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Sample records for earth element ree

  1. Lateritic, supergene rare earth element (REE) deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cocker, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Intensive lateritic weathering of bedrock under tropical or sub-tropical climatic conditions can form a variety of secondary, supergene-type deposits. These secondary deposits may range in composition from aluminous bauxites to iron and niobium, and include rare earth elements (REE). Over 250 lateritic deposits of REE are currently known and many have been important sources of REE. In southeastern China, lateritic REE deposits, known as ion-adsorption type deposits, have been the world’s largest source of heavy REE (HREE). The lateritized upper parts of carbonatite intrusions are being investigated for REE in South America, Africa, Asia and Australia, with the Mt. Weld deposit in Australia being brought into production in late 2012. Lateritic REE deposits may be derived from a wide range of primary host rocks, but all have similar laterite and enrichment profiles, and are probably formed under similar climatic conditions. The weathering profile commonly consists of a depleted zone, an enriched zone, and a partially weathered zone which overlie the protolith. Lateritic weathering may commonly extend to depths of 30 to 60 m. REE are mobilized from the breakdown of primary REE-bearing minerals and redeposited in the enriched zone deeper in the weathering horizon as secondary minerals, as colloids, or adsorbed on other secondary minerals. Enrichment of REE may range from 3 to 10 times that of the source lithology; in some instances, enrichment may range up to 100 times.

  2. Effects of rare earth elements and REE-binding proteins on physiological responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongwu; Wang, Xue; Chen, Zhiwei

    2012-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs), which include 17 elements in the periodic table, share chemical properties related to a similar external electronic configuration. REEs enriched fertilizers have been used in China since the 1980s. REEs could enter the cell and cell organelles, influence plant growth, and mainly be bound with the biological macromolecules. REE-binding proteins have been found in some plants. In addition, the chlorophyll activities and photosynthetic rate can be regulated by REEs. REEs could promote the protective function of cell membrane and enhance the plant resistance capability to stress produced by environmental factors, and affect the plant physiological mechanism by regulating the Ca²⁺ level in the plant cells. The focus of present review is to describe how REEs and REE-binding proteins participate in the physiological responses in plants.

  3. Rare earth elements in sedimentary phosphate deposits: Solution to the global REE crisis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emsbo, Poul; McLaughlin, Patrick I.; Breit, George N.; du Bray, Edward A.; Koenig, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    The critical role of rare earth elements (REEs), particularly heavy REEs (HREEs), in high-tech industries has created a surge in demand that is quickly outstripping known global supply and has triggered a worldwide scramble to discover new sources. The chemical analysis of 23 sedimentary phosphate deposits (phosphorites) in the United States demonstrates that they are significantly enriched in REEs. Leaching experiments using dilute H2SO4 and HCl, extracted nearly 100% of their total REE content and show that the extraction of REEs from phosphorites is not subject to the many technological and environmental challenges that vex the exploitation of many identified REE deposits. Our data suggest that phosphate rock currently mined in the United States has the potential to produce a significant proportion of the world's REE demand as a byproduct. Importantly, the size and concentration of HREEs in some unmined phosphorites dwarf the world's richest REE deposits. Secular variation in phosphate REE contents identifies geologic time periods favorable for the formation of currently unrecognized high-REE phosphates. The extraordinary endowment, combined with the ease of REE extraction, indicates that such phosphorites might be considered as a primary source of REEs with the potential to resolve the global REE (particularly for HREE) supply shortage.

  4. Characteristics and genesis of Rare Earth Element (REE) in western Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handoko, A. D.; Sanjaya, E.

    2018-02-01

    Rare Earth Element (REE) has unique properties that have been used in many hightech applications. The demand of REE increased recently in the world due to its special properties. Although REE concentration in the crust is higher than gold, economically viable deposits are still rare. Reduction of REE exports by China cause increased prices of REE. Due to this condition, exploration of potential REE mines emerged. Indonesia also participates in this phenomenon, and explore the possibility of REE mines in its area. This review will discuss the characteristics and genesis of REE and its occurrence in western Indonesia; focused in Sumatera, Tin Island, and Kalimantan. The review is done based on literature research from several resources about characteristics of rare earth element in general and in the given area. The research shows that the potential REE mines can be found in several different locations in Indonesia, such as Tin Island, Sumatera, and Kalimantan. Most of them are composed of monazite, zircon, and xenotime as rare earth minerals. Monazite iss known for its elevated number of radioactive elements, so study about radioactive content and more environment friendly ore processing becomes compulsory.

  5. Accumulation and fractionation of rare earth elements (REEs) in the naturally grown Phytolacca americana L. in southern China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming; Liu, Chang; Liu, Wen-Shen; Guo, Mei-Na; Morel, Jean Louis; Huot, Hermine; Yu, Hong-Jie; Tang, Ye-Tao; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2018-04-16

    The widespread use of rare earth elements (REEs) has resulted in problems for soil and human health. Phytolacca americana L. is a herbaceous plant widely distributed in Dingnan county of Jiangxi province, China, which is a REE mining region (ion absorption rare earth mine) and the soil has high levels of REEs. An investigation of REE content of P. americana growing naturally in Dingnan county was conducted. REE concentrations in the roots, stems, and leaves of P. americana and in their rhizospheric soils were determined. Results showed that plant REEs concentrations varied among the sampling sites and can reach 1040 mg/kg in the leaves. Plant REEs concentrations decreased in the order of leaf > root > stem and all tissues were characterized by a light REE enrichment and a heavy REE depletion. However, P. americana exhibited preferential accumulation of light REEs during the absorption process (from soil to root) and preferential accumulation of heavy REEs during the translocation process (from stem to leaf). The ability of P. americana to accumulate high REEs in the shoot makes it a potential candidate for understanding the absorption mechanisms of REEs and for the phytoremediation of REEs contaminated soil.

  6. Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2014-02-01

    The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical speciation and bioavailability of rare earth elements (REEs) in the ecosystem: a review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aysha Masood; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Bakar, Ahmad Farid Abu; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2017-10-01

    Rare earths (RE), chemically uniform group of elements due to similar physicochemical behavior, are termed as lanthanides. Natural occurrence depends on the geological circumstances and has been of long interest for geologist as tools for further scientific research into the region of ores, rocks, and oceanic water. The review paper mainly focuses to provide scientific literature about rare earth elements (REEs) with potential environmental and health effects in understanding the research. This is the initial review of RE speciation and bioavailability with current initiative toward development needs and research perceptive. In this paper, we have also discussed mineralogy, extraction, geochemistry, analytical methods of rare earth elements. In this study, REEs with their transformation and vertical distribution in different environments such as fresh and seawater, sediments, soil, weathering, transport, and solubility have been reported with most recent literature along key methods of findings. Speciation and bioavailability have been discussed in detail with special emphasis on soil, plant, and aquatic ecosystems and their impacts on the environment. This review shows that REE gained more importance in last few years due to their detrimental effects on living organisms, so their speciation, bioavailability, and composition are much more important to evaluate their health risks and are discussed thoroughly as well.

  8. Neutron Activation Analysis of the Rare Earth Elements (REE) - With Emphasis on Geological Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stosch, Heinz-Günter

    2016-08-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been the analytical method of choice for rare earth element (REE) analysis from the early 1960s through the 1980s. At that time, irradiation facilitieswere widely available and fairly easily accessible. The development of high-resolution gamma-ray detectors in the mid-1960s eliminated, formany applications, the need for chemical separation of the REE from the matrix material, making NAA a reliable and effective analytical tool. While not as precise as isotopedilution mass spectrometry, NAA was competitive by being sensitive for the analysis of about half of the rare earths (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu). The development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry since the 1980s, together with decommissioning of research reactors and the lack of installation of new ones in Europe and North America has led to the rapid decline of NAA.

  9. Economical and Environmentally Benign Extraction of Rare Earth Elements (REES) from Coal & Coal Byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Gary

    This final report provides a complete summary of the activities, results, analytical discussion, and overall evaluation of the project titled “Economical and Environmentally Benign Extraction of Rare Earth Elements (REES) from Coal & Coal Byproducts” under DOE Award Number DE-FE-0027155 that started in March 2016 and ended December 2017. Fly ash was selected as the coal-byproduct source material due to fact that it is readily available with no need for extensive methods to obtain the material, it is produced in large quantities (>50 million tons per year) and had REE concentrations similar to other coal-byproducts. The selected fly ash usedmore » throughout this project was from the Mill Creek power generating facility operated by Louisville Gas and Electric located in Louisville, KY and was subjected to a variety of physical and chemical characterization tests. Results from fusion extractions showed that the selected fly-ash had a TREE+Y concentration of 480 ppm with critical REEs concentration of 200 ppm. The fly ash had an outlook ratio of 1.25 and an estimated value of $16-$18 worth of salable REEs per 1-tonne of fly ash. Additional characterizations by optical evaluation, QEMSCAN, XRD, size fractionation, and SEM analysis showed the fly ash consisted of small glassy spherules with a size range between 1 to 110 µm (ave. diam. of 13 um), was heterogeneous in chemical composition (main crystalline phases: aluminum oxides and iron oxides) and was primarily an amorphous material (75 to 80%). A simple stepped approach was completed to estimate the total REE resource quantity. The approach included REE characterization of the representative samples, evaluation of fly-ash availability, and final determination estimated resource availability with regards to REE grade on a regional and national scale. This data represents the best available information and is based upon the assumptions that the power generating facility where the fly-ash was obtained will use the

  10. High contents of rare earth elements (REEs) in stream waters of a Cu-Pb-Zn mining area.

    PubMed

    Protano, G; Riccobono, F

    2002-01-01

    Stream waters draining an old mining area present very high rare earth element (REE) contents, reaching 928 microg/l as the maximum total value (sigmaREE). The middle rare earth elements (MREEs) are usually enriched with respect to both the light (LREEs) and heavy (HREEs) elements of this group, producing a characteristic "roof-shaped" pattern of the shale Post-Archean Australian Shales-normalized concentrations. At the Fenice Capanne Mine (FCM), the most important base metal mine of the study area, the REE source coincides with the mine tailings, mostly the oldest ones composed of iron-rich materials. The geochemical history of the REEs released into Noni stream from wastes in the FCM area is strictly determined by the pH, which controls the REE speciation and in-stream processes. The formation of Al-rich and mainly Fe-rich flocs effectively scavenges the REEs, which are readily and drastically removed from the solution when the pH approaches neutrality. Leaching experiments performed on flocs and waste materials demonstrate that Fe-oxides/oxyhydroxides play a key role in the release of lanthanide elements into stream waters. The origin of the "roof-shaped" REE distribution pattern as well as the peculiar geochemical behavior of some lanthanide elements in the aqueous system are discussed.

  11. The rare earth element (REE) lanthanum (La) induces hormesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Agathokleous, Evgenios; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Calabrese, Edward J

    2018-07-01

    Lanthanum is a rare earth element (REE) which has been extensively studied due to its wide application in numerous fields with a potential accumulation in the environment. It has long been known for its potential to stimulate plant growth within a hormetic-biphasic dose response framework. This article provides evidence from a series of high resolution studies published within the last two decades demonstrating a substantial and significant occurrence of lanthanum-induced hormesis in plants. These findings suggest that hormetic responses should be built into the study design of hazard assessment study protocols and included in the risk assessment process. Hormesis also offers the opportunity to substantially improve cost benefit estimates for environmental contaminants, which have the potential to induce beneficial/desirable effects at low doses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rare earth elements (REE) and yttrium in stream waters, stream sediments, and Fe Mn oxyhydroxides: Fractionation, speciation, and controls over REE + Y patterns in the surface environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leybourne, Matthew I.; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2008-12-01

    We have collected ˜500 stream waters and associated bed-load sediments over an ˜400 km 2 region of Eastern Canada and analyzed these samples for Fe, Mn, and the rare earth elements (REE + Y). In addition to analyzing the stream sediments by total digestion (multi-acid dissolution with metaborate fusion), we also leached the sediments with 0.25 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride (in 0.05 M HCl), to determine the REE + Y associated with amorphous Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxide phases. We are thus able to partition the REE into "dissolved" (<0.45 μm), labile (hydroxylamine) and detrital sediment fractions to investigate REE fractionation, and in particular, with respect to the development of Ce and Eu anomalies in oxygenated surface environments. Surface waters are typically LREE depleted ([La/Sm] NASC ranges from 0.16 to 5.84, average = 0.604, n = 410; where the REE are normalized to the North America Shale Composite), have strongly negative Ce anomalies ([Ce/Ce ∗] NASC ranges from 0.02 to 1.25, average = 0.277, n = 354), and commonly have positive Eu anomalies ([Eu/Eu ∗] NASC ranges from 0.295 to 1.77, average = 0.764, n = 84). In contrast, the total sediment have flatter REE + Y patterns relative to NASC ([La/Sm] NASC ranges from 0.352 to 1.12, average = 0.778, n = 451) and are slightly middle REE enriched ([Gd/Yb] NASC ranges from 0.55 to 3.75, average = 1.42). Most total sediments have negative Ce and Eu anomalies ([Ce/Ce ∗] NASC ranges from 0.097 to 2.12, average = 0.799 and [Eu/Eu ∗] NASC ranges from 0.39 to 1.43, average = 0.802). The partial extraction sediments are commonly less LREE depleted than the total sediments ([La/Sm] NASC ranges from 0.24 to 3.31, average = 0.901, n = 4537), more MREE enriched ([Gd/Yb] NASC ranges from 0.765 to 6.28, average = 1.97) and Ce and Eu anomalies (negative and positive) are more pronounced. The partial extraction recovered, on average ˜20% of the Fe in the total sediment, ˜80% of the Mn, and 21-29% of the REEs (Ce = 19

  13. Neodymium isotopic study of rare earth element sources and mobility in hydrothermal Fe-oxide (Fe-P-REE) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, James D.; Marikos, Mark A.; Barton, Mark D.; Johnson, David A.

    2000-03-01

    Rare earth element (REE)-enriched, igneous-related hydrothermal Fe-oxide hosted (Fe-P-REE) systems from four areas in North America have been analyzed for their neodymium isotopic composition to constrain REE sources and mobility in these systems. The Nd isotopic results evidence a common pattern of REE concentration from igneous sources despite large differences in age (Proterozoic to Tertiary), tectonic setting (subduction vs. intraplate), and magmatic style (mafic vs. felsic). In the Middle Proterozoic St. Francois Mountains terrane of southeastern Missouri, ɛ Nd for Fe-P-REE (apatite, monazite, xenotime) deposits ranges from +3.5 to +5.1, similar to associated felsic to intermediate igneous rocks of the same age (ɛ Nd = +2.6 to +6.2). At the mid-Jurassic Humboldt mafic complex in western Nevada, ɛ Nd for Fe-P-REE (apatite) mineralization varies between +1.1 and +2.4, similar to associated mafic igneous rocks (-1.0 to +3.5). In the nearby Cortez Mountains in central Nevada, mid-Jurassic felsic volcanic and plutonic rocks (ɛ Nd = -2.0 to -4.4) are associated with Fe-P-REE (apatite-monazite) mineralization having similar ɛ Nd (-1.7 to -2.4). At Cerro de Mercado, Durango, Mexico, all assemblages analyzed in this Tertiary rhyolite-hosted Fe oxide deposit have identical isotopic compositions with ɛ Nd = -2.5. These data are consistent with coeval igneous host rocks being the primary source of REE in all four regions, and are inconsistent with a significant contribution of REE from other sources. Interpretations of the origin of these hydrothermal systems and their concomitant REE mobility must account for nonspecialized igneous sources and varied tectonic settings.

  14. Neodymium isotopic study of rare earth element sources and mobility in hydrothermal Fe oxide (Fe-P-REE) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, J.D.; Marikos, M.A.; Barton, M.D.

    2000-03-01

    Rare earth element (REE)-enriched, igneous-related hydrothermal Fe-oxide hosted (Fe-P-REE) systems from four areas in North America have been analyzed for their neodymium iosotopic composition to constrain REE sources and mobility in these systems. The Nd isotopic results evidence a common pattern of REE concentration from igneous sources despite large differences in age (Proterozoic to Tertiary), tectonic setting (subduction vs. intraplate), and magmatic style (mafic vs. felsic). In the Middle Proterozoic St. Francois Mountains terrane of southeastern Missouri, {epsilon}{sub Nd} for Fe-P-REE (apatite, monazite, xenotime) deposits ranges from +3.5 to +5.1, similar to associated felsic to intermediate igneous rocks of themore » same age ({epsilon}{sub Nd} = +2.6 to +6.2). At the mid-Jurassic Humboldt mafic complex in western Nevada, {epsilon}{sub Nd} for Fe-P-REE (apatite) mineralization varies between +1.1 and +2.4, similar to associated mafic igneous rocks ({minus}1.0 to +3.5). In the nearby Cortez Mountains in central Nevada, mid-Jurassic felsic volcanic and plutonic rocks ({epsilon}{sub Nd} = {minus}2.0 to {minus}4.4) are associated with Fe-P-REE (apatite-monazite) mineralization having similar {epsilon}{sub Nd}({minus}1.7 to {minus}2.4). At Cerro de Mercado, Durango, Mexico, all assemblages analyzed in this Tertiary rhyolite-hosted Fe oxide deposit have identical isotopic compositions with {epsilon}{sub Nd} = {minus}2.5. These data are consistent with coeval igneous host rocks being the primary source of REE in all four regions, and are inconsistent with a significant contribution of REE from other sources. Interpretations of the origin of these hydrothermal systems and their concomitant REE mobility must account for nonspecialized igneous sources and varied tectonic settings.« less

  15. Using Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to identify perferential micro-sites of post-fire aeolian erosion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant communities in desert environments are spatially anisotropic. We applied Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to different landscape positions of an anisotropic Northern Chihuahua Desert ecosystem in an effort to study preferential sediment source areas. We delineated three 0.5 m by 6 m plots of...

  16. Uptake and Effects of Six Rare Earth Elements (REEs) on Selected Native and Crop Species Growing in Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E.; Parsons, Jessica L.; Ellis, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have become increasingly important metals used in modern technology. Processes including mining, oil refining, discarding of obsolete equipment containing REEs, and the use of REE-containing phosphate fertilizers may increase the likelihood of environmental contamination. However, there is a scarcity of information on the toxicity and accumulation of these metals to terrestrial primary producers in contaminated soils. The objective of this work was to assess the phytotoxicity and uptake from contaminated soil of six REEs (chloride forms of praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, terbium, dysprosium, and erbium) on three native plants (Asclepias syriaca L., Desmodium canadense (L.) DC., Panicum virgatum L.) and two crop species (Raphanus sativus L., Solanum lycopersicum L.) in separate dose-response experiments under growth chamber conditions. Limited effects of REEs were found on seed germination and speed of germination. Effects on aboveground and belowground biomass were more pronounced, especially for the three native species, which were always more sensitive than the crop species tested. Inhibition concentrations (IC25 and IC50) causing 25 or 50% reductions in plant biomass respectively, were measured. For the native species, the majority of aboveground biomass IC25s (11 out of 18) fell within 100 to 300 mg REE/kg dry soil. In comparison to the native species, IC25s for the crops were always greater than 400 mg REE/kg, with the majority of results (seven out of 12) falling above 700 mg REE/kg. IC50s were often not detected for the crops. Root biomass of native species was also affected at lower doses than in crops. REE uptake by plants was higher in the belowground parts than in the above-ground plant tissues. Results also revealed that chloride may have contributed to the sensitivity of the native species, Desmodium canadense, one of the most sensitive species studied. Nevertheless, these results demonstrated that phytotoxicity may be a

  17. Uptake and Effects of Six Rare Earth Elements (REEs) on Selected Native and Crop Species Growing in Contaminated Soils.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E; Parsons, Jessica L; Ellis, Deanna M

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have become increasingly important metals used in modern technology. Processes including mining, oil refining, discarding of obsolete equipment containing REEs, and the use of REE-containing phosphate fertilizers may increase the likelihood of environmental contamination. However, there is a scarcity of information on the toxicity and accumulation of these metals to terrestrial primary producers in contaminated soils. The objective of this work was to assess the phytotoxicity and uptake from contaminated soil of six REEs (chloride forms of praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, terbium, dysprosium, and erbium) on three native plants (Asclepias syriaca L., Desmodium canadense (L.) DC., Panicum virgatum L.) and two crop species (Raphanus sativus L., Solanum lycopersicum L.) in separate dose-response experiments under growth chamber conditions. Limited effects of REEs were found on seed germination and speed of germination. Effects on aboveground and belowground biomass were more pronounced, especially for the three native species, which were always more sensitive than the crop species tested. Inhibition concentrations (IC25 and IC50) causing 25 or 50% reductions in plant biomass respectively, were measured. For the native species, the majority of aboveground biomass IC25s (11 out of 18) fell within 100 to 300 mg REE/kg dry soil. In comparison to the native species, IC25s for the crops were always greater than 400 mg REE/kg, with the majority of results (seven out of 12) falling above 700 mg REE/kg. IC50s were often not detected for the crops. Root biomass of native species was also affected at lower doses than in crops. REE uptake by plants was higher in the belowground parts than in the above-ground plant tissues. Results also revealed that chloride may have contributed to the sensitivity of the native species, Desmodium canadense, one of the most sensitive species studied. Nevertheless, these results demonstrated that phytotoxicity may be a

  18. Assessing anthropogenic levels, speciation, and potential mobility of rare earth elements (REEs) in ex-tin mining area.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aysha Masood; Yusoff, Ismail; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Bakar, Ahmad Farid Abu; Alias, Yatimah

    2016-12-01

    A study was carried out to determine the level of rare earth elements (REEs) in water and sediment samples from ex-mining lakes and River in Kinta Valley, Perak, Malaysia. Surface water and sediments from an ex-mining lake and Kinta River water samples were analyzed for REEs by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The total concentration of REEs in the ex-mining lake water samples and sediments were found to be 3685 mg/l and 14159 mg/kg, respectively, while the total concentration of REEs in Kinta River water sample was found to be 1224 mg/l. REEs in mining lake water were found to be within 2.42 mg/l (Tb) to 46.50 mg/l (Ce), while for the Kinta River, it was 1.33 mg/l (Ho) to 29.95 mg/l (Ce). Sediment samples were also found with REEs from 9.81 mg/kg (Ho) to 765.84 mg/kg (Ce). Ce showed the highest average concentrations for mining lake (3.88 to 49.08 mg/l) and Kinta River (4.44 to 33.15 mg/l) water samples, while the concentration of La was the highest (11.59 to 771.61 mg/kg) in the mining lake sediment. Lu was shown to have the highest enrichment of REEs in ex-mining lake sediments (107.3). Multivariate statistical analyses such as factor analysis and principal component analysis indicated that REEs were associated and controlled by mixed origin, with similar contributions from anthropogenic and geogenic sources. The speciation study of REEs in ex-tin mining sediments using a modified five-stage sequential extraction procedure indicated that yttrium (Y), gadolinium (Gd), and lanthanum (La) were obtained at higher percentages from the adsorbed/exchanged/carbonate fraction. The average potential mobility of the REEs was arranged in a descending order: Yb > Gd > Y = Dy > Pr > Er > Tm > Eu > Nd > Tb > Sc > Lu > Ce > La, implying that under favorable conditions, these REEs could be released and subsequently pollute the environment.

  19. Environmental Characteristics of Carbonatite and Alkaline Intrusion-related Rare Earth Element (REE) Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal, R. R., II; Piatak, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonatites and alkaline intrusions are important sources of REEs. Environmental risks related to these deposit types have been assessed through literature review and evaluation of the geochemical properties of representative samples of mill tailings and their leachates. The main ore mineral in carbonatite deposits is bastnasite [(Ce,La)(CO3)F], which is found with dolomite and calcite ( 65 %), barite (20 - 25 %), plus a number of minor accessory minerals including sulfides such as galena and pyrite. Generally, alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits either occur in layered complexes or with dikes and veins cutting alkaline intrusions. Such intrusions have a more diverse group of REE ore minerals that include fluorcarbonates, oxides, silicates, and phosphates. Ore also can include minor calcite and iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) sulfides. The acid-generating potential of both deposit types is low because of a predominance of carbonate minerals in the carbonatite deposits, the presence of feldspars and minor calcite in alkaline intrusion-related deposits, and to only minor to trace occurrence of potentially acid-generating sulfide minerals. Both deposit types, however, are produced by igneous and hydrothermal processes that enrich high-field strength, incompatible elements, which typically are excluded from common rock-forming minerals. Elements such as yttrium (Y), niobium Nb), zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), scandium (Sc), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) can be characteristic of these deposits and may be of environmental concern. Most of these elements, including the REEs, but with the exception of U, have low solubilities in water at the near-neutral pH values expected around these deposits. Mill tailings from carbonatite deposits can exceed residential soil and sediment criteria for Pb, and leachates from mill tailings can exceed drinking water guidelines for Pb. The greatest environmental challenges, however, are

  20. Recovery of rare earth elements (REEs) from uranium containing solutions using biosorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botalov, Maxim; Bunkov, Grigory; Rychkov, Vladimir; Kirillov, Evgeny; Kirillov, Sergey; Kuchta, Kerstin; Kücüker, Mehmet Ali; Atamaniuk, Iryna

    2017-09-01

    Batch testing and determination of appropriate biosorbent and experimental procedures for recovery of REEs from artificial solution as well as the efficiency of the process for recovery of REEs from artificial solution via biosorption are given in present research work.

  1. Effects of organic ligands on fractionation of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic plants: an application to the determination of binding capacities by humic acid for modeling.

    PubMed

    Ding, ShiMing; Liang, Tao; Zhang, ChaoSheng; Yan, JunCai; Zhang, ZiLi

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed the fractionation processes of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic plants, with a heavy REE (HREE, the elements from Gd to Lu) enrichment in leaves. In this study, effects on the HREE enrichment in soybean leaves with additions of carboxylic acids (acetate, malate, citrate, NTA, EDTA and DTPA) and two soil humic acids (HAs) were investigated. REE speciation in carboxylic acid and HA solutions was simulated using Visual MINTEQ and Model V, respectively. The results showed that the effects caused by carboxylic acids were strongly dependent on the differences between their binding strengths for light REEs (LREEs, the elements from La to Eu) and those for HREEs. A good correlation existed between these effects and the changes of free REE ions in solutions. This relationship was also observed for the HA treatments, provided that the intrinsic equilibrium constants of REEs for cation-proton exchange with HA (i.e., pK(MHA)) in Model V were estimated using a free-energy relationship with the stability constants for REE complexation with lactic acid. It is suggested that this set of pK(MHA) values is more suitable for use in Model V for the simulation of REE complexation with HA.

  2. The distribution of Sr and REE between diopside and silicate liquid. [Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grutzeck, M.; Kridelbaugh, S.; Weill, D.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental determination of the distribution coefficients in diopside-liquid pairs for strontium and nine rare-earth elements in the system CaMgSi2O6-NaAlSi3O8-CaAl2Si2O8. In experiments in air at 1265 C it is found that most of the Sr(2+), Eu(2+), and RE(3+) ions substitute for Ca(2+) and, in addition, a coupled substitution of Al(3+) for Si(4+) occurs. All of the trace ions considered are found to be excluded from the diopside lattice relative to the liquid. In the case of the trivalent ions the exclusion is much more pronounced for La and Ce, which have ionic radii larger than that of Ca(2+) in 8-fold oxygen coordination. Divalent Sr and Eu with even larger radii are also strongly excluded.

  3. Using Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to identify preferential micro-sites of post-fire aeolian erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Pelt, R.; Zobeck, T. M.; Barnes, M. A.; Baddock, M.; D'Odorico, P.

    2011-12-01

    Plant communities in desert environments are spatially anisotropic. Nutrient islands develop below shrub canopies and in the bases of bunch grasses that enhance plant growth and reinforce the spatial anisotropy. Catastrophic disturbance that removes the vegetation such as fire or drought can result in the release of the trapped sediment which becomes redistributed over the landscape by wind and water. We applied Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to different landscape positions of an anisotropic Northern Chihuahua Desert ecosystem at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico in an effort to study this process. We delineated three 0.5 m by 6 m plots of desert grassland and three plots of desert grassland-shrubland ecotone. Nitric acid was used to dissolve the REE oxides (Eu2O3, Dy2O3, and Pr6O11) which were then diluted in distilled water to a target concentration of 1 g REE l-1 and applied to the surface at a rate of 4 l m-2. From laboratory column studies using soil collected at the site, we estimated that this would penetrate the surface to a depth of 2.5 cm resulting in a sediment REE concentration of approximately 100 mg kg-1. Eu was applied to bare surfaces between vegetation characterized as sand with a surface covering of gravel, Pr was applied under grass clumps, and Dy was applied under Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata (DC.). Two replicate 0.25 m2 areas of each surface type were also tagged to obtain a sample of tagged surface sediment for analysis. The area containing the plots was burned by U.S. Fish and Wildlife personnel on April 14, 2010. During the next two days, two grassland plots and two grassland-shrubland ecotone plots were tested by placing a portable boundary layer field wind tunnel over the plots and blowing them with 12 m s-1 wind for 10 minutes during which time a paired set of entrained sediment samples were captured at the outlet of the wind tunnel. This period was followed by a 30 minute test in which clean quartz sand

  4. 2nd International Symposium on Fundamental Aspects of Rare-earth Elements Mining and Separation and Modern Materials Engineering (REES-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavadyan, Levon, Prof; Sachkov, Viktor, Prof; Godymchuk, Anna, Dr.; Bogdan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The 2nd International Symposium «Fundamental Aspects of Rare-earth Elements Mining and Separation and Modern Materials Engineering» (REES2015) was jointly organized by Tomsk State University (Russia), National Academy of Science (Armenia), Shenyang Polytechnic University (China), Moscow Institute of Physics and Engineering (Russia), Siberian Physical-technical Institute (Russia), and Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russia) in September, 7-15, 2015, Belokuriha, Russia. The Symposium provided a high quality of presentations and gathered engineers, scientists, academicians, and young researchers working in the field of rare and rare earth elements mining, modification, separation, elaboration and application, in order to facilitate aggregation and sharing interests and results for a better collaboration and activity visibility. The goal of the REES2015 was to bring researchers and practitioners together to share the latest knowledge on rare and rare earth elements technologies. The Symposium was aimed at presenting new trends in rare and rare earth elements mining, research and separation and recent achievements in advanced materials elaboration and developments for different purposes, as well as strengthening the already existing contacts between manufactures, highly-qualified specialists and young scientists. The topics of the REES2015 were: (1) Problems of extraction and separation of rare and rare earth elements; (2) Methods and approaches to the separation and isolation of rare and rare earth elements with ultra-high purity; (3) Industrial technologies of production and separation of rare and rare earth elements; (4) Economic aspects in technology of rare and rare earth elements; and (5) Rare and rare earth based materials (application in metallurgy, catalysis, medicine, optoelectronics, etc.). We want to thank the Organizing Committee, the Universities and Sponsors supporting the Symposium, and everyone who contributed to the organization of the event and to

  5. Rare earth elements (REE) as natural and applied tracers in the catchment area of Gessental valley, former uranium mining area of Eastern Thuringia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buechel, G.; Merten, D.; Geletneky, J. W.; Kothe, E.

    2003-04-01

    Between 1947 and 1990 about 113.000 t of uranium were excavated at the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg (Eastern Thuringia, Germany). The legacy consists of more than 200 million m^3 of metasedimentary rocks rich in organic matter, sulfides and heavy metals originally deposited in mining heaps at the surface. The metasedimentary rocks formed under anoxic conditions about a 400 Mio. years ago are now exposed to oxic conditions. The oxidation of markasite and pyrite results in the formation of H_2SO_4. The formation of acid mine drainage (AMD) leads to high concentrations of uranium, rare earth elements (REE) and other heavy metals in surface water, seepage water and groundwater. This mobilization is due to alteration enhanced by high microbial activity and low pH. The tolerance mechanisms towards heavy metal pollution of soil substrate and surface/groundwater has allowed the selection of microbes which have, e.g. specific transporter genes and which are associated to plants in symbiotic interactions like mycorrhiza. In order to follow the processes linking alteration of metasedimentary rocks to biological systems the use of tracers is needed. One group of such tracers occuring in high concentrations in the water phase at the Ronneburg mining site are the REE (La-Lu) which are featured by very similar chemical behaviour. They show smooth but continuous variations of their chemical behaviour as a function of atomic number. For seepage water of the waste rock dump Nordhalde - sampled over a period of two years - the shale normalized REE patterns show enrichment of heavy REE and only minor variations, although the concentration differs. At sampling points in the surface water and in groundwater rather similar REE patterns were observed. Thus, REE can be used as tracers to identify diffuse inflow of REE-rich acid mine drainage of the dumps into the creek and the sediments. The absolute concentrations of REE in the creek and in ground water are up to 1000 times

  6. Experimental mineral/liquid partition coefficients of the rare earth elements /REE/, Sc and Sr for perovskite, spinel and melilite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasawa, H.; Schreiber, H. D.; Morris, R. V.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental determinations of the mineral/liquid partition coefficients of REE (La, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu), Sc and Sr are reported for the minerals perovskite, spinel and melilite in synthetic systems. Perovskite concentrates light REE with respect to the residual liquid but shows no preference for heavy REE. Spinel greatly discriminates against the incorporation of REE, especially light REE, into its crystal structure. The partition of REE into melilite from a silicate liquid is quite dependent upon both the bulk melt and melilite solid-solution (gehlenite and akermanite components) compositions. As such, melilite can be enriched in REE or will reject REE with corresponding strong negative or strong positive Eu anomalies, respectively.

  7. Sorption of the Rare Earth Elements and Yttrium (REE-Y) in calcite: the mechanism of a new effective tool in identifying paleoearthquakes on carbonate faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraetis, Daniel; Mouslopoulou, Vasiliki; Pratikakis, Alexandros

    2015-04-01

    A new tool for identifying paleoearthquakes on carbonate faults has been successfully tested on two carbonate faults in southern Europe (the Magnola Fault in Italy and the Spili Fault in Greece): the Rare Earth Element and Yttrium (REE-Y) method (Manighetti et al., 2010; Mouslopoulou et al., 2011). The method is based on the property of the calcite in limestone scarps to absorb the REE and Y from the soil during its residence beneath the ground surface (e.g. before its exhumation due to earthquakes). Although the method is established, the details of the enrichment mechanism are poorly investigated. Here we use published data together with new information from pot-experiments to shed light on the sorption mechanism and the time effectiveness of the REE-Y method. Data from the Magnola and Spili faults show that the average chemical enrichment is ~45%, in REE-Y while the denudation rate of the enriched zones is ~1% higher every 400 years due to exposure of the fault scarp in weathering. They also show that the chemical enrichment is significant even for short periods of residence time (e.g., ~100 years). To better understand the enrichment mechanism, we performed a series of pot experiments, where carbonate tiles extracted from the Spili Fault were buried into soil collected from the hanging-wall of the same fault. We irrigated the pots with artificial rain that equals 5 years of rainfall in Crete and at temperatures of 15oC and 25oC. Following, we performed sorption isotherm, kinetic and pH-edge tests for the europium (Eu), the cerium (Ce) and the ytterbium (Yt) that occur in the calcite minerals. The processes of adsorption and precipitation in the batch experiments are simulated by the Mineql software. The pot experiments indicate incorporation of the REE and Y into the surface of the carbonate tile which is in contact with the soil. The pH of the leached solution during the rain application range from 7.6 to 8.3. Nutrient release like Ca is higher in the leached

  8. N- and O- ligand doped mesoporous silica-chitosan hybrid beads for the efficient, sustainable and selective recovery of rare earth elements (REE) from acid mine drainage (AMD): Understanding the significance of physical modification and conditioning of the polymer.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Deepika Lakshmi; Puhakka, Ville; Iftekhar, Sidra; Wojtuś, Anna; Repo, Eveliina; Ben Hammouda, Samia; Iakovleva, Evgenia; Sillanpää, Mika

    2018-04-15

    Silica-chitosan hybrid beads were synthesized via three different methods to investigate the selective recovery of REE from AMD. The influence of amino/non-amino silanes, high molecular weight/high viscous chitosan and N-/O- based ligands were studied and their effects on REE removal efficiencies were analyzed. The adsorption efficiencies of three various groups of modified beads were inspected with respect to feed pH, in a single and a multi-component system, and their affinities towards the light and heavy rare earth elements (LREE/ HREEs) were interpreted to understand the intra-series REE separation behavior. The focus of the study was mainly directed towards utilizing these fabricated beads for the recovery of valuable REEs from the real AMD obtained at three different sampling depths which was found rich in iron, sulfur and aluminum. Moreover, the selectivity of the beads towards REEs improved with silanized and ligand immobilized gels and their impacts on REE recovery in the presence of competing ions were successfully presented in this paper. Also, the synthesized beads showed rapid REE adsorption and recovery within a process time of 5 min. Group II adsorbents, synthesized by forming silica-chitosan hybrid beads followed by PAN/acac modifications, showed superiority over the other groups of adsorbents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of carbonate diagenesis: A comparative study of minor elements, trace elements, and rare-earth elements (REE + Y) between Pleistocene corals and matrices from Grand Cayman, British West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong; Jones, Brian

    2014-12-01

    On Grand Cayman, the Pleistocene Ironshore Formation consists of six unconformity-bounded units of limestones that have been partially or completely altered to calcite by post-depositional meteoric diagenesis. In order to examine the diagenetic history from the perspective of geochemical elements, the concentrations of minor element (Sr, Na, Mg), trace elements (Ba, Fe, Mn, Al, Si), and rare-earth elements (REE) and yttrium (Y) were determined for 105 corals and 84 matrices collected from the Rogers Wreck Point (RWP), Western Onshore area (WO), and offshore George Town (GT) areas. With the transformation of aragonite to calcite, the Sr, Na, and Ba values decreased, but Mg increased, which are indicative of diagenetic alteration in an open water system. Due to intrinsic "vital effects" and the extrinsic diagenetic environment, the variations of Sr, Na, Ba, and Mg concentrations between Acropora and Montastrea from the GT area are different to those of their counterparts from RWP and WO. The signatures of Sr, Na, Ba, and Mg are in good agreement with the diagenetic history as determined from petrographic and stable isotopic criteria. The REE + Y (REY) concentrations (ΣREY) are higher in the matrices (0.2-6.9 ppm, average 2.6 ppm) than in the associated corals (0.1-5.4 ppm, average 0.6 ppm). Shale-normalized REY patterns of the Pleistocene Ironshore Formation are similar to those of oxygenated seawater, which are characterized by (1) light REE depletion relative to heavy REE (average DySN/SmSN = 1.7, n = 35), (2) positive La anomalies (average Pr/Pr* = 1.17, n = 53), and (3) negative Ce anomalies (average Ce/Ce* = 0.49, n = 53). The preserved seawater-like REY distribution pattern, the lack of correlation between ΣREY and mineralogy, and the lack of correlation between ΣREY and diagenesis-sensitive stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) indicate that meteoric diagenesis did not have a major impact on the REY distribution patterns. The matrices and corals in the GT area

  10. U-Pb, Re-Os, and Ar/Ar geochronology of rare earth element (REE)-rich breccia pipes and associated host rocks from the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge Fe-REE-Au deposit, St. Francois Mountains, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Selby, David; Slack, John F.; Day, Warren C.; Pillers, Renee M.; Cosca, Michael A.; Seeger, Cheryl; Fanning, C. Mark; Samson, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE)-rich breccia pipes (600,000 t @ 12% rare earth oxides) are preserved along the margins of the 136-million metric ton (Mt) Pea Ridge magnetite-apatite deposit, within Mesoproterozoic (~1.47 Ga) volcanic-plutonic rocks of the St. Francois Mountains terrane in southeastern Missouri, United States. The breccia pipes cut the rhyolite-hosted magnetite deposit and contain clasts of nearly all local bedrock and mineralized lithologies.Grains of monazite and xenotime were extracted from breccia pipe samples for SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology; both minerals were also dated in one polished thin section. Monazite forms two morphologies: (1) matrix granular grains composed of numerous small (<50 μm) crystallites intergrown with rare xenotime, thorite, apatite, and magnetite; and (2) coarse euhedral, glassy, bright-yellow grains similar to typical igneous or metamorphic monazite. Trace element abundances (including REE patterns) were determined on selected grains of monazite (both morphologies) and xenotime. Zircon grains from two samples of host rhyolite and two late felsic dikes collected underground at Pea Ridge were also dated. Additional geochronology done on breccia pipe minerals includes Re-Os on fine-grained molybdenite and 40Ar/39Ar on muscovite, biotite, and K-feldspar.Ages (±2σ errors) obtained by SHRIMP U-Pb analysis are as follows: (1) zircon from the two host rhyolite samples have ages of 1473.6 ± 8.0 and 1472.7 ± 5.6 Ma; most zircon in late felsic dikes is interpreted as xenocrystic (age range ca. 1522–1455 Ma); a population of rare spongy zircon is likely of igneous origin and yields an age of 1441 ± 9 Ma; (2) pale-yellow granular monazite—1464.9 ± 3.3 Ma (no dated xenotime); (3) reddish matrix granular monazite—1462.0 ± 3.5 Ma and associated xenotime—1453 ± 11 Ma; (4) coarse glassy-yellow monazite—1464.8 ± 2.1, 1461.7 ± 3.7 Ma, with rims at 1447.2 ± 4.7 Ma; and (5) matrix monazite (in situ)—1464.1 ± 3.6 and 1454

  11. Application of stochastic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for life cycle inventory (LCI) of the rare earth elements (REEs) in beneficiation rare earth waste from the gold processing: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieda, Bogusław; Grzesik, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The study proposes an stochastic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for life cycle assessment (LCA) method limited to life cycle inventory (LCI) study for rare earth elements (REEs) recovery from the secondary materials processes production applied to the New Krankberg Mine in Sweden. The MC method is recognizes as an important tool in science and can be considered the most effective quantification approach for uncertainties. The use of stochastic approach helps to characterize the uncertainties better than deterministic method. Uncertainty of data can be expressed through a definition of probability distribution of that data (e.g. through standard deviation or variance). The data used in this study are obtained from: (i) site-specific measured or calculated data, (ii) values based on literature, (iii) the ecoinvent process "rare earth concentrate, 70% REO, from bastnäsite, at beneficiation". Environmental emissions (e.g, particulates, uranium-238, thorium-232), energy and REE (La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Dy, Eu, Tb, Y, Sc, Yb, Lu, Tm, Y, Gd) have been inventoried. The study is based on a reference case for the year 2016. The combination of MC analysis with sensitivity analysis is the best solution for quantified the uncertainty in the LCI/LCA. The reliability of LCA results may be uncertain, to a certain degree, but this uncertainty can be noticed with the help of MC method.

  12. Stages of weathering mantle formation from carbonate rocks in the light of rare earth elements (REE) and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Weathering mantles are widespread and include lateritic, sandy and kaolinite-rich saprolites and residuals of partially dissolved rocks. These old regolith systems have a complex history of formation and may present a polycyclic evolution due to successive geological and pedogenetic processes that affected the profile. Until now, only few studies highlighted the unusual high content of associated trace elements in weathering mantles originating from carbonate rocks, which have been poorly studied, compared to those developing on magmatic bedrocks. For instance, these enrichments can be up to five times the content of the underlying carbonate rocks. However, these studies also showed that the carbonate bedrock content only partially explains the soil enrichment for all the considered major and trace elements. Up to now, neither soil, nor saprolite formation has to our knowledge been geochemically elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine more closely the soil forming dynamics and the relationship of the chemical soil composition to potential sources. REE distribution patterns and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios have been used because they are particularly well suited to identify trace element migration, to recognize origin and mixing processes and, in addition, to decipher possible anthropogenic and/or "natural" atmosphere-derived contributions to the soil. Moreover, leaching experiments have been applied to identify mobile phases in the soil system and to yield information on the stability of trace elements and especially on their behaviour in these Fe-enriched carbonate systems. All these geochemical informations indicate that the cambisol developing on such a typical weathering mantle ("terra fusca") has been formed through weathering of a condensed Bajocian limestone-marl facies. This facies shows compared to average world carbonates important trace element enrichments. Their trace element distribution patterns are similar to those of the soil

  13. Scarcity of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    de Boer, M A; Lammertsma, K

    2013-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are important for green and a large variety of high-tech technologies and are, therefore, in high demand. As a result, supply with REEs is likely to be disrupted (the degree of depends on the REE) in the near future. The 17 REEs are divided into heavy and light REEs. Other critical elements besides REEs, identified by the European Commission, are also becoming less easily available. Although there is no deficiency in the earth's crust of rare earth oxides, the economic accessibility is limited. The increased demand for REEs, the decreasing export from China, and geopolitical concerns on availability contributed to the (re)opening of mines in Australia and the USA and other mines are slow to follow. As a result, short supply of particularly terbium, dysprosium, praseodymium, and neodymium is expected to be problematic for at least the short term, also because they cannot be substituted. Recycling REEs from electronic waste would be a solution, but so far there are hardly any established REE recycling methods. Decreasing the dependency on REEs, for example, by identifying possible replacements or increasing their efficient use, represents another possibility. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Rare-earth elements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Long, Keith R.; Gambogi, Joseph; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    The rare-earth elements (REEs) are 15 elements that range in atomic number from 57 (lanthanum) to 71 (lutetium); they are commonly referred to as the “lanthanides.” Yttrium (atomic number 39) is also commonly regarded as an REE because it shares chemical and physical similarities and has affinities with the lanthanides. Although REEs are not rare in terms of average crustal abundance, the concentrated deposits of REEs are limited in number.Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications. The glass industry is the leading consumer of REE raw materials, which are used for glass polishing and as additives that provide color and special optical properties to the glass. Lanthanum-based catalysts are used in petroleum refining, and cerium-based catalysts are used in automotive catalytic converters. The use of REEs in magnets is a rapidly increasing application. Neodymium-iron-boron magnets, which are the strongest known type of magnets, are used when space and weight are restrictions. Nickel-metal hydride batteries use anodes made of a lanthanum-based alloys.China, which has led the world production of REEs for decades, accounted for more than 90 percent of global production and supply, on average, during the past decade. Citing a need to retain its limited REE resources to meet domestic requirements as well as concerns about the environmental effects of mining, China began placing restrictions on the supply of REEs in 2010 through the imposition of quotas, licenses, and taxes. As a result, the global rare-earth industry has increased its stockpiling of REEs; explored for deposits outside of China; and promoted new efforts to conserve, recycle, and substitute for REEs. New mine production began at Mount Weld in Western Australia, and numerous other exploration and development projects noted in this chapter are ongoing throughout the world.The REE-bearing minerals are

  15. Analyzing Solutions High in Total Dissolved Solids for Rare Earth Elements (REEs) Using Cation Exchange and Online Pre-Concentration with the seaFAST2 Unit; NETL-TRS-7-2017; NETL Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Albany, OR, 2017; p 32

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Torres, M.; Verba, C.

    The accurate quantification of the rare earth element (REE) dissolved concentrations in natural waters are often inhibited by their low abundances in relation to other dissolved constituents such as alkali, alkaline earth elements, and dissolved solids. The high abundance of these constituents can suppress the overall analytical signal as well as create isobaric interferences on the REEs during analysis. Waters associated with natural gas operations on black shale plays are characterized by high salinities and high total dissolved solids (TDS) contents >150,000 mg/L. Methods used to isolate and quantify dissolved REEs in seawater were adapted in order to develop themore » capability of analyzing REEs in waters that are high in TDS. First, a synthetic fluid based on geochemical modelling of natural brine formation fluids was created within the Marcellus black shale with a TDS loading of 153,000 mg/L. To this solution, 1,000 ng/mL of REE standards was added based on preliminary analyses of experimental fluids reacted at high pressure and temperature with Marcellus black shale. These synthetic fluids were then run at three different dilution levels of 10, 100, and 1,000–fold dilutions through cation exchange columns using AG50-X8 exchange resin from Eichrom Industries. The eluent from the cation columns were then sent through a seaFAST2 unit directly connected to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) to analyze the REEs. Percent recoveries of the REEs ranged from 80–110% and fell within error for the external reference standard used and no signal suppression or isobaric interferences on the REEs were observed. These results demonstrate that a combined use of cation exchange columns and seaFAST2 instrumentation are effective in accurately quantifying the dissolved REEs in fluids that are >150,000 mg/L in TDS and have Ba:Eu ratios in excess of 380,000.« less

  16. NETL’s Rare Earth Elements Research

    SciTech Connect

    None

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory has established a Rare Earth Elements (REE) program. REEs are a series of 17 chemical elements found in the Earth’s crust. They are an essential component to technology, health care, transportation and national defense.

  17. miREE: miRNA recognition elements ensemble

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Computational methods for microRNA target prediction are a fundamental step to understand the miRNA role in gene regulation, a key process in molecular biology. In this paper we present miREE, a novel microRNA target prediction tool. miREE is an ensemble of two parts entailing complementary but integrated roles in the prediction. The Ab-Initio module leverages upon a genetic algorithmic approach to generate a set of candidate sites on the basis of their microRNA-mRNA duplex stability properties. Then, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning module evaluates the impact of microRNA recognition elements on the target gene. As a result the prediction takes into account information regarding both miRNA-target structural stability and accessibility. Results The proposed method significantly improves the state-of-the-art prediction tools in terms of accuracy with a better balance between specificity and sensitivity, as demonstrated by the experiments conducted on several large datasets across different species. miREE achieves this result by tackling two of the main challenges of current prediction tools: (1) The reduced number of false positives for the Ab-Initio part thanks to the integration of a machine learning module (2) the specificity of the machine learning part, obtained through an innovative technique for rich and representative negative records generation. The validation was conducted on experimental datasets where the miRNA:mRNA interactions had been obtained through (1) direct validation where even the binding site is provided, or through (2) indirect validation, based on gene expression variations obtained from high-throughput experiments where the specific interaction is not validated in detail and consequently the specific binding site is not provided. Conclusions The coupling of two parts: a sensitive Ab-Initio module and a selective machine learning part capable of recognizing the false positives, leads to an improved balance between

  18. Rare earth elements in river waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    To characterize the input to the oceans of rare earth elements (REE) in the dissolved and the suspended loads of rivers, the REE concentrations were measured in samples of Amazon, Indus, Mississippi, Murray-Darling, and Ohio rivers and in samples of smaller rivers that had more distinct drainage basin lithology and water chemistry. It was found that, in the suspended loads of small rivers, the REE pattern was dependent on drainage basin geology, whereas the suspended loads in major rivers had relatively uniform REE patterns and were heavy-REE depleted relative to the North American Shale composite (NASC). The dissolved loads in the five major rivers had marked relative heavy-REE enrichments, relative to the NASC and the suspended material, with the (La/Yb)N ratio of about 0.4 (as compared with the ratio of about 1.9 in suspended loads).

  19. Al-26, Pu-244, Ti-50, REE, and trace element abundances in hibonite grains from CM and CV meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, A. J.; Mckeegan, K. D.; Zinner, E.; Goswami, J. N.

    1987-01-01

    Hibonites from the CM meteorites Murchison, Murray, and Cold Bokkeveld, and hibonites and Ti-rich pyroxene from the CV chondrite Allende are studied. Electron microprobe measurements of major element concentrations and track and ion probe measurements of Mg and Ti isotopic ratios, rare earth elements (REEs), and trace element abundances are analyzed. Correlations between isotopic anomalies in Ti, Al-26, Pu-244, and Mg-26(asterisk) are examined. Ti isotopic anomalies are compared with REE and trace element abundance patterns. Reasons for the lack of Al-26 in the hibonites are investigated and discussed. It is observed that there is no correlation between the Ti isotopic compositions, and the presence of Mg-26(asterisk), Pu-244, and REE and trace element patterns in individual hibonite samples. The data reveal that hibonites are not interstellar dust grains but formed on a short time scale and in localized regions of the early solar system.

  20. Bacterial Cell Surface Adsorption of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Y.; Park, D.; Reed, D.; Fujita, Y.; Yung, M.; Anderko, A.; Eslamimanesh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) play a critical role in many emerging clean energy technologies, including high-power magnets, wind turbines, solar panels, hybrid/electric vehicle batteries and lamp phosphors. In order to sustain demand for such technologies given current domestic REE shortages, there is a need to develop new approaches for ore processing/refining and recycling of REE-containing materials. To this end, we have developed a microbially-mediated bioadsorption strategy with application towards enrichment of REE from complex mixtures. Specifically, the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was genetically engineered to display lanthanide binding tags (LBTs), short peptides that possess high affinity and specificity for rare earth elements, on its cell surface S-layer protein. Under optimal conditions, LBT-displayed cells adsorbed greater than 5-fold more REE than control cells lacking LBTs. Competition binding experiments with a selection of REEs demonstrated that our engineered cells could facilitate separation of light- from heavy- REE. Importantly, binding of REE onto our engineered strains was much more favorable compared to non-REE metals. Finally, REE bound to the cell surface could be stripped off using citrate, providing an effective and non-toxic REE recovery method. Together, this data highlights the potential of our approach for selective REE enrichment from REE containing mixtures.

  1. Rare earth element deposits in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xie, Yu-Ling; Hou, Zeng-qian; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    China is the world’s leading rare earth element (REE) producer and hosts a variety of deposit types. Carbonatite- related REE deposits, the most significant deposit type, include two giant deposits presently being mined in China, Bayan Obo and Maoniuping, the first and third largest deposits of this type in the world, respectively. The carbonatite-related deposits host the majority of China’s REE resource and are the primary supplier of the world’s light REE. The REE-bearing clay deposits, or ion adsorption-type deposits, are second in importance and are the main source in China for heavy REE resources. Other REE resources include those within monazite or xenotime placers, beach placers, alkaline granites, pegmatites, and hydrothermal veins, as well as some additional deposit types in which REE are recovered as by-products. Carbonatite-related REE deposits in China occur along craton margins, both in rifts (e.g., Bayan Obo) and in reactivated transpressional margins (e.g., Maoniuping). They comprise those along the northern, eastern, and southern margins of the North China block, and along the western margin of the Yangtze block. Major structural features along the craton margins provide first-order controls for REE-related Proterozoic to Cenozoic carbonatite alkaline complexes; these are emplaced in continental margin rifts or strike-slip faults. The ion adsorption-type REE deposits, mainly situated in the South China block, are genetically linked to the weathering of granite and, less commonly, volcanic rocks and lamprophyres. Indosinian (early Mesozoic) and Yanshanian (late Mesozoic) granites are the most important parent rocks for these REE deposits, although Caledonian (early Paleozoic) granites are also of local importance. The primary REE enrichment is hosted in various mineral phases in the igneous rocks and, during the weathering process, the REE are released and adsorbed by clay minerals in the weathering profile. Currently, these REE-rich clays are

  2. Rare earth element scavenging in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Robert H.; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    1990-10-01

    Examinations of rare earth element (REE) adsorption in seawater, using a variety of surface-types, indicated that, for most surfaces, light rare earth elements (LREEs) are preferentially adsorbed compared to the heavy rare earths (HREEs). Exceptions to this behavior were observed only for silica phases (glass surfaces, acid-cleaned diatomaceous earth, and synthetic SiO 2). The affinity of the rare earths for surfaces can be strongly affected by thin organic coatings. Glass surfaces which acquired an organic coating through immersion in Tampa Bay exhibited adsorptive behavior typical of organic-rich, rather than glass, surfaces. Models of rare earth distributions between seawater and carboxylate-rich surfaces indicate that scavenging processes which involve such surfaces should exhibit a strong dependence on pH and carbonate complexation. Scavenging models involving carboxylate surfaces produce relative REE abundance patterns in good general agreement with observed shale-normalized REE abundances in seawater. Scavenging by carboxylate-rich surfaces should produce HREE enrichments in seawater relative to the LREEs and may produce enrichments of lanthanum relative to its immediate trivalent neighbors. Due to the origin of distribution coefficients as a difference between REE solution complexation (which increases strongly with atomic number) and surface complexation (which apparently also increases with atomic number) the relative solution abundance patterns of the REEs produced by scavenging reactions can be quite complex.

  3. Recovery and Separation of Rare Earth Elements Using Salmon Milt

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yoshio; Kondo, Kazuhiro; Miyaji, Asami; Watanabe, Yusuke; Fan, Qiaohui; Honma, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Recycling rare earth elements (REEs) used in advanced materials such as Nd magnets is important for the efficient use of REE resources when the supply of several REEs is limited. In this work, the feasibility of using salmon milt for REE recovery and separation was examined, along with the identification of the binding site of REEs in salmon milt. Results showed that (i) salmon milt has a sufficiently high affinity to adsorb REEs and (ii) the adsorption capacity of the milt is 1.04 mEq/g, which is comparable with that of commercial cation exchange resin. Heavier REEs have higher affinity for milt. A comparison of stability constants and adsorption patterns of REEs discussed in the literature suggests that the phosphate is responsible for the adsorption of REE in milt. The results were supported by dysprosium (Dy) and lutetium (Lu) LIII-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The REE-P shell was identified for the second neighboring atom, which shows the importance of the phosphate site as REE binding sites. The comparison of REE adsorption pattern and EXAFS results between the milt system and other adsorbent systems (cellulose phosphate, Ln-resin, bacteria, and DNA-filter hybrid) revealed that the coordination number of phosphate is correlated with the slope of the REE pattern. The separation column loaded with milt was tested to separate REE for the practical use of salmon milt for the recovery and separation of REE. However, water did not flow through the column possibly because of the hydrophobicity of the milt. Thus, sequential adsorption–desorption approach using a batch-type method was applied for the separation of REE. As an example of the practical applications of REE separation, Nd and Fe(III) were successfully separated from a synthetic solution of Nd magnet waste by a batch-type method using salmon milt. PMID:25490035

  4. Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the compositional and phase relationships among minerals in which rare earth elements (REE) occur as essential constituents (e.g., bastnaesite, monazite, xenotime, aeschynite, allanite). Particular consideration is given to the vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals and to the REE partitioning between minerals as related to the acid-base tendencies and mineral stabilities. It is shown that the treatment of coupled substitutions as vector quantities facilitates graphical representation of mineral composition spaces.

  5. Enhanced separation of rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, K.; Greenhalgh, M.; Herbst, R. S.

    2016-09-01

    Industrial rare earth separation processes utilize PC88A, a phosphonic acid ligand, for solvent extraction separations. The separation factors of the individual rare earths, the equipment requirements, and chemical usage for these flowsheets are well characterized. Alternative ligands such as Cyanex® 572 and the associated flowsheets are being investigated at the pilot scale level to determine if significant improvements to the current separation processes can be realized. These improvements are identified as higher separation factors, reduced stage requirements, or reduced chemical consumption. Any of these improvements can significantly affect the costs associated with these challenging separation proccesses. A mid/heavy rare earthmore » element (REE) separations flowsheet was developed and tested for each ligand in a 30 stage mixer-settler circuit to compare the separation performance of PC88A and Cyanex® 572. The ligand-metal complex strength of Cyanex® 572 provides efficient extraction of REE while significantly reducing the strip acid requirements. Reductions in chemical consumption have a significant impact on process economics for REE separations. Partitioning results summarized Table 1 indicate that Cyanex® 572 offers the same separation performance as PC88A while reducing acid consumption by 30% in the strip section for the mid/heavy REE separation. Flowsheet Effluent Compositions PC88A Cyanex® 572 Raffinate Mid REE Heavy REE 99.40% 0.60% 99.40% 0.60% Rich Mid REE Heavy REE 2.20% 97.80% 0.80% 99.20% Liquor Strip Acid Required 3.4 M 2.3 M Table 1 – Flowsheet results comparing separation performance of PC88A and Cyanex® 572 for a mid/heavy REE separation.« less

  6. Continental shelves as potential resource of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Pourret, Olivier; Tuduri, Johann

    2017-07-19

    The results of this study allow the reassessment of the rare earth elements (REE) external cycle. Indeed, the river input to the oceans has relatively flat REE patterns without cerium (Ce) anomalies, whereas oceanic REE patterns exhibit strong negative Ce anomalies and heavy REE enrichment. Indeed, the processes at the origin of seawater REE patterns are commonly thought to occur within the ocean masses themselves. However, the results from the present study illustrate that seawater-like REE patterns already occur in the truly dissolved pool of river input. This leads us to favor a partial or complete removal of the colloidal REE pool during estuarine mixing by coagulation, as previously shown for dissolved humic acids and iron. In this latter case, REE fractionation occurs because colloidal and truly dissolved pools have different REE patterns. Thus, the REE patterns of seawater could be the combination of both intra-oceanic and riverine processes. In this study, we show that the Atlantic continental shelves could be considered potential REE traps, suggesting further that shelf sediments could potentially become a resource for REE, similar to metalliferous deep sea sediments.

  7. Rare earth elements in Hamersley BIF minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibert, Chantal

    2016-07-01

    Minerals from the Hamersley banded iron formation, Western Australia, were analyzed for Y and rare earth elements (YREEs) by laser ablation ICP-MS to investigate diagenetic pathways, from precursor phases to BIF minerals. One group of apatites carries the seawater REE signature, giving evidence that P and REEs, thoroughly scavenged from the water column by Si-ferrihydrite particles, were released upon microbial Fe3+ reductive dissolution of Si-ferrihydrite in pore-water and finally sequestered mainly in authigenic apatite. The absence of fractionation between apatite and seawater suggests that REE were first incorporated into an amorphous calcium phosphate as fully hydrated cations, i.e. as outer-sphere complexes. The iron oxides and carbonates carry only a small fraction of the whole-rock REE budget. Their REE patterns are distinctly enriched in Yb and show some M-type tetrad effect consistent with experimental Kd(REE) between solid and saline solution with low carbonate ion concentrations. It is deduced that hematite formed at an incipient stage of Fe2+-catalyzed dissolution of Si-ferrihydrite, via a dissolution-reprecipitation pathway. The REE pattern of greenalite, found as sub-micron particles in quartz in a chert-siderite sample, is consistent with its authigenic origin by precipitation in pore-water after dissolution of a small amount of Si-ferrihydrite. Magnetite carries very low YREEs (ppb-level), has an homogeneous pattern distinctly enriched in the mid-REEs compared to hematite, and includes a late population depleted in light-REEs, Ba and As. Magnetite forming aggregates and massive laminae is tentatively interpreted as reflecting some fluid-aided hematite-magnetite re-equilibration or transformation at low-grade metamorphic temperatures.

  8. Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented that mainly treats minerals in which the rare-earth elements are essential constituents, e.g., bastnaesite, monazite, xenotime, aeschynite, allanite. The chemical mechanisms and limits of REE substitution in some rock-forming minerals (zircon, apatite, titanite, garnet) are also derived. Vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals is examined and some comments on REE-partitioning between minerals as related to acid-based tendencies and mineral stabilities are presented. As the same or analogous coupled substitutions involving the REE occur in a wide variety of mineral structures, they are discussed together.

  9. Rare earth element and rare metal inventory of central Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Tucker, Robert D.; Renaud, Karine; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2018-03-06

    Rare earth elements (REE), with their unique physical and chemical properties, are an essential part of modern living. REE have enabled development and manufacture of high-performance materials, processes, and electronic technologies commonly used today in computing and communications, clean energy and transportation, medical treatment and health care, glass and ceramics, aerospace and defense, and metallurgy and chemical refining. Central Asia is an emerging REE and rare metals (RM) producing region. A newly compiled inventory of REE-RM-bearing mineral occurrences and delineation of areas-of-interest indicate this region may have considerable undiscovered resources.

  10. Chromatographic Techniques for Rare Earth Elements Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Zhang, Huashan; Jiang, Zucheng; Hu, Bin

    2017-04-01

    The present capability of rare earth element (REE) analysis has been achieved by the development of two instrumental techniques. The efficiency of spectroscopic methods was extraordinarily improved for the detection and determination of REE traces in various materials. On the other hand, the determination of REEs very often depends on the preconcentration and separation of REEs, and chromatographic techniques are very powerful tools for the separation of REEs. By coupling with sensitive detectors, many ambitious analytical tasks can be fulfilled. Liquid chromatography is the most widely used technique. Different combinations of stationary phases and mobile phases could be used in ion exchange chromatography, ion chromatography, ion-pair reverse-phase chromatography and some other techniques. The application of gas chromatography is limited because only volatile compounds of REEs can be separated. Thin-layer and paper chromatography are techniques that cannot be directly coupled with suitable detectors, which limit their applications. For special demands, separations can be performed by capillary electrophoresis, which has very high separation efficiency.

  11. Rare Earth Element Partitioning in Lunar Minerals: An Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntosh, E. C.; Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The partitioning behavior of rare earth elements (REE) between minerals and melts is widely used to interpret the petrogenesis and geologic context of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples. REE are important tools for modelling the evolution of the lunar interior. The ubiquitous negative Eu anomaly in lunar basalts is one of the main lines of evidence to support the lunar magma ocean (LMO) hypothesis, by which the plagioclase-rich lunar highlands were formed as a flotation crust during differentiation of a global-scale magma ocean. The separation of plagioclase from the mafic cumulates is thought to be the source of the Eu depletion, as Eu is very compatible in plagioclase. Lunar basalts and volcanic glasses are commonly depleted in light REEs (LREE), and more enriched in heavy REEs (HREE). However, there is very little experimental data available on REE partitioning between lunar minerals and melts. In order to interpret the source of these distinctive REE patterns, and to model lunar petrogenetic processes, REE partition coefficients (D) between lunar minerals and melts are needed at conditions relevant to lunar processes. New data on D(sub REE) for plagioclase, and pyroxenes are now available, but there is limited available data for olivine/melt D(sub REE), particularly at pressures higher than 1 bar, and in Fe-rich and reduced compositions - all conditions relevant to the lunar mantle. Based on terrestrial data, REE are highly incompatible in olivine (i.e. D much less than 1), however olivine is the predominant mineral in the lunar interior, so it is important to understand whether it is capable of storing even small amounts of REE, and how the REEs might be fractionatied, in order to understand the trace element budget of the lunar interior. This abstract presents results from high-pressure and temperature experiments investigating REE partitioning between olivine and melt in a composition relevant to lunar magmatism.

