in at least the cases of the materials examined, U.S. coal byproducts may be technically suitable as REE ores. More work is required to establish economic suitability.

  10. Complementary rare earth element patterns in unique achondrites, such as ALHA 77005 and shergottites, and in the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Laul, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Abundances of major, minor, and trace elements are determined in the Antarctic achondrite Allan Hills (ALHA) 77005 via sequential instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The rare earth element (REE) abundances of ALHA 77005 reveal a unique chondritic normalized pattern; that is, the REEs are nearly unfractionated from La to Pr at approximately 1.0X chondrites, monotonically increased from Pr to Gd at approximately 3.4X with no Eu anomaly, nearly unfractionated from Gd and Ho and monotonically decreased from Ho to Lu at approximately 2.2X. It is noted that this unique REE pattern of ALHA 77005 can be modeled by a melting process involving a continuous melting and progressive partial removal of melt from a light REE enriched source material. In a model of this type, ALHA 77005 could represent either a crystallized cumulate from such a melt or the residual source material. Calculations show that the parent liquids for the shergottites could also be derived from a light REE enriched source material similar to that for ALHA 77005.

  11. Siku: A Sea Ice Discrete Element Method Model on a Spherical Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchitsky, A. V.; Hutchings, J. K.; Johnson, J.

    2014-12-01

    Offshore oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas can be significantly and adversely affected by sea ice. In the event of an oil spill, sea ice complicates the tracking of ice/oil trajectories and can hinder cleanup operations. There is a need for a sea ice dynamics model that can accurately simulate ice pack deformation and failure to improve the ability to track ice/oil trajectories and support oil response operations. A discrete element method (DEM) model, where each ice floe is represented by discrete elements that are initially bonded (frozen) together will be used to address the difficulty continuum modeling approaches have with representing discrete phenomena in sea ice, such as the formation of leads and ridges. Each discrete element in the DEM is a rigid body driven by environmental forcing (wind, current and Coriolis forces) and interaction forces with other discrete elements (compression, shear, tension, bond rupture and regrowth). We introduce a new DEM model ``Siku'', currently under development, to simulate ice drift of an ice floe on a spherical Earth. We will present initial free-drift results. Siku is focused on improving sea ice interaction mechanics and providing an accurate geometrical representation needed for basin scale and regional simulations. Upon completion, Siku will be an open source GNU GPL licensed user friendly program with embedded python capability for setting up simulations "scenarios" and coupling with other models to provide forcing fields. We use a unique quaternion representation for position and orientation of polygon sea-ice elements that use a second order integration scheme of sea-ice element motion on the Earth's sphere that does not depend on the location of the element and, hence, avoids numerical problems near the pole.

  12. Geochemical fractions and risk assessment of trace elements in soils around Jiaojia gold mine in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feifei; Kong, Linghao; Yang, Liyuan; Zhang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Soils located adjacent to the Jiaojia gold mine were sampled and analyzed to determine the degree of which they were contaminated by trace elements (Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in Shandong Province, China. All 18 samples exhibited mean Hg, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations in excess of local background values, while the mean concentrations of Cu and Zn were below the background values. In addition, the concentrations of trace elements in gold smelter (GS) soils were higher than in the gold mine (GM) soils. The result from a modified Tessier sequential extraction procedure was that with the exception of Cu in soils near the smelter, the trace elements were predominantly associated with the residual fraction. After residual fraction, most Hg was mainly humic acid and strong organic fraction, while most As was the humic acid. Cd was associated with the water soluble, ion exchange, and carbonate fractions compared with the other trace elements. Furthermore, Cu, Pb, and Zn were more concentrated in the humic acid and Fe/Mn oxide fraction. The fractions of trace elements were affected by soil pH and Ec (Electrical conductivity). The humic acid fraction of Hg as well as the ion exchange fraction of Cd and Zn displayed negative correlations with soil pH. The strong organic fraction of Hg, the Fe/Mn oxide fraction of Cd, and the carbonate fraction of Zn were positively related to the soil Ec. The strong organic fraction and ion exchange fraction of Zn were negatively related to soil Ec. However, the ion exchange and carbonate fractions of As showed significant positive correlations with soil pH. A calculated individual availability factor (A f (i) ) is used; the values of each trace element in the soils are in the following order: Cu > Cd > Pb > Zn > As > Hg. When combined with a risk assessment code, data suggest that Hg, As, Pb, and Zn levels showed low risk for the environment, whereas Cd levels in soils adjacent to the GM and Cu levels in soils adjacent to the GS showed

  13. Mining and Exploitation of Rare Earth Elements in Africa as an Engagement Strategy in US Africa Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-17

    Globalsecurity.org, 2010, 2. 3 Geology.com, “REE Rare Earth Elements and their Uses,” Geology.com, http://geology.com/ articles /rare-earth-elements/ (accessed...controversy for decades.36 Jasper, in his article “Engineered Extinction” specifically mentions U.S. rare earth mining. He details the impact that...35 Justin Rohrlich, “How China Came to Dominate the Rare Earths Market,” December 29, 2010, http://www.minyanville.com/businessmarkets/ articles

  14. Bioleaching of rare earth and radioactive elements from red mud using Penicillium tricolor RM-10.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Lian, Bin

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate biological leaching of rare earth elements (REEs) and radioactive elements from red mud, and to evaluate the radioactivity of the bioleached red mud used for construction materials. A filamentous, acid-producing fungi named RM-10, identified as Penicillium tricolor, is isolated from red mud. In our bioleaching experiments by using RM-10, a total concentration of 2% (w/v) red mud under one-step bioleaching process was generally found to give the maximum leaching ratios of the REEs and radioactive elements. However, the highest extraction yields are achieved under two-step bioleaching process at 10% (w/v) pulp density. At pulp densities of 2% and 5% (w/v), red mud processed under both one- and two-step bioleaching can meet the radioactivity regulations in China.

  15. Experimental partitioning of rare earth elements and scandium among armalcolite, ilmenite, olivine and mare basalt liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irving, A. J.; Merrill, R. B.; Singleton, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to measure partition coefficients for two rare-earth elements (Sm and Tm) and Sc among armalcolite, ilmenite, olivine and liquid coexisting in a system modeled on high-Ti mare basalt 74275. This 'primitive' sample was chosen for study because its major and trace element chemistry as well as its equilibrium phase relations at atmospheric pressure are known from previous studies. Beta-track analytical techniques were used so that partition coefficients could be measured in an environment whose bulk trace element composition is similar to that of the natural basalt. Partition coefficients for Cr and Mn were determined in the same experiments by microprobe analysis. The only equilibrium partial melting model appears to be one in which ilmenite is initially present in the source region but is consumed by melting before segregation of the high-Ti mare basalt liquid from the residue.

  16. Behavior and distribution of heavy metals including rare Earth elements, thorium, and uranium in sludge from industry water treatment plant and recovery method of metals by biosurfactants application.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Sato, Yuichi; Li, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the behavior, distribution, and characteristics of heavy metals including rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in sludge, the total and fractional concentrations of these elements in sludge collected from an industry water treatment plant were determined and compared with those in natural soil. In addition, the removal/recovery process of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, and Ni) from the polluted sludge was studied with biosurfactant (saponin and sophorolipid) elution by batch and column experiments to evaluate the efficiency of biosurfactant for the removal of heavy metals. Consequently, the following matters have been largely clarified. (1) Heavy metallic elements in sludge have generally larger concentrations and exist as more unstable fraction than those in natural soil. (2) Nonionic saponin including carboxyl group is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals in polluted sludge. Saponin has selectivity for the mobilization of heavy metals and mainly reacts with heavy metals in F3 (the fraction bound to carbonates) and F5 (the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides). (3) The recovery efficiency of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cr) reached about 90-100% using a precipitation method with alkaline solution.

  17. Numerical analysis of an H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method for time fractional telegraph equation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Min; Liu, Yang; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    We discuss and analyze an H(1)-Galerkin mixed finite element (H(1)-GMFE) method to look for the numerical solution of time fractional telegraph equation. We introduce an auxiliary variable to reduce the original equation into lower-order coupled equations and then formulate an H(1)-GMFE scheme with two important variables. We discretize the Caputo time fractional derivatives using the finite difference methods and approximate the spatial direction by applying the H(1)-GMFE method. Based on the discussion on the theoretical error analysis in L(2)-norm for the scalar unknown and its gradient in one dimensional case, we obtain the optimal order of convergence in space-time direction. Further, we also derive the optimal error results for the scalar unknown in H(1)-norm. Moreover, we derive and analyze the stability of H(1)-GMFE scheme and give the results of a priori error estimates in two- or three-dimensional cases. In order to verify our theoretical analysis, we give some results of numerical calculation by using the Matlab procedure.

  18. Numerical Analysis of an H1-Galerkin Mixed Finite Element Method for Time Fractional Telegraph Equation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Min; Liu, Yang; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    We discuss and analyze an H1-Galerkin mixed finite element (H1-GMFE) method to look for the numerical solution of time fractional telegraph equation. We introduce an auxiliary variable to reduce the original equation into lower-order coupled equations and then formulate an H1-GMFE scheme with two important variables. We discretize the Caputo time fractional derivatives using the finite difference methods and approximate the spatial direction by applying the H1-GMFE method. Based on the discussion on the theoretical error analysis in L2-norm for the scalar unknown and its gradient in one dimensional case, we obtain the optimal order of convergence in space-time direction. Further, we also derive the optimal error results for the scalar unknown in H1-norm. Moreover, we derive and analyze the stability of H1-GMFE scheme and give the results of a priori error estimates in two- or three-dimensional cases. In order to verify our theoretical analysis, we give some results of numerical calculation by using the Matlab procedure. PMID:25184148

  19. Multi-element including rare earth content of lichens, bark, soils, and waste following industrial closure.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Ana-Maria; Chimonides, P D James; Jones, Gary C; Garcia-Sanchez, Raquel; Purvis, O William

    2006-08-01

    The fate of rare earth and other rare elements entering the environment is largely unknown. The lichen Hypogymnia physodes was transplanted over a 40 km long transect centered on a major metallurgical waste dump close to the Zlatna town center two weeks after smelter closure. Lichens, bark, soil, and waste dump materials were analyzed for 56 elements (including REE). Lichen and bark multi-element compositions were alike, reflecting fixation of elements of environmental concern and the ability for tree canopies to concentrate substances leading to enhanced deposition to both lichens and bark. Higher REE enrichment in lichens than in soil confirm efficient fixation in lichens. The negative europium anomaly in lichens and soil, similar to that in upper crust, confirm a strong crustal influence on lichen signatures across the transect area. Multi-element analysis supports the view that epiphytic lichens, unlike trees, are not influenced by lower groundwater, and they are excellent indicators for REE and other rare elements entering the surface environment, difficult to detect by conventional means.

  20. Quantification of rare earth elements using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Martin, Madhavi; Martin, Rodger C.; Allman, Steve; ...

    2015-10-21

    In this paper, a study of the optical emission as a function of concentration of laser-ablated yttrium (Y) and of six rare earth elements, europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), lanthanum (La), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), and samarium (Sm), has been evaluated using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. Statistical methodology using multivariate analysis has been used to obtain the sampling errors, coefficient of regression, calibration, and cross-validation of measurements as they relate to the LIBS analysis in graphite-matrix pellets that were doped with elements at several concentrations. Each element (in oxide form) was mixed in the graphite matrix in percentages rangingmore » from 1% to 50% by weight and the LIBS spectra obtained for each composition as well as for pure oxide samples. Finally, a single pellet was mixed with all the elements in equal oxide masses to determine if we can identify the elemental peaks in a mixed pellet. This dataset is relevant for future application to studies of fission product content and distribution in irradiated nuclear fuels. These results demonstrate that LIBS technique is inherently well suited for the future challenge of in situ analysis of nuclear materials. Finally, these studies also show that LIBS spectral analysis using statistical methodology can provide quantitative results and suggest an approach in future to the far more challenging multielemental analysis of ~ 20 primary elements in high-burnup nuclear reactor fuel.« less

  1. Quantification of rare earth elements using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi; Martin, Rodger C.; Allman, Steve; Brice, Deanne; Wymore, Ann; Andre, Nicolas

    2015-10-21

    In this paper, a study of the optical emission as a function of concentration of laser-ablated yttrium (Y) and of six rare earth elements, europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), lanthanum (La), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), and samarium (Sm), has been evaluated using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. Statistical methodology using multivariate analysis has been used to obtain the sampling errors, coefficient of regression, calibration, and cross-validation of measurements as they relate to the LIBS analysis in graphite-matrix pellets that were doped with elements at several concentrations. Each element (in oxide form) was mixed in the graphite matrix in percentages ranging from 1% to 50% by weight and the LIBS spectra obtained for each composition as well as for pure oxide samples. Finally, a single pellet was mixed with all the elements in equal oxide masses to determine if we can identify the elemental peaks in a mixed pellet. This dataset is relevant for future application to studies of fission product content and distribution in irradiated nuclear fuels. These results demonstrate that LIBS technique is inherently well suited for the future challenge of in situ analysis of nuclear materials. Finally, these studies also show that LIBS spectral analysis using statistical methodology can provide quantitative results and suggest an approach in future to the far more challenging multielemental analysis of ~ 20 primary elements in high-burnup nuclear reactor fuel.

  2. Quantification of rare earth elements using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Madhavi; Martin, Rodger C.; Allman, Steve; Brice, Deanne; Wymore, Ann; Andre, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    A study of the optical emission as a function of concentration of laser-ablated yttrium (Y) and of six rare earth elements, europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), lanthanum (La), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), and samarium (Sm), has been evaluated using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. Statistical methodology using multivariate analysis has been used to obtain the sampling errors, coefficient of regression, calibration, and cross-validation of measurements as they relate to the LIBS analysis in graphite-matrix pellets that were doped with elements at several concentrations. Each element (in oxide form) was mixed in the graphite matrix in percentages ranging from 1% to 50% by weight and the LIBS spectra obtained for each composition as well as for pure oxide samples. Finally, a single pellet was mixed with all the elements in equal oxide masses to determine if we can identify the elemental peaks in a mixed pellet. This dataset is relevant for future application to studies of fission product content and distribution in irradiated nuclear fuels. These results demonstrate that LIBS technique is inherently well suited for the future challenge of in situ analysis of nuclear materials. These studies also show that LIBS spectral analysis using statistical methodology can provide quantitative results and suggest an approach in future to the far more challenging multielemental analysis of ~ 20 primary elements in high-burnup nuclear reactor fuel.

  3. Spectral Analysis of Rare Earth Elements using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z; Fox, Dr. Richard V; Miziolek, Andrzej W; DeLucia, Frank C; Andre, Nicolas O

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in rapid analysis of rare earth elements (REEs) both due to the need to find new natural sources to satisfy increased demand in their use in various electronic devices, as well as the fact that they are used to estimate actinide masses for nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) appears to be a particularly well-suited spectroscopy-based technology to rapidly and accurately analyze the REEs in various matrices at low concentration levels (parts-per-million). Although LIBS spectra of REEs have been reported for a number of years, further work is still necessary in order to be able to quantify the concentrations of various REEs in realworld complex samples. LIBS offers advantages over conventional solution-based radiochemistry in terms of cost, analytical turnaround, waste generation, personnel dose, and contamination risk. Rare earth elements of commercial interest are found in the following three matrix groups: 1) raw ores and unrefined materials, 2) as components in refined products such as magnets, lighting phosphors, consumer electronics (which are mostly magnets and phosphors), catalysts, batteries, etc., and 3) waste/recyclable materials (aka e-waste). LIBS spectra for REEs such as Gd, Nd, and Sm found in rare earth magnets are presented.

  4. Spectral Analysis of Rare Earth Elements using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z; Fox, Dr. Richard V; Miziolek, Andrzej W; DeLucia, Frank C; Andre, Nicolas O

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in rapid analysis of rare earth elements (REEs) both due to the need to find new natural sources to satisfy increased demand in their use in various electronic devices, as well as the fact that they are used to estimate actinide masses for nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) appears to be a particularly well-suited spectroscopy-based technology to rapidly and accurately analyze the REEs in various matrices at low concentration levels (parts-per-million). Although LIBS spectra of REEs have been reported for a number of years, further work is still necessary in order to be able to quantify the concentrations of various REEs in real-world complex samples. LIBS offers advantages over conventional solution-based radiochemistry in terms of cost, analytical turnaround, waste generation, personnel dose, and contamination risk. Rare earth elements of commercial interest are found in the following three matrix groups: 1) raw ores and unrefined materials, 2) as components in refined products such as magnets, lighting phosphors, consumer electronics (which are mostly magnets and phosphors), catalysts, batteries, etc., and 3) waste/recyclable materials (aka e-waste). LIBS spectra for REEs such as Gd, Nd, and Sm found in rare earth magnets are presented.

  5. Rare earth elements recycling from waste phosphor by dual hydrochloric acid dissolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hu; Zhang, Shengen; Pan, Dean; Tian, Jianjun; Yang, Min; Wu, Maolin; Volinsky, Alex A

    2014-05-15

    This paper is a comparative study of recycling rare earth elements from waste phosphor, which focuses on the leaching rate and the technical principle. The traditional and dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid (DHA) methods were compared. The method of dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid has been developed. The Red rare earth phosphor (Y0.95Eu0.05)2O3 in waste phosphor is dissolved during the first step of acid leaching, while the Green phosphor (Ce0.67Tb0.33MgAl11O19) and the Blue phosphor (Ba0.9Eu0.1MgAl10O17) mixed with caustic soda are obtained by alkali sintering. The excess caustic soda and NaAlO2 are removed by washing. The insoluble matter is leached by the hydrochloric acid, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation (the DHA method). In comparison, the total leaching rate of the rare earth elements was 94.6% by DHA, which is much higher than 42.08% achieved by the traditional method. The leaching rate of Y, Eu, Ce and Tb reached 94.6%, 99.05%, 71.45%, and 76.22%, respectively. DHA can decrease the consumption of chemicals and energy. The suggested DHA method is feasible for industrial applications.

  6. Spectral analysis of rare earth elements using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Fox, Robert V.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.; DeLucia, Frank C.; André, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    There is growing interest in rapid analysis of rare earth elements (REEs) both due to the need to find new natural sources to satisfy increased demand in their use in various electronic devices, as well as the fact that they are used to estimate actinide masses for nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) appears to be a particularly well-suited spectroscopy-based technology to rapidly and accurately analyze the REEs in various matrices at low concentration levels (parts-per-million). Although LIBS spectra of REEs have been reported for a number of years, further work is still necessary in order to be able to quantify the concentrations of various REEs in realworld complex samples. LIBS offers advantages over conventional solution-based radiochemistry in terms of cost, analytical turnaround, waste generation, personnel dose, and contamination risk. Rare earth elements of commercial interest are found in the following three matrix groups: 1) raw ores and unrefined materials, 2) as components in refined products such as magnets, lighting phosphors, consumer electronics (which are mostly magnets and phosphors), catalysts, batteries, etc., and 3) waste/recyclable materials (aka e-waste). LIBS spectra for REEs such as Gd, Nd, and Sm found in rare earth magnets are presented.

  7. Spectral Analysis of Rare Earth Elements using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Madhavi Z. Martin; Robert V. Fox; Andrzej W. Miziolek; Frank C. DeLucia, Jr.; Nicolas Andre

    2001-05-01

    There is growing interest in rapid analysis of rare earth elements (REEs) both due to the need to find new natural sources to satisfy increased demand in their use in various electronic devices, as well as the fact that they are used to estimate actinide masses for nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) appears to be a particularly well-suited spectroscopy-based technology to rapidly and accurately analyze the REEs in various matrices at low concentration levels (parts-per-million). Although LIBS spectra of REEs have been reported for a number of years, further work is still necessary in order to be able to quantify the concentrations of various REEs in realworld complex samples. LIBS offers advantages over conventional solution-based radiochemistry in terms of cost, analytical turnaround, waste generation, personnel dose, and contamination risk. Rare earth elements of commercial interest are found in the following three matrix groups: 1) raw ores and unrefined materials, 2) as components in refined products such as magnets, lighting phosphors, consumer electronics (which are mostly magnets and phosphors), catalysts, batteries, etc., and 3) waste/recyclable materials (aka e-waste). LIBS spectra for REEs such as Gd, Nd, and Sm found in rare earth magnets are presented.

  8. Deep-sea mud in the Pacific Ocean as a potential resource for rare-earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yasuhiro; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Nakamura, Kentaro; Takaya, Yutaro; Kitamura, Kenichi; Ohta, Junichiro; Toda, Ryuichi; Nakashima, Takuya; Iwamori, Hikaru

    2011-08-01

    World demand for rare-earth elements and the metal yttrium--which are crucial for novel electronic equipment and green-energy technologies--is increasing rapidly. Several types of seafloor sediment harbour high concentrations of these elements. However, seafloor sediments have not been regarded as a rare-earth element and yttrium resource, because data on the spatial distribution of these deposits are insufficient. Here, we report measurements of the elemental composition of over 2,000 seafloor sediments, sampled at depth intervals of around one metre, at 78 sites that cover a large part of the Pacific Ocean. We show that deep-sea mud contains high concentrations of rare-earth elements and yttrium at numerous sites throughout the eastern South and central North Pacific. We estimate that an area of just one square kilometre, surrounding one of the sampling sites, could provide one-fifth of the current annual world consumption of these elements. Uptake of rare-earth elements and yttrium by mineral phases such as hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxides and phillipsite seems to be responsible for their high concentration. We show that rare-earth elements and yttrium are readily recovered from the mud by simple acid leaching, and suggest that deep-sea mud constitutes a highly promising huge resource for these elements.

  9. Trace-Element Analysis of Metal Nodules, Magnetic and Nonmagnetic Fractions, and Chondrules of the Qingzhen EH3 Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G.; Pernicka, E.

    1993-07-01

    The contents of Na, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Sb, W, Ir, and Au in metallic nodules, magnetic and nonmagnetic fractions, and chondrules of the Qingzhen EH3 chondrite have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five of the largest separated chondrules (0.07- 5.77 mg) were selected for INAA. After extraction of the chondrules, the residual sample was gently ground to reduce the grain size and sieved into the following fractions: >500 micrometers, 200-500 micrometers, 100-200 micrometers, 50-100 micrometers, 15-50 micrometers, and <15 micrometers. All fractions were separated by a hand magnet into a nonmagnetic fraction, consisting mainly of silicates and sulfides (mainly troilite), and a magnetic fraction consisting of metal, sulfide, and minor silicates. The separated magnetic nodules from the >500-micrometer fraction weighed between 0.49 mg and 3.99 mg. From all the powders, aliquots of 10 mg were irradiated at the German Cancer Research Institute at Heidelberg (TRIGA-HD II) and counted by using a large-volume, high-resolution Ge(Li) detector. In every irradiation step two samples of the Allende chondrite acted as primary standards. Results: Element concentrations vary with the grain size of the metal due to kamacite in the coarse and schreibersite +- perryite in the intermediate and fine fractions. The element contents (normalized to Fe) of Na, Sc, Cr, Mn, Ni, Se, W, Ir, and Au increase in the metal with decreasing grain size. Cobalt and As display a trend opposite to that of Ni and Au, decreasing with decreasing grain size of the metal in Qingzhen. Whereas the abundance ratios (relative to CI chondrites) of As, Au, and Co are very similar, the refractory siderophile elements Ir and W are depleted in the metal. Under high reducing conditions Ir and W belong to the most refractory siderophiles. The depletion of the refractory elements in Qingzhen with respect to carbonaceous chondrites has been attributed to a partial

  10. Geochemical features of trace and rare earth elements of pumice in middle Okinawa Trough and its indication of magmatic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Shikui; Guo, Kun; Zong, Tong; Yu, Zenghui; Wang, Shujie; Cai, Zongwei; Zhang, Xia

    2017-04-01

    Pumice, the most widely distributed volcanic rock in Okinawa Trough, is loose and porous. Since its formation, it has definitely suffered from the denudation of the sea to different degrees. In order to truly reveal the geochemical features of pumice, we choose the method of mineral separation. Firstly, the phenocryst is separated from glass. Then the phenocryst is divided into light and heavy mineral compositions. By ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) analytical technology, the contents of trace and rare earth elements in the whole pumice, the glass and the heavy and light mineral compositions are determined respectively. By researching the elemental geochemical features, the magma dynamic processes are found. It shows that the initial magma for the pumice in Okinawa Trough came from the depleted mantle, from which the N-MORB (normal type of mid-ocean ridge basalt) is formed, homologous with the local basalts. But they are formed in different periods of magma crystal fractionation. Featured with sufficient crystal fractionation for pumice, it is found that the earlier crystallizing minerals are olivine, plagioclase and pyroxene. The pumice magma, formed from the depleted mantle, was mixed with additional subduction-related materials (components), and contaminated with the mass from upper crust when it rose up into the crust. As the Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin in its early back-arc spreading stage, its magmatism has a series of its own unique characteristics, different from not only the mid-ocean ridge expansion, but also the mature back-arc basin.

  11. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in minesoils from São Domingos mining district (Iberian Pyrite Belt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Joaquin; Perez-Lopez, Rafael; Nieto, Jose Miguel; Ayora, Carles

    2010-05-01

    The São Domingos mine is one of the most emblematic mining districts in the lower part of the Guadiana River Basin (SW of Iberian Peninsula). It is located in Portugal (about 5 km from the Spanish border), in the northern sector of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), one of the largest metallogenetic provinces of massive sulphides in the world. Although mining activity has ceased at present, the large-scale exploitation of this deposit between the second half of the XIX century and the first half of the XX century, has favoured the production of enormous waste dumps, where oxidation of pyrite and associated sulphides is resulting in the production of acid mine drainage (AMD). Mining wastes, minesoils, and acid mine drainage have been analyzed for their major ions and rare earth elements (REE) with the aim of understanding the REE mobility during sulphide weathering so that lanthanoid series can be used both as a proxy for the extent of water-rock interaction and as a tool for identifying impacts of AMD on natural ecosystems. Chemical speciation of REE in extracts from minesoils indicates that REE sulphate complexes (mainly LnSO4+) are the primary aqueous form (60-90%), and free ionic species (Ln3+, 10-40%) are the next most abundant form of soil water-soluble fraction and controls the REE speciation model. The REE from this fraction have NASC-normalized patterns with middle-REE (MREE) enriched signature compared to the light-REE (LREE) and heavy-REE (HREE), showing convex MREE-signatures and convexity index values of +1.29 +/- 1.13. These results are consistent with the typical REE fractionation patterns reported for AMD. Poorly crystalline iron oxyhydroxysulphates act as a source of labile MREE by dissolution and/or desorption processes and could explain the MREE-enriched signatures in solution.

  12. Neutron Activation Analysis of the Rare Earth Elements (REE) - With Emphasis on Geological Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stosch, Heinz-Günter

    2016-08-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been the analytical method of choice for rare earth element (REE) analysis from the early 1960s through the 1980s. At that time, irradiation facilitieswere widely available and fairly easily accessible. The development of high-resolution gamma-ray detectors in the mid-1960s eliminated, formany applications, the need for chemical separation of the REE from the matrix material, making NAA a reliable and effective analytical tool. While not as precise as isotopedilution mass spectrometry, NAA was competitive by being sensitive for the analysis of about half of the rare earths (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu). The development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry since the 1980s, together with decommissioning of research reactors and the lack of installation of new ones in Europe and North America has led to the rapid decline of NAA.

  13. Investigation of recovery and recycling of rare earth elements from waste fluorescent lamp phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eduafo, Patrick Max

    Characterization techniques and experimental measurements were used to evaluate a process for recycling rare earth elements (REEs) from spent fluorescent lamp phosphors. QEMSCAN analysis revealed that over 60% of the rare earth bearing minerals was less than 10 microm. A representative sample of the as-received feed contained 14.59 wt% total rare earth elements (TREE) and upon sieving to below 75 microm, the grade increased to 19.60 wt% REE with 98.75% recovery. Based on experimental work, a new process for extracting the chief REEs from end of life fluorescent lamps has been developed. The proposed flowsheet employs a three-stage leaching and precipitation process for selective extraction and recovery of the REEs. Hydrochloric acid was used as lixiviant in batch leach experiments on the phosphor powder. The maximum extraction obtained was 100% for both yttrium and europium under the following leaching conditions: 2.5 M HCl, 70°C, 1 hour, 180 g/L and 600 rpm. However, the solubility of cerium, lanthanum and terbium remained low at these conditions. Kinetic data of the leaching of yttrium and europium showed best fit to the logarithmic rate expression of the empirical model of leaching. Activation energy was calculated to be 77.49 kJ/mol for Y and 72.75 kJ/mol for Eu in the temperature range of 298 to 343 K. Precipitation tests demonstrate that at least 50% excess the stoichiometric amount of oxalic acid is needed to recover yttrium and europium efficiently to produce a pure (Y, Eu) mixed oxide. Total recovery of the REEs was achieved even at very low pH or without any base added. Over 99% pure mixed rare earth oxide at 99% recovery has been attained. An economic assessment of the developed process using operating and capital cost have be undertaken and based on the analysis of the three economic scenarios, two are economic and one is non-economic.

