Science.gov

Sample records for earth energy designer

  1. Clouds and the earth's radiant energy system (CERES) - Instrument design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopia, Leonard P.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the earth's reflected shortwave and emitted longwave energy and of the effect of clouds on these quantities are planned using a refined version of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning instrument. The CERES instruments are being designed to accumulate earth radiance measurements with a repeatability of better than 0.5 percent over their five year life. Beginning in 1996, flights are planned on both polar and low earth orbit satellites to obtain the required temporal and spatial coverage. The design and development of CERES are discussed.

  2. Passive energy design and habitability aspects of earth-sheltered housing in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, L.L.; Grondzik, W.T.; Weber, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    Identified earth-sheltered houses in Oklahoma were examined through a detailed questionnaire during the first phase of a long-range funded project. Preliminary results of energy and habitability aspects are presented here. Saving energy is reported to be the primary incentive for building such structures. Habitability aspects have generally not received much study until recently. The results indicate that although a majority of the respondents feel their energy-savings expectations have been reached, over 40% feel that their energy consumption is much higher than they expected. Preliminary energy performance studies indicate that in a majority of the projects, the potential thermal mass of the structure has been decoupled by insulation and furred interior surface treatments. This situation can lead to a significant reduction in the amount of free earth cooling available during the summer months. Other factors, not yet studied, undoubtedly contribute additional adverse effects. The substantial energy savings that are realized have been achieved with little decrease, and often an increase, in comfort and habitability aspects. Most occupants are particularly satisfied with the safety of the structure and the arrangement of the rooms, which in most cases were custom designed by or for the occupants. However, daylighting and privacy of family members, for example, were not as highly rated. A number of other parameters are identified from the survey that present implications for design enhancement in this contemporary type of residential structure. 14 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

  3. Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Crushable Energy Absorber for a Passive Earth Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Corliss, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual study was performed to investigate the impact response of a crushable energy absorber for a passive Earth entry vehicle. The spherical energy-absorbing concept consisted of a foam-filled composite cellular structure capable of omni-directional impact-load attenuation as well as penetration resistance. Five composite cellular samples of hemispherical geometry were fabricated and tested dynamically with impact speeds varying from 30 to 42 meters per second. Theoretical crush load predictions were obtained with the aid of a generalized theory which accounts for the energy dissipated during the folding deformation of the cell-walls. Excellent correlation was obtained between theoretical predictions and experimental tests on characteristic cell-web intersections. Good correlation of theory with experiment was also found to exist for the more complex spherical cellular structures. All preliminary design requirements were met by the cellular structure concept, which exhibited a near-ideal sustained crush-load and approximately 90% crush stroke.

  4. Towards Designing an Integrated Earth Observation System for the Provision of Solar Energy Resource and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackouse, Paul W., Jr.; Renne, D.; Beyer, H.-G.; Wald, L.; Meyers, R.; Perez, R.; Suri, M.

    2006-01-01

    The GEOSS strategic plan specifically targets the area of improved energy resource management due to the importance of these to the economic and social viability of every nation of the world. With the world s increasing demand for energy resources, the need for new alternative energy resources grows. This paper overviews a new initiative within the International Energy Agency that addresses needs to better manage and develop solar energy resources worldwide. The goal is to provide the solar energy industry, the electricity sector, governments, and renewable energy organizations and institutions with the most suitable and accurate information of the solar radiation resources at the Earth's surface in easily-accessible formats and understandable quality metrics. The scope of solar resource assessment information includes historic data sets and currently derived data products using satellite imagery and other means. Thus, this new task will address the needs of the solar energy sector while at the same time will serve as a model that satisfies GEOSS objectives and goals.

  5. Design of low-energy transfer from lunar orbit to asteroid in the Sun-Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Min; Qiao, Dong; Cui, Ping-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Asteroid exploration trajectories which start from a lunar orbit are investigated in this work. It is assumed that the probe departs from lunar orbit and returns to the vicinity of Earth, then escapes from the Earth by performing a perigee maneuver. A low-energy transfer in Sun-Earth-Moon system is adopted. First, the feasible region of low-energy transfer from lunar orbit to perigee within 5 000km height above the Earth surface in Sun-Earth-Moon system is calculated and analyzed. Three transfer types are found, i.e., large maneuver and fast transfers, small maneuver and fast transfers, and disordered and slow transfers. Most of feasibility trajectories belong to the first two types. Then, the low-energy trajectory leg from lunar orbit to perigee and a heliocentric trajectory leg from perigee to asteroid are patched by a perigee maneuver. The optimal full-transfer trajectory is obtained by exploiting the differential evolution algorithm. Finally, taking 4179 Toutatis asteroid as the target, some low-energy transfer trajectories are obtained and analyzed.