  12. [Rare earth elements contents and distribution characteristics in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Lan, Xiaolin; Zhang, Lingzhen; Xiao, Fufu; Zhong, Zhaoming; Ye, Guilin; Li, Zong; Li, Shaojin

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the rare earth elements(REEs) contents and distribution characteristics in nasopharyngeal carcinoma( NPC) tissue in Gannan region. Thirty patients of NPC in Gannan region were included in this study. The REEs contents were measured by tandem mass spectrometer inductively coupled plasma(ICP-MS/MS) in 30 patients, and the REEs contents and distribution were analyzed. The average standard deviation value of REEs in lung cancer and normal lung tissues was the minimum mostly. Light REEs content was higher than the medium REEs, and medium REEs content was higher than the heavy REEs content. REEs contents changes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma were variable obviously, the absolute value of Nd, Ce, Pr, Gd and other light rare earth elements were variable widely. The degree of changes on Yb, Tb, Ho and other heavy rare earth elements were variable widely, and there was presence of Eu, Ce negative anomaly(δEu=0. 385 5, δCe= 0. 523 4). The distribution characteristic of REEs contents in NPC patients is consistent with the parity distribution. With increasing atomic sequence, the content is decline wavy. Their distribution patterns were a lack of heavy REEs and enrichment of light REEs, and there was Eu , Ce negative anomaly.

  13. Sustainability of rare earth elements chain: from production to food - a review.

    PubMed

    Turra, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are a group of chemical elements that include lanthanoids (lanthanum to lutetium), scandium and yttrium. In the last decades, the REE demand in the industry and other areas has increased significantly. In general, REE have shown low concentrations in soils, plants, water and atmosphere, but they may accumulate in such environments due to anthropogenic inputs. In areas where there is REE contamination, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. Many studies have shown environmental areas contaminated with REE and their toxic effects. Thus, it is important to review, in order to improve the current understanding of these elements in the environment, showing the effects of REE exposure in mining, soil, water, plants and food. Besides, there are few suppliers and a limited quantity of these elements in the world. This paper suggests options to improve the sustainability management of REE chain.

  14. Aegirine-melt element partitioning and implications for the formation of nepheline syenite REE deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, Charles; van Hinsberg, Vincent; Stix, John; Wilke, Max

    2017-04-01

    Sodic clinopyroxene is a key fractionating phase in alkaline magmatic systems but its impact on metal enrichment processes, and the formation of REE + HFSE mineralizations in particular, is not fully understood. Sodic pyroxenes appear to more readily incorporate REE than their calcic equivalents1. Despite this, melts in evolved alkaline systems can attain high REE contents, even up to economic levels (e.g. the Nechalacho layered suite in Canada2). To constrain the control of pyroxene on REE + HFSE behaviour in alkaline magmas, a series of internally heated pressure vessel experiments was performed to determine pyroxene-melt element partitioning systematics. Synthetic trachy-andesite to phonolite compositions were run water saturated at 650-825°C with fO2 buffered by ca. 1 bar of H2 (QFM + 1) or by Hm-Mt (QFM +5). Fluorine was added to selected experiments (0.3 to 2.5 wt %) to ascertain its effect on element partitioning. Run products were analysed by EMP for major elements and LA-ICP-MS for trace elements. Mineral and glass compositions bracket the compositions of natural alkaline systems, allowing for direct application of our experimental results to nature. Our results indicate that REE partitioning systematics vary strongly with pyroxene composition: Diopside-rich pyroxenes (Aeg5-25) prefer the MREE, medium aegirine pyroxenes (Aeg25-50) preferentially incorporate the LREE, whereas high aegirine pyroxenes (Aeg55-95) strongly prefer HREE. REE partitioning coefficients are 0.3-40, typically 2-6, with minima for high aegirine pyroxenes. Melt composition (e.g. (Na+K)/Al) also impacts partitioning although to a lesser extent, except for the F-content, which shows no impact at all. The composition of fractionating pyroxene has a major impact on the REE pattern of the residual melt, and thus on the ability of a system to develop economic concentrations of the REE. Element partitioning systematics suggest that late-crystallising aegirine-rich cumulates would be HREE

  15. Addressing Criticality in Rare Earth Elements via Permanent Magnets Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nlebedim, I. C.; King, A. H.

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical for many advanced technologies and are faced with potential supply disruptions. Recycling of permanent magnets (PMs) can be good sources for REEs which can help minimize global dependence on freshly mined REEs, but PMs are rarely recycled. Recycling of PMs has been discussed with respect to improving REEs resource sustainability. Some challenges to be addressed in order to establish industrially deployable technologies for PMs recycling have also been discussed, including profitability, energy efficiency and environmental impacts. Key considerations for promoting circular economy via PMs recycling is proposed with the focus on deciding the targetmore » points in the supply chain at which the recycled products will be inserted. Important technical considerations for recycling different forms of waste PMs, including swarfs, slags, shredded and intact hard disk drives magnets, have been presented. Lastly, the aspects of circular economy considered include reusing magnets, remanufacturing magnets and recovering of REEs from waste PMs.« less

  16. Addressing Criticality in Rare Earth Elements via Permanent Magnets Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nlebedim, I. C.; King, A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical for many advanced technologies and are faced with potential supply disruptions. Recycling of permanent magnets (PMs) can be good sources for REEs which can help minimize global dependence on freshly mined REEs, but PMs are rarely recycled. Recycling of PMs has been discussed with respect to improving REEs resource sustainability. Some challenges to be addressed in order to establish industrially deployable technologies for PMs recycling have also been discussed, including profitability, energy efficiency and environmental impacts. Key considerations for promoting circular economy via PMs recycling is proposed with the focus on deciding the target points in the supply chain at which the recycled products will be inserted. Important technical considerations for recycling different forms of waste PMs, including swarfs, slags, shredded and intact hard disk drives magnets, have been presented. The aspects of circular economy considered include reusing magnets, remanufacturing magnets and recovering of REEs from waste PMs.

  17. Addressing Criticality in Rare Earth Elements via Permanent Magnets Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nlebedim, I. C.; King, A. H.

    2018-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical for many advanced technologies and are faced with potential supply disruptions. Recycling of permanent magnets (PMs) can be good sources for REEs which can help minimize global dependence on freshly mined REEs, but PMs are rarely recycled. Recycling of PMs has been discussed with respect to improving REEs resource sustainability. Some challenges to be addressed in order to establish industrially deployable technologies for PMs recycling have also been discussed, including profitability, energy efficiency and environmental impacts. Key considerations for promoting circular economy via PMs recycling is proposed with the focus on deciding the target points in the supply chain at which the recycled products will be inserted. Important technical considerations for recycling different forms of waste PMs, including swarfs, slags, shredded and intact hard disk drives magnets, have been presented. The aspects of circular economy considered include reusing magnets, remanufacturing magnets and recovering of REEs from waste PMs.

  18. Addressing Criticality in Rare Earth Elements via Permanent Magnets Recycling

    DOE PAGES

    Nlebedim, I. C.; King, A. H.

    2017-12-12

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical for many advanced technologies and are faced with potential supply disruptions. Recycling of permanent magnets (PMs) can be good sources for REEs which can help minimize global dependence on freshly mined REEs, but PMs are rarely recycled. Recycling of PMs has been discussed with respect to improving REEs resource sustainability. Some challenges to be addressed in order to establish industrially deployable technologies for PMs recycling have also been discussed, including profitability, energy efficiency and environmental impacts. Key considerations for promoting circular economy via PMs recycling is proposed with the focus on deciding the targetmore » points in the supply chain at which the recycled products will be inserted. Important technical considerations for recycling different forms of waste PMs, including swarfs, slags, shredded and intact hard disk drives magnets, have been presented. Lastly, the aspects of circular economy considered include reusing magnets, remanufacturing magnets and recovering of REEs from waste PMs.« less

  19. Rare earth elements in human hair from a mining area of China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binggan; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Yu, Jiangping; Ye, Bixiong; Liang, Tao

    2013-10-01

    Rare earth minerals have been mined for more than 50 years in Inner Mongolia of China. In the mining area rare earth elements (REE) may be significantly accumulated in humans. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to characterize the REE concentrations in hair of local residents. REE concentrations in hair of 118 subjects were determined. The results showed that the mean concentrations of the determined REE in the hair of both females and males were usually higher from mining area than from control area. The mean concentrations of all the fifteen REE were much higher in hair of males than in hair of females from mining area. This suggested that males might be more sensitive to REE than females. In addition, the mean contents of the REE in hair of miners, particularly light REE (La, Ce, Pr and Nd), were usually much higher than the values in hair of non-miners from both mining area and control area, indicating that the miners were exposed to higher concentrations of REE in occupational environment. Among age groups, the relationships between REE concentrations and age groups showed that more and more concentrations of light REE accumulated in body of both females and males with age until 60 years, while heavy REE concentrations decreased with age in males who were exposed to low concentrations of heavy REE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards the challenging REE exploration in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Iwan

    2018-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are the seventeen elements, including fifteen from 57La to 71Lu, in addition to 21Sc and 39Y. In rock-forming minerals, rare earth elements typically occur in compounds as trivalent cations in carbonates, oxides, phosphates, and silicates. The REE occur in a wide range of rock types: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. REE are one of the critical metals in the world. Their occurrences are important to supply the world needs on high technology materials. Indonesia has a lot of potential sources of REE that are mainly from residual tin mining processes in Bangka islands, which are associated with radioactive minerals e.g. monazite and xenotime. However, the REE from monazite and xenotime are difficult to extract and contain high radioactivity. Granitoids are widely distributed in Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua. They also have a very thick weathering crusts. Important REE-bearing minerals are allanite and titanite. Their low susceptibilities during weathering result an economically potential REE concentration. I-/A- type granitoids and their weathered crusts are important REE sources in Indonesia. Unfortunately, their distribution and genesis have not been deeply studied. Future REE explorations challenge are mainly of the granitoids their weathered crusts. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of type of granitoids and their weathered crusts, the hydrothermally altered rocks, and clear REE regulation will help discover REE deposits in Indonesia.

  1. Behaviour of Rare Earth Elements during the Earth's core formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Pierre; Bouhifd, Mohamed Ali; Boyet, Maud; Hammouda, Tahar; Manthilake, Geeth

    2017-04-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) are classified in the refractory group, which means that they have a high temperature condensation and their volatility-controlled fractionation is limited to high-temperature processes. Anomalies have been measured for Eu, Yb and Sm, which are the REE with the lowest condensation temperatures in CAIs and chondrules (e.g. [1]). REE are particularly abundant in the sulfides of enstatite chondrites, 100 to 1000 times the CI value [e.g. 2,3], proving that these elements are not strictly lithophile under extremely reducing conditions. However by investigating experimentally the impact of Earth's core formation on the behavior of Sm and Nd, we have shown the absence of fractionation between Sm and Nd during the segregation of the metallic phase [4]. Recently, Wohlers and Wood [5] proposed that Nd and Sm could be fractionated in presence of a S-rich alloy phase. However, their results were obtained at pressure and temperature conditions below the plausible conditions of the Earth's core formation. Clearly, large pressure range needs to be covered before well-constrained model can be expected. Furthermore, our preliminary metal-silicate partitioning results show that Ce and Eu have higher metal/silicate partition coefficients than their neighboring elements, and that the presence of sulphur enhances the relative difference between partition coefficients. In this presentation, we will present and discuss new metal-silicate partition coefficients of all REE at a deep magma ocean at pressures ranging from those of the uppermost upper mantle ( 5 GPa) to a maximum pressure expected in the range of 20 GPa, temperatures ranging from 2500 to about 3000 K, and oxygen fugacities within IW-1 to IW-5 (1 to 5 orders of magnitude lower than the iron-wüstite buffer). We will discuss the effect of S, as well as the effect of H2O on the behaviour of REE during the Earth's core formation: recent models suggest that contrary to currently accepted beliefs, the

  2. Geochemistry of some rare earth elements in groundwater, Vierlingsbeek, The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Janssen, René P T; Verweij, Wilko

    2003-03-01

    Groundwater samples were taken from seven bore holes at depths ranging from 2 to 41m nearby drinking water pumping station Vierlingsbeek, The Netherlands and analysed for Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and Eu. Shale-normalized patterns were generally flat and showed that the observed rare earth elements (REE) were probably of natural origin. In the shallow groundwaters the REEs were light REE (LREE) enriched, probably caused by binding of LREEs to colloids. To improve understanding of the behaviour of the REE, two approaches were used: calculations of the speciation and a statistical approach. For the speciation calculations, complexation and precipitation reactions including inorganic and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compounds, were taken into account. The REE speciation showed REE(3+), REE(SO(4))(+), REE(CO(3))(+) and REE(DOC) being the major species. Dissolution of pure REE precipitates and REE-enriched solid phases did not account for the observed REEs in groundwater. Regulation of REE concentrations by adsorption-desorption processes to Fe(III)(OH)(3) and Al(OH)(3) minerals, which were calculated to be present in nearly all groundwaters, is a probable explanation. The statistical approach (multiple linear regression) showed that pH is by far the most significant groundwater characteristic which contributes to the variation in REE concentrations. Also DOC, SO(4), Fe and Al contributed significantly, although to a much lesser extent, to the variation in REE concentrations. This is in line with the calculated REE-species in solution and REE-adsorption to iron and aluminium (hydr)oxides. Regression equations including only pH, were derived to predict REE concentrations in groundwater. External validation showed that these regression equations were reasonably successful to predict REE concentrations of groundwater of another drinking water pumping station in quite different region of The Netherlands.

  3. Fractionations of rare earth elements in plants and their conceptive model.

    PubMed

    Ding, ShiMing; Liang, Tao; Yan, JunCai; Zhang, ZiLi; Huang, ZeChun; Xie, YaNing

    2007-02-01

    Fractionations of rare earth elements (REEs) and their mechanisms in soybean were studied through application of exogenous mixed REEs under hydroponic conditions. Significant enrichment of middle REEs (MREEs) and heavy REEs (HREEs) was observed in plant roots and leaves respectively, with slight fractionation between light REEs (LREEs) and HREEs in stems. Moreover, the tetrad effect was observed in these organs. Investigations into REE speciation in roots and in the xylem sap using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and nanometer-sized TiO2 adsorption techniques, associated with other controlled experiments, demonstrated that REE fractionations should be dominated by fixation mechanism in roots caused by cell wall absorption and phosphate precipitation, and by the combined effects of fixation mechanism and transport mechanism in aboveground parts caused by solution complexation by intrinsic organic ligands. A conceptive model was established for REE fractionations in plants based on the above studies.

  4. The Pasamonte unequilibrated eucrite: Pyroxene REE systematic and major-, minor-, and trace-element zoning. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pun, A.; Papike, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    We are evaluating the trace-element concentrations in the pyroxenes of Pasamonte. Pasamonte is a characteristic member of the main group eucrites, and has recently been redescribed as a polymict eucrite. Our Pasamonte sample contained eucritic clasts with textures ranging from subophitic to moderately coarse-grained. This study concentrates on pyroxenes from an unequilibrated, coarse-grained eucrite clast. Major-, minor-, and trace-element analyses were measured for zoned pyroxenes in the eucritic clast of Pasamonte. The major- and minor-element zoning traverses were measured using the JEOL 733 electron probe with an Oxford-Link imaging/analysis system. Complemenatry trace elements were then measured for the core and rim of each of the grains by SIMS. The trace elements analyzed consisted of eight REE, Sr, Y, and Zr. These analyses were performed on a Cameca 4f ion probe. The results of the CI chondrite normalized (average CI trace-element analyses for several grains and the major- and minor-element zoning patterns from a single pyroxene grain are given. The Eu abundance in the cores of the pyroxenes represents the detection limit and therefore the (-Eu) anomaly is a minimum. Major- and minor-element patterns are typical for igneous zoning. Pyroxene cores are Mg enriched, whereas the rims are enriched in Fe and Ca. Also, Ti and Mn are found to increase, while Cr and Al generally decrease in core-to-rim traverses. The cores of the pyroxenes are more depleted in the Rare Earth Elements (REE) than the rims. Using the minor- and trace-element concentrations of bulk Pasamonte and the minor- and trace-element concentrations from the cores of the pyroxenes in Pasamonte measured in this study, we calculated partition coefficients between pyroxene and melt. This calculation assumes that bulk Pasamonte is representative of a melt composition.

  5. Rare earth elements as a fingerprint of soil components solubilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davranche, M.; Grybos, M.; Gruau, G.; Pédrot, M.; Dia, A.

    2009-04-01

    The retention of rare earth element (REE) in the soil profile are mainly controlled by three factors, (i) the stability of the primary REE-carrying minerals, (ii) the presence of secondary phases as clays and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides and (ii) the concentration of colloidal organic matter (OM). Considering that each soil phases (mineral or organic) displays (ii) various surface properties, such as specific area, surface sites density and nature and (ii) their own REE distribution inherited from the rock weathering, their mobilization through various chemical reactions (dissolution, colloidal release….) may involve the development of various shaped REE patterns in the soil solutions. REE fractionation from the different soil phases may therefore be used to identify the response of the soil system to a particular chemical process such as reductive and/or acidic dissolution. To test this purpose, an organic-rich wetland soil sample was incubated under anaerobic condition at both pH 5 and uncontrolled pH. The REE patterns developed in the soil solution were then compared to the REE patterns obtained through either aerobic at pH 3 and 7 incubations or a chemical reduction experiment (using hydroxylamine). REE patterns in anaerobic and aerobic at pH 7 experiments exhibited the same middle rare earth element (MREE) downward concavity significant of the complexation of REE with soil OM. By contrast, under acidic condition, the REE pattern exhibited a positive Eu anomaly due to the dissolution of soil feldspar. Finally, REE pattern obtained from the chemical reducing experiment showed an intermediary flat shape corresponding to a mixing between the soil organic and mineral phases dissolution. The comparison of the various REE pattern shapes allowed to conclude that (i) biological reduction of wetland soil involved amorphous Fe(III) colloids linked to OM and, (ii) that the REE mobility was controlled by the dynamic of OM in wetland soil. They also evidence the potential of

  6. Geology and market-dependent significance of rare earth element resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simandl, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    China started to produce rare earth elements (REEs) in the 1980s, and since the mid-1990s, it has become the dominant producer. Rare earth element export quotas first introduced by the Chinese government in the early 2000s were severely reduced in 2010 and 2011. This led to strong government-created disparity between prices within China and the rest of the world. Industrialized countries identified several REEs as strategic metals. Because of rapid price increases of REE outside of China, we have witnessed a world-scale REE exploration rush. The REE resources are concentrated in carbonatite-related deposits, peralkaline igneous rocks, pegmatites, monazite ± apatite veins, ion adsorption clays, placers, and some deep ocean sediments. REE could also be derived as a by-product of phosphate fertilizer production, U processing, mining of Ti-Zr-bearing placers, and exploitation of Olympic Dam subtype iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits. Currently, REEs are produced mostly from carbonatite-related deposits, but ion adsorption clay deposits are an important source of heavy REE (HREE). Small quantities of REE are derived from placer deposits and one peralkaline intrusion-related deposit. The ideal REE development targets would be located in a politically stable jurisdiction with a pro-mining disposition such as Canada and Australia. REE grade, HREE/light REE (LREE) ratio of the mineralization, tonnage, mineralogy, and permissive metallurgy are some of the key technical factors that could be used to screen potential development projects. As REEs are considered strategic metals from economic, national security, and environmental points of view, technical and economic parameters alone are unlikely to be used in REE project development decision-making. Recycling of REE is in its infancy and unless legislated, in the short term, it is not expected to contribute significantly to the supply of REE.

  7. Investigating Rare Earth Element Systematics in the Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Torres, M. E.; Kim, J. H.; Verba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The lanthanide series of elements (the 14 rare earth elements, REEs) have similar chemical properties and respond to different chemical and physical processes in the natural environment by developing unique patterns in their concentration distribution when normalized to an average shale REE content. The interpretation of the REE content in a gas-bearing black shale deposited in a marine environment must therefore take into account the paleoredox conditions of deposition as well as any diagenetic remobilization and authigenic mineral formation. We analyzed 15 samples from a core of the Marcellus Shale (Whipkey ST1, Greene Co., PA) for REEs, TOC, gas-producing potential, trace metal content, and carbon isotopes of organic matter in order to determine the REE systematics of a black shale currently undergoing shale gas development. We also conducted a series of sequential leaching experiments targeting the phosphatic fractions in order to evaluate the dominant host phase of REEs in a black shale. Knowledge of the REE system in the Marcellus black shale will allow us to evaluate potential REE release and behavior during hydraulic fracturing operations. Total REE content of the Whipkey ST1 core ranged from 65-185 μg/g and we observed three distinct REE shale-normalized patterns: middle-REE enrichment (MREE/MREE* ~2) with heavy-REE enrichment (HREE/LREE ~1.8-2), flat patterns, and a linear enrichment towards the heavy-REE (HREE/LREE ~1.5-2.5). The MREE enrichment occurred in the high carbonate samples of the Stafford Member overlying the Marcellus Formation. The HREE enrichment occurred in the Union Springs Member of the Marcellus Formation, corresponding to a high TOC peak (TOC ~4.6-6.2 wt%) and moderate carbonate levels (CaCO3 ~4-53 wt%). Results from the sequential leaching experiments suggest that the dominant host of the REEs is the organic fraction of the black shale and that the detrital and authigenic fractions have characteristic MREE enrichments. We present our

  8. Recovery and separation of rare earth elements using columns loaded with DNA-filter hybrid.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshio; Kondo, Kazuhiro; Miyaji, Asami; Umeo, Miyuki; Honma, Tetsuo; Asaoka, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Given that the supply of several rare earth elements (REEs) is sometimes limited, recycling REEs used in various advanced materials, such as Nd magnets, is important for realizing efficient use of REE resources. In the present work, the feasibility of using DNA for REE recovery and separation was examined, along with the identification of the binding site of REEs in DNA. In particular, a DNA-cellulose filter paper hybrid was prepared so that DNA-based materials can be used for the separation of REEs using columns loaded with DNA. N,N'-Disuccinimidyl was used as a cross-linker reagent for the fixation of DNA onto a fibrous cellulose filter. The results showed that (i) the DNA-filter hybrid has a sufficiently high affinity to adsorb REEs; (ii) the adsorption capacity was 0.182 mg/g for Nd; and (iii) the affinity of REEs for DNA was stronger for REEs with larger atomic numbers. The difference of the affinity among REEs in the third result was compared with the adsorption patterns of REEs discussed in the literature. The comparison suggests that phosphate in the DNA-filter paper hybrid was responsible for REE adsorption onto the hybrid. The results were supported by the Nd, Dy, and Lu L(III)-edge EXAFS; the REE-P shell was identified for the second neighboring atom, showing the importance of the phosphate site as REE binding sites. The difference in the affinity among REEs suggest that group separation of REEs (such as La, Ce, (Pr and Nd), (Ho, Dy, and Er), (Tb and Gd), (Sm, Eu), Tm, Yb, and Lu) is possible, although complete isolation of each REE from a solution containing all REEs may be difficult. For practical applications, Nd and Fe(III) were successfully separated from a synthetic solution of Nd magnet waste using columns loaded with the DNA-filter hybrid.

  9. Health effects and toxicity mechanisms of rare earth elements-Knowledge gaps and research prospects.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Giovanni; Guida, Marco; Tommasi, Franca; Oral, Rahime

    2015-05-01

    In the recent decades, rare earth elements (REE) have undergone a steady spread in several industrial and medical applications, and in agriculture. Relatively scarce information has been acquired to date on REE-associated biological effects, from studies of bioaccumulation and of bioassays on animal, plant and models; a few case reports have focused on human health effects following occupational REE exposures, in the present lack of epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed groups. The literature is mostly confined to reports on few REE, namely cerium and lanthanum, whereas substantial information gaps persist on the health effects of other REE. An established action mechanism in REE-associated health effects relates to modulating oxidative stress, analogous to the recognized redox mechanisms observed for other transition elements. Adverse outcomes of REE exposures include a number of endpoints, such as growth inhibition, cytogenetic effects, and organ-specific toxicity. An apparent controversy regarding REE-associated health effects relates to opposed data pointing to either favorable or adverse effects of REE exposures. Several studies have demonstrated that REE, like a number of other xenobiotics, follow hormetic concentration-related trends, implying stimulatory or protective effects at low levels, then adverse effects at higher concentrations. Another major role for REE-associated effects should be focused on pH-dependent REE speciation and hence toxicity. Few reports have demonstrated that environmental acidification enhances REE toxicity; these data may assume particular relevance in REE-polluted acidic soils and in REE mining areas characterized by concomitant REE and acid pollution. The likely environmental threats arising from REE exposures deserve a new line of research efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution and origin of major and trace elements (particularly REE, U and Th) into labile and residual phases in an acid soil profile (Vosges Mountains, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, D.; Probst, A.; Stille, P.

    2003-04-01

    Physical and chemical weathering of rocks and minerals lead to soil formation and allow the removal of chemical elements from these systems to ground- or surface waters. But most of the time the determination of element concentrations in soils is not sufficient to estimate whether they are being accumulated or what is their ability to be released in the environment. Thus, the distribution and chemical binding for a given element is very important because it determines its mobility and potential bioavailability throughout a soil profile. Heavy metals and REE (Rare Earth Elements) are particularly of environmental concern because of their potential toxicity. For most of them, their chemical form strongly depends on the evolution of physico-chemical parameters like pH or redox conditions that will induce adsorption-desorption, complexation or co-precipitation phenomena in the material. The purpose of this study is to determine the distribution of several major and trace elements (especially REE, Th and U) in an acidic forested podzolic soil profile from the Vosges Mountains (France). To achieve this goal we use a 7 step sequential extraction procedure that allows determining precisely the origin and the behaviour of particular elements in the environment (Leleyter et al., 1999). In addition we performed leaching experiments using very dilute acetic and hydrochloric acid in order to establish the origin of REE in this soil. The results of the sequential extraction indicate that most of the metals, Th and U are mainly bound to Fe oxides. Organic matter appears also to be a great carrier of P, Ca, Fe and REE even if its content is very low in the deep horizons of the soil. Moreover, we show that in each soil horizon, middle REE (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) are more labile than light REE (LREE). Leaching experiments using dilute acid solution further suggest that in the shallowest horizons REE largely derive from atmospheric deposition whereas at greater depth, weathering

  11. Anthropogenic Cycles of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X.; Graedel, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    This research will develop quantitatively resolved anthropogenic cycles and in-use stocks for the rare earth metals specifically cerium, lanthanum and dysprosium in Japan, China, and the U.S. for the year of 2007. Rare earth elements (REE) is a group of 17 scare metals widely used in a growing number of emerging technologies and have been in high demand for emerging technologies as raw materials during past the three decades. New market participants from newly industrializing countries, primarily China, have had strong impacts on the demand of share. Consequently, the importance to sustain a reliable, steady, uninterrupted supply on global market triggered comprehensive research to recognize and understand the life cycles of rare earths. Moreover, because China plays a dominant role in mining production since 1990, it requires the assessment for the countries, which are almost completely dependent on imports from China with respect to rare earth resources. The study aims to analyze the flows and stocks of rare earth elements individually as elemental form in spite of their natural geological co-occurrence and mixed composition in applications. By applying the method of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) work has been done on evaluating current and historical flows of specific technologically significant materials, for example, copper, zinc, nickel, etc., determining the stocks available in different types of reservoirs (e.g., lithosphere, in-use) and the flows among the reservoirs, developing scenarios of possible futures of metal use, and assessing the environmental and policy implications of the results. Therefore, REE as a new target deserves inclusion because of its potential demand-supply conflict and importance to secure the competitive advantage of technical innovation in future. This work will generate a quantitatively resolved anthropogenic life cycle and in-use stocks for REE for the main target countries for a chosen year, 2007, providing flows and stocks from

  12. The rare-earth elements: Vital to modern technologies and lifestyles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Long, Keith R.; Gambogi, Joseph; Seal, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the rare-earth elements (REEs) were familiar to a relatively small number of people, such as chemists, geologists, specialized materials scientists, and engineers. In the 21st century, the REEs have gained visibility through many media outlets because of (1) the public has recognized the critical, specialized properties that REEs contribute to modern technology, as well as (2) China's dominance in production and supply of the REEs and (3) international dependence on China for the majority of the world's REE supply.Since the late 1990s, China has provided 85–95 percent of the world’s REEs. In 2010, China announced their intention to reduce REE exports. During this timeframe, REE use increased substantially. REEs are used as components in high technology devices, including smart phones, digital cameras, computer hard disks, fluorescent and light-emitting-diode (LED) lights, flat screen televisions, computer monitors, and electronic displays. Large quantities of some REEs are used in clean energy and defense technologies. Because of the many important uses of REEs, nations dependent on new technologies, such as Japan, the United States, and members of the European Union, reacted with great concern to China’s intent to reduce its REE exports. Consequently, exploration activities intent on discovering economic deposits of REEs and bringing them into production have increased.

  13. Rare earth element geochemistry characteristics of seawater and porewater from deep sea in western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinan; Ren, Jiangbo; Guo, Qingjun; Cao, Jun; Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Chenhui

    2017-11-28

    Deep-sea sediments contain high concentrations of rare earth element (REE) which have been regarded as a huge potential resource. Understanding the marine REE cycle is important to reveal the mechanism of REE enrichment. In order to determine the geochemistry characteristics and migration processes of REE, seawater, porewater and sediment samples were systematically collected from the western Pacific for REE analysis. The results show a relatively flat REE pattern and the HREE (Heavy REE) enrichment in surface and deep seawater respectively. The HREE enrichment distribution patterns, low concentrations of Mn and Fe and negative Ce anomaly occur in the porewater, and high Mn/Al ratios and low U concentrations were observed in sediment, indicating oxic condition. LREE (Light REE) and MREE (Middle REE) enrichment in upper layer and depletion of MREE in deeper layer were shown in porewater profile. This study suggests that porewater flux in the western Pacific basin is a minor source of REEs to seawater, and abundant REEs are enriched in sediments, which is mainly caused by the extensive oxic condition, low sedimentation rate and strong adsorption capacity of sediments. Hence, the removal of REEs of porewater may result in widespread REE-rich sediments in the western Pacific basin.

  14. Automated Quantitative Rare Earth Elements Mineralogy by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindern, Sven; Meyer, F. Michael

    2016-09-01

    Increasing industrial demand of rare earth elements (REEs) stems from the central role they play for advanced technologies and the accelerating move away from carbon-based fuels. However, REE production is often hampered by the chemical, mineralogical as well as textural complexity of the ores with a need for better understanding of their salient properties. This is not only essential for in-depth genetic interpretations but also for a robust assessment of ore quality and economic viability. The design of energy and cost-efficient processing of REE ores depends heavily on information about REE element deportment that can be made available employing automated quantitative process mineralogy. Quantitative mineralogy assigns numeric values to compositional and textural properties of mineral matter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with a suitable software package for acquisition of backscatter electron and X-ray signals, phase assignment and image analysis is one of the most efficient tools for quantitative mineralogy. The four different SEM-based automated quantitative mineralogy systems, i.e. FEI QEMSCAN and MLA, Tescan TIMA and Zeiss Mineralogic Mining, which are commercially available, are briefly characterized. Using examples of quantitative REE mineralogy, this chapter illustrates capabilities and limitations of automated SEM-based systems. Chemical variability of REE minerals and analytical uncertainty can reduce performance of phase assignment. This is shown for the REE phases parisite and synchysite. In another example from a monazite REE deposit, the quantitative mineralogical parameters surface roughness and mineral association derived from image analysis are applied for automated discrimination of apatite formed in a breakdown reaction of monazite and apatite formed by metamorphism prior to monazite breakdown. SEM-based automated mineralogy fulfils all requirements for characterization of complex unconventional REE ores that will become

  15. Trace elements and REE geochemistry of Middle Devonian carbonate mounds (Maïder Basin, Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Implications for early diagenetic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchi, Fulvio; Turetta, Clara; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Corami, Fabiana; Barbieri, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Trace and rare earth elements (REEs) have proven their utility as tools for assessing the genesis and early diagenesis of widespread geological bodies such as carbonate mounds, whose genetic processes are not yet fully understood. Carbonates from the Middle Devonian conical mud mounds of the Maïder Basin (eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco) have been analysed for their REE and trace element distribution. Collectively, the carbonates from the Maïder Basin mud mounds appear to display coherent REE patterns. Three different geochemical patterns, possibly related with three different diagenetic events, include: i) dyke fills with a normal marine REE pattern probably precipitated in equilibrium with seawater, ii) mound micrite with a particular enrichment of overall REE contents and variable Ce anomaly probably related to variation of pH, increase of alkalinity or dissolution/remineralization of organic matter during early diagenesis, and iii) haematite-rich vein fills precipitated from venting fluids of probable hydrothermal origin. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that these mounds were probably affected by an early diagenesis induced by microbial activity and triggered by abundance of dispersed organic matter, whilst venting may have affected the mounds during a later diagenetic phase.

  16. Coal fly ash as a resource for rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Franus, Wojciech; Wiatros-Motyka, Małgorzata M; Wdowin, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have been recognised as critical raw materials, crucial for many clean technologies. As the gap between their global demand and supply increases, the search for their alternative resources becomes more and more important, especially for the countries which depend highly on their import. Coal fly ash (CFA), which when not utilised is considered waste, has been regarded as the possible source of many elements, including REE. Due to the increase in the energy demand, CFA production is expected to grow, making research into the use of this material a necessity. As Poland is the second biggest coal consumer in the European Union, the authors have studied different coal fly ashes from ten Polish power plants for their rare earth element content. All the fly ashes have a broadly similar distribution of rear earth elements, with light REE being dominant. Most of the samples have REE content relatively high and according to Seredin and Dai (Int J Coal Geol 94: 67-93, 2012) classification can be considered promising REE raw materials.

  17. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in Permian coals from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zheng, Lingyun; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Qi, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) in coals are important because of: (a) REE patterns can be an indicator of the nature of source rocks of the mineral matter as well as sedimentary environments; (b) REEs abundance in coal may have industrial-significance. In this study, a total of thirty-four samples of Permian coal, partings, roof, and floor were collected from the Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China. Abundances of rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements in the samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled-plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the REEs are enriched in coals in the Huaibei Coalfield as compared with Chinese and U.S. coals and the world coal average. Coals in the Lower Shihezi Formation (No. 7, 5, and 4 Coals) and Upper Shihezi Formation (No. 3) have higher REE abundances than the coals in Shanxi Formation (No. 10). Magmatic intrusion resulted in high enrichment of REEs concentrations in No. 5 and 7 Coals. The REE abundances are positively correlated with the ash content. The mineral matter in these coals is mainly made up of clay minerals and carbonates. The REEs are positively correlated with lithophile elements including Si, Al, Ti, Fe, and Na, which are mainly distributed in clay minerals, indicating that REEs are contained mainly in clay minerals. The REE abundances in coals normalized by the ash are higher than that in partings. REEs abundances of coals cannot be accounted for by the REE content in the mineral matter, and some REEs associated with organic matter in coals. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrothermal transport and deposition of the rare earth elements by fluorine-bearing aqueous liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdisov, Art A.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    New technologies, particularly those designed to address environmental concerns, have created a great demand for the rare earth elements (REE), and focused considerable attention on the processes by which they are concentrated to economically exploitable levels in the Earth's crust. There is widespread agreement that hydrothermal fluids played an important role in the formation of the world's largest economic REE deposit, i.e. Bayan Obo, China. Until recently, many researchers have assumed that hydrothermal transport of the REE in fluorine-bearing ore-forming systems occurs mainly due to the formation of REE-fluoride complexes. Consequently, hydrothermal models for REE concentration have commonly involved depositional mechanisms based on saturation of the fluid with REE minerals due to destabilization of REE-fluoride complexes. Here, we demonstrate that these complexes are insignificant in REE transport, and that the above models are therefore flawed. The strong association of H+ and F- as HF° and low solubility of REE-F solids greatly limit transport of the REE as fluoride complexes. However, this limitation does not apply to REE-chloride complexes. Because of this, the high concentration of Cl- in the ore fluids, and the relatively high stability of REE-chloride complexes, the latter can transport appreciable concentrations of REE at low pH. The limitation also does not apply to sulphate complexes and in some fluids, the concentration of sulphate may be sufficient to transport significant concentrations of REE as sulphate complexes, particularly at weakly acidic pH. This article proposes new models for hydrothermal REE deposition based on the transport of the REE as chloride and sulphate complexes.

  19. Advanced Characterization of Rare Earth Elements in Coal Utilization Byproducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verba, C.; Scott, M.; Dieterich, M.; Poston, J.; Collins, K.

    2016-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) in various forms (e.g., crystalline mineral phases; adsorbed/absorbed state on and into organic macerals, neoformed glass from flyash or bottom ash) from domestic feedstocks such as coal deposits to coal utilization byproducts (CUB) have the potential to reduce foreign REE dependence and increase domestic resource security. Characterization is critical for understanding environmental risks related to their fate and transport as well as determining the most practical and economical techniques for concentrating the REE and converting them into chemical stocks for manufacturing. Several complementary electron microscopy (SEM-EDS, EPMA-WDS, FIB-SEM, cathodoluminescence, and XRD) and post image processing techniques were used to understand REE transition from coal to CUB. Sites of interest were identified and imaged and respective elemental x-ray maps acquired and montaged. Pixel classification of SEM imagers was completed using image analysis techniques to quantify the distribution of REE associated features. Quantitative elemental analysis of phases were completed using EMPA-WDS followed by FIB-SEM. The FIB-SEM results were reconstructed into 3D volumes and features of interest (e.g. monazite) were analyzed to determine the structure and volumetric estimation of REEs and thus predict detrital REE phases to ICP-MS results. Trace minerals were identified as pyrite, zircon, REE-phosphates' (monazite, xenotime), and barite within the coal tailings. In CUB, amorphous aluminosilicates, iron oxide cenospheres, and calcium oxides were present; monazite appear to be unaltered and unaffected by the combustion process in these samples. Thermal decomposition may have occurred due to presence of detrital zircon and xenotime and subsequent thin Ca-oxide coating enriched in trace REEs.

  20. Rare earth elements and hypertension risk among housewives: A pilot study in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Yan, Lailai; Huo, Wenhua; Lu, Qun; Cheng, Zixi; Zhang, Jingxu; Li, Zhiwen

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that residents living near rare earth mining areas have high concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in their hair. However, the adverse effects of REEs on human health have rarely been the focus of epidemiological studies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between REEs in hair and the risk of hypertension in housewives. We recruited 398 housewives in Shanxi Province, China, consisting of 163 women with hypertension (cases) and 235 healthy women without hypertension (controls). We analyzed 15 REEs (lanthanum (La), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), lutetium (Lu), Yttrium (Y), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), and neodymium (Nd)) and calcium (Ca) accumulated in housewives hair over a period of two years. The results revealed that, with the exception of Eu, concentrations of the REEs in hair were higher in the cases than in the controls. The univariate odds ratios (ORs) of the 14 REEs were >1, and four of the REEs (Dy, Tm, Yb, and Y) also had adjusted ORs > 1. The increasing dose-response trends of the four REEs further indicated the potential for increased hypertension risk. Moreover, the REEs were negatively correlated with Ca content in hair. These results might suggest an antagonistic effect of REEs on Ca in the human body. It was concluded that high intake of REEs might increase the risk of hypertension among housewives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; ...

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, the rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acidmore » solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. Finally, the resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.« less

  2. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E; Delmau, Lætitia H; Peterson, Eric S; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2015-08-18

    The rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. The resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  3. The rare earth element compositions of the Changjiang (Yangtze) and Huanghe (Yellow) river sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shou Ye; Jung, Hoi Soo; Choi, Man Sik; Li, Cong Xian

    2002-07-01

    Thirty-four samples from the Changjiang and Huanghe were analyzed to characterize their rare earth element (REE) compositions. Although REE concentrations in the Changjiang sediments are higher than those of the Huanghe sediments, the former are less variable. Bulk samples and acid-leachable fractions have convex REE patterns and middle REE enrichments relative to upper continental crust, whereas flat patterns are present in the residual fractions. Source rock composition is the primary control on REE composition, and weathering processes play a minor role. Grain size exerts some influence on REE composition, as demonstrated by the higher REE contents of clay minerals in sediments from both rivers. Heavy minerals contribute about 10-20% of the total REE in the sediments. Apatite is rare in the river sediments, and contributes less than 2% of the REE content, but other heavy minerals such as sphene, allanite and zircon are important reservoirs of residual REE fractions. The Fe-Mn oxides phase accounts for about 14% of bulk REE content in the Changjiang sediments, which could be one of the more important factors controlling REE fractionation in the leachable fraction.

  4. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in a passive treatment system built for acid mine drainage remediation.

    PubMed

    Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Valente, Teresa; Marques, Rosa; Sequeira Braga, Maria Amália; Pamplona, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were used to assess attenuation processes in a passive system for acid mine drainage treatment (Jales, Portugal). Hydrochemical parameters and REE contents in water, soils and sediments were obtained along the treatment system, after summer and winter. A decrease of REE contents in the water resulting from the interaction with limestone after summer occurs; in the wetlands REE are significantly released by the soil particles to the water. After winter, a higher water dynamics favors the AMD treatment effectiveness and performance since REE contents decrease along the system; La and Ce are preferentially sequestered by ochre sludge but released to the water in the wetlands, influencing the REE pattern of the creek water. Thus, REE fractionation occurs in the passive treatment systems and can be used as tracer to follow up and understand the geochemical processes that promote the remediation of AMD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rare earth and trace element geochemistry of a fragment of Jurassic seafloor, Point Sal, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, M.; Blanchard, D.; Brannon, J.; Korotev, R.

    1977-01-01

    Rocks from an ophiolite suite once on the seafloor were analyzed for rare earth elements (REE), Sc, Co, Na2O, Cr, Zn and FeO. Strontium isotope exchange noted in some of the lavas is attributed to basalt-seawater interaction; the Ce abundance in smectite- and zeolite-bearing lavas may also be due to prolonged exposure to seawater. The higher grades of metamorphic rock, however, show no variation from the usual flat or slightly light REE depleted profiles. Plutonic igneous rock, all light REE depleted, have total REE abundances varying by a factor of 100 between the dunites and diorites. In order of decreasing REE abundance are hornblende, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, orthopyroxene and olivine. Calculations of REE contents of liquids in equilibrium with early cumulative clinopyroxenes suggest that the parent to the stratiform sequence was more depleted in light REE than the parent to the lava pile.

  6. Rare earth elements in parasol mushroom Macrolepiota procera.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Sapkota, Atindra; Mędyk, Małgorzata; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate occurrence and distribution of 16 rare earth elements (REEs) in edible saprobic mushroom Macrolepiota procera, and to estimate possible intake and risk to human consumer. Mushrooms samples were collected from sixteen geographically diverse sites in the northern regions of Poland. The results showed that for Ce as the most abundant among the RREs in edible caps, the mean concentration was at 0.18±0.29mgkg -1 dry biomass. The mean concentration for Σ16 REEs determined in caps of fungus was 0.50mgkg -1 dry biomass and in whole fruiting bodies was 0.75mgkg -1 dry biomass. From a point of view by consumer, the amounts of REEs contained in edible caps of M. procera could be considered small. Hence, eating a tasty caps of this fungus would not result in a health risk for consumer because of exposure to the REEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative toxicities of selected rare earth elements: Sea urchin embryogenesis and fertilization damage with redox and cytogenetic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, Giovanni, E-mail: gbpagano@tin.it; Guida, Marco; Siciliano, Antonietta

    Background: Broad-ranging adverse effects are known for rare earth elements (REE), yet only a few studies tested the toxicity of several REE, prompting studies focusing on multi-parameter REE toxicity. Methods: Trichloride salts of Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd were tested in Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos and sperm for: (1) developmental defects in either REE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of REE-exposed sperm; (2) fertilization success; (3) mitotic anomalies in REE-exposed embryos and in the offspring of REE-exposed sperm, and (4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Results: REEs affectedmore » P. lividus larvae with concentration-related increase in developmental defects, 10{sup −6} to 10{sup −4} M, ranking as: Gd(III)>Y(III)>La(III)>Nd(III)≅Eu(III)>Ce(III)≅Sm(III). Nominal concentrations of REE salts were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant increases in MDA levels, ROS formation, and NO levels were found in REE-exposed embryos. Sperm exposure to REEs (10{sup −5} to 10{sup −4} M) resulted in concentration-related decrease in fertilization success along with increase in offspring damage. Decreased mitotic activity and increased aberration rates were detected in REE-exposed embryos and in the offspring of REE-exposed sperm. Conclusion: REE-associated toxicity affecting embryogenesis, fertilization, cytogenetic and redox endpoints showed different activities of tested REEs. Damage to early life stages, along with redox and cytogenetic anomalies should be the focus of future REE toxicity studies. - Highlights: • Seven rare earth elements exerted different effects on sea urchin early life stages. • Embryo-, spermio- and mitotoxicity, and oxidative/ nitrosative stress were found. • Nominal vs. analytical REE concentrations were checked. • Comparative toxicities were evaluated for the different REE.« less

  8. Tracing sediment movement on semi-arid watershed using Rare Earth Elements 1988

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A multi-tracer method employing rare earth elements (REE) was used to determine sediment yield and to track sediment movement in a small semiarid watershed. A 0.33 ha watershed near Tombstone, AZ was divided into five morphological units, each tagged with one of five REE oxides. Relative contributi...

  9. Interactions between exogenous rare earth elements and phosphorus leaching in packed soil columns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rare earth elements (REEs) increasingly used in agriculture as an amendment for crop growth may help to lessen environmental losses of phosphorus (P) from heavily fertilized soils. The vertical transport characteristics of P and REEs, lanthanum (La), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), and cerium (Ce), w...

  10. MICROBIALLY MEDIATED LEACHING OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS FROM RECYCLABLE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D. W.; Fujita, Y.; Daubaras, D. L.

    2016-09-01

    Bioleaching offers a potential approach for recovery of rare earth elements (REE) from recyclable materials, such as fluorescent lamp phosphors or degraded industrial catalysts. Microorganisms were enriched from REE-containing ores and recyclable materials with the goal of identifying strains capable of extracting REE from solid materials. Over 100 heterotrophic microorganisms were isolated and screened for their ability to produce organic acids capable of leaching REE. The ten most promising isolates were most closely related to Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Talaromyces. Of the acids produced, gluconic acid appeared to be the most effective at leaching REE (yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, europium, and terbium)more » from retorted phosphor powders (RPP), fluidized cracking catalyst (FCC), and europium-doped yttrium oxide (YOEu). We found that an Acinetobacter isolates, BH1, was the most capable strain and able to leach 33% of the total REE content from the FCC material. These results support the continuing evaluation of gluconic acid-producing microbes for large-scale REE recovery from recyclable materials.« less

  11. Size distribution of rare earth elements in coal ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Clinton T.; Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Adams, Monique; Holland, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are utilized in various applications that are vital to the automotive, petrochemical, medical, and information technology industries. As world demand for REEs increases, critical shortages are expected. Due to the retention of REEs during coal combustion, coal fly ash is increasingly considered a potential resource. Previous studies have demonstrated that coal fly ash is variably enriched in REEs relative to feed coal (e.g, Seredin and Dai, 2012) and that enrichment increases with decreasing size fractions (Blissett et al., 2014). In order to further explore the REE resource potential of coal ash, and determine the partitioning behavior of REE as a function of grain size, we studied whole coal and fly ash size-fractions collected from three U.S commercial-scale coal-fired generating stations burning Appalachian or Powder River Basin coal. Whole fly ash was separated into , 5 um, to 5 to 10 um and 10 to 100 um particle size fractions by mechanical shaking using trace-metal clean procedures. In these samples REE enrichments in whole fly ash ranges 5.6 to 18.5 times that of feedcoals. Partitioning results for size separates relative to whole coal and whole fly ash will also be reported. 

  12. The chemistry of rare earth elements in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, J. W.; Bartholomay, H. A.; Fegley, B.

    1984-01-01

    The high concentration of rare earth elements (REE) in primitive CaS suggests that the REE along with the other normally lithophile elements form stable sulfides under the unusual conditions which existed during the formation of enstatite chrondites. In order to acquire a more quantitative framework in which to interpret these data, the behavior of the REE in systems with solar, or slightly fractionated solar, composition is being studied. These new data introduce modest changes in the behavior of some of the REE when compared to previous studies. For example, the largest differences are in the stabilities of the gaseous monoxides of Ce, Eu, Tb, Ho, and Tm, all of which now appear to be less stable than previously thought, and YbO(g) which is somewhat more stable. Much more significant are the changes in REE distribution in the gas phase in fractionated systems, especially those made more reducing by changing the C/O ratio from the solar value of 0.6 to about 1.0. In almost all cases, the exceptions being Eu, Tm and Yb whose elemental gaseous species dominate, the monosulfides become more abundant. Moreover, the solid oxides of Eu, Tm and Yb become less stable under more reducing conditions which, in effect, should reduce the condensation temperature of all REE in more reduced systems.

  13. Rare Earth Element Concentrations in Submarine Hydrothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Andrew; Zierenberg, Robert

    Rare earth element concentrations in submarine hydrothermal fluids from Alarcon Rise, East Pacific Rise, REE concentrations in submarine hydrothermal fluids from Pescadero Basin, Gulf of California, and the Cleft vent field, southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. Data are not corrected to zero Mg.

  14. Characterization of Rare Earth Elements in in Clay Deposits Associated with Central Appalachian Coal Seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, M.; Verba, C.; Falcon, A.; Poston, J.; McKoy, M.

    2017-12-01

    Because of their multiple uses in clean energy technologies, rare earth elements (REE) are critical for national economic and energy security. With no current domestic source, supply remains a major concern for domestic security. Underclay - specifically the layer of stratum beneath a coal bed - is a potentially rich source of REE. This study focuses on the characterization and ion exchange recovery of REE from underclay samples from the Lower Freeport, Middle Kittanning, and Pittsburgh coal seams in West Virginia. Multimodal techniques provided quantitative assessments of REE-bearing mineral phases in select underclays and the influence of organic acid rock treatment on the recovery of REE from both exchangeable and crystalline mineral phases present. All samples are from extensively weathered horizons that contain abundant kaolinite and illite. Total REE concentrations range from 250-450 ppm and all samples have a HREE/LEEE ratio >20%. Rare earth element bearing minerals identified in the clay are monazite, xenotime, florencite, and crandallite. Our selective recovery approach is designed to isolate and recover REE through partial dissolution of the clay matrix and ion exchange rather than dissolution/recovery of phosphate or aluminosilicate bound REE. These results provide a better understanding of coal seam underclay, the affinity of REEs for specific ligands and colloids, and how the rock and ligands respond to different chemical treatments. These processes are important to the development and commercialization of efficient and cost effective methods to extract REE from domestic geologic deposits and recover into salable forms.

  15. Experimental Parameters Affecting Stripping of Rare Earth Elements from Loaded Sorptive Media in Simulated Geothermal Brines

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dean Stull

    2016-05-24

    Experimental results from several studies exploring the impact of pH and acid volume on the stripping of rare earth elements (REEs) loaded onto ligand-based media via an active column. The REEs in this experiment were loaded onto the media through exposure to a simulated geothermal brine with known mineral concentrations. The data include the experiment results, rare earth element concentrations, and the experimental parameters varied.

  16. Rare Earth Elements in Alberta Oil Sand Process Streams

    DOE PAGES

    Roth, Elliot; Bank, Tracy; Howard, Bret; ...

    2017-04-05

    The concentrations of rare earth elements in Alberta, Canada oil sands and six oil sand waste streams were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). The results indicate that the rare earth elements (REEs) are largely concentrated in the tailings solvent recovery unit (TSRU) sample compared to the oil sand itself. The concentration of lanthanide elements is ~1100 mg/kg (1100 ppm or 0.11 weight %), which represents a >20× increase in the concentration compared to the oil sand itself and a >7× increase compared to the North American Shale Composite (NASC). The process water, which is used to extractmore » the oil from oil sands, and the water fraction associated with the different waste streams had very low concentrations of REEs that were near or below the detection limits of the instrument, with the highest total concentration of REEs in the water fraction being less than 10 μg/L (ppb). Size and density separations were completed, and the REEs and other potentially interesting and valuable metals, such as Ti and Zr, were concentrated in different fractions. These results give insights into the possibility of recovering REEs from waste streams generated from oil sand processing.« less

  17. Rare Earth Elements in Alberta Oil Sand Process Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Elliot; Bank, Tracy; Howard, Bret

    The concentrations of rare earth elements in Alberta, Canada oil sands and six oil sand waste streams were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). The results indicate that the rare earth elements (REEs) are largely concentrated in the tailings solvent recovery unit (TSRU) sample compared to the oil sand itself. The concentration of lanthanide elements is ~1100 mg/kg (1100 ppm or 0.11 weight %), which represents a >20× increase in the concentration compared to the oil sand itself and a >7× increase compared to the North American Shale Composite (NASC). The process water, which is used to extractmore » the oil from oil sands, and the water fraction associated with the different waste streams had very low concentrations of REEs that were near or below the detection limits of the instrument, with the highest total concentration of REEs in the water fraction being less than 10 μg/L (ppb). Size and density separations were completed, and the REEs and other potentially interesting and valuable metals, such as Ti and Zr, were concentrated in different fractions. These results give insights into the possibility of recovering REEs from waste streams generated from oil sand processing.« less

  18. Rare earth elements in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems in the eastern Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Gwyneth Anne; Chételat, John; Heath, Joel P; Mickpegak, Raymond; Amyot, Marc

    2017-10-18

    Few ecotoxicological studies exist for rare earth elements (REEs), particularly field-based studies on their bioaccumulation and food web dynamics. REE mining has led to significant environmental impacts in several countries (China, Brazil, U.S.), yet little is known about the fate and transport of these contaminants of emerging concern. Northern ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to REE enrichment from prospective mining projects at high latitudes. To understand how REEs behave in remote northern food webs, we measured REE concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (∂ 15 N, ∂ 13 C) in biota from marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems of the eastern Canadian Arctic (N = 339). Wildlife harvesting and tissue sampling was partly conducted by local hunters through a community-based monitoring project. Results show that REEs generally follow a coherent bioaccumulation pattern for sample tissues, with some anomalies for redox-sensitive elements (Ce, Eu). Highest REE concentrations were found at low trophic levels, especially in vegetation and aquatic invertebrates. Terrestrial herbivores, ringed seal, and fish had low total REE levels in muscle tissue (∑REE for 15 elements <0.1 nmol g -1 ), yet accumulation was an order of magnitude higher in liver tissues. Age- and length-dependent REE accumulation also suggest that REE uptake is faster than elimination for some species. Overall, REE bioaccumulation patterns appear to be species- and tissue-specific, with limited potential for biomagnification. This study provides novel data on the behaviour of REEs in ecosystems and will be useful for environmental impact assessment of REE enrichment in northern regions.

  19. Rare earth element association with foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Natalie L.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Elderfield, Henry; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Lomas, Michael W.

    2012-10-01

    Neodymium isotopes are becoming widely used as a palaeoceanographic tool for reconstructing the source and flow direction of water masses. A new method using planktonic foraminifera which have not been chemically cleaned has proven to be a promising means of avoiding contamination of the deep ocean palaeoceanographic signal by detrital material. However, the exact mechanism by which the Nd isotope signal from bottom waters becomes associated with planktonic foraminifera, the spatial distribution of rare earth element (REE) concentrations within the shell, and the possible mobility of REE ions during changing redox conditions, have not been fully investigated. Here we present REE concentration and Nd isotope data from mixed species of planktonic foraminifera taken from plankton tows, sediment traps and a sediment core from the NW Atlantic. We used multiple geochemical techniques to evaluate how, where and when REEs become associated with planktonic foraminifera as they settle through the water column, reside at the surface and are buried in the sediment. Analyses of foraminifera shells from plankton tows and sediment traps between 200 and 2938 m water depth indicate that only ˜20% of their associated Nd is biogenically incorporated into the calcite structure. The remaining 80% is associated with authigenic metal oxides and organic matter, which form in the water column, and remain extraneous to the carbonate structure. Remineralisation of these organic and authigenic phases releases ions back into solution and creates new binding sites, allowing the Nd isotope ratio to undergo partial equilibration with the ambient seawater, as the foraminifera fall through the water column. Analyses of fossil foraminifera shells from sediment cores show that their REE concentrations increase by up to 10-fold at the sediment-water interface, and acquire an isotopic signature of bottom water. Adsorption and complexation of REE3+ ions between the inner layers of calcite contributes

  20. Implications of Competition for Rare Earth Elements (REE) in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-15

    German’s began their North African campaign. They 3 wanted to reach the Saudi Arabian oilfields to keep their military juggernaut from grinding to a...industry is a fairly recent phenomenon as compared to other precious metals such as gold or copper, which has been known and valued for millenniums. The...and include: lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which are often found in heavy concentrations ranging from eighty to ninety percent of

  1. Rare earth element distributions in the West Pacific: Trace element sources and conservative vs. non-conservative behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Melanie K.; Pahnke, Katharina; Paffrath, Ronja; Schnetger, Bernhard; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that transport and water mass mixing may play a dominant role in controlling the distribution of dissolved rare earth element concentrations ([REE]) at least in parts of the North and South Atlantic and the Pacific Southern Ocean. Here we report vertically and spatially high-resolution profiles of dissolved REE concentrations ([REE]) along a NW-SE transect in the West Pacific and examine the processes affecting the [REE] distributions in this area. Surface water REE patterns reveal sources of trace element (TE) input near South Korea and in the tropical equatorial West Pacific. Positive europium anomalies and middle REE enrichments in surface and subsurface waters are indicative of TE input from volcanic islands and fingerprint in detail small-scale equatorial zonal eastward transport of TEs to the iron-limited tropical East Pacific. The low [REE] of North and South Pacific Tropical Waters and Antarctic Intermediate Water are a long-range (i.e., preformed) laterally advected signal, whereas increasing [REE] with depth within North Pacific Intermediate Water result from release from particles. Optimum multiparameter analysis of deep to bottom waters indicates a dominant control of lateral transport and mixing on [REE] at the depth of Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (≥3000 m water depth; ∼75-100% explained by water mass mixing), allowing the northward tracing of LCDW to ∼28°N in the Northwest Pacific. In contrast, scavenging in the hydrothermal plumes of the Lau Basin and Tonga-Fiji area at 1500-2000 m water depth leads to [REE] deficits (∼40-60% removal) and marked REE fractionation in the tropical West Pacific. Overall, our data provide evidence for active trace element input both near South Korea and Papua New Guinea, and for a strong lateral transport component in the distribution of dissolved REEs in large parts of the West Pacific.

  2. Fate and Trophic Transfer of Rare Earth Elements in Temperate Lake Food Webs.

    PubMed

    Amyot, Marc; Clayden, Meredith G; MacMillan, Gwyneth A; Perron, Tania; Arscott-Gauvin, Alexandre

    2017-06-06

    Many mining projects targeting rare earth elements (REE) are in development in North America, but the background concentrations and trophic transfer of these elements in natural environments have not been well characterized. We sampled abiotic and food web components in 14 Canadian temperate lakes unaffected by mines to assess the natural ecosystem fate of REE. Individual REE and total REE concentrations (sum of individual element concentrations, ΣREE) were strongly related with each other throughout different components of lake food webs. Dissolved organic carbon and dissolved oxygen in the water column, as well as ΣREE in sediments, were identified as potential drivers of aqueous ΣREE. Log 10 of median bioaccumulation factors ranged from 1.3, 3.7, 4.0, and 4.4 L/kg (wet weight) for fish muscle, zooplankton, predatory invertebrates, and nonpredatory invertebrates, respectively. [ΣREE] in fish, benthic macroinvertebrates, and zooplankton declined as a function of their trophic position, as determined by functional feeding groups and isotopic signatures of nitrogen (δ 15 N), indicating that REE were subject to trophic dilution. Low concentrations of REE in freshwater fish muscle compared to their potential invertebrate prey suggest that fish fillet consumption is unlikely to be a significant source of REE to humans in areas unperturbed by mining activities. However, other fish predators (e.g., piscivorous birds and mammals) may accumulate REE from whole fish as they are more concentrated than muscle. Overall, this study provides key information on the baseline concentrations and trophic patterns for REE in freshwater temperate lakes in Quebec, Canada.

  3. Origin of middle rare earth element enrichments in acid waters of a Canadian high Arctic lake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannesson, Kevin H.; Zhou, Xiaoping

    1999-01-01

    -Middle rare earth element (MREE) enriched rock-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of a dilute acidic lake (Colour Lake) in the Canadian High Arctic, were investigated by quantifying whole-rock REE concentrations of rock samples collected from the catchment basin, as well as determining the acid leachable REE fraction of these rocks. An aliquot of each rock sample was leached with 1 N HNO 3 to examine the readily leachable REE fraction of each rock, and an additional aliquot was leached with a 0.04 M NH 2OH · HCl in 25% (v/v) CH 3COOH solution, designed specifically to reduce Fe-Mn oxides/oxyhydroxides. Rare earth elements associated with the leachates that reacted with clastic sedimentary rock samples containing petrographically identifiable Fe-Mn oxide/oxyhydroxide cements and/or minerals/amorphous phases, exhibited whole-rock-normalized REE patterns similar to the lake waters, whereas whole-rock-normalized leachates from mafic igneous rocks and other clastic sedimentary rocks from the catchment basin differed substantially from the lake waters. The whole-rock, leachates, and lake water REE data support acid leaching or dissolution of MREE enriched Fe-Mn oxides/oxyhydroxides contained and identified within some of the catchment basin sedimentary rocks as the likely source of the unique lake water REE patterns. Solution complexation modelling of the REEs in the inflow streams and lake waters indicate that free metal ions (e.g., Ln 3+, where Ln = any REE) and sulfate complexes (LnSO 4+) are the dominant forms of dissolved REEs. Consequently, solution complexation reactions involving the REEs during weathering, transport to the lake, or within the lake, cannot be invoked to explain the MREE enrichments observed in the lake waters.

  4. Rare earth elements in human and animal health: State of art and research priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, Giovanni, E-mail: gbpagano@tin.it; Aliberti, Francesco; Guida, Marco

    Background: A number of applications have been developed using rare earth elements (REE), implying several human exposures and raising unsolved questions as to REE-associated health effects. Methods: A MedLine survey was retrieved from early reports (1980s) up to June 2015, focused on human and animal exposures to REE. Literature from animal models was selected focusing on REE-associated health effects. Results: Some REE occupational exposures, in jobs such as glass polishers, photoengravers and movie projectionists showed a few case reports on health effects affecting the respiratory system. No case-control or cohort studies of occupational REE exposures were retrieved. Environmental exposures havemore » been biomonitored in populations residing in REE mining areas, showing REE accumulation. The case for a iatrogenic REE exposure was raised by the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance. Animal toxicity studies have shown REE toxicity, affecting a number of endpoints in liver, lungs and blood. On the other hand, the use of REE as feed additives in livestock is referred as a safe and promising device in zootechnical activities, possibly suggesting a hormetic effect both known for REE and for other xenobiotics. Thus, investigations on long-term exposures and observations are warranted. Conclusion: The state of art provides a limited definition of the health effects in occupationally or environmentally REE-exposed human populations. Research priorities should be addressed to case-control or cohort studies of REE-exposed humans and to life-long animal experiments. - Highlights: • An extensive number of activities have been developed utilizing rare earth elements (REE). • The literature of REE-associated health effects in humans, and on animal studies is reviewed. • The main literature gaps are discussed, in epidemiological and in animal studies. • Prospects studies are suggested, aimed at evaluating long-term effects of REE

  5. Rare earth elements in German soils - A review.

    PubMed

    Mihajlovic, Julia; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2018-08-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are increasingly used in high-tech industry, agriculture, and healthcare technologies what leads to their release into soils and waters, and to the transfer into plants what may have negative impacts on human health and the environment. The toxicity and potential mobilization of REEs in soils can be assessed by their content and geochemical behavior along with soil properties. However, those interactions are so far not reviewed in German soils although such a review is important for a better understanding and prediction of the potential mobilization and toxicity. Therefore, this review summarizes the recent knowledge about REE contents and potential mobilization in different soil profiles in Germany. We found that the REE content tends to decrease in dependence on the parent material in the following order: Carbonatite > basalt > orthogneiss > clay slate > loess > sandstone > Pleistocene and Holocene sediments > organic material. Also, we used data of earlier studies, summarized and newly evaluated those data aiming to quantify the factors influencing the total REE content in German soil profiles. The contents of REEs in soil profiles of different parent material showed significant relations with content of clay, carbonate, organic matter, aluminium, iron, and manganese. Geochemical fractionation results suggest that the bioavailability of REEs is relatively low while the residual fraction is relatively high in German soils. In soils, where water fluctuations are important, the redox potential is a key factor controlling the mobilization of REEs also via related changes of pH. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rare earth elements in human and animal health: State of art and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Giovanni; Aliberti, Francesco; Guida, Marco; Oral, Rahime; Siciliano, Antonietta; Trifuoggi, Marco; Tommasi, Franca

    2015-10-01

    A number of applications have been developed using rare earth elements (REE), implying several human exposures and raising unsolved questions as to REE-associated health effects. A MedLine survey was retrieved from early reports (1980s) up to June 2015, focused on human and animal exposures to REE. Literature from animal models was selected focusing on REE-associated health effects. Some REE occupational exposures, in jobs such as glass polishers, photoengravers and movie projectionists showed a few case reports on health effects affecting the respiratory system. No case-control or cohort studies of occupational REE exposures were retrieved. Environmental exposures have been biomonitored in populations residing in REE mining areas, showing REE accumulation. The case for a iatrogenic REE exposure was raised by the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance. Animal toxicity studies have shown REE toxicity, affecting a number of endpoints in liver, lungs and blood. On the other hand, the use of REE as feed additives in livestock is referred as a safe and promising device in zootechnical activities, possibly suggesting a hormetic effect both known for REE and for other xenobiotics. Thus, investigations on long-term exposures and observations are warranted. The state of art provides a limited definition of the health effects in occupationally or environmentally REE-exposed human populations. Research priorities should be addressed to case-control or cohort studies of REE-exposed humans and to life-long animal experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Trends in the Rare Earth Element Content of U.S.-Based Coal Combustion Fly Ashes.