  14. Partitioning of rare earth elements, yttrium, and some major elements among source rocks, liquid and vapor of Larderello-Travale geothermal field, Tuscany (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, P.; Dulski, P.; Morteani, G.

    2003-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE), yttrium and some major element concentrations have been measured in the high-enthalpy fluids (HEF) of several geothermal wells and the fluid's source rocks in the Larderello-Travale area (Tuscany/Central Italy). The REE and Y abundances in the HEF range from 0.1 to about 10 pmol/kg and are slightly higher in the HEF originating from evaporite/carbonate sequences (Calcare Cavernoso) than in those from phyllites. The resulting REY distribution factors between HEF and source rocks, appKdsource-rockHEF defined as the ratios of REY/Ca in both phases, range from <0.01 to 0.03 and 0.03 to 0.1 for phyllites and evaporite-limestone sequences (Calcare Cavernoso), respectively. REE+Y are more retained by the source rocks than Ca. HEF show no inherited and, with exception of a small Y anomaly, no acquired anomalies. This indicates a static equilibrium between HEF and the source rocks. The absence of any Eu anomalies points to temperatures less than 250°C in the source region. The small negative Y anomalies are the result of Y depletion in the rock fractions taking part in the water-rock interaction. Due to depressurization of the HEF to about 120°C and 2 bars, a liquid and a vapor phase is produced, which were sampled for the determination of the REE+Y partitioning between the two phases. The apparent partition factors between vapor and liquid appDliquidvapor of REE+Y range between 0.05 to 0.2 and about 3 for HEF originating from the phyllites and evaporites/carbonates, respectively. Among all ionic species determined, only NH 4+ has an apparent partition factor appDliquidvapor above one. In general, REY partition more easily into the vapor phase than the earth alkaline and alkaline elements. No significant correlation of REE+Y in the vapor phase with any of the determined ionic species could be detected. This probably points to the dominant presence of ion pairing such as REY(OH) 3o or REYO(OH) o.

  15. Origin of Volatiles in Earth: Indigenous Versus Exogenous Sources Based on Highly Siderophile, Volatile Siderophile, and Light Volatile Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K. M.; Marin, N.; Nickodem, K.

    2015-01-01

    Origin of Earth's volatiles has traditionally been ascribed to late accretion of material after major differentiation events - chondrites, comets, ice or other exogenous sources. A competing theory is that the Earth accreted its volatiles as it was built, thus water and other building blocks were present early and during differentiation and core formation (indigenous). Here we discuss geochemical evidence from three groups of elements that suggests Earth's volatiles were acquired during accretion and did not require additional sources after differentiation.

  16. On the origin of falling-tone chorus elements in Earth's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuillard, H.; Agapitov, O.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Le Contel, O.; Cully, C. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Zaliznyak, Y.; Rolland, G.

    2014-12-01

    Generation of extremely/very low frequency (ELF/VLF) chorus waves in Earth's inner magnetosphere has received increased attention recently because of their significance for radiation belt dynamics. Though past theoretical and numerical models have demonstrated how rising-tone chorus elements are produced, falling-tone chorus element generation has yet to be explained. Our new model proposes that weak-amplitude falling-tone chorus elements can be generated by magnetospheric reflection of rising-tone elements. Using ray tracing in a realistic plasma model of the inner magnetosphere, we demonstrate that rising-tone elements originating at the magnetic equator propagate to higher latitudes. Upon reflection there, they propagate to lower L-shells and turn into oblique falling tones of reduced power, frequency, and bandwidth relative to their progenitor rising tones. Our results are in good agreement with comprehensive statistical studies of such waves, notably using magnetic field measurements from THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) spacecraft. Thus, we conclude that the proposed mechanism can be responsible for the generation of weak-amplitude falling-tone chorus emissions.

  17. Rare earth elements geochemistry in springs from Taftan geothermal area SE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, Ata; Ghoreyshinia, Sayedkazem; Mehrabi, Behzad; Delavari, Morteza

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in springs and andesitic-dacitic rocks of Taftan geothermal field. Hydrochemical results of major ions indicate that thermal springs are Na-SO4-Cl and Ca-SO4-Cl types. Concentrations of REEs are in ranges of 10- 4 to 1.2 and 49 to ~ 62 times of chondrite for springwater and rock samples, respectively. The thermal (STS and TTS) and the cold (APS) springs with low pH values exhibit a very high REE contents (0.64 to 3.15 mg/l). Saturation index indicates that Fe and Al phases can control dissolved REE concentration in FTS and PF cold springs. The speciation of REE complexes indicates dominant presence of LnSO4+ and free ion in the Taftan thermal springs. In APS cold spring with pH ~ 4, fluoride complexes are dominate over the free ion and sulfate species, while in PF and FTS cold springs with pH 6.4 and 7, respectively, carbonate complexes (LnCO3+) are predominant species. Chondrite-normalized pattern for the low-pH waters show very distinctive gull-wing patterns, characteristic feature of acid-sulfate geothermal systems, and are similar to those of the host rocks. Chemical characteristics of rare earth elements in spring and volcanic rock samples indicate that REEs are originated from the andesitic-dacitic host rocks. Whole-rock-normalized REE patterns and petrographic evidences show that rare earth elements leached mainly from marginal alteration of minerals and matrix decomposition in volcanic rocks. In chondrite-normalized REE patterns, significant negative Eu anomaly in the cold springs compare to the thermal and acidic springs indicates that alteration of plagioclase is more intense in the later, corresponding to increasing in temperature and acidic state of reactant water.

  18. Investigation of biological activity of fine fraction of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kustov, V. V.; Ostapenko, O. F.; Petrukhin, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    The biological action of a sample of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station from a new region of the mare surface on male white mice was studied. The condition and behavior of the animals were observed; the intensity of their oxygen consumption was recorded, and motor activity of the muscles, leucocyte and erythrocytes counts in the peripheral blood, and the activity of whole blood chloinesterase were determined. Experimental results showed that the tested doses of the fine fraction of the lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility were virtually innocuous for white mice.

  19. Selective liquid chromatographic separation of yttrium from heavier rare earth elements using acetic acid as a novel eluent.

    PubMed

    Kifle, Dejene; Wibetoe, Grethe

    2013-09-13

    One of the major difficulties in the rare earth elements separation is purification of yttrium from heavy rare earth elements. Thus, an HPLC method using acetic acid as novel eluent was explored for selective separation of yttrium form the heavy rare earth elements. When acetic acid is used as a mobile phase yttrium eluted with the lighter lanthanides. This is contrary to its relative position amongst heavier lanthanides when eluents commonly used for separation of rare earth elements were employed. The shift in elution position of yttrium with acetic acid as eluent may reflect a relatively lower stability constant of the yttrium-AcOH complex (in the same order as for the lighter lanthanides) compared to the corresponding AcOH complexes with heavy lanthanides, enabling selective separation of yttrium from the latter. The method was successfully used for selective separation of yttrium in mixed rare earth sample containing about 80% of yttrium and about 20% of heavy rare earth oxides. Thus, the use of AcOH as eluent is an effective approach for separating and determining the trace amounts of heavy rare earth elements in large amounts of yttrium matrix. Separation was performed on C18 column by running appropriate elution programs. The effluent from the column was monitored with diode array detector at absorbance wavelength of 658nm after post column derivatization with Arsenazo III.

  20. Standardless EDXRF application for quantification of thorium (Th), uranium (U) and rare earth elements (REEs) in various Malaysian rare earth ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruf, Mohd Izzat Fahmi Mohd; Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul; AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.

    2016-11-01

    Our local rare earth ores contained substantial amount of Thorium and Uranium which the level exceed permissible limit adopted by Malaysia and many importing nation. X-ray fluorescence technique has been applied for determination of thorium (Th), uranium (U) and rare earth elements (REEs) in Malaysian rare earth ores as it's recognized as viable tool. XRF has been widely used in detecting elemental composition of unknown materials both qualitative and quantitatively because of its wide range of element detection alongside the non-destructive analytical technique with great accuracy and precision. Four types of minerals sample which is monazite, xenotime, ilmenite and zircon were collected from `amang' factory located in famous city of mining, Ipoh and analyzed using EDXRF.

  1. Geochemical behaviour of trace elements during fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation of the felsic alkaline magmas of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Motoki, Akihisa; Sichel, Susanna E; Vargas, Thais; Melo, Dean P; Motoki, Kenji F

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents geochemical behaviour of trace elements of the felsic alkaline rocks of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with special attention of fractional crystallization and continental crust assimilation. Fractionation of leucite and K-feldspar increases Rb/K and decreases K2O/(K2O+Na2O). Primitive nepheline syenite magmas have low Zr/TiO2, Sr, and Ba. On the Nb/Y vs. Zr/TiO2 diagram, these rocks are projected on the field of alkaline basalt, basanite, and nephelinite, instead of phonolite. Well-fractionated peralkaline nepheline syenite has high Zr/TiO2 but there are no zircon. The diagrams of silica saturation index (SSI) distinguish the trends originated form fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation. In the field of SSI<-200, Zr/TiO2 and Ba/Sr have negative correlations to SSI in consequence of fractional crystallization. In the field of SSI>-200, they show positive correlations due to continental crust assimilation. Total REEs (Rare Earth Elements) is nearly 10 times that of granitic rocks, but LaN/SmN and LaN/YbN are similar. REE trend is linear and Eu anomaly is irrelevant. The pegmatitic liquid generated by country rock partial melting is SiO2-oversaturated and peraluminous with high Ba, Sr, Ba/Sr, Zr/TiO2, and SSI, with high content of fluids. This model justifies the peraluminous and SiO2-oversaturated composition of the rocks with relevant effects of continental crust assimilation.

  2. Use of X-ray Fluorescence Analysis for the Determination of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is a powerful tool for the analysis of solid material. That is the reason why the technique was applied for the determination of rare earth elements (REEs) since about 1970. At present, energy-dispersive XRF and wavelength-dispersive XRF are used for the analysis of pressed powder pellets or fused Li-borate beads containing REEs. The production of reliable results can only be achieved by careful optimization of the parameter, in particular the selection of spectral lines. The quantification is based on a calibration realized by using reference samples.

  3. Influence of rare earth elements (Nd, Sm, Gd) on the physicochemical properties of ges crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madatov, R. S.; Alekperov, A. S.; Magerramova, Dzh. A.

    2015-11-01

    Layered semiconductors (including GeS), which are widely used in modern electronics, are of great interest for researchers. New GeS-based devices have been developed for holographic recording, optical processing, and storage of information. In the last few years, American scientists have developed a unique GeS-based device that makes it possible to accumulate an immense amount of solar energy. The introduction of rare earth elements (REEs) facilitates the healing of metal and chalcogenide vacancies, removes polytypism, and enhances interlayer interaction.

  4. Rare-Earth Elements in Lighting and Optical Applications and Their Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xin; Chang, Moon-Hwan; Pecht, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are used in lighting and optical applications to enable color and light adjustment, miniaturization, and energy efficiency. Common applications of REEs include phosphors for light-emitting diodes, lasers, and electronic video displays. This article reviews how REEs are widely used in these applications. However, supply constraints, including rising prices, environmental concerns over mining and refining processes, and China's control over the supply of the vast majority of REEs, are of concern for manufacturers. In view of these supply constraints, this article discusses ways for manufacturers of lighting and optical devices to identify potential substitutes and recycling methods for REEs.

  5. Studies of rare earth element distribution and action in human erythrocyte and animal hepatocyte by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. P.; Mi, Y.; Shen, H.; Yao, H. Y.; Cheng, Y.; Wang, X.; Zhang, J. X.

    2002-04-01

    PIXE analysis is applied to investigate a long-term disputed issue whether the rare earth element (REE) can enter the cell across the cell membrane or not. It has been illustrated that REE could travel across the biomembrane into the cells by cell studies in vitro as well as in studies of animals fed with REEs diet. The binding of REE by membrane changes its permeability and makes intracellular ion transportable. Entrance of REEs may influence the cellular function. In addition, the REE distribution and behavior in cell are discussed.

  6. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as an element-specific detector for field-flow fractionation particle separation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Howard E.; Garbarino, John R.; Murphy, Deirdre M.; Beckett, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer was used for the quantitative measurement of trace elements In specific,submicrometer size-fraction particulates, separated by sedimentation field-flow fractionation. Fractions were collected from the eluent of the field-flow fractionation centrifuge and nebulized, with a Babington-type pneumatic nebulizer, into an argon inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. Measured Ion currents were used to quantify the major, minor, and trace element composition of the size-separated colloidal (< 1-microm diameter) particulates. The composition of surface-water suspended matter collected from the Yarra and Darling rivers in Australia is presented to illustrate the usefulness of this tool for characterizing environmental materials. An adsorption experiment was performed using cadmium lon to demonstrate the utility for studying the processes of trace metal-suspended sediment interactions and contaminant transport in natural aquatic systems.

  7. Size fractionation of wood extractives, lignin and trace elements in pulp and paper mill wastewater before and after biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Leiviskä, Tiina; Rämö, Jaakko; Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Kuokkanen, Toivo

    2009-07-01

    Integrated kraft pulp and paper mill wastewater was characterized before (influent) and after (effluent) the activated sludge process by microfiltration (8, 3, 0.45 and 0.22 microm) and ultrafiltration (100, 50, 30 and 3 kDa) into different size fractions. Wood extractives, lignin, suspended solids and certain trace elements were determined in each fraction. Forty four percent of the resin and fatty acids in the influent (12.8 mg/L) occurred in particles (>0.45 microm), 20% as colloids (0.45 microm-3 kDa) and 36% in the <3 kDa fraction. The corresponding values for sterols (1.5 mg/L) were 5, 46 and 49%. In the effluent, resin and fatty acids (1.45 mg/L) and sterols (0.26 mg/L) were mainly present in the <3 kDa fraction, as well as a small proportion in particles. beta-sitosterol was present in particles in the effluent (88+/-50 microg/L). Lignin in the influent was mainly in the colloidal and <3 kDa fractions, whereas in the effluent it was mainly in the <3 kDa fraction. Thus the decrease of lignin in the biological treatment was concentrated on the colloidal fraction. In the influent, Mn, Zn and Si were mainly present in the <3 kDa fraction, whereas a significant proportion of Fe and Al were found also in the particle and colloidal fractions. In the effluent, Fe and Al were mainly present in the colloidal fraction; in contrast, Mn, Zn and Si were mainly in the <3 kDa fraction. The results indicated that the release of certain compounds and elements into the environment could be significantly decreased or even prevented simply by employing microfiltration as a final treatment step or by enhancing particle removal in the secondary clarifier.

  8. Assessment of elemental composition and properties of copper smelter-affected dust and its nano- and micron size fractions.

    PubMed

    Ermolin, Mikhail S; Fedotov, Petr S; Ivaneev, Alexandr I; Karandashev, Vasily K; Burmistrov, Andrey A; Tatsy, Yury G

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive approach has been developed to the assessment of composition and properties of atmospherically deposited dust in the area affected by a copper smelter. The approach is based on the analysis of initial dust samples, dynamic leaching of water soluble fractions in a rotating coiled column (RCC) followed by the determination of recovered elements and characterization of size, morphology and elemental composition of nano-, submicron, and micron particles of dust separated using field-flow fractionation in a RCC. Three separated size fractions of dust (<0.2, 0.2-2, and >2 μm) were characterized by static light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, whereupon the fractions were analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS (after digestion). It has been evaluated that toxic elements, which are characteristics for copper smelter emissions (As, Cu, Zn), are accumulated in fraction >2 μm. At the same time, up to 2.4, 3.1, 8.2, 6.7 g/kg of As, Cu, Zn, Pb, correspondently, were found in nanoparticles (<0.2 μm). It has been also shown that some trace elements (Sn, Sb, Ag, Bi, and Tl) are accumulated in fraction <0.2, and their content in this fraction may be one order of magnitude higher than that in the fraction >2 μm, or the bulk sample. It may be assumed that Sn, Sb, Ag, Bi, Tl compounds are adsorbed onto the finest dust particles as compared to As, Cu, Zn compounds, which are directly emitted from the copper smelter as microparticles.

  9. Effects of rare earth elements and REE-binding proteins on physiological responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongwu; Wang, Xue; Chen, Zhiwei

    2012-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs), which include 17 elements in the periodic table, share chemical properties related to a similar external electronic configuration. REEs enriched fertilizers have been used in China since the 1980s. REEs could enter the cell and cell organelles, influence plant growth, and mainly be bound with the biological macromolecules. REE-binding proteins have been found in some plants. In addition, the chlorophyll activities and photosynthetic rate can be regulated by REEs. REEs could promote the protective function of cell membrane and enhance the plant resistance capability to stress produced by environmental factors, and affect the plant physiological mechanism by regulating the Ca²⁺ level in the plant cells. The focus of present review is to describe how REEs and REE-binding proteins participate in the physiological responses in plants.

  10. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in Permian coals from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zheng, Lingyun; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Qi, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) in coals are important because of: (a) REE patterns can be an indicator of the nature of source rocks of the mineral matter as well as sedimentary environments; (b) REEs abundance in coal may have industrial-significance. In this study, a total of thirty-four samples of Permian coal, partings, roof, and floor were collected from the Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China. Abundances of rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements in the samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled-plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the REEs are enriched in coals in the Huaibei Coalfield as compared with Chinese and U.S. coals and the world coal average. Coals in the Lower Shihezi Formation (No. 7, 5, and 4 Coals) and Upper Shihezi Formation (No. 3) have higher REE abundances than the coals in Shanxi Formation (No. 10). Magmatic intrusion resulted in high enrichment of REEs concentrations in No. 5 and 7 Coals. The REE abundances are positively correlated with the ash content. The mineral matter in these coals is mainly made up of clay minerals and carbonates. The REEs are positively correlated with lithophile elements including Si, Al, Ti, Fe, and Na, which are mainly distributed in clay minerals, indicating that REEs are contained mainly in clay minerals. The REE abundances in coals normalized by the ash are higher than that in partings. REEs abundances of coals cannot be accounted for by the REE content in the mineral matter, and some REEs associated with organic matter in coals. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in Permian coals from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liugen; Liu, Guijian; Chou, Chen-Lin; Qi, Cuicui; Zhang, Ying

    2007-10-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) in coals are important because of: (a) REE patterns can be an indicator of the nature of source rocks of the mineral matter as well as sedimentary environments; (b) REEs abundance in coal may have industrial-significance. In this study, a total of thirty-four samples of Permian coal, partings, roof, and floor were collected from the Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China. Abundances of rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements in the samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled-plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the REEs are enriched in coals in the Huaibei Coalfield as compared with Chinese and U.S. coals and the world coal average. Coals in the Lower Shihezi Formation (No. 7, 5, and 4 Coals) and Upper Shihezi Formation (No. 3) have higher REE abundances than the coals in Shanxi Formation (No. 10). Magmatic intrusion resulted in high enrichment of REEs concentrations in No. 5 and 7 Coals. The REE abundances are positively correlated with the ash content. The mineral matter in these coals is mainly made up of clay minerals and carbonates. The REEs are positively correlated with lithophile elements including Si, Al, Ti, Fe, and Na, which are mainly distributed in clay minerals, indicating that REEs are contained mainly in clay minerals. The REE abundances in coals normalized by the ash are higher than that in partings. REEs abundances of coals cannot be accounted for by the REE content in the mineral matter, and some REEs associated with organic matter in coals.

  12. Studies of various elements of nutritional and toxicological interest associated with different molecular weight fractions in Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Kannamkumarath, Sasi S; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G; Caruso, Joseph A

    2004-09-22

    On-line hyphenation of size exclusion chromatography (SEC), UV, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to study the molecular weight distribution patterns of several elements in Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa). This technique was used for the elemental speciation of different elements of nutritional and toxicological interests such as Mg, Fe, Co, Mo, Ag, Hg, and Pb. Elemental fractionation in Brazil nuts was studied using a Superdex peptide column with resolving capacity in the range of 14 to 0.18 kDa. Three different mobile phases, Tris buffer solution (pH 8.0), phosphate buffer (pH 7.5), and CAPS buffer solution (pH 10.0), were tried for the SEC fractionation. Size exclusion fractionation of all the extracted solutions was performed using a 50 mmol L(-)(1) Tris buffer (pH 8) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.6 mL min(-)(1). Three different extractions, 0.05 mol L(-)(1) NaOH, 0.05 mol L(-)(1) HCl, and hot water at 60 degrees C, were performed, and the association of elements with various molecular weight fractions was evaluated. Total elemental concentrations in the extracted samples were determined and compared with the values obtained after total digestion to calculate the recovery values. Generally, high extraction efficiency was obtained with the NaOH solution as compared with HCl and hot water except in the case of magnesium, for which HCl was found to be a good extractant. Chromatographic elution profiles for these extractions were quite distinct from each other in most cases. Most of the elemental species were found to be associated with high molecular weight fractions. To study the differences obtained during the sample-processing step, the results obtained for nuts with shell were treated differently from those obtained for nuts purchased without shell and were compared.

  13. Rare earth element variations resulting from inversion of pigeonite and subsolidus reequilibration in lunar ferroan anorthosites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, O.B.; Floss, C.; McGee, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present results of a secondary ion mass spectrometry study of the rare earth elements (REEs) in the minerals of two samples of lunar ferroan anorthosite, and the results are applicable to studies of REEs in all igneous rocks, no matter what their planet of origin. Our pyroxene analyses are used to determine solid-solid REE distribution coefficients (D = CREE in low-Ca pyroxene/CREE in augite) in orthopyroxene-augite pairs derived by inversion of pigeonite. Our data and predictions from crystal-chemical considerations indicate that as primary pigeonite inverts to orthopyroxene plus augite and subsolidus reequilibration proceeds, the solid-solid Ds for orthopyroxene-augite pairs progressively decrease for all REEs; the decrease is greatest for the LREEs. The REE pattern of solid-solid Ds for inversion-derived pyroxene pairs is close to a straight line for Sm-Lu and turns upward for REEs lighter than Sm; the shape of this pattern is predicted by the shapes of the REE patterns for the individual minerals. Equilibrium liquids calculated for one sample from the compositions of primary phases, using measured or experimentally determined solid-liquid Ds, have chondrite-normalized REE patterns that are very slightly enriched in LREEs. The plagioclase equilibrium liquid is overall less rich in REEs than pyroxene equilibrium liquids, and the discrepancy probably arises because the calculated plagioclase equilibrium liquid represents a liquid earlier in the fractionation sequence than the pyroxene equilibrium liquids. "Equilibrium" liquids calculated from the compositions of inversion-derived pyroxenes or orthopyroxene derived by reaction of olivine are LREE depleted (in some cases substantially) in comparison with equilibrium liquids calculated from the compositions of primary phases. These discrepancies arise because the inversion-derived and reaction-derived pyroxenes did not crystallize directly from liquid, and the use of solid-liquid Ds is inappropriate. The LREE

  14. Organic complexation of rare earth elements in natural waters: Evaluating model calculations from ultrafiltration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourret, Olivier; Davranche, Mélanie; Gruau, Gérard; Dia, Aline

    2007-06-01

    The Stockholm Humic Model (SHM) and Humic Ion-Binding Models V and VI were compared for their ability to predict the role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the speciation of rare earth elements (REE) in natural waters. Unlike Models V and VI, SHM is part of a speciation code that also allows us to consider dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption and oxidation/reduction reactions. In this context, it is particularly interesting to test the performance of SHM. The REE specific equilibrium constants required by the speciation models were estimated using linear free-energy relationships (LFER) between the first hydrolysis constants and the stability constants for REE complexation with lactic and acetic acid. Three datasets were used for the purpose of comparison: (i) World Average River Water (Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) = 5 mg L -1), previously investigated using Model V, was reinvestigated using SHM and Model VI; (ii) two natural organic-rich waters (DOC = 18-24 mg L -1), whose REE speciation has already been determined with both Model V and ultrafiltration studies, were also reinvestigated using SHM and Model VI; finally, (iii) new ultrafiltration experiments were carried out on samples of circumneutral-pH (pH 6.2-7.1), organic-rich (DOC = 7-20 mg L -1) groundwaters from the Kervidy-Naizin and Petit-Hermitage catchments, western France. The results were then compared with speciation predictions provided by Model VI and SHM, successively. When applied to World Average River Water, both Model VI and SHM yield comparable results, confirming the earlier finding that a large fraction of the dissolved REE in rivers occurs as organic complexes This implies that the two models are equally valid for calculating REE speciation in low-DOC waters at circumneutral-pH. The two models also successfully reproduced ultrafiltration results obtained for DOC-rich acidic groundwaters and river waters. By contrast, the two models yielded different results when compared to

  15. Uptake and effect of rare earth elements on gene expression in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    DOE PAGES

    Gu, Wenyu; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; DiSpirito, Alan A.; ...

    2016-05-12

    It is well-known that M. trichosporium OB3b has two forms of methane monooxygenase responsible for the initial conversion of methane to methanol, a cytoplasmic (soluble) methane monooxygenase (sMMO) and a membrane-associated (particulate) methane monooxygenase (pMMO) and that copper strongly regulates expression of these alternative forms of MMO. More recently, it has been discovered that M. trichosporium OB3b has multiple types of the methanol dehydrogenase (MeDH), i.e. the Mxa-MeDH and Xox-MeDH, and the expression of these two forms is regulated by the availability of the rare earth element, cerium. Here we extend these studies and show that lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium andmore » samarium also regulate expression of alternative forms of MeDH. The effect of these rare earth elements on MeDH expression, however, was only observed in the absence of copper. Further, a mutant of M. trichosporium OB3b where the Mxa-MeDH was knocked out was able to grow in the presence of lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium, but was not able to grow in the presence of samarium. In conclusion, collectively these data suggest that multiple levels of gene regulation by metals exist in M. trichosporium OB3b but that copper overrides the effect of other metals by an as yet unknown mechanism.« less

  16. Atomic hydrogen in. gamma. -irradiated hydroxides of alkaline-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Yurik, T.K.; Barsova, L.I.

    1982-04-01

    Atomic hydrogen is an important intermediate product formed in the radiolysis of compounds containing X-H bonds. H atoms have been detected in irradiated matrices of H/sub 2/ and inert gases at 4/sup 0/K, in irradiated ice and frozen solutions of acids in irradiated salts and in other systems. Here results are presented from a study of the ESR spectra of H atoms generated in polycrystalline hydroxides of alkaline-earth elements that have been ..gamma..-irradiated at 77/sup 0/K, after preliminary treatment at various temperatures. For the first time stabilization of atomic hydrogen in ..gamma..-irradiated polycrystalline alkaline-earth element hydroxides has been detected. Depending on the degree of dehydroxylation, several types of hydrogen atoms may be stabilized in the hydroxides, these hydrogen atoms having different radiospectroscopic parameters. In the magnesium-calcium-strontium-barium hydroxide series, a regular decrease has been found in the hfi constants for H atoms with the cations in the immediate surroundings. A direct proportionality has been found between the parameters ..delta..A/A/sub 0/ and the polarizability of the cation.

  17. Rare earth elements in soils from selected areas on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, W.M.; Halbig, J.B.

    1985-07-01

    Fifty soil samples for the wet, windward (east) side and dry, leeward (west) side of the Island of Hawaii were analyzed for La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, and Lu by neutron activation/gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis. Data on concentrations in each sample are listed and analyzed statistically for soil samples collected from the western slope of Kohala Mountain, the western coastal plain of Mauna Kea, and the Northeastern coastal plain of Maunal Loa. Rare earth element (REE) concentrations are two to six times greater in soils from the western, dry side of the island, and good statistical correlation is exhibited among the samples for pairs of individual REEs. In the organic-rich soils of the east side, correlations are poor but are markedly improved when sample weights are adjusted for weight due to organic matter and water in soil colloids. If the mean compositions of selected rock samples from the Hawaii Reference Suite are representative of the compositions of the parent materials, REEs in the soils are moderately enriched (up to two times, based on oven-dry weights). Rare earth element concentrations in the island's western soils are as much as two times greater than the mean REE values of common sedimentary rocks worldwide; however, they are well within the concentration ranges of soils of continental origin. The eastern soils tend to have less La and Ce, but similar amounts of the middle and heavy REEs.