  6. Earth's Energy Imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, K. E.; Fasullo, J.

    2013-12-01

    'Global warming' from increased greenhouse gases really refers to a global energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA). TOA measurements of radiation from space can track changes over time but lack absolute accuracy. An inventory of energy shows that over 90% of the imbalance is manifested as ocean heat content (OHC). Here we use ORAS4 ocean reanalysis data and other OHC estimates to compare the OHC rates of change with model-based estimates of TOA energy imbalance (from CCSM4), and with TOA satellite measurements for the year 2000 onwards. Most of the ocean-only OHC analyses extend to only 700 m depth, have large discrepancies among the rates of change of OHC, and do not resolve interannual variability adequately to capture ENSO and volcanic eruption effects. For the first time we show that ORAS4 OHC quantitatively agrees with the radiative forcing estimates of impacts of the 3 major volcanic eruptions since 1960 (Mt. Agung 1963, El Chichón 1982, and Mt. Pinatubo 1991). The natural variability of the energy imbalance is substantial from month-to-month associated with cloud and weather variations, and interannually mainly associated with ENSO, while the sun affects 15% of the climate change signal on decadal timescales. All estimates (OHC and TOA) show that over the past decade the energy imbalance ranges between about 0.5 and 1 W m-2. By using the full-depth ocean, there is a better overall accounting for energy, but discrepancies remain at interannual timescales between OHC and TOA radiation measurements, notably in 2008-09.

  7. Earth Port-Moon Port design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A pair of compatible transfer stations or Space Ports and associated transfer vehicles was designed in order to support permanent manned lunar facilities. One of the Space Ports was placed in earth orbit (not necessarily Low Earth Orbit - LEO), and the other in lunar orbit. The primary purposes of the Space Ports was to support the lunar surface facility, the return of lunar manufactured items to the earth, and the transfer of lunar manufactured items to space vehicles and earth orbital space stations. The design was constrained by the following: (1) The orbital altitudes and inclinations of the Earth Port and Moon Port were chosen to minimize the overall cost of transporting materials to and from the moon. The ETO (Earth-to-Orbit) costs were considered separately to allow consideration of initiating planetary missions, etc., from the Earth Port. (2) A new earth launch point was chosen to facilitate the support of the lunar facility. This launch point was chosen to minimize overall costs, maximize overall safety, and to avoid political problems. To this end, it was mandatory the launch site be owned by the United States or one of its close allies. In addition, the launch would take place over water and expendable stages would drop into the ocean. Space shuttle type vehicles could be used if appropriate provisions were made for aborts, SRB and ET impact, etc. The ground track and impact point studies included space shuttle type vehicles, current ELV's (expendable launch vehicles, and HLLV's (heavy lift launch vehicles). (3) The Earth Port and Moon Port orbits were selected so that transfer trajectories between the two facilities could be initiated often without major plane change penalties. The amount of these penalties was calculated. Families of Earth Port to Moon Port and Moon Port to Earth Port trajectories were calculated to document the energy requirements and penalties. (4) Space Port module designs included module systems definitions, module masses, system

  8. Earth's energy imbalance and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.; von Schuckmann, K.

    2011-09-01

    Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.59 ± 0.15 W m-2 during the 6-year period 2005-2010, confirms the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing and ocean mixing rates. We conclude that most climate models mix heat too efficiently into the deep ocean and as a result underestimate the negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Aerosol climate forcing today is inferred to be -1.6 ± 0.3 W m-2, implying substantial aerosol indirect climate forcing via cloud changes. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We conclude that recent slowdown of ocean heat uptake was caused by a delayed rebound effect from Mount Pinatubo aerosols and a deep prolonged solar minimum. Observed sea level rise during the Argo float era is readily accounted for by ice melt and ocean thermal expansion, but the ascendency of ice melt leads us to anticipate acceleration of the rate of sea level rise this decade. Humanity is potentially vulnerable to global temperature change, as discussed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001, 2007) reports and by innumerable authors. Although climate change is driven by many climate forcing agents and the climate system also exhibits unforced (chaotic) variability, it is now widely agreed that the strong global warming trend of recent decades is caused predominantly by human-made changes of atmospheric composition (IPCC, 2007). The basic physics underlying this global warming, the greenhouse effect, is simple. An increase of gases such as CO2 makes the atmosphere more opaque at infrared

  9. CERES Detects Earth's Heat and Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System, CERES, monitors solar energy reflected from the Earth and heat energy emitted from the Earth. In this image, heat energy radiated from the earth is shown in varying shades of yellow, red, blue and white. The brightest yellow areas, such as the Sahara Desert and Arabian Peninsula, are emitting the most energy out to space, while the dark blue polar regions and bright white clouds are the coldest areas on Earth, and are emitting the least energy. The animation (1.5MB) (high-res (4MB)) shows roughly a week of CERES data. For more information: CERES images through Visible Earth. CERES web site Image courtesy of the CERES instrument team

  10. The Sun: Source of the Earth's Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Sun is the primary source of the Earth's energy. However, due to the complexity in the way the energy affects Earth, the various solar sources of the energy, and the variation exhibited by the Sun it is difficult to understand and predict the Earth's response to solar drivers. In addition to visible light the radiant energy of the Sun can exhibit variation in nearly all wavelengths, which can vary over nearly all timescales. Depending on the wavelength of the incident radiation the light can deposit energy in a wide variety or locations and drive processes from below Earth's surface to interplanetary space. Other sources of energy impacting Earth include energetic particles, magnetic fields, and mass and flow variations in the solar wind. Many of these variable energetic processes cannot be coupled and recent results continue to demonstrate that the complex dynamics of the Sun can have a great range of measurable impacts on Earth.