    PubMed

    Taggart, Ross K; Hower, James C; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2016-06-07

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical and strategic materials in the defense, energy, electronics, and automotive industries. The reclamation of REEs from coal combustion fly ash has been proposed as a way to supplement REE mining. However, the typical REE contents in coal fly ash, particularly in the United States, have not been comprehensively documented or compared among the major types of coal feedstocks that determine fly ash composition. The objective of this study was to characterize a broad selection of U.S. fly ashes of varied geological origin in order to rank their potential for REE recovery. The total and nitric acid-extractable REE content for more than 100 ash samples were correlated with characteristics such as the major element content and coal basin to elucidate trends in REE enrichment. Average total REE content (defined as the sum of the lanthanides, yttrium, and scandium) for ashes derived from Appalachian sources was 591 mg kg(-1) and significantly greater than in ashes from Illinois and Powder River basin coals (403 and 337 mg kg(-1), respectively). The fraction of critical REEs (Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Y, and Er) in the fly ashes was 34-38% of the total and considerably higher than in conventional ores (typically less than 15%). Powder River Basin ashes had the highest extractable REE content, with 70% of the total REE recovered by heated nitric acid digestion. This is likely due to the higher calcium content of Powder River Basin ashes, which enhances their solubility in nitric acid. Sc, Nd, and Dy were the major contributors to the total REE value in fly ash, based on their contents and recent market prices. Overall, this study shows that coal fly ash production could provide a substantial domestic supply of REEs, but the feasibility of recovery depends on the development of extraction technologies that could be tailored to the major mineral content and origins of the feed coal for the ash.

  8. A first report of rare earth elements in northwestern Mediterranean seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, Stefania; Brizio, Paola; Battuello, Marco; Nurra, Nicola; Sartor, Rocco Mussat; Benedetto, Alessandro; Pessani, Daniela; Abete, Maria Cesarina

    2017-09-15

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) were determined by ICP-MS in dominant seaweed species, collected from three locations of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. This is the first study to define levels and patterns of REE in macro algae from these coastal areas. Rare elements are becoming emerging inorganic contaminants in marine ecosystems, due to their worldwide increasing applications in industry, technology, medicine and agriculture. Significant inter-site and interspecies differences were registered, with higher levels of REE in brown and green macro algae than in red seaweeds. Levels of light REE were also observed to be greater compared to heavy REE in all samples. One of the investigated locations (Bergeggi, SV) had higher REE and ΣREE concentrations, probably due to its proximity to an important commercial and touristic harbor, while the other two sites were less affected by anthropogenic contaminations, and showed comparable REE patterns and lower concentrations. Rare earth elements in seaweeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution characteristics of rare earth elements in children's scalp hair from a rare earths mining area in southern China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shi-Lu; Zhu, Wang-Zhao; Gao, Zhao-Hua; Meng, Yu-Xiu; Peng, Rui-Ling; Lu, Guo-Cheng

    2004-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the validity of using scalp hair rare earth elements (REEs) content as a biomarker of human REEs exposure, data were collected on REEs exposure levels from children aged 11-15 years old and living in an ion-adsorptive type light REEs (LREEs) mining and surrounding areas in southern China. Sixty scalp hair samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for 16 REEs (La Lu, Y and Sc). Sixteen REEs contents in the samples from the mining area (e.g., range: La: 0.14-6.93 microg/g; Nd: 0.09-5.27 microg/g; Gd: 12.2-645.6ng/g; Lu: 0.2-13.3 ng/g; Y: 0.03-1.27 microg/g; Sc: 0.05-0.30 microg/g) were significantly higher than those from the reference area (range: La: 0.04-0.40 microg/g; Nd: 0.04-0.32 microg/g; Gd: 8.3-64.6 ng/g; Lu: 0.4-3.3ng/g; Y: 0.03-0.29 microg/g; Sc: 0.11-0.36 microg/g) and even much higher than those published in the literature. The distribution pattern of REEs in scalp hair from the mining area was very similar to that of REEs in the mine and the atmosphere shrouding that area. In conclusion, the scalp hair REEs contents may indicate not only quantitatively but also qualitatively (distribution pattern) the absorption of REEs from environmental exposure into human body. The children living in this mining area should be regarded as a high-risk group with REEs (especially LREEs) exposure, and their health status should be examined from a REEs health risk assessment perspective.

  10. The behavior of rare earth elements in naturally and anthropogenically acidified waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Scott A.; Gammons, Christopher H.; Parker, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the behavior of rare earth elements (REE) in a watershed impacted by acid-mine drainage (Fisher Creek, Montana) is compared to that in a volcanically acidified watershed (Rio Agrio and Lake Caviahue, Argentina). The REE behave conservatively in acidic waters with pH values less than approximately 5.5. However, above pH 5.5, REE concentrations are controlled by adsorption onto or co-precipitation with a variety of Fe or Al oxyhydroxides. The heavy REE partition to a greater extent into the solid phase than the light REE as pH rises above 6. Concentrations of REE exhibit diel (24-h) cycling in waters that were initially acidic, but have become neutralized downstream. In Fisher Creek, at the most downstream sampling station investigated (pH 6.8), concentrations of dissolved REE were 190–840% higher in the early morning versus the late afternoon. This cycling can be related to temperature-dependent, cyclic adsorption–desorption of REE onto hydrous ferric or aluminum oxide or both. Similar but gentler diel cycling of the REE was found at Rio Agrio. The existence of such cycling has important ramifications for the study of REE in natural waters.

  11. Bioadsorption of Rare Earth Elements through Cell Surface Display of Lanthanide Binding Tags.

    PubMed

    Park, Dan M; Reed, David W; Yung, Mimi C; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M; Anderko, Andrzej; Fujita, Yoshiko; Riman, Richard E; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-03-01

    With the increasing demand for rare earth elements (REEs) in many emerging clean energy technologies, there is an urgent need for the development of new approaches for efficient REE extraction and recovery. As a step toward this goal, we genetically engineered the aerobic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus for REE adsorption through high-density cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags (LBTs) on its S-layer. The LBT-displayed strains exhibited enhanced adsorption of REEs compared to cells lacking LBT, high specificity for REEs, and an adsorption preference for REEs with small atomic radii. Adsorbed Tb(3+) could be effectively recovered using citrate, consistent with thermodynamic speciation calculations that predicted strong complexation of Tb(3+) by citrate. No reduction in Tb(3+) adsorption capacity was observed following citrate elution, enabling consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. The LBT-displayed strain was effective for extracting REEs from the acid leachate of core samples collected at a prospective rare earth mine. Our collective results demonstrate a rapid, efficient, and reversible process for REE adsorption with potential industrial application for REE enrichment and separation.

  12. Bioadsorption of rare earth elements through cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Dan M.; Reed, David W.; Yung, Mimi C.; ...

    2016-02-02

    In this study, with the increasing demand for rare earth elements (REEs) in many emerging clean energy technologies, there is an urgent need for the development of new approaches for efficient REE extraction and recovery. As a step toward this goal, we genetically engineered the aerobic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus for REE adsorption through high-density cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags (LBTs) on its S-layer. The LBT-displayed strains exhibited enhanced adsorption of REEs compared to cells lacking LBT, high specificity for REEs, and an adsorption preference for REEs with small atomic radii. Adsorbed Tb 3+ could be effectively recovered usingmore » citrate, consistent with thermodynamic speciation calculations that predicted strong complexation of Tb 3+ by citrate. No reduction in Tb 3+ adsorption capacity was observed following citrate elution, enabling consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. The LBT-displayed strain was effective for extracting REEs from the acid leachate of core samples collected at a prospective rare earth mine. Our collective results demonstrate a rapid, efficient, and reversible process for REE adsorption with potential industrial application for REE enrichment and separation.« less

  13. Rare earth elements in weathering profiles and sediments of Minnesota: Implications for provenance studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morey, G.B.; Setterholm, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The relative abundance of rare earth elements in sediments has been suggested as a tool for determining their source rocks. This correlation requires that weathering, erosion, and sedimentation do not alter the REE abundances, or do so in a predictable manner. We find that the rare earth elements are mobilized and fractionated by weathering, and that sediments derived from the weathered materials can display modifications of the original pattern of rare earth elements of some due to grain-size sorting of the weathered material. However, the REE distribution pattern of the provenance terrane can be recognized in the sediments.

  14. Mobility of rare earth element in hydrothermal process and weathering product: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintjewas, L.; Setiawan, I.

    2018-02-01

    The Rare Earth Element (REE), consists of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Lu, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, are important elements to be used as raw materials of advanced technology such as semiconductors, magnets, and lasers. The research of REE in Indonesia has not been done. Several researches were conducted on granitic rocks and weathering product such as Bangka, Sibolga, West Kalimantan, West Sulawesi and Papua. REE can be formed by hydrothermal processes such as Bayan Obo, South China. The REE study on active hydrothermal system (geothermal) in this case also has the potential to produce mineral deposits. The purpose of this review paper is to know the mobility of REE on hydrothermal process and weathering products. Mobility of REE in the hydrothermal process can change the distribution patterns and REE content such as Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, and Y. Another process besides the hydrothermal is weathering process. REE mobility is influenced by weathering products, where the REE will experience residual and secondary enrichment processes in heavier minerals.

  15. Trace Element Inputs to the Upper West Pacific from Nd Isotopes and Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, M. K.; Pahnke, K.; Schnetger, B.; Brumsack, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Neodymium isotopes (143Nd/144Nd, expressed as ɛNd) and rare earth element (REE) concentrations in the ocean trace water mass transport and margin-seawater exchange processes. The distinct ɛNd and REE signatures of the lithogenic components of margin sediments of the West Pacific allow characterization of trace element inputs to the Pacific Ocean. We present dissolved ɛNdand REE concentrations from twelve vertical profiles of a transect from South Korea to Fiji. Near South Korea, surface waters are marked by unradiogenic ɛNd (as low as -7.3), high REE concentrations (e.g., Nd = 15.3 pmol/kg) and low salinity. Towards the open ocean, these parameters gradually change towards typical Pacific open ocean values (ɛNd = -3.3, [Nd] = 5.55 pmol/kg). Subsurface waters show REE depletions, followed by the typical REE increase with increasing water depth. These distributions indicate trace element input near South Korea and enhanced subsurface scavenging, as indicated by strong heavy REE to light REE fractionation. In the tropical West Pacific (10°N-15°S), high surface and subsurface water ɛNd values (+0.7) and positive Eu anomalies trace the influence of volcanic islands. Yet, absolute REE concentrations are extremely low at these depths (e.g., Nd = 2.77 pmol/kg). Using shale-normalized Nd/Er and Ho/Dy ratios, that show a much stronger surface to subsurface decrease in coastal waters compared to the open ocean, we suggest enhanced scavenging in this area. Eastward flowing intermediate waters (NPIW, AAIW) have ɛNd values up to +1.9 (NPIW) and +3.7 (AAIW) higher than those entering the tropical West Pacific from north and south, respectively. Modified ɛNd at intermediate depths and no change in REE patterns suggest that boundary exchange along volcanic island margins modifies the seawater ɛNd without changing the REE budget.

  16. RARE EARTH ELEMENT IMPACTS ON BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Y.; Barnes, J.; Fox, S.

    Increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) is expected to lead to new development and expansion in industries processing and or recycling REE. For some industrial operators, sending aqueous waste streams to a municipal wastewater treatment plant, or publicly owned treatment works (POTW), may be a cost effective disposal option. However, wastewaters that adversely affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment at the POTW will not be accepted. The objective of our research is to assess the effects of wastewaters that might be generated by new rare earth element (REE) beneficiation or recycling processes on biological wastewater treatment systems. Wemore » have been investigating the impact of yttrium and europium on the biological activity of activated sludge collected from an operating municipal wastewater treatment plant. We have also examined the effect of an organic complexant that is commonly used in REE extraction and separations; similar compounds may be a component of newly developed REE recycling processes. Our preliminary results indicate that in the presence of Eu, respiration rates for the activated sludge decrease relative to the no-Eu controls, at Eu concentrations ranging from <10 to 660 µM. Yttrium appears to inhibit respiration as well, although negative impacts have been observed only at the highest Y amendment level tested (660 µM). The organic complexant appears to have a negative impact on activated sludge activity as well, although results are variable. Ultimately the intent of this research is to help REE industries to develop environmentally friendly and economically sustainable beneficiation and recycling processes.« less

  17. RARE EARTH ELEMENTS IN FLY ASHES AS POTENTIAL INDICATORS OF ANTHROPOGENIC SOIL CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.

    2003-08-01

    Studies of rare earth element (REE) content of disposed fly ashes and their potential mobility were neglected for decades because these elements were believed to be environmentally benign. A number of recent studies have now shown that REE may pose a long-term risk to the biosphere. Therefore, there is a critical need to study the REE concentrations in fly ash and their potential mobilization and dispersal upon disposal in the environment. We analyzed the REE content of bulk, size fractionated, and density separated fractions of three fly ash samples derived from combustion of sub bituminous coals from the western Unitedmore » States and found that the concentrations of these elements in bulk ashes were within the range typical of fly ashes derived from coals from the North American continent. The concentrations of light rare earth elements (LREE) such as La, Ce, and Nd, however, tended towards the higher end of the concentration range whereas, the concentrations of middle rare earth elements (MREE) (Sm and Eu) and heavy rare earth elements (HREE) (Lu) were closer to the lower end of the observed range for North American fly ashes. The concentrations of REE did not show any significant enrichment with decreasing particle size, this is typical of nonvolatile lithophilic element behavior during the combustion process. The lithophilic nature of REE was also confirmed by their concentrations in heavy density fractions of these fly ashes being on average about two times more enriched than the concentrations in the light density fractions. Shale normalized average of REE concentrations of fly ashes and coals revealed significant positive anomalies for Eu and Dy. Because of these distinctive positive anomalies of Eu and Dy, we believe that fly ash contamination of soils can be fingerprinted and distinguished from other sources of anthropogenic REE inputs in to the environment.« less

  18. Characterization of metal binding sites onto biochar using rare earth elements as a fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Pourret, Olivier; Houben, David

    2018-02-01

    The ability of biochar to immobilize metals relies on the amount of functional groups at its surface but the contribution of each functional groups (e.g. carboxylic, phenolic) to metal bonding is poorly known. Using a new approach based on previous works on rare earth element (REE) interactions with humic substances, we aim at elucidating the relative contribution of these binding sites to metal sorption under various conditions (i.e. pH and ionic strengths, IS). Using batch experiments, REE sorption onto biochar was analyzed from pH 3 to 9 and IS 10 -1 mol/L to 10 -3 mol/L. Rare earth element patterns show a Middle REE (MREE) downward concavity at acidic pH and low ionic strength. These patterns are in good agreement with existing datasets quantifying REE binding with humic substances. Indeed, the MREE downward concavity displayed by REE-biochar complexation pattern compares well with REE patterns with various organic compounds. This similarity in the REE complexation pattern shapes suggests that carboxylic groups are the main binding sites of REE in biochar. Overall, our results indicate that the strength of the metal bonding with biochar increases when pH and IS increase, suggesting that biochar is more efficient for long-term metal immobilization at near neutral pH and high ionic strength.

  19. Effect of low doses of dietary rare earth elements on growth performance of broilers.

    PubMed

    He, M L; Wehr, U; Rambeck, W A

    2010-02-01

    The present study was designed to investigate effect of dietary rare earth elements (REE), including both organic and inorganic compounds, on growth performance of broilers. In experiment 1, a total of 180 male Ross broiler chicks were allocated to 72 pens with different assignment: four chicks per pen or individually. The following three treatment diets were applied: control, REE-chlorides at a dose of 40 mg/kg and REE-citrate at a dose of 70 mg/kg. Each treatment group had 24 pens containing both assignments (12 pens each). In experiment 2, a total of 72 male 3-day-old Ross broiler chicks were separated to four groups: control, REE-chlorides at a dose of 70 mg/kg and REE-citrate at doses of 70 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. In experiment 1, dietary REE-citrate improved body weight gain during the overall period by 5.0% (p < 0.05) while the increase with REE-chloride was not significant. In experiment 2, growth effects (p < 0.05) were only found in the period from day 21 to slaughter with all REE forms, and feed conversion ratio was improved by 3.4% (p < 0.05) with REE-citrate. No significant effects of REE were found on chill weight, percentages of breast meat, thigh weight, drumstick weight and wing weight. Concentrations of La and Ce in the liver and muscles were very low, accounting for 0.11-0.76 and 0.02-0.30 mg/kg respectively. There was weak tendency for a dose-response relationship especially in the groups supplemented with REE-chlorides. The main blood serum biochemical parameters were not significantly affected by REE in the diets. The results suggest that dietary supplementation of low doses of REE-citrates might improve growth performance of broilers without affecting carcass composition and health of the broilers.

  20. Sources of Extraterrestrial Rare Earth Elements:To the Moon and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, C. L.; Krekeler, M. P. S.

    2017-08-01

    The resource budget of Earth is limited. Rare-earth elements (REEs) are used across the world by society on a daily basis yet several of these elements have <2500 years of reserves left, based on current demand, mining operations, and technologies. With an increasing population, exploration of potential extraterrestrial REE resources is inevitable, with the Earth's Moon being a logical first target. Following lunar differentiation at 4.50-4.45 Ga, a late-stage (after 99% solidification) residual liquid enriched in Potassium (K), Rare-earth elements (REE), and Phosphorus (P), (or "KREEP") formed. Today, the KREEP-rich region underlies the Oceanus Procellarum and Imbrium Basin region on the lunar near-side (the Procellarum KREEP Terrain, PKT) and has been tentatively estimated at preserving 2.2 × 10^8 km^3 of KREEP-rich lithologies. The majority of lunar samples (Apollo, Luna, or meteoritic samples) contain REE-bearing minerals as trace phases, e.g., apatite and/or merrillite, with merrillite potentially contributing up to 3% of the PKT. Other lunar REE-bearing lunar phases include monazite, yittrobetafite (up to 94,500 ppm yttrium), and tranquillityite (up to 4.6 wt % yttrium, up to 0.25 wt % neodymium), however, lunar sample REE abundances are low compared to terrestrial ores. At present, there is no geological, mineralogical, or chemical evidence to support REEs being present on the Moon in concentrations that would permit their classification as ores. However, the PKT region has not yet been mapped at high resolution, and certainly has the potential to yield higher REE concentrations at local scales (<10s of kms). Future lunar exploration and mapping efforts may therefore reveal new REE deposits. Beyond the Moon, Mars and other extraterrestrial materials are host to REEs in apatite, chevkinite-perrierite, merrillite, whitlockite, and xenotime. These phases are relatively minor components of the meteorites studied to date, constituting <0.6% of the total sample

  1. Leaching of rare earth elements from fluorescent powder using the tea fungus Kombucha.

    PubMed

    Hopfe, Stefanie; Flemming, Katrin; Lehmann, Falk; Möckel, Robert; Kutschke, Sabine; Pollmann, Katrin

    2017-04-01

    In most modern technologies such as flat screens, highly effective magnets and lasers, as well as luminescence phosphors, Rare Earth Elements (REE) are used. Unfortunately no environmentally friendly recycling process exists so far. In comparison to other elements the interaction of microorganisms with REE has been studied to a less extent. However, as REE are ubiquitously present in nature it can be assumed that microorganisms play an important role in the biogeochemistry of REE. This study investigates the potential of organic acid-producing microbes for extracting REE from industrial waste. In Germany, 175 tons of fluorescent phosphor (FP) are collected per year as a distinct fraction from the recycling of compact fluorescent lamps. Because the FP contains about 10% of REE-oxides bound in the so-called triband dyes it is a readily accessible secondary resource of REE. Using the symbiotic mixed culture Kombucha, consisting of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria, REE were leached at a significant rate. The highest leaching-rates were observed in shake cultures using the entire Kombucha-consortium or its supernatant as leaching agent compared to experiments using the isolates Zygosaccharomyces lentus and Komagataeibacter hansenii as leaching organisms. During the cultivation, the pH decreased as a result of organic acid production (mainly acetic and gluconic acid). Thus, the underlying mechanism of the triband dye solubilisation is probably linked to the carboxyl-functionality or a proton excess. In accordance with the higher solubility of REE-oxides compared to REE-phosphates and -aluminates, the red dye Y 2 O 3 :Eu 2+ containing relatively expensive REE was shown to be preferentially solubilized. These results show that it is possible to dissolve the REE-compounds of FP with the help of microbial processes. Moreover, they provide the basis for the development of an eco-friendly alternative to the currently applied methods that use strong inorganic acids or toxic

  2. Extraction of rare earth elements from low-grade Bauxite via precipitation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusrini, E.; Nurani, Y.; Bahari, ZJ

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the optimum hydrometallurgical parameters to extract the rare earth elements (REE) from low-grade bauxite through acid leaching and precipitation reaction. REE or lanthanide recovery by a precipitation method with sodium sulphate and sodium phosphate as precipitation agents is reported where the effect of pH and recovery of REE are described. The metal composition of REE in low-grade bauxite after treatment were analyzed by ICP-OES. The total recovery values of REE elements at the first precipitation reaction using sodium sulphate as the precipitation agent at pH 3.5 showed ~68.2% of lanthanum, ~18.9% cerium, and ~7.8% yttrium. Lanthanum was the rare-earth element present at the highest concentration in the low-grade bauxite after the series treatments. An optimum pH of 3.5 for precipitation of rare-earth elements using sodium sulphate was demonstrated where this method is recommended for the extraction of REE elements from low-grade bauxite.

  3. Ligand extraction of rare earth elements from aquifer sediments: Implications for rare earth element complexation with organic matter in natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianwu; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2010-12-01

    The ability of organic matter as well as carbonate ions to extract rare earth elements (REEs) from sandy sediments of a Coastal Plain aquifer was investigated for unpurified organic matter from different sources (i.e., Mississippi River natural organic matter, Aldrich humic acid, Nordic aquatic fulvic acid, Suwannee River fulvic acid, and Suwannee River natural organic matter) and for extraction solutions containing weak (i.e., CH 3COO -) or strong (i.e., CO32-) ligands. The experimental results indicate that, in the absence of strong REE complexing ligands in solution, the amount of REEs released from the sand is small and the fractionation pattern of the released REEs appears to be controlled by the surface stability constants for REE sorption with Fe(III) oxides/oxyhydroxides. In the presence of strong solution complexing ligands, however, the amount and the fractionation pattern of the released REEs reflect the strength and variation of the stability constants of the dominant aqueous REE species across the REE series. The varying amount of REEs extracted by the different organic matter employed in the experiments indicates that organic matter from different sources has different complexing capacity for REEs. However, the fractionation pattern of REEs extracted by the various organic matter used in our experiments is remarkable consistent, being independent of the source and the concentration of organic matter used, as well as solution pH. Because natural aquifer sand and unpurified organic matter were used in our experiments, our experimental conditions are more broadly similar to natural systems than many previous laboratory experiments of REE-humic complexation that employed purified humic substances. Our results suggest that the REE loading effect on REE-humic complexation is negligible in natural waters as more abundant metal cations (e.g., Fe, Al) out-compete REEs for strong binding sites on organic matter. More specifically, our results indicate that REE

  4. Rare earth elements exploitation, geopolitical implications and raw materials trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemin, Marie-Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) correspond to seventeen elements of the periodic table. They are used in high technology, cracking, electric cars' magnet, metal alloy for batteries, and also in phone construction or ceramics for electronic card. REEs are an important resource for high technology. This project targets 16 years old students in the subject "personalized aid" and will last six weeks. The purpose of this project is to develop autonomy and research in groups for a transdisciplinary work. This project gathers knowledge in geology, geography and economics. During the first session students analyze the geology applications of the REE. They begin the analysis with learning the composition in different rocks such as basalt and diorite to make the link with crystallization. Then they compare it with adakite to understand the formation of these rocks. In the second session, they study REE exploitation. We can find them as oxides in many deposits. The principal concentrations of rare earth elements are associated with uncommon varieties of igneous rocks, such as carbonatites. They can use Qgis, to localize this high concentration. In the third session, they study the environmental costs of REE exploitation. Indeed, the exploitation produces thorium and carcinogenic toxins: sulphates, ammonia and hydrochloric acid. Processing one ton of rare earths produces 2,000 tons of toxic waste. This session focuses, first, on Baotou's region, and then on an example they are free to choose. In the fourth session, they study the geopolitical issues of REE with a focus on China. In fact this country is the largest producer of REE, and is providing 95% of the overall production. REE in China are at the center of a geopolitical strategy. In fact, China implements a sort of protectionism. Indeed, the export tax on REE is very high so, as a foreign company, it is financially attractive to establish a manufacturing subsidiary in China in order to use REE. As a matter of fact

  5. Comparative toxicities of selected rare earth elements: Sea urchin embryogenesis and fertilization damage with redox and cytogenetic effects.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Giovanni; Guida, Marco; Siciliano, Antonietta; Oral, Rahime; Koçbaş, Fatma; Palumbo, Anna; Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; Thomas, Philippe J; Trifuoggi, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Broad-ranging adverse effects are known for rare earth elements (REE), yet only a few studies tested the toxicity of several REE, prompting studies focusing on multi-parameter REE toxicity. Trichloride salts of Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd were tested in Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos and sperm for: (1) developmental defects in either REE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of REE-exposed sperm; (2) fertilization success; (3) mitotic anomalies in REE-exposed embryos and in the offspring of REE-exposed sperm, and (4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels. REEs affected P. lividus larvae with concentration-related increase in developmental defects, 10(-6) to 10(-4)M, ranking as: Gd(III)>Y(III)>La(III)>Nd(III)≅Eu(III)>Ce(III)≅Sm(III). Nominal concentrations of REE salts were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant increases in MDA levels, ROS formation, and NO levels were found in REE-exposed embryos. Sperm exposure to REEs (10(-5) to 10(-4)M) resulted in concentration-related decrease in fertilization success along with increase in offspring damage. Decreased mitotic activity and increased aberration rates were detected in REE-exposed embryos and in the offspring of REE-exposed sperm. REE-associated toxicity affecting embryogenesis, fertilization, cytogenetic and redox endpoints showed different activities of tested REEs. Damage to early life stages, along with redox and cytogenetic anomalies should be the focus of future REE toxicity studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rare earth and trace elements of fossil vertebrate bioapatite as palaeoenvironmental and sedimentological proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žigaitė, Živilė; Fadel, Alexandre; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Jeffries, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth (REE) and trace element compositions of fossil vertebrate dental microremains have been studied in Silurian and Devonian vertebrate dental scales and spines in-situ, using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Samples were selected from the well-known Silurian bone beds of Vesiku and Ohesaare in Saaremaa island of Estonia, and a number of Lower Devonian localities from Spitsbergen (Svalbard), Andrée Land group. Biomineral preservation was assessed using spot semi-quantitative elemental chemistry (SEM-EDS) and electron back-scatter difractometry (EBSD) for cristallinity imaging. The obtained PAAS shale-normalised REE concentrations were evaluated using basic geochemical calculations and quantifications. The REE patterns from the Lower Devonian vertebrate apatite from Andrée Land, Spitsbergen (Wood Bay and Grey Hœk formations) did not show any recognisable taxon-specific behavior, but had rather well expressed differences of REE compositions related to biomineral structure and sedimentary settings, suggesting REE instead to reflect burial environments and sedimentological history. The Eu anomaly recorded in two of the studied localities but not in the other indicate different taphonomic conditions and palaeoenvironment, while La/Sm, La/Yb ratios sugeest considerable influence of terrestrial freshwater during the early diagenesis. The La/Yb and La/Sm plots also agree with the average REE concentrations, reflecting domination of the adsoption over substitution as principal REE uptake mechanism in the fossils which had significantly lower overall REE concentrations, and vice versa. Vesiku (Homerian, Wenlock) microremains yielded very uniform REE patterns with slightly lower overall REE concentrations in enameloid than in dentine, with strong enrichment in middle REE and depletion in heavy REE. Negative Europium (Eu) anomaly was pronounced in all the profiles, but Cerium (Ce) anomalies were not detected suggesting possible

  7. RARE EARTH ELEMENTS: A REVIEW OF PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, RECYCLING, AND ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the lanthanides. Two other elements, scandium and yttrium, have a similar physiochemistry to the lanthanides, are commonly found in the same mineral assemblages, and are often refe...

  8. Rare earth element distribution in some hydrothermal minerals: evidence for crystallographic control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.W.; Wandless, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) abundances were measured by neutron activation analysis in anhydrite (CaSO4), barite (BaSO4), siderite (FeCO3) and galena (PbS). A simple crystal-chemical model qualitatively describes the relative affinities for REE substitution in anhydrite, barite, and siderite. When normalized to 'crustal' abundances (as an approximation to the hydrothermal fluid REE pattern), log REE abundance is a surprisingly linear function of (ionic radius of major cation-ionic radius of REE)2 for the three hydrothermal minerals, individually and collectively. An important exception, however, is Eu, which is anomalously enriched in barite and depleted in siderite relative to REE of neighboring atomic number and trivalent ionic radius. In principle, REE analyses of suitable pairs of co-existing hydrothermal minerals, combined with appropriate experimental data, could yield both the REE content and the temperature of the parental hydrothermal fluid. The REE have only very weak chalcophilic tendencies, and this is reflected by the very low abundances in galena-La, 0.6 ppb; Sm, 0.06 ppb; the remainder are below detection limits. ?? 1980.

  9. Distribution and source of rare earth elements in PM2.5 in Xiamen, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Yu, Ruilian; Hu, Gongren; Hu, Qichao; Zheng, Quan

    2017-12-01

    Particulate matter with diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) is a serious atmospheric pollutant. Composition and source analyses are essential for controlling PM 2.5 . Rare earth elements (REEs) have received little attention as a component of PM 2.5 . In the present study, PM 2.5 samples were collected in urban and suburban areas in Xiamen and analyzed for REEs. The concentration range of total REEs (∑REE) is 12.07 to 98.45 mg/kg, with a mean of 38.53 mg/kg, in urban PM 2.5 and 16.44 to 160.62 mg/kg, with a mean of 42.94 mg/kg, in suburban PM 2.5 . Light REE concentrations are higher in suburban PM 2.5 , whereas heavy REE concentrations are higher in urban PM 2.5 , implying distinct sources of REEs in urban and suburban PM 2.5 . The scatter plots of δEu-∑REE and La-Ce-Sm suggest that REEs in urban PM 2.5 originate from gasoline- and diesel-vehicle exhaust, whereas those in suburban PM 2.5 are mainly influenced by gasoline-vehicle exhaust. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3217-3222. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  10. Correlation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with rare earth elements and the Epstein-Barr virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Zeng, Xiangfu; Liu, Lianbin; Lan, Xiaolin; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Hongxue; Li, Rong; Luo, Keqing; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Maohua; Li, Shaojin

    2018-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were measured to investigate connections with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, clinical stages, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. There were 30 patients with NPC who met the criteria for inclusion in the present study. The EBV copy number, as well as the concentration and distribution of REE, was analyzed. EBV was detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, with the concentrations of REE in NPC tissues measured using inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry. The mean values were used when comparing concentrations of REE in NPC tissues as the standard deviation of this parameter was the lowest. Light REE had the highest concentrations, followed by medium, and then heavy REE. The concentrations of REE decreased with increasing tumor size and with the presence of lymph node metastasis. The concentrations of REE gradually increased between stage II and IVa, but markedly decreased thereafter. The elements that exhibited the greatest decreases were terbium, holmium and ytterbium. Furthermore, the concentrations of REE in NPC were not associated with sex (r=0.301, P=0.106) or age (r=−0.011, P=0.955), and were negatively associated with EBV (r=−0.744, P<0.001). By contrast, the EBV copy number increased alongside advancements in clinical stage. Changes in the concentrations of REE in NPC were more prominent for medium and heavy elements. Additionally, alterations in the concentrations of heavy REE may affect the occurrence and development of NPC. PMID:29541176

  11. Correlation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with rare earth elements and the Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Zeng, Xiangfu; Liu, Lianbin; Lan, Xiaolin; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Hongxue; Li, Rong; Luo, Keqing; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Maohua; Li, Shaojin

    2018-04-01

    The concentration and distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were measured to investigate connections with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, clinical stages, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. There were 30 patients with NPC who met the criteria for inclusion in the present study. The EBV copy number, as well as the concentration and distribution of REE, was analyzed. EBV was detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, with the concentrations of REE in NPC tissues measured using inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry. The mean values were used when comparing concentrations of REE in NPC tissues as the standard deviation of this parameter was the lowest. Light REE had the highest concentrations, followed by medium, and then heavy REE. The concentrations of REE decreased with increasing tumor size and with the presence of lymph node metastasis. The concentrations of REE gradually increased between stage II and IVa, but markedly decreased thereafter. The elements that exhibited the greatest decreases were terbium, holmium and ytterbium. Furthermore, the concentrations of REE in NPC were not associated with sex (r=0.301, P=0.106) or age (r=-0.011, P=0.955), and were negatively associated with EBV (r=-0.744, P<0.001). By contrast, the EBV copy number increased alongside advancements in clinical stage. Changes in the concentrations of REE in NPC were more prominent for medium and heavy elements. Additionally, alterations in the concentrations of heavy REE may affect the occurrence and development of NPC.

  12. Planktonic foraminiferal rare earth elements as a potential new aeolian dust proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C.; Liu, Y.; Lo, L.; Wei, K.; Shen, C.

    2012-12-01

    Characteristics of rare earth elements (REEs) have widely been used as important tracers in many fields of earth sciences, including lithosphere research, environmental change, ocean circulation and other natural carbonate materials. Foraminiferal test REE signatures have been suggested to reflect ambient seawater conditions and serve as valuable proxies in the fields of paleoceanography and paleoclimate. Here we present a 60-kyr planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white, 250-300 μm) REE record of a sediment core MD05-2925 (9°20.61'S, 151°27.61'E, water depth 1660 m) from the Solomon Sea. The REE diagram shows two dominant sources of local seawater and nearby terrestrial input. The variability of foraminiferal REE/Ca time series is different from Mg/Ca-inferred sea surface temperature and δ18O records during the past 60-kyr. This inconsistency suggests that planktonic foraminiferal REE content cannot result only from changes in ice volume and temperature. Synchroneity between high planktonic foraminiferal REE content and Antarctic ice core dust amount record implies the same dust sources, probably from Australia or mainland China. Our results suggest that foraminiferal REE can potentially be as a new dust proxy and record dry/humid conditions at the source area.

  13. Cracking the Code of Soil Genesis. The Early Role of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharescu, D. G.; Dontsova, K.; Burghelea, C. I.; Maier, R. M.; Huxman, T. E.; Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    Soil is terrestrial life support system. Its genesis involves tight interactions between biota and mineral surfaces that mobilize structural elements into biogeochemical cycles. Of all chemical elements rare earth elements (REE) are a group of 16 non-nutrient elements of unusual geochemical similarity and present in all components of the surface environment. While much is known about the role of major nutrients in soil development we lack vital understanding of how early biotic colonization affects more conservative elements such as REE. A highly controlled experiment was set up at University of Arizona's Biosphere-2 that tested the effect of 4 biological treatments, incorporating a combination of microbe, grass, mycorrhiza and uninoculated control on REE leaching and uptake in 4 bedrock substrates: basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist. Generally the response of REE to biota presence was synergistic. Variation in total bedrock chemistry could explain major trends in pore water REE. There was a fast transition from chemistry-dominated to a biota dominated environment in the first 3-4 months of inoculation/seeding which translated into increase in REE signal over time. Relative REE abundances in water were generally reflected in plant concentrations, particularly in root, implying that below ground biomass is the main sync of REE in the ecosystem. Mycorrhiza effect on REE uptake in plant organs was significant and increased with infection rates. Presence of different biota translated into subtle differences in REE release, reveling potential biosignatures of biolota-rock colonization. The results thus bring fundamental insight into early stages non-nutrient cycle and soil genesis.

  14. Geochemical prospecting for rare earth elements using termite mound materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Yu; Ohno, Tetsuji; Hoshino, Mihoko; Shin, Ki-Cheol; Murakami, Hiroyasu; Tsunematsu, Maiko; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    The Blockspruit fluorite prospect, located in North West State of the Republic of South Africa, occurs within an actinolite rock zone that was emplaced into the Kenkelbos-type granite of Proterozoic age. There are a large number of termite mounds in the prospect. For geochemical prospecting for rare earth elements (REEs), in total, 200 samples of termite mound material were collected from actinolite rock and granite zones in the prospect. Geochemical analyses of these termite mound materials were conducted by two methods: portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Comparison of the two methods broadly indicates positive correlations of REEs (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Y), in particular Y and La having a strong correlation. As the result of modal abundance analyses, the actinolite rock at surface mainly consists of ferro-actinolite (89.89 wt%) and includes xenotime (0.26 wt%) and monazite (0.21 wt%) grains as REE minerals. Termite mound materials from actinolite rock also contain xenotime (0.27 wt%) and monazite (0.41 wt%) grains. In addition, termite mound materials from the actinolite rock zone have high hematite and Fe silicate contents compared to those from granite zone. These relationships suggest that REE minerals in termite mound materials originate form actinolite rock. Geochemical anomaly maps of Y, La, and Fe concentrations drawn based on the result of the portable XRF analyses show that high concentrations of these elements trend from SW to NE which broadly correspond to occurrences of actinolite body. These results indicate that termite mounds are an effective tool for REE geochemical prospection in the study area for both light REEs and Y, but a more detailed survey is required to establish the distribution of the actinolite rock body.

  15. Leaching behavior of rare earth elements in fort union lignite coals of North America

    DOE PAGES

    Laudal, Daniel A.; Benson, Steven A.; Addleman, Raymond Shane; ...

    2018-03-30

    Fort Union lignite coal samples were subjected to a series of aqueous leaching experiments to understand the extraction behavior of the rare earth elements (REE). This testing was aimed at understanding the modes of occurrence of the REE in the lignite coals, as well as to provide foundational data for development of rare earth extraction processes. In a first series of tests, a sequential leaching process was used to investigate modes of occurrence of the REE of select lignite coals. The tests involved sequential exposure to solvents consisting of water, ammonium acetate and dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl). The results indicatedmore » that water and ammonium acetate extracted very little of the REE, indicating the REE are not present as water soluble or ion-exchangeable forms. However, the data shows that a large percentage of the REE were extracted with the hydrochloric acid (80–95 wt%), suggesting presence in HCl-soluble mineral forms such as carbonates, and/or presence as organic complexes. A second series of tests was performed involving single-step leaching with dilute acids and various operating parameters, including acid type, acid concentration, acid/coal contact time and coal particle size. For select samples, additional tests were performed to understand the results of leaching, including float-sink density separations and humic acid extraction. The results have shown that the majority of REE in Fort Union lignites appear to be associated weakly with the organic matrix of the coals, most likely as coordination complexes of carboxylic acid groups. The light REE and heavy REE exhibit different behaviors, however. The extractable light REE appear to have association both in acid-soluble mineral forms and as organic complexes, whereas the extractable heavy REE appear to be almost solely associated with the organics. In conclusion, scandium behavior was notably different than yttrium and the lanthanides, and the data suggests the extractable content is

  16. Leaching behavior of rare earth elements in fort union lignite coals of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Laudal, Daniel A.; Benson, Steven A.; Addleman, Raymond Shane

    Fort Union lignite coal samples were subjected to a series of aqueous leaching experiments to understand the extraction behavior of the rare earth elements (REE). This testing was aimed at understanding the modes of occurrence of the REE in the lignite coals, as well as to provide foundational data for development of rare earth extraction processes. In a first series of tests, a sequential leaching process was used to investigate modes of occurrence of the REE of select lignite coals. The tests involved sequential exposure to solvents consisting of water, ammonium acetate and dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl). The results indicatedmore » that water and ammonium acetate extracted very little of the REE, indicating the REE are not present as water soluble or ion-exchangeable forms. However, the data shows that a large percentage of the REE were extracted with the hydrochloric acid (80–95 wt%), suggesting presence in HCl-soluble mineral forms such as carbonates, and/or presence as organic complexes. A second series of tests was performed involving single-step leaching with dilute acids and various operating parameters, including acid type, acid concentration, acid/coal contact time and coal particle size. For select samples, additional tests were performed to understand the results of leaching, including float-sink density separations and humic acid extraction. The results have shown that the majority of REE in Fort Union lignites appear to be associated weakly with the organic matrix of the coals, most likely as coordination complexes of carboxylic acid groups. The light REE and heavy REE exhibit different behaviors, however. The extractable light REE appear to have association both in acid-soluble mineral forms and as organic complexes, whereas the extractable heavy REE appear to be almost solely associated with the organics. In conclusion, scandium behavior was notably different than yttrium and the lanthanides, and the data suggests the extractable content is

  17. Rare earth element concentrations in geological and synthetic samples using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, J.R.; Chao, E.C.T.; Back, J.M.; Minkin, J.A.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.; Cygan, G.L.; Grossman, J.N.; Reed, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in specific mineral grains from the Bayan Obo ore deposit and synthetic high-silica glass samples have been measured by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis using excitation of the REE K lines between 33 and 63 keV. Because SXRF, a nondestructive analytical technique, has much lower minimum detection limits (MDLs) for REEs, it is an important device that extends the in situ analytical capability of electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The distribution of trace amounts of REEs in common rock-forming minerals, as well as in REE minerals and minerals having minor quantities of REEs, can be analyzed with SXRF. Synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet and a wiggler source at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, was used to excite the REEs. MDLs of 6 ppm (La) to 26 ppm (Lu) for 3600 s in 60-??m-thick standard samples were obtained with a 25-??m diameter wiggler beam. The MDLs for the light REEs were a factor of 10-20 lower than the MDLs obtained with a bending magnet beam. The SXRF REE concentrations in mineral grains greater than 25 ??m compared favorably with measurements using EPMA. Because EPMA offered REE MDLs as low as several hundred ppm, the comparison was limited to the abundant light REEs (La, Ce, Pr, Nd). For trace values of medium and heavy REEs, the SXRF concentrations were in good agreement with measurements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), a bulk analysis technique. ?? 1993.

  18. Mineralogical controls on mobility of rare earth elements in acid mine drainage environments.

    PubMed

    Soyol-Erdene, T O; Valente, T; Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L

    2018-08-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were analyzed in river waters, acid mine waters, and extracts of secondary precipitates collected in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. The obtained concentrations of the REE in river water and mine waters (acid mine drainage - AMD) were in the range of 0.57 μg/L (Lu) and 2579 μg/L (Ce), which is higher than previously reported in surface waters from the Iberian Pyrite Belt, but are comparable with previous findings from AMD worldwide. Total REE concentrations in river waters were ranged between 297 μg/L (Cobica River) and 7032 μg/L (Trimpancho River) with an average of 2468 μg/L. NASC (North American Shale Composite) normalized REE patterns for river and acid mine waters show clear convex curvatures in middle-REE (MREE) with respect to light- and heavy-REE. During the dissolution experiments of AMD-precipitates, heavy-REE and middle-REE generate the most enriched patterns in the solution. A small number of precipitates did not display MREE enrichment (an index Gd n /Lu n  < 1.0) in NASC normalized pattern and produced relatively lower REE concentrations in extracts. Additionally, very few samples, which mainly contained aluminum sulfates, e.g., pickeringite and alunogen, displayed light-REE enrichment relative to heavy-REE (HREE). In general, the highest retention of REE occurs in samples enriched in magnesium (epsomite or hexahydrite) and aluminum sulfates, mainly pickeringite. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rare earth elements in intertidal sediments of Bohai Bay, China: concentration, fractionation and the influence of sediment texture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Gao, Xuelu; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung

    2014-07-01

    Surface sediments from intertidal Bohai Bay were assessed using a four-step sequential extraction procedure to determine their concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) and the chemical forms in which those elements were present. The normalized ratios La/Gd and La/Yb showed that LREE contents were not significantly higher than the middle REEs or HREE contents. A negative Ce anomaly and positive Eu were observed in sand and silty sand sediments, whereas no significant Ce or Eu anomaly was found in clayey silt sediments. Residual fraction of REEs accounted for the majority of their total concentrations. Middle REEs were more easily leached than other REEs, especially in clayey silt sediment. REEs contents in the surface sediment from the intertidal Bohai Sea were consistent with data from the upper continental crust and China shallow sea sediments, indicating that they were generally unaffected by heavily anthropogenic effects from adjacent areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Rare Earth Element Minerals in Coal Utilization Byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Montross, Scott N.; Verba, Circe A.; Collins, Keith

    The United States currently produces over 100 million tons of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) per year in the form of fly ash, bottom ash, slag, and flue gas (American Coal Ash Association (ACCA), 2015). But this “waste material” also contains potentially useful levels of rare earth elements (REE). Rare earth elements are crucial for many existing and emerging technologies, but the U.S. lacks a domestic, sustainable REE source. Our project explored the possibility of developing a supply of REEs for U.S. technologies by extracting REEs from CUBs. This work offers the potential to reduce our dependence on other countries formore » supply of these critical elements (NETL, REE 2016 Project Portfolio). Geologic and diagenetic history, industrial preparation methods, and the specific combustion process all play major roles in the composition of CUB. During combustion, inorganic mineral phases of coal particles are fluidized at temperatures higher than 1400oC, so inorganic mineral materials are oxidized, fused, disintegrated, or agglomerated into larger spherical and amorphous (non-crystalline) particles. The original mineralogy of the coal-containing rock and heating/cooling of the material significantly affects the composition and morphology of the particles in the combustion byproduct (Kutchko and Kim, 2006). Thus, different types of coal/refuse/ash must be characterized to better understand mineral evolution during the combustion process. Our research focused on developing a working model to address how REE minerals behave during the combustion process: this research should help determine the most effective engineering methods for extracting REEs from CUBs. We used multimodal imaging and image processing techniques to characterize six rock and ash samples from different coal power plants with respect to morphology, grain size, presence of mineral phases, and elemental composition. The results of these characterization activities provided thresholds for

  1. Geochemistry of the rare earth elements in ferromanganese nodules from DOMES Site A, northern equatorial Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvert, S.E.; Piper, D.Z.; Baedecker, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in ferromanganese nodules from DOMES Site A has been determined by instrumental neutron activation methods. The concentrations of the REE vary markedly. Low concentrations characterize samples from a depression (the valley), in which Quaternary sediments are thin or absent; high concentrations are found in samples from the surrounding abyssal hills (the highlands) where the Quaternary sediment section is relatively thick. Moreover, the valley nodules are strongly depleted in the light trivalent REE (LREE) and Ce compared with nodules from the highlands, some of the former showing negative Ce anomalies. The REE abundances in the nodules are strongly influenced by the REE abundances in coexisting bottom water. Some controls on the REE chemistry of bottom waters include: a) the more effective removal of the LREE relative to the HREE from seawater because of the greater degree of complexation of the latter elements with seawater ligands, b) the very efficient oxidative scavenging of Ce on particle surfaces in seawater, and c) the strong depletion of both Ce and the LREE in, or a larger benthic flux of the HREE into, the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) which flows through the valley. The distinctive REE chemistry of valley nodules is a function of their growth from geochemically evolved AABW. In contrast, the REE chemistry of highland nodules indicates growth from a local, less evolved seawater source. ?? 1987.

  2. Rare earth element geochemistry of oceanic ferromanganese nodules and associated sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elderfield, H.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Greaves, M. J.; Calvert, S. E.

    1981-04-01

    Analyses have been made of REE contents of a well-characterized suite of deep-sea (> 4000 m.) principally todorokite-bearing ferromanganese nodules and associated sediments from the Pacific Ocean. REE in nodules and their sediments are closely related: nodules with the largest positive Ce anomalies are found on sediments with the smallest negative Ce anomalies; in contrast, nodules with the highest contents of other rare earths (3 + REE) are found on sediments with the lowest 3 + REE contents and vice versa. 143Nd /144Nd ratios in the nodules (˜0.51244) point to an original seawater source but an identical ratio for sediments in combination with the REE patterns suggests that diagenetic reactions may transfer elements into the nodules. Analysis of biogenic phases shows that the direct contribution of plankton and carbonate and siliceous skeletal materials to REE contents of nodules and sediments is negligible. Inter-element relationships and leaching tests suggest that REE contents are controlled by a P-rich phase with a REE pattern similar to that for biogenous apatite and an Fe-rich phase with a pattern the mirror image of that for sea water. It is proposed that 3 + REE concentrations are controlled by the surface chemistry of these phases during diagenetic reactions which vary with sediment accumulation rate. Processes which favour the enrichment of transition metals in equatorial Pacific nodules favour the depletion of 3 + REE in nodules and enrichment of 3 + REE in associated sediments. In contrast, Ce appears to be added both to nodules and sediments directly from seawater and is not involved in diagenetic reactions.

  3. Rare earth elements in the phosphatic-enriched sediment of the Peru shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Baedecker, P.A.; Crock, J.G.; Burnett, W.C.; Loebner, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Apatite-enriched materials from the Peru shelf have been analyzed for their major oxide and rare earth element (REE) concentrations. The samples consist of (1) the fine fraction of sediment, mostly clay material, (2) phosphatic pellets and fish debris, which are dispersed throughout the fine-grained sediment, (3) tabular-shaped phosphatic crusts, which occur within the uppermost few centimeters of sediment, and (4) phosphatic nodules, which occur on the seafloor. The bulk REE concentrations of the concretions suggest that these elements are partitioned between the enclosed detrital material and the apatite fraction. Analysis of the fine-grained sediment with which the samples are associated suggested that this detrital fraction in the concretions should have shale REE values; the analysis of the fish debris suggested that the apatite fraction might have seawater values. The seawater contribution of REE's is negligible in the nodules and crust, in which the apatite occurs as a fine-grained interstitial cement. That is, the concentration of REE's and the REE patterns are predominantly a function of the amount of enclosed fine-grained sediment. By contrast, the REE pattern of the pelletal apatite suggests a seawater source and the absolute REE concentrations are relatively high. The REE P2O5 ratios of the apatite fraction of these samples thus vary from approximately zero (in the case of the crust and nodules) to as much as approximately 1.2 ?? 10-3 (in the case of the pellets). The range of this ratio suggests that rather subtle variations in the depositional environment might cause a significant variation in the REE content of this authigenic fraction of the sediment. Pelletal glauconite was also recovered from one sediment core. Its REE concentrations closely resemble those of the fish debris. ?? 1988.

  4. A supported liquid membrane system for the selective recovery of rare earth elements from neodymium-based permanent magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence; Delmau, Lætitia H.; ...

    2016-04-04

    We present that the rare earth elements (REEs) play a vital role in the development of green energy and high-tech industries. In order to meet the fast-growing demand and to ensure sufficient supply of the REEs, it is essential to develop an efficient REE recovery process from post-consumer REE-containing products. In this research effort, we have developed a supported liquid membrane system utilizing polymeric hollow fiber modules to extract REEs from neodymium-based magnets with neutral extractants such as tetraoctyl digylcol amide (TODGA). The effect of process variables such as REE concentration, molar concentration of acid, and membrane area on REEmore » recovery was investigated. We have demonstrated the selective extraction and recovery of REEs such as Nd, Pr, and Dy without co-extraction of non-REEs from permanent NdFeB magnets through the supported liquid membrane system. The extracted REEs were then recovered by precipitation followed by the annealing step to obtain crystalline REE powders in nearly pure form. Finally, the recovered REE oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy.« less

  5. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Geological Samples Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Chet R; Jain, Jinesh C; Goueguel, Christian L; McIntyre, Dustin L; Singh, Jagdish P

    2018-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to detect rare earth elements (REEs) in natural geological samples. Low and high intensity emission lines of Ce, La, Nd, Y, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, and Dy were identified in the spectra recorded from the samples to claim the presence of these REEs. Multivariate analysis was executed by developing partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models for the quantification of Ce, La, and Nd. Analysis of unknown samples indicated that the prediction results of these samples were found comparable to those obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Data support that LIBS has potential to quantify REEs in geological minerals/ores.

  6. A survey of 16 rare Earth elements in the major foods in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ding Guo; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Yang, Da Jin

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this survey was to investigate the level of contamination of the most consumed foods in China with 16 rare earth elements (REEs), and to provide the basic data for establishing and revising food safety standards for REEs. Sixteen REEs in foods were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the labs of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of four provinces and two municipalities, during 2009-2010. 1 231 samples were analyzed and 19 121 concentration data of 16 REEs were collected. The REEs levels in the investigated foods varied significantly. The concentrations of cerium (Ce), dysprosium (Dy), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), and neodymium (Nd) were relatively high, while the remaining eleven REEs were at low levels. The mean values of total rare earth element oxides (REOs) in cereals, fresh vegetables, fresh aquatic products, fresh meats and eggs varied from 0.052 mg/kg to 0.337 mg/kg. 16 REEs in the major foods were at very low contamination levels in the investigated regions. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. U.S. trade dispute with China over rare earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. government has brought a new trade case against China over rare earth elements (REE) as well as tungsten and molybdenum, President Barack Obama announced on 13 March. Japan and the European Union also have taken similar actions against China about REEs, which are a group of 17 chemically similar metallic elements that are used in a variety of electronic, optical, magnetic, and catalytic applications. REEs are plentiful in the Earth's crust, although China currently has about 37% of the world's reserves and accounts for more than 95% of the world's production of the elements, according to the British Geological Survey. The United States has requested consultations with China at the World Trade Organization (WTO) concerning "China's unfair export restraints on rare earths, as well as tungsten and molybdenum," the Office of the United States Trade Representative announced in a 13 March statement.

  8. Distribution and Geochemistry of Rare-Earth Elements in Rivers of Southern and Eastern Primorye (Far East of Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudaev, O. V.; Bragin, I. V.; A, Kharitonova N.; Chelnokov, G. A.

    2016-03-01

    The distribution and geochemistry of rare earth elements (REE) in anthropogenic, technogenic and natural surface waters of southern and eastern Primorye, Far East of Russia, are presented in this study. The obtained results indicated that most of REE (up to 70%) were transported as suspended matter, ratio between dissolved and suspended forms varing from the source to the mouth of rivers. It is shown that all REE (except Ce) in the source of the rivers are predominantly presented in dissolved form, however, the content of light and heavy REE is different. Short-term enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREE) caused by REE-rich runoff from waste dumps and mining is neutralized by the increase in river flow rate. Rivers in urban areas are characterized by high content of LREE in dissolved form and very low in suspended one.

  9. Rare-earth elements in human colostrum milk.

    PubMed

    Poniedziałek, Barbara; Rzymski, Paweł; Pięt, Małgorzata; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Mleczek, Mirosław; Wilczak, Maciej; Rzymski, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are used in a growing number of applications, and their release to environment has increased over the decades. Knowledge of REEs in human milk and factors that could possibly influence their concentration is scarce. This study evaluated the concentrations of 16 REEs (Ce, Eu, Er, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sc, Sm, Dy, Ho, Lu, Tb, Tm, Y, and Yb) in human colostrum milk collected from Polish women (n = 100) with the ICP-OES technique. The concentrations (mean ± SD) of Pr (41.9 ± 13.2 μg L -1 ), Nd (11.0 ± 4.0 μg L -1 ), La (7.1 ± 5.2 μg L -1 ), and Er (2.2 ± 0.8 μg L -1 ) were found above detection limits. The total mean ± SD concentration of detected REEs was 60.9 ± 17.8 μg L -1 . Current smokers displayed significantly increased Nd concentrations compared to women who had never smoked. No other associations between REEs in colostrum milk and age, diet in pregnancy (food supplement use and frequency of fish, meat, and vegetable consumption) or place of living (urban/rural) were found. This study adds to general understanding of the occurrence and turnover of REEs in women and human fluids.

  10. Standard reference water samples for rare earth element determinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Taylor, Howard E.

    2001-01-01

    Standard reference water samples (SRWS) were collected from two mine sites, one near Ophir, CO, USA and the other near Redding, CA, USA. The samples were filtered, preserved, and analyzed for rare earth element (REE) concentrations (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). These two samples were acid mine waters with elevated concentrations of REEs (0.45-161 ??g/1). Seventeen international laboratories participated in a 'round-robin' chemical analysis program, which made it possible to evaluate the data by robust statistical procedures that are insensitive to outliers. The resulting most probable values are reported. Ten to 15 of the participants also reported values for Ba, Y, and Sc. Field parameters, major ion, and other trace element concentrations, not subject to statistical evaluation, are provided.

  11. The impact of transport processes on rare earth element patterns in marine authigenic and biogenic phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Gerald; Reuter, Markus; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Piller, Werner E.

    2017-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are commonly used proxies to reconstruct water chemistry and oxygen saturation during the formation of authigenic and biogenic phosphates in marine environments. In the modern ocean REEs exhibit a distinct pattern with enrichment of heavy REEs and strong depletion in cerium (Ce). The wide range of REE enrichment patterns found in ancient marine phosphates lead to the proposition that water chemistry has been very different in the Earth's past. However, both early and late diagenesis are known to affect REE signatures in phosphates altering primary marine signals. Herein we present a dataset of REE signatures in 38 grain specific LA-ICP-MS measurements of isolated phosphate and carbonate grains in three discrete rock samples. The phosphates mainly consist of authigenic phosphates and phosphatized microfossils that formed in a microbially mediated micro-milieu. In addition, isolated biogenic and reworked phosphatic grains are also present. The phosphates are emplaced in bioclastic grain- to packstones deposited on a carbonate ramp setting in the central Mediterranean Sea during the middle Miocene Monterey event. The results reveal markedly different REE patterns (normalized to the Post Archean Australian Shale standard) in terms of total enrichment and pattern shape. Analyses of REE diagenesis proxies show that diagenetic alteration affected the samples only to a minor degree. Grain shape and REE patterns together indicate that authigenic, biogenic and reworked phosphates have distinct REE patterns irrespective of the sample. Our study shows that while REE patterns in phosphates do reflect water chemistry during authigenesis, they are often already heavily altered during reworking, a process, which can occur in geologically negligible timespans. REE patterns are therefore more likely to reflect complex enrichment processes after their formation. Similarities in the REE patterns of reworked and biogenic phosphate further suggest that the

  12. Fractionation of rare earth elements in the Mississippi River estuary and river sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebayo, S. B.; Johannesson, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents the first set of data on the fractionation of rare earth elements (REE) in the mixing zone between the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico, as well as the fractionation of REE in the operationally defined fractions of Mississippi River sediments. This subject is particularly important because the Mississippi river is one of the world's major rivers, and contributes a substantial amount of water and sediment to the ocean. Hence, it is a major source of trace elements to the oceans. The geochemistry of the REE in natural systems is principally important because of their unique chemical properties, which prompt their application as tracers of mass transportation in modern and paleo-ocean environments. Another important consideration is the growth in the demand and utilization of REE in the green energy and technology industries, which has the potential to bring about a change in the background levels of these trace elements in the environment. The results of this study show a heavy REE enrichment of both the Mississippi River water and the more saline waters of the mixing zone. Our data demonstrate that coagulation and removal of REE in the low salinity region of the estuary is more pronounced among the Light REE ( 35% for Nd) compared to the Heavy REE. Remarkably, our data also indicate that REE removal in the Mississippi River estuary is significantly less than that observed in other estuaries, including the Amazon River system. We propose that the high pH/alkalinity of the Mississippi River is responsible for the greater stability of REE in the Mississippi River estuary. The results of sequential extraction of river sediments reveal different Sm/Nd ratios for the various fractions, which we submit implies different 143Nd/144Nd ratios of the labile fractions of the sediments. The possible impact of such hypothesized different Nd isotope signatures of labile fractions of the river sediments on Gulf of Mexico seawater is under investigation.

  13. Rare earth element abundances in presolar SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. R.; Ávila, J. N.; Lugaro, M.; Cristallo, S.; Holden, P.; Lanc, P.; Nittler, L.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Gyngard, F.; Amari, S.

    2018-01-01

    Individual isotope abundances of Ba, lanthanides of the rare earth element (REE) group, and Hf have been determined in bulk samples of fine-grained silicon carbide (SiC) from the Murchison CM2 chondrite. The analytical protocol involved secondary ion mass spectrometry with combined high mass resolution and energy filtering to exclude REE oxide isobars and Si-C-O clusters from the peaks of interest. Relative sensitivity factors were determined through analysis of NIST SRM reference glasses (610 and 612) as well as a trace-element enriched SiC ceramic. When normalised to chondrite abundances, the presolar SiC REE pattern shows significant deficits at Eu and Yb, which are the most volatile of the REE. The pattern is very similar to that observed for Group III refractory inclusions. The SiC abundances were also normalised to s-process model predictions for the envelope compositions of low-mass (1.5-3 M⊙) AGB stars with close-to-solar metallicities (Z = 0.014 and 0.02). The overall trace element abundances (excluding Eu and Yb) appear consistent with the predicted s-process patterns. The depletions of Eu and Yb suggest that these elements remained in the gas phase during the condensation of SiC. The lack of depletion in some other moderately refractory elements (like Ba), and the presence of volatile elements (e.g. Xe) indicates that these elements were incorporated into SiC by other mechanisms, most likely ion implantation.

  14. Phytoextraction of rare earth elements in herbaceous plant species growing close to roads.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Borowiak, Klaudia; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    The aim of study was to determine the phytoextraction of rare earth elements (REEs) to roots, stems and leaves of five herbaceous plant species (Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale AND Tripleurospermum inodorum), growing in four areas located in close proximity to a road with varied traffic intensity. Additionally, the relationship between road traffic intensity, REE concentration in soil and the content of these elements in plant organs was estimated. A. vulgaris and P. rhoeas were able to effectively transport REEs in their leaves, independently of area collection. The highest content of REEs was observed in P. rhoeas leaves and T. inodorum roots. Generally, HREEs were accumulated in P. rhoeas roots and leaves and also in the stems of T. inodorum and T. officinale, whereas LREEs were accumulated in T. inodorum roots and T. officinale stems. It is worth underlining that there was a clear relationship between road traffic intensity and REE, HREE and LREE concentration in soil. No positive correlation was found between the concentration of these elements in soil and their content in plants, with the exception of T. officinale. An effective transport of REEs from the root system to leaves was observed, what points to the possible ability of some of the tested plant species to remove REEs from soils near roads.

  15. Examination of rare earth element concentration patterns in freshwater fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, David B; Fairbrother, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) were measured in ten freshwater fish species from a reservoir in Washington State (United States). The REE distribution patterns were examined within fillet and whole body tissues for three size classes. Total concentrations (ΣREE) ranged from 0.014 to 3.0 mg kg(-1) (dry weight) and averaged 0.243 mg kg(-1) (dry weight). Tissue concentration patterns indicated that REEs accumulated to a greater extent in organs, viscera, and bone compared to muscle (fillet) tissues. Benthic feeding species (exposed to sediments) exhibited greater concentrations of REEs than pelagic omnivorous or piscivorous fish species. Decreasing REE concentrations were found with increasing age, total length or weight for largescale and longnose suckers, smallmouth bass, and walleye. Concentration patterns in this system were consistent with natural conditions without anthropogenic sources of REEs. These data provide additional reference information with regard to the fate and transport of REEs in freshwater fish tissues in a large aquatic system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rare earth element geochemistry of outcrop and core samples from the Marcellus Shale

    DOE PAGES

    Noack, Clinton W.; Jain, Jinesh C.; Stegmeier, John; ...