  18. While China's dominance in rare earths dips, concerns remain about these and other elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    China's dominance in the production of rare earth elements (REEs) peaked with that nation producing 97% of them in 2010; this number already has dipped to 90% in 2012 as mines in other nations are coming online, according to REE expert Karl Gschneidner Jr., a professor at Iowa State University's Ames Laboratory. Chinese production could drop to 60% by 2014, with production increasing at mines in the United States and other countries, he said. However, this reduction in China's share of REE production does not signal an end to the production crisis in REEs and other critical minerals, Gschneidner and others noted during a 1 May panel discussion on critical materials shortages at the AGU Science Policy Conference in Washington, D. C. REEs are a group of 17 chemically similar metallic elements used in a variety of electronic, optical, magnetic, and catalytic applications, and despite their name, they are relatively plentiful in the Earth's crust. China's control of known REE reserves has dropped from 75% in 1975 to 30.9% in 2012, with other regions also having large reserves, including the Commonwealth of Independent States (some former Soviet Republic states), the United States, and Australia, according to Gschneidner. Critical minerals are mineral commodities that are particularly important for a nation's economy or national defense that could potentially face supply disruptions.

  19. Seawater rare-earth element patterns preserved in apatite of Pennsylvanian conodonts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Camomilia A.; Cruse, Anna M.; Lyons, Timothy W.; MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Glascock, Michael D.; Ethington, Raymond L.

    2009-03-01

    Past workers have used rare-earth element patterns recorded in biogenic apatite as proxies for original seawater chemistry. To explore the potency of this approach, we analyzed Pennsylvanian conodonts from limestones, gray shales, and black shales of the Fort Scott and Pawnee formations (Desmoinesian) and Swope and Dennis formations (Missourian) in Kansas, Missouri, and Iowa, U.S.A. Analysis of individual platform conodonts from seven taxa using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) revealed a consistent enrichment in the middle rare-earth elements (MREE). Analogous MREE enrichment has been observed in authigenic apatite and bulk samples of phosphate-rich black shales from the same formations. Importantly, however, phosphate-depleted shales intimately associated with the P-rich intervals are relatively depleted in MREE. These antithetic patterns argue convincingly for secondary migration from the bulk sediment into the phosphate, and the extent of MREE enrichment in the conodonts is correlated positively with the total REE content. MREE enrichment in conodonts does not vary systematically as a function of lithology, stratigraphic level, conodont genus, geographic location, or with independent estimates of paleoredox conditions in the bottom waters. Collectively, these results argue for postmortem (diagenetic) REE uptake resulting in a pronounced (and progressive) MREE enrichment. Any cerium anomalies, if initially present, were masked by diagenetic uptake of REE. Paleoenvironmental interpretations of conodont REE, particularly for samples exhibiting MREE enrichment, should therefore be viewed with caution.

  20. Rare earth elements--a new generation of growth promoters for pigs?

    PubMed

    He, M L; Rambeck, W A

    2000-01-01

    The present study which includes two feeding experiments was performed to investigate a possible performance enhancing effect of rare earth elements (REF) in piglets. This performance enhancing effect has been described in the Chinese literature for a long time, however, it was never tested under "western conditions". In the first feeding experiment 72 piglets at a mean BW of 7.3 kg were allotted to a control and to 4 REE groups at different levels of lanthanum chloride or an REE mixture containing mainly chlorides of lanthanum, cerium and praseodymium. The experimental period lasted 5 weeks. Positive effects of REE were found on body weight gain as well as on feed conversion ratio of the piglets. Compared to the control group, the daily weight gain was improved by 2 to 5% and feed conversion was better by up to 7%. These effects were, however, not significant. In the second feeding experiment, piglets (mean BW 17.3 kg) were fed for 8 weeks with a similar REE mixture. Significant positive effects of REE were found on both body weight gain and on feed conversion ratio by 19% and 10%, respectively. This is the first time that a performance enhancing effect of REE in pigs under western feeding conditions has been shown. Since the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed has been restricted in the European Union recently, rare earth elements might be of interest as new, safe and inexpensive alternative performance enhancers.

  1. Toward understanding early Earth evolution: Prescription for approach from terrestrial noble gas and light element records in lunar soils

    PubMed Central

    Ozima, Minoru; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Podosek, Frank A.; Miura, Yayoi N.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the almost total lack of geological record on the Earth's surface before 4 billion years ago, the history of the Earth during this period is still enigmatic. Here we describe a practical approach to tackle the formidable problems caused by this lack. We propose that examinations of lunar soils for light elements such as He, N, O, Ne, and Ar would shed a new light on this dark age in the Earth's history and resolve three of the most fundamental questions in earth science: the onset time of the geomagnetic field, the appearance of an oxygen atmosphere, and the secular variation of an Earth–Moon dynamical system. PMID:19001263

  2. The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements: A Reference Guide (by Robert E. Krebs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Reviewed By Jeffrey D.

    1999-04-01

    Greenwood Press: Westport, CT, 1998. 282 pp + 25 pp glossary + 37 pp index. 15.9 x 24.1 cm. ISBN 0-313-30123-9. $39.95. This book is an excellent resource for chemical educators at the high school and college levels. The format of the text is consistent and the writing style is clear and concise, making it ideally suited for student use also. The first three chapters serve to introduce the reader to a brief history of chemistry, early models of the atom, and the development of the periodic table. Names of the contributing scientists are mentioned whenever necessary, but the overall purpose of these introductory chapters is simply to lay a foundation for the subsequent seven chapters. A complete glossary of important scientific terms mentioned in the text should allow beginning students to use this book without feeling overwhelmed. Each entry for the 112 elements contains the following information: elemental symbol, atomic number, period, common valence, atomic weight, natural state, common isotopes, properties, characteristics, abundance, natural sources, history, common uses and compounds, and safety hazards. This information is well organized, with clear headings and separate sections making the book extremely user-friendly. Readers can easily obtain the information they desire without having to skim the full entry for a chosen element. One very nice feature of this book is that the elements entries are arranged by their locations in the periodic table. For example, chapter 4 contains the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. This organizational scheme allows one to quickly see the patterns and trends within groups of elements. This format is significantly better than arranging the elements in alphabetical order, which places the entry for sodium far removed from the entries for lithium and potassium. I would highly recommend this book to high school teachers and college chemistry professors. It is well written and is an excellent source of information for

  3. Isotopic distributions, element ratios, and element mass fractions from enrichment-meter-type gamma-ray measurements of MOX

    SciTech Connect

    Close, D.A.; Parker, J.L.; Haycock, D.L. ); Dragnev, T. )

    1991-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectra from infinitely'' thick mixed oxide samples have been measured. The plutonium isotopics, the U/Pu ratio, the high-Z mass fractions (assuming only plutonium, uranium, and americium), and the low-Z mass fraction (assuming the matrix is only oxygen) can be determined by carefully analyzing the data. The results agree well with the chemical determination of these parameters. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Distribution characteristics of rare earth elements in children's scalp hair from a rare earths mining area in southern China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shi-Lu; Zhu, Wang-Zhao; Gao, Zhao-Hua; Meng, Yu-Xiu; Peng, Rui-Ling; Lu, Guo-Cheng

    2004-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the validity of using scalp hair rare earth elements (REEs) content as a biomarker of human REEs exposure, data were collected on REEs exposure levels from children aged 11-15 years old and living in an ion-adsorptive type light REEs (LREEs) mining and surrounding areas in southern China. Sixty scalp hair samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for 16 REEs (La Lu, Y and Sc). Sixteen REEs contents in the samples from the mining area (e.g., range: La: 0.14-6.93 microg/g; Nd: 0.09-5.27 microg/g; Gd: 12.2-645.6ng/g; Lu: 0.2-13.3 ng/g; Y: 0.03-1.27 microg/g; Sc: 0.05-0.30 microg/g) were significantly higher than those from the reference area (range: La: 0.04-0.40 microg/g; Nd: 0.04-0.32 microg/g; Gd: 8.3-64.6 ng/g; Lu: 0.4-3.3ng/g; Y: 0.03-0.29 microg/g; Sc: 0.11-0.36 microg/g) and even much higher than those published in the literature. The distribution pattern of REEs in scalp hair from the mining area was very similar to that of REEs in the mine and the atmosphere shrouding that area. In conclusion, the scalp hair REEs contents may indicate not only quantitatively but also qualitatively (distribution pattern) the absorption of REEs from environmental exposure into human body. The children living in this mining area should be regarded as a high-risk group with REEs (especially LREEs) exposure, and their health status should be examined from a REEs health risk assessment perspective.

  5. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 5: System design and specifications. Part 1: Observatory system element specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The performance, design, and quality assurance requirements for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Observatory and Ground System program elements required to perform the Land Resources Management (LRM) A-type mission are presented. The requirements for the Observatory element with the exception of the instruments specifications are contained in the first part.

  6. The possible role of hydrogen in the substitution of rare earth elements into zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinton, R.; MacDonald, R.; Macgarvie, D.; Tindle, A.; Harley, S.

    2003-04-01

    Ion microprobe measurements have been made of trace element concentrations in zircon and surrounding fresh glass of 5 recently erupted rhyolites. In particular analyses have included not only rare earth elements (REE), but many of the elements that have been suggested to be incorporated into zircon. Y and the REE elements were found to be the dominant trace elements in the zircon and these elements varied by over an order of magnitude between grains despite a relatively constant REE content in the surrounding glasses. Strong correlations were observed between Y and all other REE except Ce and Eu. As has been previously observed, the REE partitioning coefficients (zircon/glass) increased strongly from La to Lu. The Ce partitioning was significantly higher than the neighbouring REE (as this element dominantly substitutes as the 4+ ion). Whereas it has been previously demonstrated that xenotime substitution occurs in zircon it is clear that in some strongly zoned crystals the P content is insufficient to permit complete charge balance. In the zircons analysed here there also appears to be insufficient P to permit charge balance. The P_2O_5 did not exceed 0.15 wt.% yet the total Y and REE oxide concentrations ranged up to about 2 wt.%. Concentrations of other trace elements were invariably very low (Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) less than 7 ppm and Al less than 5 ppm wt. Sc, Ti and Fe were less than 40 ppm wt. and V, Cr and Mn less than 1 ppm wt. F concentrations (7 to 200 ppm wt.) correlated poorly with Y and the REE but were about an order of magnitude too low to permit any major charge coupling with the REE. Although no zircon water standard was available, initial estimates of the water content suggest that the zircons contained between 0.01 to 0.09 wt.% H_2O (background approximately 0.008 wt.% H_2O). Somewhat surprisingly the H contents displayed a very good correlation with the Y (and REE) content. Further, although low, these water concentrations appear to

  7. Comparison of the partitioning behaviours of yttrium, rare earth elements, and titanium between hydrogenetic marine ferromanganese crusts and seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bau, Michael; Koschinsky, Andrea; Dulski, Peter; Hein, James R.

    1996-05-01

    In order to evaluate details of the partitioning behaviours of Y, rare earth elements (REEs), and Ti between inorganic metal oxide surfaces and seawater, we studied the distribution of these elements in hydrogenetic marine ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from the Central Pacific Ocean. Nonphosphatized Fe-Mn crusts display shale-normalized rare earths and yttrium (REY SN) patterns (Y inserted between Dy and Ho) that are depleted in light REEs (LREEs) and which show negative anomalies for Y sn, and positive anomalies for La SN, Eu SN, Gd SN, and in most cases, Ce sn. They show considerably smaller Y/ Ho ratios than seawater or common igneous and clastic rocks, indicating that Y and Ho are fractionated in the marine environment. Compared to P-poor crusts, REY SN patterns of phosphatized Fe-Mn crusts are similar, but yield pronounced positive Y sn anomalies, stronger positive La SN anomalies, and enrichment of the HREEs relative to the MREEs. The data suggest modification of REY during phosphatization and indicate that studies requiring primary REY distributions or isotopic ratios should be restricted to non-phosphatized (layers of) Fe-Mn crusts. Apparent bulk coefficients, Kdm, describing trace metal partitioning between nonphosphatized hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts and seawater, are similar for Pr to Eu and decrease for Eu to Yb. Exceptionally high values of K DCe, which are similar to those of Ti, result from oxidative scavenging of Ce and support previous suggestions that Ce (IV) is a hydroxide-dominated element in seawater. Yttrium and Gd show lower K D values than their respective neighbours in the REY series. Results of modelling the exchange equilibrium between REY dissolved in seawater and REY sorbed on hydrous Fe-Mn oxides corroborate previous studies that suggested the surface complexation of REY can be approximated by their first hydroxide binding constant. Negative "anomalies" occur for stabilities of bulk surface complexes of Gd, La, and particularly Y. The

  8. Comparison of the partitioning behaviours of yttrium, rare earth elements, and titanium between hydrogenetic marine ferromanganese crusts and seawater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bau, M.; Koschinsky, A.; Dulski, P.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    In order to evaluate details of the partitioning behaviours of Y, rare earth elements (REEs), and Ti between inorganic metal oxide surfaces and seawater, we studied the distribution of these elements in hydrogenetic marine ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from the Central Pacific Ocean. Nonphosphatized Fe-Mn crusts display shale-normalized rare earths and yttrium (REYSN) patterns (Y inserted between Dy and Ho) that are depleted in light REEs (LREEs) and which show negative anomalies for YSN, and positive anomalies for LaSN, EuSN, GdSN, and in most cases, CeSN. They show considerably smaller Y/ Ho ratios than seawater or common igneous and clastic rocks, indicating that Y and Ho are fractionated in the marine environment. Compared to P-poor crusts, REYSN patterns of phosphatized Fe-Mn crusts are similar, but yield pronounced positive YSN anomalies, stronger positive LaSN anomalies, and enrichment of the HREEs relative to the MREEs. The data suggest modification of REY during phosphatization and indicate that studies requiring primary REY distributions or isotopic ratios should be restricted to nonphosphatized (layers of) Fe-Mn crusts. Apparent bulk coefficients, KMD, describing trace metal partitioning between nonphosphatized hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts and seawater, are similar for Pr to Eu and decrease for Eu to Yb. Exceptionally high values of KCeD, which are similar to those of Ti, result from oxidative scavenging of Ce and support previous suggestions that Ce(IV) is a hydroxide-dominated element in seawater. Yttrium and Gd show lower KD values than their respective neighbours in the REY series. Results of modelling the exchange equilibrium between REY dissolved in seawater and REY sorbed on hydrous Fe-Mn oxides corroborate previous studies that suggested the surface complexation of REY can be approximated by their first hydroxide binding constant. Negative "anomalies" occur for stabilities of bulk surface complexes of Gd, La, and particularly Y. The differences in

  9. Elemental composition and functional groups in soil labile organic matter fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Labile organic matter fractions are major components involved in nutrient cycle in soil. In this chapter, we examine three labile organic matter fraction: light fraction (LF), humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (HA) in Alabama cotton soils (ultisol) amended with chemical fertilizer (NH4NO3) and poult...

  10. Just How Earth-like are Extrasolar Super-Earths? Constraints on H+He Envelope Fractions from Kepler's Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgang, Angie; Lopez, E.; Kepler Team; SAMSI Bayesian Characterization of Exoplanet Populations Working Group

    2013-10-01

    With 3500 planetary candidates discovered in its first 3 years of data, the Kepler Mission promises to answer one of the most fundamental questions posed in exoplanetary research: what kinds of planets occur most often in our Galaxy? As Kepler primarily yields planetary radii and orbital periods, it has enabled numerous studies of the occurrence rate of planets as a function of these variables. Unfortunately, the full mass distribution, and thus a direct measure of these planets' possible compositions, remains elusive due to the unsuitability of these faint targets for radial velocity follow-up and the relative rareness of transit timing variations. We show, however, that relatively straightforward models of planetary evolution in an irradiated environment can make some progress without this full mass distribution towards understanding bulk compositions of the abundant Super-Earth/Sub-Neptunes that Kepler has discovered. In particular, we constrain the distribution of envelope fractions, i.e. the fraction of a planet's mass that is in a gaseous hydrogen and helium envelope around its rocky core, for this exoplanet population that has no analogs in our Solar System.

  11. Just How Earth-like are Extrasolar Super-Earths? Constraints on H+He Envelope Fractions from Kepler's Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgang, Angie; Lopez, E.; Kepler Team; SAMSI Bayesian Characterization of Exoplanet Populations Working Group

    2014-01-01

    With 3500 planetary candidates discovered in its first 3 years of data, the Kepler Mission promises to answer one of the most fundamental questions posed in exoplanetary research: what kinds of planets occur most often in our Galaxy? As Kepler primarily yields planetary radii and orbital periods, it has enabled numerous studies of the occurrence rate of planets as a function of these variables. Unfortunately, the full mass distribution, and thus a direct measure of these planets' possible compositions, remains elusive due to the unsuitability of these faint targets for radial velocity follow-up and the relative rareness of transit timing variations. We show, however, that relatively straightforward models of planetary evolution in an irradiated environment can make some progress without this full mass distribution towards understanding bulk compositions of the abundant Super-Earth/Sub-Neptunes that Kepler has discovered. In particular, we constrain the distribution of envelope fractions, i.e. the fraction of a planet's mass that is in a gaseous hydrogen and helium envelope around its rocky core, for this exoplanet population that has no analogs in our Solar System. This research builds on collaborations between astronomers and statisticians forged during a three week workshop on "Modern Statistical and Computational Methods for Analysis of Kepler Data" at SAMSI in June 2013.

  12. Effect of the addition of low rare earth elements (lanthanum, neodymium, cerium) on the biodegradation and biocompatibility of magnesium.

    PubMed

    Willbold, Elmar; Gu, Xuenan; Albert, Devon; Kalla, Katharina; Bobe, Katharina; Brauneis, Maria; Janning, Carla; Nellesen, Jens; Czayka, Wolfgang; Tillmann, Wolfgang; Zheng, Yufeng; Witte, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements are promising alloying element candidates for magnesium alloys used as biodegradable devices in biomedical applications. Rare earth elements have significant effects on the high temperature strength as well as the creep resistance of alloys and they improve magnesium corrosion resistance. We focused on lanthanum, neodymium and cerium to produce magnesium alloys with commonly used rare earth element concentrations. We showed that low concentrations of rare earth elements do not promote bone growth inside a 750 μm broad area around the implant. However, increased bone growth was observed at a greater distance from the degrading alloys. Clinically and histologically, the alloys and their corrosion products caused no systematic or local cytotoxicological effects. Using microtomography and in vitro experiments, we could show that the magnesium-rare earth element alloys showed low corrosion rates, both in in vitro and in vivo. The lanthanum- and cerium-containing alloys degraded at comparable rates, whereas the neodymium-containing alloy showed the lowest corrosion rates.

  13. Minor and trace element geochemistry of volcanic rocks dredged from the Galapagos spreading center: Role of crystal fractionation and mantle heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Clague, D.A.; Frey, F.A.; Thompson, G.; Rindge, S.

    1981-10-10

    A wide range of rock types (abyssal tholeiite, Fe-Ti-rich basalt, andesite, and rhyodacite) were dredged from near 95/sup 0/ W and 85/sup 0/ W on the Galapagos spreading center. Computer modeling of major element compositions has shown that these rocks could be derived from common parental magmas by successive degrees of fractional crystallization. However, the P/sub 2/O/sub 5//K/sub 2/O ratio averages 0.83 at 95/sup 0/W and 1.66 at 85/sup 0/W and implies distinct mantle source compositions for the two areas. These source regions also have different rare earth element (REE) abundance patterns, with (La/Sm)/sub EF/ = 0.67 at 95/sup 0/W and 0.46 at 85/sup 0/W. The sequence of fractional lavas differs for the two areas and indicates earlier fractionation of apatite and titanomagnetite in the lavas from 95/sup 0/W. Incompatible trace element abundances in 26 samples are used to infer that the range of Fe-Ti-rich basalt from 85/sup 0/W represents 19 to 35% residual liquid following crystal fractionation of a mineral assemblage of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and lesser olivine. Most samples from 85/sup 0/W can be related to a common parental magma that contained approximately 9 wt %FeO*, 1 wt % TiO/sub 2/, and had an Mg number (Mg/sup 3/ = 100 Mg/(Mg+Fe/sup 2 +/)) of about 65. Although the samples from 95/sup 0/W cannot all be derived from a common parental magma, the inferred parental magmas may have been derived by varying degrees of partial melting of a common source. The fractionation sequence consists of two parts: an initial iron enrichment trend followed by a silica enrichment trend. The most iron rich lavas represent about 32% residual liquid derived by crystal fractionation of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and lesser olivine from a parental magma with an Mg number of about 66. The silicic enrichment trend results from crystallization of titanomagnetite and some apatite.

  14. Dissolved indium and rare earth elements in three Japanese rivers and Tokyo Bay: Evidence for anthropogenic Gd and In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Lerche, Dorte; Alibo, Dia Sotto; Tsutsumi, Makoto

    2000-12-01

    New data on the dissolved (<0.04 μm) rare earth elements (REEs) and In in the Japanese Ara, Tama, and Tone river-estuaries and Tokyo Bay are presented. Unique shale-normalized REE patterns with a distinct positive Gd anomalies and a strong heavy-REE enrichment were seen throughout the data. The dissolved Gd anomaly is caused by local anthropogenic input mainly due to recent use of Gado-pentetic acid as a medical agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in hospitals. The heavy-REE enrichment may be attributed to fractionation during weathering and transport in the upstream of the rivers, and only partially to removal of light- and middle-REE enriched river colloids by the use of a new ultrafiltration technique. Dissolved In concentrations in the Japanese rivers are extraordinarily high as compared to those in the pristine Chao Phraya river of Thailand reported elsewhere (Nozaki et al., in press). Like Gd, the high dissolved In in the study area can also be ascribed to recent use of In-containing organic compound, In(DTPA) 2- in medical diagnosis. Thus, in the highly populated and industrialized area, dissolved heavy metal concentrations in rivers and estuaries may be significantly perturbed by human activities and the fate of those anthropogenic soluble substances in the marine environment needs to be investigated further.

  15. Enrichment of rare earth elements as environmental tracers of contamination by acid mine drainage in salt marshes: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Joaquín; Pérez-López, Rafael; Galván, Laura; Nieto, José Miguel; Boski, Tomasz

    2012-09-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were analyzed in surface sediments from the Guadiana Estuary (SW Iberian Pyrite Belt). NASC (North American Shale Composite) normalized REE patterns show clearly convex curvatures in middle-REE (MREE) with respect to light- and heavy-REE, indicating acid-mixing processes between fluvial waters affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) and seawater. However, REE distributions in the mouth (closer to the coastal area) show slightly LREE-enriched and flat patterns, indicating saline-mixing processes typical of the coastal zone. NASC-normalized ratios (La/Gd and La/Yb) do not discriminate between both mixing processes in the estuary. Instead, a new parameter (E(MREE)) has been applied to measure the curvature in the MREE segment. The values of E(MREE)>0 are indicative of acid signatures and their spatial distribution reveal the existence of two decantation zones from flocculation processes related to drought periods and flood events. Studying REE fractionation through the E(MREE) may serve as a good proxy for AMD-pollution in estuarine environments in relation to the traditional methods.

  16. On Re-Entry Prediction of Near Earth Objects with Genetic Algorithm Using KS Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R. K.; Anilkumar, A. K.; Xavier James Raj, M.; Sabarinath, A.

    2009-03-01

    The accurate orbit prediction of the near-Earth objects is an important requirement for the re-entry and the life time estimation. The method of Kustaanheimo and Stiefel (KS) total energy element equations is one of the powerful methods for orbit prediction. Recently, due to the reentries of large number of risk objects, which posses threat to the human life and property, a great concern is developed in the space scientific community. Consequently, the prediction of risk objects re-entry time and location has got much importance for the proper planning of mitigation strategies and hazard assessment. This paper discusses an integrated procedure for orbit life time prediction combining the KS elements and genetic algorithm (GA). The orbit prediction is carried out by numerically integrating the KS element equations. In this methodology, the ballistic coefficient is estimated from a set of observed orbital parameters in terms of the Two Line Elements (TLE) by minimizing the variance of the predicted re-entry time from different TLE using GA. A software, KSGEN, systematically developed in-house using KS elements and genetic algorithm is utilized for predicting the re-entry time of the risk objects. This software has been effectively used for the prediction of the re-entry time in the past seven re-entry exercise campaigns conducted by the Inter Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). The predicted re-entry time matched quite well with the actual re-entry time for all the seven IADC re-entry campaigns. A detailed analysis is carried out with two case studies.

  17. Cracking the Code of Soil Genesis. The Early Role of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharescu, D. G.; Dontsova, K.; Burghelea, C. I.; Maier, R. M.; Huxman, T. E.; Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    Soil is terrestrial life support system. Its genesis involves tight interactions between biota and mineral surfaces that mobilize structural elements into biogeochemical cycles. Of all chemical elements rare earth elements (REE) are a group of 16 non-nutrient elements of unusual geochemical similarity and present in all components of the surface environment. While much is known about the role of major nutrients in soil development we lack vital understanding of how early biotic colonization affects more conservative elements such as REE. A highly controlled experiment was set up at University of Arizona's Biosphere-2 that tested the effect of 4 biological treatments, incorporating a combination of microbe, grass, mycorrhiza and uninoculated control on REE leaching and uptake in 4 bedrock substrates: basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist. Generally the response of REE to biota presence was synergistic. Variation in total bedrock chemistry could explain major trends in pore water REE. There was a fast transition from chemistry-dominated to a biota dominated environment in the first 3-4 months of inoculation/seeding which translated into increase in REE signal over time. Relative REE abundances in water were generally reflected in plant concentrations, particularly in root, implying that below ground biomass is the main sync of REE in the ecosystem. Mycorrhiza effect on REE uptake in plant organs was significant and increased with infection rates. Presence of different biota translated into subtle differences in REE release, reveling potential biosignatures of biolota-rock colonization. The results thus bring fundamental insight into early stages non-nutrient cycle and soil genesis.

  18. Levels of platinum group elements and rare-earth elements in wild mushroom species growing in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Kalač, Pavel; Siwulski, Marek; Rzymski, Piotr; Gąsecka, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Due to limited data-describing abilities of mushrooms to accumulate platinum group elements (PGEs) and rare-earth elements (REEs), the aim of this study was to determine, by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry followed by microwave-assisted sample digestion by nitric acid, the content of these elements in 20 mushroom species (10 above ground and 10 growing on wood), mostly edible, collected near a busy trunk road. The highest content of PGEs in above-ground mushroom species was observed in Lepista gilva and Suillus bovinus fruit bodies (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.03 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while in mushrooms growing on wood, the highest content was observed in Pleurotus ostreatus (0.35 ± 0.04 mg kg(-1) DW). The mean content of PGEs for both these groups was 0.23 ± 0.08 and 0.26 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. The highest content of REEs in Suillus luteus and Tricholoma equestra was 5.03 ± 0.50 and 2.18 ± 0.56 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively, but within mushrooms growing on wood in Ganoderma applanatum fruiting bodies it was 4.19 ± 0.78 mg kg(-1) DW. Mean contents of REEs were 1.39 ± 1.21 and 1.61 ± 0.97 mg kg(-1) DW in above-ground species and species growing on wood, respectively. Generally, the group of mushroom species growing on wood was capable of slightly higher accumulation of both REEs and PGEs. No limits have been established for both the groups until now.

  19. Siderophile and chalcophile element abundances in oceanic basalts, Pb isotope evolution and growth of the earth's core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, H. E.; White, W. M.; Jochum, K. P.; Hofmann, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that the mantle Pb isotope ratios reflect continued extraction of Pb into the earth's core over geologic time is evaluated by studying the depeletion of chalcophile and siderophile elements in the mantle. Oceanic basalt samples are analyzed in order to determine the Pb, Sr, and Nd isotropic compositions and the abundances of siderophile and chalcophile elements and incompatible lithophile elements. The data reveal that there is no systematic variation of siderophile or chalcophile element abundances relative to abundances of lithophile elements and the Pb/Ce ratio of the mantle is constant. It is suggested that the crust formation involves nonmagmatic and magmatic processes.

  20. The Fractionation of Highly Siderophile Elements (HSE) in Impact Melts and the Determination of the Meteoritic Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G.; Palme, H.; Kratz, K. L.