  11. Intelligent Design and Earth History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    Intelligent Design (ID), the idea that the Earth's biota was intelligently designed and created, is not a new species recently evolved by allopatric speciation at the fringes of the creationist gene pool. In spite of its new veneer of sophistication, ID is a variant of an already extant species of religious polemics. In the western world, arguments about causative relationships between the complexity of nature and the supernatural can be traced from the fifth century St. Augustine, to the eighteenth century David Hume and the nineteenth century William Paley. Along this descent tree some argued from the existence of supernatural agencies to the creation of nature with its complexities, while others argued from the complexities of nature to the existence of supernatural agencies. Today, Phillip Johnson promotes ID by attacking evolution rather than by presenting evidence for ID. He argues that the evidence for macroevolution is either absent, misinterpreted or fraudulent. His "Wedge Strategy" attempts to separate his "objective science" from the "philosophical mechanistic naturalism" which he posits is responsible for the survival of Darwinism. To make his appeal as wide as possible he tries not to offend anyone (except evolutionists) by deliberately avoiding discussion of biblical literalism or the age of the Earth. Although in 1859 Darwin admitted that the geological evidence was "the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory", subsequently geological evidence has become one of the chief supports of his theory. However, the fossil record is now seen to be not simply one of slow gradual descent with modification. Rates of divergence and disappearance of organisms have varied enormously through time. Repeated mass extinctions indicate a strong element of contingency in evolution. Accepting the postulate of an intelligent designer also requires the postulate of an intelligent destroyer. Darwin hinted at this when he referred to, "The

  12. Where does Earth's atmosphere get its energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kren, Andrew C.; Pilewskie, Peter; Coddington, Odele

    2017-03-01

    The Sun is Earth's primary source of energy. In this paper, we compare the magnitude of the Sun to all other external (to the atmosphere) energy sources. These external sources were previously identified in Sellers (1965); here, we quantify and update them. These external sources provide a total energy to the Earth that is more than 3700 times smaller than that provided by the Sun, a vast majority of which is provided by heat from the Earth's interior. After accounting for the fact that 71% of incident solar radiation is deposited into the earth system, the Sun provides a total energy to Earth that is still more than 2600 times larger than the sum of all other external sources.

  13. Co-based alloys design based on first-principles calculations: Influence of transition metal and rare-earth alloying element on stacking fault energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achmad, Tria Laksana; Fu, Wenxiang; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Zhi-Gang

    2017-01-01

    The main idea of alloy design is to reduce costs and time required by the traditional (trial and error) method, then finding a new way to develop the efficiency of the alloy design is necessary. In this study, we proposed a new approach to the design of Co-based alloys. It is based on the concept that lowering the ratio of stable and unstable stacking fault energy (SFE) could bring a significant increase in the tendency of partial dislocation accumulation and FCC to HCP phase transformation then enhance mechanical properties. Through the advance development of the computing techniques, first-principles density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations are capable of providing highly accurate structural modeling at the atomic scale without any experimental data. The first-principles calculated results show that the addition of some transition metal (Cr, Mo, W, Re, Os, Ir) and rare-earth (Sc, Y, La, Sm) alloying elements would decrease both stable and unstable SFE of pure Co. The dominant deformation mechanism of binary Co-4.5 at.% X (X = alloying element) is extended partial dislocation. Our study reveals Re, W, Mo and La as the most promising alloying additions for the Co-based alloys design with superior performances. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms for the SFE reduction can be explained regarding the electronic structure.

  14. Earth Science Week 2010 - Infrared Energy

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video explores what infrared energy is and how NASA detects it to study our Earth's systems more completely. Satellite measurements over time allow scientists to study seasonal changes in loca...

  15. Renewable energy and characteristics of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    During studying sustainable development, my sixth-form pupils have to devise and carry out experiments to show connection between some characteristics of the Earth and renewable energy. Thus, helping by a list of equipment, they can show, using simples' experiments, causal link. For example, they show that the layout in latitude of solar energy received on the ground, creates ocean and atmospheric currents. These currents are useful to product renewable energy. These researches allow me to show them new jobs link with renewable energy and sustainable development on the Earth. They can have more information thanks to other teachers working on the professional training centre including my secondary school.

  16. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John E.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Kopia, Leonard P.