    2015-06-26

    In this paper, we studied the geochemistry of the rare earth elements (REE) in eleven outcrop samples and six, depth-interval samples of a core from the Marcellus Shale. The REE are classically applied analytes for investigating depositional environments and inferring geochemical processes, making them of interest as potential, naturally occurring indicators of fluid sources as well as indicators of geochemical processes in solid waste disposal. However, little is known of the REE occurrence in the Marcellus Shale or its produced waters, and this study represents one of the first, thorough characterizations of the REE in the Marcellus Shale. In thesemore » samples, the abundance of REE and the fractionation of REE profiles were correlated with different mineral components of the shale. Namely, samples with a larger clay component were inferred to have higher absolute concentrations of REE but have less distinctive patterns. Conversely, samples with larger carbonate fractions exhibited a greater degree of fractionation, albeit with lower total abundance. Further study is necessary to determine release mechanisms, as well as REE fate-and-transport, however these results have implications for future brine and solid waste management applications.« less

  17. Rare earth element partitioning between hydrous ferric oxides and acid mine water during iron oxidation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Taylor, Howard E.; Kimball, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ferrous iron rapidly oxidizes to Fe (III) and precipitates as hydrous Fe (III) oxides in acid mine waters. This study examines the effect of Fe precipitation on the rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of acid mine waters to determine the pH range over which REEs behave conservatively and the range over which attenuation and fractionation occur. Two field studies were designed to investigate REE attenuation during Fe oxidation in acidic, alpine surface waters. To complement these field studies, a suite of six acid mine waters with a pH range from 1.6 to 6.1 were collected and allowed to oxidize in the laboratory at ambient conditions to determine the partitioning of REEs during Fe oxidation and precipitation. Results from field experiments document that even with substantial Fe oxidation, the REEs remain dissolved in acid, sulfate waters with pH below 5.1. Between pH 5.1 and 6.6 the REEs partitioned to the solid phases in the water column, and heavy REEs were preferentially removed compared to light REEs. Laboratory experiments corroborated field data with the most solid-phase partitioning occurring in the waters with the highest pH. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rare earth element geochemistry of outcrop and core samples from the Marcellus Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Noack, Clinton W.; Jain, Jinesh C.; Stegmeier, John

    In this paper, we studied the geochemistry of the rare earth elements (REE) in eleven outcrop samples and six, depth-interval samples of a core from the Marcellus Shale. The REE are classically applied analytes for investigating depositional environments and inferring geochemical processes, making them of interest as potential, naturally occurring indicators of fluid sources as well as indicators of geochemical processes in solid waste disposal. However, little is known of the REE occurrence in the Marcellus Shale or its produced waters, and this study represents one of the first, thorough characterizations of the REE in the Marcellus Shale. In thesemore » samples, the abundance of REE and the fractionation of REE profiles were correlated with different mineral components of the shale. Namely, samples with a larger clay component were inferred to have higher absolute concentrations of REE but have less distinctive patterns. Conversely, samples with larger carbonate fractions exhibited a greater degree of fractionation, albeit with lower total abundance. Further study is necessary to determine release mechanisms, as well as REE fate-and-transport, however these results have implications for future brine and solid waste management applications.« less

  19. Rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes in sedimentary organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freslon, Nicolas; Bayon, Germain; Toucanne, Samuel; Bermell, Sylvain; Bollinger, Claire; Chéron, Sandrine; Etoubleau, Joel; Germain, Yoan; Khripounoff, Alexis; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Rouget, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    We report rare earth element (REE) and neodymium (Nd) isotope data for the organic fraction of sediments collected from various depositional environments, i.e. rivers (n = 25), estuaries (n = 18), open-ocean settings (n = 15), and cold seeps (n = 12). Sedimentary organic matter (SOM) was extracted using a mixed hydrogen peroxide/nitric acid solution (20%-H2O2-0.02 M-HNO3), after removal of carbonate and oxy-hydroxide phases with dilute hydrochloric acid (0.25 M-HCl). A series of experimental tests indicate that extraction of sedimentary organic compounds using H2O2 may be complicated occasionally by partial dissolution of sulphide minerals and residual carbonates. However, this contamination is expected to be minor for REE because measured concentrations in H2O2 leachates are about two-orders of magnitude higher than in the above mentioned phases. The mean REE concentrations determined in the H2O2 leachates for samples from rivers, estuaries, coastal seas and open-ocean settings yield relatively similar levels, with ΣREE = 109 ± 86 ppm (mean ± s; n = 58). The organic fractions leached from cold seep sediments display even higher concentration levels (285 ± 150 ppm; mean ± s; n = 12). The H2O2 leachates for most sediments exhibit remarkably similar shale-normalized REE patterns, all characterized by a mid-REE enrichment compared to the other REE. This suggests that the distribution of REE in leached sedimentary organic phases is controlled primarily by biogeochemical processes, rather than by the composition of the source from which they derive (e.g. pore, river or sea-water). The Nd isotopic compositions for organic phases leached from river sediments are very similar to those for the corresponding detrital fractions. In contrast, the SOM extracted from marine sediments display εNd values that typically range between the εNd signatures for terrestrial organic matter (inferred from the analysis of the sedimentary detrital fractions) and marine organic matter

  20. Uptake of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements (La, Gd, Er, Nd) by white mustard (Brassica alba L.) and common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) as affected by Phosphorus Nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zill, Juliane; Wiche, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The effect of phosphate nutrition is important due to the future usage of fertilizer treatment in phytomining experiments e.g. in accumulation of the economically important rare earth elements (REE). It is expected that the trivalent charge of REE will result in complexation with phosphate and REEs could be immobilized and not further bioavailable for plants which would cause losses of REE concentration in biomass. To investigate this influence on lanthanum, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium two plant species Brassica alba (white mustard) and Panicum miliaceum (common millet) were cultured in a greenhouse study. The plants were cultivated onto two different substrates and were poured with modified REE and phosphate solutions within an eight-week period. The concentrations of REE in soil, soil solution and plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show an increase of concentration of REE with increasing levels of element solution applied for both species. REE accumulations are elevated in roots and decrease in the order of roots> leaves> stem> fruit/blossom. Brassica accumulated more REE in root whereas Panicum showed higher REE concentrations in leaves. Exposure to increased phosphate addition did not significantly change the concentrations of REE in both plant species yet the REE concentrations in leaves slightly decreased with increasing phosphate addition. For root and stem no precise trend could be determined. It is most likely that REEs precipitate with phosphate on root surfaces and in the roots. The bioavailability of REE to plants is affected by complexation processes of REEs with phosphate in the rhizosphere. The results indicate that phosphate application plays an important role on REE uptake by roots and accumulation in different parts of a plant and it might have an influence on translocation of REE within the plant.

  1. Rare earth elements geochemistry in springs from Taftan geothermal area SE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, Ata; Ghoreyshinia, Sayedkazem; Mehrabi, Behzad; Delavari, Morteza

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in springs and andesitic-dacitic rocks of Taftan geothermal field. Hydrochemical results of major ions indicate that thermal springs are Na-SO4-Cl and Ca-SO4-Cl types. Concentrations of REEs are in ranges of 10- 4 to 1.2 and 49 to 62 times of chondrite for springwater and rock samples, respectively. The thermal (STS and TTS) and the cold (APS) springs with low pH values exhibit a very high REE contents (0.64 to 3.15 mg/l). Saturation index indicates that Fe and Al phases can control dissolved REE concentration in FTS and PF cold springs. The speciation of REE complexes indicates dominant presence of LnSO4+ and free ion in the Taftan thermal springs. In APS cold spring with pH 4, fluoride complexes are dominate over the free ion and sulfate species, while in PF and FTS cold springs with pH 6.4 and 7, respectively, carbonate complexes (LnCO3+) are predominant species. Chondrite-normalized pattern for the low-pH waters show very distinctive gull-wing patterns, characteristic feature of acid-sulfate geothermal systems, and are similar to those of the host rocks. Chemical characteristics of rare earth elements in spring and volcanic rock samples indicate that REEs are originated from the andesitic-dacitic host rocks. Whole-rock-normalized REE patterns and petrographic evidences show that rare earth elements leached mainly from marginal alteration of minerals and matrix decomposition in volcanic rocks. In chondrite-normalized REE patterns, significant negative Eu anomaly in the cold springs compare to the thermal and acidic springs indicates that alteration of plagioclase is more intense in the later, corresponding to increasing in temperature and acidic state of reactant water.

  2. Geochemistry of rare earth elements within waste rocks from the Montviel carbonatite deposit, Québec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Edahbi, Mohamed; Plante, Benoît; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Pelletier, Mia

    2018-04-01

    Several rare earth element (REE) mine projects around the world are currently at the feasibility stage. Unfortunately, few studies have evaluated the contamination potential of REE and their effects on the environment. In this project, the waste rocks from the carbonatites within the Montviel proterozoic alkaline intrusion (near Lebel-sur-Quévillon, Quebec, Canada) are assessed in this research. The mineralization is mainly constituted by light REE (LREE) fluorocarbonates (qaqarssukite-Ce, kukharenkoite-Ce), LREE carbonates (burbankite, Sr-Ba-Ca-REE, barytocalcite, strontianite, Ba-REE-carbonates), and phosphates (apatite, monazite). The gangue minerals are biotites, chlorite, albite, ankerite, siderite, and calcite. The SEM-EDS analyses show that (i) the majority of REE are associated with the fine fraction (< 106 μm), (ii) REE are mainly associated with carbonates, (iii) all analyzed minerals preferably contain LREE (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu), (iv) the sum of LREE in each analyzed mineral varies between ~ 3 and 10 wt%, (v) the heavy REE (HREE) identified are Gd and Yb at < 0.4 wt%, and (vi) three groups of carbonate minerals were observed containing variable concentrations of Ca, Na, and F. Furthermore, the mineralogical composition of REE-bearing minerals, REE mobility, and REE speciation was investigated. The leachability and geochemical behavior of these REE-bearing mine wastes were tested using normalized kinetic testing (humidity cells). Leachate results displayed higher LREE concentrations, with decreasing shale-normalized patterns. Thermodynamical equilibrium calculations suggest that the precipitation of secondary REE minerals may control the REE mobility.

  3. Sources, behaviour, and environmental and human health risks of high-technology rare earth elements as emerging contaminants.

    PubMed

    Gwenzi, Willis; Mangori, Lynda; Danha, Concilia; Chaukura, Nhamo; Dunjana, Nothando; Sanganyado, Edmond

    2018-04-26

    Recent studies show that high-technology rare earth elements (REEs) of anthropogenic origin occur in the environment including in aquatic systems, suggesting REEs are contaminants of emerging concern. However, compared to organic contaminants, there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on the anthropogenic sources, environmental behaviour, and public and ecological health risks of REEs. The current review aims to: (1) identify anthropogenic sources, transfer mechanisms, and environmental behaviour of REEs; (2) highlight the human and ecological health risks of REEs and propose mitigation measures; and (3) identify knowledge gaps and future research directions. Out of the 17 REEs, La, Gd, Ce and Eu are the most studied. The main sources of anthropogenic REE include; medical facilities, petroleum refining, mining and technology industries, fertilizers, livestock feeds, and electronic wastes and recycling plants. REEs are mobilized and transported in the environment by hydrological and wind-driven processes. Ecotoxicological effects include reduced plant growth, function and nutritional quality, genotoxicity and neurotoxicity in animals, trophic bioaccumulation, chronic and acute toxicities in soil organisms. Human exposure to REEs occurs via ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation, and direct intake during medical administration. REEs have been detected in human hair, nails, and biofluids. In humans, REEs cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and severe damage to nephrological systems associated with Gd-based contrast agents, dysfunctional neurological disorder, fibrotic tissue injury, oxidative stress, pneumoconiosis, cytotoxicity, anti-testicular effects, and male sterility. Barring REEs in medical devices, epidemiological evidence directly linking REEs in the environment to human health conditions remains weak. To minimize health risks, a conceptual framework and possible mitigation measures are highlighted. Future research is needed to better understand

  4. The principal rare earth elements deposits of the United States: A summary of domestic deposits and a global perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Keith R.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Foley, Nora K.; Cordier, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Demand for the rare earth elements (REE, lanthanide elements) is estimated to be increasing at a rate of about 8% per year due to increasing applications in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aircraft, and other advanced technology products. Much of this demand growth is driven by new technologies that increase energy efficiency and substitute away from fossil fuels. Production of these elements is highly concentrated in China, which is reducing its exports of REE raw materials as part of its industrial policy. The ability of the rest of the world to replace supply from China depends on the quality of known REE resources and the degree to which those resources have been explored and evaluated. A review of United States resources in a global context finds that the United States could make significant contributions to future REE production. Aside from two advanced projects in the United States and Australia, however, there are no REE projects advanced enough to meet short-term demand.

  5. Evaluation of rare earth elements in groundwater of Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayedun, H; Arowolo, T A; Gbadebo, A M; Idowu, O A

    2017-06-01

    Rare earth elements in our environment are becoming important because of their utilization in permanent magnets, lamp phosphors, superconductors, rechargeable batteries, catalyst, ceramics and other applications. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of rare earth elements (REE) and the variability of their anomalous behavior in groundwater samples collected from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria. REE concentrations were determined in 170 groundwater samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, while the physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. Lagos State groundwater is enriched with REE [sum REEs range (mean ± SD)]; [0.365-488 (69.5 ± 117)] µg L -1 than Ogun State groundwater [sum REEs range (mean ± SD)]; [1.14-232 (22.6 ± 41.1)] µg L -1 . Boreholes are more enriched with REEs than wells. Significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation (R = Pearson) was recorded in Lagos State groundwater between sum REEs and Fe (R = 0.55). However, there were no significant correlations between sum REEs, pH (R = 0.073) and HCO 3 2- (R = 0.157) in Ogun State groundwater. Chondrite-normalized plot shows that Lagos groundwater exhibits positive Ce anomaly, while Ogun State groundwater does not. The source of REE in Lagos State may be from the ocean and leaching from wastes dumpsites, while the source in Ogun State groundwater may be from the rocks.

  6. Empirically assessing the potential release of rare earth elements from black shale under simulated hydraulic fracturing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jon; Verba, Circe; Torres, Marta

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are economically important to modern society and the rapid growth of technologies dependent on REEs has placed considerable economic pressure on their sourcing. This study addresses whether REEs could be released as a byproduct of natural gas extraction from a series of experiments that were designed to simulate hydraulic fracturing of black shale under various pressure (25 and 27.5 MPa) and temperature (50, 90, 130 °C) conditions. The dissolved REEs in the reacted fluids displayed no propensity for the REEs to be released from black shale under high pressure and temperature conditions, a result that ismore » consistent across the different types of fluids investigated. Overall, there was a net loss of REEs from the fluid. These changes in dissolved REEs were greatest at the moment the fluids first contacted the shale and before the high temperature and high pressure conditions were imposed, although the magnitude of these changes (10 -4 μg/g) were small compared to the magnitude of the total REE content present in the solid shale samples (10 2 μg/g). These results highlight the variability and complexity of hydraulic fracturing systems and indicate that REE may not serve as robust tracers for fracturing fluid-shale reactions. Additionally, the results suggest that significant quantities of REEs may not be byproducts of hydraulically fractured shales.« less

  7. Toxic effects of environmental rare earth elements on delayed outward potassium channels and their mechanisms from a microscopic perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; He, Jingfang; Xia, Ao; Cheng, Mengzhu; Yang, Qing; Du, Chunlei; Wei, Haiyan; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Qing

    2017-08-01

    The wide applications cause a large amount of rare earth elements (REEs) to be released into the environment, and ultimately into the human body through food chain. Toxic effects of REEs on humans have been extensively studied, but their toxic effects and binding targets in cells are not understood. Delayed outward potassium channels (K + channels) are good targets for exogenous substances or clinical drugs. To evaluate cellular toxicities of REEs and clarify toxic mechanisms, the toxicities of REEs on the K + channel and their structural basis were investigated. The results showed that delayed outward potassium channels on the plasma membrane are the targets of REEs acting on living organisms, and the changes in the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of the K + channel are the reasons of diseases induced by REEs. Two types of REEs, a light REE La 3+ and a heavy REE Tb 3+ , displayed different intensity of toxicities on the K + channel, in which the toxicity of Tb 3+ was stronger than that of La 3+ . More interestingly, in comparison with that of heavy metal Cd 2+ , the cytotoxicities of the light and heavy REEs showed discriminative differences, and the cytotoxicity of Tb 3+ was higher than that of Cd 2+ , while the cytotoxicity of La 3+ was lower than that of Cd 2+ . These different cytotoxicities of La 3+ , Tb 3+ and Cd 2+ on human resulted from the varying binding abilities of the metals to this channel protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Empirically assessing the potential release of rare earth elements from black shale under simulated hydraulic fracturing conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Jon; Verba, Circe; Torres, Marta; ...

    2018-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are economically important to modern society and the rapid growth of technologies dependent on REEs has placed considerable economic pressure on their sourcing. This study addresses whether REEs could be released as a byproduct of natural gas extraction from a series of experiments that were designed to simulate hydraulic fracturing of black shale under various pressure (25 and 27.5 MPa) and temperature (50, 90, 130 °C) conditions. The dissolved REEs in the reacted fluids displayed no propensity for the REEs to be released from black shale under high pressure and temperature conditions, a result that ismore » consistent across the different types of fluids investigated. Overall, there was a net loss of REEs from the fluid. These changes in dissolved REEs were greatest at the moment the fluids first contacted the shale and before the high temperature and high pressure conditions were imposed, although the magnitude of these changes (10 -4 μg/g) were small compared to the magnitude of the total REE content present in the solid shale samples (10 2 μg/g). These results highlight the variability and complexity of hydraulic fracturing systems and indicate that REE may not serve as robust tracers for fracturing fluid-shale reactions. Additionally, the results suggest that significant quantities of REEs may not be byproducts of hydraulically fractured shales.« less

  9. Rare earth elements and select actinoids in the Canadian House Dust Study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, P E; Levesque, C; Chénier, M; Gardner, H D

    2017-09-01

    Nationally representative baseline data are presented for rare earth elements (REE), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) in house dust sampled from 1025 urban homes, in units of concentrations (μg g -1 ), loadings (μg m -2 ), and loading rates (ng m -2  d -1 ). Spearman rank correlations indicate that, in addition to outdoor sources, consumer products and building materials can influence indoor dust concentrations of REE, Th, and U. Correlations (P<.01) with numbers of occupants, dogs, and cats suggest soil track-in. Correlations (P<.01) with hardwood floors suggest release of REE additives used in pigments and coatings during daily wear and tear. Concentrations of light REE are elevated in smokers' homes compared to non-smokers' homes (P<.001), suggesting that a key source is "mischmetal," the REE alloy used in cigarette-lighter flints. Indoor sources include geological impurities in raw materials used in consumer products, such as U and Th impurities in bentonite clay used in cat litter, and REE impurities in phosphates used for a variety of applications including dog food and building materials. Median gastric bioaccessibility (pH 1.5) of most REE in dust ranges from about 20% to 29%. Household vacuum samples correlate with fresh dust samples from the same homes (P<.001 for all investigated elements). © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Indoor Air © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Rare earth element metasomatism in hydrothermal systems: The Willsboro-Lewis wollastonite ores, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, P.R.; Olmsted, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Wollastonite ores and garnet-pyroxene skarns in the Willsboro-Lewis district, New York, USA were formed in a complex hydrothermal system associated with the emplacement of a large anorthosite pluton. Contact-metamorphic marbles were replaced by wollastonite, garnet, and clinopyroxene during infiltration metasomatism involving large volumes of water of chiefly meteoric origin. Rare earth elements (REE) in these rocks show large departures from the protolith REE distribution, indicative of substantial REE mobility. Three types of chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns are present. The most common, found in ores and skarns containing andradite-rich garnet, is convex-up in the light REE (LREE) with a maximum at Pr and a positive Eu anomaly. Europium anomalies and Pr/Yb ratios are correlated with X(Ad) in garnet. This pattern (type C) results from uptake of REE from hydrothermal fluids by growing crystals of calcsilicate minerals, principally andradite, with amounts of LREE controlled by the difference in ionic radius between Ca++ and REE3+ in garnet X sites. The Eu anomaly results either from prior interaction of the fluids with plagioclase-rich, Eu-positive anorthositic rocks in and near the ore zone, or by enrichment of divalent Eu on growth surfaces of garnet followed by entrapment, or both. Relative enrichment in heavy REE (type H) occurs in ores and skarn where calcsilicates, including grossularitic garnet, in contact-metamorphic marble have been concentrated by dissolution of calcite. In most cases a negative Eu anomaly is inherited from the marble protolith. Skarns containing titanite and apatite exhibit high total REE, relative light REE enrichment, and negative Eu anomalies (type L). These appear to be intrusive igneous rocks (ferrodiorites or anorthositic gabbros) that have been converted to skarn by Ca metasomatism. REE, sequestered in titanite, apatite, and garnet, preserve the approximate REE distribution pattern of the igneous protolith. Post

  11. Uncovering the end uses of the rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T E

    2013-09-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging and conventional established technologies. However, quantitative knowledge of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in future availability of the resources. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supply vulnerable to short term disruption. We have drawn upon the published literature and unpublished materials in different languages to derive the first quantitative annual domestic production by end use of individual rare earth elements from 1995 to 2007. The information is illustrated in Sankey diagrams for the years 1995 and 2007. Other years are available in the supporting information. Comparing 1995 and 2007, the production of the rare earth elements in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. The information can provide a solid foundation for industries, academic institutions and governments to make decisions and develop strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rare Earth Element Measurements of Melilite and Fassaite in Allende Cai by Nanosims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ito, M.; Messenger, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) are concentrated in CAIs by approx. 20 times the chondritic average [e.g., 1]. The REEs in CAIs are important to understand processes of CAI formation including the role of volatilization, condensation, and fractional crystallization [1,2]. REE measurements are a well established application of ion microprobes [e.g., 3]. However the spatial resolution of REE measurements by ion microprobe (approx.20 m) is not adequate to resolve heterogeneous distributions of REEs among/within minerals. We have developed methods for measuring REE with the NanoSIMS 50L at smaller spatial scales. Here we present our initial measurements of REEs in melilite and fassaite in an Allende Type-A CAI with the JSC NanoSIMS 50L. We found that the key parameters for accurate REE abundance measurements differ between the NanoSIMS and conventional SIMS, in particular the oxide-to-element ratios, the relative sensitivity factors, the energy distributions, and requisite energy offset. Our REE abundance measurements of the 100 ppm REE diopside glass standards yielded good reproducibility and accuracy, 0.5-2.5 % and 5-25 %, respectively. We determined abundances and spatial distributions of REEs in core and rim within single crystals of fassaite, and adjacent melilite with 5-10 m spatial resolution. The REE abundances in fassaite core and rim are 20-100 times CI abundance but show a large negative Eu anomaly, exhibiting a well-defined Group III pattern. This is consistent with previous work [4]. On the other hand, adjacent melilite shows modified Group II pattern with no strong depletions of Eu and Yb, and no Tm positive anomaly. REE abundances (2-10 x CI) were lower than that of fassaite. These patterns suggest that fassaite crystallized first followed by a crystallization of melilite from the residual melt. In future work, we will carry out a correlated study of O and Mg isotopes and REEs of the CAI in order to better understand the nature and timescales of its

  13. Atmospheric deposition of rare earth elements in Albania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology.

    PubMed

    Allajbeu, Sh; Yushin, N S; Qarri, F; Duliu, O G; Lazo, P; Frontasyeva, M V

    2016-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are typically conservative elements that are scarcely derived from anthropogenic sources. The mobilization of REEs in the environment requires the monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are present at trace level. The determination of 11 REEs in carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected from 44 sampling sites over the whole territory of the country were done by using epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) at IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in Dubna. This paper is focused on REEs (lanthanides) and Sc. Fe as typical consistent element and Th that appeared good correlations between the elements of lanthanides are included in this paper. Th, Sc, and REEs were never previously determined in the air deposition of Albania. Descriptive statistics were used for data treatment using MINITAB 17 software package. The median values of the elements under investigation were compared with those of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia, as well as Norway which is selected as a clean area. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. Geochemical behavior of REEs in moss samples has been studied by using the ternary diagram of Sc-La-Th, Spider diagrams and multivariate analysis. It was revealed that the accumulation of REEs in current mosses is associated with the wind-blowing metal-enriched soils that is pointed out as the main emitting factor of the elements under investigation.

  14. Rare Earth Element Behavior During Incongruent Weathering and Varying Discharge Conditions in Silicate Dominated River Systems: The Australian Victorian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, K. B.; Cartwright, I.

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) and trace elements was measured by ICP-MS on fresh, slightly weathered and weathered granite and surface water samples from a network of 11 pristine rivers draining the Australian Victorian Alps during (i) high and (ii) low discharge conditions. River water REE concentrations are largely derived from atmospheric precipitation (rain, snow), as indicated by similar Chondrite normalized REE patterns (higher LREE over HREE; negative Ce anomalies, positive Eu anomalies) and similar total REE concentrations during both dry and wet seasons. Calculations based on the covariance between REE and Cl concentrations and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes indicate precipitation input coupled with subsequent evaporation may account for 30% o 100% of dissolved REE in stream waters. The dissolved contribution to the granitic substratum to stream water comes mainly from the transformation of plagioclase to smectite, kaolinite and gibbsite and minor apatite dissolution. However, since most REE of the regional granite are present in accessory minerals (titanite, zircon, etc.) they do not significantly contribute to the river REE pool. REE concentrations drop sharply downstream as a result of dilution and chemical attenuation. A trend of downstream enrichment of the heavier REE is due to selective partitioning of the lighter REE (as both free REE or REECO3 complexes) to hydrous oxides of suspended Al which, in turn, is controlled by a downstream increase of pH to values > 6.1 (for free REE) and > 7.3 (for REECO3 complexes). Although most circumneutral waters were supersaturated with REE phosphate compounds, precipitation of LnPO4 is not believed to have been a dominant process because the predicted phosphate fractionation pattern is inconsistent with the observed trends. Negative saturation indices of hydrous ferric oxides also militate against surface complexation onto goethite. Instead, REE attenuation most likely resulted from adsorption onto

  15. Evaluating rare earth element availability: a case with revolutionary demand from clean technologies.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Elisa; Sherman, Andrew M; Wallington, Timothy J; Everson, Mark P; Field, Frank R; Roth, Richard; Kirchain, Randolph E

    2012-03-20

    The future availability of rare earth elements (REEs) is of concern due to monopolistic supply conditions, environmentally unsustainable mining practices, and rapid demand growth. We present an evaluation of potential future demand scenarios for REEs with a focus on the issue of comining. Many assumptions were made to simplify the analysis, but the scenarios identify some key variables that could affect future rare earth markets and market behavior. Increased use of wind energy and electric vehicles are key elements of a more sustainable future. However, since present technologies for electric vehicles and wind turbines rely heavily on dysprosium (Dy) and neodymium (Nd), in rare-earth magnets, future adoption of these technologies may result in large and disproportionate increases in the demand for these two elements. For this study, upper and lower bound usage projections for REE in these applications were developed to evaluate the state of future REE supply availability. In the absence of efficient reuse and recycling or the development of technologies which use lower amounts of Dy and Nd, following a path consistent with stabilization of atmospheric CO(2) at 450 ppm may lead to an increase of more than 700% and 2600% for Nd and Dy, respectively, over the next 25 years if the present REE needs in automotive and wind applications are representative of future needs.

  16. Determination of rare earth elements concentration at different depth profile of Precambrian pegmatites using instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Sadiq Aliyu, Abubakar; Musa, Yahaya; Liman, M S; Abba, Habu T; Chaanda, Mohammed S; Ngene, Nnamani C; Garba, N N

    2018-01-01

    The Keffi area hosts abundant pegmatite bodies as a result of the surrounding granitic intrusions. Keffi is part of areas that are geologically classified as North Central Basement Complex. Data on the mineralogy and mineralogical zonation of the Keffi pegmatite are scanty. Hence the need to understand the geology and mineralogical zonation of Keffi pegmatites especially at different depth profiles is relevant as a study of the elemental composition of the pegmatite is essential for the estimation of its economic viability. Here, the relative standardization method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used to investigate the vertical deviations of the elemental concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) at different depth profile of Keffi pegmatite. This study adopted the following metrics in investigating the vertical variations of REEs concentrations. Namely, the total contents of rare earth elements (∑REE); ratio of light to heavy rare earth elements (LREE/HREE), which defines the enrichment or depletion of REEs; europium anomaly (Eu/Sm); La/Lu ratio relative to chondritic meteorites. The study showed no significant variations in the total content of rare elements between the vertical depth profiles (100-250m). However, higher total concentrations of REEs (~ 92.65ppm) were recorded at the upper depth of the pegmatite and the europium anomaly was consistently negative at all the depth profiles suggesting that the Keffi pegmatite is enriched with light REEs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The potential of sedimentary foraminiferal rare earth element patterns to trace water masses in the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Anne H.; Hathorne, Ed C.; Schijf, Johan; Plancherel, Yves; Böning, Philipp; Frank, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Dissolved rare earth element (REE) concentration data from intermediate and deep seawater form an array characterized by higher middle-REE enrichments (MREE/MREE*) in the North Atlantic and a progressive increase in heavy-to-light REE ratios (HREE/LREE) as water masses age. The REEs in foraminifera are fractionated toward higher MREE/MREE* and lower HREE/LREE relative to seawater. Calculations based on a scavenging model show that the REE patterns in uncleaned core-top foraminifera resemble those adsorbed onto calcite, particulate organic material, and hydrous ferric oxides but the full extent of the REE fractionation measured in foraminifera was not reproduced by the model. However, differences in the HREE/LREE and MREE/MREE* ratios and the cerium anomaly between ocean basins are preserved and are in agreement with the seawater REE distribution. Under oxic conditions, the HREE/LREE and MREE/MREE* compositions of uncleaned foraminifera at the sediment/seawater boundary are preserved during burial but the cerium anomaly is sensitive to burial depth. In suboxic sedimentary environments, all uncleaned foraminiferal REE concentrations are elevated relative to core-top values indicating addition of REEs from pore waters. The HREE/LREE ratio is highest when sedimentation rates were greatest and when high Fe/Ca ratios in the uncleaned foraminifera indicate that Fe was mobile. In sediments that have not experienced suboxic conditions during burial, uncleaned foraminifera preserve the seawater signal taken up at the sediment/seawater interface and are therefore suggested to be a suitable archive of changes in the REE signal of past bottom waters.

  18. Rare Earth elements in individual minerals in Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Crozaz, Ghislaine

    1993-01-01

    Shergottites (i.e., Shergotty, Zagami, EETA79001, ALHA77005, and LEW88516) are an important set of achondrites because they comprise the majority of the SNC group of meteorites (nine, in total, known to us), which are likely to be samples of the planet Mars. Study of these meteorites may therefore provide valuable information about petrogenetic processes on a large planetary body other than Earth. Rare earth element (REE) distributions between various mineral phases were found to be useful in geochemically modeling the petrogenesis of various rock types (terrestrial and meteoritic). However, with the exception of a few ion microprobe studies and analyses of mineral separates, there has previously not been any comprehensive effort to characterize and directly compare REE in individual minerals in each of the five known shergottites. Ion microprobe analyses were made on thin sections of each of the shergottites. Minerals analyzed were pyroxenes (pigeonite and augite), maskelynite, and whitlockite. The REE concentrations in each mineral type in each shergottite is given.

  19. Revisit of rare earth element fractionation during chemical weathering and river sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ni; Yang, Shouye; Guo, Yulong; Yue, Wei; Wang, Xiaodan; Yin, Ping; Huang, Xiangtong

    2017-03-01

    Although rare earth element (REE) has been widely applied for provenance study and paleoenvironmental reconstruction, its mobility and fractionation during earth surface processes from weathering to sediment deposition remain more clarification. We investigated the REE fractionations during chemical weathering and river sediment transport based on the systematic observations from a granodiorite-weathering profile and Mulanxi River sediments in southeast China. Two chemical phases (leachates and residues) were separated by 1 N HCl leaching and the leachates account for 20-70% of the bulk REE concentration. REEs in the weathering profile have been mobilized and fractionated to different extents during chemical weathering and pedogenesis. Remarkable cerium anomalies (Ce/Ce* = 0.1-10.6) occur during weathering as a result of coprecipitation with Mn (hydro)oxides in the profile, while poor or no Ce anomalies in the river sediments were observed. This contrasting feature sheds new light on the indication of Ce anomaly for redox change. The hydraulic sorting-induced mineral redistribution can further homogenize the weathering and pedogenic alterations and thus weaken the REE fractionations in river sediments. The mineral assemblage is the ultimate control on REE composition, and the Mn-Fe (hydro)oxides and secondary phosphate minerals are the main hosts of acid-leachable REEs while the clay minerals could be important reservoirs for residual REEs. We thus suggest that the widely used REE proxies such as (LREE/HREE)UCC ratio in the residues is reliable for the indication of sediment provenance, while the ratio in the leachates can indicate the total weathering process to some extent.

  20. Rare earth element mobility in vesicular lava during low-grade metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyström, Jan Olov

    1984-12-01

    A geochemical comparison of basaltic relicts and spilitic domains from two burial metamorphosed flows in central Chile, of similar original composition and rich and poor in amygdules, respectively, demonstrates a relationship between initial vesicularity and rare earth element (REE) mobility. During spilitization the REE were partly leached from permeable parts of the flows and precipitated in voids, now amygdules and veinlets. The REE (excluding Eu) moved coherently in the highly amygdaloidal flow: spilitic domains and amygdules inherited the basaltic REE pattern. Besides being characterized by a positive Eu anomaly, epidotes separated from amygdules have a REE distribution which mimics that of the basalt; the absolute contents range widely, suggesting local and/or temporal REE variations in the metamorphic fluids. Pumpellyite differs by being strongly enriched in heavy REE. Similar ratios of Th, Hf and Ta in samples as contrasting as relict basalt and a geode are consistent with coherent leaching. Coherent mobility, when established for a rock system, can be used to elucidate, for example, whether minerals in cross-cutting veins were formed by local redistribution or from introduced material.

  1. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency. PMID:26819083

  2. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration.

    PubMed

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-28

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency.

  3. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency.

  4. In-situ measurements of rare earth elements in deep sea sediments using nuclear methods.

    PubMed

    Obhođaš, Jasmina; Sudac, Davorin; Meric, Ilker; Pettersen, Helge E S; Uroić, Milivoj; Nađ, Karlo; Valković, Vlado

    2018-03-21

    The prospecting activities for finding new rare earth elements (REE) sources have increased greatly in recent years. One of the main discoveries was announced in 2011 by Japanese researchers who found large quantities of REE on the ocean seafloor at the sea depths greater than 4,000 m. The classic approach to investigate REE in deep sea sediments is to obtain sediment samples by drilling that is followed by laborious laboratory analysis. This is very expensive, time consuming and not appropriate for exploring vast areas. In order to efficiently explore the ocean floor for REE deposits, the further development of affordable sensors is needed. Here, we propose two nuclear techniques for exploring REE in surface deep sea sediments: i) Passive measurement of lutetium-176 radioactivity, appropriate if long-term in-situ measurements are possible, and ii) The use of the neutron sensor attached to a remotely operated vehicle for rapid in-situ measurement of gadolinium by thermal neutron-capture. Since concentrations of lutetium and gadolinium show strong linear correlation to the total REE concentrations in deep sea sediments, it is possible to deduce the total REE content by measuring Lu or Gd concentrations only.

  5. Critical Zone Weathering and Your Smartphone: Understanding How Mineral Decomposition and Colloid Redistribution Can Generate Rare Earth Element Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bern, C.; Foley, N.

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE's) are crucial in the manufacture of smartphones and many other high tech devices. Increasing global demand and relatively narrow geographic sourcing have promoted interest in understanding REE deposit genesis and distribution. Highly weathered, clay-hosted, ion-exchange type deposits in southern China are the source of much of the world's production of the more valuable heavy REEs. Such deposits form as REE-bearing minerals weather and REEs released to solution in ionic form are retained by negatively charged exchange sites on clay minerals. We are investigating the potential for ion-exchange REE deposits in the Piedmont of the southeastern United States, where slow erosion rates have preserved thick (up to 20 m) regolith, as required for such deposits. The Liberty Hill pluton outcrops as coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite and quartz monzonite over nearly 400 km2 in South Carolina, and has an age of 305 Ma (new SHRIMP ion microprobe zircon age). In weathered profiles over the pluton, ion-exchangeable REE content ranges from 8 to 580 ppm and accounts for 2 to 80% of bulk REE content. Elemental and heavy mineral distributions suggest the wide ranging differences in leachability may be attributable to the amount and distribution of resistant REE-bearing phases (e.g., monazite) relative to more easily weathered phases (e.g., allanite) in the parent granite. The REEs show little mobility within the regolith, indicating the effectiveness of the ion-exchange retention mechanism. In contrast, vertical redistribution of colloidal material shows maximum accumulations at ~1 m depth, as traced by the newly developed dual-phase (colloids vs. solution) mass balance model. The contrast suggests redistributed colloidal material has minimal influence on REE mobilization or retention. Conditions and processes necessary for ion-exchange REE deposit development exist in the Piedmont, but their presence will depend upon favorable parent rock mineralogy.

  6. Systematic Investigation of REE Mobility and Fractionation During Continental Shale Weathering Along a Climate Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Ma, L.; Dere, A. L. D.; White, T.; Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have been identified as strategic natural resources and their demand in the United States is increasing rapidly. REE are relatively abundant in the Earth's crust, but REE deposits with minable concentrations are uncommon. One recent study has pointed to the deep-sea REE-rich muds in the Pacific Ocean as a new potential resource, related to adsorption and concentration of REE from seawater by hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxides and phillipsite (Kato et al., 2010). Finding new REE deposits will be facilitated by understanding global REE cycles: during the transformation of bedrock into soils, REEs are leached into natural waters and transported to oceans. At present, the mechanisms and factors controlling release, transport, and deposition of REE - the sources and sinks - at Earth's surface remain unclear. Here, we systematically studied soil profiles and bedrock in seven watersheds developed on shale bedrock along a climate transect in the eastern USA, Puerto Rico and Wales to constrain the mobility and fractionation of REE during chemical weathering processes. In addition, one site on black shale (Marcellus) bedrock was included to compare behaviors of REEs in organic-rich vs. organic-poor shale end members under the same environmental conditions. Our investigation focused on: 1) the concentration of REEs in gray and black shales and the release rates of REE during shale weathering, 2) the biogeochemical and hydrological conditions (such as redox, dissolved organic carbon, and pH) that dictate the mobility and fractionation of REEs in surface and subsurface environments, and 3) the retention of dissolved REEs on soils, especially onto secondary Fe/Al oxyhydroxides and phosphate mineral phases. This systematic study sheds light on the geochemical behaviors and environmental pathways of REEs during shale weathering along a climosequence.

  7. Accumulation of rare earth elements in human bone within the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Zaichick, Sofia; Zaichick, Vladimir; Karandashev, Vasilii; Nosenko, Sergey

    2011-02-01

    For the first time, the contents of rare earth elements (REEs) in a rib bone of a healthy human were determined. The mean value of the contents of Ce, Dy, Er, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sm, Tb, and Yb (10 elements out of 17 total REEs), as well as the upper limit of means for Ho, Lu, Tm, and Y (4 elements) were measured in the rib bone tissue of 38 females and 42 males (15 to 55 years old) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We found age-related accumulation of REEs in the bone tissue of healthy individuals who lived in a non-industrial region. It was calculated that during a lifespan the content of REEs in a skeleton of non-industrial region residents may increase by one to two orders of magnitude. Using our results as indicative normal values and published data we estimated relative Gd accumulation in the bone tissue of patients according to magnetic resonance imaging with contrast agent and La accumulation in the bone tissue of patients receiving hemodialysis after treatment with lanthanum carbonate as a phosphate binder. It was shown that after such procedures contents of Gd and La in the bone tissue of patients are two to three orders of magnitude higher than normal levels. In our opinion, REEs incorporation may affect bone quality and health similar to other potentially toxic trace metals. The impact of elevated REEs content on bone physiology, biochemistry and morphology requires further investigation.

  8. Rare earth elements in sinters from the geothermal waters (hot springs) on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jin-Liang; Zhao, Zhen-Hong; Chen, Feng; Hu, Hai-Ping

    2014-10-01

    The mineralogical and geochemical composition of sinters from the geothermal areas on the Tibetan Plateau was determined. They occur as siliceous, salty and calcareous sinters but biogenic siliceous sinters were also found. The analyses indicate that there are no distinct inter -element relationships between individual rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements. Formed from the same geothermal water, the mineralogical and chemical composition of the sinters is influenced by their genesis and formation conditions. The REE distributions depend on the origin of the sinters. Fe-Mn phases in sinters tend to scavenge more REEs from geothermal water. Neither the REE fractionation nor the Ce anomaly seems to be associated with Fe-Mn phases in the sinters. The fourth tetrads of some sinters display weak W-type (concave) effects. In contrast, the third tetrads present large effects in some sinters due to positive Gd anomalies. The origin of the positive Eu anomalies in some sinters seems to be caused by preferential dissolution of feldspars during water-rock interaction. The complexing ligands in geothermal water may contribute significantly to the fractionation of REEs in sinters. The dominant CO32- and HCO3- complexing in geothermal water favors enrichment of heavy REEs in calcareous sinters.

  9. Rare earth element behavior during groundwater–seawater mixing along the Kona Coast of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Johannesson, Karen H.; Palmore, C. Dianne; Fackrell, Joseph

    Groundwater and seawater samples were collected from nearshore wells and offshore along the Kona Coast of the Big Island of Hawaii to investigate rare earth element (REE) behavior in local subterranean estuaries. Previously we saw that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the predominant flux of terrestrial waters to the coastal ocean along the arid Kona Coast of Hawaii. Groundwater and seawater samples were filtered through 0.45 μm and 0.02 μm pore-size filters to evaluate the importance of colloidal and soluble (i.e., truly dissolved ionic species and/or low molecular weight [LMW] colloids) fractions of the REEs in the local subterranean estuaries.more » Mixing experiments using groundwater collected immediately down gradient from a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) proximal to the Kaloko-Hanokohau National Historic Park, and more “pristine” groundwater from a well constructed in a lava tube at Kiholo Bay, were conducted with local seawater to study the effect of solution composition (i.e., pH, salinity) on the concentrations and fractionation behavior of the REEs as groundwater mixes with seawater in Kona Coast subterranean estuaries. The mixed waters were also filtered through 0.45 or 0.02 μm filters to ascertain the behavior of colloidal and soluble fractions of the REEs across the salinity gradient in each mixing experiment. Concentrations of the REEs were statistically identical (two-tailed Student t-test, 95% confidence) between the sequentially filtered sample aliquots, indicating that the REEs occur as dissolved ionic species and/or LMW colloids in Kona Coast groundwaters. The mixing experiments revealed that the REEs are released to solution from suspended particles or colloids when Kona Coast groundwater waters mix with local seawater. The order of release that accompanies increasing pH and salinity follows light REE (LREE) > middle REE (MREE) > heavy REE (HREE). Release of REEs in the mixing experiments is driven by decreases in the

  10. Rare earth element behavior during groundwater–seawater mixing along the Kona Coast of Hawaii

    DOE PAGES

    Johannesson, Karen H.; Palmore, C. Dianne; Fackrell, Joseph; ...

    2016-11-14

    Groundwater and seawater samples were collected from nearshore wells and offshore along the Kona Coast of the Big Island of Hawaii to investigate rare earth element (REE) behavior in local subterranean estuaries. Previously we saw that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the predominant flux of terrestrial waters to the coastal ocean along the arid Kona Coast of Hawaii. Groundwater and seawater samples were filtered through 0.45 μm and 0.02 μm pore-size filters to evaluate the importance of colloidal and soluble (i.e., truly dissolved ionic species and/or low molecular weight [LMW] colloids) fractions of the REEs in the local subterranean estuaries.more » Mixing experiments using groundwater collected immediately down gradient from a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) proximal to the Kaloko-Hanokohau National Historic Park, and more “pristine” groundwater from a well constructed in a lava tube at Kiholo Bay, were conducted with local seawater to study the effect of solution composition (i.e., pH, salinity) on the concentrations and fractionation behavior of the REEs as groundwater mixes with seawater in Kona Coast subterranean estuaries. The mixed waters were also filtered through 0.45 or 0.02 μm filters to ascertain the behavior of colloidal and soluble fractions of the REEs across the salinity gradient in each mixing experiment. Concentrations of the REEs were statistically identical (two-tailed Student t-test, 95% confidence) between the sequentially filtered sample aliquots, indicating that the REEs occur as dissolved ionic species and/or LMW colloids in Kona Coast groundwaters. The mixing experiments revealed that the REEs are released to solution from suspended particles or colloids when Kona Coast groundwater waters mix with local seawater. The order of release that accompanies increasing pH and salinity follows light REE (LREE) > middle REE (MREE) > heavy REE (HREE). Release of REEs in the mixing experiments is driven by decreases in the

  11. Rare earth element behavior during groundwater – seawater mixing along the Kona Coast of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johannesson, Karen H.; Palmore, C. Dianne; Fackrell, Joseph; Prouty, Nancy G.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Chevis, Darren A.; Telfeyan, Katherine; White, Christopher D.; Burdige, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater and seawater samples were collected from nearshore wells and offshore along the Kona Coast of the Big Island of Hawaii to investigate rare earth element (REE) behavior in local subterranean estuaries. Previous investigations showed that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the predominant flux of terrestrial waters to the coastal ocean along the arid Kona Coast of Hawaii. Groundwater and seawater samples were filtered through 0.45 μm and 0.02 μm pore-size filters to evaluate the importance of colloidal and soluble (i.e., truly dissolved ionic species and/or low molecular weight [LMW] colloids) fractions of the REEs in the local subterranean estuaries. Mixing experiments using groundwater collected immediately down gradient from a wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) proximal to the Kaloko-Hanokohau National Historic Park, and more “pristine” groundwater from a well constructed in a lava tube at Kiholo Bay, were mixed with local seawater to study the effect of solution composition (i.e., pH, salinity) on the concentrations and fractionation behavior of the REEs as groundwater mixes with seawater in Kona Coast subterranean estuaries. The mixed waters were also filtered through 0.45 or 0.02 μm filters to ascertain the behavior of colloidal and soluble fractions of the REEs across the salinity gradient in each mixing experiment. Concentrations of the REEs were statistically identical (two-tailed Student t-test, 95% confidence) between the sequentially filtered sample aliquots, indicating that the REEs occur as dissolved ionic species and/or LMW colloids in Kona Coast groundwaters. The mixing experiments revealed that the REEs are released to solution from suspended particles or colloids when Kona Coast groundwater waters mix with local seawater. The order of release that accompanies increasing pH and salinity follows light REE (LREE) > middle REE (MREE) > heavy REE (HREE). Release of REEs in the mixing experiments is driven by decreases in the

  12. A LOW-COST RARE EARTH ELEMENTS RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical Sciences, Inc., and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research propose to develop a unique enabling technology to significantly reduce U.S. dependency for Rare Earth Elements (REE) on foreign suppliers and our global competitors. Our innovation...

  13. Method to Recover Media Ligand Losses During Sorption of Rare Earth Elements from Simulated Geothermal Brines

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dean Stull

    2016-05-24

    This document describes the method and results of an in-situ experiment used to confirm that ligand bleed from a sorptive media can be contained. The experiment focused on maintaining the media's sorption of rare earth elements (REE) obtained from a simulated geothermal brine doped with known mineral concentrations.

  14. Preliminary study on using rare earth elements to trace non-point source phosphorous loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The environmental fate of phosphorus (P) is of concern as P is a primary cause of freshwater eutrophication. Rare earth elements (REEs) have been successfully used in the analysis of soil erosion and pollutant sources, as well as in the analysis of mineral genesis. To better understand the potential...

  15. Technical Information Resource on Rare Earth Elements Now Available to Public and Private Sector Stakeholders

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new EPA technical information resource, “Rare Earth Elements: A Review of Production, Processing, Recycling, and Associated Environmental Issues” has been produced as an introductory resource for those interested in learning more about REE mining and alternatives to meet demand...

  16. An assessment of exposure to rare earth elements among patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Galusha, Aubrey L; Kruger, Pamela C; Howard, Lyn J; Parsons, Patrick J

    2018-05-01

    Patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) are exposed to potentially toxic elements, which may accumulate in bone. Bone samples collected from seven PN patients (average = 14 years) and eighteen hip/knee samples were analyzed for Al as part of a previous investigation. Yttrium was serendipitously detected in the PN bone samples, leading to the present investigation of rare earth elements (REEs). A method for quantitating fifteen REEs in digested bone was developed based on tandem ICP-MS (ICP-MS/MS) to resolve spectral interferences. The method was validated against nine biological reference materials (RMs) for which assigned values were available for most REEs. Values found in two NIST bone SRMs (1400 Bone Ash and 1486 Bone Meal) compared favorably to those reported elsewhere. Method detection limits ranged from 0.9 ng g -1 (Tm) to 5.8 ng g -1 (Y). Median REE values in the PN patient group were at least fifteen times higher than the "control" group, and exceeded all previously reported data for eleven REEs in human bones. REE content in PN bones normalized to the Earth's upper crust revealed anomalies for Gd in two patients, likely from exposure to Gd-containing contrast agents used in MRI studies. A retrospective review of the medical record for one patient revealed an almost certain case of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, associated with Gd exposure. Analysis of two current PN formulations showed traces of REEs with relative abundances similar to those found in the PN bones, providing convincing evidence that PN solutions were the primary source of REEs in this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Rare earth element content of cryptocrystalline magnesites of Konya, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Zedef, Veysel, E-mail: vzedef@selcuk.edu.tr; Russell, Michael

    We examined the rare earth element content of several cryptocrystalline magnesites as well as hydromagnesite, host rock serpentinites, lake water and hot spring water from Turkey. Southwestern Turkey hosts cryptocrystalline magnesites, sedimentary magnesites with presently forming, biologically mediated hydromagnesites and travertines. Our results show the REE content of the minerals, rocks and waters are well below detection limits. One hydromagnesite sample from Lake Salda has slightly high La (2.38ppb), Ce (3.91 ppb) and Nd (1.68 ppb) when compared to other samples, but these are also still below detection limits of the method we followed.

  18. Spectral analysis of rare earth elements using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Fox, Robert V.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.; DeLucia, Frank C.; André, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    There is growing interest in rapid analysis of rare earth elements (REEs) both due to the need to find new natural sources to satisfy increased demand in their use in various electronic devices, as well as the fact that they are used to estimate actinide masses for nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) appears to be a particularly well-suited spectroscopy-based technology to rapidly and accurately analyze the REEs in various matrices at low concentration levels (parts-per-million). Although LIBS spectra of REEs have been reported for a number of years, further work is still necessary in order to be able to quantify the concentrations of various REEs in realworld complex samples. LIBS offers advantages over conventional solution-based radiochemistry in terms of cost, analytical turnaround, waste generation, personnel dose, and contamination risk. Rare earth elements of commercial interest are found in the following three matrix groups: 1) raw ores and unrefined materials, 2) as components in refined products such as magnets, lighting phosphors, consumer electronics (which are mostly magnets and phosphors), catalysts, batteries, etc., and 3) waste/recyclable materials (aka e-waste). LIBS spectra for REEs such as Gd, Nd, and Sm found in rare earth magnets are presented.

  19. Spectral Analysis of Rare Earth Elements using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z; Fox, Dr. Richard V; Miziolek, Andrzej W

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in rapid analysis of rare earth elements (REEs) both due to the need to find new natural sources to satisfy increased demand in their use in various electronic devices, as well as the fact that they are used to estimate actinide masses for nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) appears to be a particularly well-suited spectroscopy-based technology to rapidly and accurately analyze the REEs in various matrices at low concentration levels (parts-per-million). Although LIBS spectra of REEs have been reported for a number of years, further work is still necessary in order to bemore » able to quantify the concentrations of various REEs in real-world complex samples. LIBS offers advantages over conventional solution-based radiochemistry in terms of cost, analytical turnaround, waste generation, personnel dose, and contamination risk. Rare earth elements of commercial interest are found in the following three matrix groups: 1) raw ores and unrefined materials, 2) as components in refined products such as magnets, lighting phosphors, consumer electronics (which are mostly magnets and phosphors), catalysts, batteries, etc., and 3) waste/recyclable materials (aka e-waste). LIBS spectra for REEs such as Gd, Nd, and Sm found in rare earth magnets are presented.« less

  20. Spectral Analysis of Rare Earth Elements using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z; Fox, Dr. Richard V; Miziolek, Andrzej W

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in rapid analysis of rare earth elements (REEs) both due to the need to find new natural sources to satisfy increased demand in their use in various electronic devices, as well as the fact that they are used to estimate actinide masses for nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) appears to be a particularly well-suited spectroscopy-based technology to rapidly and accurately analyze the REEs in various matrices at low concentration levels (parts-per-million). Although LIBS spectra of REEs have been reported for a number of years, further work is still necessary in order to bemore » able to quantify the concentrations of various REEs in realworld complex samples. LIBS offers advantages over conventional solution-based radiochemistry in terms of cost, analytical turnaround, waste generation, personnel dose, and contamination risk. Rare earth elements of commercial interest are found in the following three matrix groups: 1) raw ores and unrefined materials, 2) as components in refined products such as magnets, lighting phosphors, consumer electronics (which are mostly magnets and phosphors), catalysts, batteries, etc., and 3) waste/recyclable materials (aka e-waste). LIBS spectra for REEs such as Gd, Nd, and Sm found in rare earth magnets are presented.« less

  1. Spectral Analysis of Rare Earth Elements using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Madhavi Z. Martin; Robert V. Fox; Andrzej W. Miziolek

    2001-05-01

    There is growing interest in rapid analysis of rare earth elements (REEs) both due to the need to find new natural sources to satisfy increased demand in their use in various electronic devices, as well as the fact that they are used to estimate actinide masses for nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) appears to be a particularly well-suited spectroscopy-based technology to rapidly and accurately analyze the REEs in various matrices at low concentration levels (parts-per-million). Although LIBS spectra of REEs have been reported for a number of years, further work is still necessary in order to bemore » able to quantify the concentrations of various REEs in realworld complex samples. LIBS offers advantages over conventional solution-based radiochemistry in terms of cost, analytical turnaround, waste generation, personnel dose, and contamination risk. Rare earth elements of commercial interest are found in the following three matrix groups: 1) raw ores and unrefined materials, 2) as components in refined products such as magnets, lighting phosphors, consumer electronics (which are mostly magnets and phosphors), catalysts, batteries, etc., and 3) waste/recyclable materials (aka e-waste). LIBS spectra for REEs such as Gd, Nd, and Sm found in rare earth magnets are presented.« less

  2. Spatial variability and geochemistry of rare earth elements in soils from the largest uranium-phosphate deposit of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Cleyton Saialy Medeiros; da Silva, Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra; Escobar, Maria Eugenia Ortiz; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo

    2018-02-22

    The Itataia uranium-phosphate deposit is the largest uranium reserve in Brazil. Rare earth elements (REEs) are commonly associated with phosphate deposits; however, there are no studies on the concentrations of REEs in soils of the Itataia deposit region. Thus, the objective of the research was to evaluate the concentration and spatial variability of REEs in topsoils of Itataia phosphate deposit region. In addition, the influence of soil properties on the geochemistry of REEs was investigated. Results showed that relatively high mean concentrations (mg kg -1 ) of heavy REEs (Gd 6.01; Tb 1.25; Ho 1.15; Er 4.05; Tm 0.64; Yb 4.61; Lu 0.65) were found in surface soils samples. Soil properties showed weak influence on the geochemical behavior of REEs in soils, except for the clay content. On the other hand, parent material characteristics, such as P and U, had strong influence on REEs concentrations. Spatial distribution patterns of REEs in soils are clearly associated with P and U contents. Therefore, geochemical surveys aiming at the delineation of ore-bearing zones in the region can benefit from our data. The results of this work reinforce the perspective for co-mining of P, U and REEs in this important P-U reserve.

  3. Rare earth elements in street dust and associated health risk in a municipal industrial base of central China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guangyi; Li, Zhonggen; Liu, Ting; Chen, Ji; Wu, Tingting; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-12-01

    The content levels, distribution characteristics, and health risks associated with 15 rare earth elements (REEs) in urban street dust from an industrial city, Zhuzhou, in central China were investigated. The total REE content (∑REE) ranged from 66.1 to 237.4 mg kg -1 , with an average of 115.9 mg kg -1 , which is lower than that of Chinese background soil and Yangtze river sediment. Average content of the individual REE in street dust decreased in the order Ce > La > Nd > Y > Pr > Sm > Gd > Dy > Er > Yb > Eu > Ho > Tb > Tm > Lu. The chondrite-normalized REE pattern indicated light REE (LREE) enrichment, a relatively steep LREE trend, heavy REE (HREE) depletion, a flat HREE trend, a Eu-negative anomaly and a Ce-positive anomaly. Foremost heavy local soil and to less degree anthropogenic pollution are the main sources of REE present in street dust. Health risk associated with the exposure of REE in street dust was assessed based on the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effect and lifetime average daily dose. The obtained cancer and non-cancer risk values prompt for no augmented health hazard. However, children had greater health risks than that of adults.

  4. Formation of carbonatite-related giant rare-earth-element deposits by the recycling of marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Zengqian; Liu, Yan; Tian, Shihong; Yang, Zhiming; Xie, Yuling

    2015-01-01

    Carbonatite-associated rare-earth-element (REE) deposits are the most significant source of the world’s REEs; however, their genesis remains unclear. Here, we present new Sr-Nd-Pb and C-O isotopic data for Cenozoic carbonatite-hosted giant REE deposits in southwest China. These REE deposits are located along the western margin of the Yangtze Craton that experienced Proterozoic lithospheric accretion, and controlled by Cenozoic strike-slip faults related to Indo-Asian continental collision. The Cenozoic carbonatites were emplaced as stocks or dykes with associated syenites, and tend to be extremely enriched in Ba, Sr, and REEs and have high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (>0.7055). These carbonatites were likely formed by melting of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), which had been previously metasomatized by high-flux REE- and CO2-rich fluids derived from subducted marine sediments. The fertility of these carbonatites depends on the release of REEs from recycled marine sediments and on the intensity of metasomatic REE refertilization of the SCLM. We suggest that cratonic edges, particularly along ancient convergent margins, possess the optimal configuration for generating giant REE deposits; therefore, areas of metamorphic basement bounded or cut by translithospheric faults along cratonic edges have a high potential for such deposits. PMID:26035414

  5. An impact of moss sample cleaning on uncertainty of analytical measurement and pattern profiles of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Dołęgowska, Sabina; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M

    2017-12-01

    The main source of rare earth elements (REE) in mosses is atmospheric deposition of particles. Sample treatment operations including shaking, rinsing or washing, which are made in a standard way on moss samples prior to chemical analysis, may lead to removing particles adsorbed onto their tissues. This in turn causes differences in REE concentrations in treated and untreated samples. For the present study, 27 combined moss samples were collected within three wooded areas and prepared for REE determinations by ICP-MS using both manual cleaning by shaking and triple rinsing with deionized water. Higher concentrations of REE were found in manually cleaned samples. The comparison of REE signatures and shale-normalized REE concentration patterns showed that the treatment procedure did not lead to fractionation of REE. All the samples were enriched in medium rare earth elements, and the δMREE factor remained practically unchanged after rinsing. Positive anomalies of Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Er and Yb were observed in both, manually cleaned and rinsed samples. For all the elements examined, analytical uncertainty was below 3.0% whereas sample preparation uncertainty computed with ANOVA, RANOVA, modified RANOVA and range statistics methods varied from 3.5 to 29.7%. In most cases the lowest s rprep values were obtained with the modified RANOVA method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Normalized rare earth elements in water, sediments, and wine: identifying sources and environmental redox conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, David Z.; Bau, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of the rare earth elements (REE) in surface waters and sediments, when normalized on an element-by-element basis to one of several rock standards and plotted versus atomic number, yield curves that reveal their partitioning between different sediment fractions and the sources of those fractions, for example, between terrestrial-derived lithogenous debris and seawater-derived biogenous detritus and hydrogenous metal oxides. The REE of ancient sediments support their partitioning into these same fractions and further contribute to the identification of the redox geochemistry of the sea water in which the sediments accumulated. The normalized curves of the REE that have been examined in several South American wine varietals can be interpreted to reflect the lithology of the bedrock on which the vines may have been grown, suggesting limited fractionation during soil development.

  7. Concomitant Leaching and Electrochemical Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Monazite.

    PubMed

    Maes, Synthia; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Rabaey, Korneel; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa; Hennebel, Tom

    2017-02-07

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have become increasingly important in modern day technologies. Unfortunately, their recycling is currently limited, and the conventional technologies for their extraction and purification are exceedingly energy and chemical intensive. New sustainable technologies for REE extraction from both primary and secondary resources would be extremely beneficial. This research investigated a two-stage recovery strategy focused on the recovery of neodymium (Nd) and lanthanum (La) from monazite ore that combines microbially based leaching (using citric acid and spent fungal supernatant) with electrochemical extraction. Pretreating the phosphate-based monazite rock (via roasting) dramatically increased the microbial REE leaching efficiency. Batch experiments demonstrated the effective and continued leaching of REEs by recycled citric acid, with up to 392 mg of Nd L -1 and 281 mg of La L -1 leached during seven consecutive 24 h cycles. Neodymium was further extracted in the catholyte of a three-compartment electrochemical system, with up to 880 mg of Nd L -1 achieved within 4 days (at 40 A m -2 ). Meanwhile, the radioactive element thorium and counterions phosphate and citrate were separated effectively from the REEs in the anolyte, favoring REE extraction and allowing sustainable reuse of the leaching agent. This study shows a promising technology that is suitable for primary ores and can further be optimized for secondary resources.

  8. Complementary rare earth element patterns in unique achondrites, such as ALHA 77005 and shergottites, and in the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Laul, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Abundances of major, minor, and trace elements are determined in the Antarctic achondrite Allan Hills (ALHA) 77005 via sequential instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The rare earth element (REE) abundances of ALHA 77005 reveal a unique chondritic normalized pattern; that is, the REEs are nearly unfractionated from La to Pr at approximately 1.0X chondrites, monotonically increased from Pr to Gd at approximately 3.4X with no Eu anomaly, nearly unfractionated from Gd and Ho and monotonically decreased from Ho to Lu at approximately 2.2X. It is noted that this unique REE pattern of ALHA 77005 can be modeled by a melting process involving a continuous melting and progressive partial removal of melt from a light REE enriched source material. In a model of this type, ALHA 77005 could represent either a crystallized cumulate from such a melt or the residual source material. Calculations show that the parent liquids for the shergottites could also be derived from a light REE enriched source material similar to that for ALHA 77005.

  9. Residual levels of rare earth elements in freshwater and marine fish and their health risk assessment from Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luping; Wang, Xining; Nie, Hongqian; Shao, Lijun; Wang, Guoling; Liu, Yongjun

    2016-06-15

    The total concentrations of rare earth elementsREE) were quantified in 251 samples from 10 common species of freshwater and marine fish in seventeen cities of Shandong, China. ΣREE obtained from the freshwater fish ranged from 34.0 to 37.9ngg(-1) (wet weight) and marine fish from 12.7 to 37.6ngg(-1). The ratio of LREE to HREE was 13.7:1 and 10:1 for freshwater and marine fish, respectively. This suggests that freshwater fish exhibit greater REE concentrations than marine fish and the biological effects of LREE are higher than HREE. Results revealed a similar REE distribution pattern between those fish and coastal sediments, abiding the "abundance law". The health risk assessment demonstrated the EDIs of REEs in fish were significantly lower than the ADI, indicating that the consumption of these fish presents little risk to human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bio- and mineral acid leaching of rare earth elements from synthetic phosphogypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z.; Antonick, P.; Fujita, Y.; Reed, D. W.; Riman, R.; Eslamimanesh, A.; Das, G.; Anderko, A.; Wu, L.; Shivaramaiah, R.; Navrotsky, A.

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are critical to many clean energy technologies. However, the lack of U.S. domestic production and the reliance on imported REE put U.S. energy security at risk. Consequently development of new sources is of strategic interest. Global phosphate deposits contain 27 million tons of REE and 38% of these REE end up in phosphogypsum (PG) waste during phosphate fertilizer production. Recovering REE from PG is a first step toward a trash-to-treasure transformation. We studied the leaching of REE from synthetic PG samples containing Y, Nd, or Eu using a suite of lixiviants including spent medium from the growth of the bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans ("biolixiviant"), gluconic acid, common mineral acids (phosphoric and sulfuric), and water. Synthetic PG was used to facilitate the comparison of the different lixiviants; real PG waste is extremely heterogeneous. Gluconic acid was the predominant identified organic acid in the biolixiviant. The leaching efficiency of the acidic lixiviants at the same pH (2.1) or molar concentration as gluconic acid in the biolixiviant (220 mM) were compared and rationalized by thermodynamic simulation using the mixed-solvent electrolyte model. Initial results indicate that the biolixiviant was more effective at leaching the REE than the mineral acids at pH 2.1. At 220 mM acid concentrations, sulfuric acid was the most effective, followed by the biolixiviant. Interestingly, for a given lixiviant, the leaching behavior of the REE differed. This study provides insight into the definition of an efficient lixiviant for leaching REE from phosphate fertilizer production waste.

  11. Rare-earth element fractionation in uranium ore and its U(VI) alteration minerals

    DOE PAGES

    Balboni, Enrica; Spano, T; Cook, N; ...

    2017-10-20

    We developed a cation exchange chromatography method employing sulfonated polysterene cation resin (DOWEX AG50-X8) in order to separate rare-earth elements (REEs) from uranium-rich materials. The chemical separation scheme is designed to reduce matrix effects and consequently yield enhanced ionization efficiencies for concentration determinations of REEs without significant fractionation using solution mode-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. This method was then applied to determine REE abundances in four uraninite (ideally UO 2) samples and their associated U(VI) alteration minerals. In three of the samples analyzed, the concentration of REEs for primary uraninite are higher than those for their corresponding secondarymore » uranium alteration phases. The results for U(VI) alteration minerals of two samples indicate enrichment of the light REEs (LREEs) over the heavy REEs (HREEs). This differential mobilization is attributed to differences in the mineralogical composition of the U(VI) alteration. There is a lack of fractionation of the LREEs in the uraninite alteration rind that is composed of U(VI) minerals containing Ca 2+ as the interlayer cation (uranophane and bequerelite); contrarily, U(VI) alteration minerals containing K + and Pb 2+ as interlayer cations (fourmarierite, dumontite) indicate fractionation (enrichment) of the LREEs. Our results have implications for nuclear forensic analyses since a comparison is reported between the REE abundances for the CUP-2 (processed uranium ore) certified reference material and previously determined values for uranium ore concentrate (UOC) produced from the same U deposit (Blind River/Elliott Lake, Canada). UOCs represent the most common form of interdicted nuclear material and consequently is material frequently targeted for forensic analysis. The comparison reveals similar chondrite normalized REE signatures but variable absolute abundances. Based on the results reported here, the

  12. Anthropogenic rare earth elements and their spatial distributions in the Han River, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyeongseok; Shin, Woo-Jin; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Shin, Hyung Seon; Chung, Heesun; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2017-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) consist of lanthanides (from La to Lu), together with yttrium and scandium, in which anthropogenic REE, such as gadolinium (Gd), lanthanum (La), and samarium (Sm), has emerged as micro-contaminants in natural waters in highly developed countries. Here, we collected water samples in the Han River (HR) and its tributaries flowing through Seoul Capital Area, the world's second largest metropolitan area in order to examine how and to what extent anthropogenic REE anomalies may occur. Water samples show higher light REE concentrations than heavy REE concentrations, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) samples display much higher heavy REE concentrations due to high Gd concentration. The PAAS-normalized REE patterns indicate that WWTP samples display the pronounced positive Gd anomalies, in which anthropogenic Gd from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostic system occurs as a form of Gd complexation with either Cl - or SO 4 2- . Due to the WWTP, both the HR and tributaries show also positive Gd anomalies and the anthropogenic Gd concentrations increase as a function of the distance from the Paldang dam. This result indicates a positive correlation between populaton, number of MRI instruments, and positive Gd anomaly. Similarly, positive La and Sm anomalies exist in the HR, indicating that the HR is also affected by their point sources. Based on the discharge rate and anthropogenic REE concentrations, their fluxes are estimated to be 952 ± 319 kg/yr, suggesting that this amount of fluxes could disturb REE distribution in the Yellow Sea, and pose harmful effects on aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rare-earth element fractionation in uranium ore and its U(VI) alteration minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Balboni, Enrica; Spano, T; Cook, N

    We developed a cation exchange chromatography method employing sulfonated polysterene cation resin (DOWEX AG50-X8) in order to separate rare-earth elements (REEs) from uranium-rich materials. The chemical separation scheme is designed to reduce matrix effects and consequently yield enhanced ionization efficiencies for concentration determinations of REEs without significant fractionation using solution mode-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. This method was then applied to determine REE abundances in four uraninite (ideally UO 2) samples and their associated U(VI) alteration minerals. In three of the samples analyzed, the concentration of REEs for primary uraninite are higher than those for their corresponding secondarymore » uranium alteration phases. The results for U(VI) alteration minerals of two samples indicate enrichment of the light REEs (LREEs) over the heavy REEs (HREEs). This differential mobilization is attributed to differences in the mineralogical composition of the U(VI) alteration. There is a lack of fractionation of the LREEs in the uraninite alteration rind that is composed of U(VI) minerals containing Ca 2+ as the interlayer cation (uranophane and bequerelite); contrarily, U(VI) alteration minerals containing K + and Pb 2+ as interlayer cations (fourmarierite, dumontite) indicate fractionation (enrichment) of the LREEs. Our results have implications for nuclear forensic analyses since a comparison is reported between the REE abundances for the CUP-2 (processed uranium ore) certified reference material and previously determined values for uranium ore concentrate (UOC) produced from the same U deposit (Blind River/Elliott Lake, Canada). UOCs represent the most common form of interdicted nuclear material and consequently is material frequently targeted for forensic analysis. The comparison reveals similar chondrite normalized REE signatures but variable absolute abundances. Based on the results reported here, the

  14. Fractionation of rare earth and other trace elements in crabs, Ucides cordatus, from a subtropical mangrove affected by fertilizer industry.