    1995-09-01

    component (PGE/CI = 3x10^-3 to 9x10^-3 relative to CI) in the Saaksjarvi impact melt is relatively unfractionated. Stony-iron meteorites (pallasites) as proposed earlier [7] can therefore be excluded as possible contaminants because Pd and Ir are highly fractionated in pallasites [18]. Impact melts from Mien and Dellen are moderately enriched in PGE. The concentrations are similar (PGE/CI = 3x10^-4 to 1x10^-3 relative to CI). The flat siderophile pattern of the Mien and Dellen impact samples are compatible with carbonaceous chondrite type of material, but a clear geochemical association of any of the known meteorite types is not possible because of the low signal-to-background ratio for Rh, Ru, Pd, and Au. Samples from all impact craters have low Os/PGE ratios (Os/Ir(sub)melt =0.24) compared to chondritic ratios (Os/Ir(sub)CI=1.06). It seems that the oxygen fugacity at the time of impact melting, vaporization and crystallization of the melt body may play the dominant role in the fractionation of Os and PGEs. If Os have been partially lost by volatilization of OsO4 under oxidizing conditions, then Ir is the only element to confirm meteoritic enrichments down to a level of 2x10^-4 CI chondrite. None of the other elements determined are sufficiently sensitive indicators to confirm small meteoritic enrichments, equivalent to <10^-3 CI chondrite, because of low CI/Earth crust-ratios. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by DFG. References: [1] Wasson J. T. et al. (1975) Moon, 13, 121-141. [2] Gros J. et al. (1976) Proc. LSC 7th, 2403-2425. [3] Hertogen J. et al. (1977) Proc. LSC 8th, 17-45. [4] Palme H. (1980) Proc. LPSC 11th, 481-506. [5] Janssens M.-J. et al. (1977) JGR, 82, 750-758. [6] Grieve R. A. F. (1978) Proc. LPSC 9th, 2579-2608. [7] Palme H. et al. (1980) LPSC XI, 848-850. [8] Palme H. et al. (1978) GCA, 42, 313-323. [9] Reimold W. U. and Stoffler D. (1980) Meteoritics, 14, 526-528. [10] Reimold W. U. (1980) Ph. D. thesis, Univ. of Munster, 172 pp. [11] Gobel E

  1. 'Nano' Morphology and Element Signatures of Early Life on Earth: A New Tool for Assessing Biogenicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Mostefaoui, S.; Meibom, A.; Selo, M.; McKay, D. S.; Robert, F.

    2006-01-01

    The relatively young technology of NanoSIMS is unlocking an exciting new level of information from organic matter in ancient sediments. We are using this technique to characterize Proterozoic organic material that is clearly biogenic as a guide for interpreting controversial organic structures in either terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. NanoSIMS is secondary ion mass spectrometry for trace element and isotope analysis at sub-micron resolution. In 2005, Robert et al. [1] combined NanoSIMS element maps with optical microscopic imagery in an effort to develop a new method for assessing biogenicity of Precambrian structures. The ability of NanoSIMS to map simultaneously the distribution of organic elements with a 50 nm spatial resolution provides new biologic markers that could help define the timing of life s development on Earth. The current study corroborates the work of Robert et al. and builds on their study by using NanoSIMS to map C, N (as CN), S, Si and O of both excellently preserved microfossils and less well preserved, non-descript organics in Proterozoic chert from the ca. 0.8 Ga Bitter Springs Formation of Australia.

  2. Accumulation of rare earth elements in human bone within the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Zaichick, Sofia; Zaichick, Vladimir; Karandashev, Vasilii; Nosenko, Sergey

    2011-02-01

    For the first time, the contents of rare earth elements (REEs) in a rib bone of a healthy human were determined. The mean value of the contents of Ce, Dy, Er, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Tb, and Yb (10 elements out of 17 total REEs), as well as the upper limit of means for Ho, Lu, Tm, and Y (4 elements) were measured in the rib bone tissue of 38 females and 42 males (15 to 55 years old) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We found age-related accumulation of REEs in the bone tissue of healthy individuals who lived in a non-industrial region. It was calculated that during a lifespan the content of REEs in a skeleton of non-industrial region residents may increase by one to two orders of magnitude. Using our results as indicative normal values and published data we estimated relative Gd accumulation in the bone tissue of patients according to magnetic resonance imaging with contrast agent and La accumulation in the bone tissue of patients receiving hemodialysis after treatment with lanthanum carbonate as a phosphate binder. It was shown that after such procedures contents of Gd and La in the bone tissue of patients are two to three orders of magnitude higher than normal levels. In our opinion, REEs incorporation may affect bone quality and health similar to other potentially toxic trace metals. The impact of elevated REEs content on bone physiology, biochemistry and morphology requires further investigation.

  3. Zinc isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation and the isotopic composition of the bulk Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Heng; Savage, Paul S.; Teng, Fang-Zehn; Helz, Rosalind T.; Moynier, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    he zinc stable isotope system has been successfully applied to many and varied fields in geochemistry, but to date it is still not completely clear how this isotope system is affected by igneous processes. In order to evaluate the potential application of Zn isotopes as a proxy for planetary differentiation and volatile history, it is important to constrain the magnitude of Zn isotopic fractionation induced by magmatic differentiation. In this study we present high-precision Zn isotope analyses of two sets of chemically diverse, cogenetic samples from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii, and Hekla volcano, Iceland, which both show clear evidence of having undergone variable and significant degrees of magmatic differentiation. The Kilauea Iki samples display small but resolvable variations in Zn isotope composition (0.26‰66Zn66Zn defined as the per mille deviation of a sample's 66Zn/64Zn compositional ratio from the JMC-Lyon standard), with the most differentiated lithologies exhibiting more positive δ66Zn values. This fractionation is likely a result of the crystallization of olivine and/or Fe–Ti oxides, which can both host Zn in their crystal structures. Samples from Hekla have a similar range of isotopic variation (0.22‰66Zn66Zn=0.28±0.05‰ (2s.d.).

  4. [Speciation and distribution characters of rare earth elements in the Baotou Section of the Yellow River].

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Mi, Na; Kuang, Yun-chen; Fan, Qing-yun; Wang, Xia; Guan, Wei; Li, Gui-hai; Li, Chao-sheng; Wang, Xi-wei

    2004-03-01

    As a whole of water column, suspended matter and surface sediment in the mainstream and the branch taking up industry wastewater, speciation and distribution characters of rare earth elements (REEs) were investigated systemically in the Baotou section of the Yellow River. This study shows that rare earth elements in the mainstream of the Baotou section of the Yellow River mainly exist in suspended particles, and the dissolved contents are in extremely minute quantities. REEs mainly exist in dissolved particles in the branch taking up industry wastewater, and suspended sigma REE and dissolved sigma REE are obviously higher than those in the mainstream. The change of sigma REE of dissolved particles in water phase along the Baotou section of the Yellow River is very similar to that of sigma REE of suspended particles, and consistent along the main river, it is that sigma REE increase appreciably from the control profile to the keystone discharged section, come to a head in the D site and reduce in the E site. This distribution pattern indicates pile industry wastewater of Baotou to rare earth elements in the mainstream of the Yellow River, particularly LREE. The REE distribution in the mainstream of the Baotou section of the Yellow River is the same, with LREE enrichment and Eu depletion. But LREE origin of D site is different from the other sites by excursion of LREE distribution curve and other geochemical parameters, they are origin of industry wastewater piled, otherwise the other four sites are origin of loess altiplano. And HREE are origin of loess altiplano in all the sites. The speciation characteristics of REE in the sediments and suspended matter are quite similar with the amount in as follows: residual > bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides > bound to organic matter > exchangeable. REEs exchangeable in surface sediment and suspended matter in the branch taking up industry wastewater are higher than those in the mainstream, it confirms that REEs in

  5. Strontium isotopes and rare-earth element geochemistry of hydrothermal carbonate deposits from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Barrat, J.A.; Boulegue, J.; Tiercelin, J.J.; Lesourd, M.

    2000-01-01

    At Cape Banza (North Tanganyika Lake), fluids and aragonite chimneys have been collected many times since the discovery of this sublacustrine field in 1987. This sampling has been investigated here for the Sr isotopic compositions and the rare-earth element features of the carbonates and a few fluid samples. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of the chimneys indicate that they have precipitated from a mixture of lake water (more than 95%) and hydrothermal fluids. No zoning in the chimneys was detected with the Sr data. For the rare-earth elements, the situation is more complex. The external walls of the chimneys are rare-earth-element-poor (La {approx} 500 ppb, Yb {approx} 200 ppb, La/Yb = 2 to 3.4). Their shale normalized rare-earth element patterns suggest that they are in equilibrium with the inferred carbonate-depositing fluids. The rare-earth element concentrations of the internal walls of the chimneys are significantly light rare earth elements (LREE)-enriched with La contents sometimes up to 5 ppm. The authors suggest that they contain more vent-fluid rare-earth elements than the external wall samples, possibly adsorbed on the surface of growing crystals or simply hosted by impurities. It was not possible to constrain the nature of these phases, but the variations of the compositions of the internal wall materials of the active chimneys with time, as well as data obtained on an inactive chimney indicate that this rare-earth element excess is mobile. Partition coefficients were calculated between the external wall aragonite and carbonate-depositing fluid. The results are strikingly similar to the values obtained by Sholkovitz and Shen (1995) on coral aragonite, and suggest that there is no significant biologic effect on the incorporation of rare-earth elements into coral aragonite and that the various carbonate complexes involved Me(CO{sub 3}{sup +}) complexes are the main LREE carriers in seawater instead of Me(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup {minus}} in Banza fluids

  6. Fractionation of highly siderophile elements in refertilized mantle: Implications for the Os isotope composition of basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Dale, Christopher W.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Pearson, D. Graham; Bosch, Delphine; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Gervilla, Fernando; Hidas, Károly

    2014-08-01

    Highly fertile lherzolite and spinel websterite in the Ronda peridotite massif are enriched in Pt and Pd compared to Os, Ir, Ru and Re. The fractionation of the highly siderophile elements (HSE) in these rocks was produced by reaction of melt with their peridotite and pyroxenite precursors. Modeling indicates that upon reaction primary HSE hosts were dissolved and magmatic sulphides precipitated, largely erasing the original HSE signature of reacting protoliths. The budget of HSE in the melt was controlled by sulphide-silicate partitioning or entrainment of molten sulphide in silicate melt. Rhenium was likely removed from precursor peridotite and pyroxenite by previous melt extraction. Refertilization of peridotite by melts increased Al2O3, CaO, Pt, Pd contents and 187Os/188Os beyond typical values for mantle peridotite and the primitive upper mantle. The interaction of melts with residual peridotite and pyroxenite, as illustrated in the Ronda massif, can generate radiogenic-Os-enriched domains in the mantle with high melt productivity, higher Pt/Os and Pt/Re than common peridotite, and lower Re/Os than typical pyroxenite. As also previously proposed for pyroxenites, these “hybrid” domains can account for the difference in Os isotope compositions between many basalts (e.g., MORB and OIB) and common depleted mantle peridotites. Moreover, the presence of these enriched hybrid components in the mantle, evolved over sufficient timescales and in geologically reasonable proportions, may account for the 186Os-187Os enrichment of plume lavas without requiring a chemical contribution from the core.

  7. Potentially harmful elements in house dust from Estarreja, Portugal: characterization and genotoxicity of the bioaccessible fraction.

    PubMed

    Plumejeaud, Sophie; Reis, Amelia Paula; Tassistro, Virginie; Patinha, Carla; Noack, Yves; Orsière, Thierry

    2016-10-22

    Due to their behavioral characteristics, young children are vulnerable to the ingestion of indoor dust, often contaminated with chemicals that are potentially harmful. Exposure to potentially harmful elements (PHEs) is currently exacerbated by their widespread use in several industrial, agricultural, domestic and technological applications. PHEs cause adverse health effects on immune and nervous systems and can lead to cancer development via genotoxic mechanisms. The present study is an integrated approach that aims at assessing the genotoxicity of bioaccessible PHEs following ingestion of contaminated house dust. A multidisciplinary methodology associating chemical characterization of five house dust samples, extraction of the bioaccessible PHEs in gastric extracts by the unified BARGE method, determination of the bioaccessible fraction and in vitro genotoxicity of gastric extracts in adenocarcinoma gastric human (AGS) cells was developed. The five gastric extracts induced dose-dependent genotoxicity in AGS cells. Copper (bioaccessible concentration up to 111 mg/kg) was probably the prevalent PHE inducing primary DNA damage (up to 5.1-fold increase in tail DNA at 0.53 g/l of gastric extract). Lead (bioaccessible concentration up to 245 mg/kg) was the most prevalent PHE inducing chromosome-damaging effects (r = 0.55; p < 0.001 for micronucleated cells induction). The association of principal component analysis and Spearman's correlations was decisive to understand the chromosome-damaging properties of the bioaccessible PHEs in AGS cells. This methodology could be used on a larger-scale study to provide useful information for science-based decision-making in regulatory policies, and a better estimation of human exposure and associated health risks.

  8. Decrease of concentration and colloidal fraction of organic carbon and trace elements in response to the anomalously hot summer 2010 in a humic boreal lake.

    PubMed

    Shirokova, L S; Pokrovsky, O S; Moreva, O Yu; Chupakov, A V; Zabelina, S A; Klimov, S I; Shorina, N V; Vorobieva, T Ya

    2013-10-01

    The colloidal distribution and size fractionation of organic carbon (OC), major elements and trace elements (TE) were studied in a seasonally stratified, organic-rich boreal lake, Lake Svyatoe, located in the European subarctic zone (NW Russia, Arkhangelsk region). This study took place over the course of 4 years in both winter and summer periods using an in situ dialysis technique (1 kDa, 10 kDa and 50 kDa) and traditional frontal filtration and ultrafiltration (5, 0.22 and 0.025 μm). We observed a systematic difference in dissolved elements and colloidal fractions between summer and winter periods with the highest proportion of organic and organo-ferric colloids (1 kDa-0.22 μm) observed during winter periods. The anomalously hot summer of 2010 in European Russia produced surface water temperatures of approximately 30°C, which were 10° above the usual summer temperatures and brought about crucial changes in element speciation and size fractionation. In August 2010, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decreased by more than 30% compared to normal period, while the relative proportion of organic colloids decreased from 70-80% to only 20-30% over the full depth of the water column. Similarly, the proportion of colloidal Fe decreased from 90-98% in most summers and winters to approximately 60-70% in August 2010. During this hot summer, measurable and significant (>30% compared to other periods) decreases in the colloidal fractions of Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Al, Ti, Ni, As, V, Co, Y, all rare earth elements (REEs), Zr, Hf, Th and U were also observed. In addition, dissolved (<0.22 μm) TE concentrations decreased by a factor of 2 to 6 compared to previously investigated periods. The three processes most likely responsible for such a crucial change in element biogeochemistry with elevated water temperature are 1) massive phytoplankton bloom, 2) enhanced mineralization (respiration) of allochthonous dissolved organic matter by heterotrophic aerobic

  9. Identifying calcium sources at an acid deposition-impacted spruce forest: A strontium isotope, alkaline earth element multi-tracer approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullen, T.D.; Bailey, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    Depletion of calcium from forest soils has important implications for forest productivity and health. Ca is available to fine feeder roots from a number of soil organic and mineral sources, but identifying the primary source or changes of sources in response to environmental change is problematic. We used strontium isotope and alkaline earth element concentration ratios of trees and soils to discern the record of Ca sources for red spruce at a base-poor, acid deposition-impacted watershed. We measured 87Sr/86Sr and chemical compositions of cross-sectional stemwood cores of red spruce, other spruce tissues and sequential extracts of co-located soil samples. 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ba ratios together provide a tracer of alkaline earth element sources that distinguishes the plant-available fraction of the shallow organic soils from those of deeper organic and mineral soils. Ca/Sr ratios proved less diagnostic, due to within-tree processes that fractionate these elements from each other. Over the growth period from 1870 to 1960, 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ba ratios of stemwood samples became progressively more variable and on average trended toward values that considered together are characteristic of the uppermost forest floor. In detail the stemwood chemistry revealed an episode of simultaneous enhanced uptake of all alkaline earth elements during the growth period from 1930 to 1960, coincident with reported local and regional increases in atmospheric inputs of inorganic acidity. We attribute the temporal trends in stemwood chemistry to progressive shallowing of the effective depth of alkaline earth element uptake by fine roots over this growth period, due to preferential concentration of fine roots in the upper forest floor coupled with reduced nutrient uptake by roots in the lower organic and upper mineral soils in response to acid-induced aluminum toxicity. Although both increased atmospheric deposition and selective weathering of Ca-rich minerals such as apatite provide possible

  10. Rare-earth element geochemistry and the origin of andesites and basalts of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, J.W.; Cashman, K.V.; Rankin, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    Two types of basalt (a high-Al basalt associated with the rhyolitic centres north of Taupo and a "low-Al" basalt erupted from Red Crater, Tongariro Volcanic Centre) and five types of andesite (labradorite andesite, labradorite-pyroxene andesite, hornblende andesite, pyroxene low-Si andesite and olivine andesite/low-Si andesite) occur in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), North Island, New Zealand. Rare-earth abundances for both basalts and andesites are particularly enriched in light rare-earth elements. High-Al basalts are more enriched than the "low-Al" basalt and have values comparable to the andesites. Labradorite and labradorite-pyroxene andesites all have negative Eu anomalies and hornblende andesites all have negative Ce anomalies. The former is probably due to changing plagioclase composition during fractionation and the latter to late-stage hydration of the magma. Least-squares mixing models indicate that neither high-Al nor "low-Al" basalts are likely sources for labradorite/labradorite-pyroxene andesites. High-Al basalts are considered to result from fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene from a garnet-free peridotite at the top of the mantle wedge. Labradorite/labradorite-pyroxene andesites are mainly associated with an older NW-trending arc. The source is likely to be garnet-free but it is not certain whether the andesites result from partial melting of the top of the subducting plate or a hydrated lower portion of the mantle wedge. Pyroxene low-Si andesites probably result from cumulation of pyroxene and calcic plagioclase within labradorite-pyroxene andesites, and hornblende andesites by late-stage hydration of labradorite-pyroxene andesite magma. Olivine andesites, low-Si andesites and "low-Al" basalts are related to the NNE-trending Taupo-Hikurangi arc structure. Although the initial source material is different for these lavas they have probably undergone a similar history to the labradorite/labradorite-pyroxene andesites. All lavas show evidence

  11. Investigating the Partitioning of Inorganic Elements Consumed by Humans between the Various Fractions of Human Wastes: An Alternative Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John W.

    2003-01-01

    The elemental composition of food consumed by astronauts is well defined. The major elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur are taken up in large amounts and these are often associated with the organic fraction (carbohydrates, proteins, fats etc) of human tissue. On the other hand, a number of the elements are located in the extracellular fluids and can be accounted for in the liquid and solid waste fraction of humans. These elements fall into three major categories - cationic macroelements (e.g. Ca, K, Na, Mg and Si), anionic macroelements (e.g. P, S and Cl and 17 essential microelements, (e.g. Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Se and Sr). When provided in the recommended concentrations to an adult healthy human, these elements should not normally accumulate in humans and will eventually be excreted in the different human wastes. Knowledge of the partitioning of these elements between the different human waste fractions is important in understanding (a) developing waste separation technologies, (b) decision-making on how these elements can be recovered for reuse in space habitats, and (c) to developing the processors for waste management. Though considerable literature exists on these elements, there is a lack of understanding and often conflicting data. Two major reasons for these problems include the lack of controlled experimental protocols and the inherently large variations between human subjects (Parker and Gallagher, 1988). We have used the existing knowledge of human nutrition and waste from the available literature and NASA documentation to build towards a consensus to typify and chemically characterize the various human wastes. It is our belief, that this could be a building block towards integrating a human life support and waste processing in a closed system.

  12. Liquid Inclusions in Heat-Resistant Steel Containing Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yandong; Liu, Chengjun; Zhang, Tongsheng; Jiang, Maofa; Peng, Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Abundant thermodynamic data of pure substances were incorporated in the coupled thermodynamic model of inclusion precipitation and solute micro-segregation during the solidification of heat-resistant steel containing rare earth elements. The liquid inclusions Ce2 x Al2 y Si1- x-y O z (0 < x < 1, 0 < y < x and z = 1 - x - y) were first introduced to ensure the model more accurately. And the computational method for generation Gibbs free energy of liquid inclusions in molten steel was given. The accuracy of accomplished model was validated through plant trials, lab-scale experiments, and the data published in the literature. The comparisons of results calculated by FactSage with the model were also discussed. Finally, the stable area of liquid inclusions was predicted and the liquid inclusions with larger size were found in the preliminary experiments.

  13. Rare earths, other trace elements and iron in Luna 20 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Blanchard, D. P.; Jacobs, J. W.; Haskin, L.; Haskin, A.

    1973-01-01

    The results of the analysis by neutron activation of six samples from the Luna 20 mission and one sample of less than 1 mm fines from Apollo 16 are reported. The concentrations of the rare-earth elements (REE) in the samples of fines from Luna 20 and Apollo 16 are less than those found for corresponding materials from the mare areas but a negative Eu anomaly is still present. The concentrations of the REE in fines from Luna 20 are only about two-thirds as great as in the sample of Apollo 16 fines, but the concentration of Co, Sc and Cr are greater by factors ranging from 1.5 to 2.3.

  14. Study on the electrochemical extraction of rare earth elements from FLINAK

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Dewu; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Feng; Tian, Lifang; Li, Qingnuan

    2013-07-01

    Electrochemical behaviors of rare earth elements, such as NdF{sub 3}, GdF{sub 3}, SmF{sub 3}, YF{sub 3}, and EuF{sub 3}, were investigated in a LiF-NaF-KF (46.5-11.5-42.0 mol %, FLINAK, m. p. 454 Celsius degrees) solvent. The results indicated that it is possible to extract Nd, Gd and Y directly by electrochemical deposition since the reductions of those cations to metal are located in the electrochemical window of the FLINAK eutectic, while the reductions of Sm and Eu metal are out of the range of the medium. Subsequently electro-deposition of Nd was carried out with two kinds of cathodic materials, namely, an inert cathode, Pt, and a reactive electrode, Cu. The collected products were characterized by various techniques revealing that a Nd-rich product was obtained. (authors)

  15. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek, Sylwia; Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay; Kozak, Dmytro; Eckert, Franck; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF3-ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids' ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF3 were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests.

  16. Naturally occurring radionuclides and rare earth elements in weathered Japanese soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Sarata; Hosoda, Masahiro; Prasad, Ganesh; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-08-01

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ac in weathered Japanese soils from two selected prefectures have been measured using a γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The uranium, thorium, and rare earth elements (REEs) concentrations were determined from the same soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For example, granitic rocks contain higher amounts of U, Th, and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils since soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water, and gases. In this paper, we will discuss about distribution pattern of 238U and 232Th along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite) collected from two prefectures of Japan: Hiroshima and Miyagi.

  17. Rare earth and trace element geochemistry of a fragment of Jurassic seafloor, Point Sal, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, M.; Blanchard, D.; Brannon, J.; Korotev, R.

    1977-01-01

    Rocks from an ophiolite suite once on the seafloor were analyzed for rare earth elements (REE), Sc, Co, Na2O, Cr, Zn and FeO. Strontium isotope exchange noted in some of the lavas is attributed to basalt-seawater interaction; the Ce abundance in smectite- and zeolite-bearing lavas may also be due to prolonged exposure to seawater. The higher grades of metamorphic rock, however, show no variation from the usual flat or slightly light REE depleted profiles. Plutonic igneous rock, all light REE depleted, have total REE abundances varying by a factor of 100 between the dunites and diorites. In order of decreasing REE abundance are hornblende, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, orthopyroxene and olivine. Calculations of REE contents of liquids in equilibrium with early cumulative clinopyroxenes suggest that the parent to the stratiform sequence was more depleted in light REE than the parent to the lava pile.

  18. Lagrangian finite element analysis of the penetration of earth penetrating weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Rosinsky, R.W.

    1985-11-22

    Buried targets, such as hardened missile silos, that are resistant to the effects of air blast from above-ground or surface-burst explosions may be vulnerable to the effects of ground motion produced by nearby underground explosions. An earth penetrating weapon (EPW) is being developed to exploit this phenomena. To design the EPW system, loads on the weapon due to the penetration event must be determined. This paper presents the methodology for performing Lagrangian finite-element analysis of the penetration event in two and three dimensions. In order to describe the methodology, results from analyses done for a particular EPW impacting a particular target medium are presented. The results for impacts with nonzero angles of incidence and nonzero angles of attack show the importance of being able to calculate three dimensional penetration loads. 62 figs.

  19. Behavior of Rare Earth Element In Geothermal Systems; A New Exploration/Exploitation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Scott A. Wood

    2002-01-28

    The goal of this four-year project was to provide a database by which to judge the utility of the rare earth elements (REE) in the exploration for and exploitation of geothermal fields in the United States. Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: (1) the North Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); (2) the Cascades of Oregon; (3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; (4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; (5) Palinpion, the Philippines: (6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and (7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two.

  20. The distribution of Sr and REE between diopside and silicate liquid. [Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grutzeck, M.; Kridelbaugh, S.; Weill, D.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental determination of the distribution coefficients in diopside-liquid pairs for strontium and nine rare-earth elements in the system CaMgSi2O6-NaAlSi3O8-CaAl2Si2O8. In experiments in air at 1265 C it is found that most of the Sr(2+), Eu(2+), and RE(3+) ions substitute for Ca(2+) and, in addition, a coupled substitution of Al(3+) for Si(4+) occurs. All of the trace ions considered are found to be excluded from the diopside lattice relative to the liquid. In the case of the trivalent ions the exclusion is much more pronounced for La and Ce, which have ionic radii larger than that of Ca(2+) in 8-fold oxygen coordination. Divalent Sr and Eu with even larger radii are also strongly excluded.

  1. Bioelectrical activity of the central nervous system among populations in a rare earth element area.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Xu, S; Shao, P; Zhang, H; Wu, D; Yang, W; Feng, J

    1997-04-01

    Auditory brainstem electric response (ABR) and somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) of 21 subjects (41 ears) among villagers in a rare earth element (REE) area in Gan County, Jiangxi, China, were studied. No difference in ABR between the subjects from the REE area and the control group was noted. However, the conduction detected by SEP from the median nerve to the thalamus (P15) was shortened (P < 0.05), especially to the first-grade primary somatosensory responsive region (S1) (P < 0.01) and the amplitude of S1 decreased (P < 0.05), indicating that REE was difficult to accumulate in the brainstem, but it was susceptible to cerebral cortex, thus causing sub-clinical damage. This condition was confirmed in the animal experiment. It was suggested that the toxicity through long-term intake of small doses of REE might not be negligible, and the hazard of REE environments should be investigated.

  2. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek, Sylwia; Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay; Kozak, Dmytro; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi; Eckert, Franck

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF{sub 3}-ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids’ ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF{sub 3} were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests.

  3. X-ray fluorescence analysis of rare earth elements in rocks using low dilution glass beads.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kenichi; Nakamura, Toshihiro

    2005-07-01

    Major and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Th and U) in igneous rocks were assayed with fused lithium borate glass beads using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Low dilution glass beads, which had a 1:1 sample-to-flux ratio, were prepared for determination of rare earth elements. Complete vitrification of 1:1 mixture required heating twice at 1200 degrees C with agitation. Extra pure reagents containing determinants were used for calibrating standards instead of the rock standard. The calibration curves of the 23 elements showed good linearity. Furthermore, the lower limits of detection corresponding to three times the standard deviation for blank measurements were 26 mass ppm for Na2O, 6.7 for MgO, 4.5 for Al2O3, 4.5 for SiO2, 18 for P2O5, 1.1 for K2O, 4.0 for CaO, 3.9 for TiO2, 1.6 for MnO, 0.8 for Fe2O3, 0.5 for Rb, 0.2 for Sr, 0.4 for Y, 0.5 for Zr, 3.3 for La, 6.5 for Ce, 2.7 for Pr, 2.1 for Nd, 1.7 for Sm, 0.7 for Gd, 2.7 for Dy, 0.5 for Th, and 0.6 for U. Using the present method, we determined the contents of these 23 elements in four rhyolitic and granitic rocks from Japan.

  4. Constraints on Hadean zircon protoliths from oxygen isotopes, Ti-thermometry, and rare earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trail, Dustin; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Harrison, T. Mark; Schmitt, Axel K.; Watson, E. Bruce; Young, Edward D.