    1992-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment will play a major role in NASA's planned multi-instrument multi-satellite Earth Observing System (EOS) program to observe and study the total Earth System on a global scale. The CERES experiment will provide EOS with a consistent data base of accurately known fields of radiation and of clouds; and will investigate the important question of the impact of clouds upon the radiative energy flow through the earth-atmosphere system. The CERES instruments will be an improved version of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) broadband scanning radiometer instruments flown by NASA in the 1980s. This paper describes the CERES experiment approach and the current CERES instrument design status.

  17. Earth Orbit Raise Design for the Artemis Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiffen, Gregory J.; Sweetser, Theodore H.

    2011-01-01

    The Artemis mission is an extension of the Themis mission. The Themis mission1 consisted of five identical spacecraft in varying sized Earth orbits designed to make simultaneous measurements of the Earth's electric and magnetic environment. Themis was designed to observe geomagnetic storms resulting from solar wind's interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. Themis was meant to answer the age old question of why the Earth's aurora can change rapidly on a global scale. The Themis spacecraft are spin stabilized with 20 meter long electric field booms as well as several shorter magnetometer booms. The goal of the Artemis2 mission extension is to deliver the field and particle measuring capabilities of two of the Themis spacecraft to the vicinity of the Moon. The Artemis mission required transferring two Earth orbiting Themis spacecraft on to two different low energy trans-lunar trajectories ultimately ending in lunar orbit. This paper describes the processes that resulted in successful orbit raise designs for both spacecraft.

  18. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator)

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a key component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The CERES instrument provides radiometric measurements of the Earth's atmosphere from three broadband channels. The CERES missions are a follow-on to the successful Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) mission. The first CERES instrument (PFM) was launched on November 27, 1997, as part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Two CERES instruments (FM1 and FM2) were launched into polar orbit on board the EOS flagship Terra on December 18, 1999, and two additional CERES instruments (FM3 and FM4) were launched on board EOS Aqua on May 4,2002. [Mission Objectives] The scientific justification for the CERES measurements can be summarized by three assertions: (1) changes in the radiative energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system can cause long-term climate changes (e.g., carbon dioxide inducing global warming); (2) besides the systematic diurnal and seasonal cycles of incoming solar energy, changes in cloud properties (amount, height, optical thickness) cause the largest changes of the Earth's radiative energy balance; and (3) cloud physics is one of the weakest components of current climate models used to predict potential global climate change. CERES has four main objectives: 1) For climate change analysis, provide a continuation of the ERBE record of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), analyzed using the same algorithms that produced the ERBE data. 2) Double the accuracy of estimates of radiative fluxes at TOA and the Earth's surface. 3) Provide the first long-term global estimates of the radiative fluxes within the Earth's atmosphere. 4) Provide cloud property estimates that are consistent with the radiative fluxes from surface to TOA. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  19. Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, Mallikarjun; Stovall, John P.; Sorokine, Alexandre; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.; King, Jr., Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    For the North American hurricane season, in partnership with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and working with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, we have developed a capability that helps visualize the status of the electric transmission system infrastructure. The capability toolkit, called VERDE - Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth, takes advantage of the Google Earth platform to display spatiotemporally informed power grid and related data. Custom libraries describe the electrical transmission network in the Eastern United States and the dynamic status of each transmission line. Standard Google Earth layers provide additional spatial context. In addition to live status, VERDE provides a framework and mechanism to ingest and intuitively present predictive models, data from different sources, and response needs.

  20. Observing and modeling Earths energy flows

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens B.; Schwartz S.

    2012-05-11

    This article reviews, from the authors perspective, progress in observing and modeling energy flows in Earth's climate system. Emphasis is placed on the state of understanding of Earth's energy flows and their susceptibility to perturbations, with particular emphasis on the roles of clouds and aerosols. More accurate measurements of the total solar irradiance and the rate of change of ocean enthalpy help constrain individual components of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere to within {+-}2 W m{sup -2}. The measurements demonstrate that Earth reflects substantially less solar radiation and emits more terrestrial radiation than was believed even a decade ago. Active remote sensing is helping to constrain the surface energy budget, but new estimates of downwelling surface irradiance that benefit from such methods are proving difficult to reconcile with existing precipitation climatologies. Overall, the energy budget at the surface is much more uncertain than at the top of the atmosphere. A decade of high-precision measurements of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere is providing new opportunities to track Earth's energy flows on timescales ranging from days to years, and at very high spatial resolution. The measurements show that the principal limitation in the estimate of secular trends now lies in the natural variability of the Earth system itself. The forcing-feedback-response framework, which has developed to understand how changes in Earth's energy flows affect surface temperature, is reviewed in light of recent work that shows fast responses (adjustments) of the system are central to the definition of the effective forcing that results from a change in atmospheric composition. In many cases, the adjustment, rather than the characterization of the compositional perturbation (associated, for instance, with changing greenhouse gas concentrations, or aerosol burdens), limits accurate determination of the radiative forcing. Changes in clouds