    PubMed

    Bosco-Santos, Alice; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira da; Souza, Monique Dias Corrêa de; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Navarro, Margareth Sugano

    2017-04-01

    Fractionation of rare earth elements (REE) and other trace metal concentrations (Th, U, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) between mangrove sediments and claw muscles and shells of male crabs (Ucides cordatus) from a subtropical estuary highly impacted by fertilizer industry activities was investigated. This is the first record of REE distribution in these organisms, and the results showed higher accumulations of these metals, U and Th in shells, probably related to the replacement of Ca during molting. Contents of Cd, Cr and Ni were similar in both tissues, but Cu, Zn and Pb were mostly accumulated in the claw muscle with concentrations above those considered safe for human consumption according to the Brazilian legislation. REE fractionation was different in the analyzed tissues being softer in the shells. The results provided evidences that the water absorbed during molting controls the chemistry of REE in shells. In contrast, the chemistry of REE in the claw muscle, in which was observed preferential absorption of light REE, is controlled by diet. REE fractionation obtained for the claw muscles was closely correlated to the observed in the contaminated substrate and in materials related to the production of phosphate fertilizers (contamination source), which supports their transference to this Ucides cordatus tissue without fractionation by the ingestion of sediments. Our results showed the potential use of crab tissues for monitoring REE and trace element sources in mangrove areas, with claw muscle exhibiting the contaminant source fingerprint. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Extraction of rare earth elements from a contaminated cropland soil using nitric acid, citric acid, and EDTA.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hailong; Shuai, Weitao; Wang, Xiaojing; Liu, Yangsheng

    2017-08-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) contamination to the surrounding soil has increased the concerns of health risk to the local residents. Soil washing was first attempted in our study to remediate REEs-contaminated cropland soil using nitric acid, citric acid, and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) for soil decontamination and possible recovery of REEs. The extraction time, washing agent concentration, and pH value of the washing solution were optimized. The sequential extraction analysis proposed by Tessier was adopted to study the speciation changes of the REEs before and after soil washing. The extract containing citric acid was dried to obtain solid for the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The results revealed that the optimal extraction time was 72 h, and the REEs extraction efficiency increased as the agent concentration increased from 0.01 to 0.1 mol/L. EDTA was efficient to extract REEs over a wide range of pH values, while citric acid was around pH 6.0. Under optimized conditions, the average extraction efficiencies of the major REEs in the contaminated soil were 70.96%, 64.38%, and 62.12% by EDTA, nitric acid, and citric acid, respectively. The sequential extraction analyses revealed that most soil-bounded REEs were mobilized or extracted except for those in the residual fraction. Under a comprehensive consideration of the extraction efficiency and the environmental impact, citric acid was recommended as the most suitable agent for extraction of the REEs from the contaminated cropland soils. The XRF analysis revealed that Mn, Al, Si, Pb, Fe, and REEs were the major elements in the extract indicating a possibile recovery of the REEs.

  16. Facile Arsenazo III-Based Assay for Monitoring Rare Earth Element Depletion from Cultivation Media for Methanotrophic and Methylotrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hogendoorn, Carmen; Roszczenko-Jasińska, Paula; Martinez-Gomez, N. Cecilia; de Graaff, Johann; Grassl, Patrick; Pol, Arjan; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recently, methanotrophic and methylotrophic bacteria were found to utilize rare earth elements (REEs). To monitor the REE content in culture media of these bacteria, we have developed a rapid screening method using the Arsenazo III (AS III) dye for spectrophotometric REE detection in the low μM (0.1 to 10 μM) range. We designed this assay to follow LaIII and EuIII depletion from the culture medium by the acidophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum strain SolV. The assay can also be modified to screen the uptake of other REEs, such as PrIII, or to monitor the depletion of LaIII from growth media in neutrophilic methylotrophs such as Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1. The AS III assay presents a convenient and fast detection method for REE levels in culture media and is a sensitive alternative to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). IMPORTANCE REE-dependent bacterial metabolism is a quickly emerging field, and while the importance of REEs for both methanotrophic and methylotrophic bacteria is now firmly established, many important questions, such as how these insoluble elements are taken up into cells, are still unanswered. Here, an Arsenazo III dye-based assay has been developed for fast, specific, and sensitive determination of REE content in different culture media. This assay presents a useful tool for optimizing cultivation protocols, as well as for routine REE monitoring during bacterial growth without the need for specialized analytical instrumentation. Furthermore, this assay has the potential to promote the discovery of other REE-dependent microorganisms and can help to elucidate the mechanisms for acquisition of REEs by methanotrophic and methylotrophic bacteria. PMID:29453257

  17. Facile Arsenazo III-Based Assay for Monitoring Rare Earth Element Depletion from Cultivation Media for Methanotrophic and Methylotrophic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hogendoorn, Carmen; Roszczenko-Jasińska, Paula; Martinez-Gomez, N Cecilia; de Graaff, Johann; Grassl, Patrick; Pol, Arjan; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Daumann, Lena J

    2018-04-15

    Recently, methanotrophic and methylotrophic bacteria were found to utilize rare earth elements (REEs). To monitor the REE content in culture media of these bacteria, we have developed a rapid screening method using the Arsenazo III (AS III) dye for spectrophotometric REE detection in the low μM (0.1 to 10 μM) range. We designed this assay to follow La III and Eu III depletion from the culture medium by the acidophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum strain SolV. The assay can also be modified to screen the uptake of other REEs, such as Pr III , or to monitor the depletion of La III from growth media in neutrophilic methylotrophs such as Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1. The AS III assay presents a convenient and fast detection method for REE levels in culture media and is a sensitive alternative to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). IMPORTANCE REE-dependent bacterial metabolism is a quickly emerging field, and while the importance of REEs for both methanotrophic and methylotrophic bacteria is now firmly established, many important questions, such as how these insoluble elements are taken up into cells, are still unanswered. Here, an Arsenazo III dye-based assay has been developed for fast, specific, and sensitive determination of REE content in different culture media. This assay presents a useful tool for optimizing cultivation protocols, as well as for routine REE monitoring during bacterial growth without the need for specialized analytical instrumentation. Furthermore, this assay has the potential to promote the discovery of other REE-dependent microorganisms and can help to elucidate the mechanisms for acquisition of REEs by methanotrophic and methylotrophic bacteria. Copyright © 2018 Hogendoorn et al.

  18. Off-line separation and determination of rare earth elements associated with chloroplast pigments of hyperaccumulator Dicranopteris dichotoma by normal-phase liquid chromatography and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Wei, Z G; Hong, F S; Yin, M; Li, H X; Hu, F; Zhao, G W; Wong, J W C

    2004-10-01

    An off-line normal-phase liquid chromatography-ICP-MS method has been used for separation and determination of the rare earth elements (REE) associated with chloroplast pigments of Dicranopteris dichotoma. The stability of REE-bound pigments was tested, and almost no destruction of REE-bound pigments occurred during the so-called normal-phase liquid chromatography. The accumulated free REE ions on the microcrystalline cellulose column were cleaned by elution with 5 mmol L(-1) 2-ethylhexyl hydrogen 2-ethylhexylphosphonate (P507), to avoid exchange of these free ions with metals from the pigments. When these precautions were taken, the method was applied to the study of REE-bound pigments in D. dichotoma. ICP-MS results showed REE were present in chlorophylls and lutein, although REE concentrations in carotene and pheophytin were both below procedural blank levels. By careful analysis of the eluate fractions containing chlorophyll a it was found that REE-bound chlorophyll a in D. dichotoma was slightly enriched in the fractions with relatively short retention time. Results indicated that the retention time of REE-bound chlorophyll a might be slightly less than that of magnesium chlorophyll a, and REE-bound chlorophylls might be of relatively low polarity in comparison with magnesium bound chlorophylls. This phenomenon could be explained by the special double-decker sandwich-structure of REE-bound chlorophylls, as was reported by us and other authors. On the basis of these results we preferred to consider that REE can replace magnesium in chlorophyll a of D. dichotoma, and that the role of REE-bound chlorophylls in photosynthesis cannot be neglected. These data might be useful for understanding of both the properties of REE-bound pigments and the effect of REE on plant photosynthesis.

  19. Bioleaching of rare earth elements from waste phosphors and cracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, David W.; Fujita, Yoshiko; Daubaras, Dayna L.

    Four microbial cultures were evaluated for organic acid production and their potential utility for leaching of rare earth elements (REE) from retorted phosphor powder (RPP) and spent fluidized cracking catalyst (FCC). Three of the cultures (2 bacterial, 1 fungal) were isolated from environmental and industrial materials known to contain rare earth elements. The other was the well-known and industrially important bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans. Gluconic acid was the predominant identified organic acid produced by all of the cultures; citric and acetic acid were among the other acids detected. There was also maximum REE leaching by cell free culture supernatants obtained withmore » Gluconobacter and the FCC; 49% of total REE was recovered, with preferential recovery of lanthanum over cerium. The phosphor powder was more difficult to leach; only ~2 % total REE was leached from RPP with Gluconobacter. Tests with the RPP indicated that the extent of REE solubilization was similar whether whole cell cultures or cell-free supernatants were used. However, Gluconobacter cell-free culture supernatants with 10-15 mM gluconic acid outperformed abiotically prepared leaching solutions with 30 mM gluconic acid concentrations. Abiotic tests showed that increasing gluconic acid concentrations increased leaching efficiency; for example, total REE leaching from FCC increased from 24 to 36 to 45% when gluconic acid was increased from 10 to 30 to 90 mM. Our research shows that utilizing microorganisms that produce gluconic acid can result in effective leaching of REE from waste materials, and optimizing gluconic acid production will improve recovery.« less

  20. Bioleaching of rare earth elements from waste phosphors and cracking catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Reed, David W.; Fujita, Yoshiko; Daubaras, Dayna L.; ...

    2016-08-22

    Four microbial cultures were evaluated for organic acid production and their potential utility for leaching of rare earth elements (REE) from retorted phosphor powder (RPP) and spent fluidized cracking catalyst (FCC). Three of the cultures (2 bacterial, 1 fungal) were isolated from environmental and industrial materials known to contain rare earth elements. The other was the well-known and industrially important bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans. Gluconic acid was the predominant identified organic acid produced by all of the cultures; citric and acetic acid were among the other acids detected. There was also maximum REE leaching by cell free culture supernatants obtained withmore » Gluconobacter and the FCC; 49% of total REE was recovered, with preferential recovery of lanthanum over cerium. The phosphor powder was more difficult to leach; only ~2 % total REE was leached from RPP with Gluconobacter. Tests with the RPP indicated that the extent of REE solubilization was similar whether whole cell cultures or cell-free supernatants were used. However, Gluconobacter cell-free culture supernatants with 10-15 mM gluconic acid outperformed abiotically prepared leaching solutions with 30 mM gluconic acid concentrations. Abiotic tests showed that increasing gluconic acid concentrations increased leaching efficiency; for example, total REE leaching from FCC increased from 24 to 36 to 45% when gluconic acid was increased from 10 to 30 to 90 mM. Our research shows that utilizing microorganisms that produce gluconic acid can result in effective leaching of REE from waste materials, and optimizing gluconic acid production will improve recovery.« less

  1. Rare earth elements minimal harvest year variation facilitates robust geographical origin discrimination: The case of PDO "Fava Santorinis".

    PubMed

    Drivelos, Spiros A; Danezis, Georgios P; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Georgiou, Constantinos A

    2016-12-15

    This study examines the trace and rare earth elemental (REE) fingerprint variations of PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) "Fava Santorinis" over three consecutive harvesting years (2011-2013). Classification of samples in harvesting years was studied by performing discriminant analysis (DA), k nearest neighbours (κ-NN), partial least squares (PLS) analysis and probabilistic neural networks (PNN) using rare earth elements and trace metals determined using ICP-MS. DA performed better than κ-NN, producing 100% discrimination using trace elements and 79% using REEs. PLS was found to be superior to PNN, achieving 99% and 90% classification for trace and REEs, respectively, while PNN achieved 96% and 71% classification for trace and REEs, respectively. The information obtained using REEs did not enhance classification, indicating that REEs vary minimally per harvesting year, providing robust geographical origin discrimination. The results show that seasonal patterns can occur in the elemental composition of "Fava Santorinis", probably reflecting seasonality of climate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LA-ICP-MS analysis of isolated phosphatic grains indicates selective rare earth element enrichment during reworking and transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Gerald; Reuter, Markus; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are a commonly used proxy to reconstruct water chemistry and oxygen saturation during the formation history of authigenic and biogenic phosphates in marine environments. In the modern ocean REE exhibit a distinct pattern with enrichment of heavy REE and strong depletion in Cerium. Studies of ancient phosphates and carbonates, however, showed that this 'modern' pattern is only rarely present in the geological past. Consequently, the wide range of REE enrichment patterns found in ancient marine phosphates lead to the proposition that water chemistry had to have been radically different in the earth's past. A wealth of studies has already shown that both early and late diagenesis can strongly affect REE signatures in phosphates and severely alter primary marine signals. However, no previous research was conducted on how alteration processes occurring prior to final deposition affect marine phosphates. Herein we present a dataset of multiple LA-ICP-MS measurements of REE signatures in isolated phosphate and carbonate grains deposited in a carbonate ramp setting in the central Mediterranean Sea during the middle Miocene "Monterey event". The phosphates are represented by authigenic, biogenic and detrital grains emplaced in bioclastic grain- to packstones dominated by bryozoan and echinoderm fragments, as well as abundant benthic and planktic foraminifers. The results of 39 grain specific LA-ICP-MS measurements in three discrete rock samples reveals four markedly different REE patterns (normalized to the Post Archean Australian Shale standard) in terms of total enrichment and pattern shape. Analyses of REE diagenesis proxies show that diagenetic alteration affected the samples only to a minor degree. Considering grain shape and REE patterns together indicate that authigenic, detrital and biogenic phosphates have distinct REE patterns irrespective of the sample. Our results show that the observed REE patterns in phosphates only broadly reflect

  3. [Application of ICP-MS to Detect Rare Earth Elements in Three Economic Macroalgaes in China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-fang; Shang, De-rong; Zhai, Yu-xiu; Ning, Jin-song; Ding, Hai-yan; Sheng, Xiao-feng

    2015-11-01

    In order to investigate the content and distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in main economic macroalgaes in our country, fifteen rare earth elements in three economic macroalgaes (including 30 samples of kelp, 30 samples of laver and 15 samples of Enteromorpha) were detected using ICP-MS method. Results showed that the total content of REE in different species of macroalgaes was different. The highest total content of REE was in Enteromorpha (16,012.0 ng · g⁻¹), while in kelp and laver, the total REE was similar for two macroalgaes (3887.4 and 4318.1 ng · g⁻¹ respectively). The content of fifteen rare earth elements in kelp ranged from 7.9 to 1496.4 ng · g⁻¹; in laver, it ranged from 8.2 to 1836.6 ng · g⁻¹. For Enteromorpha, the concentration of 15 rare earth elements were between 19.2 and 6014.5 ng · g⁻¹. In addition, the content and distribution of different rare earth elements in different macroalgaes was also different. For kelp, the highest content of REE was Ce (1 496.4 ng · g⁻¹), and the second was La (689.1 ng · g⁻¹). For laver, the highest was Y (1836.6 ng · g⁻¹), and the second was Ce (682.2 ng · g⁻¹). For Enteromorpha, the highest was Ce (6014.5 ng · g⁻¹), and the second was La (2902.9 ng · g⁻¹). Present results also showed that three macroalgaes accumulated the light rare earth elements much more than the high rare earth elements. The light rare earth elements occupied 90.9%, 87.3% and 91.1% for kelp, laver and Enteromorpha respectively. The result that the Enteromorpha had high content of rare earth elements could provide important support for opening new research directions for the utilization of Enteromorpha.

  4. Unraveling Recrystallization Mechanisms Governing Texture Development from Rare-Earth Element Additions to Magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imandoust, Aidin; Barrett, Christopher D.; Al-Samman, Talal; Tschopp, Mark A.; Essadiqi, Elhachmi; Hort, Norbert; El Kadiri, Haitham

    2018-03-01

    The origin of texture components often associated with rare-earth element (REE) additions in wrought magnesium alloys is a long-standing problem in magnesium technology. While their influence on the texture is unquestionable, it is not yet clear why certain texture components, such as < 11\\bar{2}1 > ||{extrusion}{direction}, are favored over other components typically observed in traditional magnesium alloys. The objective of this research is to identify the mechanisms accountable for these RE textures during early stages of recrystallization. Electron backscattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal that REEs in zinc-containing magnesium alloys corroborate discontinuous dynamic recrystallization. REEs promote isotropic growth for all nuclei generated through the bulging mechanism. During nucleation, the effect of REEs on orientation selection was explained by the diversified activity of both < 10\\bar{1}0 > and [0001] Taylor axes in the same grain with a marked preference for [0001] rotations to occur first. During nuclei growth, no growth preference was observed when sufficient REEs are added in the zinc-containing magnesium alloys, instead isotropic nuclei growth across all grain orientations occurs. This phenomenon is attributed to REEs segregating to grain boundaries (GBs), in agreement with prior computational and theoretical results (Barrett et al., Scripta Mater 146:46-50, 2018) that show a more isotropic GB energy and mobility after segregation.

  5. Behavioral deficits and neural damage of Caenorhabditis elegans induced by three rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tiantian; Zhang, Manke; Hu, Jiani; Li, Zihan; Wu, Taipu; Bao, Jianing; Wu, Siyu; Lei, Lili; He, Defu

    2017-08-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are widely used in industry, agriculture, medicine and daily life in recent years. However, environmental and health risks of REEs are still poorly understood. In this study, neurotoxicity of trichloride neodymium, praseodymium and scandium were evaluated using nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as the assay system. Median lethal concentrations (48 h) were 99.9, 157.2 and 106.4 mg/L for NdCl 3 , PrCl 3 and ScCl 3 , respectively. Sublethal dose (10-30 mg/L) of these trichloride salts significantly inhibited body length of nematodes. Three REEs resulted in significant declines in locomotor frequency of body bending, head thrashing and pharyngeal pumping. In addition, mean speed and wavelength of crawling movement were significantly reduced after chronic exposure. Using transgenic nematodes, we found NdCl 3 , PrCl 3 and ScCl 3 resulted in loss of dendrite and soma of neurons, and induced down-expression of dat-1::GFP and unc-47::GFP. It indicates that REEs can lead to damage of dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons. Our data suggest that exposure to REEs may cause neurotoxicity of inducing behavioral deficits and neural damage. These findings provide useful information for understanding health risk of REE materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mobility of rare earth elements in mine drainage: Influence of iron oxides, carbonates, and phosphates.

    PubMed

    Edahbi, Mohamed; Plante, Benoît; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Ward, Matthew; Pelletier, Mia

    2018-05-01

    The geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REE) was investigated using weathering cells. The influence of sorption and precipitation on dissolved REE mobility and fractionation is evaluated using synthetic iron-oxides, carbonates, and phosphates. Sorption cell tests are conducted on the main lithologies of the expected waste rocks from the Montviel deposit. The sorbed materials are characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a microanalysis system (energy dispersive spectroscopy EDS) (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) in order to understand the effect of the synthetic minerals on REE mobility. The results confirm that sorption and precipitation control the mobility and fractionation of REE. The main sorbent phases are the carbonates, phosphates (present as accessory minerals in the Montviel waste rocks), and iron oxides (main secondary minerals generated upon weathering of the Montviel lithologies). The XANES results show that REE are present as trivalent species after weathering. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations results using Visual Minteq suggest that REE could precipitate as secondary phosphates (REEPO 4 ). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The surface sediment types and their rare earth element characteristics from the continental shelf of the northern south China sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuhong; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Han; Li, Liang; Yan, Wen

    2014-10-01

    The grain size as well as some major and trace elements, including rare earth element (REE), for 273 surface sediment samples collected from the continental shelf of the northern South China Sea were analyzed in this study. The sediment types are mainly sandy silt and silt, making up 60% of the whole samples, and secondly are mud, sandy mud, muddy sand and silty sand, making up 28% of the whole samples, based on grain-size in which the Folk's classification was used. The total REE content (ΣREE) show a wide variation from 21 ppm to 244 ppm with an average value of 155 ppm, which similar to the average ΣREE of the China loess, but much different from that in deep-sea clay, showing a significant terrigenous succession. The REE contents in different sediment types vary greatly, mainly enriching in silt, sandy silt, mud and sandy mud. The REE distribution contours parallel to the coastal, presenting like strips and their contents gradually reduce with increasing distance from the coast. The high content of the western Pearl River Mouth, Shang/Xiachuan Islands and Hailing Bay might be regarded to the coastal current developed from the east to the west along to the Pearl River Mouth in the northern South China Sea. But the chondrite-normalized REE patterns in various sediment types have no difference, basically same as those of coastal rivers and upper crust. They all show relative enrichments in light rare earth element (LREE), noticeable negative Eu anomaly and no Ce anomaly, indicating that those sediments are terrigenous sediments and from the same source region. Further analysis suggest that the sedimentary environment in the study area is relatively stable and granite widely distributed in the South China mainland is the main source of REE, which are transported mainly by the Pearl River. The late diagenesis has little effect on the REE.

  8. Germanium and Rare Earth Element accumulation in woody bioenergy crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Germanium and REEs are strategic elements that are used for high tech devices and engineered systems, however these elements are hardly concentrated into mineable ore deposits. Since these elements occur widely dispersed in the earth crust with concentrations of several mgṡkg-1 (Ge 1.6 mgṡkg-1, Nd 25 mgṡkg-1) a new possibility to gain these elements could be phytomining, a technique that uses plants to extract elements from soils via their roots. Since knowledge about accumulating plant species is quite limited we conducted research on the concentrations of strategic elements in wood and leaves of fast growing tree species (Salix spec., Populus spec., Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer pseudoplatanus). In total 35 study sites were selected in the mining affected area around Freiberg (Saxony, Germany), differing in their species composition and degree of contamination with toxic trace metals (Pb, As, Cd). On each site plant tissues (wood and leaves, respectively) of different species were sampled. In addition soil samples were taken from a soil depth of 0 - 30 cm and 30 - 60 cm. The aim of our work was to investigate correlations between the concentrations of the target elements in plant tissues and soil characteristics like pH, texture, nutrients and concentrations in six operationally defined soil fractions (mobile, acid soluble, oxidizable, amorphic oxides, crystalline oxides, residual or siliceous). Concentrations of elements in soil extracts and plant tissues were measured with ICP-MS. The element Nd was selected as representative for the group of REEs, since this element showed a high correlation with the concentrations of the other REE We found that the concentration of Nd in the leaves (0.31 mgṡkg-1Nd) were several times higher than in herbaceous species (0.05 mgṡkg-1 Nd). The concentration of Ge in leaves were ten times lower than that of Nd whereas in herbaceous species Nd and Ge were in equal magnitude. Within the tree

  9. Novel Polyethylenimine–Acrylamide/SiO 2 Hybrid Hydrogel Sorbent for Rare-Earth-Element Recycling from Aqueous Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiuming; Wilfong, Walter C.; Kail, Brian W.

    Recycling rare earth elements (REEs) becomes increasingly important due to their supply vulnerability and increasing demands in industry, agriculture, and national security. Hybrid hydrogel sorbents were outstanding due to their high stability and selectivity. Organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogels were synthesized by thermo-polymerization of acrylamide onto PEI polymer chain with N,N’-methylene bisacrylamide as a crosslinker. The grafted network was evidenced by DRIFTS and XPS. The porous structure was observed by SEM. Crosslink degree, PEI grafting degree, and SiO 2 concentration were studied to optimize the REEs adsorption. The pH value of the medium greatly affected REE adsorption capacity, where the nearly neutralmore » conditions gave the strongest bonding of REEs to active sites. Moreover, kinetic studies showed that the rate-determining step of the adsorption process was chemical sorption, and that REE diffusion within micropores was the control step for, specifically, intraparticle diffusion. The adsorbents showed excellent selectivity and recyclability for REEs through 5 adsorption-desorption cycles in contact with synthetic acid mine drainage solution. A high separation toward REEs over fouling metals was achieved by using a citrate-based buffer eluent solution. This hybrid hydrogel shows promise for the recycling of REEs from aqueous solutions.« less

  10. Novel Polyethylenimine–Acrylamide/SiO 2 Hybrid Hydrogel Sorbent for Rare-Earth-Element Recycling from Aqueous Sources

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Qiuming; Wilfong, Walter C.; Kail, Brian W.; ...

    2017-09-14

    Recycling rare earth elements (REEs) becomes increasingly important due to their supply vulnerability and increasing demands in industry, agriculture, and national security. Hybrid hydrogel sorbents were outstanding due to their high stability and selectivity. Organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogels were synthesized by thermo-polymerization of acrylamide onto PEI polymer chain with N,N’-methylene bisacrylamide as a crosslinker. The grafted network was evidenced by DRIFTS and XPS. The porous structure was observed by SEM. Crosslink degree, PEI grafting degree, and SiO 2 concentration were studied to optimize the REEs adsorption. The pH value of the medium greatly affected REE adsorption capacity, where the nearly neutralmore » conditions gave the strongest bonding of REEs to active sites. Moreover, kinetic studies showed that the rate-determining step of the adsorption process was chemical sorption, and that REE diffusion within micropores was the control step for, specifically, intraparticle diffusion. The adsorbents showed excellent selectivity and recyclability for REEs through 5 adsorption-desorption cycles in contact with synthetic acid mine drainage solution. A high separation toward REEs over fouling metals was achieved by using a citrate-based buffer eluent solution. This hybrid hydrogel shows promise for the recycling of REEs from aqueous solutions.« less

  11. Rare earth element compositions of core sediments from the shelf of the South Sea, Korea: Their controls and origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hoi-Soo; Lim, Dhongil; Choi, Jin-Yong; Yoo, Hae-Soo; Rho, Kyung-Chan; Lee, Hyun-Bok

    2012-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) of bulk sediments and heavy mineral samples of core sediments from the South Sea shelf, Korea, were analyzed to determine the constraints on REE concentrations and distribution patterns as well as to investigate their potential applicability for discriminating sediment provenance. Bulk sediment REEs showed large variation in concentrations and distribution patterns primarily due to grain size and carbonate dilution effects, as well as due to an abundance of heavy minerals. In the fine sandy sediments (cores EZ02-15 and 19), in particular, heavy minerals (primarily monazite and titanite/sphene) largely influenced REE compositions. Upper continental crust-normalized REE patterns of these sand-dominated sediments are characterized by enriched light REEs (LREEs), because of inclusion of heavy minerals with very high concentrations in LREEs. Notably, such a strong LREE enrichment is also observed in Korean river sediments. So, a great care must be taken when using the REE concentrations and distribution patterns of sandy and coarse silty shelf sediments as a proxy for discriminating sediment provenance. In the fine-grained muddy sediments with low heavy mineral abundance, in contrast, REE fractionation ratios and their UCC-normalized patterns seem to be reliable proxies for assessing sediment provenance. The resultant sediment origin suggested a long lateral transportation of some fine-grained Chinese river sediments (probably the Changjiang River) to the South Sea of Korea across the shelf of the northern East China Sea.

  12. Interaction of rare earth elements and components of the Horonobe deep groundwater.

    PubMed

    Kirishima, Akira; Kuno, Atsushi; Amamiya, Hiroshi; Kubota, Takumi; Kimuro, Shingo; Amano, Yuki; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Mizuno, Takashi; Sasaki, Takayuki; Sato, Nobuaki

    2017-02-01

    To better understand the migration behavior of minor actinides in deep groundwater, the interactions between doped rare earth elements (REEs) and components of Horonobe deep groundwater were investigated. Approximately 10 ppb of the REEs, i.e. Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, and Yb were doped into a groundwater sample collected from a packed section in a borehole drilled at 140 m depth in the experiment drift of Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory in Hokkaido, Japan. The groundwater sample was sequentially filtered with a 0.2 μm pore filter, and 10 kDa, 3 kDa and 1 kDa nominal molecular weight limit (NMWL) ultrafilters with conditions kept inert. Next, the filtrate solutions were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the concentrations of the REEs retained in solution at each filtration step, while the used filters were analyzed through neutron activation analysis (NAA) and TOF-SIMS element mapping to determine the amounts and chemical species of the trapped fractions of REEs on each filter. A strong relationship between the ratios of REEs retained in the filtrate solutions and the ionic radii of the associated REEs was observed; i.e. smaller REEs occur in larger proportions dissolved in the solution phase under the conditions of the Horonobe groundwater. The NAA and TOF-SIMS analyses revealed that portions of the REEs were trapped by the 0.2 μm pore filter as REE phosphates, which correspond to the species predicted to be predominant by chemical equilibrium calculations for the conditions of the Horonobe groundwater. Additionally, small portions of colloidal REEs were trapped by the 10 kDa and 3 kDa NMWL ultrafilters. These results suggest that phosphate anions play an important role in the chemical behavior of REEs in saline (seawater-based) groundwater, which may be useful for predicting the migration behavior of trivalent actinides released from radioactive waste repositories in the far

  13. Understanding rhizosphere processes to enhance phytoextraction of germanium and rare earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Germanium (Ge) and rare earth elements (REEs) are economically valuable raw materials that are not actually rare in terms of concentrations in soils but they are hardly available for plant uptake due to interactions with organic matter (SOM), secondary soil constituents such as Fe/Mn oxides and P bearing soil fractions. Processes in the rhizosphere might influence availability of Ge and REEs in the soil-plant system, since lowering of the pH and presence of carboxylates and siderophores (small molecules that strongly chelate Fe and other elements) strongly influences the chemical speciation of Ge and REEs in soil and consequently this comprehensive knowledge helps us to improve phytomining. In a series of field and greenhouse experiments 16 plant species from the functional groups of grasses, herbs and legumes were tested with regard to their accumulation efficiency of Ge and REEs in shoots. Subsequently, we conducted mixed culture experiments in which inefficient species (e.g. cereals like Avena sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum miliaceum) were cultivated in mixed cultures with efficient species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius). Based on the plant concentrations a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify significant factors that explain the accumulation behavior of different plant species with regard to Ge, REEs, Si, Fe and Mn. In this analysis Mn was used to identify plant species with efficient mechanisms to access sparingly available P-resources in soils. Particularly in nonmycorrhizal species concentrations of Mn in leaves often indicate a carboxylate based P-mobilising strategy. Herbaceous plant species accumulated significantly higher amounts of REEs while grasses accumulated significantly higher amounts of Ge. Concentrations of Ge in shoots of grasses correlated significantly positive with Si, but negatively with concentrations of Mn. Indeed, the results of the PCA clearly show that plants with high Mn concentrations tend to have

  14. Rare earth element analysis indicates micropollutants in an urban estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajerin, T. J.; Johannesson, K. H.; Kolker, A.; Burdige, D. J.; Chevis, D.

    2011-12-01

    Rare earth element analysis of Bayou Bienvenue waters shows anomalously high gadolinium, Gd, concentrations relative to its nearest neighbors in the REE series, europium and terbium. The anomalously high Gd concentrations indicate anthropogenic input from waste-water treatment plants in the area as anthropogenic Gd input can be traced back to its use as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging in hospitals. Others have shown that anomalously high levels of Gd in natural waters are likely to be associated with other micropollutants that also occur in hospital effluent and that are not removed in the wastewater treatment process, including pharmaceuticals in the form of steroids, antihistamines, and antibiotics. Estuaries serve as many important ecological roles and have been shown to act as a filter for pollutants. To better understand the transport, biogeochemical cycling, and ultimate fate of trace elements in estuaries, I collected surface water samples from Bayou Bienvenue, a wetland triangle that covers an area of 427 acres directly adjacent to New Orleans, Louisiana. Water samples from Bayou Bienvenue were collected along the salinity gradient and subsequently filtered through progressively smaller pore-size filters. The resulting fractions were analyzed for trace element concentions, including the REEs, by magnetic sector ICP-MS. The attached figure shows the Gd anomaly present in the particulate (>0.45μm) fraction. Upper continental crust (UCC)-normalized plots of colloidal REEs (0.02μm - 0.45μm) fraction is lacking this anomaly indicating anthropogenic Gd is found chiefly in the particulate fraction in Bayou Bienvenue. No clear relationship between Gd concentration and salinity was apparent.

  15. African Dust Transport Captured by Rare Earth Elemental Concentrations in Coral Microatolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellette, G., Jr.; DeLong, K.; Herrmann, A.; Huang, C. Y.; Shen, C. C.

    2017-12-01

    Winds are integral components of the climate system; unfortunately, windsare also among the climate variables that are most difficult to study prior to the instrumentalrecord. Paleoclimatologists use sedimentary dust records (e.g., lake and ocean cores) tounderstand past wind circulation conditions; however, these types of records typically are notamenable to sub-annual interpretation due to their limited temporal resolution. Here wedeveloped a coral-based dust-wind proxy to overcome these temporal limitations by usingtrace (nmol/mol) rare earth elemental concentrations recorded in the skeletons of coralmicroatolls. The rare earth elements (REE; the lanthanides as well as scandium and yttrium)behave similarly in geologic and geochemical systems, and have served as useful proxies ofgeological processes in both deep and shallow time. Corals incorporate REE as they deposittheir exoskeletons that extend incrementally with time forming annual density band couplets.Coral microatolls grow at or near the sea surface, where coral REE concentrations are mostsensitive to dust deposition. Our study site off the west coast of Haiti is down stream of light-REE depleted bedrock whereas REE in African dust, transported by the easterly trade winds,reflect average crustal abundances. This unique "upstream" source signature allows forterrestrial contamination of the dust-wind signal to be ruled out. Light REE concentrations (esp.Nd and Pr) demonstrate an order of magnitude increase within coral aragonite coincident withmajor African dust plume events throughout the past decade, with Nd/Ca and Pr/Ca increasingfrom an average of 27 nmol/mol to an average 144 nmol/mol and an average of 5 nmol/mol toan average of 37 nmol/mol, respectively, during major African dust plume events. Monthly-resolved REE analysis shows these REE peaks coincide with the summer dust season rather thanHaiti's two wet seasons in spring and autumn. Regression of our coral REE dust proxy tosatellite records of

  16. Aqueous Rare Earth Element Patterns and Concentration in Thermal Brines Associated With Oil and Gas Production

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, Charles; Quillinan, Scott Austin; Neupane, Ghanashyam

    This study is part of a joint effort by the University of Wyoming (UW) School of Energy Resources (SER), the UW Engineering Department, Idaho National Laboratories (INL), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to describe rare earth element concentrations in oil and gas produced waters and in coal-fired power station ash ponds. In this work we present rare earth element (REE) and trace metal behavior in produced water from four Wyoming oil and gas fields and surface ash pond water from two coal-fired power stations. The concentration of REEs in oil and gas produced waters is largely unknown. Formore » example, of the 150,000 entries in the USGS National Produced Waters Geochemical Database less than 5 include data for REEs. Part of the reason for this scarcity is the analytical challenge of measuring REEs in high salinity, hydrocarbon-bearing waters. The industry standard for water analysis struggles to detect REEs in natural waters under ideal conditions. The detection of REEs in oil and gas field samples becomes all but impossible with the background noise and interferences caused by high concentrations of non-REE ions and residual hydrocarbons. The INL team members have overcome many of these challenges (e.g. McLing, 2014), and continue to develop their methods. Using the methods of the INL team members we measured REEs in high salinity oil and gas produced waters. Our results show that REEs exist as a dissolved species in all waters measured for this project, typically within the parts per trillion range. The samples may be grouped into two broad categories analytically, and these categories match their genesis: Wyoming oil and gas brines contain elevated levels of Europium, and Wyoming industrial pond waters show elevation in heavy REEs (HREEs). While broadly true, important variations exist within both groups. In the same field Europium can vary by more than an order of magnitude, and likewise HREEs in industrial ponds at the same site can vary by

  17. Rare Earth Element Recovery from Low-Grade Feedstocks Using Engineered E. coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, A. W.; Park, D.; Jiao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical materials for emerging science and technology industries, especially in the field of clean energy. However, their supply is potentially at risk due to political and economic concerns. The exploitation of new, low-grade REE sources in the United States, such as geothermal brines and mine tailings, may help to mitigate that supply risk. To purify and concentrate REEs from these sources, we have developed a biosorption approach using engineered E. coli cells that express a lanthanide binding tag on the cell surface. This tag has a high selectivity for REEs that enhances the native cell wall adsorption properties; the terbium adsorption capacity was increased approximately 2-fold, and the REE surface affinity was increased compared to all non-REE metals except copper. This biosorption method offers advantages over conventional REE extraction methods as it is inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and effective with low-grade feedstocks. In order to expand this method to an industrial scale, the cells must be contained in a durable material that permits the cell surfaces to function in a variety of bioreactor systems and to be reused through multiple adsorption and desorption cycles. Polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) beads, with diameters from 200-400 um, can be impregnated with high concentrations of cells, and show promise in the selective adsorption of REEs from solution. In the future, the application of the adsorptive qualities of these engineered cells may be expanded to include other valuable metals, such as indium and gallium, to further develop the economic potential of this approach. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-736022.

  18. Determination and distribution of rare earth elements in beach rock samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravisankar, R.; Manikandan, E.; Dheenathayalu, M.; Rao, Brahmaji; Seshadreesan, N. P.; Nair, K. G. M.

    2006-10-01

    Beach rocks are a peculiar type of formation when compared to other types of rocks. Rare earth element (REE) concentrations in beach rock samples collected from the South East Coast of Tamilnadu, India, have been measured using the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) single comparator K0 method. The irradiations were carried out using a thermal neutron flux of ˜10 11 n cm -2 s -1 at 20 kW power using the Kalpakkam mini reactor (KAMINI), IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu. Accuracy and precision were evaluated by assaying irradiated standard reference material (SRM 1646a estuarine sediment). The results being found to be in good agreement with certified values. REE elements have been determined from 15 samples using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The geochemical behavior of REE in beach rock, in particular REE (chondrite-normalized) pattern has been studied.

  19. The principal rare earth elements deposits of the United States-A summary of domestic deposits and a global perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Keith R.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Foley, Nora K.; Cordier, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are fifteen elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium ('lanthanides'), plus yttrium (39), which is chemically similar to the lanthanide elements and thus typically included with the rare earth elements. Although industrial demand for these elements is relatively small in tonnage terms, they are essential for a diverse and expanding array of high-technology applications. REE-containing magnets, metal alloys for batteries and light-weight structures, and phosphors are essential for many current and emerging alternative energy technologies, such as electric vehicles, energy-efficient lighting, and wind power. REE are also critical for a number of key defense systems and other advanced materials. Section 843 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, Public Law 111-84, directs the Comptroller General to complete a report on REE materials in the defense supply chain. The Office of Industrial Policy, in collaboration with other U.S. Government agencies, has initiated (in addition to this report) a detailed study of REE. This latter study will assess the Department of Defense's use of REE, as well as the status and security of domestic and global supply chains. That study will also address vulnerabilities in the supply chain and recommend ways to mitigate any potential risks of supply disruption. To help conduct this study, the Office of Industrial Policy asked the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to report on domestic REE reserves and resources in a global context. To this end, the enclosed report is the initial USGS contribution to assessing and summarizing the domestic REE resources in a global perspective. In 2009, the Mineral Resources Program of the USGS organized a new project under the title Minerals at Risk and For Emerging Technologies in order to evaluate mineral resource and supply issues of rare metals that are of increasing importance to the national economy. Leaders and members of

  20. Anomalous REE patterns in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites: Evidence and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, Ghislaine; Hsu, Weibiao

    1993-01-01

    We present here a study of Rare Earth Element (REE) microdistributions in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites (EOC's). Although the whole rock REE contents are similar in both unequilibrated and equilibrated chondrites, the host minerals of these refractory elements are different. In the least equilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOC's), the REE reside mainly in glass whereas, in their more equilibrated counterparts, the bulk of the REE is in calcium phosphate, a metamorphic mineral that formed by oxidation of phosphorous originally contained in metal. In the smaller group of enstatite (E) chondrites, calcium phosphate is absent and the phase that contains the highest REE concentrations is a minor mineral, CaS (oldhamite), which contains approximately 50 percent of the total Ca present. In E chondrites, elements typically considered to be lithophiles (such as Ca and Mn) occur in sulfides rather than silicates. This indicates formation under extremely reducing conditions, thus in a region of the solar nebula distinct from those that supplied the more abundant ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites. Previously, we observed a variety of REE patterns in the oldhamite of UEC's; they range from almost flat to some with pronounced positive Eu and Yb anomalies. Here, we searched for complementary REE patterns in other minerals from E chondrites and found them in the major mineral, enstatite. Whenever Eu and Yb anomalies are present in this mineral, they are always negative.

  1. Geochemical fractions of rare earth elements in soil around a mine tailing in Baotou, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth mine tailing dumps are environmental hazards because tailing easily leaches and erodes by water and wind. To assess the influence of mine tailing on the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, sixty-seven surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different locations near China’s largest rare earth mine tailing. The total concentration of REEs in surface soils ranged from 156 to 5.65 × 104 mg·kg−1 with an average value of 4.67 × 103 mg·kg−1, which was significantly higher than the average value in China (181 mg·kg−1). We found obvious fractionation of both light and heavy REEs, which was supported by the North American Shale Composite (NASC) and the Post-Archean Average Australian Shale (PAAS) normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (LaN/YbN, LaN/SmN and GdN/YbN). A slightly positive Ce anomaly and a negative Eu anomaly were also found. For all 14 REEs in soils, enrichment was intensified by the mine tailing sources and influenced by the prevailing wind. PMID:26198417

  2. Geochemical fractions of rare earth elements in soil around a mine tailing in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2015-07-22

    Rare earth mine tailing dumps are environmental hazards because tailing easily leaches and erodes by water and wind. To assess the influence of mine tailing on the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, sixty-seven surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different locations near China's largest rare earth mine tailing. The total concentration of REEs in surface soils ranged from 156 to 5.65 × 10(4) mg·kg(-1) with an average value of 4.67 × 10(3) mg·kg(-1), which was significantly higher than the average value in China (181 mg·kg(-1)). We found obvious fractionation of both light and heavy REEs, which was supported by the North American Shale Composite (NASC) and the Post-Archean Average Australian Shale (PAAS) normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La(N)/Yb(N), La(N)/Sm(N) and Gd(N)/Yb(N)). A slightly positive Ce anomaly and a negative Eu anomaly were also found. For all 14 REEs in soils, enrichment was intensified by the mine tailing sources and influenced by the prevailing wind.

  3. Crystal-chemistry and partitioning of REE in whitlockite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, R. O.; Jolliff, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    Partitioning of Rare Earth Elements (REE) in whitlockite is complicated by the fact that two or more charge-balancing substitutions are involved and by the fact that concentrations of REE in natural whitlockites are sufficiently high such that simple partition coefficients are not expected to be constant even if mixing in the system is completely ideal. The present study combines preexisting REE partitioning data in whitlockites with new experiments in the same compositional system and at the same temperature (approximately 1030 C) to place additional constraints on the complex variations of REE partition coefficients and to test theoretical models for how REE partitioning should vary with REE concentration and other compositional variables. With this data set, and by combining crystallographic and thermochemical constraints with a SAS simultaneous-equation best-fitting routine, it is possible to infer answers to the following questions: what is the speciation on the individual sites Ca(B), Mg, and Ca(IIA) (where the ideal structural formula is Ca(B)18 Mg2Ca(IIA)2P14O56); how are REE's charge-balanced in the crystal; and is mixing of REE in whitlockite ideal or non-ideal. This understanding is necessary in order to extrapolate derived partition coefficients to other compositional systems and provides a broadened understanding of the crystal chemistry of whitlockite.

  4. Preliminary estimates of the quantities of rare-earth elements contained in selected products and in imports of semimanufactured products to the United States, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Gambogi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are contained in a wide range of products of economic and strategic importance to the Nation. The REEs may or may not represent a significant component of that product by mass, value, or volume; however, in many cases, the embedded REEs are critical for the device’s function. Domestic sources of primary supply and the manufacturing facilities to produce products are inadequate to meet U.S. requirements; therefore, a significant percentage of the supply of REEs and the products that contain them are imported to the United States. In 2011, mines in China produced roughly 97 percent of the world’s supply of REEs, and the country’s production of these elements will likely dominate global supply until at least 2020. Preliminary estimates of the types and amount of rare-earth elements, reported as oxides, in semimanufactured form and the amounts used for electric vehicle batteries, catalytic converters, computers, and other applications were developed to provide a perspective on the Nation’s use of these elements. The amount of rare-earth metals recovered from recycling, remanufacturing, and reuse is negligible when the tonnage of products that contain REEs deposited in landfills and retained in storage is considered. Under favorable market conditions, the recovery of REEs from obsolete products could potentially displace a portion of the supply from primary sources.

  5. The effect of diagenesis and fluid migration on rare earth element distribution in pore fluids of the northern Cascadia accretionary margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Torres, Marta E.; Haley, Brian A.; Kastner, Miriam; Pohlman, John W.; Riedel, Michael; Lee, Young-Joo

    2012-01-01

    Analytical challenges in obtaining high quality measurements of rare earth elements (REEs) from small pore fluid volumes have limited the application of REEs as deep fluid geochemical tracers. Using a recently developed analytical technique, we analyzed REEs from pore fluids collected from Sites U1325 and U1329, drilled on the northern Cascadia margin during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 311, to investigate the REE behavior during diagenesis and their utility as tracers of deep fluid migration. These sites were selected because they represent contrasting settings on an accretionary margin: a ponded basin at the toe of the margin, and the landward Tofino Basin near the shelf's edge. REE concentrations of pore fluid in the methanogenic zone at Sites U1325 and U1329 correlate positively with concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and alkalinity. Fractionations across the REE series are driven by preferential complexation of the heavy REEs. Simultaneous enrichment of diagenetic indicators (DOC and alkalinity) and of REEs (in particular the heavy elements Ho to Lu), suggests that the heavy REEs are released during particulate organic carbon (POC) degradation and are subsequently chelated by DOC. REE concentrations are greater at Site U1325, a site where shorter residence times of POC in sulfate-bearing redox zones may enhance REE burial efficiency within sulfidic and methanogenic sediment zones where REE release ensues. Cross-plots of La concentrations versus Cl, Li and Sr delineate a distinct field for the deep fluids (z > 75 mbsf) at Site U1329, and indicate the presence of a fluid not observed at the other sites drilled on the Cascadia margin. Changes in REE patterns, the presence of a positive Eu anomaly, and other available geochemical data for this site suggest a complex hydrology and possible interaction with the igneous Crescent Terrane, located east of the drilled transect.

  6. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  7. Rapid and highly reproducible analysis of rare earth elements by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Joel; Waight, Tod; Ulfbeck, David

    2002-10-01

    A method has been developed for the rapid chemical separation and highly reproducible analysis of the rare earth elements (REE) by isotope dilution analysis by means of a multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS). This technique is superior in terms of the analytical reproducibility or rapidity of analysis compared with quadrupole ICP-MS or with thermal ionization mass spectrometric isotope dilution techniques. Samples are digested by standard hydrofluoric-nitric acid-based techniques and spiked with two mixed spikes. The bulk REE are separated from the sample on a cation exchange column, collecting the middle-heavy and light REE as two groups, which provides a middle-heavy REE cut with sufficient separation of the light from the heavier REE to render oxide interferences trivial, and a Ba-free light REE cut. The heavy (Er-Lu), middle (Eu-Gd), and light REE (La-Eu) concentrations are determined by three short (1 to 2 min) analyses with a CETAC Aridus desolvating nebulizer introduction system. Replicate digestions of international rock standards demonstrate that concentrations can be reproduced to <1%, which reflects weighing errors during digestion and aliquotting as inter-REE ratios reproduce to ≤0.2% (2 SD). Eu and Ce anomalies reproduce to <0.15%. In addition to determining the concentrations of polyisotopic REE by isotope dilution analysis, the concentration of monoisotopic Pr can be measured during the light REE isotope dilution run, by reference to Pr/Ce and Pr/Nd ratios measured in a REE standard solution. Pr concentrations determined in this way reproduce to <1%, and Pr/REE ratios reproduce to <0.4%. Ce anomalies calculated with La and Pr also reproduce to <0.15% (2 SD). The precise Ce (and Eu) anomaly measurements should allow greater use of these features in studying the recycling of materials with these anomalies into the mantle, or redox-induced effects on the REE during recycling and dehydration of oceanic lithosphere

  8. Diel behavior of rare earth elements in a mountain stream with acidic to neutral pH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gammons, C.H.; Wood, S.A.; Nimick, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Diel (24-h) changes in concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) were investigated in Fisher Creek, a mountain stream in Montana that receives acid mine drainage in its headwaters. Three simultaneous 24-h samplings were conducted at an upstream station (pH = 3.3), an intermediate station (pH = 5.5), and a downstream station (pH = 6.8). The REE were found to behave conservatively at the two upstream stations. At the downstream station, REE partitioned into suspended particles to a degree that varied with the time of day, and concentrations of dissolved REE were 2.9- to 9.4-fold (190% to 830%) higher in the early morning vs. the late afternoon. The decrease in dissolved REE concentrations during the day coincided with a corresponding increase in the concentration of REE in suspended particles, such that diel changes in the total REE concentrations were relatively minor (27% to 55% increase at night). Across the lanthanide series, the heavy REE partitioned into the suspended solid phase to a greater extent than the light REE. Filtered samples from the downstream station showed a decrease in shale-normalized REE concentration across the lanthanide series, with positive anomalies at La and Gd, and a negative Eu anomaly. As the temperature of the creek increased in the afternoon, the slope of the REE profile steepened and the magnitude of the anomalies increased. The above observations are explained by cyclic adsorption of REE onto suspended particles of hydrous ferric and aluminum oxides (HFO, HAO). Conditional partition coefficients for each REE between the suspended solids and the aqueous phase reached a maximum at 1700 hours and a minimum at 0700 hours. This pattern is attributed to diel variations in stream temperature, possibly reinforced by kinetic factors (i.e., slower rates of reaction at night than during the day). Estimates of the enthalpy of adsorption of each REE onto suspended particles based on the field results averaged +82 kJ/mol and are similar in

  9. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  10. Ecosystem Composition Controls the Fate of Rare Earth Elements during Incipient Soil Genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G.; Burghelea, Carmen I.; Dontsova, Katerina; Presler, Jennifer K.; Maier, Raina M.; Huxman, Travis; Domanik, Kenneth J.; Hunt, Edward A.; Amistadi, Mary K.; Gaddis, Emily E.; Palacios-Menendez, Maria A.; Vaquera-Ibarra, Maria O.; Chorover, Jon

    2017-02-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are increasingly important in a variety of science and economic fields, including (bio)geosciences, paleoecology, astrobiology, and mining. However, REE distribution in early rock-microbe-plant systems has remained elusive. We tested the hypothesis that REE mass-partitioning during incipient weathering of basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist depends on the activity of microbes, vascular plants (Buffalo grass), and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Pore-water element abundances revealed a rapid transition from abiotic to biotic signatures of weathering, the latter associated with smaller aqueous loss and larger plant uptake. Abiotic dissolution was 39% of total denudation in plant-microbes-mycorrhiza treatment. Microbes incremented denudation, particularly in rhyolite, and this resulted in decreased bioavailable solid pools in this rock. Total mobilization (aqueous + uptake) was ten times greater in planted compared to abiotic treatments, REE masses in plant generally exceeding those in water. Larger plants increased bioavailable solid pools, consistent with enhanced soil genesis. Mycorrhiza generally had a positive effect on total mobilization. The main mechanism behind incipient REE weathering was carbonation enhanced by biotic respiration, the denudation patterns being largely dictated by mineralogy. A consistent biotic signature was observed in La:phosphate and mobilization: solid pool ratios, and in the pattern of denudation and uptake.

  11. Ecosystem Composition Controls the Fate of Rare Earth Elements during Incipient Soil Genesis

    PubMed Central

    Zaharescu, Dragos G.; Burghelea, Carmen I.; Dontsova, Katerina; Presler, Jennifer K.; Maier, Raina M.; Huxman, Travis; Domanik, Kenneth J.; Hunt, Edward A.; Amistadi, Mary K.; Gaddis, Emily E.; Palacios-Menendez, Maria A.; Vaquera-Ibarra, Maria O.; Chorover, Jon

    2017-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are increasingly important in a variety of science and economic fields, including (bio)geosciences, paleoecology, astrobiology, and mining. However, REE distribution in early rock-microbe-plant systems has remained elusive. We tested the hypothesis that REE mass-partitioning during incipient weathering of basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist depends on the activity of microbes, vascular plants (Buffalo grass), and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Pore-water element abundances revealed a rapid transition from abiotic to biotic signatures of weathering, the latter associated with smaller aqueous loss and larger plant uptake. Abiotic dissolution was 39% of total denudation in plant-microbes-mycorrhiza treatment. Microbes incremented denudation, particularly in rhyolite, and this resulted in decreased bioavailable solid pools in this rock. Total mobilization (aqueous + uptake) was ten times greater in planted compared to abiotic treatments, REE masses in plant generally exceeding those in water. Larger plants increased bioavailable solid pools, consistent with enhanced soil genesis. Mycorrhiza generally had a positive effect on total mobilization. The main mechanism behind incipient REE weathering was carbonation enhanced by biotic respiration, the denudation patterns being largely dictated by mineralogy. A consistent biotic signature was observed in La:phosphate and mobilization: solid pool ratios, and in the pattern of denudation and uptake. PMID:28230202

  12. Typical aqueous rare earth element behavior in co-produced Brines, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, Charles; Quillinan, Scott; McLing, Travis

    Normalization of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) is important to remove the distracting effects of the Oddo–Harkins rule and provide a meaningful baseline. Normalizations for rocks are well developed and include chondritic meteorites, UCC, PM, PAAS, and NASC. However normalizations for aqueous REEs are limited to oceanic regions such as the North Pacific Deep Water or North Atlantic Surface Water. This leaves water in contact with continental lithologies without a suitable normalization. We present a preliminary continental aqueous REE normalization derived from 38 deep basin hydrocarbon brines in Wyoming. The REEs in these waters are seven orders of magnitude more dilutemore » than NASC but with significant europium enrichment. Gromet 1984 reports NASC Eu/Eu* is 0.2179, whereas in the normalization offered here, Eu/Eu* is 3.868. These waters also are free from the distracting reduction-oxidation cerium behavior found in ocean normalizations. Because these samples exhibit both the uniform behavior of NASC and the absolute concentration of seawater, a normalization based upon them offers a unique combination of the advantages of both. We used single-peak gaussian analysis to quantify the mean values for each REE and estimate the distribution variability. Additional sample collection during the last year revealed that the Powder River Basin (PRB) is atypical relative to the other sampled basins of Wyoming. Those other basins are the Wind River Basin (WRB) Green River Basin (GRB) and Wamsutter Area (WA). A pre-normalization gadolinium anomaly (Gd/Gd*) of between 4 and 23 with a mean of 11.5, defines the PRB samples. Other basins in this study range from 1 to 7 with a mean of 2.8. Finally, we present a preliminary model for ligand-based behavior of REEs in these samples. This model identifies bicarbonate, bromide, and chloride as forming significant complexes with REEs contributing to REE solubility. The ligand model explains observed REEs in the sampled Cretaceous and

  13. Light rare earth element depletion during Deepwater Horizon blowout methanotrophy.

    PubMed

    Shiller, A M; Chan, E W; Joung, D J; Redmond, M C; Kessler, J D

    2017-09-04

    Rare earth elements have generally not been thought to have a biological role. However, recent work has demonstrated that the light REEs (LREEs: La, Ce, Pr, and Nd) are essential for at least some methanotrophs, being co-factors in the XoxF type of methanol dehydrogenase (MDH). We show here that dissolved LREEs were significantly removed in a submerged plume of methane-rich water during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) well blowout. Furthermore, incubation experiments conducted with naturally methane-enriched waters from hydrocarbon seeps in the vicinity of the DWH wellhead also showed LREE removal concurrent with methane consumption. Metagenomic sequencing of incubation samples revealed that LREE-containing MDHs were present. Our field and laboratory observations provide further insight into the biochemical pathways of methanotrophy during the DWH blowout. Additionally, our results are the first observations of direct biological alteration of REE distributions in oceanic systems. In view of the ubiquity of LREE-containing MDHs in oceanic systems, our results suggest that biological uptake of LREEs is an overlooked aspect of the oceanic geochemistry of this group of elements previously thought to be biologically inactive and an unresolved factor in the flux of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, from the ocean.

  14. Investigation of recovery and recycling of rare earth elements from waste fluorescent lamp phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eduafo, Patrick Max

    Characterization techniques and experimental measurements were used to evaluate a process for recycling rare earth elements (REEs) from spent fluorescent lamp phosphors. QEMSCAN analysis revealed that over 60% of the rare earth bearing minerals was less than 10 microm. A representative sample of the as-received feed contained 14.59 wt% total rare earth elements (TREE) and upon sieving to below 75 microm, the grade increased to 19.60 wt% REE with 98.75% recovery. Based on experimental work, a new process for extracting the chief REEs from end of life fluorescent lamps has been developed. The proposed flowsheet employs a three-stage leaching and precipitation process for selective extraction and recovery of the REEs. Hydrochloric acid was used as lixiviant in batch leach experiments on the phosphor powder. The maximum extraction obtained was 100% for both yttrium and europium under the following leaching conditions: 2.5 M HCl, 70°C, 1 hour, 180 g/L and 600 rpm. However, the solubility of cerium, lanthanum and terbium remained low at these conditions. Kinetic data of the leaching of yttrium and europium showed best fit to the logarithmic rate expression of the empirical model of leaching. Activation energy was calculated to be 77.49 kJ/mol for Y and 72.75 kJ/mol for Eu in the temperature range of 298 to 343 K. Precipitation tests demonstrate that at least 50% excess the stoichiometric amount of oxalic acid is needed to recover yttrium and europium efficiently to produce a pure (Y, Eu) mixed oxide. Total recovery of the REEs was achieved even at very low pH or without any base added. Over 99% pure mixed rare earth oxide at 99% recovery has been attained. An economic assessment of the developed process using operating and capital cost have be undertaken and based on the analysis of the three economic scenarios, two are economic and one is non-economic.

  15. Rare-earth elements enrichment of Pacific seafloor sediments: the view from volcanic islands of Polynesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melleton, Jérémie; Tuduri, Johann; Pourret, Olivier; Bailly, Laurent; Gisbert, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are key metals for «green» technologies such as energy saving lamps or permanent magnets used in, e.g., wind turbines, hard disk drives, portable phone or electric or hybrid vehicles. Since several years, world demand for these metals is therefore drastically increasing. The quasi-monopolistic position of China, which produces around 95 % of global REEs production, generates risks for the industries that depend on a secure supply of REEs. In response, countries are developing and diversifying their supply sources, with new mining projects located outside China and efforts in the area of REEs recycling. Most of these projects focus on deposits related to carbonatites and alkaline-peralkaline magmatism, which are generally enriched in light REEs (LREEs) compared to the heavy REEs (HREEs)-enriched deposits of the ion-adsorption types, located in southern China. However, a recent study revealed new valuable resources corresponding to seafloor sediments located in the south-eastern and north-central Pacific. The deep-sea mud described by these authors show a higher HREE/LREE ratio than ion-adsorption deposits, a feature which significantly increases their economic interest. The authors suggest mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal activity as an explanation to this anomalous enrichment. However, several contributions have documented considerable REEs enrichment in basalts and peridotitic xenoliths from French Polynesia. Several arguments have been exposed in favour of a supergene origin, with a short migration, suggesting that REEs were collected from weathered basalts. The Tahaa volcanic island (Sous-le-Vent Island, Society Archipelago, French Polynesia) is the first location where such enrichment has been described. New petrographic and mineralogical investigations confirm a supergene mobilization of this abnormal occurrence. REE-bearing minerals (mainly phosphates of the rhabdophane group) are primarily located within basalt vesicles but also in

  16. Effect of some light rare earth elements on seed germination, seedling growth and antioxidant metabolism in Triticum durum.

    PubMed

    d'Aquino, Luigi; de Pinto, Maria Concetta; Nardi, Luca; Morgana, Massimo; Tommasi, Franca

    2009-05-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) enriched fertilizers have been commonly used in China since the 1980s, thus inducing a growing concern about their environmental impact in agriculture. In this work, the effect of some light REEs nitrate mixture and La(3+) nitrate on seed germination, seedling growth and antioxidant metabolism in Triticum durum was investigated with the aim of clarifying the potential benefits or damages of REEs on plants. Seed pre-soaking for 8 h with La(3+) and REEs nitrate inhibited seed germination at low concentrations (0.01 mM and 0.1 mM), while pre-soaking for 2 and 4 h already inhibited seed germination when higher concentrations (1 mM and 10 mM) of La(3+) and REEs nitrate were used. La(3+) and REEs nitrate treatment also affected seedling growth. Root growth was enhanced and inhibited at low and high concentrations, respectively. Shoot growth was inhibited by La(3+) and REEs nitrate at all tested concentrations after 12 d of treatments. Enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants were differently affected by La(3+) and REEs nitrate and their behaviour changed also depending on the plant organ. In roots La(3+) and REEs nitrate treatments induced an increase in ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) contents. In shoots only La(3+) nitrate induced an increase in the ASC content whereas GSH decreased following both La(3+) and REEs nitrate treatments. An increase in ASC peroxidase activity was observed in shoots and roots, while catalase did not change in roots and slightly decreased in shoots. The possible role of the increase in some antioxidants as indicators of stress caused by lanthanide treatments is discussed.

  17. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in minesoils from São Domingos mining district (Iberian Pyrite Belt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Joaquin; Perez-Lopez, Rafael; Nieto, Jose Miguel; Ayora, Carles

    2010-05-01

    The São Domingos mine is one of the most emblematic mining districts in the lower part of the Guadiana River Basin (SW of Iberian Peninsula). It is located in Portugal (about 5 km from the Spanish border), in the northern sector of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), one of the largest metallogenetic provinces of massive sulphides in the world. Although mining activity has ceased at present, the large-scale exploitation of this deposit between the second half of the XIX century and the first half of the XX century, has favoured the production of enormous waste dumps, where oxidation of pyrite and associated sulphides is resulting in the production of acid mine drainage (AMD). Mining wastes, minesoils, and acid mine drainage have been analyzed for their major ions and rare earth elements (REE) with the aim of understanding the REE mobility during sulphide weathering so that lanthanoid series can be used both as a proxy for the extent of water-rock interaction and as a tool for identifying impacts of AMD on natural ecosystems. Chemical speciation of REE in extracts from minesoils indicates that REE sulphate complexes (mainly LnSO4+) are the primary aqueous form (60-90%), and free ionic species (Ln3+, 10-40%) are the next most abundant form of soil water-soluble fraction and controls the REE speciation model. The REE from this fraction have NASC-normalized patterns with middle-REE (MREE) enriched signature compared to the light-REE (LREE) and heavy-REE (HREE), showing convex MREE-signatures and convexity index values of +1.29 +/- 1.13. These results are consistent with the typical REE fractionation patterns reported for AMD. Poorly crystalline iron oxyhydroxysulphates act as a source of labile MREE by dissolution and/or desorption processes and could explain the MREE-enriched signatures in solution.