    2007-06-01

    We report zircon oxygen isotope ratios and reconnaissance Ti-in-zircon concentrations, guided by cathodoluminescence image studies, for detrital zircons up to 4.34 Ga from the Narryer Gneiss Complex of Western Australia. Zircon oxygen isotope results bolster the view that some Hadean (>3.85 Ga) zircon source melts were enriched in heavy oxygen, a sensitive proxy for melt contamination by sediments altered in liquid water. Zircon crystallization temperatures calculated from Ti concentration in pre-3.8 Ga zircons yield values around 680°C in all cases except for one lower value in a 4.0 Ga grain. Elevated zircon δ18O values reported here and elsewhere, combined with low minimum-melt crystallization temperatures, and analysis of zircon/melt partitioning of rare earth elements (REEs) provide mutually consistent lines of evidence that the Hadean Earth supported an evolved rock cycle which included formation of granitic water-saturated melts, extensive continental crust, hydrosphere-lithosphere interactions, and sediment recycling within the first 150 million years of planet formation.

  5. Planktonic foraminiferal rare earth elements as a potential new aeolian dust proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C.; Liu, Y.; Lo, L.; Wei, K.; Shen, C.

    2012-12-01

    Characteristics of rare earth elements (REEs) have widely been used as important tracers in many fields of earth sciences, including lithosphere research, environmental change, ocean circulation and other natural carbonate materials. Foraminiferal test REE signatures have been suggested to reflect ambient seawater conditions and serve as valuable proxies in the fields of paleoceanography and paleoclimate. Here we present a 60-kyr planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white, 250-300 μm) REE record of a sediment core MD05-2925 (9°20.61'S, 151°27.61'E, water depth 1660 m) from the Solomon Sea. The REE diagram shows two dominant sources of local seawater and nearby terrestrial input. The variability of foraminiferal REE/Ca time series is different from Mg/Ca-inferred sea surface temperature and δ18O records during the past 60-kyr. This inconsistency suggests that planktonic foraminiferal REE content cannot result only from changes in ice volume and temperature. Synchroneity between high planktonic foraminiferal REE content and Antarctic ice core dust amount record implies the same dust sources, probably from Australia or mainland China. Our results suggest that foraminiferal REE can potentially be as a new dust proxy and record dry/humid conditions at the source area.

  6. Bioadsorption of Rare Earth Elements through Cell Surface Display of Lanthanide Binding Tags.

    PubMed

    Park, Dan M; Reed, David W; Yung, Mimi C; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M; Anderko, Andrzej; Fujita, Yoshiko; Riman, Richard E; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-03-01

    With the increasing demand for rare earth elements (REEs) in many emerging clean energy technologies, there is an urgent need for the development of new approaches for efficient REE extraction and recovery. As a step toward this goal, we genetically engineered the aerobic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus for REE adsorption through high-density cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags (LBTs) on its S-layer. The LBT-displayed strains exhibited enhanced adsorption of REEs compared to cells lacking LBT, high specificity for REEs, and an adsorption preference for REEs with small atomic radii. Adsorbed Tb(3+) could be effectively recovered using citrate, consistent with thermodynamic speciation calculations that predicted strong complexation of Tb(3+) by citrate. No reduction in Tb(3+) adsorption capacity was observed following citrate elution, enabling consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. The LBT-displayed strain was effective for extracting REEs from the acid leachate of core samples collected at a prospective rare earth mine. Our collective results demonstrate a rapid, efficient, and reversible process for REE adsorption with potential industrial application for REE enrichment and separation.

  7. Rare earth elements in human hair from a mining area of China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binggan; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Yu, Jiangping; Ye, Bixiong; Liang, Tao

    2013-10-01

    Rare earth minerals have been mined for more than 50 years in Inner Mongolia of China. In the mining area rare earth elements (REE) may be significantly accumulated in humans. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to characterize the REE concentrations in hair of local residents. REE concentrations in hair of 118 subjects were determined. The results showed that the mean concentrations of the determined REE in the hair of both females and males were usually higher from mining area than from control area. The mean concentrations of all the fifteen REE were much higher in hair of males than in hair of females from mining area. This suggested that males might be more sensitive to REE than females. In addition, the mean contents of the REE in hair of miners, particularly light REE (La, Ce, Pr and Nd), were usually much higher than the values in hair of non-miners from both mining area and control area, indicating that the miners were exposed to higher concentrations of REE in occupational environment. Among age groups, the relationships between REE concentrations and age groups showed that more and more concentrations of light REE accumulated in body of both females and males with age until 60 years, while heavy REE concentrations decreased with age in males who were exposed to low concentrations of heavy REE.

  8. Rare earth elements and hypertension risk among housewives: A pilot study in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Yan, Lailai; Huo, Wenhua; Lu, Qun; Cheng, Zixi; Zhang, Jingxu; Li, Zhiwen

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that residents living near rare earth mining areas have high concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in their hair. However, the adverse effects of REEs on human health have rarely been the focus of epidemiological studies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between REEs in hair and the risk of hypertension in housewives. We recruited 398 housewives in Shanxi Province, China, consisting of 163 women with hypertension (cases) and 235 healthy women without hypertension (controls). We analyzed 15 REEs (lanthanum (La), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), lutetium (Lu), Yttrium (Y), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), and neodymium (Nd)) and calcium (Ca) accumulated in housewives hair over a period of two years. The results revealed that, with the exception of Eu, concentrations of the REEs in hair were higher in the cases than in the controls. The univariate odds ratios (ORs) of the 14 REEs were >1, and four of the REEs (Dy, Tm, Yb, and Y) also had adjusted ORs > 1. The increasing dose-response trends of the four REEs further indicated the potential for increased hypertension risk. Moreover, the REEs were negatively correlated with Ca content in hair. These results might suggest an antagonistic effect of REEs on Ca in the human body. It was concluded that high intake of REEs might increase the risk of hypertension among housewives.

  9. Bioadsorption of rare earth elements through cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Dan M.; Reed, David W.; Yung, Mimi C.; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M.; Anderko, Andrzej; Fujita, Yoshiko; Riman, Richard E.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-02-02

    In this study, with the increasing demand for rare earth elements (REEs) in many emerging clean energy technologies, there is an urgent need for the development of new approaches for efficient REE extraction and recovery. As a step toward this goal, we genetically engineered the aerobic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus for REE adsorption through high-density cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags (LBTs) on its S-layer. The LBT-displayed strains exhibited enhanced adsorption of REEs compared to cells lacking LBT, high specificity for REEs, and an adsorption preference for REEs with small atomic radii. Adsorbed Tb3+ could be effectively recovered using citrate, consistent with thermodynamic speciation calculations that predicted strong complexation of Tb3+ by citrate. No reduction in Tb3+ adsorption capacity was observed following citrate elution, enabling consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. The LBT-displayed strain was effective for extracting REEs from the acid leachate of core samples collected at a prospective rare earth mine. Our collective results demonstrate a rapid, efficient, and reversible process for REE adsorption with potential industrial application for REE enrichment and separation.

  10. Bioadsorption of rare earth elements through cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Dan M.; Reed, David W.; Yung, Mimi C.; ...

    2016-02-02

    In this study, with the increasing demand for rare earth elements (REEs) in many emerging clean energy technologies, there is an urgent need for the development of new approaches for efficient REE extraction and recovery. As a step toward this goal, we genetically engineered the aerobic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus for REE adsorption through high-density cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags (LBTs) on its S-layer. The LBT-displayed strains exhibited enhanced adsorption of REEs compared to cells lacking LBT, high specificity for REEs, and an adsorption preference for REEs with small atomic radii. Adsorbed Tb3+ could be effectively recovered using citrate,more » consistent with thermodynamic speciation calculations that predicted strong complexation of Tb3+ by citrate. No reduction in Tb3+ adsorption capacity was observed following citrate elution, enabling consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. The LBT-displayed strain was effective for extracting REEs from the acid leachate of core samples collected at a prospective rare earth mine. Our collective results demonstrate a rapid, efficient, and reversible process for REE adsorption with potential industrial application for REE enrichment and separation.« less

  11. TerraFERMA: The Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler for multiphysics problems in Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Cian R.; Spiegelman, Marc; van Keken, Peter E.

    2017-02-01

    We introduce and describe a new software infrastructure TerraFERMA, the Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler, for the rapid and reproducible description and solution of coupled multiphysics problems. The design of TerraFERMA is driven by two computational needs in Earth sciences. The first is the need for increased flexibility in both problem description and solution strategies for coupled problems where small changes in model assumptions can lead to dramatic changes in physical behavior. The second is the need for software and models that are more transparent so that results can be verified, reproduced, and modified in a manner such that the best ideas in computation and Earth science can be more easily shared and reused. TerraFERMA leverages three advanced open-source libraries for scientific computation that provide high-level problem description (FEniCS), composable solvers for coupled multiphysics problems (PETSc), and an options handling system (SPuD) that allows the hierarchical management of all model options. TerraFERMA integrates these libraries into an interface that organizes the scientific and computational choices required in a model into a single options file from which a custom compiled application is generated and run. Because all models share the same infrastructure, models become more reusable and reproducible, while still permitting the individual researcher considerable latitude in model construction. TerraFERMA solves partial differential equations using the finite element method. It is particularly well suited for nonlinear problems with complex coupling between components. TerraFERMA is open-source and available at http://terraferma.github.io, which includes links to documentation and example input files.

  12. A major light rare-earth element (LREE) resource in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, southern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Horton, Forrest; Buttleman, Kim; Scott, Emily R.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise in world demand for the rare-earth elements (REEs) has expanded the search for new REE resources. We document two types of light rare-earth element (LREE)-enriched rocks in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of southern Afghanistan: type 1 concordant seams of khanneshite-(Ce), synchysite-(Ce), and parisite-(Ce) within banded barite-strontianite alvikite, and type 2 igneous dikes of coarse-grained carbonatite, enriched in fluorine or phosphorus, containing idiomorphic crystals of khanneshite-(Ce) or carbocernaite. Type 1 mineralized barite-strontianite alvikite averages 22.25 wt % BaO, 4.27 wt % SrO, and 3.25 wt % ∑ LREE2O3 (sum of La, Ce, Pr, and Nd oxides). Type 2 igneous dikes average 14.51 wt % BaO, 5.96 wt % SrO, and 3.77 wt % ∑ LREE2O3. A magmatic origin is clearly indicated for the type 2 LREE-enriched dikes, and type 1 LREE mineralization probably formed in the presence of LREE-rich hydrothermal fluid. Both types of LREE mineralization may be penecontemporaneous, having formed in a carbonate-rich magma in the marginal zone of the central vent, highly charged with volatile constituents (i.e., CO2, F, P2O5), and strongly enriched in Ba, Sr, and the LREE. Based on several assumptions, and employing simple geometry for the zone of LREE enrichment, we estimate that at least 1.29 Mt (million metric tonnes) of LREE2O3 is present in this part of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex.

  13. Geology and market-dependent significance of rare earth element resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simandl, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    China started to produce rare earth elements (REEs) in the 1980s, and since the mid-1990s, it has become the dominant producer. Rare earth element export quotas first introduced by the Chinese government in the early 2000s were severely reduced in 2010 and 2011. This led to strong government-created disparity between prices within China and the rest of the world. Industrialized countries identified several REEs as strategic metals. Because of rapid price increases of REE outside of China, we have witnessed a world-scale REE exploration rush. The REE resources are concentrated in carbonatite-related deposits, peralkaline igneous rocks, pegmatites, monazite ± apatite veins, ion adsorption clays, placers, and some deep ocean sediments. REE could also be derived as a by-product of phosphate fertilizer production, U processing, mining of Ti-Zr-bearing placers, and exploitation of Olympic Dam subtype iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits. Currently, REEs are produced mostly from carbonatite-related deposits, but ion adsorption clay deposits are an important source of heavy REE (HREE). Small quantities of REE are derived from placer deposits and one peralkaline intrusion-related deposit. The ideal REE development targets would be located in a politically stable jurisdiction with a pro-mining disposition such as Canada and Australia. REE grade, HREE/light REE (LREE) ratio of the mineralization, tonnage, mineralogy, and permissive metallurgy are some of the key technical factors that could be used to screen potential development projects. As REEs are considered strategic metals from economic, national security, and environmental points of view, technical and economic parameters alone are unlikely to be used in REE project development decision-making. Recycling of REE is in its infancy and unless legislated, in the short term, it is not expected to contribute significantly to the supply of REE.

  14. Natural radioactivity and rare earth elements in feldspar samples, Central Eastern desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Walley El-Dine, Nadia; El-Shershaby, Amal; Afifi, Sofia; Sroor, Amany; Samir, Eman

    2011-05-01

    The pegmatite bodies of the Eastern Desert of Egypt are widely distributed especially along the Marsa-Alam-Idfu road. The Abu Dob area covers about 150km(2) of the Arabian Nubian shield at the central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Most of the pegmatite is zoned; the zonation starts with milky quartz at the core followed by alkali feldspar at the margins. The feldspars vary in color from rose to milky and in composition from K-feldspar to Na-feldspar, sometimes interactions of both types are encountered. Thirteen feldspar samples were collected from different locations in the Abu Dob area for measuring the natural radioactivity of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K using an HPGe detector. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. The average concentration in BqKg(-1) has been observed to be from 9.5 to 183675.7BqKg(-1) for (238)U, between 6.1 and 94,314.2BqKg(-1) for (232)Th and from 0 to 7894.6BqKg(-1) for (40)K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), dose rate (D(R)) and external hazard (H(ex)) have also been determined. In the present work, the concentration of rare earth elements are measured for two feldspar samples using two techniques, Environmental Scanning Electron microscope XIL 30 ESEM, Philips, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The existence of rare earth elements in this area are very high and can be used in different important industries.

  15. Evaluation of rare earth elements in groundwater of Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayedun, H; Arowolo, T A; Gbadebo, A M; Idowu, O A

    2016-06-11

    Rare earth elements in our environment are becoming important because of their utilization in permanent magnets, lamp phosphors, superconductors, rechargeable batteries, catalyst, ceramics and other applications. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of rare earth elements (REE) and the variability of their anomalous behavior in groundwater samples collected from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria. REE concentrations were determined in 170 groundwater samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, while the physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. Lagos State groundwater is enriched with REE [sum REEs range (mean ± SD)]; [0.365-488 (69.5 ± 117)] µg L(-1) than Ogun State groundwater [sum REEs range (mean ± SD)]; [1.14-232 (22.6 ± 41.1)] µg L(-1). Boreholes are more enriched with REEs than wells. Significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation (R = Pearson) was recorded in Lagos State groundwater between sum REEs and Fe (R = 0.55). However, there were no significant correlations between sum REEs, pH (R = 0.073) and HCO3(2-) (R = 0.157) in Ogun State groundwater. Chondrite-normalized plot shows that Lagos groundwater exhibits positive Ce anomaly, while Ogun State groundwater does not. The source of REE in Lagos State may be from the ocean and leaching from wastes dumpsites, while the source in Ogun State groundwater may be from the rocks.

  16. Structural Elements in a Persistent Identifier Infrastructure and Resulting Benefits for the Earth Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, T.; Toussaiant, F.; Stockhause, M.; Höck, H.; Kindermann, S.; Lautenschlager, M.; Ludwig, T.

    2012-12-01

    We propose a wide adoption of structural elements (typed links, collections, trees) in the Handle System to improve identification and access of scientific data, metadata and software as well as traceability of data provenance. Typed links target the issue of data provenance as a means to assess the quality of scientific data. Data provenance is seen here as a directed acyclic graph with nodes representing data and vertices representing derivative operations (Moreau 2010). Landing pages can allow a human user to explore the provenance graph back to the primary unprocessed data, thereby also giving credit to the original data producer. As in Earth System Modeling no single infrastructure with complete data lifecycle coverage exists, we propose to split the problem domain in two parts. Project-specific infrastructures such as the German project C3-Grid or the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) for CMIP5 data are aware of data and data operations (Toussaint et al. 2012) and can thus detect and accumulate single nodes and vertices in the provenance graph, assigning Handles to data, metadata and software. With a common schema for typed links, the provenance graph is established as downstream infrastructures refer incoming Handles. Data in this context is for example hierarchically structured Earth System model output data, which receives DataCite DOIs only for the most coarse-granular elements. Using Handle tree structures, the lower levels of the hierarchy can also receive Handles, allowing authors to more precisely identify the data they used (Lawrence et al. 2011). We can e.g. define a DOI for just the 2m-temperature variable of CMIP5 data across many CMIP5 experiments or a DOI for model and observational data coming from different sources. The structural elements should be implemented through Handle values at the Handle infrastructure level for two reasons. Handle values are more durable than downstream websites or databases, and thus the provenance chain does not

  17. Seawater-derived rare earth element addition to abyssal peridotites during serpentinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisby, Carl; Bizimis, Michael; Mallick, Soumen

    2016-04-01

    Serpentinized abyssal peridotites are evidence for active communication between the Earth's hydrosphere and the upper mantle, where exchange and retention of both major and trace elements occur. Bulk rock Nd isotopes in serpentinized abyssal peridotites imply interaction of seawater with the peridotite. In contrast, the Nd isotopes of clinopyroxenes from serpentinized abyssal peridotites retain their primary magmatic signature. It is currently unclear if, how and where seawater-derived Nd and other REE are being added or exchanged with the mantle peridotite minerals during serpentinization. To remedy this knowledge gap, we present in situ trace and major element concentrations, bulk rock and sequential leaching experiment trace element concentrations as well as Nd, Sr isotope data on refertilized and depleted serpentinized abyssal peridotites from the Southwest Indian Ridge. The secondary serpentine matrix and magnetite veins in these peridotites have elevated LREE concentrations, with variable negative Ce anomalies and large Rb, Sr, Pb and U enrichments that resemble seawater trace element patterns. The LREE concentrations in the serpentine phase are higher than those expected for the primary mantle mineralogy (olivine, orthopyroxene) based on data from relic clinopyroxenes and equilibrium partition coefficients. These data are consistent with seawater-derived REE addition to the peridotite during serpentinization. The bulk rocks have more radiogenic Sr and more unradiogenic Nd isotopes than their clinopyroxene (up to 8 εNd units lower than clinopyroxene). Sequential leaching experiments designed to mobilize secondary carbonates and Fe-oxides show even more unradiogenic Nd isotope ratios in the leachates than the bulk rock and clinopyroxene, approaching seawater compositions (up to 15 εNd units lower than clinopyroxene). Mass balance calculations using trace elements or Nd isotopes suggest that up to 30% of the bulk peridotite Nd budget is of seawater origin and

  18. The importance of sulfur for the behavior of highly-siderophile elements during Earth's differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenz, Vera; Rubie, David C.; Frost, Daniel J.; Vogel, Antje K.

    2016-12-01

    The highly siderophile elements (HSEs) are widely used as geochemical tracers for Earth's accretion and core formation history. It is generally considered that core formation strongly depleted the Earth's mantle in HSEs, which were subsequently replenished by a chondritic late veneer. However, open questions remain regarding the origin of suprachondritic Ru/Ir and Pd/Ir ratios that are thought to be characteristic for the primitive upper mantle. In most core-formation models that address the behavior of the HSEs, light elements such as S entering the core have not been taken into account and high P-T experimental data for S-bearing compositions are scarce. Here we present a comprehensive experimental study to investigate the effect of increasing S concentration in the metal on HSE metal-silicate partitioning at 2473 K and 11 GPa. We show that the HSEs become less siderophile with increasing S concentrations in the metal, rendering core-forming metal less efficient in removing the HSEs from the mantle if S is present. Furthermore, we investigated the FeS sulfide-silicate partitioning of the HSEs as a function of pressure (7-21 GPa) and temperature (2373-2673 K). The sulfide-silicate partition coefficient for Pt increases strongly with P, whereas those for Pd, Ru and Ir all decrease. The combined effect is such that above ∼20 GPa Ru becomes less chalcophile than Pt, which is opposite to their behavior in the metal-silicate system where Ru is always more siderophile than Pt. The newly determined experimental results are used in a simple 2-stage core formation model that takes into account the effect of S on the behavior of the HSEs during core formation. Results of this model show that segregation of a sulfide liquid to the core from a mantle with substantial HSE concentrations plays a key role in reproducing Earth's mantle HSE abundances. As Ru and Pd are less chalcophile than Pt and Ir at high P-T, some Ru and Pd remain in the mantle after sulfide segregation

  19. Tracing irradiation-induced defect state of monazite by photoluminescence of rare Earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panczer, G.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A. M.; Montel, J. M.; Champagnon, B.

    2003-04-01

    Natural monazite is known in contrast to zircon, to almost never be found in the metamict state (Ewing, 1975) despite the fact that it received intensive radiation doses during geologic history by U and Th incorporation. Radiation damages in natural monazite seems to be limited to isolated domains within the crystal (Meldrum et al., 1998). Such property controlled the fact that the monazite lattice is easily healed even at low temperature as it was shown by TEM, XRD and Raman spectrometry (Seydoux-Guillaume et al., 2002). In order to estimate the degree of disorder and the healing of defects we used trivalent neodymium as an internal luminescent probe (Gaft et al., 2001). As a matter of fact the radiative electronic transitions of rare earth elements are very sensible to the short-range crystallographic order around them. Three natural monazites thermally untreated and quenched at 450, 500, 700, 800 and 1000^oC were analyzed under 514 nm Argon laser excitation with a Renishaw microspectrometer. Nd3+ emission was recorded in the range of 750 nm to 1 μm. The ^4F3/2 rightarrow ^4I9/2 transition parameters (position and width) show that 1) the position of the Stark levels do not change during thermal treatment, and 2) that the emission line widths decrease continuously (from 25 to 37%) from room temperature to 1000^oC. These results indicates that before annealing, sub sites of Nd were present with slight different environments induced by internal irradiation induced displacement of ions around them (short range disorder). After thermal treatment a continuous reorganization of the lattice occurs up to 1000^oC with quite strong rearrangement of the environment around the rare-earth leading to a decrease of the Nd sub site number. Thus, the luminescent probe reveals that defect healing continue at much higher temperatures than what was previously reported indicating that luminescence is a very sensible tool to appreciate the degree of disorder in mineral phases. Gaft M

  20. Developing alternative resources of rare earth elements in Europe - EURARE and the red mud challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deady, Eimear; Mouchos, Evangelos; Goodenough, Kathryn; Wall, Frances; Williamson, Ben

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are considered to be highly "critical" by the European Commission [1], owing to the concentration of global supply [2] and their use in a wide range of emerging technologies (e.g. smart phones, electric cars and wind turbines). The main source of REE is the mineral bastnäsite, which is primarily extracted from carbonatites. Alternative resources of REE have been identified in a variety of other environments such as alluvial placers, bauxites and ore tailings. The EURARE project (www.eurare.eu), funded by the European Commission, aims to improve understanding of potential REE resources in Europe with the overall objective of establishing the basis for a European REE industry. As a part of this project, alternative sources of rare earth elements in Europe are being considered. REE have been identified as being particularly enriched in karst-bauxites and hence in the red muds generated as a waste product from the processing of these bauxites to alumina through the Bayer process [3]. Karst-bauxites are widely distributed with deposits known across the Mediterranean and with intermittent exploitation occurring over many decades. REE become concentrated in the bauxite deposits by the bauxitisation process and are retained due to the geochemical barrier created by the limestone bedrock below. This can result in several processes, including the crystallisation of authigenic REE-bearing minerals, the accumulation of residual phases and the adsorption of ions onto clays and other mineral surfaces [4]. Red muds produced from alumina processing represent a potentially important concentration of REE as it has been demonstrated that the REE pass through the alumina extraction process into the waste, and the total REE concentrations are typically enriched by a factor of two compared with the original bauxite ore [5]. Bauxites and red muds from the Parnassus Ghiona region of Greece [6] and the Seydişehir-Akseki region of Turkey have been assessed as

  1. Subduction Zone Redox and the Deep Earth Cycles of Sulfur and Chalcophile Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canil, D.

    2013-12-01

    Subduction at convergent plate margins is a return flux to the mantle of rocks influenced by weathering, hydrothermal activity, atmospheric exchange, or bio-mineralization in the exosphere. The latter exogenic processes modify the long-term abundance and behaviour of certain elements in the deeper earth that can be traced over time in the chemistry of mantle-derived magmas. The redox budget of subduction is controlled by the flux of oxidized versus reduced forms of Fe, S, H, or C, and impacts the long-term evolution of oxygen on the planet, critical for life in the exosphere. In particular, the sulfur cycle is specifically tied to the evolution of oxygen on Earth's surface over time and critical to biogeochemical cycles on the surface. The behaviour of sulfur in the exogenic system is well-studied and fairly well understood using sedimentary records. An originally sulfidic ocean on Earth gave way with time and oxygenation to one that is sulfate dominated over the last two billion years. In contrast, far less is known of the deep earth cycle of S, and more so its history. The record of the endogenic cycle can only be monitored via what comes out of the mantle (magmas and their gases), or what goes down via subduction (hydrothermally-altered or weathered subducted lithosphere). Interest in the endogenic cycle of S is not new but several outstanding conundrums remain for sulfur in arc magmas that point to the importance of the subduction process. A hitherto ignored component of the paradox of the sulfur cycle is the sedimentary veneer that sits atop the subducted oceanic basalt crust. Compilations show only 0.12 wt% S in altered ocean basalt crust, but up to 10 times that amount in oceanic sediments, tied to their Fe content (in pyrite). These abundances may seem trivial, but the behaviour of this small amount of S in subduction is not fully appreciated and its oxidation potential in the arc mantle is enormous. The conversion of subducted sulfide to sulfate is a 8

  2. A new fungal isolate, Penidiella sp. strain T9, accumulates the rare earth element dysprosium.

    PubMed

    Horiike, Takumi; Yamashita, Mitsuo

    2015-05-01

    With an aim to develop a highly efficient method for the recovery of rare earth elements (REEs) by using microorganisms, we attempted to isolate dysprosium (Dy)-accumulating microorganisms that grow under acidic conditions from environmental samples containing high concentrations of heavy metals. One acidophilic strain, T9, which was isolated from an abandoned mine, decreased the concentration of Dy in medium that contained 100 mg/liter Dy to 53 mg/liter Dy after 3 days of cultivation at pH 2.5. The Dy content in the cell pellet of the T9 strain was 910 μg/mg of dry cells. The T9 strain also accumulated other REEs. Based on the results of 28S-D1/D2 rRNA gene sequencing and morphological characterization, we designated this fungal strain Penidiella sp. T9. Bioaccumulation of Dy was observed on the cell surface of the T9 strain by elemental mapping using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Our results indicate that Penidiella sp. T9 has the potential to recover REEs such as Dy from mine drainage and industrial liquid waste under acidic conditions.

  3. Rare earth elements and select actinoids in the Canadian House Dust Study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, P E; Levesque, C; Chénier, M; Gardner, H D

    2017-03-17

    Nationally representative baseline data are presented for rare earth elements (REE), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) in house dust sampled from 1025 urban homes, in units of concentrations (μg g(-1) ), loadings (μg m(-2) ), and loading rates (ng m(-2)  d(-1) ). Spearman rank correlations indicate that, in addition to outdoor sources, consumer products and building materials can influence indoor dust concentrations of REE, Th, and U. Correlations (P<.01) with numbers of occupants, dogs, and cats suggest soil track-in. Correlations (P<.01) with hardwood floors suggest release of REE additives used in pigments and coatings during daily wear and tear. Concentrations of light REE are elevated in smokers' homes compared to non-smokers' homes (P<.001), suggesting that a key source is "mischmetal," the REE alloy used in cigarette-lighter flints. Indoor sources include geological impurities in raw materials used in consumer products, such as U and Th impurities in bentonite clay used in cat litter, and REE impurities in phosphates used for a variety of applications including dog food and building materials. Median gastric bioaccessibility (pH 1.5) of most REE in dust ranges from about 20% to 29%. Household vacuum samples correlate with fresh dust samples from the same homes (P<.001 for all investigated elements).

  4. Analytical Approach Using KS Elements to Near-Earth Orbit Predictions Including Drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan Sharma, Ram

    1991-04-01

    A new analytical theory for the motion of near-Earth satellite orbits with the air drag effect is developed in terms of the KS elements, utilizing an analytical oblate exponential atmospheric density model. Due to the symmetry of the KS element equations, only one of the eight equations is integrated analytically to obtain the state vector at the end of each revolution. This is a uniqueness of the present theory. The series expansions include up to quadratic terms in e (eccentricity) and c (a small parameter dependent on the flattening of the atmosphere). Numerical studies are done with six test cases, selected to cover a wide range of eccentricity and semi-major axis, and a comparison of the three orbital parameters: semi-major axis, eccentricity and argument of perigee perturbed by the air drag with oblate atmosphere is made up to 100 revolutions with the numerically integrated values. The comparison is quite satisfactory. After 100 revolutions, with a ballistic coefficient of 50, a maximum difference of 39 metres is found in the semi-major axis comparison for a very small eccentricity (0.001) case having an initial perigee height of 391.425 km. One important advantage of the present theory is that it is singularity free, a problem faced by the analytical theories developed from the Lagrange's planetary equations. Another advantage is that the state vector is known after each revolution.