  1. Observing and Modeling Earth's Energy Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Bjorn; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews, from the authors' perspective, progress in observing and modeling energy flows in Earth's climate system. Emphasis is placed on the state of understanding of Earth's energy flows and their susceptibility to perturbations, with particular emphasis on the roles of clouds and aerosols. More accurate measurements of the total solar irradiance and the rate of change of ocean enthalpy help constrain individual components of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere to within ±2 W m-2. The measurements demonstrate that Earth reflects substantially less solar radiation and emits more terrestrial radiation than was believed even a decade ago. Active remote sensing is helping to constrain the surface energy budget, but new estimates of downwelling surface irradiance that benefit from such methods are proving difficult to reconcile with existing precipitation climatologies. Overall, the energy budget at the surface is much more uncertain than at the top of the atmosphere. A decade of high-precision measurements of the energy budget at the top of the atmosphere is providing new opportunities to track Earth's energy flows on timescales ranging from days to years, and at very high spatial resolution. The measurements show that the principal limitation in the estimate of secular trends now lies in the natural variability of the Earth system itself. The forcing-feedback-response framework, which has developed to understand how changes in Earth's energy flows affect surface temperature, is reviewed in light of recent work that shows fast responses (adjustments) of the system are central to the definition of the effective forcing that results from a change in atmospheric composition. In many cases, the adjustment, rather than the characterization of the compositional perturbation (associated, for instance, with changing greenhouse gas concentrations, or aerosol burdens), limits accurate determination of the radiative forcing. Changes in clouds contribute

  2. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carman, Stephen L.; Cooper, John E.; Miller, James; Harrison, Edwin F.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1992-01-01

    The CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) experiment will play a major role in NASA's multi-platform Earth Observing System (EOS) program to observe and study the global climate. The CERES instruments will provide EOS scientists with a consistent data base of accurately known fields of radiation and of clouds. CERES will investigate the important question of cloud forcing and its influence on the radiative energy flow through the Earth's atmosphere. The CERES instrument is an improved version of the ERBE (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment) broadband scanning radiometer flown by NASA from 1984 through 1989. This paper describes the science of CERES, presents an overview of the instrument preliminary design, and outlines the issues related to spacecraft pointing and attitude control.

  3. Energy design for architects

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, A.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains techniques for energy efficiency in architectural design. Many aspects are covered including: cost; comfort and health; energy use; the design process; and analytical techniques. 202 figs. (JF)

  4. Energy efficient building design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  5. Designing for Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Alief Independent School District, Texas, has been successful in obtaining energy efficient designs for its new schools by developing energy goals prior to the selection of architects and engineers. Features of four projects designed to conserve energy are described. (Author/MLF)

  6. Designing for Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, R. C.

    This document is a description of the energy efficient designs for new schools in the Alief Independent School District of Houston, Texas. Exhibit A shows how four major school projects differ from conventional designs. Parameters and designs for heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and lighting are given. Twenty year projected energy costs and…

  7. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  8. Biodigester Feasibility and Design for Space & Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shutts, Stacy; Ewert, Mike; Bacon, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion converts organic waste into methane gas and fertilizer effluent. The ICA-developed prototype system is designed for planetary surface operation. It uses passive hydrostatic control for reliability, and is modular and redundant. The serpentine configuration accommodates tight geometric constraints similar to the ISS ECLSS rack architectures. Its shallow, low-tilt design enables (variable) lower-g convection than standard Earth (1 g) digesters. This technology will reuse and recycle materials including human waste, excess food, as well as packaging (if biodegradable bags are used).

  9. Harvesting renewable energy from Earth's mid-infrared emissions.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Steven J; Blanchard, Romain; Capasso, Federico

    2014-03-18

    It is possible to harvest energy from Earth's thermal infrared emission into outer space. We calculate the thermodynamic limit for the amount of power available, and as a case study, we plot how this limit varies daily and seasonally in a location in Oklahoma. We discuss two possible ways to make such an emissive energy harvester (EEH): A thermal EEH (analogous to solar thermal power generation) and an optoelectronic EEH (analogous to photovoltaic power generation). For the latter, we propose using an infrared-frequency rectifying antenna, and we discuss its operating principles, efficiency limits, system design considerations, and possible technological implementations.