  18. Rare earth elements distribution in grapevine varieties grown on volcanic soils: an example from Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    D'Antone, Carmelisa; Punturo, Rosalda; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2017-04-01

    A geochemical and statistical approach has allowed identifying in rare earth elements (REEs) absorption a good fingerprinting mark for determining the territoriality and the provenance of Vitis vinifera L. in the district of Mount Etna (southern Italy). Our aim is to define the REEs distribution in different parts of the plants which grow in the same volcanic soil and under the same climate conditions, and therefore to assess whether REEs distribution may reflect the composition of the provenance soil or if plants can selectively absorb REEs in order to recognize the fingerprint in the Etna Volcano soils as well as the REEs pattern characteristic of each cultivar of V. vinifera L. The characteristic pattern of REEs has been determined by ICP-MS analyses in the soils and in the selected grapevine varieties for all the following parts: leaves, seeds, juice, skin, and berries. These geochemical criteria, together with the multivariate statistical analysis of the principal component analysis (PCA) and of the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) that can be summarized with the box plot, suggest that leaves mostly absorb REEs than the other parts of the plant. This work investigates the various parts of the plant in order to verify if each grape variety presents a characteristic geochemical pattern in the absorption of REEs in relationship with the geochemical features of the soil so to highlight the individual compositional fingerprint. Based on REE patterns, our study is a useful tool that allows characterizing the differences among the grape varieties and lays the foundation for the use of REEs in the geographic origin of the Mount Etna wine district.

  19. Quantifying postfire aeolian sediment transport using rare earth element tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dukes, David; Gonzales, Howell B.; Ravi, Sujith; Grandstaff, David E.; Van Pelt, R. Scott; Li, Junran; Wang, Guan; Sankey, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Grasslands, which provide fundamental ecosystem services in many arid and semiarid regions of the world, are undergoing rapid increases in fire activity and are highly susceptible to postfire-accelerated soil erosion by wind. A quantitative assessment of physical processes that integrates fire-wind erosion feedbacks is therefore needed relative to vegetation change, soil biogeochemical cycling, air quality, and landscape evolution. We investigated the applicability of a novel tracer technique—the use of multiple rare earth elements (REE)—to quantify soil transport by wind and to identify sources and sinks of wind-blown sediments in both burned and unburned shrub-grass transition zone in the Chihuahuan Desert, NM, USA. Results indicate that the horizontal mass flux of wind-borne sediment increased approximately threefold following the fire. The REE tracer analysis of wind-borne sediments shows that the source of the horizontal mass flux in the unburned site was derived from bare microsites (88.5%), while in the burned site it was primarily sourced from shrub (42.3%) and bare (39.1%) microsites. Vegetated microsites which were predominantly sinks of aeolian sediments in the unburned areas became sediment sources following the fire. The burned areas showed a spatial homogenization of sediment tracers, highlighting a potential negative feedback on landscape heterogeneity induced by shrub encroachment into grasslands. Though fires are known to increase aeolian sediment transport, accompanying changes in the sources and sinks of wind-borne sediments may influence biogeochemical cycling and land degradation dynamics. Furthermore, our experiment demonstrated that REEs can be used as reliable tracers for field-scale aeolian studies.

  20. Developing alternative resources of rare earth elements in Europe - EURARE and the red mud challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deady, Eimear; Mouchos, Evangelos; Goodenough, Kathryn; Wall, Frances; Williamson, Ben

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are considered to be highly "critical" by the European Commission [1], owing to the concentration of global supply [2] and their use in a wide range of emerging technologies (e.g. smart phones, electric cars and wind turbines). The main source of REE is the mineral bastnäsite, which is primarily extracted from carbonatites. Alternative resources of REE have been identified in a variety of other environments such as alluvial placers, bauxites and ore tailings. The EURARE project (www.eurare.eu), funded by the European Commission, aims to improve understanding of potential REE resources in Europe with the overall objective of establishing the basis for a European REE industry. As a part of this project, alternative sources of rare earth elements in Europe are being considered. REE have been identified as being particularly enriched in karst-bauxites and hence in the red muds generated as a waste product from the processing of these bauxites to alumina through the Bayer process [3]. Karst-bauxites are widely distributed with deposits known across the Mediterranean and with intermittent exploitation occurring over many decades. REE become concentrated in the bauxite deposits by the bauxitisation process and are retained due to the geochemical barrier created by the limestone bedrock below. This can result in several processes, including the crystallisation of authigenic REE-bearing minerals, the accumulation of residual phases and the adsorption of ions onto clays and other mineral surfaces [4]. Red muds produced from alumina processing represent a potentially important concentration of REE as it has been demonstrated that the REE pass through the alumina extraction process into the waste, and the total REE concentrations are typically enriched by a factor of two compared with the original bauxite ore [5]. Bauxites and red muds from the Parnassus Ghiona region of Greece [6] and the Seydişehir-Akseki region of Turkey have been assessed as

  1. Using rare earth elements to constrain particulate organic carbon flux in the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Chen, Ya-Feng; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Kui; Chen, Jianfang; Burdige, David J

    2016-09-27

    Fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the East China Sea (ECS) have been reported to decrease from the inner continental shelf towards the outer continental shelf. Recent research has shown that POC fluxes in the ECS may be overestimated due to active sediment resuspension. To better characterize the effect of sediment resuspension on particle fluxes in the ECS, rare earth elements (REEs) and organic carbon (OC) were used in separate two-member mixing models to evaluate trap-collected POC fluxes. The ratio of resuspended particles from sediments to total trap-collected particles in the ECS ranged from 82-94% using the OC mixing model, and 30-80% using the REEs mixing model, respectively. These results suggest that REEs may be better proxies for sediment resuspension than OC in high turbidity marginal seas because REEs do not appear to undergo degradation during particle sinking as compared to organic carbon. Our results suggest that REEs can be used as tracers to provide quantitative estimates of POC fluxes in marginal seas.

  2. Rare earth element fingerprints in Korean coastal bay sediments: Association with provenance discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Woo, Han Jun; Jang, Seok; Jeong, Kap-Sik; Jung, Hoi-Soo; Hwang, Ha Gi; Lee, Jun-Ho; Cho, Jin Hyung

    2016-09-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs: La-Lu) in surface sediments collected from the mouth and middle tidal flats of Gomso Bay, South Korea, in August 2011 and May 2012 were analyzed to investigate the fine-grained sediment provenance. The upper continental crust (UCC)-normalized light REEs (LREEs: La to Nd) were more enriched than the middle REEs (MREEs: Sm to Dy) and heavy REEs (HREEs: Ho to Lu), resulting in large (La/Yb)UCC (1.9 ± 0.4) to (Gd/Yb)UCC (1.4 ± 0.2) ratios. The monthly (La/Yb)UCC values differed between the mouth and middle tidal flats due to deposition of fine-grained sediments that originated from distant rivers (the Geum and Yeongsan) and the Jujin Stream, located on the southern shore of the inner bay. We observed relative reductions in the (La/Yb)UCC value and REE content in the sediments from the mouth of the bay compared with those from Jujin Stream sediments. Confined to the middle tidal flat around the KH Line of Jujin Stream, the sediments, most enriched in LREEs but depleted in Eu, were distributed in August as strong Jujin Stream runs. Here, we suggest that an increase in LREE/HREE and decrease in MREE/LREE ratios can be used as a proxy to identify the Jujin Stream provenance in mixed riverine sediments and to trace Jujin Stream sediments within the Gomso Bay tidal flat, especially in the summer rainy season.

  3. Geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements in the surface sediments from the Spratly Islands of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingxi; Sun, Chengjun; Zheng, Li; Yin, Xiaofei; Chen, Junhui; Jiang, Fenghua

    2017-01-30

    The geochemistry of rare earth elements (REE) in surface sediment from Cuarteron reef (N1), Johnson reef (N2), Hugh reef (N3), Gaven reef (N4), Fiery cross reef (N5), and Subi reef (N6) were firstly studied. The total REE abundance (∑REE) varied from 2.244μg·g -1 to 21.661μg·g -1 , with an average of 4.667μg·g -1 . The LREE/HREE was from 2.747 to 9.869, with an average of 3.687, which indicated that the light REE was evidently enriched. Fractionation was observed between LREE and HREE. Gd with a negative anomaly was also detected in all of the stations. The negative anomalies of δEu from 0.11 to 0.25, with an average of 0.22, and the positive anomalies of δCe from 1.38 to 3.86, with an average of 1.63. The REE individual correlation values with Ca, Mn, Mg, Sr were r Ca =-0.05, r Mn =0.26, r Mg =-0.14, and r Sr =0.08. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Responses of plant calmodulin to endocytosis induced by rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Cheng, Mengzhu; Chu, Yunxia; Li, Xiaodong; Chen, David D Y; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Qing

    2016-07-01

    The wide application of rare earth elements (REEs) have led to their diffusion and accumulation in the environment. The activation of endocytosis is the primary response of plant cells to REEs. Calmodulin (CaM), as an important substance in calcium (Ca) signaling systems, regulating almost all of the physiological activities in plants, such as cellular metabolism, cell growth and division. However, the response of CaM to endocytosis activated by REEs remains unknown. By using immunofluorescence labeling and a confocal laser scanning microscope, we found that trivalent lanthanum [La(III)], an REE ion, affected the expression of CaM in endocytosis. Using circular dichroism, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and computer simulations, we demonstrated that a low concentration of La(III) could interact with extracellular CaM by electrostatic attraction and was then bound to two Ca-binding sites of CaM, making the molecular structure more compact and orderly, whereas a high concentration of La(III) could be coordinated with cytoplasmic CaM or bound to other Ca-binding sites, making the molecular structure more loose and disorderly. Our results provide a reference for revealing the action mechanisms of REEs in plant cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using rare earth elements to constrain particulate organic carbon flux in the East China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Chen, Ya-Feng; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Kui; Chen, Jian Feng; Burdige, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the East China Sea (ECS) have been reported to decrease from the inner continental shelf towards the outer continental shelf. Recent research has shown that POC fluxes in the ECS may be overestimated due to active sediment resuspension. To better characterize the effect of sediment resuspension on particle fluxes in the ECS, rare earth elements (REEs) and organic carbon (OC) were used in separate two-member mixing models to evaluate trap-collected POC fluxes. The ratio of resuspended particles from sediments to total trap-collected particles in the ECS ranged from 82–94% using the OC mixing model, and 30–80% using the REEs mixing model, respectively. These results suggest that REEs may be better proxies for sediment resuspension than OC in high turbidity marginal seas because REEs do not appear to undergo degradation during particle sinking as compared to organic carbon. Our results suggest that REEs can be used as tracers to provide quantitative estimates of POC fluxes in marginal seas. PMID:27670426

  6. Production and precipitation of rare earth elements in acidic to alkaline coal mine discharges, Appalachian Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, B. W.; Capo, R. C.; Hedin, B. C.; Wallrich, I. L. R.; Hedin, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Abandoned coal mine discharges are a serious threat to ground and surface waters due to their high metal content and often high acidity. However, these discharges represent a potential source of rare earth elements (REE), many of which are considered to be critical resources. Trace element data from 18 coal mine drainage (CMD) sites within the Appalachian Basin suggest CMD is enriched in total REE by 1-4 orders of magnitude relative to concentrations expected in unaffected surface or ground waters. When normalized to the North American Shale Composite (NASC), the discharges generally show a pattern of enrichment in the middle REE, including several identified as critical resources (Nd, Eu, Dy, Tb). In contrast, shale, sandstone and coal samples from Appalachian Basin coal-bearing units have concentrations and patterns similar to NASC, indicating that the REE in CMD are fractionated during interaction with rock in the mine pool. The highest total REE contents (up to 2800 mg/L) are found in low-pH discharges (acid mine drainage, or AMD). A precipitous drop in REE concentration in CMD with pH ≥6.6 suggests adsorption or precipitation of REE in the mine pool at circumneutral pH. Precipitated solids from 21 CMD active and passive treatment sites in the Appalachian Basin, including Fe oxy-hydroxides, Ca-Mg lime slurries, and Si- and Al-rich precipitates, are enriched in total REE content relative to the average CMD discharges by about four orders of magnitude. Similar REE trends in the discharges and precipitates, including MREE enrichment, suggest minimal fractionation of REE during precipitation; direct comparisons over multiple seasonal cycles are needed to confirm this. Although the data are limited, Al-rich precipitates generally have high REE concentrations, while those in iron oxy-hydroxides tend to be lower. Based on the area of mined coal in the Appalachian Basin, estimated infiltration rates, and the mean REE flux from discharges analyzed in this study and

  7. Rare earth elements concentration in mushroom cultivation substrates affects the production process and fruit-bodies content of Pleurotus ostreatus and Cyclocybe cylindracea.

    PubMed

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Danezis, Georgios P; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2018-04-20

    Concentrations of 16 rare earth elements (REEs) and two actinides were determined for the first time both in cultivated mushrooms and in their production substrates by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Moreover, the effect of REEs on cultivation parameters and composition of the final product was assessed, together with their potential use for authentication purposes. The concentrations of REEs varied greatly among seven cultivation substrates and correlated with measurements in Cyclocybe cylindracea mushrooms; no such correlation was established in Pleurotus ostreatus. Reduction of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin in substrates during P. ostreatus cultivation was positively correlated with REE concentrations, which also affected the production performance depending on the species examined. In all cases, a negative correlation was established between bioconcentration factors (BCF) in mushrooms and REE content in substrates, while the effect of substrate composition on BCF values varied according to the element studied. The estimated daily intake values of REEs through mushroom consumption was at much lower levels than those reported as potentially harmful for human health. The content of REEs in cultivation substrates and in mushrooms revealed that the bioaccumulation of elements differed in each fungus. The nature/origin of substrates seemed to affect the concentration of REEs in mushrooms to a considerable extent. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Recycling of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Tom; Bertau, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Any development of an effective process for rare earth (RE) recycling has become more and more challenging, especially in recent years. Since 2011, when commodity prices of REs had met their all-time maximum, prices have dropped rapidly by more than 90 %. An economic process able to offset these fluctuations has to take unconventional methods into account beside well-known strategies like acid/basic leaching or solvent extraction. The solid-state chlorination provides such an unconventional method for mobilizing RE elements from waste streams. Instead of hydrochloric acid this kind of chlorination decomposes NH4Cl thermally to release up to 400 °C hot HCl gas. After cooling the resulting solid metal chlorides may be easily dissolved in pH-adjusted water. Without producing strongly acidic wastes and with NH4Cl as cheap source for hydrogen chloride, solid-state chlorination provides various advantages in terms of costs and disposal. In the course of the SepSELSA project this method was examined, adjusted and optimized for RE recycling from fluorescent lamp scraps as well as Fe14Nd2B magnets. Thereby many surprising influences and trends required various analytic methods to examine the reasons and special mechanisms behind them.

  9. Battery related cobalt and REE flows in WEEE treatment.

    PubMed

    Sommer, P; Rotter, V S; Ueberschaar, M

    2015-11-01

    In batteries associated with waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), battery systems can be found with a higher content of valuable and critical raw materials like cobalt and rare earth elements (REE) relative to the general mix of portable batteries. Based on a material flow model, this study estimates the flows of REE and cobalt associated to WEEE and the fate of these metals in the end-of-life systems. In 2011, approximately 40 Mg REE and 325 Mg cobalt were disposed of with WEEE-batteries. The end-of-life recycling rate for cobalt was 14%, for REE 0%. The volume of waste batteries can be expected to grow, but variation in the battery composition makes it difficult to forecast the future secondary raw material potential. Nevertheless, product specific treatment strategies ought to be implemented throughout the stages of the value chain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Average sedimentary rock rare Earth element patterns and crustal evolution: Some observations and implications from the 3800 Ma ISUA supracrustal belt, West Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dymek, R. F.; Boak, J. L.; Gromet, L. P.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) data is given on a set of clastic metasediments from the 3800 Ma Isua Supracrustal belt, West Greenland. Each of two units from the same sedimentary sequence has a distinctive REE pattern, but the average of these rocks bears a very strong resemblance to the REE pattern for the North American Shale Composite (NASC), and departs considerably from previous estimates of REE patterns in Archaean sediments. The possibility that the source area for the Isua sediments resembled that of the NASC is regarded as highly unlikely. However, REE patterns like that in the NASC may be produced by sedimentary recycling of material yielding patterns such as are found at Isua. The results lead to the following tentative conclusions: (1) The REE patterns for Isua Seq. B MBG indicate the existence of crustal materials with fractionated REE and negative Eu anomalies at 3800 Ma, (2) The average Seq. B REE pattern resembles that of the North American Shale Composite (NASC), (3) If the Seq. B average is truly representative of its crustal sources, then this early crust could have been extensively differentiated. In this regard, a proper understanding of the NASC pattern, and its relationship to post-Archaean crustal REE reservoirs, is essential, (4) The Isua results may represent a local effect.

  11. Transfer of rare earth elements from natural metalliferous (copper and cobalt rich) soils into plant shoot biomass of metallophytes from Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourret, Olivier; Lange, Bastien; Jitaru, Petru; Mahy, Grégory; Faucon, Michel-Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REE) is generally assessed for the characterization of the geological systems where these elements represent the best proxies of processes involving the occurrence of an interface between different media. REE behavior is investigated according to their concentrations normalized with respect to the upper continental crust. In this study, the geochemical fingerprint of REE in plant shoot biomass of an unique metallicolous flora (i.e., Crepidorhopalon tenuis and Anisopappus chinensis) was investigated. The plants originate from extremely copper and cobalt rich soils, deriving from Cu and Co outcrops in Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Some of the species investigated in this study are able to accumulate high amounts of Cu and Co in shoot hence being considered as Cu and Co hyperaccumulators. Therefore, assessing the behavior of REE may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of metal accumulation by this flora. The data obtained in this study indicate that REE uptake by plants is not primarily controlled by their concentration and speciation in the soil as previously shown in the literature (Brioschi et al. 2013). Indeed, the REE patterns in shoots are relatively flat whereas soils patterns are Middle REE enriched. In addition, it is worth noting that Eu enrichments occur in aerial parts of the plants. These positive Eu anomalies suggest that Eu3 + can form stable organic complexes replacing Ca2 + in several biological processes as in xylem fluids associated with the general nutrient flux. Therefore, is is possible that the Eu mobility in these fluids is enhanced by its reductive speciation as Eu2 +. Eventually, the geochemical behavior of REE illustrates that metals accumulation in aerial parts of C. tenuis and A. chinensis is mainly driven by dissolved complexation. Brioschi, L., Steinmann, M., Lucot, E., Pierret, M., Stille, P., Prunier, J., Badot, P., 2013. Transfer of rare earth elements (REE) from

  12. Direct dating and characterization of the Pope's Hill REE Deposit, Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafe, A. N.; Hanchar, J. M.; Fisher, C.; Piccoli, P. M.; Crowley, J. L.; Dimmell, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Pope's Hill rare earth element (REE) trend (PHT) is located approximately 100 km southwest of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, along the Trans Labrador Highway, in central Labrador. Whole-rock geochemical analyses of the main REE-bearing unit indicate total rare earth element contents ranging from 1 to 22 weight percent (wt%) REE3+. The REE-enriched unit is hosted within a hydrothermally altered syenite, trending northeast and traceable for approximately 2.8km. Samples of ore, host rock, and country rock, were collected from throughout the trend in order to: 1) quantify which phases concentrate the REE and their abundances and distribution in the ore; and 2) use in situ LA-ICPMS and ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology and in situ Sm-Nd isotopes using LA-MC-ICPMS in monazite from the ore and host rock to constrain the timing of mineralization and determine the source of the REE. These data will help develop predictive models for this type of mineral deposit elsewhere. The PHT is defined as the host syenite and REE-enriched segregations; two contrasting lithologies. The rare earth element minerals (REE) occur in millimeter- to centimeter-scale pods that are locally discontinuous. The REE are hosted in a variety of silicate, phosphate, carbonate, and niobate phases; with a majority hosted in allanite(-Ce), titanite(-Ce), monazite(-Ce), britholite(-Ce); and a minor percentage in REE-carbonates and fergusonite(-Nd). Both apatite and titanite occur in two different compositional forms that range in chemistry from end-member stoichiometric apatite and titanite to highly REE-enriched - apatite-britholite and titanite(-Ce), where chemical substitutions, such as Si4+ + REE3+ substitute for Ca2+ + P5+ in apatite and REE3+ + Fe3+ substitute for Ca2+ + Ti4+ in titanite in order to incorporate up to ~40 wt% REE2O3 in both minerals. The U-Pb geochronology indicate that allanite, titanite(-Ce), monazite and fergusonite crystallized from ~1060 to ~940 Ma, a period spanning ~120 Ma. Sm-Nd tracer

  13. Levels of rare earth elements, heavy metals and uranium in a population living in Baiyun Obo, Inner Mongolia, China: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhe; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Wei, Binggan; Liao, Xiaoyong; Liang, Tao; Yu, Jiangping

    2015-06-01

    The Baiyun Obo deposit is the world's largest rare earth elements (REE) deposit. We aimed to investigate levels of REE, heavy metals (HMs) and uranium (U) based on morning urine samples in a population in Baiyun Obo and to assess the possible influence of rare earth mining processes on human exposure. In the mining area, elevated levels were found for the sum of the concentrations of light REE (LREE) and heavy REE (HREE) with mean values at 3.453 and 1.151 μg g(-1) creatinine, which were significantly higher than those in the control area. Concentrations of HMs and U in the population increased concomitantly with increasing REE levels. The results revealed that besides REE, HMs and U were produced with REE exploitation. Gender, age, educational level, alcohol and smoking habit were major factors contributing to inter-individual variation. Males were more exposed to these metals than females. Concentrations in people in the senior age group and those with only primary education were low. Drinking and smoking were associated with the levels of LREE, Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb in morning urine. Hence this study provides basic and useful information when addressing public and environmental health challenges in the areas where REE are mined and processed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dissolved Rare Earth Elements in the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiller, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) are a unique chemical set wherein there are systematic changes in geochemical behavior across the series. Furthermore, while most REEs are in the +III oxidation state, Ce and Eu can be in other oxidation states leading to distinct characteristics of those elements. Thus, the geochemical properties of the REEs make them particularly useful tools for inquiring into various geochemical processes. As part of the US GEOTRACES effort, we determined dissolved REEs and Y at 32 stations across the North Atlantic during US cruises GT10 and GT11 along a meridional transect from Lisbon to the Cape Verde Islands and a zonal transect from Cape Cod to the Mauritanian coast. While profiles are similar to previous reports, the high spatial resolution of the section allows for better elucidation of processes. Light rare earths (LREEs) show removal in the upper water column with a minimum at the chlorophyll maximum. LREE concentrations then increase into the oxygen minimum followed by a slight decrease and fairly constant concentrations in the mid-water column followed by an increase into the deep and bottom waters. Heavy rare earths (HREEs) show a more monotonic increase with depth. We also take advantage of a previously published water mass analysis for the section to estimate that most of the deep water changes can be explained by conservative mixing of waters with different pre-formed REE concentrations. Nonetheless, the pattern of LREE shallow water removal followed by regeneration, possible re-scavenging, and then deep water input is still preserved. Other features of note include an increase in LREEs in the strong oxygen minimum zone off Mauritania, consistent with an association of REE cycling with the redox cycles of Fe and Mn. Also along the eastern margin, but below the oxygen minimum, a small but distinct increase in the cerium and europium anomalies is observed, consistent with terrigenous input. In hydrothermally influenced waters along

  15. Bioleaching of rare earth and radioactive elements from red mud using Penicillium tricolor RM-10.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Lian, Bin

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate biological leaching of rare earth elements (REEs) and radioactive elements from red mud, and to evaluate the radioactivity of the bioleached red mud used for construction materials. A filamentous, acid-producing fungi named RM-10, identified as Penicillium tricolor, is isolated from red mud. In our bioleaching experiments by using RM-10, a total concentration of 2% (w/v) red mud under one-step bioleaching process was generally found to give the maximum leaching ratios of the REEs and radioactive elements. However, the highest extraction yields are achieved under two-step bioleaching process at 10% (w/v) pulp density. At pulp densities of 2% and 5% (w/v), red mud processed under both one- and two-step bioleaching can meet the radioactivity regulations in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anthropogenic gadolinium anomalies and rare earth elements in the water of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Francisco Ferreira; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), measured in water samples from Atibaia River and its tributary Anhumas Creek, Brazil, present excess of dissolved gadolinium. Such anthropogenic anomalies of Gd in water, already described in other parts of the world, result from the use of stable and soluble Gd chelates as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. Atibaia River constitutes the main water supply of Campinas Metropolitan area, and its basin receives wastewater effluents. The REE concentrations in water samples were determined in 0.22-μm pore size filtered samples, without and after preconcentration by solid-phase extraction with bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl)-phosphate. This preconcentration method was unable to retain the anthropogenic Gd quantitatively. The probable reason is that the Gd chelates dissociate slowly in acidic media to produce the free ion that is retained by the phosphate ester. Strong correlations between Gd and constituents or parameters associated with effluents confirmed the source of most Gd in water samples as anthropogenic. The shale-normalized REE patterns of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek water samples showed light and heavy REE enrichment trends, respectively. Also, positive Ce anomalies in many Atibaia River samples, as well as the strong correlations of the REE (except Gd) with terrigenous elements, imply that inorganic colloidal particles contributed to the REE measured values.

  17. Trace elements and rare earth elements in wet deposition of Lijiang, Mt. Yulong region, southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junming; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Sillanpää, Mika; Niu, Hewen; Sun, Xuejun; He, Yuanqing; Wang, Shijing; Tripathee, Lekhendra

    2017-02-01

    In order to investigate the compositions and wet deposition fluxes of trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs) in the precipitation of the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, 38 precipitation samples were collected from March to August in 2012 in an urban site of Lijiang city in the Mt. Yulong region. The concentrations of most trace elements and REEs were higher during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season, indicating that the lower concentrations of trace elements and REEs observed during monsoon had been influenced by the dilution effect of increased precipitation. The concentrations of trace elements in the precipitation of Lijiang city were slightly higher than those observed in remote sites of the Tibetan Plateau but much lower than those observed in the metropolises of China, indicating that the atmospheric environment of Lijiang city was less influenced by anthropogenic emissions, and, as a consequence, the air quality was still relatively good. However, the results of enrichment factor and principal component analysis revealed that some anthropogenic activities (e.g., the increasing traffic emissions from the rapid development of tourism) were most likely important contributors to trace elements, while the regional/local crustal sources rather than anthropogenic activities were the predominant contributors to the REEs in the wet deposition of Lijiang city. Our study was relevant not only for assessing the current status of the atmospheric environment in the Mt. Yulong region, but also for specific management actions to be implemented for the control of atmospheric inputs and the health of the environment for the future. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Submarine groundwater discharge is an important source of REEs to the coastal ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannesson, K. H.; Chevis, D. A.; Palmore, C. D.; Telfeyan, K.; Burdige, D.; Cable, J. E.; Hemming, S. R.; Rasbury, T.; Moran, S. B.; Prouty, N.; Swarzenski, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) were measured in three subterranean estuaries (i.e., Indian River Lagoon, Florida; Pettaquamscutt estuary, Rhode Island; Kona Coast, Hawaii). Using site-specific SGD estimates previously obtained by a variety of techniques (e.g., seepage meters, Ra, and Rn), we estimated SGD-derived fluxes of REEs to the coastal ocean using simple, one-dimensional modeling techniques. Our results indicate that the SGD fluxes of REEs are either of the same magnitude as riverine REE fluxes (Indian River Lagoon; Pettaquamscutt estuary), or far exceed surface runoff sources of REEs to the coastal ocean (Kona Coast). At each site important biogeochemical reactions occurring in the subterranean estuary, such as redox reactions, sediment bioirrigation, mineral dissolution and re-precipitation, and salt-induced mobilization from "nano-colloids", appear to facilitate release of REEs into solution, which are then advected to the coastal ocean via SGD. Neodymium isotope analysis of SGD and aquifer sediment are consistent with sediment diagenesis and redox transformations of Fe(III) oxides/oxyhydroxides, as well as preferential weathering of REE-bearing minerals like apatite, as being important sources of REEs to coastal seawater. Our investigations demonstrate that geochemical reactions occurring in the studied subterranean estuaries represent a net source of light and middle REEs to coastal seawater, whereas the heavy REEs appear to be sequestered in the subterranean estuary sediment.

  19. Assessing rare earth elements in quartz rich geological samples.

    PubMed

    Santoro, A; Thoss, V; Ribeiro Guevara, S; Urgast, D; Raab, A; Mastrolitti, S; Feldmann, J

    2016-01-01

    Sodium peroxide (Na2O2) fusion coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) measurements was used to rapidly screen quartz-rich geological samples for rare earth element (REE) content. The method accuracy was checked with a geological reference material and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) measurements. The used mass-mode combinations presented accurate results (only exception being (157)Gd in He gas mode) with recovery of the geological reference material QLO-1 between 80% and 98% (lower values for Lu, Nd and Sm) and in general comparable to INAA measurements. Low limits of detection for all elements were achieved, generally below 10 pg g(-1), as well as measurement repeatability below 15%. Overall, the Na2O2/ICP-MS/MS method proved to be a suitable lab-based method to quickly and accurately screen rock samples originating from quartz-rich geological areas for rare earth element content; particularly useful if checking commercial viability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Source and mobility of Rare Earth Elements in a sedimentary aquifer system: Aquitaine basin (Southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrel, P. J.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Millot, R.; Malcuit, E.

    2011-12-01

    The study of rare earth elements (REEs) in natural waters initially involved an examination of their occurrence and behavior in seawater and coastal waters such as estuaries. Since the 1990s, REE geochemistry has been applied to continental waters such as rivers and lakes and groundwaters. Rare earth elements) are of great interest because of their unique characteristics and have been used in the study of many geological processes like weathering and water-rock interaction processes, provenance of sediments, etc... With the evolution of analytical techniques like new generation ICP-MS, much attention had been paid towards the water geochemistry of REEs. However, there is a need of more investigations devoted to REEs in large groundwater systems, especially on the understanding of the distribution of REEs and their evolution in such systems. In this frame, large sedimentary aquifer systems often constitute strategic water resources for drinking water supply, agriculture irrigation and industry, but can also represent an energetic resource for geothermal power. Large water abstractions can induce complete modification of the natural functioning of such aquifer systems. These large aquifer systems thus require water management at the basin scale in order to preserve both water quantity and quality. The large Eocene Sand aquifer system of the Aquitaine sedimentary basin was studied through various hydrological, chemical and isotopic tools. This system extends over 116,000 km2 in the South west part of the French territory. The aquifer being artesian in the west of the district and confined with piezometric levels around 250-m depth in the east. The 'Eocene Sands', composed of sandy Tertiary sediments alternating with carbonate deposits, is a multi-layer system with high permeability and a thickness of several tens of metres to a hundred metres. The Eocene Sand aquifer system comprises at least five aquifers: Paleocene, Eocene infra-molassic sands (IMS), early Eocene

  1. REE speciation in low-temperature acidic waters and the competitive effects of aluminum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gimeno, Serrano M.J.; Auque, Sanz L.F.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2000-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous competitive speciation of dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) in acidic waters (pH 3.3 to 5.2) has been evaluated by applying the PHREEQE code to the speciation of water analyses from Spain, Brazil, USA, and Canada. The main ions that might affect REE are Al3+, F-, SO42-, and PO43-. Fluoride, normally a significant complexer of REEs, is strongly associated with Al3+ in acid waters and consequently has little influence on REEs. The inclusion of aluminum concentrations in speciation calculations for acidic waters is essential for reliable speciation of REEs. Phosphate concentrations are too low (10-4 to 10-7 m) to affect REE speciation. Consequently, SO42- is the only important complexing ligand for REEs under these conditions. According to Millero [Millero, F.J., 1992. Stability constants for the formation of rare earth inorganic complexes as a function of ionic strength. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 56, 3123-3132], the lanthanide sulfate stability constants are nearly constant with increasing atomic number so that no REE fractionation would be anticipated from aqueous complexation in acidic waters. Hence, REE enrichments or depletions must arise from mass transfer reactions. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anomalous abundance and redistribution patterns of rare earth elements in soils of a mining area in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao

    2016-06-01

    The Bayan Obo Mine, the largest rare earth element (REE) deposit ever found in the world, has been mined for nearly 60 years for iron and rare earth elements. To assess the influences of mining activities on geochemical behavior of REEs in soils, 27 surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different directions in the vicinity of the mine area. The total concentrations of REEs in surface soils varied from 149.75 to 18,891.81 mg kg(-1) with an average value of 1906.12 mg kg(-1), which was apparently higher than the average values in China (181 mg kg(-1)). The order of the average concentrations of individual REEs in surface soils was similar to that in Bayan Obo ores, which confirmed that the concentration and distribution of REEs in the soils was influenced by the mining activities. The concentrations of single REE in the soil profiles showed a similar trend with depth with an increase at 0-25 cm section, then decreased and remained relatively stable in the deep part. The normalized curves inclined to the right side, showing the conspicuous fractionation between the light and heavy REEs, which supported by the North American Shale Composite (NASC) and Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La N /Yb N , La N /Sm N , Gd N /Yb N ). Slight positive Ce anomaly and negative Eu anomaly were also observed.

  3. COST-EFFECTIVE RARE EARTH ELEMENT RECYCLING PROCESS FROM INDUSTRIAL SCRAP AND DISCARDED ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS TO VALUABLE MAGNETIC ALLOYS AND PERMANENT MAGNETS - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rare earth element (REE) based Nd-Fe-B and Sm-Co permanent magnets have been widely used because of their excellent magnetic properties. The applications of Nd-Fe-B and Sm-Co rare earth permanent magnets include hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), power generators for wind tur...

  4. Rare Earth Element Transfer from Soil to Navel Orange Pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and the Effects on Internal Fruit Quality

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of soil rare earth element (REE) on navel orange quality and safety in rare earth ore areas have gained great attention. This study investigated the transfer characteristics of REE from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and examined the effects of soil REE on internal fruit quality in Xinfeng County, Jiangxi province, China. Path analysis showed that soil REE, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and Fe oxide (Feox) significantly affected pulp REE concentrations. A Freundlich-type prediction model for pulp REE was established: log[REEpulp] = -1.036 + 0.272 log[REEsoil] - 0.056 pH - 0.360 log[CEC] + 0.370 log[Feox] (n = 114, R2 = 0.60). From the prediction model, it was inferred that even when soil REE and Feox were as high as 1038 mg kg-1 and 96.4 g kg-1, respectively, and pH and CEC were as low as 3.75 and 5.08 cmol kg-1, respectively, pulp REE concentrations were much lower than the food limit standard. Additionally, soil REE levels were significantly correlated with selected fruit quality indicators, including titratable acidity (r = 0.52, P < 0.01), total soluble solids (r = 0.48, P < 0.01) and vitamin C (r = 0.56, P < 0.01). Generally, under routine methods of water and fertilization management, the cultivation of navel oranges in rare earth ore areas of south China with soil REE ranging from 38.6 to 546 mg kg-1 had improved in internal fruit quality. PMID:25806821

  5. Rare earth element transfer from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and the effects on internal fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of soil rare earth element (REE) on navel orange quality and safety in rare earth ore areas have gained great attention. This study investigated the transfer characteristics of REE from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and examined the effects of soil REE on internal fruit quality in Xinfeng County, Jiangxi province, China. Path analysis showed that soil REE, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and Fe oxide (Feox) significantly affected pulp REE concentrations. A Freundlich-type prediction model for pulp REE was established: log[REEpulp] = -1.036 + 0.272 log[REEsoil] - 0.056 pH - 0.360 log[CEC] + 0.370 log[Feox] (n = 114, R2 = 0.60). From the prediction model, it was inferred that even when soil REE and Feox were as high as 1038 mg kg-1 and 96.4 g kg-1, respectively, and pH and CEC were as low as 3.75 and 5.08 cmol kg-1, respectively, pulp REE concentrations were much lower than the food limit standard. Additionally, soil REE levels were significantly correlated with selected fruit quality indicators, including titratable acidity (r = 0.52, P < 0.01), total soluble solids (r = 0.48, P < 0.01) and vitamin C (r = 0.56, P < 0.01). Generally, under routine methods of water and fertilization management, the cultivation of navel oranges in rare earth ore areas of south China with soil REE ranging from 38.6 to 546 mg kg-1 had improved in internal fruit quality.

  6. Metal loading levels influence on REE distribution on humic acid: Experimental and Modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsac, R.; Davranche, M.; Gruau, G.; Dia, A.

    2009-04-01

    In natural organic-rich waters, rare earth elements (REE) speciation is mainly controlled by organic colloids such as humic acid (HA). Different series of REE-HA complexation experiments performed at several metal loading (REE/C) displayed two pattern shapes (i) at high metal loading, a middle-REE (MREE) downward concavity, and (ii) at low metal loading, a regular increase from La to Lu (e.g. Sonke and Salters, 2006; Pourret et al., 2007). Both REE patterns might be related to REE binding with different surface sites on HA. To understand REE-HA binding, REE-HA complexation experiments at various metals loading were carried out using ultrafiltration combined with ICP-MS measurements, for the 14 REE simultaneously. The patterns of the apparent coefficients of REE partition between HA and the inorganic solution (log Kd) evolved regularly according to the metal loading. The REE patterns presented a MREE downward concavity at low loading and a regular increase from La to Lu at high loading. The dataset was modelled with Model VI by adjusting two specific parameters, log KMA, the apparent complexation constant of HA low affinity sites and DLK2, the parameter increasing high affinity sites binding strength. Experiments and modelling provided evidence that HA high affinity sites controlled the REE binding with HA at low metal loading. The REE-HA complex could be as multidentate complexes with carboxylic or phenolic sites or potentially with sites constituted of N, P or S as donor atoms. Moreover, these high affinity sites could be different for light and heavy REE, because heavy REE have higher affinity for these sites, in low density, and could saturate them. These new Model VI parameter sets allowed the prediction of the REE-HA pattern shape evolution on a large range of pH and metal loading. According to the metal loading, the evolution of the calculated REE patterns was similar to the various REE pattern observed in natural acidic organic-rich waters (pH<7 and DOC>10

  7. Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2002-01-01

    Data on rare earth (including yttrium) mines, deposits, and occurrences were compiled as part of an effort by the USGS and the University of Arizona Center for Mineral Resources to summarize current knowledge on the supply and demand outlook and related topics for this group of elements. Economic competition and environmental concerns are increasingly constraining the mining and processing of rare earths from the Mountain Pass mine in California. For many years, the deposit at Mountain Pass was the world's dominant source of rare earth elements and the United States was essentially self-sufficient. Starting approximately 10 years ago, the U.S. has become increasingly dependent (> 90 percent of separated rare earths) upon imports from China, now the dominant source of rare earths. A knowledge of the known economic and noneconomic sources of rare earths is basic to evaluating the outlook for rare earth supply and associated issues.

  8. Using rare earth elements for the identification of the geographic origin of food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, T.; Bandoniene, D.; Joebstl, D.

    2009-04-01

    The European Union defined regimes within the Protected Geographical Status (PGS) framework to protect names of regional food specialities. Thus only food produced in a specific geographical area with a specific way of production or quality can be protected by a protected geographical indication (PGI) label. As such Styrian Pumpkin Seed Oil has been approved with this label, but as with many other high priced regional specialities, fraud cannot be excluded or nor identified. Thus the aim of this work is, to develop an analytical method for the control of the geographic origin of pumpkin seed oil and also to test the method for other protected products. The development of such a method is not only of interest for scientists, but also of importance for the consumer wanting to know the origin of the food products and the assurance of the purity and quality. The group of rare earth elements (REE) in plants also have a characteristic distribution pattern similar to upper crustal REE distributions. Since the REE concentrations are extremely low in pumpkin seed oil (ppt to low ppb), ICP-MS was the only sensitive tool able to produce validated results. The carrier of the REE are most likely small particles distributed within the pumpkin seed oil. Unlike, e.g., olive oil, pumpkin seed oil is bottled and sold unfiltered, which makes this Styrian speciality an interesting sampling target. As pumpkin seed oils from different geographic origin show variable trace element and rare earth distribution patterns, is should possible to trace the origin of these oils. In the current project pumpkin seeds from different regions in Austria and from abroad were sampled. The trace element patterns in the extracted oil of these seeds were determined and a preliminary classification with discriminate analysis was successfully done on a statistical basis. In addition to the study of the geographic origin it was demonstrated that REE distribution patterns can also be used for the

  9. Determination of rare earth elements in tomato plants by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques.

    PubMed

    Spalla, S; Baffi, C; Barbante, C; Turetta, C; Turretta, C; Cozzi, G; Beone, G M; Bettinelli, M

    2009-10-30

    In recent years identification of the geographical origin of food has grown more important as consumers have become interested in knowing the provenance of the food that they purchase and eat. Certification schemes and labels have thus been developed to protect consumers and genuine producers from the improper use of popular brand names or renowned geographical origins. As the tomato is one of the major components of what is considered to be the healthy Mediterranean diet, it is important to be able to determine the geographical origin of tomatoes and tomato-based products such as tomato sauce. The aim of this work is to develop an analytical method to determine rare earth elements (RRE) for the control of the geographic origin of tomatoes. The content of REE in tomato plant samples collected from an agricultural area in Piacenza, Italy, was determined, using four different digestion procedures with and without HF. Microwave dissolution with HNO3 + H2O2 proved to be the most suitable digestion procedure. Inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICPQMS) and inductively coupled plasma sector field plasma mass spectrometry (ICPSFMS) instruments, both coupled with a desolvation system, were used to determine the REE in tomato plants in two different laboratories. A matched calibration curve method was used for the quantification of the analytes. The detection limits (MDLs) of the method ranged from 0.03 ng g(-1) for Ho, Tm, and Lu to 2 ng g(-1) for La and Ce. The precision, in terms of relative standard deviation on six replicates, was good, with values ranging, on average, from 6.0% for LREE (light rare earth elements) to 16.5% for HREE (heavy rare earth elements). These detection limits allowed the determination of the very low concentrations of REE present in tomato berries. For the concentrations of REE in tomato plants, the following trend was observed: roots > leaves > stems > berries. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry for Rare Earth Elements Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Man; Hu, Bin; Chen, Beibei; Jiang, Zucheng

    2017-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) merits multielements capability, high sensitivity, good reproducibility, low matrix effect and wide dynamic linear range for rare earth elements (REEs) analysis. But the spectral interference in trace REEs analysis by ICP-OES is a serious problem due to the complicated emission spectra of REEs, which demands some correction technology including interference factor method, derivative spectrum, Kalman filtering algorithm and partial least-squares (PLS) method. Matrix-matching calibration, internal standard, correction factor and sample dilution are usually employed to overcome or decrease the matrix effect. Coupled with various sample introduction techniques, the analytical performance of ICP-OES for REEs analysis would be improved. Compared with conventional pneumatic nebulization (PN), acid effect and matrix effect are decreased to some extent in flow injection ICP-OES, with higher tolerable matrix concentration and better reproducibility. By using electrothermal vaporization as sample introduction system, direct analysis of solid samples by ICP-OES is achieved and the vaporization behavior of refractory REEs with high boiling point, which can easily form involatile carbides in the graphite tube, could be improved by using chemical modifier, such as polytetrafluoroethylene and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazone. Laser ablation-ICP-OES is suitable for the analysis of both conductive and nonconductive solid samples, with the absolute detection limit of ng-pg level and extremely low sample consumption (0.2 % of that in conventional PN introduction). ICP-OES has been extensively employed for trace REEs analysis in high-purity materials, and environmental and biological samples.

  11. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  12. Rare earth elements in fine-grained sediments of major rivers from the high-standing island of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-Shun; Shi, Xue-Fa; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Liu, Yan-Guang; Lyu, Hua-Hua; Zou, Jian-Jun; Liu, Sheng-Fa; Qiao, Shu-Qing

    2013-06-01

    Thirty-eight sediment samples from 15 primary rivers on Taiwan were retrieved to characterize the rare earth element (REE) signature of fluvial fine sediment sources. Compared to the three large rivers on the Chinese mainland, distinct differences were observed in the REE contents, upper continental crust normalized patterns and fractionation factors of the sediment samples. The average REE concentrations of the Taiwanese river sediments are higher than those of the Changjiang and Huanghe, but lower than the Zhujiang. Light rare earth elements (LREEs) are enriched relative to heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) with ratios from 7.48 to 13.03. We found that the variations in (La/Lu)UCC-(Gd/Lu)UCC and (La/Yb)UCC-(Gd/Yb)UCC are good proxies for tracing the source sediments of Taiwanese and Chinese rivers due to their distinguishable values. Our analyses indicate that the REE compositions of Taiwanese river sediments were primarily determined by the properties of the bedrock, and the intensity of chemical weathering in the drainage areas. The relatively high relief and heavy rainfall also have caused the REEs in the fluvial sediments from Taiwan to be transported to the estuaries down rivers from the mountains, and in turn delivered nearly coincidently to the adjacent seas by currents and waves. Our studies suggest that the REE patterns of the river sediments from Taiwan are distinguishable from those from the other sources of sediments transported into the adjacent seas, and therefore are useful proxies for tracing the provenances and dispersal patterns of sediments, as well as paleoenvironmental changes in the marginal seas.

  13. Geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements in different types of soil: A chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aysha Masood; Behkami, Shima; Yusoff, Ismail; Md Zain, Sharifuddin Bin; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Bakar, Ahmad Farid Abu; Alias, Yatimah

    2017-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are becoming significant due to their huge applications in many industries, large-scale mining and refining activities. Increasing usage of such metals pose negative environmental impacts. In this research ICP-MS has been used to analyze soil samples collected from former ex-mining areas in the depths of 0-20 cm, 21-40 cm, and 41-60 cm of residential, mining, natural, and industrial areas of Perak. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that soil samples taken from different mining, industrial, residential, and natural areas are separated into four clusters. It was observed that REEs were abundant in most of the samples from mining areas. Concentration of the rare elements decrease in general as we move from surface soil to deeper soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: rare earth elements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The article provides information on rare earth elements, which are group of 17 natural metallic elements. The rare earth elements are scandium, yttrium and lanthanides and classified into light rare earth elements (LREE) and heavy rate earth elements (HREE). The principal ores of the rare earth elements are identified. An overview of China's production of 97 percent of the rare earths in the world is provided. Commercial applications of rare earths are described.

  15. Effects of soil type on leaching and runoff transport of rare earth elements and phosphorous in laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao; Chong, Zhongyi; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2011-01-01

    Through leaching experiments and simulated rainfall experiments, characteristics of vertical leaching of exogenous rare earth elements (REEs) and phosphorus (P) and their losses with surface runoff during simulated rainfall in different types of soils (terra nera soil, cinnamon soil, red soil, loess soil, and purple soil) were investigated. Results of the leaching experiments showed that vertical transports of REEs and P were relatively low, with transport depths less than 6 cm. The vertical leaching rates of REEs and P in the different soils followed the order of purple soil > terra nera soil > red soil > cinnamon soil > loess soil. Results of the simulated rainfall experiments (83 mm h⁻¹) revealed that more than 92% of REEs and P transported with soil particles in runoff. The loss rates of REEs and P in surface runoff in the different soil types were in the order of loess soil > terra nera soil > cinnamon soil > red soil > purple soil. The total amounts of losses of REEs and P in runoff were significantly correlated.

  16. Technospheric Mining of Rare Earth Elements from Bauxite Residue (Red Mud): Process Optimization, Kinetic Investigation, and Microwave Pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Reid, Sable; Tam, Jason; Yang, Mingfan; Azimi, Gisele

    2017-11-10

    Some rare earth elements (REEs) are classified under critical materials, i.e., essential in use and subject to supply risk, due to their increasing demand, monopolistic supply, and environmentally unsustainable and expensive mining practices. To tackle the REE supply challenge, new initiatives have been started focusing on their extraction from alternative secondary resources. This study puts the emphasis on technospheric mining of REEs from bauxite residue (red mud) produced by the aluminum industry. Characterization results showed the bauxite residue sample contains about 0.03 wt% REEs. Systematic leaching experiments showed that concentrated HNO 3 is the most effective lixiviant. However, because of the process complexities, H 2 SO 4 was selected as the lixiviant. To further enhance the leaching efficiency, a novel process based on microwave pretreatment was employed. Results indicated that microwave pretreatment creates cracks and pores in the particles, enabling the lixiviant to diffuse further into the particles, bringing more REEs into solution, yielding of 64.2% and 78.7% for Sc and Nd, respectively, which are higher than the maximum obtained when HNO 3 was used. This novel process of "H 2 SO 4 leaching-coupled with-microwave pretreatment" proves to be a promising technique that can help realize the technological potential of REE recovery from secondary resources, particularly bauxite residue.

  17. Improved Precision and Accuracy of Quantification of Rare Earth Element Abundances via Medium-Resolution LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funderburg, Rebecca; Arevalo, Ricardo; Locmelis, Marek; Adachi, Tomoko

    2017-07-01

    Laser ablation ICP-MS enables streamlined, high-sensitivity measurements of rare earth element (REE) abundances in geological materials. However, many REE isotope mass stations are plagued by isobaric interferences, particularly from diatomic oxides and argides. In this study, we compare REE abundances quantitated from mass spectra collected with low-resolution (m/Δm = 300 at 5% peak height) and medium-resolution (m/Δm = 2500) mass discrimination. A wide array of geological samples was analyzed, including USGS and NIST glasses ranging from mafic to felsic in composition, with NIST 610 employed as the bracketing calibrating reference material. The medium-resolution REE analyses are shown to be significantly more accurate and precise (at the 95% confidence level) than low-resolution analyses, particularly in samples characterized by low (<μg/g levels) REE abundances. A list of preferred mass stations that are least susceptible to isobaric interferences is reported. These findings impact the reliability of REE abundances derived from LA-ICP-MS methods, particularly those relying on mass analyzers that do not offer tuneable mass-resolution and/or collision cell technologies that can reduce oxide and/or argide formation.

  18. Improved Precision and Accuracy of Quantification of Rare Earth Element Abundances via Medium-Resolution LA-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Funderburg, Rebecca; Arevalo, Ricardo; Locmelis, Marek; Adachi, Tomoko

    2017-11-01

    Laser ablation ICP-MS enables streamlined, high-sensitivity measurements of rare earth element (REE) abundances in geological materials. However, many REE isotope mass stations are plagued by isobaric interferences, particularly from diatomic oxides and argides. In this study, we compare REE abundances quantitated from mass spectra collected with low-resolution (m/Δm = 300 at 5% peak height) and medium-resolution (m/Δm = 2500) mass discrimination. A wide array of geological samples was analyzed, including USGS and NIST glasses ranging from mafic to felsic in composition, with NIST 610 employed as the bracketing calibrating reference material. The medium-resolution REE analyses are shown to be significantly more accurate and precise (at the 95% confidence level) than low-resolution analyses, particularly in samples characterized by low (<μg/g levels) REE abundances. A list of preferred mass stations that are least susceptible to isobaric interferences is reported. These findings impact the reliability of REE abundances derived from LA-ICP-MS methods, particularly those relying on mass analyzers that do not offer tuneable mass-resolution and/or collision cell technologies that can reduce oxide and/or argide formation. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  19. Syntrophic effect of indigenous and inoculated microorganisms in the leaching of rare earth elements from Western Australian monazite.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Melissa K; Eksteen, Jacques J; Niu, Xi-Zhi; Watkin, Elizabeth Lj

    2018-05-28

    The unique physiochemical properties exhibited by rare earth elements (REEs) and their increasing application in high-tech industries has created a demand for secure supply lines with established recovery procedures that create minimal environmental damage. Bioleaching experiments conducted on a non-sterile monazite concentrate with a known phosphate solubilising microorganism (PSM) resulted in greater mobilisation of REEs into solution in comparison to experiments conducted on sterile monazite. By combining the native consortia with an introduced PSM, a syntrophic effect between the populations effectively leached a greater amount of REEs than either a single PSM or the indigenous population alone. With sterile monazite, Penicillium sp.CF1 inoculated experiments released a total REE concentration of 12.32 mg L -1 after incubation for 8 days, whereas on non-sterile ore, double the soluble REE concentration was recorded (23.7 mg L -1 ). Comparable effects were recorded with Enterobacter aerogenes, Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas putida. Alterations in the microbial populations during bioleaching of the monazite ore were determined by diversity profiling and demonstrated noticeable changes in community inhabitants over 14 days. The presence of native Firmicutes on the monazite appears to greatly contribute to the increased leaching recorded when using non-sterile monazite for REE recovery. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Enrichment of rare earth elements as environmental tracers of contamination by acid mine drainage in salt marshes: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Joaquín; Pérez-López, Rafael; Galván, Laura; Nieto, José Miguel; Boski, Tomasz

    2012-09-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were analyzed in surface sediments from the Guadiana Estuary (SW Iberian Pyrite Belt). NASC (North American Shale Composite) normalized REE patterns show clearly convex curvatures in middle-REE (MREE) with respect to light- and heavy-REE, indicating acid-mixing processes between fluvial waters affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) and seawater. However, REE distributions in the mouth (closer to the coastal area) show slightly LREE-enriched and flat patterns, indicating saline-mixing processes typical of the coastal zone. NASC-normalized ratios (La/Gd and La/Yb) do not discriminate between both mixing processes in the estuary. Instead, a new parameter (E(MREE)) has been applied to measure the curvature in the MREE segment. The values of E(MREE)>0 are indicative of acid signatures and their spatial distribution reveal the existence of two decantation zones from flocculation processes related to drought periods and flood events. Studying REE fractionation through the E(MREE) may serve as a good proxy for AMD-pollution in estuarine environments in relation to the traditional methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rare earth elements in pore waters from Cabo Friós western boundary upwelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoak, J. M.; Silva-Filho, E. V.; Rousseau, T.; Albuquerque, A. L.; Caldeira, P. P.; Moreira, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are a group of reactive trace elements in aqueous media, they have a coherent chemical behavior with however a subtle and gradual shift in physicochemical properties allowing their use as tracers of sources and processes. Uncertainties on their oceanic inputs and outputs still remains [Arsouze et al., 2009; Siddall et al., 2008; Tachikawa et al., 2003]. The water-sediment interface were early on identified as a relevant REE source due to the high distribution coefficient between sediments and pore waters [Elderfield and Sholkovitz, 1987] and substantially higher concentration then the water column [Abbott et al., 2015; Haley et al., 2004; Sholkovitz et al., 1989; Soyol-Erdene and Huh, 2013]. Here we present a cross shelf transect of 4 short pore waters REE profiles on a 680 km2 mud bank located in the region of Cabo Frio, Brazil. This study reveals similar trends at the four sites: a REE production zone reflected by a maximum in concentration at the top of the sediment evolving with depth toward a REE consumption zone reflected by a minimum in REE concentrations. PAAS normalized patterns shows 1) a progressive depletion in LREE with depth with HREE/LREE ratios comprised between 1.1 and 1.6 in the 2 first centimeters evolving gradually to ratios comprised between 2.8 and 4.7 above 7 cm 2) A sharp gradient in negative Ce anomaly with Ce/Ce* values reaching 0.3. With maximum Nd concentrations comprised between 780 and 1200 pmol.kg and considering that seawater Nd concentrations of Brazilian shelf bottom waters are comprised between 24 and 50 pmol.Kg-1 we apply the Fick´s First Law of diffusion and estimate that 340 +/- 90 nmol. m-2 Y-1 of Nd is released in the Cabo frio´s mudbank. This flux is in the same order of magnitude of recent estimates by [Abbott et al., 2015] in the slope of Oregon´s margin. Unraveling processes responsible for the REE production zone will help to refine the global REE fluxes estimates.

  2. Rare earth element geochemistry of shallow carbonate outcropping strata in Saudi Arabia: Application for depositional environments prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltom, Hassan A.; Abdullatif, Osman M.; Makkawi, Mohammed H.; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin A.

    2017-03-01

    The interpretation of depositional environments provides important information to understand facies distribution and geometry. The classical approach to interpret depositional environments principally relies on the analysis of lithofacies, biofacies and stratigraphic data, among others. An alternative method, based on geochemical data (chemical element data), is advantageous because it can simply, reproducibly and efficiently interpret and refine the interpretation of the depositional environment of carbonate strata. Here we geochemically analyze and statistically model carbonate samples (n = 156) from seven sections of the Arab-D reservoir outcrop analog of central Saudi Arabia, to determine whether the elemental signatures (major, trace and rare earth elements [REEs]) can be effectively used to predict depositional environments. We find that lithofacies associations of the studied outcrop (peritidal to open marine depositional environments) possess altered REE signatures, and that this trend increases stratigraphically from bottom-to-top, which corresponds to an upward shallowing of depositional environments. The relationship between REEs and major, minor and trace elements indicates that contamination by detrital materials is the principal source of REEs, whereas redox condition, marine and diagenetic processes have minimal impact on the relative distribution of REEs in the lithofacies. In a statistical model (factor analysis and logistic regression), REEs, major and trace elements cluster together and serve as markers to differentiate between peritidal and open marine facies and to differentiate between intertidal and subtidal lithofacies within the peritidal facies. The results indicate that statistical modelling of the elemental composition of carbonate strata can be used as a quantitative method to predict depositional environments and regional paleogeography. The significance of this study lies in offering new assessments of the relationships between

  3. Geophysical Framework of a Rare Earth Element Enriched Terrane, Mountain Pass, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, K. M.; Ponce, D. A.; Peacock, J.; Miller, D. M.; Miller, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Carbonatite ore deposits continue to be the primary source for rare earth elements (REEs), however large viable REE ore deposits are uncommon. The Mountain Pass carbonatite deposit, located in the eastern Mojave Desert of California, is the largest economic deposit of light REEs in North America. A 1.417 Ga ultrapotassic suite (shonkinite, syenite, and granite) and a 1.375 Ga barite-bastnasite-rich carbonatite (sovite) ore deposit comprise the enclave of REE-enriched outcrops and dikes that occupy a narrow ( 3 km) zone of 1.7 Ga gneiss extending at least 10-km to the southeast from southern Clark Mountain. Modeling of gravity, magnetic, and magnetotelluric (MT) data reveals subsurface features that form the structural framework of the REE terrane. The carbonatite and ultrapotassic mafic suite is associated with a local gravity high that is superimposed on a 4 km-wide gravity terrace, likely related to less dense granitic gneiss basement. Although physical property data indicate that the intrusive suite and carbonatite are essentially and nonmagnetic, aeromagnetic data indicate that these rocks occur along the eastern edge of a prominent north-northwest trending aeromagnetic high. This relationship suggests that they may have been preferentially emplaced along a zone of weakness or fault. The source of the magnetic high is 2-3 km below the surface and coincides with a relatively electrically conductive (3 orders of magnitude higher than surrounding rock) feature. MT data indicate that the western edge of the magnetic feature could be connected to a deeper ( 8 km) conductive feature related to possible intrusions and/or hydrothermal systems. The lack of a magnetic signature of the REE terrane can be explained by alteration of magnetite, given that the terrane lies within a broader alteration zone and observed magnetic low. If so, such an alteration event, capable of remobilizing rare earth elements, likely occurred during or after emplacement of the intrusive suite

  4. Rare earth element contents of the Lusi mud: An attempt to identify the environmental origin of the hot mudflow in East Java - Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustawijaya, Didi Supriadi; Karyadi, Karyadi; Krisnayanti, Baiq Dewi; Sutanto, Sutanto

    2017-12-01

    The Sidoarjo mudflow in East Java, Indonesia, has been erupting since May 29th, 2006. The eruption has been known as the Lusi (lumpur Sidoarjo), which was previously considered as a remote seismic event consequence, but current geyser-like activities show an association with a geothermal phenomenon. A method of characterizing rare earth elements (REE) is commonly an effective tool for recognizing a geothermal system, and here it is adapted to particularly indicate the environmental origin of the Lusi mud. Results show that the Lusi hot mud is made of a porous smectite structure of a shale rock type, which becomes an ideal tank for trapping the REE, especially the light REE. Volcanic activities seem to be an important influence in the eruption; however, since there is a lack of significant isotopic evidences in the mobilization of the REE during the eruption, the chloride neutral pH water of the Lusi may hardly contain the REE. The moderate Ce and Eu anomalies found in the REE patterns of the mud strongly indicate a sea-floor basin as the most probable environment for the REE fractionation during the sedimentary rock formation, in which the weathering processes of volcanic rock origin enriched the Lusi shale with the REE.

  5. A pilot study on the association between rare earth elements in maternal hair and the risk of neural tube defects in north China.

    PubMed

    Huo, Wenhua; Zhu, Yibing; Li, Zhenjiang; Pang, Yiming; Wang, Bin; Li, Zhiwen

    2017-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have many applications in industry, agriculture, and medicine, resulting in occupational and environmental exposure and concerns regarding REE-associated health effects. However, few epidemiological studies have examined the adverse effects of REEs on pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between the REE concentrations in maternal hair growing during early pregnancy and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. We included 191 women with NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 261 women delivering healthy infants (controls). The cases were divided into three subtypes: anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele. Four REEs in maternal hair were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), and neodymium (Nd). A questionnaire was used to collect information about maternal sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits. The median concentrations of Ce and Pr in the NTD group were higher than those in the control group, whereas there were no significant differences for La and Nd. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the four REE concentrations above the median in the case groups were not significantly > 1. An increasing frequency of the consumption of beans or bean products and fresh fruit was negatively correlated with the four REE concentrations. Our results did not suggest that the concentrations of REEs in maternal hair were associated with the risk of NTDs or any subtype of NTDs in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rare earth elements in apatite: Uptake from H{sub 2}O-bearing phosphate-fluoride melts and the role of volatile components

    SciTech Connect

    Fleet, M.E.; Pan, Yuanming

    The partitioning of rare earth elements (REEs) between fluorapatite (FAp) and H{sub 2}O- bearing phosphate-fluoride melts has been studied at about 700 and 800{degrees}C and 0.10-0.15 GPa. REE uptake patterns, i.e., plots of D(REE:FAp/melt), are convex upwards and peak near Nd for single-REE substituted FAp at minor (0.03-0.25 wt% REE{sub 2}O{sub 3}) abundances, and binary (LREE + HREE)-substituted FAp, and hexa-REE-substituted FAp at minor to major (0.25-7.8 wt% REE{sub 2}O{sub 3}) abundances. Partition coefficients for minor abundances of REE and depolymerized phosphate melts are about 5, 8, and 1 for La, Nd, and Lu, respectively and broadly comparable to thosemore » for early fluorapatite in the fractionation of melts of basaltic composition. The Ca2 site exerts marked control on the selectivity of apatite for REE because it preferentially incorporates LREE and its effective size varies with substitution of the A-site volatile anion component (F, Cl, OH). Using simple crystal-chemical arguments, melt(or fluid)-normalized REE patterns are predicted to peak near Nd for fluorapatite and be more LREE-enriched for chlorapatite. These predictions are consistent with data from natural rocks and laboratory experiments. The wide variation in D(REE:apatite/melt) in nature (from <1 for whitlockite-bearing lunar rocks to about 100 for evolved alkalic rocks) is attributed largely to the influence of the volatile components. 49 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  7. Thermal effects on rare earth element and strontium isotope chemistry in single conodont elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, H. A.; Pearson, D. G.; Griselin, M.

    2001-02-01

    A low-blank, high sensitivity isotope dilution, ICP-MS analytical technique has been used to obtain REE abundance data from single conodont elements weighing as little as 5 μg. Sr isotopes can also be measured from the column eluants enabling Sr isotope ratios and REE abundance to be determined from the same dissolution. Results are comparable to published analyses comprising tens to hundreds of elements. To study the effects of thermal metamorphism on REE and strontium mobility in conodonts, samples were selected from a single bed adjacent to a basaltic dyke and from the internationally used colour alteration index (CAI) "standard set." Our analyses span the range of CAI 1 to 8. Homogeneous REE patterns, "bell-shaped" shale-normalised REE patterns are observed across the range of CAI 1 to 6 in both sample sets. This pattern is interpreted as the result of adsorption during early diagenesis and could reflect original seawater chemistry. Above CAI 6 REE patterns become less predictable and perturbations from the typical REE pattern are likely to be due to the onset of apatite recrystallisation. Samples outside the contact aureole of the dyke have a mean 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of 0.708165, within the broad range of published mid-Carboniferous seawater values. Our analysis indicates conodonts up to CAI 6 record primary geochemical signals that may be a proxy for ancient seawater.

  8. REE mobility during the alteration of Carbonatite and their economic potential.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marien, Christian; Dijkstra, Arjan; Wilkins, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The supply risk of Rare Earth Elements is an unpredictable economic factor for the future application and development of modern technology for the EU. Therefore a better understanding of REE mobilisation during hydrothermal alteration of Carbonatites is essential for a safer supply of REE in general. The hydrothermal alteration of Carbonatite within the Fen Complex (Norway) forms a fine grained red hematized rock type, called Rødbergite, which is partially enriched in REE. The variation of REE within the Rødbergite is poorly understood and problematic for any future REE exploitation from Rødbergite. A genetic model of the formation of Rødbergite will provide more information about the economic potential of Rødbergite. The gradual transformation of carbonatite to Rødbergite is not easily observable due to sparse outcrop in the Fen Complex. A fresh road cut near the Bjørndallen farm (Fen Complex) provides a unique insight to the progressive hydrothermal alteration from carbonatite to Rødbergite and is therefore crucial for a genetic model of the formation of Rødbergite. 14 Samples were taken along the profile. The mineralogical, geochemical and textural characterization of the samples using the SEM as well as major-, trace- and isotopic elemental data revealed the breakdown of the primary minerals due to the infiltration of an oxidizing fluid along grain boundaries. The primary REE-minerals in unaltered Carbonatite are REE fluorocarbonates. With the increasing alteration to Rødbergite REE fluorocarbonates are progressively replaced by hematite. In contrast, monazite - a REE-phosphate - is the dominant REE mineral species in the Rødbergite. A transitional Rødbergite sample shows apatite aggregates with a strong preferential concentration of monazite along the rim of the apatite aggregates. This observation provides strong evidence for the solution of REE in the primary rock (carbonatite) by fluids and later precipitation of REE along phosphate bearing

  9. Fractionation in the solar nebula - Condensation of yttrium and the rare earth elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V.