  5. A New Fungal Isolate, Penidiella sp. Strain T9, Accumulates the Rare Earth Element Dysprosium

    PubMed Central

    Horiike, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    With an aim to develop a highly efficient method for the recovery of rare earth elements (REEs) by using microorganisms, we attempted to isolate dysprosium (Dy)-accumulating microorganisms that grow under acidic conditions from environmental samples containing high concentrations of heavy metals. One acidophilic strain, T9, which was isolated from an abandoned mine, decreased the concentration of Dy in medium that contained 100 mg/liter Dy to 53 mg/liter Dy after 3 days of cultivation at pH 2.5. The Dy content in the cell pellet of the T9 strain was 910 μg/mg of dry cells. The T9 strain also accumulated other REEs. Based on the results of 28S-D1/D2 rRNA gene sequencing and morphological characterization, we designated this fungal strain Penidiella sp. T9. Bioaccumulation of Dy was observed on the cell surface of the T9 strain by elemental mapping using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Our results indicate that Penidiella sp. T9 has the potential to recover REEs such as Dy from mine drainage and industrial liquid waste under acidic conditions. PMID:25710372

  6. Ecosystem Composition Controls the Fate of Rare Earth Elements during Incipient Soil Genesis.

    PubMed

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Burghelea, Carmen I; Dontsova, Katerina; Presler, Jennifer K; Maier, Raina M; Huxman, Travis; Domanik, Kenneth J; Hunt, Edward A; Amistadi, Mary K; Gaddis, Emily E; Palacios-Menendez, Maria A; Vaquera-Ibarra, Maria O; Chorover, Jon

    2017-02-23

    The rare earth elements (REE) are increasingly important in a variety of science and economic fields, including (bio)geosciences, paleoecology, astrobiology, and mining. However, REE distribution in early rock-microbe-plant systems has remained elusive. We tested the hypothesis that REE mass-partitioning during incipient weathering of basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist depends on the activity of microbes, vascular plants (Buffalo grass), and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Pore-water element abundances revealed a rapid transition from abiotic to biotic signatures of weathering, the latter associated with smaller aqueous loss and larger plant uptake. Abiotic dissolution was 39% of total denudation in plant-microbes-mycorrhiza treatment. Microbes incremented denudation, particularly in rhyolite, and this resulted in decreased bioavailable solid pools in this rock. Total mobilization (aqueous + uptake) was ten times greater in planted compared to abiotic treatments, REE masses in plant generally exceeding those in water. Larger plants increased bioavailable solid pools, consistent with enhanced soil genesis. Mycorrhiza generally had a positive effect on total mobilization. The main mechanism behind incipient REE weathering was carbonation enhanced by biotic respiration, the denudation patterns being largely dictated by mineralogy. A consistent biotic signature was observed in La:phosphate and mobilization: solid pool ratios, and in the pattern of denudation and uptake.

  7. Ecosystem Composition Controls the Fate of Rare Earth Elements during Incipient Soil Genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G.; Burghelea, Carmen I.; Dontsova, Katerina; Presler, Jennifer K.; Maier, Raina M.; Huxman, Travis; Domanik, Kenneth J.; Hunt, Edward A.; Amistadi, Mary K.; Gaddis, Emily E.; Palacios-Menendez, Maria A.; Vaquera-Ibarra, Maria O.; Chorover, Jon

    2017-02-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are increasingly important in a variety of science and economic fields, including (bio)geosciences, paleoecology, astrobiology, and mining. However, REE distribution in early rock-microbe-plant systems has remained elusive. We tested the hypothesis that REE mass-partitioning during incipient weathering of basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist depends on the activity of microbes, vascular plants (Buffalo grass), and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Pore-water element abundances revealed a rapid transition from abiotic to biotic signatures of weathering, the latter associated with smaller aqueous loss and larger plant uptake. Abiotic dissolution was 39% of total denudation in plant-microbes-mycorrhiza treatment. Microbes incremented denudation, particularly in rhyolite, and this resulted in decreased bioavailable solid pools in this rock. Total mobilization (aqueous + uptake) was ten times greater in planted compared to abiotic treatments, REE masses in plant generally exceeding those in water. Larger plants increased bioavailable solid pools, consistent with enhanced soil genesis. Mycorrhiza generally had a positive effect on total mobilization. The main mechanism behind incipient REE weathering was carbonation enhanced by biotic respiration, the denudation patterns being largely dictated by mineralogy. A consistent biotic signature was observed in La:phosphate and mobilization: solid pool ratios, and in the pattern of denudation and uptake.

  8. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  9. Using rare earth element tracers and neutron activation analysis to study rill erosion process.

    PubMed

    Li, Mian; Li, Zhan-bin; Ding, Weng-feng; Liu, Pu-ling; Yao, Wen-yi

    2006-03-01

    Spatially averaged soil erosion data provide little information on the process of rill erosion. The dynamically varied data on the temporal and spatial distributions in the rill erosion process are needed to better understand the erosion process and reveal its innate characteristics. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of rare earth element (REE) tracers and the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method on the study of the rill erosion process and to reveal quantitatively the relationships and characteristics of temporal and spatial distributions of sediment yield in rill erosion. Four REEs were used to study the changeable process of rill erosion at 4 slope positions. Four water inflow rates were applied to a 0.3 x 5 m soil bed at 3 slopes of 10.5%, 15.8% and 21.2% in scouring experiments. All of the runoff was collected in the experiment. Each sample was air-dried and well mixed. Then 20 g of each sample was sieved through 100-mesh and about a 50 mg sample was weighed for analysis of the four elemental compositions by NAA. Results indicate that the REE tracers and NAA method can be used to not only quantitatively determine soil erosion amounts on different slope segments, but also to reveal the changeable process of rill erosion amount. All of the relative errors of the experimental results were less than 25%, which is considered satisfactory on the study of rill erosion process.

  10. Concomitant Leaching and Electrochemical Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Monazite.

    PubMed

    Maes, Synthia; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Rabaey, Korneel; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa; Hennebel, Tom

    2017-02-07

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have become increasingly important in modern day technologies. Unfortunately, their recycling is currently limited, and the conventional technologies for their extraction and purification are exceedingly energy and chemical intensive. New sustainable technologies for REE extraction from both primary and secondary resources would be extremely beneficial. This research investigated a two-stage recovery strategy focused on the recovery of neodymium (Nd) and lanthanum (La) from monazite ore that combines microbially based leaching (using citric acid and spent fungal supernatant) with electrochemical extraction. Pretreating the phosphate-based monazite rock (via roasting) dramatically increased the microbial REE leaching efficiency. Batch experiments demonstrated the effective and continued leaching of REEs by recycled citric acid, with up to 392 mg of Nd L(-1) and 281 mg of La L(-1) leached during seven consecutive 24 h cycles. Neodymium was further extracted in the catholyte of a three-compartment electrochemical system, with up to 880 mg of Nd L(-1) achieved within 4 days (at 40 A m(-2)). Meanwhile, the radioactive element thorium and counterions phosphate and citrate were separated effectively from the REEs in the anolyte, favoring REE extraction and allowing sustainable reuse of the leaching agent. This study shows a promising technology that is suitable for primary ores and can further be optimized for secondary resources.

  11. Geochemistry of the rare earth elements in ferromanganese nodules from DOMES Site A, northern equatorial Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvert, S.E.; Piper, D.Z.; Baedecker, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in ferromanganese nodules from DOMES Site A has been determined by instrumental neutron activation methods. The concentrations of the REE vary markedly. Low concentrations characterize samples from a depression (the valley), in which Quaternary sediments are thin or absent; high concentrations are found in samples from the surrounding abyssal hills (the highlands) where the Quaternary sediment section is relatively thick. Moreover, the valley nodules are strongly depleted in the light trivalent REE (LREE) and Ce compared with nodules from the highlands, some of the former showing negative Ce anomalies. The REE abundances in the nodules are strongly influenced by the REE abundances in coexisting bottom water. Some controls on the REE chemistry of bottom waters include: a) the more effective removal of the LREE relative to the HREE from seawater because of the greater degree of complexation of the latter elements with seawater ligands, b) the very efficient oxidative scavenging of Ce on particle surfaces in seawater, and c) the strong depletion of both Ce and the LREE in, or a larger benthic flux of the HREE into, the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) which flows through the valley. The distinctive REE chemistry of valley nodules is a function of their growth from geochemically evolved AABW. In contrast, the REE chemistry of highland nodules indicates growth from a local, less evolved seawater source. ?? 1987.

  12. Uranium, thorium and rare earth elements in macrofungi: what are the genuine concentrations?

    PubMed

    Borovička, Jan; Kubrová, Jaroslava; Rohovec, Jan; Randa, Zdeněk; Dunn, Colin E

    2011-10-01

    Concentrations of uranium, thorium and rare earth elements (REE) in 36 species of ectomycorrhizal (26 samples) and saprobic (25 samples) macrofungi from unpolluted sites with differing bedrock geochemistry were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Analytical results are supported by use of certified reference materials (BCR-670, BCR-667, NIST-1575a) and the reliability of the determination of uranium was verified by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA). It appears that data recently published on these elements are erroneous, in part because of use of an inappropriate analytical method; and in part because of apparent contamination by soil particles resulting in elevated levels of thorium and REE. Macrofungi from unpolluted areas, in general, did not accumulate high levels of the investigated metals. Concentrations of uranium and thorium were generally below 30 and 125 μg kg(-1) (dry weight), respectively. Concentrations of REE in macrofungi did not exceed 360 μg kg(-1) (dry weight) and their distribution more or less followed the trend observed in post-Archean shales and loess.

  13. Ecosystem Composition Controls the Fate of Rare Earth Elements during Incipient Soil Genesis

    PubMed Central

    Zaharescu, Dragos G.; Burghelea, Carmen I.; Dontsova, Katerina; Presler, Jennifer K.; Maier, Raina M.; Huxman, Travis; Domanik, Kenneth J.; Hunt, Edward A.; Amistadi, Mary K.; Gaddis, Emily E.; Palacios-Menendez, Maria A.; Vaquera-Ibarra, Maria O.; Chorover, Jon

    2017-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are increasingly important in a variety of science and economic fields, including (bio)geosciences, paleoecology, astrobiology, and mining. However, REE distribution in early rock-microbe-plant systems has remained elusive. We tested the hypothesis that REE mass-partitioning during incipient weathering of basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist depends on the activity of microbes, vascular plants (Buffalo grass), and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Pore-water element abundances revealed a rapid transition from abiotic to biotic signatures of weathering, the latter associated with smaller aqueous loss and larger plant uptake. Abiotic dissolution was 39% of total denudation in plant-microbes-mycorrhiza treatment. Microbes incremented denudation, particularly in rhyolite, and this resulted in decreased bioavailable solid pools in this rock. Total mobilization (aqueous + uptake) was ten times greater in planted compared to abiotic treatments, REE masses in plant generally exceeding those in water. Larger plants increased bioavailable solid pools, consistent with enhanced soil genesis. Mycorrhiza generally had a positive effect on total mobilization. The main mechanism behind incipient REE weathering was carbonation enhanced by biotic respiration, the denudation patterns being largely dictated by mineralogy. A consistent biotic signature was observed in La:phosphate and mobilization: solid pool ratios, and in the pattern of denudation and uptake. PMID:28230202

  14. Using rare earth elements for the identification of the geographic origin of food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, T.; Bandoniene, D.; Joebstl, D.

    2009-04-01

    The European Union defined regimes within the Protected Geographical Status (PGS) framework to protect names of regional food specialities. Thus only food produced in a specific geographical area with a specific way of production or quality can be protected by a protected geographical indication (PGI) label. As such Styrian Pumpkin Seed Oil has been approved with this label, but as with many other high priced regional specialities, fraud cannot be excluded or nor identified. Thus the aim of this work is, to develop an analytical method for the control of the geographic origin of pumpkin seed oil and also to test the method for other protected products. The development of such a method is not only of interest for scientists, but also of importance for the consumer wanting to know the origin of the food products and the assurance of the purity and quality. The group of rare earth elements (REE) in plants also have a characteristic distribution pattern similar to upper crustal REE distributions. Since the REE concentrations are extremely low in pumpkin seed oil (ppt to low ppb), ICP-MS was the only sensitive tool able to produce validated results. The carrier of the REE are most likely small particles distributed within the pumpkin seed oil. Unlike, e.g., olive oil, pumpkin seed oil is bottled and sold unfiltered, which makes this Styrian speciality an interesting sampling target. As pumpkin seed oils from different geographic origin show variable trace element and rare earth distribution patterns, is should possible to trace the origin of these oils. In the current project pumpkin seeds from different regions in Austria and from abroad were sampled. The trace element patterns in the extracted oil of these seeds were determined and a preliminary classification with discriminate analysis was successfully done on a statistical basis. In addition to the study of the geographic origin it was demonstrated that REE distribution patterns can also be used for the

  15. Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2014-02-01

    The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic.

  16. Fractionation of trace elements in agricultural soils using ultrasound assisted sequential extraction prior to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric determination.

    PubMed

    Matong, Joseph M; Nyaba, Luthando; Nomngongo, Philiswa N

    2016-07-01

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of fourteen trace elements and to investigate their distribution as well as a contamination levels in selected agricultural soils. An ultrasonic assisted sequential extraction procedure derived from three-step BCR method was used for fractionation of trace elements. The total concentration of trace elements in soil samples was obtained by total digestion method in soil samples with aqua regia. The results of the extractable fractions revealed that most of the target trace elements can be transferred to the human being through the food chain, thus leading to serious human health. Enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), risk assessment code (RAC) and individual contamination factors (ICF) were used to assess the environmental impacts of trace metals in soil samples. The EF revealed that Cd was enriched by 3.1-7.2 (except in Soil 1). The Igeo results showed that the soils in the study area was moderately contaminated with Fe, and heavily to extremely polluted with Cd. The soil samples from the unplanted field was found to have highest contamination factor for Cd and lowest for Pb. Soil 3 showed a high risk for Tl and Cd with RAC values of greater than or equal to 50%. In addition, Fe, Ni, Cu, V, As, Mo (except Soil 2), Sb and Pb posed low environmental risk. The modified BCR sequential extraction method provided more information about mobility and environmental implication of studied trace elements in the study area.

  17. Rare earth elements minimal harvest year variation facilitates robust geographical origin discrimination: The case of PDO "Fava Santorinis".

    PubMed

    Drivelos, Spiros A; Danezis, Georgios P; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Georgiou, Constantinos A

    2016-12-15

    This study examines the trace and rare earth elemental (REE) fingerprint variations of PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) "Fava Santorinis" over three consecutive harvesting years (2011-2013). Classification of samples in harvesting years was studied by performing discriminant analysis (DA), k nearest neighbours (κ-NN), partial least squares (PLS) analysis and probabilistic neural networks (PNN) using rare earth elements and trace metals determined using ICP-MS. DA performed better than κ-NN, producing 100% discrimination using trace elements and 79% using REEs. PLS was found to be superior to PNN, achieving 99% and 90% classification for trace and REEs, respectively, while PNN achieved 96% and 71% classification for trace and REEs, respectively. The information obtained using REEs did not enhance classification, indicating that REEs vary minimally per harvesting year, providing robust geographical origin discrimination. The results show that seasonal patterns can occur in the elemental composition of "Fava Santorinis", probably reflecting seasonality of climate.

  18. Kinetic Fractionation Of Heavy Stable Isotopes At Earth Surface Temperatures: Complexity And Systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T.

    2003-04-01

    Many applications of heavy stable isotopes are aimed at the oceans, ground water and surface water. In these environments, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo isotope variations have been observed, and in most cases are generated by kinetic isotope effects (KIE's). Whereas equilibrium isotope effects are thermodynamic quantities that are insensitive to reaction mechanisms, KIE's depend strongly on reaction mechanisms and conditions. For example, the rates of reactions, the speciation of dissolved elements, and transient effects can all greatly affect the sizes of KIE's. Accurate interpretations of measured heavy stable isotope variations thus depend on sufficient understanding of variability in KIE's. Complexity in KIE's arises when they are induced by reactions consisting of multiple reaction steps arranged in series and possibly with branches. Paradoxically, a reaction can have a small KIE even though a single step within it has a large KIE. The key to understanding this, as explained in the carbon and sulfur isotope literature, is to consider the sizes and isotopic compositions of the intermediate species between steps. Intermediates consumed by relatively fast steps have low concentrations and short residence times, and tend to become strongly enriched in heavier isotopes. This reduces the size of the overall KIE. However, this situation takes some time to be established, and in the very early stages of reactions, "start-up effects" may be observed, with anomalously large KIE's. In the face of such complexity, laboratory and field experiments are both needed to develop understanding of KIE systematics. Simple laboratory experiments provide insight into the likely dependence of KIE's on reaction mechanisms and conditions. More complex laboratory experiments (e.g., sediment microcosms) can mimic natural conditions somewhat and provide estimates of naturally relevant KIE's. Finally, in-situ measurement of KIE's in natural settings are needed to determine naturally relevant

  19. Carbon and other light element contents in the Earth's core based on first-principles molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yigang; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2012-11-27

    Carbon (C) is one of the candidate light elements proposed to account for the density deficit of the Earth's core. In addition, C significantly affects siderophile and chalcophile element partitioning between metal and silicate and thus the distribution of these elements in the Earth's core and mantle. Derivation of the accretion and core-mantle segregation history of the Earth requires, therefore, an accurate knowledge of the C abundance in the Earth's core. Previous estimates of the C content of the core differ by a factor of ∼20 due to differences in assumptions and methods, and because the metal-silicate partition coefficient of C was previously unknown. Here we use two-phase first-principles molecular dynamics to derive this partition coefficient of C between liquid iron and silicate melt. We calculate a value of 9 ± 3 at 3,200 K and 40 GPa. Using this partition coefficient and the most recent estimates of bulk Earth or mantle C contents, we infer that the Earth's core contains 0.1-0.7 wt% of C. Carbon thus plays a moderate role in the density deficit of the core and in the distribution of siderophile and chalcophile elements during core-mantle segregation processes. The partition coefficients of nitrogen (N), hydrogen, helium, phosphorus, magnesium, oxygen, and silicon are also inferred and found to be in close agreement with experiments and other geochemical constraints. Contents of these elements in the core derived from applying these partition coefficients match those derived by using the cosmochemical volatility curve and geochemical mass balance arguments. N is an exception, indicating its retention in a mantle phase instead of in the core.

  20. Zinc isotope fractionation during mantle melting and constraints on the Zn isotope composition of Earth's upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ze-Zhou; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Liu, Jingao; Huang, Jian; Xiao, Yan; Chu, Zhu-Yin; Zhao, Xin-Miao; Tang, Limei

    2017-02-01

    The zinc (Zn) stable isotope system has great potential for tracing planetary formation and differentiation processes due to its chalcophile, lithophile and moderately volatile character. As an initial approach, the terrestrial mantle, and by inference, the bulk silicate Earth (BSE), have previously been suggested to have an average δ66Zn value of ∼+0.28‰ (relative to JMC 3-0749L) primarily based on oceanic basalts. Nevertheless, data for mantle peridotites are relatively scarce and it remains unclear whether Zn isotopes are fractionated during mantle melting. To address this issue, we report high-precision (±0.04‰; 2SD) Zn isotope data for well-characterized peridotites (n = 47) from cratonic and orogenic settings, as well as their mineral separates. Basalts including mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB) were also measured to avoid inter-laboratory bias. The MORB analyzed have homogeneous δ66Zn values of +0.28 ± 0.03‰ (here and throughout the text, errors are given as 2SD), similar to those of OIB obtained in this study and in the literature (+0.31 ± 0.09‰). Excluding the metasomatized peridotites that exhibit a wide δ66Zn range of -0.44‰ to +0.42‰, the non-metasomatized peridotites have relatively uniform δ66Zn value of +0.18 ± 0.06‰, which is lighter than both MORB and OIB. This difference suggests a small but detectable Zn isotope fractionation (∼0.1‰) during mantle partial melting. The magnitude of inter-mineral fractionation between olivine and pyroxene is, on average, close to zero, but spinels are always isotopically heavier than coexisting olivines (Δ66ZnSpl-Ol = +0.12 ± 0.07‰) due to the stiffer Zn-O bonds in spinel than silicate minerals (Ol, Opx and Cpx). Zinc concentrations in spinels are 11-88 times higher than those in silicate minerals, and our modelling suggests that spinel consumption during mantle melting plays a key role in generating high Zn concentrations and heavy Zn isotopic

  1. Hydrothermal transport and deposition of the rare earth elements by fluorine-bearing aqueous liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdisov, Art A.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    New technologies, particularly those designed to address environmental concerns, have created a great demand for the rare earth elements (REE), and focused considerable attention on the processes by which they are concentrated to economically exploitable levels in the Earth's crust. There is widespread agreement that hydrothermal fluids played an important role in the formation of the world's largest economic REE deposit, i.e. Bayan Obo, China. Until recently, many researchers have assumed that hydrothermal transport of the REE in fluorine-bearing ore-forming systems occurs mainly due to the formation of REE-fluoride complexes. Consequently, hydrothermal models for REE concentration have commonly involved depositional mechanisms based on saturation of the fluid with REE minerals due to destabilization of REE-fluoride complexes. Here, we demonstrate that these complexes are insignificant in REE transport, and that the above models are therefore flawed. The strong association of H+ and F- as HF° and low solubility of REE-F solids greatly limit transport of the REE as fluoride complexes. However, this limitation does not apply to REE-chloride complexes. Because of this, the high concentration of Cl- in the ore fluids, and the relatively high stability of REE-chloride complexes, the latter can transport appreciable concentrations of REE at low pH. The limitation also does not apply to sulphate complexes and in some fluids, the concentration of sulphate may be sufficient to transport significant concentrations of REE as sulphate complexes, particularly at weakly acidic pH. This article proposes new models for hydrothermal REE deposition based on the transport of the REE as chloride and sulphate complexes.

  2. Fractionation of fluorine, chlorine and other trace elements during differentiation of a tholeiitic magma.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenland, L.; Lovering, J. F.

    1966-01-01

    Fluorine, chlorine and other trace elements determined through differentiated tholeiitic dolerite sill from Tasmania using statistical techniques, showing hydroxyl lattice sites by chlorine and fluorine

  3. First Principles Calculation on Equilibrium Si Isotope Fractionation Factors and its Implementation on Si Isotope Distributions in Earth Surface Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; He, H. T.; Zhu, C.

    2014-12-01

    Several important equilibrium Si isotope fractionation factors are calculated here. We use a so-called volume-variable-cluster-model (VVCM) method for solids and the "water-droplet" method for aqueous species for isotope fractionation calculation at the same quantum chemistry level. The calculation results show that several silicate minerals, such as quartz, feldspar, kaolinite, etc., all enrich heavy Si isotopes relative to aqueous H4SiO4 and can be up to 3.3‰ at 25°C, different from most field observations. Meanwhile stable organosilicon complexes can enrich even lighter Si isotopes than aqueous H4SiO4. For explaining the difference between the calculation results and field observations, we calculate the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with the formation of amorphous silica, and find that amorphous silica will enrich extremely light Si isotopes. From amorphous silica to crystalline quartz, the structural adjustment & transition needs getting rid of small amount of Si to re-organize the structure. Light Si isotopes will be preferentially lost and let the final crystalline quartz with a little bit more heavy Si isotopes. However, such late-stage Si heavy isotope enrichment cannot erase the total isotopic signal, crystalline quartz still inherit much light Si isotopic composition from amorphous quartz. That is the reason for the discrepancy between the calculation results and the field observations, because the formation of amorphous quartz is under a non-equilibrium process but theoretical calculations are for equilibrium isotope fractionations. With accurate equilibrium fractionation factors provided here, Si isotope distributions in earth surface environments including soil, groundwater and plants can be further interpreted. We find that δ30Si variations in soil are mainly driven by secondary minerals precipitation and adsorption. Also, bulk soil δ30Si maybe have a parabolic distribution with soil age, with a minimum value at where allophane is

  4. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and rare earth elements uptake of soybean grown in rare earth mine tailings].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zhao, Ren-xin; Zhao, Wen-jing; Fu, Rui-ying; Guo, Jiang-yuan; Zhang, Jun

    2013-05-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus versiforme on the plant growth, nutrient uptake, C: N: P stoichiometric, uptake of heavy metals and rare earth elements by soybean (Glycine max) grown in rare earth mine tailings. The aim was to provide a basis for the revegetation of rare earth mine tailings. The results indicated that soybean had a high mycorrhizal colonization and symbiotic associations were successfully established with G. versiforme, with an average rate of approximately 67%. The colonization of G. versiforme significantly promoted the growth of soybean, increased P, K contents, and decreased C: N: P ratios, supporting the growth rate hypothesis. Inoculation with G. versiforme significantly decreased shoots and roots La, Ce, Pr and Nd concentrations of soybean compared to the control treatment. However, inoculation with G. versiforme had no significant effect on the heavy metal concentrations, except for significantly decreased shoot Fe and Cr concentrations and increased root Cd concentrations. The experiment demonstrates that AM fungi have a potential role for soybean to adapt the composite adversity of rare earth tailings and play a positive role in revegetation of rare earth mine tailings. Further studies on the role of AM fungi under natural conditions should be conducted.