  10. Designing sustainable soils in Earth's critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwart, Steven Allan; de Souza, Danielle Maia; Menon, Manoj; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos; Panagos, Panos; Vala Ragnardsdottir, Kristin; Rousseva, Svelta; van Gaans, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    The demographic drivers of increasing human population and wealth are creating tremendous environmental pressures from growing intensity of land use, resulting in soil and land degradation worldwide. Environmental services are provided through multiple soil functions that include biomass production, water storage and transmission, nutrient transformations, contaminant attenuation, carbon and nitrogen storage, providing habitat and maintaining the genetic diversity of the land environment. One of the greatest challenges of the 21st century is to identify key risks to soil, and to design mitigation strategies to manage these risks and to enhance soil functions that can last into the future. The scientific study of Earth's Critical Zone (CZ), the thin surface layer that extends vertically from the top of the tree canopy to the bottom of aquifers, provides an essential integrating scientific framework to study, protect and enhance soil functions. The research hypothesis is that soil structure, the geometric architecture of solids, pores and biomass, is a critical indicator and essential factor of productive soil functions. The experimental design selects a network of Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs) as advanced field research sites along a gradient of land use intensity in order to quantify soil structure and soil processes that dictate the flows and transformations of material and energy as soil functions. The CZOs focus multidisciplinary expertise on soil processes, field observation and data interpretation, management science and ecological economics. Computational simulation of biophysical processes provides a quantitative method of integration for the range of theory and observations that are required to quantify the linkages between changes in soil structure and soil functions. Key results demonstrate that changes in soil structure can be quantified through the inputs of organic carbon and nitrogen from plant productivity and microbial activity, coupled with

  11. Energy-Conscious Design. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Practical energy-design elements adaptable for schools include building orientation and shape, inclusion of an energy-storage system, window placement, double or triple window glazing, air-curtain windows, and the use of earth berms and trees as wind breaks. (MLF)

  12. An imperative to monitor Earth's energy imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schuckmann, K.; Palmer, M. D.; Trenberth, K. E.; Cazenave, A.; Chambers, D.; Champollion, N.; Hansen, J.; Josey, S. A.; Loeb, N.; Mathieu, P.-P.; Meyssignac, B.; Wild, M.

    2016-02-01

    The current Earth's energy imbalance (EEI) is mostly caused by human activity, and is driving global warming. The absolute value of EEI represents the most fundamental metric defining the status of global climate change, and will be more useful than using global surface temperature. EEI can best be estimated from changes in ocean heat content, complemented by radiation measurements from space. Sustained observations from the Argo array of autonomous profiling floats and further development of the ocean observing system to sample the deep ocean, marginal seas and sea ice regions are crucial to refining future estimates of EEI. Combining multiple measurements in an optimal way holds considerable promise for estimating EEI and thus assessing the status of global climate change, improving climate syntheses and models, and testing the effectiveness of mitigation actions. Progress can be achieved with a concerted international effort.

  13. Optimal Low Energy Earth-Moon Transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griesemer, Paul Ricord; Ocampo, Cesar; Cooley, D. S.

    2010-01-01

    The optimality of a low-energy Earth-Moon transfer is examined for the first time using primer vector theory. An optimal control problem is formed with the following free variables: the location, time, and magnitude of the transfer insertion burn, and the transfer time. A constraint is placed on the initial state of the spacecraft to bind it to a given initial orbit around a first body, and on the final state of the spacecraft to limit its Keplerian energy with respect to a second body. Optimal transfers in the system are shown to meet certain conditions placed on the primer vector and its time derivative. A two point boundary value problem containing these necessary conditions is created for use in targeting optimal transfers. The two point boundary value problem is then applied to the ballistic lunar capture problem, and an optimal trajectory is shown. Additionally, the ballistic lunar capture trajectory is examined to determine whether one or more additional impulses may improve on the cost of the transfer.

  14. Transforming Instructional Designs in Earth Science (TIDES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, H.; McAuliffe, C.; Penuel, W.

    2008-12-01

    An enduring challenge in Earth system science education has been to prepare teachers to teach for deep understanding of subject matter. Standards and trade textbooks are often too broad to allow for in-depth treatment of specific topics, and many teachers have had limited exposure to how to plan instruction for the core concepts of Earth system science they are expected to teach. High-quality curriculum materials do exist that provide young people with opportunities to explore concepts in depth and to experience the inquiry process. At the same time, few programs provide teachers with the necessary skills and knowledge to enact and adapt those materials to the unique circumstances of their classrooms and schools. Our interdisciplinary team of curriculum and staff developers, researchers, and district personnel developed a program focused on preparing teachers to use a principled approach to curriculum adaptation in Earth system science. In this program, teachers learned how to use the Understanding by Design (UbD) approach developed by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe to organize and adapt materials from an expert-designed curriculum. As part of the program, teachers learn to select or modify materials from the curriculum based on how likely the materials are to develop so-called "enduring understandings" of concepts in the district standards. Teachers also learn how to apply the approach in incorporating materials from other sources besides the expert-designed curriculum, which can include their textbook and materials they design on their own or with colleagues. Third, teachers learn how to collect and interpret evidence of student understanding by designing or adapting performance tasks that call for students to apply knowledge acquired during the unit to solve a problem or complete a project. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial indicates the program we created is effective in improving the quality of teacher assignments and in improving student achievement

  15. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) - An Earth Observing System experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the CERES experiment that is designed not only to monitor changes in the earth's radiant energy system and cloud systems but to provide these data with enough accuracy and simultaneity to examine the critical climate/cloud feedback mechanisms which may play a major role in determining future changes in the climate system. CERES will estimate not only the flow of radiation at the top of the atmosphere, but also more complete cloud properties that will permit determination of radiative fluxes within the atmosphere and at the surface. The CERES radiation budget data is also planned for utilization in a wide range of other Earth Observing System interdisciplinary science investigations, including studies of land, biological, ocean and atmospheric processes.