    1975-01-01

    The condensation of Y and the rare earth elements (REE) from the solar nebula may be controlled by thermodynamic equilibrium between gas and condensed solids. Highly fractionated REE patterns may result if condensates are removed from the gas before condensation is complete. It is found that the fractionation is not a smooth function of REE ionic radius but varies in an extremely irregular pattern. Both Yb and Eu are predicted to be extremely depleted in the early condensate without the requirement of condensation in the divalent state. The model is discussed with respect to a highly fractionated pattern observed by Tanaka and Masuda (1973), in a pink Ca-Al-rich inclusion from the Allende meteorite and can account for the abundances of each REE determined. According to the model this inclusion represents a condensate from a previously fractionated gas rather than from a gas of solar composition. Before the condensation of this inclusion, an earlier condensate was formed and was removed from equilibrium with the gas.

  10. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits–A deposit model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements are not as rare in nature as their name implies, but economic deposits with these elements are not common and few deposits have been large producers. In the past 25 years, demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically because of their wide and diverse use in high-technology applications. Yet, presently the global production and supply of rare earth elements come from only a few sources. China produces more than 95 percent of the world's supply of rare earth elements. Because of China's decision to restrict exports of these elements, the price of rare earth elements has increased and industrial countries are concerned about supply shortages. As a result, understanding the distribution and origin of rare earth elements deposits, and identifying and quantifying our nation's rare earth elements resources have become priorities. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. The general mineral deposit model summarized here is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits are discussed together because of their spatial association, common enrichment in incompatible elements, and similarities in genesis. A wide variety of commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, such as rare earth elements, niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other enrichments include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium.

  11. The group separation of the rare-earth elements and yttrium from geologic materials by cation-exchange chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Lichte, F.E.; Wildeman, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Demand is increasing for the determination of the rare-earth elements (REE) and yttrium in geologic materials. Due to their low natural abundance in many materials and the interferences that occur in many methods of determination, a separation procedure utilizing gradient strong-acid cation-exchange chromatography is often used to preconcentrate and isolate these elements from the host-rock matrix. Two separate gradient strong-acid cation-exchange procedures were characterized and the major elements as well as those elements thought to provide the greatest interference for the determination of the REE in geologic materials were tested for separation from the REE. Simultaneous inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICAP-AES) measurements were used to construct the chromatograms for the elution studies, allowing the elution patterns of all the elements of interest to be determined in a single fraction of eluent. As a rock matrix, U.S. Geological Survey standard reference BCR-1 basalt was digested using both an acid decomposition procedure and a lithium metaborate fusion. Hydrochloric and nitric acids were tested as eluents and chromatograms were plotted using the ICAP-AES data; and we observed substantial differences in the elution patterns of the REE and as well as in the solution patterns of Ba, Ca, Fe and Sr. The nitric acid elution required substantially less eluent to elute the REE and Y as a group when compared to the hydrochloric acid elution, and provided a clearer separation of the REE from interfering and matrix elements. ?? 1984.

  12. The fractionation and geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements measured in ambient size-resolved PM in an integrated iron and steelmaking industry zone.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qili; Li, Liwei; Yang, Jiamei; Liu, Baoshuang; Bi, Xiaohui; Wu, Jianhui; Zhang, YuFen; Yao, Lin; Feng, Yinchang

    2016-09-01

    Improved understanding of the fractionation and geochemical characteristic of rare earth elements (REEs) from steel plant emissions is important due to the unclear atmospheric signature of these elements and their adverse impact on human health and the environment. In this study, ambient particulate matter of different sizes was collected from one site in an integrated iron and steelmaking industrial zone (HG) and one urban background site with no direct industrial emissions (ZWY) during a 1-year sampling campaign in China. The total concentrations of REEs for TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were 27.248, 14.989, 3.542 ng/m(3) in HG and 6.326, 5.274, 1.731 ng/m(3), respectively, in ZWY, which revealed the local influence of the steelmaking activities to the air quality. With respect to ZWY, the REEs in HG site are obviously fractionated in the coarser fraction, and LREEs account for more than 80 % of the total REE burden in all of the samples. Additionally, the REEs in HG and ZWY show a homogeneous trend with successively increased LREE/HREE ratios from the coarse particles to the fine particles. In our samples, La, Ce, Nd, and Sm are the most enriched rare earth elements, especially in the HG site. Moreover, ternary diagrams of LaCeSm indicate that the REEs in HG are potentially contributed by steelworks, carrier vehicles, coal combustion, and road dust re-suspension.

  13. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rare-earth elements from carbonatite rocks.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Lisarb O; Gatiboni, Thais L; Mello, Paola A; Muller, Edson I; Duarte, Fabio A; Flores, Erico M M

    2018-01-01

    In view of the increasing demand for rare-earth elements (REE) in many areas of high technology, alternative methods for the extraction of these elements have been developed. In this work, a process based on the use of ultrasound for the extraction of REE from carbonatite (an igneous rock) is proposed to avoid the use of concentrated reagents, high temperature and excessive extraction time. In this pioneer work for REE extraction from carbonatite rocks in a preliminary investigation, ultrasonic baths, cup horn systems or ultrasound probes operating at different frequencies and power were evaluated. In addition, the power released to the extraction medium and the ultrasound amplitude were also investigated and the temperature and carbonatite mass/volume of extraction solution ratio were optimized to 70°C and 20mg/mL, respectively. Better extraction efficiencies (82%) were obtained employing an ultrasound probe operating at 20kHz for 15min, ultrasound amplitude of 40% (692Wdm -3 ) and using a diluted extraction solution (3% v/v HNO 3 +2% v/v HCl). It is important to mention that high extraction efficiency was obtained even using a diluted acid mixture and relatively low temperature in comparison to conventional extraction methods for REE. A comparison of results with those obtained by mechanical stirring (500rpm) using the same conditions (time, temperature and extraction solution) was carried out, showing that the use of ultrasound increased the extraction efficiency up to 35%. Therefore, the proposed ultrasound-assisted procedure can be considered as a suitable alternative for high efficiency extraction of REE from carbonatite rocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rare earth elements in the water column of Lake Vanda, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Carlo, Eric Heinen; Green, William J.

    2002-04-01

    We present data on the composition of water from Lake Vanda, Antarctica. Vanda and other lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are characterized by closed basins, permanent ice covers, and deep saline waters. The meromictic lakes provide model systems for the study of trace metal cycling owing to their pristine nature and the relative simplicity of their biogeochemical systems. Lake Vanda, in the Wright Valley, is supplied by a single input, the Onyx River, and has no output. Water input to the lake is balanced by sublimation of the nearly permanent ice cap that is broken only near the shoreline during the austral summer. The water column is characterized by an inverse thermal stratification of anoxic warm hypersaline water underlying cold oxic freshwater. Water collected under trace-element clean conditions was analyzed for its dissolved and total rare earth element (REE) concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Depth profiles are characterized by low dissolved REE concentrations (La, Ce, <15 pM) in surface waters that increase slightly (La, 70 pM; Ce, 20 pM) with increasing depth to ∼55 m, the limit of the fresh oxic waters. Below this depth, a sharp increase in the concentrations of strictly trivalent REE (e.g., La, 5 nM) is observed, and a submaximum in redox sensitive Ce (2.6 nM) is found at 60- to 62-m depth. At a slightly deeper depth, a sharper Ce maximum is observed with concentrations exceeding 11 nM at a 67-m depth, immediately above the anoxic zone. The aquatic concentrations of REE reported here are ∼50-fold higher than previously reported for marine oxic/anoxic boundaries and are, to our knowledge, the highest ever observed at natural oxic/anoxic interfaces. REE maxima occur within stable and warm saline waters. All REE concentrations decrease sharply in the sulfidic bottom waters. The redox-cline in Lake Vanda is dominated by diffusional processes and vertical transport of dissolved species driven by concentration

  15. Mineralogy, petrology, and trace element geochemistry of the Johnstown meteorite - A brecciated orthopyroxenite with siderophile and REE-rich components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floran, R. J.; Prinz, M.; Hlava, P. F.; Keil, K.; Spettel, B.; Waenke, H.

    1981-01-01

    The compositional and petrologic characteristics of the Johnstown meteorite show it to contain uncontaminated and unbrecciated orthopyroxenite clasts of cumulative origin that (1) must have undergone subsolidus recrystalization, (2) are parental to the brecciated matrix, and (3) show no evidence of a xenolithic, meteoritic contribution to the matrix except for contamination by the projectile which crushed it on impact. The trapped liquid was not introduced in the impact process. The variability of such trace elements as the light rare earth elements, and the presence of plagioclase and olivine in only one of the thin sections studied, demonstrates the heterogeneity of coarse-grained diogenites on a millimeter scale and the difficulty of obtaining representative samples of such meteorites. The data presented indicate that this meteorite is a monominct breccia.

  16. Utilizing rare earth elements as tracers in high TDS reservoir brines in CCS applications

    DOE PAGES

    McLing, Travis; Smith, William; Smith, Robert

    2014-12-31

    In this paper we report the result of research associated with the testing of a procedures necessary for utilizing natural occurring trace elements, specifically the Rare Earth Elements (REE) as geochemical tracers in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applications. Trace elements, particularly REE may be well suited to serve as in situ tracers for monitoring geochemical conditions and the migration of CO₂-charged waters within CCS storage systems. We have been conducting studies to determine the efficacy of using REE as a tracer and characterization tool in the laboratory, at a CCS analogue site in Soda Springs, Idaho, and at amore » proposed CCS reservoir at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Results from field and laboratory studies have been encouraging and show that REE may be an effective tracer in CCS systems and overlying aquifers. In recent years, a series of studies using REE as a natural groundwater tracer have been conducted successfully at various locations around the globe. Additionally, REE and other trace elements have been successfully used as in situ tracers to describe the evolution of deep sedimentary Basins. Our goal has been to establish naturally occurring REE as a useful monitoring measuring and verification (MMV) tool in CCS research because formation brine chemistry will be particularly sensitive to changes in local equilibrium caused by the addition of large volumes of CO₂. Because brine within CCS target formations will have been in chemical equilibrium with the host rocks for millions of years, the addition of large volumes of CO₂ will cause reactions in the formation that will drive changes to the brine chemistry due to the pH change caused by the formation of carbonic acid. This CO₂ driven change in formation fluid chemistry will have a major impact on water rock reaction equilibrium in the formation, which will impart a change in the REE fingerprint of the brine that can measured and be used to monitor in situ reservoir

  17. Geochemical Study on an Abandoned Copper Smelting Plant Using Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Shuei Nan Dong Copper Smelting Plant smelting is located on the northern coast of New Taipei City, Taiwan. The plant built in 1906 for but has been shut down since 1987. However, the watershed is continuing to discharge acid mine water into the sea; and, the acid mine drainage releases high amounts of sulfate, heavy metals without any treatment. In this study, the water samples were sequentially collected along the main channel and its tributaries in the watershed. The results of hydrochemical analysis show that the untreated inflow water can be characterized with low pH value of <3 and enriched sulfate, copper and arsenic. However, the water is much less contaminated in the upstream area until a major tributary converge. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrate that the first principal component (PC) can explain >80% of the total variance and almost all chemical components have high loadings in the PC. Therefore, the hydrochemical properties in the watershed are mainly dominated by the mixing process between main channel and the major tributary but the geochemical reactions during flow down the channel is insignificant. Rare earth elements (REE) are an excellent tracer, which can indicate sources of chemical components and geochemical reactions in water. The analysis results demonstrate two distinct REE patterns. The water with low REE can be characterized by prominent Eu positive anomaly and Ce negative anomaly, which may result from the alteration of Na-plagioclase in sandstone and oxidation reaction when contact with air, respectively. On the contrary, the water with high REE shows only minor Ce negative anomaly and insignificant Eu positive anomaly. In addition, there is an enrichment of middle REE in high-REE water, which is quite different with the REE pattern of pyrite. According to the Grawunder's study (2014), it corresponds to the complexation to sulphite during pyrite oxidation. It is worth noting that REE show no considerable

  18. Relationship between concentration of rare earth elements in soil and their distribution in plants growing near a frequented road.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Patrycja; Borowiak, Klaudia; Budka, Anna; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2018-06-05

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of elements whose concentration in numerous environmental matrices continues to increase; therefore, the use of biological methods for their removal from soil would seem to be a safe and reasonable approach. The aim of this study was to estimate the phytoextraction efficiency and distribution of light and heavy (LREEs and HREEs) rare earth elements by three herbaceous plant species: Artemisia vulgaris L., Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. and Trifolium repens L., growing at a distance of 1, 10, and 25 m from the edge of a frequented road in Poland. The concentration of REEs in soil and plants was highly correlated (r > 0.9300), which indicates the high potential of the studied plant species to phytoextraction of these elements. The largest proportion of REEs was from the group of LREEs, whereas HREEs comprised only an inconsiderable portion of the REEs group. The dominant elements in the group of LREEs were Nd and Ce, while Er was dominant in the HREEs group. Differences in the amounts of these elements influenced the total concentration of LREEs, HREEs, and finally REEs and their quantities which decreased with distance from the road. According to the Friedman rank sum test, significant differences in REEs concentration, mainly between A. vulgaris L., and T. repens L. were observed for plants growing at all three distances from the road. The same relation between A. vulgaris L. and T. officinale was observed. The efficiency of LREEs and REEs phytoextraction in the whole biomass of plants growing at all distances from the road was A. vulgaris L. > T. officinale L. > T. repens L. For HREEs, the same relationship was recorded only for plants growing at the distance 1 m from the road. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) values for LREEs and HREEs were respectively higher and lower than 1 for all studied plant species regardless of the distance from the road. The studied herbaceous plant species were able to effectively phytoextract

  19. Source and path identification of metals pollution in a mining area by PMF and rare earth element patterns in road dust.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shuhan; Liang, Tao; Li, Kexin; Wang, Lingqing

    2018-08-15

    To better assess pollution and offer efficient protection for local residents, it is necessary to both conduct an exhaustive investigation into pollution levels and quantify its contributing sources and paths. As it is the biggest light rare earth element (REE) reserve in the world, Bayan Obo deposit releases large amounts of heavy metals into the surrounding environment. In this study, road dust from zones located at different distances to the mining area was collected and sieved using seven sizes. This allowed for subsequent analysis of size-dependent influences of mining activities. A receptor model was used to quantitatively assess mine contributions. REE distribution patterns and other REE parameters were compared with those in airborne particulates and the surrounding soil to analyze pollution paths. Results showed that 27 metals were rated as moderately to extremely polluted (2REEs are the most polluted elements, followed by Mo, Cd, Pb, and Ag. Although mining contribution to pollution levels increased with decreasing distance and size, 35% of REEs and 6% of other polluted metals in residential area road dust originated directly from the mine. The provenance index (PI) calculated using the REE parameters confirmed this result. While the REE distribution pattern showed that airborne particulates may not be the path for mining-derived particles, they may be one for other sources. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effects of citric acid and the siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFO-B) on the mobility of germanium and rare earth elements in soil and uptake in Phalaris arundinacea.

    PubMed

    Wiche, Oliver; Tischler, Dirk; Fauser, Carla; Lodemann, Jana; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-08-03

    Effects of citric acid and desferrioxamine B (DFO-B) on the availability of Ge and selected rare earth elements (REEs) (La, Nd, Gd, Er) to Phalaris arundinacea were investigated. A soil dissolution experiment was conducted to elucidate the effect of citric acid and DFO-B at different concentrations (1 and 10 mmol L -1 citric acid) on the release of Ge and REEs from soil. In a greenhouse, plants of P. arundinacea were cultivated on soil and on sand cultures to investigate the effects of citric acid and DFO-B on the uptake of Ge and REEs by the plants. Addition of 10 mmol L -1 citric acid significantly enhanced desorption of Ge and REEs from soil and uptake into soil-grown plants. Applying DFO-B enhanced the dissolution and the uptake of REEs, while no effect on Ge was observed. In sand cultures, the presence of citric acid and DFO-B significantly decreased the uptake of Ge and REEs, indicating a discrimination of the formed complexes during uptake. This study clearly indicates that citric acid and the microbial siderophore DFO-B may enhance phytoextraction of Ge and REEs due to the formation of soluble complexes that increase the migration of elements in the rhizosphere.

  1. Formation of the world's largest REE deposit through protracted fluxing of carbonatite by subduction-derived fluids

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Ming-Xing; Liu, Yu-Long; Williams, Ian S.; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Yang, Xiao-Yong; Ding, Xing; Wei, Gang-Jian; Xie, Lu-Hua; Deng, Wen-Feng; Sun, Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) are essential to modern society but the origins of many large REE deposits remain unclear. The U-Th-Pb ages, chemical compositions and C, O and Mg isotopic compositions of Bayan Obo, the world's largest REE deposit, indicate a protracted mineralisation history with unusual chemical and isotopic features. Coexisting calcite and dolomite are in O isotope disequilibrium; some calcitic carbonatite samples show highly varied δ26Mg which increases with increasing Si and Mg; and ankerite crystals show decreases in Fe and REE from rim to centre, with highly varied REE patterns. These and many other observations are consistent with an unusual mineralisation process not previously considered; protracted fluxing of calcitic carbonatite by subduction-released high-Si fluids during the closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean. The fluids leached Fe and Mg from the mantle wedge and scavenged REE, Nb and Th from carbonatite, forming the deposit through metasomatism of overlying sedimentary carbonate.

  2. Rare Earth Elements as Potential Biosignatures on Mars in SuperCam Time Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollila, A.; Beyssac, O.; Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Clegg, S. M.; Gauthier, M.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Lanza, N.

    2017-12-01

    The rare earth elements (REE, La to Lu) are a group of elements with similar chemical properties that are generally present in geologic materials at trace concentrations. REEs may be concentrated via processes such as igneous fractional crystallization in accessory minerals, e.g. apatite, zircon, and titanite. Additionally, however, concentrations of REE may serve to identify regions of high astrobiological interest. For example, Fe-oxyhydroxide deposits in hydrothermal vent systems and biologically related manganese nodules may be enriched in REEs. REEs have not been measured in situ on Mars, therefore their prevalence and distribution on Mars is as yet unknown, except as observed in martian meteorites. SuperCam is a survey instrument that will analyze materials around the Mars 2020 rover using a variety of spectral techniques including laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), Raman, VIS-IR, and time-resolved laser fluorescence (TRLF) spectroscopy. Recently, the SuperCam Engineering Development Unit was tested at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for its capabilities to detect REEs in minerals using TRLF spectroscopy. While this instrument was not designed to precisely replicate the flight model, the spectral resolution and light transmission was sufficient to obtain TRLF spectra on a number of minerals demonstrating a variety of REE luminescent centers. These include apatite (Sm3+, Nd3+, Eu3+, Dy3+), fluorite (Ho3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Nd3+), and zircon (Er3+, Pr3+, Nd3+). Future work includes expanding this suite to include minerals associated with biological activities, for example Mn-oxides (desert varnish and manganese nodules), hydrothermal Fe-oxides, and stromatolite-associated carbonates. In this way and in combination with its other techniques, SuperCam may direct the rover team to perform further analyses of similar samples by the in situ chemical and mineralogical suite of instruments, or aid in prioritization for sample return.

  3. REE Incorporation into Calcite Individual Crystals as One Time Spike Addition

    SciTech Connect

    Gabitov, Rinat; Sadekov, Aleksey; Migdisov, Artas

    Experiments on the incorporation of trace elements into calcite were performed, and rare earth elements (REE) were used to mark the growth zones of individual crystals. Experiments were conducted at different pH (7.7 to 8.8) and temperatures (2 °C to 24.6 °C) in NH 4Cl + CaCl 2 solutions, where REE were rapidly consumed by growing calcite. LA-ICP-MS line-scans yielded the distribution of (REE/Ca) calcite within individual crystals in a manner consistent with the addition of REE into fluid. A sharp decrease of (REE/Ca) calcite toward the crystal edge suggests the fast depletion of (REE/Ca) fluid due to strong REEmore » consumption by growing calcite. An attempt was made to estimate the lower limit of the partition coefficients between calcite and fluid using selected REE/Ca data within individual calcite crystals and the amount of REE added into fluid.« less

  4. REE Incorporation into Calcite Individual Crystals as One Time Spike Addition

    DOE PAGES

    Gabitov, Rinat; Sadekov, Aleksey; Migdisov, Artas

    2017-10-26

    Experiments on the incorporation of trace elements into calcite were performed, and rare earth elements (REE) were used to mark the growth zones of individual crystals. Experiments were conducted at different pH (7.7 to 8.8) and temperatures (2 °C to 24.6 °C) in NH 4Cl + CaCl 2 solutions, where REE were rapidly consumed by growing calcite. LA-ICP-MS line-scans yielded the distribution of (REE/Ca) calcite within individual crystals in a manner consistent with the addition of REE into fluid. A sharp decrease of (REE/Ca) calcite toward the crystal edge suggests the fast depletion of (REE/Ca) fluid due to strong REEmore » consumption by growing calcite. An attempt was made to estimate the lower limit of the partition coefficients between calcite and fluid using selected REE/Ca data within individual calcite crystals and the amount of REE added into fluid.« less

  5. Behavior of Rare Earth Element In Geothermal Systems; A New Exploration/Exploitation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Scott A. Wood

    2002-01-28

    The goal of this four-year project was to provide a database by which to judge the utility of the rare earth elements (REE) in the exploration for and exploitation of geothermal fields in the United States. Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: (1) the North Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); (2) the Cascades of Oregon; (3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; (4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; (5) Palinpion, the Philippines: (6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fieldsmore » of southern California; and (7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two.« less

  6. Rare earths, other trace elements and iron in Luna 20 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Blanchard, D. P.; Jacobs, J. W.; Haskin, L.; Haskin, A.

    1973-01-01

    The results of the analysis by neutron activation of six samples from the Luna 20 mission and one sample of less than 1 mm fines from Apollo 16 are reported. The concentrations of the rare-earth elements (REE) in the samples of fines from Luna 20 and Apollo 16 are less than those found for corresponding materials from the mare areas but a negative Eu anomaly is still present. The concentrations of the REE in fines from Luna 20 are only about two-thirds as great as in the sample of Apollo 16 fines, but the concentration of Co, Sc and Cr are greater by factors ranging from 1.5 to 2.3.

  7. A tool to assure the geographical origin of local food products (glasshouse tomatoes) using labeling with rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Bandoniene, Donata; Meisel, Thomas; Rachetti, Alessandra; Walkner, Christoph

    2018-05-16

    Trace element fingerprinting has been widely used for identification of provenance of regional food. In the case of the products from conventional agriculture, it is expected that the elemental composition will comply that of the commercially available substrate at the plants. Therefore, for products without direct relationship with the regional soil the region-specific differences in elemental composition are no longer recognisable. The idea of this work is labeling of tomatoes with rare earth elements (REE) in the ultra-trace range for food authentication. Labelling of the tomatoes was carried out either by watering the soil with Nd and Er spiked water or by adding these elements as solid oxides to the soil. In both cases enrichment of Nd and Er relative to the control group was detected in tomato fruits and leaves using ICP-MS. Tomato plants rapidly absorb the dissolved REE from the irrigation water, and watering for a short period just before ripeness is sufficient to induce REE labels. Labeling with trace amounts of REE could potentially be used to assure the provenance of tomatoes of local origin and separate these from products of foreign origin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Rare earth element evidence for the petrogenesis of the banded series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, and its anorthosites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loferski, P.J.; Arculus, R.J.; Czamanske, G.K.

    1994-01-01

    A rare earth element (REE) study was made by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry of plagioclase separates from a variety of cumulates stratigraphically spanning the Banded series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Evaluation of parent liquid REE patterns, calculated on the basis of published plagioclase-liquid partition coefficients, shows that the range of REE ratios is too large to be attributable to fractionation of a single magma type. At least two different parental melts were present throughout the Banded series. This finding supports hypotheses of previous workers that the Stillwater Complex formed from two different parent magma types, designated the anorthosite- or A-type liquid and the ultramafic- or U-type liquid. -from Authors

  9. An ion microprobe study of the intra-crystalline behavior of REE and selected trace elements in pyroxene from mare basalts with different cooling and crystallization histories

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.; Simon, S.B.

    1989-05-01

    To study the effects of crystallization sequence and rate on trace element zoning characteristics of pyroxenes, the authors used combined electron microprobe-ion microprobe techniques on four nearly isochemical Apollo 12 and 15 pigeonite basalts with different cooling rates and crystallization histories. Major and minor element zoning characteristics are nearly identical to those reported in the literature. All the pyroxenes have similar chondrite-normalized REE patterns: negative Eu anomalies, positive slopes as defined by Yb/Ce, and slopes of REE patterns from Ce to Sm much steeper than from Gd to Yb. These trace element zoning characteristics in pyroxene and the partitioning ofmore » trace elements between pyroxene and the melt are intimately related to the interplay among the efficiency of the crystallization process, the kinetics at the crystal-melt interface, the kinetics of plagioclase nucleation and the characteristics of the crystal chemical substitutions within both the pyroxene and the associated crystallizing phases (i.e. plagioclase).« less

  10. Targeting heavy rare earth elements in carbonatite complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broom-Fendley, S.; Wall, F.; Gunn, A. G.; Dowman, E.

    2012-04-01

    The world's main sources of the rare earth elements (REE) are concentrated in carbonatite complexes. These have the advantages of high grade and tonnage, combined with low thorium contents, yet they are generally enriched in light rare earths (LREE). The heavy rare earths (HREE, which include Eu-Lu and Y) are more highly sought after because of their role in new and green technologies. HREE are predominantly extracted from ion-adsorption clays in China. These are small, low grade deposits, which are often illegally mined by artisans. Increased government control, environmental legislation and local demand for REE in China have led to high prices and global concerns about the security of supply of the HREE. Alternative sources of the HREE are poorly documented. We present a review of such targets, including: (1) 'abnormal' carbonatites; (2) areas around LREE-rich complexes such as breccia, fenite and latter stage veins; and (3) weathered carbonatites. At Lofdal, Namibia, carbonatite dykes contain xenotime-(Y) together with LREE minerals. The original chemistry of the carbonatite magma, coupled with late-stage magma and fluid evolution, seem to be controlling factors [1, 2]. The Khibina carbonatite, Kola Peninsula, Russia, is an example of where early LREE carbonatites become increasing HREE-enriched as magmas evolve to carbo-hydrothermal fluids [3]. Around carbonatite complexes in Malawi HREE enrichment can be found in breccia and in fenite. Breccia around Songwe shows areas with high Y/La ratios within the matrix caused by narrow zones of xenotime enrichment. Fenite around Kangankunde and Chilwa Island has higher HREE:LREE ratios than the carbonatite [4]. At weathered complexes, such as at Mount Weld in Western Australia, changes in both HREE concentration and LREE:HREE ratios are observed. In currently unworked sections of the deposit, the HREE mineral churchite (YPO4.H2O) has formed concentrations due to groundwater flow [5]. These areas of enrichment are

  11. Genesis of the central zone of the Nolans Bore rare earth element deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoneveld, Louise; Spandler, Carl; Hussey, Kelvin

    2015-08-01

    The Nolans Bore rare earth element (REE) deposit consists of a network of fluorapatite-bearing veins and breccias hosted within Proterozoic granulites of the Reynolds Range, Central Australia. Mineralisation is divided into three zones (north, central, and south-east), with the north and south-east zones consisting of massive REE-bearing fluorapatite veins, with minor brecciation and carbonate infill. The central zone is distinctively different in mineralogy and structure; it features extensive brecciation, a high allanite content, and a large, epidote-rich enveloping alteration zone. The central zone is a reworking of the original solid apatite veins that formed during the Chewings Orogeny at ca. 1525 Ma. These original apatite veins are thought to derive from phosphate-rich magmatic-hydrothermal fluid exsolved from as-yet unrecognised alkaline magmatic bodies at depth. We define four ore breccia types (BX1-4) in the central zone on the basis of detailed petrological and geochemical analysis of drillcore and thin sections. BX1 ore comprises fluorapatite with minor crackle brecciation with carbonate infill and resembles ore of the north and south-east zones. Breccia types BX2, BX3, and BX4 represent progressive stages of ore brecciation and development of calc-silicate mineral (amphibole, epidote, allanite, calcite) infill. Comparison of bulk ore sample geochemistry between breccia types indicates that REEs were not mobilised more than a few centimetres during hydrothermal alteration and brecciation. Instead, most of the REEs were partitioned from the original REE fluorapatite into newly formed allanite, REE-poor fluorapatite and minor REE carbonate in the breccias. Negative europium (Eu) anomalies in the breccia minerals are accounted for by a large positive Eu anomaly in epidote from the alteration zones surrounding the ore breccias. This observation provides a direct link between ore recrystallisation and brecciation, and the formation of the alteration halo in

  12. Laboratory calibration and field testing of the Chemcatcher-Metal for trace levels of rare earth elements in estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jördis; Pröfrock, Daniel; Paschke, Albrecht; Broekaert, Jose A C; Prange, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Little knowledge is available about water concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in the marine environment. The direct measurement of REEs in coastal waters is a challenging task due to their ultra-low concentrations as well as the high salt content in the water samples. To quantify these elements at environmental concentrations (pg L(-1) to low ng L(-1)) in coastal waters, current analytical techniques are generally expensive and time consuming, and require complex chemical preconcentration procedures. Therefore, an integrative passive sampler was tested as a more economic alternative sampling approach for REE analysis. We used a Chemcatcher-Metal passive sampler consisting of a 3M Empore Chelating Disk as the receiving phase, as well as a cellulose acetate membrane as the diffusion-limiting layer. The effect of water turbulence and temperature on the uptake rates of REEs was analyzed during 14-day calibration experiments by a flow-through exposure tank system. The sampling rates were in the range of 0.42 mL h(-1) (13 °C; 0.25 m s(-1)) to 4.01 mL h(-1) (13 °C; 1 m s(-1)). Similar results were obtained for the different REEs under investigation. The water turbulence was the most important influence on uptake. The uptake rates were appropriate to ascertain time-weighted average concentrations of REEs during a field experiment in the Elbe Estuary near Cuxhaven Harbor (exposure time 4 weeks). REE concentrations were determined to be in the range 0.2 to 13.8 ng L(-1), where the highest concentrations were found for neodymium and samarium. In comparison, most of the spot samples measured along the Chemcatcher samples had REE concentrations below the limit of detection, in particular due to necessary dilution to minimize the analytical problems that arise with the high salt content in marine water samples. This study was among the first efforts to measure REE levels in the field using a passive sampling approach. Our results suggest that passive samplers could be

  13. Methodology Measuring Rare Earth Elements in High TDS Reservoir Brines Application as Natural Tracers in CCUS Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W.; Mcling, T. L.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, H.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years rare earth elements (REE) have been demonstrated to be useful natural tracers for geochemical processes in aqueous environments. The application of REE's to carbon dioxide utilization and storage (CCUS) could provide researchers with a sensitive, inexpensive tool for tracking the movement of CO2 and displaced formation brines. By definition, geologic reservoirs that have been deemed suitable for carbon capture and storage contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) greater than 10,000 ppm and often these formation brines exceed 75,000 ppm TDS. This high TDS water makes it very difficult to measure REE, which typically occur at part per trillion concentrations. Critical to the use of REE for CCUS studies is the development of a procedure, which allows for the pre-concentration of REE's across a wide range of water quality. Additionally, due to the large number of samples that will need analysis, any developed procedure must be inexpensive, reproducible, and quick to implement. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL's Center for Advance Energy Studies is developing REE pre-concentration procedures based on methods reported in the literature. While there are many REE pre-concentration procedures in the literature, our tests have shown these methods have difficulty at TDS greater than seawater (roughly 35,000 ppm TDS). Therefore, the ability to quantitatively measure REE's in formation brines with very high TDS has required the modification of an already developed procedure. After careful consideration and testing we selected methods modified after those described by Kingston et al., 1978 and Strachan et al., 1989 utilizing chelating media for very high TDS waters and ion-exchange media as detailed by Crock et al., 1984; Robinson et al., 1985; and Stetzenbach et al., 1994 for low TDS (<10,000 ppm TDS) waters. These modified procedures have been successfully tested in our laboratory and have proven effective in greatly

  14. Using Rare Earth Elements (REE) to determine wind-driven soil dispersal from a point source

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although erosion of soil by water is a predictably directional process, the erosion of soil by wind is determined by wind direction on an event-wise basis. The wind-driven dispersal patterns of chemical constituents including natural soil components and anthropogenic contaminants are not well under...

  15. Rare earth element mineralogy, geochemistry, and preliminary resource assessment of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, Helmand Province, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Buttleman, Kim P.

    2011-01-01

    There is increased concern about the future availability of rare earth elements (REE) because of China's dominance as the supplier of more than 95 percent of world REE output, their decision to restrict exports of rare earth products, and the rapid increase in world-wide consumption of rare earth product. As a result, countries such as the United States, Japan, and member nations of the European Union face a future of tight supplies and high prices for rare earth products unless other sources of REE are found and developed (Long and others, 2010; U.S. Geological Survey, 2011, p. 128-129, 184-185). We report and describe a significant new deposit of light rare earth elements (LREE), estimated at 1 Mt, within the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of south Afghanistan. The potential resource is located in a remote and rugged part of the igneous complex in a region previously identified by Soviet geologists in the 1970s. This report reviews the geologic setting of LREE deposit, presents new geochemical data documenting the grade of LREE mineralization, briefly describes the mineralogy and mineralogical associations of the deposit, and presents a preliminary estimate of LREE resources based on our current understanding of the geology.

  16. Simultaneous determination of trace rare-earth elements in simulated water samples using ICP-OES with TODGA extraction/back-extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, FuKai; Gong, AiJun; Qiu, LiNa; Zhang, WeiWei; Li, JingRui; Liu, Yu; Liu, YuNing; Yuan, HuiTing

    2017-01-01

    The determination of trace rare-earth elements (REEs) can be used for the assessment of environmental pollution, and is of great significance to the study of toxicity and toxicology in animals and plants. N, N, N', N'-tetraoctyl diglycolamide (TODGA) is an environmental friendly extractant that is highly selective to REEs. In this study, an analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 16 trace REEs in simulated water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). With this method, TODGA was used as the extractant to perform the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) sample pretreatment procedure. All 16 REEs were extracted from a 3 M nitric acid medium into an organic phase by a 0.025 M TODGA petroleum ether solution. A 0.03 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA) solution was used for back-extraction to strip the REEs from the organic phase into the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase was concentrated using a vacuum rotary evaporator and the concentration of the 16 REEs was detected by ICP-OES. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the limits of detection (3σ, n = 7) for the REEs ranged from 0.0405 ng mL-1 (Nd) to 0.5038 ng mL-1 (Ho). The relative standard deviations (c = 100 ng mL-1, n = 7) were from 0.5% (Eu) to 4.0% (Tm) with a linear range of 4-1000 ng mL-1 (R2 > 0.999). The recoveries of 16 REEs ranged from 95% to 106%. The LLE-ICP-OES method established in this study has the advantages of simple operation, low detection limits, fast analysis speed and the ability to simultaneously determine 16 REEs, thereby acting as a viable alternative for the simultaneous detection of trace amounts of REEs in water samples.

  17. Simultaneous determination of trace rare-earth elements in simulated water samples using ICP-OES with TODGA extraction/back-extraction

    PubMed Central

    Li, FuKai; Qiu, LiNa; Zhang, WeiWei; Li, JingRui; Liu, Yu; Liu, YuNing; Yuan, HuiTing

    2017-01-01

    The determination of trace rare-earth elements (REEs) can be used for the assessment of environmental pollution, and is of great significance to the study of toxicity and toxicology in animals and plants. N, N, N′, N′-tetraoctyl diglycolamide (TODGA) is an environmental friendly extractant that is highly selective to REEs. In this study, an analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 16 trace REEs in simulated water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). With this method, TODGA was used as the extractant to perform the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) sample pretreatment procedure. All 16 REEs were extracted from a 3 M nitric acid medium into an organic phase by a 0.025 M TODGA petroleum ether solution. A 0.03 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA) solution was used for back-extraction to strip the REEs from the organic phase into the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase was concentrated using a vacuum rotary evaporator and the concentration of the 16 REEs was detected by ICP-OES. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the limits of detection (3σ, n = 7) for the REEs ranged from 0.0405 ng mL-1 (Nd) to 0.5038 ng mL-1 (Ho). The relative standard deviations (c = 100 ng mL-1, n = 7) were from 0.5% (Eu) to 4.0% (Tm) with a linear range of 4–1000 ng mL-1 (R2 > 0.999). The recoveries of 16 REEs ranged from 95% to 106%. The LLE-ICP-OES method established in this study has the advantages of simple operation, low detection limits, fast analysis speed and the ability to simultaneously determine 16 REEs, thereby acting as a viable alternative for the simultaneous detection of trace amounts of REEs in water samples. PMID:28945788

  18. Quantifying Post-Fire Aeolian Sediment Transport Using Rare Earth Element Tracers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukes, D.; Ravi, S.; Grandstaff, D. E.; Gonzales, H. B.; Li, J. J.; Sankey, J. B.; Wang, G.; Van Pelt, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Grasslands and rangelands in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, which provide fundamental ecosystem services, are undergoing rapid increases in fire activity and are highly susceptible to post-fire accelerated soil erosion by wind. A quantitative assessment that integrates fire-wind erosion feedbacks is therefore critically needed in understanding vegetation change, soil biogeochemical cycling, air quality, and landscape evolution. We investigated the applicability of a novel tracer technique - the use of rare earth element (REE) tracers - to quantify soil erosion by wind and to identify sources and sinks of wind-blown sediments in both a burned and unburned shrub-grass transition zone within the Chihuahuan desert (New Mexico, USA). At the beginning of the windy season, March 2016, silt and sand sized particles in shrub, grass, and bare microsites were each tagged with a unique REE oxide, Ho, Eu, and Yb respectively. Samples were then taken directly after application prior to a prescribed fire and again at the end of the windy season in June 2016. All REE tracers showed signs of depletion and mixing, with the depletion in the burned site up to 20% greater than the unburned. REE concentration comparisons between the burned and unburned plots reveal a shift in the source and sink dynamics of sediment post fire. In unburned plots, changes in microsite REE concentrations indicate that sediment moved from the bare to vegetated microsites, whereas the opposite occurred in burned plots. However, burned plot grass microsites acted as a sink for sediment from shrub microsites, whereas unburned plot grass microsites exhibited no enrichment from shrub microsite-sourced sediment. Though fires are known to immediately increase aeolian sediment transport, accompanying changes in the sources and sinks of wind borne sediment may influence biogeochemical cycling and vegetation shifts possibly providing a feedback mechanism for land degradation in dryland ecosystems.

  19. Enhanced phytoextraction of germanium and rare earth elements - a rhizosphere-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Germanium (Ge) and rare earth elements (REEs) are economically valuable raw materials that have become an integral part of our modern high tech society. While most of these elements are not actually rare in terms of general amounts in the earth's crust, they are rarely found in sufficient abundances in single locations for their mining to be economically viable. The average concentration of Ge in soils is estimated at 1.6 μg g-1. The REEs comprise a group of 16 elements including La, the group of lanthanides and Y that are abundant in the earth crust with concentrations varying from 35 μg g-1 (La), 40 μg g-1 (Nd), 6 μg g-1 (Gd) and 3.5 μg g-1 (Er) to 0.5 μg g-1 in Tm. Thus, a promising chance to improve supply of these elements could be phytomining. Unfortunately, bioavailability of Ge and REEs in soils appears to be low, in particular in neutral or alkaline soils. A sequential dissolution analysis of 120 soil samples taken from the A-horizons of soils in the area of Freiberg (Saxony, Germany) revealed that only 0.2% of total Ge and about 0.5% of La, Nd, Gd and Er of bulk concentrations were easily accessible by leaching with NH4-acetate (pH 7). Most of the investigated elements were bound to Fe-/Mn-oxides and silicates and were therefore only poorly available for plant uptake. Here we report an environmentally friendly approach for enhanced phytoextraction of Ge and REEs from soils using mixed cultures of plant species with efficient mechanisms for the acquisition of nutrients in the rhizosphere. The rhizosphere is characterized as the zone in soil sourrounding a plant root that consists of a gradient in chemical, physical and biological soil properties driven by rhizodeposits like carboxylates and protons. Some species like white lupin (Lupinus albus) are able to excrete large amounts of organic acid anions(predominantly citrate and malate) and show a particularly high potential for the acidification of the rhizosphere. In our experiments, mixed cultures

  20. Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal Byproducts via a Closed Loop Leaching Process: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Richard; Heinrichs, Michael; Argumedo, Darwin

    recovering REEs using the ADP technology. In AOI 1, Ohio coal sources with the potential to provide a consistent source of rare earth element concentrations above 300 parts per million will be identified. Coal sample inventories from West Virginia and Pennsylvania will also be assessed for purposes of comparison. Three methods of preparing the coal ash will be evaluated for their potential to enhance the technical feasibility and economics of REE recovery. Three sources of coal ash are targeted for evaluation of the economics of REE recovery in this project: (1) coal ash from power generation stations, to include fly ash and/or bottom ash, (2) ash generated in a lower temperature ashing process, and (3) ash residual from Battelle’s coal liquefaction process. Making use of residual ash from coal liquefaction processes directly leverages work currently being conducted by Battelle for DOE NETL in response to DE-FOA-0000981 entitled “Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions Research and Development Leading to Cost-Competitive Coal-to-Liquids Based Jet Fuel Production.” Using the sample characterization results and regional information regarding REE concentration, availability and cost, a TEA will be developed. The previously generated laboratory testing results for leaching and REE recovery via the ADP will be used to perform the TEA, along with common engineering assumptions for scale up of equipment and labor costs. Finally, upon validation of the economic feasibility of the process by the TEA, limited laboratory testing will be performed to support the design of a bench scale system. In a future project phase, it is envisioned that the bench scale system will be constructed and operated to prove the process on a continuous basis.« less

  1. Geochemical studies of rare earth elements in the Portuguese pyrite belt, and geologic and geochemical controls on gold distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimes, David J.; Earhart, Robert L.; de Carvalho, Delfim; Oliveira, Vitor; Oliveira, Jose T.; Castro, Paulo

    1998-01-01

    This report describes geochemical and geological studies which were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Servicos Geologicos de Portugal (SPG) in the Portuguese pyrite belt (PPB) in southern Portugal. The studies included rare earth element (REE) distributions and geological and geochemical controls on the distribution of gold. Rare earth element distributions were determined in representative samples of the volcanic rocks from five west-trending sub-belts of the PPB in order to test the usefulness of REE as a tool for the correlation of volcanic events, and to determine their mobility and application as hydrothermal tracers. REE distributions in felsic volcanic rocks show increases in the relative abundances of heavy REE and a decrease in La/Yb ratios from north to south in the Portuguese pyrite belt. Anomalous amounts of gold are distributed in and near massive and disseminated sulfide deposits in the PPB. Gold is closely associated with copper in the middle and lower parts of the deposits. Weakly anomalous concentrations of gold were noted in exhalative sedimentary rocks that are stratigraphically above massive sulfide deposits in a distal manganiferous facies, whereas anomalously low concentrations were detected in the barite-rich, proximal-facies exhalites. Altered and pyritic felsic volcanic rocks locally contain highly anomalous concentrations of gold, suggesting that disseminated sulfide deposits and the non-ore parts of massive sulfide deposits should be evaluated for their gold potential.

  2. Comparative studies on the concentration of rare earth elements and heavy metals in the atmospheric particulate matter in Beijing, China, and in Delft, The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wang, C X; Zhu, W; Peng, A; Guichreit, R

    2001-05-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (APM) was collected at three sampling sites in Beijing, China, from February to June 1998. The concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) and cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the APM were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results obtained in Beijing, China, were compared to that obtained in Delft, the Netherlands, in 1997. The influence of coal combustion was considered. The results demonstrated that the content of APM, the concentrations of REE and Co, Zn, Cd, Pb in the APM in Beijing, China, were higher than that in Delft, the Netherlands. From the ratios of La to Ce, and La to Sm, which may be used as tracers for the origin of the REE, it is concluded that the origins of REE in China differ from those in the Netherlands.

  3. Recent Advances in the Separation of Rare Earth Elements Using Mesoporous Hybrid Materials.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yimu; Florek, Justyna; Larivière, Dominic; Fontaine, Frédéric-Georges; Kleitz, Freddy

    2018-05-27

    Over the past decades, the need for rare earth elements (REEs) has increased substantially, mostly because these elements are used as valuable additives in advanced technologies. However, the difference in ionic radius between neighboring REEs is small, which renders an efficient sized-based separation extremely challenging. Among different types of extraction methods, solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a promising candidate, featuring high enrichment factor, rapid adsorption kinetics, reduced solvent consumption and minimized waste generation. The great challenge remains yet to develop highly efficient and selective adsorbents for this process. In this regard, ordered mesoporous materials (OMMs) possess high specific surface area, tunable pore size, large pore volume, as well as stable and interconnected frameworks with active pore surfaces for functionalization. Such features meet the requirements for enhanced adsorbents, not only providing huge reactional interface and large surface capable of accommodating guest species, but also enabling the possibility of ion-specific binding for enrichment and separation purposes. This short personal account summarizes some of the recent advances in the use of porous hybrid materials as selective sorbents for REE separation and purification, with particular attention devoted to ordered mesoporous silica and carbon-based sorbents. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  4. Rare earth element variations resulting from inversion of pigeonite and subsolidus reequilibration in lunar ferroan anorthosites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, O.B.; Floss, C.; McGee, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present results of a secondary ion mass spectrometry study of the rare earth elements (REEs) in the minerals of two samples of lunar ferroan anorthosite, and the results are applicable to studies of REEs in all igneous rocks, no matter what their planet of origin. Our pyroxene analyses are used to determine solid-solid REE distribution coefficients (D = CREE in low-Ca pyroxene/CREE in augite) in orthopyroxene-augite pairs derived by inversion of pigeonite. Our data and predictions from crystal-chemical considerations indicate that as primary pigeonite inverts to orthopyroxene plus augite and subsolidus reequilibration proceeds, the solid-solid Ds for orthopyroxene-augite pairs progressively decrease for all REEs; the decrease is greatest for the LREEs. The REE pattern of solid-solid Ds for inversion-derived pyroxene pairs is close to a straight line for Sm-Lu and turns upward for REEs lighter than Sm; the shape of this pattern is predicted by the shapes of the REE patterns for the individual minerals. Equilibrium liquids calculated for one sample from the compositions of primary phases, using measured or experimentally determined solid-liquid Ds, have chondrite-normalized REE patterns that are very slightly enriched in LREEs. The plagioclase equilibrium liquid is overall less rich in REEs than pyroxene equilibrium liquids, and the discrepancy probably arises because the calculated plagioclase equilibrium liquid represents a liquid earlier in the fractionation sequence than the pyroxene equilibrium liquids. "Equilibrium" liquids calculated from the compositions of inversion-derived pyroxenes or orthopyroxene derived by reaction of olivine are LREE depleted (in some cases substantially) in comparison with equilibrium liquids calculated from the compositions of primary phases. These discrepancies arise because the inversion-derived and reaction-derived pyroxenes did not crystallize directly from liquid, and the use of solid-liquid Ds is inappropriate. The LREE

  5. Interactions of microorganisms with rare earth ions and their utilization for separation and environmental technology.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, rare earth elements (REEs) have been widely used in various modern technological devices and the global demand for REE has been increasing. The increased demand for REEs has led to environmental exposure or water pollution from rare earth metal mines and various commercial products. Therefore, the development of a safe technology for the separation and adsorption of REEs is very important from the perspective of green chemistry and environmental pollution. In this review, the application and mechanisms of microorganisms for the removal and extraction of REEs from aqueous solutions are described. In addition, the advantages in using microorganisms for REE adsorption and future studies on this topic are discussed.

  6. Estimating the Submarine Groundwater Discharge Flux of Rare Earth Elements to the Indian River Lagoon, Fl, USA, Using the 1-D Vertical - Flow Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevis, D. A.; Johannesson, K. H.; Burdige, D.; Cable, J. E.; Martin, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the sources and sinks of trace elements like the rare earth elements (REE) in the oceans has important implications for quantifying their global geochemical cycles, their application as paleoceanographic tracers, and in discerning the geochemical reactions that mobilize, sequester, and fractionate REEs in the environment. This understanding is critical for neodymium (Nd) because radiogenic Nd isotopes are commonly used in paleoceanographic studies over glacial-interglacial to million year time scales. The submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) flux of each REE for the Indian River Lagoon, Fl, USA, was calculated using a modified form of the 1-dimensional vertical-flow equation that accounts for diffusion, advection, and non-local mass transfer processes. The SGD REE flux is comprised of two sources: a near shore, heavy REE (HREE) enriched advective source chiefly composed of terrestrial SGD, and a light REE (LREE) and middle REE (MREE) enriched source that originates from reductive dissolution of Fe (III) oxides/hydroxides in the subterranean estuary. This SGD flux mixture of REE sources is subsequently transported by groundwater seepage and bioirrigation to the overlying lagoon water column. The total SGD flux of REEs reveals that the subterranean estuary of the Indian River Lagoon is a source for LREE and MREEs, and a sink for the HREEs, to the local coastal ocean. The calculated SGD flux of Nd presented in this study is estimated at 7.69×1.02 mmol/day, which is roughly equivalent to the effective local river flux to the Indian River Lagoon. Although our re-evaluated SGD flux of Nd to the Indian River Lagoon is lower than estimates in our previous work, it nonetheless represents a substantial input to the coastal ocean.

  7. Germanium and rare earth elements in soils under different land use types in the area of Freiberg (Saxony, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Moschner, Christin; Székely, Balázs

    2017-04-01

    A geochemical mapping study was conducted to investigate the spatial distribution and chemical fractionation of germanium (Ge) and selected rare earth elements (REEs) in topsoils and soil-grown plants under different land use types (moist grassland, mesic grassland, arable land) in the area of Freiberg (Saxony, Germany). The area of Freiberg is characterized by the mining of polymetallic sulphide deposits (Pb, As, Zn, Cd) which led to the pollution of top soils with metals and metalloids due to local emissions from metal smelting plants that occur widespread in the area. Since Ge often appears to be associated to sulphide ores like sphalerite, galenite and argyrodite, (post-)mining areas such as the Freiberg region are paradigmatic for phytomining research. The study area covers approximately 1,000 km2 in the south of Central Saxony, and 138 samples from 46 sampling sites were examined. Additionally, at each sampling site plant samples were collected. On arable soils the plant samples represented the cultivated crop species. On sites in mesic and moist grassland, samples from the most dominant plant species were taken and measured with ICP-MS. Ge and REEs in soils were partitioned by a sequential extraction procedure into mobile/exchangeable (Fraction 1), acid soluble (Fraction 2), bound to organic matter (Fraction 3), amorphous Fe/Mn-oxides (Fraction 4), crystalline Fe/Mn-oxides (Fraction 5) and residual fractions (Fraction 6). Total concentrations of Ge and REEs in soil varied considerably ranging from 1.0 µg g-1 to 4.3 µg g-1 for Ge and 97 µg g-1 to 402 µg g-1 for total REE concentrations. Elements in potentially plant available fractions (sums of Fraction 1 - Fraction 4) represented 8% of total Ge and 30% of total REEs, respectively. Soils on moist grasslands contained significantly higher total concentrations of Ge and REEs and higher concentrations of Ge and REEs in potentially plant available soil fractions compared to soils of mesic grasslands and

  8. Resolution of rare earth element interferences in fossil energy by-product samples using sector-field ICP-MS

    DOE PAGES

    Thompson, Robert L.; Bank, Tracy; Roth, Elliot; ...

    2016-07-30

    Here, the supply and price of rare earth elements (REEs) have become a concern to many countries in the world, which has led to renewed interest in exploration and recovery of REEs from secondary or waste sources. Potential high REE waste sources that are of particular interest are coal mining, preparation, combustion, and other fossil energy by-products, including those from natural gas production. In this work, we have examined a set of five solid samples from the treatment of produced and flowback water containing elevated concentrations of barium. In order to confirm the correct concentrations of Eu, we studied thesemore » materials using sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS), which is capable of resolving species of nearly identical masses, including Eu and BaO. While the use of quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) for the REE analysis of most geological sample matrices should pose no problem, the presence of large amounts of Ba, as encountered in water treatment solids from natural gas produced and flowback samples may require SF-ICP-MS for accurate determination of all REEs.« less

  9. Some Rare Earth Elements Analysis by Microwave Plasma Torch Coupled with the Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xiaohong; Jiang, Tao; Qi, Wenhao; Zuo, Jun; Yang, Meiling; Fei, Qiang; Xiao, Saijin; Yu, Aimin; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive mass spectrometric analysis method based on the microwave plasma technique is developed for the fast detection of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in aqueous solution. The plasma was produced from a microwave plasma torch (MPT) under atmospheric pressure and was used as ambient ion source of a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ). Water samples were directly pneumatically nebulized to flow into the plasma through the central tube of MPT. For some REEs, the generated composite ions were detected in both positive and negative ion modes and further characterized in tandem mass spectrometry. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) was at the level 0.1 ng/mL using MS2 procedure in negative mode. A single REE analysis can be completed within 2~3 minutes with the relative standard deviation ranging between 2.4% and 21.2% (six repeated measurements) for the 5 experimental runs. Moreover, the recovery rates of these REEs are between the range of 97.6%–122.1%. Two real samples have also been analyzed, including well and orange juice. These experimental data demonstrated that this method is a useful tool for the field analysis of REEs in water and can be used as an alternative supplement of ICP-MS. PMID:26421013

  10. Dissolved indium and rare earth elements in three Japanese rivers and Tokyo Bay: Evidence for anthropogenic Gd and In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Lerche, Dorte; Alibo, Dia Sotto; Tsutsumi, Makoto

    2000-12-01

    New data on the dissolved (<0.04 μm) rare earth elements (REEs) and In in the Japanese Ara, Tama, and Tone river-estuaries and Tokyo Bay are presented. Unique shale-normalized REE patterns with a distinct positive Gd anomalies and a strong heavy-REE enrichment were seen throughout the data. The dissolved Gd anomaly is caused by local anthropogenic input mainly due to recent use of Gado-pentetic acid as a medical agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in hospitals. The heavy-REE enrichment may be attributed to fractionation during weathering and transport in the upstream of the rivers, and only partially to removal of light- and middle-REE enriched river colloids by the use of a new ultrafiltration technique. Dissolved In concentrations in the Japanese rivers are extraordinarily high as compared to those in the pristine Chao Phraya river of Thailand reported elsewhere (Nozaki et al., in press). Like Gd, the high dissolved In in the study area can also be ascribed to recent use of In-containing organic compound, In(DTPA) 2- in medical diagnosis. Thus, in the highly populated and industrialized area, dissolved heavy metal concentrations in rivers and estuaries may be significantly perturbed by human activities and the fate of those anthropogenic soluble substances in the marine environment needs to be investigated further.

  11. Fate and transport of trace metals and rare earth elements in the Snake River, an AMD/ARD-impacted watershed. Montezuma, Colorado USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, D. M.; Rue, G.

    2017-12-01

    Recent research in Snake River Watershed, located near the historic boomtown of Montezuma and adjacent the Continental Divide in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, has revealed the distinctive occurrence of rare earth elements (REE) at high concentrations. Here the weathering of the mineralized lithology naturally generates acid rock drainage (ARD) in addition to drainage recieved from abandoned mine adits throughout the area, results in aqueous REE concentrations three orders of magnitude higher than in most major rivers. The dominant mechanism responsible for this enrichment; their dissolution from secondary and accessory mineral stocks, abundant in REEs, promoted by the low pH waters generated from geochemical weathering of disseminated sulfide minerals. While REEs behave conservatively in acidic conditions, as well as in the presence of stabilizing ligands such as sulfate, downstream circumneutral inputs from pristine streams and a rising pH are resulting in observed fractional losses of heavy rare earth elements as well as partitioning towards colloidal and solid phases. These finding in combination with the established role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in binding with both trace metals and REEs, suggest that competitive interactions, complexation, and scavenging are likely contributing to these proportional losses. However, outstanding questions yet remain regarding the effects of an increasing flux of trace metals as well as REEs from the Snake River Watershed into Dillon Reservoir, a major drinking water supply for the City of Denver, in part due to hydroclimatological drivers that are enhancing geochemical weathering and reducing groundwater recharge in alpine areas across the Colorado Rockies. Based on these findings also we seek to broaden this body of work to further investigate the behavior of rare earth elements (REE) in other aquatic environment as well the influence of trace metals, DOM, and pH in altering their reactivity and subsequent watershed

  12. High REE and Y concentrations in Co-Cu-Au ores of the Blackbird district, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of 11 samples of strata-bound Co-Cu-Au ore from the Blackbird district in Idaho shows previously unknown high concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) and Y, averaging 0.53 wt percent ???REE + Y oxides. Scanning electron microscopy indicates REE and Y residence in monazite, xenotime, and allanite that form complex intergrowths with cobaltite, suggesting coeval Co and REE + Y mineralization during the Mesoproterozoic. Occurrence of high REE and Y concentrations in the Blackbird ores, together with previously documented saline-rich fluid inclusions and Cl-rich biotite, suggest that these are not volcanogenic massive sulfide or sedimentary exhalative deposits but instead are iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits. Other strata-bound Co deposits of Proterozoic age in the North American Cordillera and elsewhere in the world may have potential for REE and Y resources. IOCG deposits with abundant light REE should also be evaluated for possible unrecognized heavy REE and Y mineralization. ?? 2006 by Economic Geology.

  13. Influence of rare earth elements (Nd, Sm, Gd) on the physicochemical properties of ges crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madatov, R. S.; Alekperov, A. S.; Magerramova, Dzh. A.

    2015-11-01

    Layered semiconductors (including GeS), which are widely used in modern electronics, are of great interest for researchers. New GeS-based devices have been developed for holographic recording, optical processing, and storage of information. In the last few years, American scientists have developed a unique GeS-based device that makes it possible to accumulate an immense amount of solar energy. The introduction of rare earth elements (REEs) facilitates the healing of metal and chalcogenide vacancies, removes polytypism, and enhances interlayer interaction.

  14. Major and trace (including REEs) element stratigraphy in the first 90 m (around 1 Myr) of ANDRILL AND-1B drillcore.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugi, Francesco; Becagli, Silvia; Ghedini, Costanza; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto; Monien, Donata; Kuhn, Gerhard; Giorgetti, Giovanna; Talarico, Franco

    2010-05-01

    An integrated system Inductively Coupled Plasma - Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrophotometry (ICP - AES) has been applied to quantify 39 major and trace elements (including Rare Earths Elements -REE) in Antarctic glaciomarine sediments collected in the framework of ANDRILL. This project aims to study the role of the Antarctic Continent within the global climatic system, by the recovery and analysis of two deep sediment cores (AND-1B, MIS and AND-2A, SMS), drilled close to the margin of the Ross Ice Shelf. The main goals of ANDRILL were to obtain a stratigraphic record that documents key steps in Antarctica's Cenozoic climatic and glacial history, and in the tectonic evolution of the Transantarctic Mountains and the West Antarctic rift System. In particular, the study of the geochemical composition of sediments along the two ANDRILL cores can provide information about the possible source of terrigenous material deposited over the drilling site (Harwood et al., 2006). Preliminary results with a spatial resolution of about 1 m for the geochemical composition of the interval 24.66- 85.24 m of depth of marine sediments from AND-1B core covering about the last 1 Ma, are here shown. The concentration ratio of each measured element with respect to Al concentration, used as terrigenous reference, was calculated in order to remove the possible effect on elemental concentrations of differences in average sediment grain-size along the core and possible dilution effects and point out specified metal enrichments. The presented data and depth profiles (e.g. Fe/Al, Mn/Al, Co/Al, Cr/Al, Eu/Al and Europium anomaly) relative to sediments deposited during the last Ma at the MIS site, show an evident discontinuity from samples collected above and below 58.4 m of depth, corresponding to about 0.45 Ma BP, following the latest AND-1B dating model (85.24 m of depth corresponding to about 0.988 Ma; the chronological datum of

  15. Ion-adsorption REEs in regolith of the Liberty Hill pluton, South Carolina, USA: An effect of hydrothermal alteration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, Carleton R.; Yesavage, Tiffany; Foley, Nora K.

    2017-01-01

    Ion-adsorbed rare earth element (REE) deposits supply the majority of world heavy REE production and substantial light REE production, but relatively little is known of their occurrence outside Southeast Asia. We examined the distribution and forms of REEs on a North American pluton located in the highly weathered and slowly eroding South Carolina Piedmont. The Hercynian Liberty Hill pluton experiences a modern climate that includes ~ 1500 mm annual rainfall and a mean annual temperature of 17 °C. The pluton is medium- to coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite with minor biotite granite facies. REE-bearing phases are diverse and include monazite, zircon, titanite, allanite, apatite and bastnäsite. Weathered profiles were sampled up to 7 m-deep across the ~ 400 km2 pluton. In one profile, ion-adsorbed REEs plus yttrium (REE + Y) ranged up to 581 mg/kg and accounted for up to 77% of total REE + Y in saprolite. In other profiles, ion-adsorbed REE + Y ranged 12–194 mg/kg and only accounted for 3–37% of totals. The profile most enriched in ion-adsorbed REEs was located along the mapped boundary of two granite facies and contained trioctahedral smectite in the saprolite, evidence suggestive of hydrothermal alteration of biotite at that location. Post-emplacement deuteric alteration can generate easily weathered REE phases, particularly fluorocarbonates. In the case of Liberty Hill, hydrothermal alteration may have converted less soluble to more soluble REE minerals. Additionally, regolith P content was inversely correlated with the fraction ion-adsorbed REEs, and weathering related secondary REE-phosphates were found in some regolith profiles. Both patterns illustrate how low P content aids in the accumulation of ion-adsorbed REEs. The localized occurrence at Liberty Hill sheds light on conditions and processes that generate ion-adsorbed REEs.

  16. Geochemical variations of rare earth elements in Marcellus shale flowback waters and multiple-source cores in the Appalachian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, C.; Jain, J.; Hakala, A.; Schroeder, K.; Dzombak, D. A.; Karamalidis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) - encompassing the naturally occurring lanthanides, yttrium, and scandium - are potential tracers for subsurface groundwater-brine flows and geochemical processes. Application of these elements as naturally occurring tracers during shale gas development is reliant on accurate quantitation of trace metals in hypersaline brines. We have modified and validated a liquid-liquid technique for extraction and pre-concentration of REE from saline produced waters from shale gas extraction wells with quantitative analysis by ICP-MS. This method was used to analyze time-series samples of Marcellus shale flowback and produced waters. Additionally, the total REE content of core samples of various strata throughout the Appalachian Basin were determined using HF/HNO3 digestion and ICP-MS analysis. A primary goal of the study is to elucidate systematic geochemical variations as a function of location or shale characteristics. Statistical testing will be performed to study temporal variability of inter-element relationships and explore associations between REE abundance and major solution chemistry. The results of these analyses and discussion of their significance will be presented.

  17. Rare Earth and other Chemical Elements Accumulation in Vines of Fogo Island (Cape Verde)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Rosa; Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Rocha, Fernando; Dias, Maria Isabel; Franco, Dulce

    2017-04-01

    to form more or less soluble complexes. Although U concentrations in these volcanic soils are low, there is a fraction available for absorption and accumulation by grapes. Concerning the rare earth elements (REE), it should be noted that the light REE are not enriched in any part of the vines studied, and only the heavy REE are enriched in grapes (EF = 20-50); this can be explained by the preferential uptake of the heavy REE, after primary minerals breakdown and the formation of more soluble compounds. The significant accumulation of several chemical elements found in grapes of Fogo Island can be mainly explained by a geogenic origin.

  18. Rb-Sr systematics and REE abundances in Shalka and several other diogenites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, K.; Yabuki, S.; Kagi, H.; Masuda, A.

    1994-07-01

    The diogenites have been regarded as igneous products in the early solar system and they have been considered to have genetically close relationship with eucrites. Depsite their simple mineralogical compositions and narrow range for major-element compositions, diogenites have been known to show wide Rare Earth Elements (REE) variations in absolute concentration and in mutual abundance ratios. Furthermore, some diogenites have peculiar Rb-Sr isotope systematics (ages younger than 4.5 b.y.). The Shalka meteorite belongs to the diogenites, and a unique REE abundance pattern has been reported. We performed Rb-Sr isotopic analyses and measured REE abundances in the Shalka diogenite with several other diogenites to discuss their genesis. Roughly speaking, REE patterns in diogenites are characterized by the negative Eu anomaly and the depletion of light REE. For Shalka, some heterogeneity in REE abundance patterns have been observed. While one sample chip shows the REE pattern with a large negative Eu anomaly and depleted light REE, particularly characterized by the concave curvature for the La-Nd span, other samples show the pattern nearly flat or the pattern enriched in light REE. These variations could not be explained easily by the simple mixing process of LREE-depleted components and LREE-enriched melt, but they imply some metamorphism process. The Rb-Sr isotopic data for Shalka are shown with the data for other several diogenites. These observations indicate that Shalka would undergo a significant extent of metamorphism followed by redistribution of REE and the disturbance of the Rb-Sr systematics. We are going to do further studies on Shalka to discuss the metamorphic process and compare it with other diogenites.