  5. Rare earth elements and critical metal content of extracted landfilled material and potential recovery opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Silvia C.; Coulon, Frédéric; Jiang, Ying; Wagland, Stuart

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Samples from multiple core drills were obtained from 4× landfill sites in the UK. • Each sample analysed for rare earth elements, critical metals and valuable metals. • Two stage microwave digestion method ensuring high yield. • High quantities of copper and aluminium were observed in the soil layers of landfill. • Across 4× landfills aluminium and copper present has a value of around $400 million. - Abstract: Rare earth elements (REEs), Platinum group metals (PGMs) and other critical metals currently attract significant interest due to the high risks of supply shortage and substantial impact on the economy. Their uses in many applications have made them present in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in commercial and industrial waste (C&I), since several industrial processes produce by-products with high content of these metals. With over 4000 landfills in the UK alone, the aim of this study was to assess the existence of these critical metals within landfills. Samples collected from four closed landfills in UK were subjected to a two-step acid digestion to extract 27 metals of interest. Concentrations across the four landfill sites were 58 ± 6 mg kg{sup −1} for REEs comprising 44 ± 8 mg kg{sup −1} for light REEs, 11 ± 2 mg kg{sup −1} for heavy REEs and 3 ± 1 mg kg{sup −1} for Scandium (Sc) and 3 ± 1.0 mg kg{sup −1} of PGMs. Compared to the typical concentration in ores, these concentrations are too low to achieve a commercially viable extraction. However, content of other highly valuable metals (Al and Cu) was found in concentrations equating to a combined value across the four landfills of around $400 million, which increases the economic viability of landfill mining. Presence of critical metals will mainly depend on the type of waste that was buried but the recovery of these metals through landfill mining is possible and is economically feasible only if additional materials (plastics, paper, metallic items and other) are

  6. Rare-earth elements enrichment of Pacific seafloor sediments: the view from volcanic islands of Polynesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melleton, Jérémie; Tuduri, Johann; Pourret, Olivier; Bailly, Laurent; Gisbert, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are key metals for «green» technologies such as energy saving lamps or permanent magnets used in, e.g., wind turbines, hard disk drives, portable phone or electric or hybrid vehicles. Since several years, world demand for these metals is therefore drastically increasing. The quasi-monopolistic position of China, which produces around 95 % of global REEs production, generates risks for the industries that depend on a secure supply of REEs. In response, countries are developing and diversifying their supply sources, with new mining projects located outside China and efforts in the area of REEs recycling. Most of these projects focus on deposits related to carbonatites and alkaline-peralkaline magmatism, which are generally enriched in light REEs (LREEs) compared to the heavy REEs (HREEs)-enriched deposits of the ion-adsorption types, located in southern China. However, a recent study revealed new valuable resources corresponding to seafloor sediments located in the south-eastern and north-central Pacific. The deep-sea mud described by these authors show a higher HREE/LREE ratio than ion-adsorption deposits, a feature which significantly increases their economic interest. The authors suggest mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal activity as an explanation to this anomalous enrichment. However, several contributions have documented considerable REEs enrichment in basalts and peridotitic xenoliths from French Polynesia. Several arguments have been exposed in favour of a supergene origin, with a short migration, suggesting that REEs were collected from weathered basalts. The Tahaa volcanic island (Sous-le-Vent Island, Society Archipelago, French Polynesia) is the first location where such enrichment has been described. New petrographic and mineralogical investigations confirm a supergene mobilization of this abnormal occurrence. REE-bearing minerals (mainly phosphates of the rhabdophane group) are primarily located within basalt vesicles but also in

  7. Utilizing rare earth elements as tracers in high TDS reservoir brines in CCS applications

    DOE PAGES

    McLing, Travis; Smith, William; Smith, Robert

    2014-12-31

    In this paper we report the result of research associated with the testing of a procedures necessary for utilizing natural occurring trace elements, specifically the Rare Earth Elements (REE) as geochemical tracers in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applications. Trace elements, particularly REE may be well suited to serve as in situ tracers for monitoring geochemical conditions and the migration of CO₂-charged waters within CCS storage systems. We have been conducting studies to determine the efficacy of using REE as a tracer and characterization tool in the laboratory, at a CCS analogue site in Soda Springs, Idaho, and at amore » proposed CCS reservoir at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Results from field and laboratory studies have been encouraging and show that REE may be an effective tracer in CCS systems and overlying aquifers. In recent years, a series of studies using REE as a natural groundwater tracer have been conducted successfully at various locations around the globe. Additionally, REE and other trace elements have been successfully used as in situ tracers to describe the evolution of deep sedimentary Basins. Our goal has been to establish naturally occurring REE as a useful monitoring measuring and verification (MMV) tool in CCS research because formation brine chemistry will be particularly sensitive to changes in local equilibrium caused by the addition of large volumes of CO₂. Because brine within CCS target formations will have been in chemical equilibrium with the host rocks for millions of years, the addition of large volumes of CO₂ will cause reactions in the formation that will drive changes to the brine chemistry due to the pH change caused by the formation of carbonic acid. This CO₂ driven change in formation fluid chemistry will have a major impact on water rock reaction equilibrium in the formation, which will impart a change in the REE fingerprint of the brine that can measured and be used to monitor in situ reservoir

  8. Utilizing rare earth elements as tracers in high TDS reservoir brines in CCS applications

    SciTech Connect

    McLing, Travis; Smith, William; Smith, Robert

    2014-12-31

    In this paper we report the result of research associated with the testing of a procedures necessary for utilizing natural occurring trace elements, specifically the Rare Earth Elements (REE) as geochemical tracers in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applications. Trace elements, particularly REE may be well suited to serve as in situ tracers for monitoring geochemical conditions and the migration of CO₂-charged waters within CCS storage systems. We have been conducting studies to determine the efficacy of using REE as a tracer and characterization tool in the laboratory, at a CCS analogue site in Soda Springs, Idaho, and at a proposed CCS reservoir at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Results from field and laboratory studies have been encouraging and show that REE may be an effective tracer in CCS systems and overlying aquifers. In recent years, a series of studies using REE as a natural groundwater tracer have been conducted successfully at various locations around the globe. Additionally, REE and other trace elements have been successfully used as in situ tracers to describe the evolution of deep sedimentary Basins. Our goal has been to establish naturally occurring REE as a useful monitoring measuring and verification (MMV) tool in CCS research because formation brine chemistry will be particularly sensitive to changes in local equilibrium caused by the addition of large volumes of CO₂. Because brine within CCS target formations will have been in chemical equilibrium with the host rocks for millions of years, the addition of large volumes of CO₂ will cause reactions in the formation that will drive changes to the brine chemistry due to the pH change caused by the formation of carbonic acid. This CO₂ driven change in formation fluid chemistry will have a major impact on water rock reaction equilibrium in the formation, which will impart a change in the REE fingerprint of the brine that can measured and be used to monitor in situ

  9. Copper and trace element fractionation in electrokinetically treated methanogenic anaerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Virkutyte, Jurate; van Hullebusch, Eric; Sillanpää, Mika; Lens, Piet

    2005-12-01

    The effect of electrokinetic treatment (0.15 mA cm(-2)) on the metal fractionation in anaerobic granular sludge artificially contaminated with copper (initial copper concentration 1000 mg kg(-1) wet sludge) was studied. Acidification of the sludge (final pH 4.2 in the sludge bed) with the intention to desorb the copper species bound to the organic/sulfides and residual fractions did not result in an increased mobility, despite the fact that a higher quantity of copper was measured in the more mobile (i.e. exchangeable/carbonate) fractions at final pH 4.2 compared to circum-neutral pH conditions. Also addition of the chelating agent EDTA (Cu2+:EDTA4- ratio 1.2:1) did not enhance the mobility of copper from the organic/sulfides and residual fractions, despite the fact that it induced a reduction of the total copper content of the sludge. The presence of sulfide precipitates likely influences the copper mobilisation from these less mobile fractions, and thus makes EDTA addition ineffective to solubilise copper from the granules.

  10. Dissolved rare earth elements in a seasonally snow-covered, alpine/subalpine watershed, Loch Vale, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiller, Alan M.

    2010-04-01

    Dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in a four-year time series at the outlet of Loch Vale. The Loch Vale watershed is a seasonally snow-covered alpine/subalpine basin in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA. The time series was mainly distinguished by an annual early spring peak in the concentrations of all REEs. REE concentrations at this time were as much as 8-fold greater than at other times of the year. This annual peak was coincident with an early spring peak in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which results from flushing of soils at the beginning of spring snow melting. The REE/DOC peak occurs as discharge starts to increase from wintertime lows but well before the spring peak in discharge. Speciation considerations suggest complexation of the REEs by DOC. The Ce anomaly also increases (i.e., is less fractionated) during the spring flush indicating that the most reducing (or least oxidizing) REE sources in the system are comparatively more important at that time. Mn data and the La/Yb ratio also support this. The behavior of REEs in the Loch Vale system has additionally been compared with metal and DOC behavior in other systems. Hydrologic and climatic differences can be important especially with regard to timing and duration of the spring flush peak. Damping of hydrologic events in the lower floodplain of major rivers may also partially result in the differences observed between Loch Vale and the lower Mississippi River. However, comparison with the Amazon River system additionally suggests that seasonal flooding of wetlands may be an important regulator of REE concentrations. Chemical differences are also important for these systems. This includes pH and suspended matter concentrations which affect the balance between adsorption and complexation. Additionally, the relative complexing ability of DOC in different systems is a factor needing further consideration.

  11. Drill core major, trace and rare earth element anlayses from wells RN-17B and RN-30, Reykjanes, Iceland

    DOE Data Explorer

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-04-01

    Analytical results for X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurement of major, trace and rare earth elements in drill core from geothermal wells in Reykjanes, Iceland. Total Fe was analyzed as FeO, therefore is not included under the Fe2O3 column.

  12. Using Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to identify perferential micro-sites of post-fire aeolian erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant communities in desert environments are spatially anisotropic. We applied Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to different landscape positions of an anisotropic Northern Chihuahua Desert ecosystem in an effort to study preferential sediment source areas. We delineated three 0.5 m by 6 m plots of...

  13. A chemical-spectrochemical method for the determination of rare earth elements and thorium in cerium minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, H.J.; Murata, K.J.; Carron, M.K.

    1954-01-01

    In a combined chemical-spectrochemical procedure for quantitatively determining rare earth elements in cerium minerals, cerium is determined volumetrically, a total rare earths plus thoria precipitate is separated chemically, the ceria content of the precipitate is raised to 80??0 percent by adding pure ceria, and the resulting mixture is analyzed for lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, gadolinium, yttrium, and thorium spectrochemically by means of the d.c. carbon arc. Spectral lines of singly ionized cerium are used as internal standard lines in the spectrochemical determination which is patterned after Fassel's procedure [1]. Results of testing the method with synthetic mixtures of rare earths and with samples of chemically analyzed cerium minerals show that the coefficient of variation for a quadruplicate determination of any element does not exceed 5??0 (excepting yttrium at concentrations less than 1 percent) and that the method is free of serious systematic error. ?? 1954.

  14. Extreme trace elements fractionation in Cenozoic nephelinites and phonolites from the Moroccan Anti-Atlas (Eastern Saghro)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Julien; Ennih, Nasser; Liégeois, Jean-Paul

    2014-12-01

    Nephelinites and phonolites from the Moroccan Anti-Atlas form a cogenetic series of volcanic rocks linked by a fractional crystallization process and showing continuous evolutionary trends for trace-elements. According to partial melting calculations, minor element data in olivine and review of published experimental studies, the most primitive nephelinites are low degree (~ 2%) partial melts from a carbonated LREE-rich spinel lherzolite. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions indicate the participation of both DM and HIMU end-members in the mantle source of nephelinites; the HIMU component is here interpreted as a relic of the shallow metasomatized Pan-African mantle. The phonolites show similar isotopic composition except for slightly more radiogenic Sr isotopic values. Fractional crystallization calculations were performed using trace-element mineral/bulk rock coefficients determined with new LA-ICP-MS data on minerals together with published equilibrium partition coefficients. The decrease of LREE, Sr and Ba with increasing differentiation is explained by fractionation of large amounts of apatite. Th, Nb and Zr display a behavior of very incompatible elements, reaching extreme concentration in most differentiated phonolites. Ta, Hf and MREE by contrast are characterized by a moderately incompatible to compatible behavior during differentiation. Fractionation of small amount of titanite, in which Ta, Hf and MREE are highly compatible compared to Nb, Zr and LREE (DNb/DTa: 2, DZr/DHf: 1.5 for titanite/phonolite ratios), explains the observed increase in Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios with increasing silica content, from 18 and 40 in nephelinites to 70 and 80 in phonolites, respectively. Clinopyroxene also contributed to the fractionation of Hf from Zr in the very first steps of crystallization. The low values of Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios observed in the two most differentiated Si-rich phonolites are probably a consequence of late stage segregation of volatile-rich agpaitic

  15. Health effects and toxicity mechanisms of rare earth elements-Knowledge gaps and research prospects.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Giovanni; Guida, Marco; Tommasi, Franca; Oral, Rahime

    2015-05-01

    In the recent decades, rare earth elements (REE) have undergone a steady spread in several industrial and medical applications, and in agriculture. Relatively scarce information has been acquired to date on REE-associated biological effects, from studies of bioaccumulation and of bioassays on animal, plant and models; a few case reports have focused on human health effects following occupational REE exposures, in the present lack of epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed groups. The literature is mostly confined to reports on few REE, namely cerium and lanthanum, whereas substantial information gaps persist on the health effects of other REE. An established action mechanism in REE-associated health effects relates to modulating oxidative stress, analogous to the recognized redox mechanisms observed for other transition elements. Adverse outcomes of REE exposures include a number of endpoints, such as growth inhibition, cytogenetic effects, and organ-specific toxicity. An apparent controversy regarding REE-associated health effects relates to opposed data pointing to either favorable or adverse effects of REE exposures. Several studies have demonstrated that REE, like a number of other xenobiotics, follow hormetic concentration-related trends, implying stimulatory or protective effects at low levels, then adverse effects at higher concentrations. Another major role for REE-associated effects should be focused on pH-dependent REE speciation and hence toxicity. Few reports have demonstrated that environmental acidification enhances REE toxicity; these data may assume particular relevance in REE-polluted acidic soils and in REE mining areas characterized by concomitant REE and acid pollution. The likely environmental threats arising from REE exposures deserve a new line of research efforts.

  16. Rare earth element geochemistry of oceanic ferromanganese nodules and associated sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elderfield, H.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Greaves, M. J.; Calvert, S. E.

    1981-04-01

    Analyses have been made of REE contents of a well-characterized suite of deep-sea (> 4000 m.) principally todorokite-bearing ferromanganese nodules and associated sediments from the Pacific Ocean. REE in nodules and their sediments are closely related: nodules with the largest positive Ce anomalies are found on sediments with the smallest negative Ce anomalies; in contrast, nodules with the highest contents of other rare earths (3 + REE) are found on sediments with the lowest 3 + REE contents and vice versa. 143Nd /144Nd ratios in the nodules (˜0.51244) point to an original seawater source but an identical ratio for sediments in combination with the REE patterns suggests that diagenetic reactions may transfer elements into the nodules. Analysis of biogenic phases shows that the direct contribution of plankton and carbonate and siliceous skeletal materials to REE contents of nodules and sediments is negligible. Inter-element relationships and leaching tests suggest that REE contents are controlled by a P-rich phase with a REE pattern similar to that for biogenous apatite and an Fe-rich phase with a pattern the mirror image of that for sea water. It is proposed that 3 + REE concentrations are controlled by the surface chemistry of these phases during diagenetic reactions which vary with sediment accumulation rate. Processes which favour the enrichment of transition metals in equatorial Pacific nodules favour the depletion of 3 + REE in nodules and enrichment of 3 + REE in associated sediments. In contrast, Ce appears to be added both to nodules and sediments directly from seawater and is not involved in diagenetic reactions.

  17. Rare Earth Element Compositions of Chlorite-rich Hydrothermal Sediments in the middle Okinawa Trough, East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, H.; Yang, S.; Humphris, S. E.; Cai, D.; Wang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have been used as powerful tracers in the study of hot fluid-rock reaction in hydrothermal system. However, the behavior of the REEs during interaction of hydrothermal solution with rocks remains to be clarified more quantitatively. The Okinawa Trough (OT), located in the East Asian continental margin, is characterized by thick terrigenous sediment and ubiquitous volcanic-hydrothermal activities. In this study, the sediments collected during IODP Expedition 331 to the mid-OT were determined for mineralogical and REEs as well as Nd isotopic compositions, aiming to investigate the geochemical behavior of REEs during hydrothermal processes. All samples were separated into bulk and clay-size (˂ 2 μm) fractions and pretreated by 1N HCl to remove carbonate and other unstable components. The hydrothermal sediments in the mid-OT is dominated by Mg-rich chlorite based on the XRD analysis, especially the clay-size fraction comprising pure chlorite. The clay-size samples bear different mineralogical and geochemical compositions between the upper and lower parts in this hydrothermal area. All hydrothermal samples are relatively enriched in HREEs in the residues. The upper clays have higher values of δEu and (La/Yb)N as well as LREEs concentration than the lower part, while the bulk samples have weak REE differentiation. In the 1N HCl leachates, the concentrations of REEs in the bulk samples are higher than in the clays in the lower part but LREEs are obviously enriched in the upper clays. We infer that the grain size may be an important factor controlling the behavior of REEs in the mid-OT hydrothermal system. Both bulk and clay samples show negative Eu anomalies relative to chondrite, similar as the detrital sediments and volcanic rocks. This study confirms the hypothesis that HREEs patterns are constant throughout the system compatible with higher LREEs mobility as chlorine ion complexes in acidic solutions (Mills and Elderfield 1995; Douville

  18. Responses of plant calmodulin to endocytosis induced by rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Cheng, Mengzhu; Chu, Yunxia; Li, Xiaodong; Chen, David D Y; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Qing

    2016-07-01

    The wide application of rare earth elements (REEs) have led to their diffusion and accumulation in the environment. The activation of endocytosis is the primary response of plant cells to REEs. Calmodulin (CaM), as an important substance in calcium (Ca) signaling systems, regulating almost all of the physiological activities in plants, such as cellular metabolism, cell growth and division. However, the response of CaM to endocytosis activated by REEs remains unknown. By using immunofluorescence labeling and a confocal laser scanning microscope, we found that trivalent lanthanum [La(III)], an REE ion, affected the expression of CaM in endocytosis. Using circular dichroism, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and computer simulations, we demonstrated that a low concentration of La(III) could interact with extracellular CaM by electrostatic attraction and was then bound to two Ca-binding sites of CaM, making the molecular structure more compact and orderly, whereas a high concentration of La(III) could be coordinated with cytoplasmic CaM or bound to other Ca-binding sites, making the molecular structure more loose and disorderly. Our results provide a reference for revealing the action mechanisms of REEs in plant cells.

  19. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency. PMID:26819083

  20. Rare earth elements tracing the soil erosion processes on slope surface under natural rainfall.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingyong; Tan, Shuduan; Dang, Haishan; Zhang, Quanfa

    2011-12-01

    A field experiment using rare earth elements (REEs) as tracers was conducted to investigate soil erosion processes on slope surfaces during rainfall events. A plot of 10m×2m×0.16m with a gradient of 20° (36.4%) was established and the plot was divided into two layers and four segments. Various REE tracers were applied to the different layers and segments to determine sediment dynamics under natural rainfall. Results indicated that sheet erosion accounted for more than 90% of total erosion when the rainfall amount and density was not large enough to generate concentrated flows. Sediment source changed in different sections on the slope surface, and the primary sediment source area tended to move upslope as erosion progressed. In rill erosion, sediment discharge mainly originated from the toe-slope and moved upwards as erosion intensified. The results obtained from this study suggest that multi-REE tracer technique is valuable in understanding the erosion processes and determining sediment sources.

  1. Using rare earth elements to constrain particulate organic carbon flux in the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Chen, Ya-Feng; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Kui; Chen, Jian Feng; Burdige, David J

    2016-09-27

    Fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the East China Sea (ECS) have been reported to decrease from the inner continental shelf towards the outer continental shelf. Recent research has shown that POC fluxes in the ECS may be overestimated due to active sediment resuspension. To better characterize the effect of sediment resuspension on particle fluxes in the ECS, rare earth elements (REEs) and organic carbon (OC) were used in separate two-member mixing models to evaluate trap-collected POC fluxes. The ratio of resuspended particles from sediments to total trap-collected particles in the ECS ranged from 82-94% using the OC mixing model, and 30-80% using the REEs mixing model, respectively. These results suggest that REEs may be better proxies for sediment resuspension than OC in high turbidity marginal seas because REEs do not appear to undergo degradation during particle sinking as compared to organic carbon. Our results suggest that REEs can be used as tracers to provide quantitative estimates of POC fluxes in marginal seas.

  2. Ionic conductivity of binary fluorides of potassium and rare earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, N. I.

    2016-01-01

    The ionic conductivity s of KYF4 and K2 RF5 single crystals ( R = Gd, Ho, Er) and KNdF4 and K2 RF5 ceramic samples ( R = Dy, Er) has been studied in the temperature range of 340-500°C. A comparative analysis of the σ values for these objects has been performed. Binary fluorides of potassium and rare earth elements were synthesized by the hydrothermal method (temperature 480°C, pressure 100-150 MPa) in the R 2O3-KF-H2O systems. The σ values of tetraf luorides are 3 × 10-5 S/cm (KYF4 single crystal) and 3 × 10-6 S/cm (KNdF4 ceramics) at 435°C. A K2ErF5 single crystal with σ = 1.2 × 10-4 S/cm at 435°C has the maximum value of ionic conductivity among pentafluorides. The anisotropy of ionic transport was found in K2HoF5 single crystals, σ∥ c /σ⊥ c = 2.5, where σ∥ c and σ⊥ c are, respectively, the conductivities along the crystallographic c axis and in the perpendicular direction.

  3. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency.

  4. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Peterson, Eric S.; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, the rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. Finally, the resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  5. Oxidation Resistance of Fe80Cr20 Alloys Treated by Rare Earth Element Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebayang, Darwin; Khaerudini, Deni S.; Saryanto, H.; Hasan, Sulaiman; Othman, M. A.; Untoro, Puji

    2011-10-01

    The oxidation behaviour of newly developed process of Fe80Cr20 alloy was studied as a function of temperature in the range 1173-1273 K for up to 100 h in flowing air, which corresponds to the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) environment operating conditions. The effects of rare earth element implantation and depth profile on the oxidation behaviour of specimens were analyzed based on oxide morphology and microstructure. Characterisation of the oxide phase products after oxidation was made by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphology of oxide scales was examined using the scanning electronic microscope (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The rate constant of thermal oxidation was determined using Wagner method. Experimental results show that the specimens implanted with lanthanum have remarkably enhanced the oxidation resistance. The oxidation test indicates that the newly developed process of Fe80Cr20 implantation with lanthanum ions exhibit considerably greater improvement in the oxidation resistance compared to the specimens implanted with titanium. The newly developed process of Fe80Cr20 milled for 60h show better oxidation resistance compared to specimens milled for 40h.

  6. Rare earth element geochemistry of massive sulfides-sulfates and gossans on the Southern Explorer Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, T.J. ); Jarvis, I. ); Jarvis, K.E. )

    1990-07-01

    Massive sulfide-sulfate deposits on the Southern Explorer Ridge were analyzed for 14 rare earth elements (REE) by a modified inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric technique that included a correction for high Ba content. Bulk samples of finely intermixed sulfides, sulfate, and amorphous silica contain {Sigma}REE concentrations of {le} 6 ppm. REE patterns range from (1) strongly enriched in light REE with positive Eu anomalies, to (2) relatively flat with positive Eu anomalies and slightly negative Ce anomalies, to (3) slightly enriched in light REE with moderately negative Ce anomalies. Pattern 1 is similar to that of 300-350 C solutions discharging at vents on the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, whereas pattern 3 resembles REE distributions in normal oceanic bottom waters. The sulfide-sulfate patterns are interpreted to result from variable mixtures of hydrothermal and normal seawater. Barite in gossans capping the mounds has an REE pattern almost identical to patterns of high-temperature vent solutions. Hydrothermal barite has lower REE contents and a different REE pattern relative to hydrogenous barite formed slowly on the sea floor.

  7. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; ...

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, the rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acidmore » solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. Finally, the resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.« less

  8. Ionic conductivity of binary fluorides of potassium and rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, N. I.

    2016-01-15

    The ionic conductivity s of KYF{sub 4} and K{sub 2}RF{sub 5} single crystals (R = Gd, Ho, Er) and KNdF{sub 4} and K{sub 2}RF{sub 5} ceramic samples (R = Dy, Er) has been studied in the temperature range of 340–500°C. A comparative analysis of the σ values for these objects has been performed. Binary fluorides of potassium and rare earth elements were synthesized by the hydrothermal method (temperature 480°C, pressure 100–150 MPa) in the R{sub 2}O{sub 3}–KF–H{sub 2}O systems. The σ values of tetraf luorides are 3 × 10{sup –5} S/cm (KYF{sub 4} single crystal) and 3 × 10{sup –6} S/cm (KNdF{sub 4} ceramics) at 435°C. A K{sub 2}ErF{sub 5} single crystal with σ = 1.2 × 10{sup –4} S/cm at 435°C has the maximum value of ionic conductivity among pentafluorides. The anisotropy of ionic transport was found in K{sub 2}HoF{sub 5} single crystals, σ{sub ∥c}/σ{sub ⊥c} = 2.5, where σ{sub ∥c} and σ{sub ⊥c} are, respectively, the conductivities along the crystallographic c axis and in the perpendicular direction.

  9. Unusual seeding mechanism for enhanced performance in solid-phase magnetic extraction of Rare Earth Elements

    PubMed Central

    Polido Legaria, Elizabeth; Rocha, Joao; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Kessler, Vadim G.; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand of Rare Earth Elements (REE or RE), new and more efficient techniques for their extraction are necessary, suitable for both mining and recycling processes. Current techniques such as solvent extraction or solid adsorbents entail drawbacks such as using big volumes of harmful solvents or limited capacity. Hybrid nanoadsorbents based on SiO2 and highly stable γ-Fe2O3-SiO2 nanoparticles, proved recently to be very attractive for adsorption of REE, yet not being the absolute key to solve the problem. In the present work, we introduce a highly appealing new approach in which the nanoparticles, rather than behaving as adsorbent materials, perform as inducers of crystallization for the REE in the form of hydroxides, allowing their facile and practically total removal from solution. This induced crystallization is achieved by tuning the pH, offering an uptake efficiency more than 20 times higher than previously reported (up to 900 mg RE3+/g vs. 40 mg RE3+/g). The obtained phases were characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, STEM and EFTEM and 13C and 29Si solid state NMR. Magnetic studies showed that the materials possessed enough magnetic properties to be easily removed by a magnet, opening ways for an efficient and industrially applicable separation technique. PMID:28266566

  10. Recycling rare earth elements from industrial wastewater with flowerlike nano-Mg(OH)(2).

    PubMed

    Li, Chaoran; Zhuang, Zanyong; Huang, Feng; Wu, Zhicheng; Hong, Yangping; Lin, Zhang

    2013-10-09

    Treatment of wastewater containing low-concentration yet highly-expensive rare earth elements (REEs) is one of the vital issues in the REEs separation and refining industry. In this work, the interaction and related mechanism between self-supported flowerlike nano-Mg(OH)2 and low-concentration REEs wastewater were investigated. More than 99% REEs were successfully taken up by nano-Mg(OH)2. Further analysis revealed that the REEs could be collected on the surface of Mg(OH)2 as metal hydroxide nanoparticles (<5 nm). An ion-exchange model was proposed as a critical factor for both guaranteeing the reaction speed and maintaining the self-supported structure of the materials. In addition, a method was developed to further separate the immobilized REEs and the residual magnesium hydroxide by varying the solution pH. In a pilot-scale experiment, the REEs from practical wastewater were immobilized effectively at a high flow rate. We anticipate this work can provide a good example for the recycling of valuable REEs in practical industrial applications.

  11. Effect of Ca and Rare Earth Elements on Impression Creep Properties of AZ91 Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nami, B.; Razavi, H.; Mirdamadi, S.; Shabestari, S. G.; Miresmaeili, S. M.

    2010-08-01

    Creep properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy and AZRC91 (AZ91 + 1 wt pct RE + 1.2 wt pct Ca) alloy were investigated using the impression creep method. It was shown that the creep properties of AZ91 alloy are significantly improved by adding Ca and rare earth (RE) elements. The improvement in creep resistance is mainly attributed to the reduction in the amount and continuity of eutectic β(Mg17Al12) phase as well as the formation of new Al11RE3 and Al2Ca intermetallic compounds at interdendritic regions. It was found that the stress exponent of minimum creep rate, n, varies between 5.69 and 6 for AZ91 alloy and varies between 5.81 and 6.46 for AZRC91 alloy. Activation energies of 120.9 ± 8.9 kJ/mol and 100.6 ± 7.1 kJ/mol were obtained for AZ91 and AZRC91 alloys, respectively. It was shown that the lattice and pipe-diffusion-controlled dislocation climb are the dominant creep mechanisms for AZ91 and AZRC91 alloys, respectively. The constitutive equations, correlating the minimum creep rate with temperature and stress, were also developed for both alloys.

  12. Unusual seeding mechanism for enhanced performance in solid-phase magnetic extraction of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polido Legaria, Elizabeth; Rocha, Joao; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Kessler, Vadim G.; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.

    2017-03-01

    Due to the increasing demand of Rare Earth Elements (REE or RE), new and more efficient techniques for their extraction are necessary, suitable for both mining and recycling processes. Current techniques such as solvent extraction or solid adsorbents entail drawbacks such as using big volumes of harmful solvents or limited capacity. Hybrid nanoadsorbents based on SiO2 and highly stable γ-Fe2O3-SiO2 nanoparticles, proved recently to be very attractive for adsorption of REE, yet not being the absolute key to solve the problem. In the present work, we introduce a highly appealing new approach in which the nanoparticles, rather than behaving as adsorbent materials, perform as inducers of crystallization for the REE in the form of hydroxides, allowing their facile and practically total removal from solution. This induced crystallization is achieved by tuning the pH, offering an uptake efficiency more than 20 times higher than previously reported (up to 900 mg RE3+/g vs. 40 mg RE3+/g). The obtained phases were characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, STEM and EFTEM and 13C and 29Si solid state NMR. Magnetic studies showed that the materials possessed enough magnetic properties to be easily removed by a magnet, opening ways for an efficient and industrially applicable separation technique.

  13. Marine phosphorites as potential resources for heavy rare earth elements and yttrium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James; Koschinsky, Andrea; Mikesell, Mariah; Mizell, Kira; Glenn, Craig R.; Wood, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Marine phosphorites are known to concentrate rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) during early diagenetic formation. Much of the REY data available are decades old and incomplete, and there has not been a systematic study of REY distributions in marine phosphorite deposits that formed over a range of oceanic environments. Consequently, we initiated this study to determine if marine phosphorite deposits found in the global ocean host REY concentrations of high enough grade to be of economic interest. This paper addresses continental-margin (CM) and open-ocean seamount phosphorites. All 75 samples analyzed are composed predominantly of carbonate fluorapatite and minor detrital and authigenic minerals. CM phosphorites have low total REY contents (mean 161 ppm) and high heavy REY (HREY) complements (mean 49%), while seamount phosphorites have 4–6 times higher individual REY contents (except for Ce, which is subequal; mean ΣREY 727 ppm), and very high HREY complements (mean 60%). The predominant causes of higher concentrations and larger HREY complements in seamount phosphorites compared to CM phosphorites are age, changes in seawater REY concentrations over time, water depth of formation, changes in pH and complexing ligands, and differences in organic carbon content in the depositional environments. Potential ore deposits with high HREY complements, like the marine phosphorites analyzed here, could help supply the HREY needed for high-tech and green-tech applications without creating an oversupply of the LREY.