  16. Energy Budget: Earth's Most Important and Least Appreciated Planetary Attribute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Lin; Bethea, Katie

    2013-01-01

    The energy budget involves more than one kind of energy. People can sense this energy in different ways, depending on what type of energy it is. We see visible light using our eyes. We feel infrared energy using our skin (such as around a campfire). We know some species of animals can see ultraviolet light and portions of the infrared spectrum. NASA satellites use instruments that can "see" different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum to observe various processes in the Earth system, including the energy budget. The Sun is a very hot ball of plasma emitting large amounts of energy. By the time it reaches Earth, this energy amounts to about 340 Watts for every square meter of Earth on average. That's almost 6 60-Watt light bulbs for every square meter of Earth! With all of that energy shining down on the Earth, how does our planet maintain a comfortable balance that allows a complex ecosystem, including humans, to thrive? The key thing to remember is the Sun - hot though it is - is a tiny part of Earth's environment. Earth's energy budget is a critical but little understood aspect of our planetary home. NASA is actively studying this important Earth system feature, and sharing data and knowledge about it with the education community.

  17. Discover Earth: Earth's Energy Budget or Can You Spare a Sun?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Tom; Peters, Dale E.; Steeley, Jeanne

    1999-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction, and provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park.

  18. Recent sensor designs for Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerram, Paul; Morris, David

    2016-05-01

    The large number of missions associated with ESA's Copernicus program has necessitated several new image sensor designs for earth observation (or living planet) applications as each instrument needs to be highly optimized. Whilst the majority of these sensors have utilised CCD technology, the use of CMOS is starting to increase. New CCD designs and technology trends for hyperspectral applications such as Sentinel 4, Sentinel 5, Sentinel 5 precursor (TropOMI), Flex and 3MI are described. In these the sensor design has been optimized to provide highest possible signal levels with lowest possible noise in combination with higher frame rates and reduced image smear. CMOS sensors for MTG (Meteosat Third Generation) and METImage are then described. Both use extremely large pixels, up to 250μm square, at high line rates. Radiation test data and key performance measurements are shown for MTG and for a test device that has been made for METImage. Finally, newer developments including back-illumination and means for achieving a TDI function in standard-processed CMOS are briefly described.

  19. Earth Observing Satellite Orbit Design Via Particle Swarm Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Earth Observing Satellite Orbit Design Via Particle Swarm Optimization Sharon Vtipil ∗ and John G. Warner ∗ US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington...DC, 20375, United States Designing the orbit of an Earth observing satellite is generally tedious work. Typically, a large number of numerical...orbit parameters. This methodology only pertains to a single satellite in a circular orbit. I. Introduction Designing the orbit of an Earth observing

  20. Axial focusing of energy from a hypervelocity impact on earth

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, M.B.; Chael, E.P.; Trucano, T.G.; Crawford, D.A.

    1994-12-01

    We have performed computational simulations to determine how energy from a large hypervelocity impact on the Earth`s surface would couple to its interior. Because of the first-order axial symmetry of both the impact energy source and the stress-wave velocity structure of the Earth, a disproportionate amount of energy is dissipated along the axis defined by the impact point and its antipode (point opposite the impact). For a symmetric and homogeneous Earth model, all the impact energy that is radiated as seismic waves into the Earth at a given takeoff angle (ray parameter), independent of azimuthal direction, is refocused (minus attenuation) on the axis of symmetry, regardless of the number of reflections and refractions it has experienced. Material on or near the axis of symmetry experiences more strain cycles with much greater amplitude than elsewhere, and therefore experiences more irreversible heating. The focusing is most intense in the upper mantle, within the asthenosphere, where seismic energy is most effectively converted to heat. For a sufficiently energetic impact, this mechanism might generate enough local heating to create an isostatic instability leading to uplift, possibly resulting in rifting, volcanism, or other rearrangement of the interior dynamics of the planet. These simulations demonstrate how hypervelocity impact energy can be transported to the Earth`s interior, supporting the possibility of a causal link between large impacts on Earth and major internally-driven geophysical processes.