  19. Geochemistry of REE in Acid Mine Drainage: Sorption onto Basaluminite and Schwertmannite.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano Letellier, A.; Ayora, C.; Fernandez-Martinez, A.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements (REE) has been investigated in natural streams and in mine areas during the last decades. Most of these studies agree that REE are mobile in acidic waters and they transferred to a solid phase when pH increases. However, there is no agreement on the pH range, on which precipitates can retain REE and the mechanisms responsible for the retention. Thus, whereas some authors determined that hydrous ferric oxides (HFOs) scavenge REE from pH 3, other authors observed REE retention by hydrous aluminum oxides (HAOs) from pH 4 to 6.1. A field survey conducted in the Odiel River in the SW Spain showed that pH values higher than 5, REE, Cu, Al and Fe concentrations in the river were lower than expected from a theoretical mixture because they were trapped in the precipitates. For pH below 4, however, only schwertmannite (Fe8O8OH6SO4) and no basaluminite (Al4SO4OH10·5H2O) precipitated. Then, REE, Cu and Al behaved conservatively and Fe does not, indicating that REE are trapped in the Al but not in the Fe solid phase. These observations are perfectly consistent with the REE accumulation in the Al-rich precipitates in the AMD treatment systems. Taking into account these observations, sorption experiments with synthetic basaluminite and schwertmannite at different pH were performed in the laboratory. For Lanthanides and Yttrium, sorption edge took place at pH higher than 5, whereas Sc sorption started at pH 4. A surface complexation model is proposed to explain the retention mechanism onto these two precipitates. Both minerals, schwertmannite and basaluminite showed similar sorption behavior. However, as schwertmannite formation occurs at pH lower than 4, no REE elements are sorbed on it.

  20. Rare earth element geochemistry of feldspars: examples from Fe-oxide Cu-Au systems in the Olympic Cu-Au Province, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontonikas-Charos, Alkis; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Ehrig, Kathy; Krneta, Sasha; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.

    2018-04-01

    Rare earth element (REE) fractionation trends in feldspars are reported from Olympic Dam (including Wirrda Well and Phillip's Ridge) and Cape Donington (Port Lincoln), for comparison with two other igneous-hydrothermal terranes within the eastern Gawler Craton: Moonta-Wallaroo and Hillside. The case studies were selected as they represent 1590 Ma Hiltaba Suite and/or 1845 - 1810 Ma Donington Suite granites, and, aside from Cape Donington, are associated with Mesoproterozoic iron-oxide copper gold (IOCG)-type mineralization. Both plagioclase and alkali feldspar were analyzed within selected samples with the purpose of constraining and linking changes in REE concentrations and fractionation trends in feldspars to local and whole-rock textures and geochemistry. Two unique, reproducible fractionation trends were obtained for igneous plagioclase and alkali feldspars, distinguished from one another by light rare earth element enrichment, Eu-anomalies and degrees of fractionation (e.g. La/Lu slopes). Results for hydrothermal albite and K-feldspar indicate that REE concentrations and fractionation trends are generally inherited from igneous predecessors, however in some instances, significant amounts of REE appear to have been lost to the fluid. These results may have critical implications for the formation of world-class IOCG systems, in which widespread alkali metasomatism plays a key role by altering the physical and chemical properties of the host rocks during early stages of IOCG formation, as well as trapping trace elements (including REE).

  1. From source to sink: Rare-earth elements trace the legacy of sulfuric dredge spoils on estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nian; Morgan, Bree; Rate, Andrew W

    2018-05-17

    Land disposal of dredged sulfide-rich coastal sediments generates secondary coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS), as previously reduced sulfide minerals oxidise to produce acidic drainage rich in Fe, SO 4 2- and rare-earth elements (REEs). Few studies investigate both the source and the sink of REEs in the context of interpreting their mobilisation and potential use in tracing anthropogenic activity. Here we investigate REE signatures in estuarine sediments (and overlying surface waters) that have received acute, long-term (>15 years) acidic drainage from legacy sulfuric dredge spoils. It was found that the dredge spoil continues to act as a source of acidity (pH 3.5-5.5), Fe and REEs during development of CASS, and contains negligible acid volatile sulfide (AVS, a proxy for FeS) and relatively low concentrations of ΣREE (mean 44.5 mg/kg, range 4.1-362 mg/kg). In the receiving sediments, high AVS concentrations (mean 92.2 μmol/g, range 0.38-278 μmol/g) reflect elevated FeS content, likely due to high inputs of Fe and SO 4 2- from the acidic drainage, and correspond with a high concentration of total S (mean 852 μmol/g, range 105-2209 μmol/g) and an accumulation of ΣREE (mean 670 mg/kg, range 19.9-1819 mg/kg). Importantly, where drain sediments that were previously enriched in highly reactive sulfidic minerals and trace elements and have become exposed to the atmosphere (e.g. Site 3) and partially oxidised, they provide a further source of acidification, remobilising the REEs to the downstream sediments. Interestingly, we also found a clear positive correlation between phosphorous and REEs both in the dredge spoil and sediment, suggesting phosphate minerals may act as a sink for REEs in CASS influenced drain sediments. This is further supported by strong positive gadolinium anomalies (1.1-1.6) and high calculated anthropogenic Gd values (12-38%), which may reflect the influence of phosphate fertiliser on this eutrophic system. Copyright

  2. Separation and preconcentration of the rare-earth elements and yttrium from geological materials by ion-exchange and sequential acid elution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Lichte, F.E.; Riddle, G.O.; Beech, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The abundance of rare-earth elements (REE) and yttrium in geological materials is generally low, and most samples contain elements that interfere in the determination of the REE and Y, so a separation and/or preconcentration step is often necessary. This is often achieved by ion-exchange chromatography with either nitric or hydrochloric acid. It is advantageous, however, to use both acids sequentially. The final solution thus obtained contains only the REE and Y, with minor amounts of Al, Ba, Ca, Sc, Sr and Ti. Elements that potentially interfere, such as Be, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Th, U, V and Zr, are virtually eliminated. Inductively-coupled argon plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy can then be used for a final precise and accurate measurement. The method can also be used with other instrumental methods of analysis. ?? 1986.

  3. Transport and transformation of riverine neodymium isotope and rare earth element signatures in high latitude estuaries: A case study from the Laptev Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laukert, Georgi; Frank, Martin; Bauch, Dorothea; Hathorne, Ed C.; Gutjahr, Marcus; Janout, Markus; Hölemann, Jens

    2017-11-01

    Marine neodymium (Nd) isotope and rare earth element (REE) compositions are valuable tracers for present and past ocean circulation and continental inputs. Yet their supply via high latitude estuaries is largely unknown. Here we present a comprehensive dissolved Nd isotope (expressed as εNd values) and REE data set together with seawater stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) compositions of samples from the Laptev Sea recovered in two Arctic summers and one winter. The Laptev Sea is a shallow Siberian Shelf sea characterized by extensive river-runoff, sea-ice production and ice transport into the Arctic Ocean. The large variability in εNd (-6 to -17), REE concentrations (16 to 600 pmol/kg for Nd) and REE patterns is controlled by freshwater supply from distinct riverine sources and open ocean Arctic Atlantic Water. Strikingly and contrary to expectations, except for cerium no evidence for significant release of REEs from particulate phases is found, which is attributed to low amounts of suspended particulate matter and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations present in the contributing rivers. Essentially all shelf waters are depleted in light (L)REEs, while the distribution of the heavy REEs shows a deficiency at the surface and a pronounced excess in the bottom layer. This distribution is consistent with REE removal through coagulation of riverine nanoparticles and colloids starting at salinities near 10 and resulting in a drop of all REE concentrations by ∼30%. With increasing salinity preferential LREE removal is observable reaching ∼75% for Nd at a salinity of 34. Although the delayed onset of dissolved REE removal contrasts with most previous observations from other estuarine environments, it agrees remarkably well with results from recent experiments simulating estuarine mixing of seawater with organic-rich river waters. In addition, melting and formation of sea ice leads to further REE depletion at the surface and strong REE enrichment near the shelf

  4. Comparing REE distribution in GEMAS agricultural soils and FOREGS topsoils-subsoils in Italy and Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosino, Paola; Sadeghi, Martiya; Andersson, Madelen; Albanese, Stefano; Dinelli, Enrico; Valera, Paolo; Ladenberger, Anna; Morris, George; Uhlbäck, Jo; Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2014-05-01

    Scientific interest on Rare Earth Elements (REEs)-bearing media is increasing as a consequence of the rapidly growing demand of these important chemical resources, which are currently used in a large number of technical applications. In this study, Italian and Swedish REE data from the FOREGS database on topsoil and subsoils samples have been compared to the distribution of REEs in the GEMAS samples of agricultural soil (Ap), pertaining to regularly ploughed land to a depth of 20 cm. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was carried out to identify patterns within both data sets. Investigation of the spatial distribution of REEs in FOREGS topsoil-subsoil and GEMAS Ap media for both countries revealed the prominent role of the geogenic component in the general REE geochemical pattern of the three solid media. Despite a similar REE content in the underlying parent material or bedrocks (alkaline igneous rocks, both intrusive and effusive in Italy, alkaline granites and pegmatites in Sweden), several distinct differences emerged between the two countries driven by climate, topography, age of the rock units and sediments, presence of mineralisations, type of soils and presence of glacial deposits. GEMAS agricultural soils form both countries show higher REEs contents than the corresponding subsoils and topsoils, which could be ascribed to the analytical method specifically set for REEs and the last generation ICP-MS instrument used by SGS Lab to analyze REEs in Ap soils. The REE content in Italian topsoil and subsoil is similar and there is a good agreement between the topsoils and Ap soils, which were collected from similar depth. Swedish subsoil is on the contrary more enriched in REEs with respect to topsoil, and Ap soils even display REE contents higher than subsoils. This anomalous REE concentrations in agricultural soil may originate from the fact that most of the arable land in Sweden has been located on glacial and postglacial deposits, rich in clay which has

  5. Rare Earth Elements | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

    Science.gov Websites

    - Mineral Resources main content Rare Earth Elements Rare earth elements and the supply and demand of these deposits containing rare earth elements to meet the perceived future demand. High prices for rare earth earth element occurrences in the DGGS publications catalog. Department of Natural Resources, Division of

  6. Unusual seeding mechanism for enhanced performance in solid-phase magnetic extraction of Rare Earth Elements

    PubMed Central

    Polido Legaria, Elizabeth; Rocha, Joao; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Kessler, Vadim G.; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand of Rare Earth Elements (REE or RE), new and more efficient techniques for their extraction are necessary, suitable for both mining and recycling processes. Current techniques such as solvent extraction or solid adsorbents entail drawbacks such as using big volumes of harmful solvents or limited capacity. Hybrid nanoadsorbents based on SiO2 and highly stable γ-Fe2O3-SiO2 nanoparticles, proved recently to be very attractive for adsorption of REE, yet not being the absolute key to solve the problem. In the present work, we introduce a highly appealing new approach in which the nanoparticles, rather than behaving as adsorbent materials, perform as inducers of crystallization for the REE in the form of hydroxides, allowing their facile and practically total removal from solution. This induced crystallization is achieved by tuning the pH, offering an uptake efficiency more than 20 times higher than previously reported (up to 900 mg RE3+/g vs. 40 mg RE3+/g). The obtained phases were characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, STEM and EFTEM and 13C and 29Si solid state NMR. Magnetic studies showed that the materials possessed enough magnetic properties to be easily removed by a magnet, opening ways for an efficient and industrially applicable separation technique. PMID:28266566

  7. Unusual seeding mechanism for enhanced performance in solid-phase magnetic extraction of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polido Legaria, Elizabeth; Rocha, Joao; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Kessler, Vadim G.; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.

    2017-03-01

    Due to the increasing demand of Rare Earth Elements (REE or RE), new and more efficient techniques for their extraction are necessary, suitable for both mining and recycling processes. Current techniques such as solvent extraction or solid adsorbents entail drawbacks such as using big volumes of harmful solvents or limited capacity. Hybrid nanoadsorbents based on SiO2 and highly stable γ-Fe2O3-SiO2 nanoparticles, proved recently to be very attractive for adsorption of REE, yet not being the absolute key to solve the problem. In the present work, we introduce a highly appealing new approach in which the nanoparticles, rather than behaving as adsorbent materials, perform as inducers of crystallization for the REE in the form of hydroxides, allowing their facile and practically total removal from solution. This induced crystallization is achieved by tuning the pH, offering an uptake efficiency more than 20 times higher than previously reported (up to 900 mg RE3+/g vs. 40 mg RE3+/g). The obtained phases were characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, STEM and EFTEM and 13C and 29Si solid state NMR. Magnetic studies showed that the materials possessed enough magnetic properties to be easily removed by a magnet, opening ways for an efficient and industrially applicable separation technique.

  8. REE in karst bauxites: the Campania example (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondillo, N.; Boni, M.; Balassone, G.; Rollinson, G.

    2012-04-01

    Global production of Rare Earth Element (REE) has dramatically increased in the last years, hence the strong interest to identify new deposits and to understand the processes responsible for their formation. Among REE concentrations related to weathering, the current targets are represented by the ion-adsorption deposit-types, occurring in China, in which REEs are adsorbed onto the surface of clays. Laterites have been also intensively investigated since the discovery of the secondary deposit of Mount Weld (Australia). Most REEs behave as immobile elements in laterites, and tend to be enriched compared to the underlying parent rocks. Many authors debate on a possible REE fractionation along the laterite profiles, resulting in the formation of supergene LREE-minerals. Bauxites are economic Al accumulations, derived from the weathering of alumosilicate-rich parent rocks resulting in the development of laterite profiles. Components as Ca, Mg, K, Si are leached and residual Fe, Al and Ti precipitate in form of hematite>>goethite, gibbsite [Al(OH)3] or amorphous Al hydroxides and anatase. Metabauxites can contain boehmite or diaspore [AlO(OH)]. Chemical composition (including REEs content) of lateritic bauxites generally mirrors the original composition of the parent rock. Geochemistry of REEs in karst bauxites, which lay on carbonate bedrocks and may be also allochthonous to them, is not so straightforward. Cretaceous karst bauxite deposits in the Apennine chain (Southern Italy) are presently uneconomic. A full mineralogical and geochemical study has been performed on several deposits of the Campania district, and three representative profiles have been sampled. In all deposits the bauxite ore has an oolitic-pisolitic texture, but contains also detrital intervals. The mineral association consists of boehmite, kaolinite and hematite, with less goethite and anatase. The main REE-bearing mineral is detrital monazite. In detail, we could detect (SEM) other LREE

  9. Global demand for rare earth resources and strategies for green mining

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rare earths elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for the emerging green (low-carbon) energy technologies and ‘smart’ electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at a compound annual rate of 5% by 2020. Such high growth rate would require a steady supply base of REEs in the long ru...

  10. Fabrication of novel metal ion imprinted xanthan gum-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite for adsorption of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Iftekhar, Sidra; Srivastava, Varsha; Hammouda, Samia Ben; Sillanpää, Mika

    2018-08-15

    The work focus to enhance the properties of xanthan gum (XG) by anchoring metal ions (Fe, Zr) and encapsulating inorganic matrix (M@XG-ZA). The fabricated nanocomposite was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), surface area (BET) and zeta potential analysis. The adsorption of Sc, Nd, Tm and Yb was investigated after screening of synthesized materials in detail to understand the influence of pH, contact time, temperature and initial REE (rare earth element) concentration both in single and multicomponent system via batch adsorption. The adsorption mechanism was verified by FTIR, SEM and elemental mapping. The SEM images of Zr@XG-ZA demonstrate scutes structure, which disappeared after adsorption of REEs. The maximum adsorption capacities were 132.30, 14.01, 18.15 and 25.73 mg/g for Sc, Nd, Tm and Yb, respectively. The adsorption efficiency over Zr@XG-ZA in multicomponent system was higher than single system and the REEs followed the order: Sc > Yb > Tm > Nd. The Zr@XG-ZA demonstrate good adsorption behavior for REEs up to five cycles and then it can be used as photocatalyst for the degradation of tetracycline. Thus, the work adds a new insight to design and preparation of efficient bifunctional adsorbents from sustainable materials for water purification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel approach in k0-NAA for highly concentrated REE Samples.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi Neisiani, M; Latifi, M; Chaouki, J; Chilian, C

    2018-04-01

    The present paper presents a new approach for k 0 -NAA for accurate quantification with short turnaround analysis times for rare earth elements (REEs) in high content mineral matrices. REE k 0 and Q 0 values, spectral interferences and nuclear interferences were experimentally evaluated and improved with Alfa Aesar Specpure Plasma Standard 1000mgkg -1 mono-rare earth solutions. The new iterative gamma-ray self-attenuation and neutron self-shielding methods were investigated with powder standards prepared from 100mg of 99.9% Alfa Aesar mono rare earth oxide diluted with silica oxide. The overall performance of the new k 0 -NAA method for REEs was validated using a certified reference material (CRM) from Canadian Certified Reference Materials Project (REE-2) with REE content ranging from 7.2mgkg -1 for Yb to 9610mgkg -1 for Ce. The REE concentration was determined with uncertainty below 7% (at 95% confidence level) and proved good consistency with the CRM certified concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of trace rare earth elements in gadolinium aluminate by inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhijit; Deb, S. B.; Nagar, B. K.; Saxena, M. K.

    An analytical methodology was developed for the precise quantification of ten trace rare earth elements (REEs), namely, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Tm, in gadolinium aluminate (GdAlO3) employing an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN)-desolvating device based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A microwave digestion procedure was optimized for digesting 100 mg of the refractory oxide using a mixture of sulphuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and water (H2O) with 1400 W power, 10 min ramp and 60 min hold time. An USN-desolvating sample introduction system was employed to enhance analyte sensitivities by minimizing their oxide ion formation in the plasma. Studies on the effect of various matrix concentrations on the analyte intensities revealed that precise quantification of the analytes was possible with matrix level of 250 mg L- 1. The possibility of using indium as an internal standard was explored and applied to correct for matrix effect and variation in analyte sensitivity under plasma operating conditions. Individual oxide ion formation yields were determined in matrix matched solution and employed for correcting polyatomic interferences of light REE (LREE) oxide ions on the intensities of middle and heavy rare earth elements (MREEs and HREEs). Recoveries of ≥ 90% were achieved for the analytes employing standard addition technique. Three real samples were analyzed for traces of REEs by the proposed method and cross validated for Eu and Nd by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). The results show no significant difference in the values at 95% confidence level. The expanded uncertainty (coverage factor 1σ) in the determination of trace REEs in the samples were found to be between 3 and 8%. The instrument detection limits (IDLs) and the method detection limits (MDLs) for the ten REEs lie in the ranges 1-5 ng L- 1 and 7-64 μg kg- 1 respectively.

  13. Rare earth elements and permanent magnets (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, Peter C.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth (RE) magnets have become virtually indispensible in a wide variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, medical, and military. RE elements are essential ingredients in these high performance magnets based on intermetallic compounds RECo5, RE2TM17 (TM: transition metal), and RE2TM14B. Rare earth magnets are known for their superior magnetic properties—high induction, and coercive force. These properties arise due to the extremely high magnetocrystalline anisotropy made possible by unique 3d-4f interactions between transition metals and rare earths. For more than 40 years, these magnets remain the number one choice in applications that require high magnetic fields in extreme operating conditions—high demagnetization forces and high temperature. EEC produces and specializes in RECo5 and RE2TM17 type sintered magnets. Samarium and gadolinium are key RE ingredients in the powder metallurgical magnet production processes which include melting, crushing, jet milling, pressing, sintering, and heat treating. The magnetic properties and applications of these magnets will be discussed. We will also briefly discuss the past, current, and future of the permanent magnet business. Currently, over 95% of all pure rare earth oxides are sourced from China, which currently controls the market. We will provide insights regarding current and potential new magnet technologies and designer choices, which may mitigate rare earth supply chain issues now and into the future.

  14. Rare earth elements in coastal sediments of the northern Galician shelf: Influence of geological features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prego, Ricardo; Caetano, Miguel; Bernárdez, Patricia; Brito, Pedro; Ospina-Alvarez, Natalia; Vale, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    The Northern coast of Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula, exhibits a variety of geological features: Ortegal allochthonous complex, Ollo-de-Sapo autochthonous domain and massifs of Bares, Barqueiro and San-Ciprian. In order to examine the influence of terrestrial lithologies on coastal sediments, 103 samples were collected in the Rias of Ortigueira, Barqueiro and Viveiro, their neighbouring shelf and the estuaries of Mera, Sor and Landro rivers. Aluminium, Fe, Sc, particulate inorganic and organic carbon and rare earth elements (REE) were determined in the <2 mm fraction. In addition, calcite, muscovite, quartz and riebeckite minerals were identified and quantified in 33 selected samples. The distributions of riebeckite and Fe reflect the influence of Ortegal complex on the coastal areas around the Cape Ortegal. The highest concentrations of ΣREE were found in fine sediments from confined inner parts of the Rias (up to 233 mg kg-1), while most of the sands contained 11-70 mg kg-1. ΣREE normalised to European Shale (ES) highlights the relative abundance of lanthanides (ΣREEN>6) near Cape Ortegal and the innermost ria zones. The ratio between light and heavy REE (L/H) showed lower values (4-11) around Cape Ortegal and the shelf while higher ratios (15-23) were detected in west of the Cape Estaca-de-Bares and in the inner Viveiro Ria due to elevated contributions of La and Ce. The L/H values normalised to ES reflects the importance of HREE in the adjacent area to Ortegal Complex (LN/HN<0.8) and the LREE (LN/HN>1.4) in the inner estuaries and west Cape Estaca-de-Bares. The highest REE individual ES normalised were measured in fine-grained sediments of the Mera and Sor estuaries. Sediments from the eastern shelf of Cape Ortegal presented enhanced ratios only for HREE. These results indicate that distribution of REE in the northern Galician region is highly depending on the neighbouring lithological pattern, contrasting with the situation found in the western Galician

  15. Recovering Rare Earth Elements from Aqueous Solution with Porous Amine–Epoxy Networks

    DOE PAGES

    Wilfong, Walter Christopher; Kail, Brian W.; Bank, Tracy L.; ...

    2017-05-12

    Recovering aqueous rare earth elements (REEs) from domestic water sources is one key strategy to diminish the U.S.’s foreign reliance of these precious commodities. Herein, we synthesized an array of porous, amine–epoxy monolith and particle REE recovery sorbents from different polyamine, namely tetraethylenepentamine, and diepoxide (E2), triepoxide (E3), and tetra-epoxide (E4) monomer combinations via a polymer-induced phase separation (PIPS) method. The polyamines provided -NH 2 (primary amine) plus -NH (secondary amine) REE adsorption sites, which were partially reacted with C–O–C (epoxide) groups at different amine/epoxide ratios to precipitate porous materials that exhibited a wide range of apparent porosities and REEmore » recoveries/affinities. Specifically, polymer particles (ground monoliths) were tested for their recovery of La 3+, Nd 3+, Eu 3+, Dy 3+, and Yb 3+ (Ln 3+) species from ppm-level, model REE solutions (pH ≈ 2.4, 5.5, and 6.4) and a ppb-level, simulated acid mine drainage (AMD) solution (pH ≈ 2.6). Screening the sorbents revealed that E3/TEPA-88 (88% theoretical reaction of -NH 2 plus -NH) recovered, overall, the highest percentage of Ln 3+ species of all particles from model 100 ppm- and 500 ppm-concentrated REE solutions. Water swelling (monoliths) and ex situ, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) (ground monoliths/particles) data revealed the high REE uptake by the optimized particles was facilitated by effective distribution of amine and hydroxyl groups within a porous, phase-separated polymer network. In situ DRIFTS results clarified that phase separation, in part, resulted from polymerization of the TEPA-E3 (N-N-diglycidyl-4-glycidyloxyaniline) species in the porogen via C–N bond formation, especially at higher temperatures. Most importantly, the E3/TEPA-88 material cyclically recovered >93% of ppb-level Ln 3+ species from AMD solution in a recovery–strip–recovery scheme, highlighting

  16. Weathering behavior of REE-Y in a granitic soil profile (Case of Strengbach watershed)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangloff, Sophie; Stille, Peter; Chabaux, François

    2017-04-01

    Rare earth elements and yttrium (REE-Y) can be used as tracers of bedrock weathering and soil formation. One of the aims of this study is to better understand the different phenomena which impact the REE-Y mobilization and modify the REE-Y pattern along a soil profile. Our study has been performed on a granitic soil profile and soil solutions corresponding, sampled in a forest parcel covered with spruces from the Strengbach catchment. The behavior of the REE-Y pattern are compared with previously published results. The samples were collected from 2009 to 2013 and ultra-filtered to determine the spatial and temporal influence as well as that of the colloidal and dissolved fractions on the evolution of the REE-Y patterns. The EFTi of the soil indicates that during alteration process, phosphate minerals and zircon might be dissolved and induce the formation of secondary mineral phase like xenotime in the deeper soil horizons. The ultra-filtered soil solutions from humic horizon show that the REE-Y are principally enriched in the colloidal fraction controlling the REE-Y dynamic while in the deeper soil solutions colloidal and dissolved fractions influence the REE-Y. The mobility of REE-Y is controlled by the dissolution of the zircon and phosphate minerals, the precipitation of the REE-Y(PO4) and the evolution of OC with depth. The comparative study of the soil profile, soil water extracts and soil solutions show that (Eu*/Eu)DS anomaly reflects weathering of plagioclase in the micropores and the migration of the released Eu to the macropores, the (Ce*/Ce) anomaly, is stabilized by the electron shuttling of the humic acid (aromaticity) and provides information on the redox conditions only in the deeper soil horizons depleted in humic acid and finally the HREE enrichment in the deeper soil solutions results from the partial dissolution of secondary minerals in the upper soil horizons (above 30 cm depth).

  17. Rare earth elements and critical metal content of extracted landfilled material and potential recovery opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Silvia C; Coulon, Frédéric; Jiang, Ying; Wagland, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs), Platinum group metals (PGMs) and other critical metals currently attract significant interest due to the high risks of supply shortage and substantial impact on the economy. Their uses in many applications have made them present in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in commercial and industrial waste (C&I), since several industrial processes produce by-products with high content of these metals. With over 4000 landfills in the UK alone, the aim of this study was to assess the existence of these critical metals within landfills. Samples collected from four closed landfills in UK were subjected to a two-step acid digestion to extract 27 metals of interest. Concentrations across the four landfill sites were 58±6mgkg(-1) for REEs comprising 44±8mgkg(-1) for light REEs, 11±2mgkg(-1) for heavy REEs and 3±1mgkg(-1) for Scandium (Sc) and 3±1.0mgkg(-1) of PGMs. Compared to the typical concentration in ores, these concentrations are too low to achieve a commercially viable extraction. However, content of other highly valuable metals (Al and Cu) was found in concentrations equating to a combined value across the four landfills of around $400 million, which increases the economic viability of landfill mining. Presence of critical metals will mainly depend on the type of waste that was buried but the recovery of these metals through landfill mining is possible and is economically feasible only if additional materials (plastics, paper, metallic items and other) are also recovered for reprocessing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of rare earth elements on an anaerobic hydrogen producing microorganism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Y.; St Jeor, J. D.; Reed, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid growth of new energy technologies and consumer electronics is leading to increased fluxes of rare earth elements (REE), during the phases of resource extraction, product usage, recycling, and disposal. However, little is known about the impacts of these increased REE fluxes on environmental ecosystems, whether natural or engineered (e.g., biological waste treatment systems). We have been evaluating the effects of europium and yttrium on hydrogen production by an anaerobic fermenting microorganism, Sporacetigenium mesophilum, originally isolated from an anaerobic digester at a wastewater treatment plant.1 Europium and yttrium are important components of phosphors used in fluorescent lighting, and are expected to be recycled in larger quantities in the future. Also tested was the compound tributyl phosphate (TBP), a widely used complexing agent in lanthanide and actinide separations. TBP and related compounds may be used in recycling processes for REE. S. mesophilumcultures were amended with Eu at 100 ppb, 1 ppm and 10 ppm and hydrogen production was measured. While the lowest Eu concentration had minimal effect on hydrogen production compared to the no Eu control, the two higher Eu amendment levels appeared to enhance hydrogen production. TBP at 0.1 g/L completely inhibited hydrogen production. Measurements of aqueous Eu concentrations indicated that >85% of the added Eu remained soluble at all three of the Eu addition levels tested. Experiments to ascertain whether enhancement (or inhibition) occurs at even higher Eu concentrations are underway, as are corresponding experiments with yttrium. This work contributes to the assessment of the potential impacts of increased REE recycling and processing on ecosystems, and supports decision making with respect to disposal of wastewaters generated during these industrial practices. 1Chen, S., Song, L. and X. Dong. Int J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56, 721-725, doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.63686-0 (2006).

  19. A Geochemical Analysis of Rare Earth Elements Associated with Significant Phosphate Deposits of West-Central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, K. M.; Owens, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) such as the lanthanide series as well as yttrium, uranium, and thorium are an important industrial resource for expanding technological sectors; therefore, demand and production will continue to increase. Increased market prices resulting in decreased demand has led to new exploration for REE mineral resources in North America. Phosphorite deposits are being investigated as a possible supply but the overall concentrations, depositional environments, and ages are relatively unexplored. Phosphorite is commonly associated with ocean floor sediment deposition and upwelling; however, it may also form in estuarine and supratidal zones with low wave activity, present along Florida's west coast. Interestingly, it seems that major ancient phosphorite deposits are often, if not always, associated with major icehouse conditions (widespread glaciations) and rarely observed during greenhouse conditions. By analyzing a set of sonic drill cores, spatiotemporal REE concentrations can be better constrained for a wide-age range of the Miocene-Pliocene aged Bone Valley Member of the Peace River Formation, the largest North American phosphate deposit. We present concentrations from a depth-transect of samples collected in West-Central Florida, showing the phosphatic sands and silts of the area are highly enriched sedimentary archives for REE, yielding concentrations up to 200 ppm for some REE. The weathering and transport of igneous and metamorphic minerals from the southern Appalachians to the Florida coast where a series of winnowing events occurred may explain the enrichment seen by our data. Sediment cores showing well-rounded quartz sands, dolomitic silts, teeth, bones, and marine fossils commonly found in a near shore depositional environment support this hypothesis. Previous analysis of phosphate grains, teeth, bones, and bulk sediment indicate REE are not associated with and/or sourcing from biogenic components, but rather entering the lattice

  20. Ultra-low rare earth element content in accreted ice from sub-glacial Lake Vostok, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, Paolo; Planchon, Frederic; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude F.; Petit, Jean Robert; Bulat, Sergey; Hong, Sungmin; Cozzi, Giulio; Cescon, Paolo

    2009-10-01

    This paper reports the first rare earth element (REE) concentrations in accreted ice refrozen from sub-glacial Lake Vostok (East Antarctica). REE were determined in various sections of the Vostok ice core in order to geochemically characterize its impurities. Samples were obtained from accreted ice and, for comparison, from the upper glacier ice of atmospheric origin (undisturbed, disturbed and glacial flour ice). REE concentrations ranged between 0.8-56 pg g -1 for Ce and 0.0035-0.24 pg g -1 for Lu in glacier ice, and between <0.1-24 pg g -1 for Ce and <0.0004-0.02 pg g -1 for Lu in accreted ice. Interestingly, the REE concentrations in the upper accreted ice (AC 1; characterized by visible aggregates containing a mixture of very fine terrigenous particles) and in the deeper accreted ice (AC 2; characterized by transparent ice) are lower than those in fresh water and seawater, respectively. We suggest that such ultra-low concentrations are unlikely to be representative of the real REE content in Lake Vostok, but instead may reflect phase exclusion processes occurring at the ice/water interface during refreezing. In particular, the uneven spatial distribution (on the order of a few cm) and the large range of REE concentrations observed in AC 1 are consistent with the occurrence/absence of the aggregates in adjacent ice, and point to the presence of solid-phase concentration/exclusion processes occurring within separate pockets of frazil ice during AC 1 formation. Interestingly, if the LREE enrichment found in AC 1 was not produced by chemical fractionation occurring in Lake Vostok water, this may reflect a contribution of bedrock material, possibly in combination with aeolian dust released into the lake by melting of the glacier ice. Collectively, this valuable information provides new insight into the accreted ice formation processes, the bedrock geology of East Antarctica as well as the water chemistry and circulation of Lake Vostok.

  1. Ultra-low rare earth element content in accreted ice from sub-glacial Lake Vostok, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbante, C.; Gabrielli, P.; Turetta, C.; Planchon, F.; Boutron, C.; Petit, J. R.; Bulat, S.; Hong, S.; Cozzi, G.; Cescon, P.

    2009-12-01

    We report the first rare earth element (REE) concentrations in accreted ice refrozen from sub-glacial Lake Vostok (East Antarctica). REE were determined in various sections of the Vostok ice core in order to geochemically characterize its impurities. Samples were obtained from accreted ice and, for comparison, from the upper glacier ice of atmospheric origin (undisturbed, disturbed and glacial flour ice). REE concentrations ranged between 0.8-56 pg g-1 for Ce and 0.0035- 0.24 pg g-1 for Lu in glacier ice, and between <0.1-24 pg g-1 for Ce and <0.0004-0.02 pg g-1 for Lu in accreted ice. Interestingly, the REE concentrations in the upper accreted ice (AC1;characterized by visible aggregates containing a mixture of very fine terrigenous particles) and in the deeper accreted ice (AC2; characterized by transparent ice) are lower than those in fresh water and seawater, respectively. We suggest that such ultra-low concentrations are unlikely to be representative of the real REE content in Lake Vostok, but instead may reflect phase exclusion processes occurring at the ice/water interface during refreezing. In particular, the uneven spatial distribution (on the order of a few cm) and the large range of REE concentrations observed in AC1 are consistent with the occurrence/absence of the aggregates in adjacent ice, and point to the presence of solid-phase concentration/exclusion processes occurring within separate pockets of frazil ice during AC1 formation. Interestingly, if the LREE enrichment found in AC1 was not produced by chemical fractionation occurring in Lake Vostok water, this may reflect a contribution of bedrock material, possibly in combination with aeolian dust released into the lake by melting of the glacier ice. Collectively, this valuable information provides new insight into the accreted ice formation processes, the bedrock geology of East Antarctica as well as the water chemistry and circulation of Lake Vostok.

  2. Determination of rare earth elements in geological materials by inductively coupled argon plasma/atomic emission spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Lichte, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    Inductively coupled argon plasma/optical emission spectrometery (ICAP/OES) is useful as a simultaneous, multielement analytical technique for the determination of trace elements in geological materials. A method for the determination of trace-level rare earth elements (REE) in geological materials using an ICAP 63-channel emission spectrometer is described. Separation and preconcentration of the REE and yttrium from a sample digest are achieved by a nitric acid gradient cation exchange and hydrochloric acid anion exchange. Precision of 1-4% relative standard deviation and comparable accuracy are demonstrated by the triplicate analysis of three splits of BCR-1 and BHVO-1. Analyses of other geological materials including coals, soils, and rocks show comparable precision and accuracy.

  3. Rare Earth Element Concentration of Wyoming Thermal Waters Update

    SciTech Connect

    Quillinan, Scott; Nye, Charles; Neupane, Hari

    Updated version of data generated from rare earth element investigation of produced waters. These data represent major, minor, trace, isotopes, and rare earth element concentrations in geologic formations and water associated with oil and gas production.

  4. Levels of platinum group elements and rare-earth elements in wild mushroom species growing in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Kalač, Pavel; Siwulski, Marek; Rzymski, Piotr; Gąsecka, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Due to limited data-describing abilities of mushrooms to accumulate platinum group elements (PGEs) and rare-earth elements (REEs), the aim of this study was to determine, by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry followed by microwave-assisted sample digestion by nitric acid, the content of these elements in 20 mushroom species (10 above ground and 10 growing on wood), mostly edible, collected near a busy trunk road. The highest content of PGEs in above-ground mushroom species was observed in Lepista gilva and Suillus bovinus fruit bodies (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.03 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while in mushrooms growing on wood, the highest content was observed in Pleurotus ostreatus (0.35 ± 0.04 mg kg(-1) DW). The mean content of PGEs for both these groups was 0.23 ± 0.08 and 0.26 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. The highest content of REEs in Suillus luteus and Tricholoma equestra was 5.03 ± 0.50 and 2.18 ± 0.56 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively, but within mushrooms growing on wood in Ganoderma applanatum fruiting bodies it was 4.19 ± 0.78 mg kg(-1) DW. Mean contents of REEs were 1.39 ± 1.21 and 1.61 ± 0.97 mg kg(-1) DW in above-ground species and species growing on wood, respectively. Generally, the group of mushroom species growing on wood was capable of slightly higher accumulation of both REEs and PGEs. No limits have been established for both the groups until now.

  5. Rare earth and other elements in components of the Abee enstatite chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, R. M.; Boynton, W. V.

    1985-01-01

    Radiochemical and instrumental neutron activation analyses of REEs and other elements have been conducted for Abee clast samples, a matrix sample, a dark inclusion, magnetic and nonmagnetic samples, and bulk samples. Correlations of the REEs and oldhamite abundance for both the clasts and dark inclusions indicate that the REEs chiefly occur in oldhamite. The similar REE patterns for clasts and dark inclusions, and the similar mineral composition of oldhamite in clast and dark inclusions, suggest that the oldhamite in both the clasts and dark inclusions is of a common origin.

  6. Isomorphous Substitution of Rare-Earth Elements in Lacunary Apatite Pb8Na2(PO4)6.

    PubMed

    Get'man, Evgeni I; Loboda, Stanislav N; Ignatov, Alexey V; Prisedsky, Vadim V; Abdul Jabar, Mohammed A B; Ardanova, Lyudmyla I

    2016-03-07

    The substitution of rare-earth elements (REEs) for Pb in the lacunary apatite Pb8Na2(PO4)6 with void structural channels was studied by means of powder X-ray diffraction (including the Rietveld refinement), scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and IR spectroscopy and also measurements of the electrical conductivity. The substitution limits (xmax in Pb8-xLnxNa2(PO4)6Ox/2) at 800 °C were found to decrease with the atomic number of the REE from 1.40 for La to 0.12 for Yb with a rapid drop from light to heavy lanthanides (between Gd and Tb). The REE atoms substitute for Pb predominantly at Pb2 sites of the apatite structure according to the scheme 2Pb(2+) + □ → 2Ln(3+) + O(2-), where □ is a vacancy in the structural channel. The substitution in lacunary apatite produces quite different changes in the structural parameters compared with broadly studied alkaline-earth hydroxyapatites. In spite of the much lower ionic radii of REE than that of Pb(2+), the mean distances ⟨Pb1-O⟩ somewhat increase, whereas the distances ⟨Pb2-Pb2⟩ and ⟨Pb2-O4⟩ do not change considerably with the degree of substitution. This implies control of the substitution by not only spatial and charge accommodation of REE ions but also the availability of a stereochemically active 6s(2) electron pair on Pb(2+). The high-temperature electrical conductivity shows dependence on the degree of substitution with a minimum at x = 0.2 indicative of a possible change of the type of conductivity.

  7. Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M; Held, Hermann; Kriegler, Elmar; Hall, Jim W; Lucht, Wolfgang; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2008-02-12

    The term "tipping point" commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here we introduce the term "tipping element" to describe large-scale components of the Earth system that may pass a tipping point. We critically evaluate potential policy-relevant tipping elements in the climate system under anthropogenic forcing, drawing on the pertinent literature and a recent international workshop to compile a short list, and we assess where their tipping points lie. An expert elicitation is used to help rank their sensitivity to global warming and the uncertainty about the underlying physical mechanisms. Then we explain how, in principle, early warning systems could be established to detect the proximity of some tipping points.

  8. Rare earths and other trace elements in Apollo 14 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Ziege, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    REE and other trace elements have been determined in igneous rocks 14053, 14072, and 14310, in breccias 14063 and 14313, and in fines 14163. All materials analyzed have typical depletions of Eu except for feldspar fragments from the breccias and igneous fragments from 14063. Igneous rocks 14072 and 14053 have REE concentrations very similar to Apollo 12 basalts; 14310 has the highest REE concentrations yet observed for a large fragment of lunar basalt. The effects of crystallization of a basaltic liquid as a closed system on the concentrations of Sm and Eu in feldspar are considered. Small anorthositic fragments may have originated by simple crystallization from very highly differentiated basalt (KREEP) or by closed-system crystallization in a less differentiated starting material. Application of independent models of igneous differentiation to Sm and Eu in massive anorthosite 15415 and to Sm and Eu in lunar basalts suggests a common starting material with a ratio of concentrations of Sm and Eu about the same as that in chondrites and with concentrations of those elements about 15 times enriched over chondrites.

  9. Submarine groundwater discharge of rare earth elements: Evidence of an important trace element flux to coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannesson, K. H.; Chevis, D.; Burdige, D. J.; Cable, J. E.; Martin, J. B.; Roy, M.

    2008-12-01

    Johannesson and Burdige [2007, EPSL 253, 129] suggested that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) represents a substantial, unrecognized source of Nd to the oceans. Based on a globally averaged terrestrial SGD flux equal to 6 percent of the global river discharge and mean groundwater Nd concentrations obtained from the literature, we estimated a global SGD Nd flux that was within a factor of 2 of the previously proposed missing global Nd flux. To test our hypothesis that SGD is an important source of Nd to the oceans, rare earth element (REE) concentrations were measured in SGD samples collected beneath a coastal lagoon on the Florida Atlantic coast (Indian River Lagoon). Shale (PAAS)-normalized REE patterns for all SGD samples exhibit substantial enrichments in the heavy REEs (HREE) compared to the light REEs (LREE) as shown by their PAAS-normalized Yb/Nd ratios, which range from 5 to 73 (mean = 16). SGD from piezometers located 10 m and 22.5 m from shore exhibit PAAS-normalized REE plots that are most similar to the patterns of the overlying lagoon (surface) water. For example, mean PAAS-normalized Yb/Nd ratios for groundwaters sampled from the 10 m and 22.5 m piezometers are 6.7 and 8.3, which compare well with the PAAS- normalized Yb/Nd ratio of water column samples (8.7). In contrast, the mean PAAS-normalized Yb/Nd ratio of terrestrial-derived groundwater from the piezometer at the shoreline is 41. Neodymium concentrations of the SGD samples range from 230 to 2400 pmol/kg (mean = 507 pmol/kg), and thus are substantially higher than reported for open ocean seawater (typical Nd = 20 pmol/kg). Based on SGD fluxes previously determined with seepage meters, porewater Cl concentrations, and Rn-222 deficiencies of porewaters [Martin et al., 2007, Water Resour. Res. 43, W0544, doi: 10.1029/2006WR005266], we estimate daily inputs of Nd to the Indian River Lagoon of 50 to 2100 umoles for the terrestrial-derived component of SGD, and 171 mmoles for the marine component

  10. Zeta potentials of the rare earth element fluorcarbonate minerals focusing on bastnäsite and parisite.

    PubMed

    Owens, C L; Nash, G R; Hadler, K; Fitzpatrick, R S; Anderson, C G; Wall, F

    2018-06-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are critical to a wide range of technologies ranging from mobile phones to wind turbines. Processing and extraction of REE minerals from ore bodies is, however, both challenging and relatively poorly understood, as the majority of deposits contain only limited enrichment of REEs. An improved understanding of the surface properties of the minerals is important in informing and optimising their processing, in particular for separation by froth flotation. The measurement of zeta potential can be used to extract information regarding the electrical double layer, and hence surface properties of these minerals. There are over 34 REE fluorcarbonate minerals currently identified, however bastnäsite, synchysite and parisite are of most economic importance. Bastnäsite-(Ce), the most common REE fluorcarbonate, supplies over 50% of the world's REE. Previous studies of bastnäsite have showed a wide range of surface behaviour, with the iso-electric point (IEP), being measured between pH values of 4.6 and 9.3. In contrast, no values of IEP have been reported for parisite or synchysite. In this work, we review previous studies of the zeta potentials of bastnäsite to investigate the effects of different methodologies and sample preparation. In addition, measurements of zeta potentials of parisite under water, collector and supernatant conditions were conducted, the first to be reported. These results showed an iso-electric point for parisite of 5.6 under water, with a shift to a more negative zeta potential with both collector (hydroxamic and fatty acids) and supernatant conditions. The IEP with collectors and supernatant was <3.5. As zeta potential measurements in the presence of reagents and supernatants are the most rigorous way of determining the efficiency of a flotation reagent, the agreement between parisite zeta potentials obtained here and previous work on bastnäsite suggests that parisite may be processed using similar reagent schemes to

  11. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements of the hydrothermal alterations within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doner, Zeynep; Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    This work reports the geochemical characteristics and behavior of the rare earth elements (REE) of the hydrothermal alteration of the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit located in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Biga peninsula (Locally Balikesir province), NW Turkey. The Cu-Mo-Au mineralization at this deposit hosted in the hornfels rocks and related to the silicic to intermediate intrusion of Eybek pluton. It locally formed with brecciated zones and quartz vein stockworks, as well as the brittle fracture zones associated with intense hydrothermal alteration. Three main alteration zones with gradual boundaries formed in the mine area in the hornfels rock that represents the host rock, along that contact the Eybek pluton; potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration zones. The potassic alteration zone that formed at the center having high amount of Cu-sulfide minerals contains biotite, muscovite, and sericite with less amount of K-feldspar and associated with tourmalinization alteration. The propylitic alteration surrounds the potassic alteration having high amount of Mo and Au and contains chlorite, albite, epidote, calcite and pyrite. The phyllic alteration zone also surrounds the potassic alteration containing quartz, sericite and pyrite minerals. Based on the REE characteristics and content and when we correlate the Alteration index (AI) with the light REEs and heavy REEs of each alteration zone, it concluded that the light REEs decrease and heavy REEs increase during the alteration processes. The relationships between K2O index with Eu/Eu* and Sr/Sr* reveals a positive correlation in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones and a negative correlation in the propylitic alteration zone. This refers to the hydrothermal solution which is responsible for the studied porphyry deposits and associated potassic and phyllic alterations has a positive Eu and Sr anomaly as well as these elements were added to the altered rock from the hydrothermal solution. Keywords: Rare

  12. A novel approach for acid mine drainage pollution biomonitoring using rare earth elements bioaccumulated in the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea.

    PubMed

    Bonnail, Estefanía; Pérez-López, Rafael; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Nieto, José Miguel; DelValls, T Ángel

    2017-09-15

    Lanthanide series have been used as a record of the water-rock interaction and work as a tool for identifying impacts of acid mine drainage (lixiviate residue derived from sulphide oxidation). The application of North-American Shale Composite-normalized rare earth elements patterns to these minority elements allows determining the origin of the contamination. In the current study, geochemical patterns were applied to rare earth elements bioaccumulated in the soft tissue of the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea after exposure to different acid mine drainage contaminated environments. Results show significant bioaccumulation of rare earth elements in soft tissue of the clam after 14 days of exposure to acid mine drainage contaminated sediment (ΣREE=1.3-8μg/gdw). Furthermore, it was possible to biomonitor different degrees of contamination based on rare earth elements in tissue. The pattern of this type of contamination describes a particular curve characterized by an enrichment in the middle rare earth elements; a homologous pattern (E MREE =0.90) has also been observed when applied NASC normalization in clam tissues. Results of lanthanides found in clams were contrasted with the paucity of toxicity studies, determining risk caused by light rare earth elements in the Odiel River close to the Estuary. The current study purposes the use of clam as an innovative "bio-tool" for the biogeochemical monitoring of pollution inputs that determines the acid mine drainage networks affection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Light rare earth element systematics as a tool for investigating the petrogenesis of phoscorite-carbonatite associations, as exemplified by the Phalaborwa Complex, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Lorenzo; Bolhar, Robert; Frei, Dirk; Harlov, Daniel E.; Samuel, Vinod O.

    2017-12-01

    In-situ trace element analyses of fluorapatite, calcite, dolomite, olivine, and phlogopite have been undertaken on representative phoscorite and carbonatite rocks of the Palaeoproterozoic Phalaborwa Complex. Textural and compositional characterization reveals uniformity of fluorapatite and calcite among most of the intrusions, and seems to favor a common genetic origin for the phoscorite-carbonatite association. Representing major repositories for rare earth elements (REE), fluorapatite and calcite exhibit tightly correlated light REE (LREE) abundances, suggesting that partitioning of LREE into these rock forming minerals was principally controlled by simple igneous differentiation. However, light rare earth element distribution in apatite and calcite cannot be adequately explained by equilibrium and fractional crystallization and instead favors a complex crystallization history involving mixing of compositionally distinct magma batches, in agreement with previously reported mineral isotope variability that requires open-system behaviour.

  14. REE concentration processes in ion adsorption deposits: Evidence from Madagascar and China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Martin; Estrade, Guillaume; Marquis, Eva; Goodenough, Kathryn; Nasun, Peter; Cheng, Xu; Kynicky, Jindrich

    2017-04-01

    Lateritic clay deposits, where the rare earth elements (REE) occur adsorbed to clay mineral surfaces, are the world's dominant supply of heavy REE (Gd-Lu). These deposits are currently only mined in China where there is a reported heavy REE enrichment, but other deposits are currently under exploration in Brazil, the Philippines and Madagascar. Concentration of REE within IADs has been proposed to be a dominantly supergene process, where easily degradable REE-minerals (e.g. REE-fluorcarbonates) break down and release REE that are then adsorbed to clay minerals resulting in HREE enrichment. Here we present data from the Ambohimirahavavy Complex, Madagascar, and compare them to data from mineralised profiles in China, with the aim of further constraining the formation and REE enrichment processes in ion adsorption deposits. Bulk rock total REE contents from Madagascar vary from 400-5000ppm, with the HREE varying from 10 to 20% of the TREE. Ammonium Sulphate leaches (designed to remove clay-adsorbed REE) of laterite show leachable TREE from 130-500ppm, with no preferential HREE adsorption. Within the sequential extraction procedure the reducible fraction (hydroxylammonium chloride leach) showed the highest REE, but this is largely attributable to Ce4+ in oxide layers. Analysis of laterite profiles show that the REE distribution is heterogeneous, with control from both bedrock heterogeneity, and the hydrological variation between pedolith and saprolith. Similar patterns are seen in Chinese profiles from Jiangxi province. X-ray diffraction shows the clay fraction in all sites is dominated by kaolinite and halloysite. These data are consistent with experimental data which show that kaolinite is only HREE selective in high ionic strength solutions (Coppin et al., 2002), and suggest that HREE enrichment in lateritic deposits may be a function of exceptional bed rock conditions. Petrographic investigation of the Zhaibei granite, immediately underlying HREE enriched

  15. Analysis of rare earth elements in coal fly ash using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert L.; Bank, Tracy; Montross, Scott; Roth, Elliot; Howard, Bret; Verba, Circe; Granite, Evan

    2018-05-01

    Reference standard NIST SRM 1633b and FA 345, a fly ash sample from an eastern U.S. coal power plant, were analyzed to determine and quantify the mineralogical association of rare earth elements (REE). These analyses were completed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and a scanning electron microscope, equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Internal standardization was avoided by quantifying elemental concentrations by normalizing to 100% oxides. Mineral grains containing elevated REE concentrations were found in diverse chemical environments, but were most commonly found in regions where Al and Si were predominant. Dividing the spot analyses into time segments yielded plots that showed the REE content changing over time as individual mineral grains were being ablated. SEM-EDS images of FA 345 confirmed the trends that were found in the LA-ICP-MS results. Small grains of apatite, monazite, or zircon were frequently observed as free mineral grains or embedded in amorphous aluminosilicate glass and were not associated with ferrous particles. This finding is consistent with previous reports that magnetic enrichment may be an effective way of concentrating non-magnetic REE phases. Furthermore, aggressive mechanical and chemical-based separation schemes will be required to separate and recover REE from aluminosilicate glass.

  16. Post-depositional redistribution processes and their effects on middle rare earth element precipitation and the cerium anomaly in sediments in the South Korea Plateau, East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Jeong, Kap-Sik; Cho, Jin Hyung; Lee, Jun Ho; Jang, Seok; Kim, Seong Ryul

    2014-03-01

    We sampled two box-core sediments from the slope of the eastern South Korea Plateau (SKP) in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) at water depths of 1400 and 1700 m. Two chemical fractions of extractable (hydroxylamine/acetic acid) and residual rare earth elements (REEs) together with Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, S, As, Mo, and U were analyzed to assess the post-depositional redistribution of REEs. Extractable Fe and Mn are noticeably abundant in the oxic topmost sediment layer (<3 cm). However, some trace elements (e.g., S, As, Mo, U) are more abundant at depth, where redox conditions are different. Analysis of upper continental crust (UCC)-normalized (La/Gd)UCC, (La/Yb)UCC, and (Ce/Ce*)UCC revealed that the extractable REE is characterized by middle REE (MREE) enrichment and a positive cerium (Ce) anomaly, different from the case of the residual fraction which shows slight enrichment in light REEs (LREEs) with no Ce anomaly. The extractable MREEs seem to have been incorporated into high-Mg calcite during reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides. In the top sediment layer, the positive Ce anomaly is attributed to Ce oxide, which can be mobilized in deeper oxygen-poor environments and redistributed in the sediment column. In addition, differential concentrations of Ce and other LREEs in pore water appear to result in variable (Ce/Ce*)UCC ratios in the extractable fraction at depth.

  17. Study of Kα2 /Kα1 RYIED in closed and open shell Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, P. C.; Tribolet, A. D.; Reis, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Relative Yield Ion Energy Dependence (RYIED) was observed, named and reported as phenomenological evidence in 2005 (Reis et al., 2005). Since then, it was observed in transitions to the same subshell, and plausible explanations for the physics behind the phenomena have been proposed. In this work we present experimental evidence of the RYIED effect on the most inner transition possible in two Rare Earth Elements (REE), namely variations in the intensity ratio of Kα2 /Kα1 X-rays from Tm and Yb irradiated under different conditions. These REE are particularly interesting to start with since Yb has an electronic configuration where all the subshells are completely filled, whilst Tm misses one electron in the 4f subshell. Ultrapure oxides of each element were irradiated using proton beams having energies in the range of 0.9-3.6 MeV, in steps of 100 keV. Spectra were collected using the CdTe detector of the HRHE-PIXE set-up of C2TN and analysed using the DT2 code. Finally, the vanishing of the effect upon charging up of the target has been observed and will be discussed.

  18. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive.

  19. Laser-excited fluorescence of rare earth elements in fluorite: Initial observations with a laser Raman microprobe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, R.C.; Ging, T.G.; Eppinger, R.G.; Samson, a.M.

    1992-01-01

    Fluorescence emission spectra of three samples of fluorite containing 226-867 ppm total rare earth elements (REE) were excited by visible and ultraviolet wavelength lines of an argon ion laser and recorded with a Raman microprobe spectrometer system. Narrow emission lines ( 0.9 for Eu2+ and 0.99 for Er3+. Detection limits for three micrometer spots are about 0.01 ppm Eu2+ and 0.07 ppm Er3+. These limits are less than chondrite abundance for Eu and Er, demonstrating the potential microprobe analytical applications of laser-excited fluorescence of REE in fluorite. However, application of this technique to common rock-forming minerals may be hampered by competition between fluorescence emission and radiationless energy transfer processes involving lattice phonons. ?? 1992.

  20. Application of unsupervised pattern recognition approaches for exploration of rare earth elements in Se-Chahun iron ore, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarparandeh, Mohammadali; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

    2017-12-01

    The use of efficient methods for data processing has always been of interest to researchers in the field of earth sciences. Pattern recognition techniques are appropriate methods for high-dimensional data such as geochemical data. Evaluation of the geochemical distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) requires the use of such methods. In particular, the multivariate nature of REE data makes them a good target for numerical analysis. The main subject of this paper is application of unsupervised pattern recognition approaches in evaluating geochemical distribution of REEs in the Kiruna type magnetite-apatite deposit of Se-Chahun. For this purpose, 42 bulk lithology samples were collected from the Se-Chahun iron ore deposit. In this study, 14 rare earth elements were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Pattern recognition makes it possible to evaluate the relations between the samples based on all these 14 features, simultaneously. In addition to providing easy solutions, discovery of the hidden information and relations of data samples is the advantage of these methods. Therefore, four clustering methods (unsupervised pattern recognition) - including a modified basic sequential algorithmic scheme (MBSAS), hierarchical (agglomerative) clustering, k-means clustering and self-organizing map (SOM) - were applied and results were evaluated using the silhouette criterion. Samples were clustered in four types. Finally, the results of this study were validated with geological facts and analysis results from, for example, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ICP-MS and optical mineralogy. The results of the k-means clustering and SOM methods have the best matches with reality, with experimental studies of samples and with field surveys. Since only the rare earth elements are used in this division, a good agreement of the results with lithology is considerable. It is concluded that the combination of the proposed

  1. Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system

    PubMed Central

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Held, Hermann; Kriegler, Elmar; Hall, Jim W.; Lucht, Wolfgang; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The term “tipping point” commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here we introduce the term “tipping element” to describe large-scale components of the Earth system that may pass a tipping point. We critically evaluate potential policy-relevant tipping elements in the climate system under anthropogenic forcing, drawing on the pertinent literature and a recent international workshop to compile a short list, and we assess where their tipping points lie. An expert elicitation is used to help rank their sensitivity to global warming and the uncertainty about the underlying physical mechanisms. Then we explain how, in principle, early warning systems could be established to detect the proximity of some tipping points. PMID:18258748

  2. Body burden of toxic metals and rare earth elements in non-smokers, cigarette smokers and electronic cigarette users.

    PubMed

    Badea, Mihaela; Luzardo, Octavio P; González-Antuña, Ana; Zumbado, Manuel; Rogozea, Liliana; Floroian, Laura; Alexandrescu, Dana; Moga, Marius; Gaman, Laura; Radoi, Mariana; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto

    2018-06-13

    Smoking is considered an important source for inorganic elements, most of them toxic for human health. During the last years, there has been a significant increase in the use of e-cigarettes, although the role of them as source of inorganic elements has not been well established. A cross-sectional study including a total of 150 subjects from Brasov (Romania), divided into three groups (non-smokers, cigarette smokers and electronic cigarettes smokers) were recruited to disclose the role of smoking on the human exposure to inorganic elements. Concentration of 42 elements, including trace elements, elements in the ATSDR's priority pollutant list and rare earth elements (REE) were measured by ICP-MS in the blood serum of participants. Cigarette smokers showed the highest levels of copper, molybdenum, zinc, antimony, and strontium. Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users presented the highest concentrations of selenium, silver, and vanadium. Beryllium, europium and lanthanides were detected more frequently among e-cigarette users (20.6%, 23.5%, and 14.7%) than in cigarette smokers (1.7%, 19.0%, and 12.1%, respectively); and the number of detected REE was also higher among e-cigarette users (11.8% of them showed more than 10 different elements). Serum levels of cerium and erbium increased as the duration of the use of e-cigarettes was longer. We have found that smoking is mainly a source of heavy metals while the use of e-cigarettes is a potential source of REE. However, these elements were detected at low concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct Quantification of Rare Earth Elements Concentrations in Urine of Workers Manufacturing Cerium, Lanthanum Oxide Ultrafine and Nanoparticles by a Developed and Validated ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yu, Hua; Zheng, Siqian; Miao, Yang; Yin, Shi; Li, Peng; Bian, Ying

    2016-03-22

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have undergone a steady spread in several industrial, agriculture and medical applications. With the aim of exploring a sensitive and reliable indicator of estimating exposure level to REEs, a simple, accurate and specific ICP-MS method for simultaneous direct quantification of 15 REEs ((89)Y, (139)La, (140)Ce, (141)Pr, (146)Nd, (147)Sm, (153)Eu, (157)Gd, (159)Tb, (163)Dy, (165)Ho, (166)Er, (169)Tm, (172)Yb and (175)Lu) in human urine has been developed and validated. The method showed good linearity for all REEs in human urine in the concentrations ranging from 0.001-1.000 μg ∙ L(-1) with r² > 0.997. The limits of detection and quantification for this method were in the range of 0.009-0.010 μg ∙ L(-1) and 0.029-0.037 μg ∙ L(-1), the recoveries on spiked samples of the 15 REEs ranged from 93.3% to 103.0% and the relative percentage differences were less than 6.2% in duplicate samples, and the intra- and inter-day variations of the analysis were less than 1.28% and less than 0.85% for all REEs, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of 15 REEs in 31 urine samples obtained from the control subjects and the workers engaged in work with manufacturing of ultrafine and nanoparticles containing cerium and lanthanum oxide. The results suggested that only the urinary levels of La (1.234 ± 0.626 μg ∙ L(-1)), Ce (1.492 ± 0.995 μg ∙ L(-1)), Nd (0.014 ± 0.009 μg ∙ L(-1)) and Gd (0.023 ± 0.010 μg ∙ L(-1)) among the exposed workers were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the levels measured in the control subjects. From these, La and Ce were the primary components, and accounted for 88% of the total REEs. Lanthanum comprised 27% of the total REEs while Ce made up the majority of REE content at 61%. The remaining elements only made up 1% each, with the exception of Dy which was not detected. Comparison with the previously published data, the levels of urinary La and Ce in workers and

  4. Direct Quantification of Rare Earth Elements Concentrations in Urine of Workers Manufacturing Cerium, Lanthanum Oxide Ultrafine and Nanoparticles by a Developed and Validated ICP-MS

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Yu, Hua; Zheng, Siqian; Miao, Yang; Yin, Shi; Li, Peng; Bian, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have undergone a steady spread in several industrial, agriculture and medical applications. With the aim of exploring a sensitive and reliable indicator of estimating exposure level to REEs, a simple, accurate and specific ICP-MS method for simultaneous direct quantification of 15 REEs (89Y, 139La, 140Ce, 141Pr, 146Nd, 147Sm, 153Eu, 157Gd, 159Tb, 163Dy, 165Ho, 166Er, 169Tm, 172Yb and 175Lu) in human urine has been developed and validated. The method showed good linearity for all REEs in human urine in the concentrations ranging from 0.001–1.000 μg∙L−1 with r2 > 0.997. The limits of detection and quantification for this method were in the range of 0.009–0.010 μg∙L−1 and 0.029–0.037 μg∙L−1, the recoveries on spiked samples of the 15 REEs ranged from 93.3% to 103.0% and the relative percentage differences were less than 6.2% in duplicate samples, and the intra- and inter-day variations of the analysis were less than 1.28% and less than 0.85% for all REEs, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of 15 REEs in 31 urine samples obtained from the control subjects and the workers engaged in work with manufacturing of ultrafine and nanoparticles containing cerium and lanthanum oxide. The results suggested that only the urinary levels of La (1.234 ± 0.626 μg∙L−1), Ce (1.492 ± 0.995 μg∙L−1), Nd (0.014 ± 0.009 μg∙L−1) and Gd (0.023 ± 0.010 μg∙L−1) among the exposed workers were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the levels measured in the control subjects. From these, La and Ce were the primary components, and accounted for 88% of the total REEs. Lanthanum comprised 27% of the total REEs while Ce made up the majority of REE content at 61%. The remaining elements only made up 1% each, with the exception of Dy which was not detected. Comparison with the previously published data, the levels of urinary La and Ce in workers and the control subjects show a higher trend

  5. A Novel Synthesis Routine for Woodwardite and Its Affinity towards Light (La, Ce, Nd) and Heavy (Gd and Y) Rare Earth Elements.

    PubMed

    Consani, Sirio; Balić-Žunić, Tonci; Cardinale, Anna Maria; Sgroi, Walter; Giuli, Gabriele; Carbone, Cristina

    2018-01-14

    A synthetic Cu-Al-SO₄ layered double hydroxide (LDH), analogue to the mineral woodwardite [Cu 1-x Al x (SO₄) x/2 (OH)₂·nH₂O], with x < 0.5 and n ≤ 3x/2, was synthesised by adding a solution of Cu and Al sulphates to a solution with NaOH. The pH values were kept constant at 8.0 and 10.0 by a continuous addition of NaOH. The material obtained had poor crystallinity, turbostratic structure, and consisted of nanoscopic crystallites. The analyses performed in order to characterise the obtained materials (X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy) showed that the Cu-Al-SO₄ LDH is very similar to woodwardite, although it has a smaller layer spacing, presumably due to a lesser water content than in natural samples. The synthesis was performed by adding light rare earth elements (LREEs) (La, Ce, and Nd) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) (Gd and Y) in order to test the affinity of the Cu-Al-SO₄ LDH to the incorporation of REEs. The concentration of rare earth elements (REEs) in the solid fraction was in the range of 3.5-8 wt %. The results showed a good affinity for HREE and Nd, especially for materials synthesised at pH 10.0, whereas the affinities for Ce and La were much lower or non-existent. The thermal decomposition of the REE-doped materials generates a mixture of Cu, Al, and REE oxides, making them interesting as precursors in REE oxide synthesis.

  6. A Novel Synthesis Routine for Woodwardite and Its Affinity towards Light (La, Ce, Nd) and Heavy (Gd and Y) Rare Earth Elements

    PubMed Central

    Consani, Sirio; Balić-Žunić, Tonci; Cardinale, Anna Maria; Sgroi, Walter; Giuli, Gabriele; Carbone, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    A synthetic Cu-Al-SO4 layered double hydroxide (LDH), analogue to the mineral woodwardite [Cu1−xAlx(SO4)x/2(OH)2·nH2O], with x < 0.5 and n ≤ 3x/2, was synthesised by adding a solution of Cu and Al sulphates to a solution with NaOH. The pH values were kept constant at 8.0 and 10.0 by a continuous addition of NaOH. The material obtained had poor crystallinity, turbostratic structure, and consisted of nanoscopic crystallites. The analyses performed in order to characterise the obtained materials (X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy) showed that the Cu-Al-SO4 LDH is very similar to woodwardite, although it has a smaller layer spacing, presumably due to a lesser water content than in natural samples. The synthesis was performed by adding light rare earth elements (LREEs) (La, Ce, and Nd) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) (Gd and Y) in order to test the affinity of the Cu-Al-SO4 LDH to the incorporation of REEs. The concentration of rare earth elements (REEs) in the solid fraction was in the range of 3.5–8 wt %. The results showed a good affinity for HREE and Nd, especially for materials synthesised at pH 10.0, whereas the affinities for Ce and La were much lower or non-existent. The thermal decomposition of the REE-doped materials generates a mixture of Cu, Al, and REE oxides, making them interesting as precursors in REE oxide synthesis. PMID:29342887

  7. Time-resolved interaction of seawater with gabbro: An experimental study of rare-earth element behavior up to 475 °C, 100 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beermann, Oliver; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Bach, Wolfgang; Holzheid, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    High metal and rare-earth element