  14. Remediation of Rare Earth Element Pollutants by Sorption Process Using Organic Natural Sorbents.

    PubMed

    Butnariu, Monica; Negrea, Petru; Lupa, Lavinia; Ciopec, Mihaela; Negrea, Adina; Pentea, Marius; Sarac, Ionut; Samfira, Ionel

    2015-09-10

    The effects of the sorption of environmental applications by various source materials of natural organic matter, i.e., bone powder, was examined. Sorption capacities and subsequent rare earth element retention characteristics of all metals tested were markedly increased by ionic task-specific. In this study, the abilities of three models' isotherms widely were used for the equilibrium sorption data: Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson. For all studied metal ions the maximum adsorption capacity is close to those experimentally determined. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm and related coefficients of determination have been determined. The experimental data achieved excellent fits within the following isotherms in the order: Langmuir > Redlich-Peterson > Freundlich, based on their coefficient of determination values. The bone powder has developed higher adsorption performance in the removal process of Nd(III), Eu(III), La(III) from aqueous solutions than in the case of the removal process of Cs(I), Sr(II) and Tl(I) from aqueous solutions. The described relationships provide direct experimental evidence that the sorption-desorption properties of bone powder are closely related to their degree of the type of the metal. The results suggest a potential for obtaining efficient and cost-effective engineered natural organic sorbents for environmental applications.

  15. Examination of rare earth element concentration patterns in freshwater fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, David B; Fairbrother, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) were measured in ten freshwater fish species from a reservoir in Washington State (United States). The REE distribution patterns were examined within fillet and whole body tissues for three size classes. Total concentrations (ΣREE) ranged from 0.014 to 3.0 mg kg(-1) (dry weight) and averaged 0.243 mg kg(-1) (dry weight). Tissue concentration patterns indicated that REEs accumulated to a greater extent in organs, viscera, and bone compared to muscle (fillet) tissues. Benthic feeding species (exposed to sediments) exhibited greater concentrations of REEs than pelagic omnivorous or piscivorous fish species. Decreasing REE concentrations were found with increasing age, total length or weight for largescale and longnose suckers, smallmouth bass, and walleye. Concentration patterns in this system were consistent with natural conditions without anthropogenic sources of REEs. These data provide additional reference information with regard to the fate and transport of REEs in freshwater fish tissues in a large aquatic system.

  16. Determination of the rare-earth elements in geological materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichte, F.E.; Meier, A.L.; Crock, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    A method of analysis of geological materials for the determination of the rare-earth elements using the Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric technique (ICP-MS) has been developed. Instrumental parameters and factors affecting analytical results have been first studied and then optimized. Samples are analyzed directly following an acid digestion, without the need for separation or preconcentration with limits of detection of 2-11 ng/g, precision of ?? 2.5% relative standard deviation, and accuracy comparable to inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. A commercially available ICP-MS instrument is used with modifications to the sample introduction system, torch, and sampler orifice to reduce the effects of high salt content of sample solutions prepared from geologic materials. Corrections for isobaric interferences from oxide ions and other diatomic and triatomic ions are made mathematically. Special internal standard procedures are used to compensate for drift in metahmetal oxide ratios and sensitivity. Reference standard values are used to verify the accuracy and utility of the method.

  17. Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Isothermal Transformation Kinetics in Si-Mn-Mo Bainite Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yilong; Yi, Yanliang; Long, Shaolei; Tan, Qibing

    2014-12-01

    Isothermal heat treatments to Si-Mn-Mo steel specimens were performed, and time-temperature-transformation curves (C-curves) were plotted by DIL805A/D differential dilatometer. The effect of rare earth (RE) elements on bainite transformation kinetics was systematically studied by adopting the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules, Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation calculation, dilatometry, and metallography. Experimental results show that the addition of RE in Si-Mn-Mo bainite steels leads to the C-curves moving to bottom right and prolongs incubation period of bainite transformation. Moreover, RE addition increases the values of phase structure factors ( n A, F {C/D}) and activation energy of bainite transformation, inhibits the formation of granular bainite, and refines microstructures of bainitic ferrite and substructures. During the bainite transformation process, bainite transformation is delayed due to the drag effect, which is induced by the segregation of RE at the ferrite interphase and the retardation of Fe-C-RE (segregation units) on carbon diffusion.

  18. Remediation of Rare Earth Element Pollutants by Sorption Process Using Organic Natural Sorbents

    PubMed Central

    Butnariu, Monica; Negrea, Petru; Lupa, Lavinia; Ciopec, Mihaela; Negrea, Adina; Pentea, Marius; Sarac, Ionut; Samfira, Ionel

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the sorption of environmental applications by various source materials of natural organic matter, i.e., bone powder, was examined. Sorption capacities and subsequent rare earth element retention characteristics of all metals tested were markedly increased by ionic task-specific. In this study, the abilities of three models’ isotherms widely were used for the equilibrium sorption data: Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson. For all studied metal ions the maximum adsorption capacity is close to those experimentally determined. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm and related coefficients of determination have been determined. The experimental data achieved excellent fits within the following isotherms in the order: Langmuir > Redlich-Peterson > Freundlich, based on their coefficient of determination values. The bone powder has developed higher adsorption performance in the removal process of Nd(III), Eu(III), La(III) from aqueous solutions than in the case of the removal process of Cs(I), Sr(II) and Tl(I) from aqueous solutions. The described relationships provide direct experimental evidence that the sorption-desorption properties of bone powder are closely related to their degree of the type of the metal. The results suggest a potential for obtaining efficient and cost-effective engineered natural organic sorbents for environmental applications. PMID:26378553

  19. Theoretical Study on Interactions between Oxygen Vacancy and Doped Rare-Earth Elements in Barium Titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Atsushi; Higai, Shin'ichi; Motoyoshi, Yasuhiro; Wada, Nobuyuki; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    We performed first-principles theoretical calculations to examine the interactions between oxygen vacancy (VO) and rare-earth (RE) elements in barium titanate (BaTiO3), in order to clarify the mechanism of VO trapping by RE dopants, which affects the insulating reliability of BaTiO3-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC). It was found that VO is stabilized at the first and second nearest O sites of RE at Ba site (REBa), and at the second nearest O site of RE at Ti site (RETi). The structural relaxations on bond lengths of REBa-O and RETi-O in BaTiO3, which are brought about by the existence of VO at the above sites, decrease the total energy, and thus VO is stabilized. Furthermore, we revealed that the stability of VO increases with decreasing solution stability of RE dopants in BaTiO3. Accordingly, we concluded that RE dopants with higher solution energy in BaTiO3 efficiently trap VO, and thus the insulation reliability of MLCC is improved.

  20. Rare earth element fingerprints in Korean coastal bay sediments: Association with provenance discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Woo, Han Jun; Jang, Seok; Jeong, Kap-Sik; Jung, Hoi-Soo; Hwang, Ha Gi; Lee, Jun-Ho; Cho, Jin Hyung

    2016-09-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs: La-Lu) in surface sediments collected from the mouth and middle tidal flats of Gomso Bay, South Korea, in August 2011 and May 2012 were analyzed to investigate the fine-grained sediment provenance. The upper continental crust (UCC)-normalized light REEs (LREEs: La to Nd) were more enriched than the middle REEs (MREEs: Sm to Dy) and heavy REEs (HREEs: Ho to Lu), resulting in large (La/Yb)UCC (1.9 ± 0.4) to (Gd/Yb)UCC (1.4 ± 0.2) ratios. The monthly (La/Yb)UCC values differed between the mouth and middle tidal flats due to deposition of fine-grained sediments that originated from distant rivers (the Geum and Yeongsan) and the Jujin Stream, located on the southern shore of the inner bay. We observed relative reductions in the (La/Yb)UCC value and REE content in the sediments from the mouth of the bay compared with those from Jujin Stream sediments. Confined to the middle tidal flat around the KH Line of Jujin Stream, the sediments, most enriched in LREEs but depleted in Eu, were distributed in August as strong Jujin Stream runs. Here, we suggest that an increase in LREE/HREE and decrease in MREE/LREE ratios can be used as a proxy to identify the Jujin Stream provenance in mixed riverine sediments and to trace Jujin Stream sediments within the Gomso Bay tidal flat, especially in the summer rainy season.

  1. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E; Delmau, Lætitia H; Peterson, Eric S; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2015-08-18

    The rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. The resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  2. The behavior of rare earth elements in naturally and anthropogenically acidified waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Scott A.; Gammons, Christopher H.; Parker, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the behavior of rare earth elements (REE) in a watershed impacted by acid-mine drainage (Fisher Creek, Montana) is compared to that in a volcanically acidified watershed (Rio Agrio and Lake Caviahue, Argentina). The REE behave conservatively in acidic waters with pH values less than approximately 5.5. However, above pH 5.5, REE concentrations are controlled by adsorption onto or co-precipitation with a variety of Fe or Al oxyhydroxides. The heavy REE partition to a greater extent into the solid phase than the light REE as pH rises above 6. Concentrations of REE exhibit diel (24-h) cycling in waters that were initially acidic, but have become neutralized downstream. In Fisher Creek, at the most downstream sampling station investigated (pH 6.8), concentrations of dissolved REE were 190–840% higher in the early morning versus the late afternoon. This cycling can be related to temperature-dependent, cyclic adsorption–desorption of REE onto hydrous ferric or aluminum oxide or both. Similar but gentler diel cycling of the REE was found at Rio Agrio. The existence of such cycling has important ramifications for the study of REE in natural waters.

  3. Rare earth element distribution in some hydrothermal minerals: evidence for crystallographic control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.W.; Wandless, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) abundances were measured by neutron activation analysis in anhydrite (CaSO4), barite (BaSO4), siderite (FeCO3) and galena (PbS). A simple crystal-chemical model qualitatively describes the relative affinities for REE substitution in anhydrite, barite, and siderite. When normalized to 'crustal' abundances (as an approximation to the hydrothermal fluid REE pattern), log REE abundance is a surprisingly linear function of (ionic radius of major cation-ionic radius of REE)2 for the three hydrothermal minerals, individually and collectively. An important exception, however, is Eu, which is anomalously enriched in barite and depleted in siderite relative to REE of neighboring atomic number and trivalent ionic radius. In principle, REE analyses of suitable pairs of co-existing hydrothermal minerals, combined with appropriate experimental data, could yield both the REE content and the temperature of the parental hydrothermal fluid. The REE have only very weak chalcophilic tendencies, and this is reflected by the very low abundances in galena-La, 0.6 ppb; Sm, 0.06 ppb; the remainder are below detection limits. ?? 1980.

  4. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration.

    PubMed

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-28

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Melt-processed light rare earth element - Ba - Cu - O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, M.; Sakai, N.; Higuchi, T.; Yoo, S. I.

    1996-12-01

    Unlike Y123 which forms only a stoichiometric compound, the light rare earth elements (LREs: La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) form a solid solution 0953-2048/9/12/001/img1. The presence of such solid solution caused a depression in the superconducting transition temperatures 0953-2048/9/12/001/img2, particularly for La123, Nd123 and Sm123 when they are melt processed in air. Recently, we have found that the 0953-2048/9/12/001/img3 of these LRE123 superconductors can greatly be enhanced when they are melt processed in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. Furthermore, 0953-2048/9/12/001/img4 values of these superconductors were larger than that of a good quality Y123 superconductor in high magnetic fields at 77 K. In this article, on the basis of our study over the last several years, the melt processes for LRE - Ba - Cu - O are described, the microstructural and superconducting properties of the superconductors are reviewed and the flux pinning mechanism is also discussed.

  6. Composition and evolution of the eucrite parent body - Evidence from rare earth elements. [extraterrestrial basaltic melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consolmagno, G. J.; Drake, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative modeling of the evolution of rare earth element (REE) abundances in the eucrites, which are plagioclase-pigeonite basalt achondrites, indicates that the main group of eucrites (e.g., Juvinas) might have been produced by approximately 10% equilibrium partial melting of a single type of source region with initial REE abundances which were chondritic relative and absolute. Since the age of the eucrites is about equal to that of the solar system, extensive chemical differentiation of the eucrite parent body prior to the formation of eucrites seems unlikely. If homogeneous accretion is assumed, the bulk composition of the eucrite parent body can be estimated; two estimates are provided, representing different hypotheses as to the ratio of metal to olivine in the parent body. Since a large number of differentiated olivine meteorites, which would represent material from the interior of the parent body, have not been detected, the eucrite parent body is thought to be intact. It is suggested that the asteroid 4 Vesta is the eucrite parent body.

  7. Cerium redox cycles and rare earth elements in the Sargasso Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Sholkovitz, E.R.; Schneider, D.L. )

    1991-10-01

    Two profiles of the rare earth elements (REEs) are reported for the upper water column of the Sargasso Sea. The trivalent-only REEs have remarkably constant concentrations in the upper 500m of an April 1989 profile and in the upper 200m of a May 1989 profile. In contrast, Ce concentrations decrease smoothly with increasing depth. In April 1989 Ce decreases from 15.7 pmol/kg at 20 m to 5.1 pmol/kg at 750 m. Cerium, which has Redox transformations in seawater, behaves anomalously with respect to its REE(III) neighbors. While both dissolved Ce and Mn have elevated concentrations in the upper 200m, their vertical gradients are distinctly different. In contrast to Mn, which reaches a minimum dissolved concentration near the zone (150-250 m) of a particulate Mn maximum, Ce is being removed both near this zone and to depths of at least 750m. These new profiles indicate that Ce is involved in an upper ocean redox cycle. This interpretation is consistent with the MOFFETT (1990) incubation tracer experiments on the same May 1989 seawater. He showed that Ce(III) oxidation is biologically mediated, probably light inhibited, increases with depth, and 3-4 times slower than Mn(II) oxidation in the 100-200 m zone. CERoclines provide new information into the fine scale zonation of redox process operating in the upper columns of oligotrophic oceans.

  8. Using rare earth elements to constrain particulate organic carbon flux in the East China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Chen, Ya-Feng; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Kui; Chen, Jian Feng; Burdige, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the East China Sea (ECS) have been reported to decrease from the inner continental shelf towards the outer continental shelf. Recent research has shown that POC fluxes in the ECS may be overestimated due to active sediment resuspension. To better characterize the effect of sediment resuspension on particle fluxes in the ECS, rare earth elements (REEs) and organic carbon (OC) were used in separate two-member mixing models to evaluate trap-collected POC fluxes. The ratio of resuspended particles from sediments to total trap-collected particles in the ECS ranged from 82–94% using the OC mixing model, and 30–80% using the REEs mixing model, respectively. These results suggest that REEs may be better proxies for sediment resuspension than OC in high turbidity marginal seas because REEs do not appear to undergo degradation during particle sinking as compared to organic carbon. Our results suggest that REEs can be used as tracers to provide quantitative estimates of POC fluxes in marginal seas. PMID:27670426

  9. New fission fragment distributions and r-process origin of the rare-earth elements.

    PubMed

    Goriely, S; Sida, J-L; Lemaître, J-F; Panebianco, S; Dubray, N; Hilaire, S; Bauswein, A; Janka, H-T

    2013-12-13

    Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A≳140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular, the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110≲A≲170 nuclei. Here, we apply a new scission-point model, called SPY, to derive the fission fragment distribution (FFD) of all relevant neutron-rich, fissioning nuclei. The model predicts a doubly asymmetric FFD in the abundant A≃278 mass region that is responsible for the final recycling of the fissioning material. Using ejecta conditions based on relativistic NS merger calculations, we show that this specific FFD leads to a production of the A≃165 rare-earth peak that is nicely compatible with the abundance patterns in the Sun and metal-poor stars. This new finding further strengthens the case of NS mergers as possible dominant origin of r nuclei with A≳140.

  10. Crystal fractionation of the basalt comendite series of the mount Edziza volcanic complex, British Columbia: Major and trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souther, J. G.; Hickson, C. J.

    1984-06-01

    The Mount Edziza Volcanic Complex in north-central British Columbia includes a group of overlapping basaltic shields, salic composite volcanoes, domes and small calderas that range in age from 7.5 Ma to less than 2000 years B.P. The volcanic assemblage is chemically bimodal, comprising voluminous alkali olivine basalt and hawaiite, a salic suite of mainly peralkaline trachyte and comendite, plus a relatively small volume of intermediate rocks (trachybasalt, tristanite, mugearite, benmoreite). The complex is the product of five cycles of magmatic activity, each of which began with alkali olivine basalt and culminated with the eruption of salic magma. The regular chemical variation shown by almost 100 major- and trace-element analyses suggests a genetic lineage between the basic and salic members of each cycle. Least-squares mathematical modelling, indicates that the salic rocks (trachyte and comendite) have formed by fractionation of observed phenocryst and cumulate nodule mineral phases from a common alkali olivine basalt parent magma. Hawaiite is thought to be a cumulate rock, formed by partial fractionation and feldspar accumulation within rising columns of primary alkali olivine basalt. Fractionation leading from alkali olivine basalt through trachybasalt and trachyte to comendite is believed to have taken place where primary basalt became trapped in large crustal reservoirs. The early removal of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase, leading to a trachytic residuum, and subsequent fractionation of mainly alkali feldspar, leading to the peralkaline end members, is consistent with major- and trace-element variation and with isotopic and REE data. The chemical diversity of the complex is attributed to its location over a zone of crustal extension where mantle-derived basalt, trapped in large high-level reservoirs, underwent prolonged fractionation.

  11. Rare earth elements in the water column of Lake Vanda, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Carlo, Eric Heinen; Green, William J.

    2002-04-01

    We present data on the composition of water from Lake Vanda, Antarctica. Vanda and other lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are characterized by closed basins, permanent ice covers, and deep saline waters. The meromictic lakes provide model systems for the study of trace metal cycling owing to their pristine nature and the relative simplicity of their biogeochemical systems. Lake Vanda, in the Wright Valley, is supplied by a single input, the Onyx River, and has no output. Water input to the lake is balanced by sublimation of the nearly permanent ice cap that is broken only near the shoreline during the austral summer. The water column is characterized by an inverse thermal stratification of anoxic warm hypersaline water underlying cold oxic freshwater. Water collected under trace-element clean conditions was analyzed for its dissolved and total rare earth element (REE) concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Depth profiles are characterized by low dissolved REE concentrations (La, Ce, <15 pM) in surface waters that increase slightly (La, 70 pM; Ce, 20 pM) with increasing depth to ˜55 m, the limit of the fresh oxic waters. Below this depth, a sharp increase in the concentrations of strictly trivalent REE (e.g., La, 5 nM) is observed, and a submaximum in redox sensitive Ce (2.6 nM) is found at 60- to 62-m depth. At a slightly deeper depth, a sharper Ce maximum is observed with concentrations exceeding 11 nM at a 67-m depth, immediately above the anoxic zone. The aquatic concentrations of REE reported here are ˜50-fold higher than previously reported for marine oxic/anoxic boundaries and are, to our knowledge, the highest ever observed at natural oxic/anoxic interfaces. REE maxima occur within stable and warm saline waters. All REE concentrations decrease sharply in the sulfidic bottom waters. The redox-cline in Lake Vanda is dominated by diffusional processes and vertical transport of dissolved species driven by concentration

  12. Forms of rare earth elements' sorption by quartz and goethite in the presence of bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, L. V.; Perelomova, I. V.; Yoshida, S.

    2009-12-01

    The adsorption of a mixture of 16 isotopes of 14 rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) present in the initial solution in equal concentrations by quartz and goethite in the presence of bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris was studied under different acidity conditions. The solution pH was apparently the leading factor in the interaction of rare earth ions with the surface of mineral and biological sorbents. These interactions were controlled by electrostatic forces in acid (pH 4) and neutral (pH 7) solutions; the precipitation of elements from the solution was the predominant mechanism under alkaline conditions (pH 9). Microorganisms affected the adsorption of lanthanides by quartz in the entire pH range under study, especially at pH 7. In the presence of bacteria, the adsorption of the elements studied by goethite increased in an acid solution, remained unchanged under neutral conditions, and slightly decreased under alkaline conditions. Microorganisms increased the concentration of nonexchangeable forms of the elements adsorbed on the surface of quartz and goethite, which could be due to the formation of low-soluble complexes of rare earth elements with organic substances produced by bacteria.

  13. Distribution of rare earth elements in marine sediments from the Strait of Sicily (western Mediterranean Sea): evidence of phosphogypsum waste contamination.

    PubMed

    Tranchida, G; Oliveri, E; Angelone, M; Bellanca, A; Censi, P; D'Elia, M; Neri, R; Placenti, F; Sprovieri, M; Mazzola, S

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), Y, Th and Sc were recently determined in marine sediments collected using a box corer along two onshore-offshore transects located in the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). The REE+Y were enriched in offshore fine-grained sediments where clay minerals are abundant, whereas the REE+Y contents were lower in onshore coarse-grained sediments with high carbonate fractions. Considering this distribution trend, the onshore sediments in front of the southwestern Sicilian coast represent an anomaly with high REE+Y concentrations (mean value 163.4 μg g(-1)) associated to high Th concentrations (mean value 7.9 μg g(-1)). Plot of shale-normalized REE+Y data of these coastal sediments showed Middle REE enrichments relative to Light REE and Heavy REE, manifested by a convexity around Sm-Gd-Eu elements. These anomalies in the fractionation patterns of the coastal sediments were attributed to phosphogypsum-contaminated effluents from an industrial plant, located in the southern Sicilian coast.

  14. Rare earth and major element geochemistry of Eocene fine-grained sediments in oil shale- and coal-bearing layers of the Meihe Basin, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yueyue; Liu, Zhaojun; Sun, Pingchang; Liu, Rong; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Hanqing; Xu, Yinbo

    2015-01-01

    The Meihe Basin is a Paleogene pull-apart basin. Long-flame coal, lignite and oil shale are coexisting energy resources deposited in this basin. Ninety-seven samples, including oil shales, coals, brown to gray silt and mudstone, have been collected from the oil shale- and coal-bearing layers to discover the rare earth element geochemistry. The total REE contents of oil shales and coals are 137-256 μg/g and 64-152 μg/g respectively. The chondrite-normalized patterns of oil shales and coals show LREE enrichments, HREE deficits, negative Eu anomalies and negligible Ce anomalies. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) as well as some trace elements is often used to reflect the paleoenvironment at the time of deposition. The results show that fine-grained sediments in both layers were deposited in dysoxic to oxic conditions and in a warm and humid climate, and coals were deposited in a warmer and more humid climate than oil shales. Oil shales and coals are both in the early stage of diagenesis and of terrigenous origin. Besides, diagrams of some major, trace and rare earth elements show that the fine-grained sediments of both layers in the Meihe Basin are mainly from the felsic volcanic rocks and granite, and that their source rocks are mostly deposited in the continental inland arc setting. The analysis of major elements shows that Si, Al, K and Ti, in both layers, are found mainly in a mixed clay mineral assemblage and that Si is also found in quartz. Sodium occurs primarily in clay minerals, whereas Ca is found mainly in the organic matter. In the coal-bearing layer, iron is mainly controlled by organic matter rather than detrital minerals. In contrast, in the oil shale-bearing layer, neither detrital minerals nor organic matter exert a control on the iron content. Analyzing the relationship between rare earth elements and major elements shows that REEs in the oil shales and the coals are both of terrigenous origin and are mainly controlled by detrital minerals

  15. Assessment of Bioavailable Concentrations of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements in the Rhizosphere of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Fischer, Ronny; Moschner, Christin; Székely, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of Germanium (Ge) and Rare Earth Elements in soils are estimated at 1.5 mg kg -1 (Ge), 25 mg kg -1 (La) and 20 mg kg -1 (Nd), which are only roughly smaller than concentrations of Pb and Zn. Germanium and rare earth elements are thus not rare but widely dispersed in soils and therefore up to date, only a few minable deposits are available. An environmental friendly and cost-effective way for Ge and rare earth element production could be phytomining. However, the most challenging part of a phytomining of these elements is to increase bioavailable concentrations of the elements in soils. Recent studies show, that mixed cultures with white lupine or other species with a high potential to mobilize trace metals in their rhizosphere due to an acidification of the soil and release of organic acids in the root zone could be a promising tool for phytomining. Complexation of Ge and rare earth elements by organic acids might play a key role in controlling bioavailability to plants as re-adsorption on soil particles and precipitation is prevented and thus, concentrations in the root zone of white lupine increase. This may also allow the complexes to diffuse along a concentration gradient to the roots of mixed culture growing species leading to enhanced plant uptake. However, to optimize mixed cultures it would be interesting to know to which extend mobilization of trace metals is dependent from chemical speciation of elements in soil due to the interspecific interaction of roots. A method for the identification of complexes of germanium and rare earth elements with organic acids, predominantly citric acid in the rhizosphere of white lupine was developed and successfully tested. The method is based on coupling of liquid chromatography with ICP-MS using a zic-philic column (SeQuant). As a preliminary result, we were able to show that complexes of germanium with citric acid exist in the rhizosphere of white lupin, what may contribute to the bioavailability of this

  16. Rare Earth Element Behavior During Incongruent Weathering and Varying Discharge Conditions in Silicate Dominated River Systems: The Australian Victorian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, K. B.; Cartwright, I.

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) and trace elements was measured by ICP-MS on fresh, slightly weathered and weathered granite and surface water samples from a network of 11 pristine rivers draining the Australian Victorian Alps during (i) high and (ii) low discharge conditions. River water REE concentrations are largely derived from atmospheric precipitation (rain, snow), as indicated by similar Chondrite normalized REE patterns (higher LREE over HREE; negative Ce anomalies, positive Eu anomalies) and similar total REE concentrations during both dry and wet seasons. Calculations based on the covariance between REE and Cl concentrations and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes indicate precipitation input coupled with subsequent evaporation may account for 30% o 100% of dissolved REE in stream waters. The dissolved contribution to the granitic substratum to stream water comes mainly from the transformation of plagioclase to smectite, kaolinite and gibbsite and minor apatite dissolution. However, since most REE of the regional granite are present in accessory minerals (titanite, zircon, etc.) they do not significantly contribute to the river REE pool. REE concentrations drop sharply downstream as a result of dilution and chemical attenuation. A trend of downstream enrichment of the heavier REE is due to selective partitioning of the lighter REE (as both free REE or REECO3 complexes) to hydrous oxides of suspended Al which, in turn, is controlled by a downstream increase of pH to values > 6.1 (for free REE) and > 7.3 (for REECO3 complexes). Although most circumneutral waters were supersaturated with REE phosphate compounds, precipitation of LnPO4 is not believed to have been a dominant process because the predicted phosphate fractionation pattern is inconsistent with the observed trends. Negative saturation indices of hydrous ferric oxides also militate against surface complexation onto goethite. Instead, REE attenuation most likely resulted from adsorption onto

  17. Rare earth and trace element mobility in mid-crustal shear zones: insights from the Mont Blanc Massif (Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Yann; Cox, Stephen; Boullier, Anne-Marie; Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Mancktelow, Neil

    2003-09-01

    The behaviour of rare earth elements (REE) during fluid-rock interaction in mid-crustal shear zones has received little attention, despite their potential for mass balance calculation and isotopic tracing during deformation. In this study, several cases of large REE mobility during Alpine fluid-driven shear zone development in the pre-Alpine granitic basement of the Mont Blanc Massif are considered. On a regional scale, the undeformed granite compositions range within 5 wt% SiO 2 (70.5-75.3 wt%) and magmatic chemical variations are of the order of 10-20%, ascribed to minor effects of crystal fractionation. Major and trace element mobility observed in shear zones largely exceeds these initial variations. Shear zones developed a range of mineral assemblages as a result of shearing at mid-crustal depths (at ˜0.5 GPa, 400°C). Five main shear zone assemblages involve muscovite, chlorite, epidote, actinolite and calcite, respectively, as major phases. In most cases, selective enrichments of light or heavy REE (and Y, Ta, Hf) are observed. REE mobility is unrelated to deformation style (cataclastic, mylonitic), th