  1. Alternatives to Rare Earth Permanent Magnets for Energy Harvesting Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazdozian, Helena; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    Direct-drive permanent magnet generators (DDPMGs) offer increased reliability and efficiency over the more commonly used geared doubly-fed induction generator, yet are only employed in less than 1 percent of utility scale wind turbines in the U.S. One major barrier to increased deployment of DDPMGs in the U.S. wind industry is NdFeB permanent magnets (PMs), which contain critical rare earth elements Nd and Dy. To allow for the use of rare earth free PMs, the magnetic loading, defined as the average magnetic flux density over the rotor surface, must be maintained. Halbach cylinders are employed in 3.5kW Halbach PMGs (HPMGs) of varying slot-to-pole ratio to concentrate the magnetic flux output by a lower energy density PM over the rotor surface. We found that for high pole and slot number, the increase in magnetic loading is sufficient to allow for the use of strontium iron oxide hard ferrite PMs and achieved rated performance. Joule losses in the stator windings were found to increase for the hard ferrite PMs due to increased inductance in the stator windings. However, for scaling of the HPMG designs to 3MW, rated performance and high efficiency were achieved, demonstrating the potential for elimination for rare earth PMs in commercial scale wind turbines. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1069283 and a Barbara and James Palmer Endowment at Iowa State University.

  2. NASA Now: Earth Science Week: Exploring Energy

    NASA Video Gallery

    During this installment of NASA Now, you’ll see some of the ways NASA studies Earth. You’ll meet Eric Brown de Colstoun, a physical scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbel...

  3. Energy Efficient Cryogenics on Earth and in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for energy-efficient cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  4. Earth radiation budget measurement from a spinning satellite: Conceptual design of detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Suomi, V. E.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design, sensor characteristics, sensor performance and accuracy, and spacecraft and orbital requirements for a spinning wide-field-of-view earth energy budget detector were investigated. The scientific requirements for measurement of the earth's radiative energy budget are presented. Other topics discussed include the observing system concept, solar constant radiometer design, plane flux wide FOV sensor design, fast active cavity theory, fast active cavity design and error analysis, thermopile detectors as an alternative, pre-flight and in-flight calibration plane, system error summary, and interface requirements.

  5. The water-energy nexus: an earth science perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Alley, William M.; Engle, Mark A.; McMahon, Peter B.; Bales, Jerad D.

    2015-01-01

    Relevant earth science issues analyzed and discussed herein include freshwater availability; water use; ecosystems health; assessment of saline water resources; assessment of fossil-fuel, uranium, and geothermal resources; subsurface injection of wastewater and carbon dioxide and related induced seismicity; climate change and its effect on water availability and energy production; byproducts and waste streams of energy development; emerging energy-development technologies; and energy for water treatment and delivery.

  6. Earth Science Week 2010 - Hurricane Energy

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA hurricane scientist Dr. Jeff Halverson explains how hurricanes draw energy from the ocean surface. The video also provides an example of a classroom activity that allows students to map the ch...

  7. Pennsylvania's Energy Curriculum for the Secondary Grades: Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    Two dozen energy-related earth science lessons comprise this guide for secondary school teachers. Intended to provide information about energy issues that exist in Pennsylvania and throughout the world, the activities cover topics such as coal mining, radioactivity, and the distribution of oil and gas in Pennsylvania. Lessons include objectives,…

  8. Energy Transfer in the Earth-Sun System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Kamide, Y.

    2007-02-01

    Conference on Earth-Sun System Exploration: Energy Transfer; Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA, 16-20 January 2006; The goal of this conference, which was supported by several agencies and organizations, was to provide a forum for physicists engaged in the Earth-Sun system as well as in laboratory experiments to discuss and exchange knowledge and ideas on physical processes involving energy transfer. The motivation of the conference stemmed from the following realization: Space assets form an important fabric of our society, performing functions such as television broadcasting, cell- phone communication, navigation, and remote monitoring of tropospheric weather. There is increasing awareness of how much our daily activities can be adversely affected by space disturbances stretching all the way back to the Sun. In some of these energetic phenomena, energy in various forms can propagate long distances from the solar surface to the interplanetary medium and eventually to the Earth's immediate space environment, namely, its magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. In addition, transformation of energy can take place in these space disturbances, allowing charged-particle energy to be transformed to electromagnetic energy or vice versa. In- depth understanding of energy transformation and transmission in the Earth-Sun system will foster the identification of physical processes responsible for space disturbances and the prediction of their occurrences and effects. Participants came from 15 countries.

  9. Directed energy active illumination for near-Earth object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jordan; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Cook, Brianna

    2014-09-01

    On 15 February 2013, a previously unknown ~20 m asteroid struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia, releasing kinetic energy equivalent to ~570 kt TNT. Detecting objects like the Chelyabinsk impactor that are orbiting near Earth is a difficult task, in part because such objects spend much of their own orbits in the direction of the Sun when viewed from Earth. Efforts aimed at protecting Earth from future impacts will rely heavily on continued discovery. Ground-based optical observatory networks and Earth-orbiting spacecraft with infrared sensors have dramatically increased the pace of discovery. Still, less than 5% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) >=100 m/~100 Mt TNT have been identified, and the proportion of known objects decreases rapidly for smaller sizes. Low emissivity of some objects also makes detection by passive sensors difficult. A proposed orbiting laser phased array directed energy system could be used for active illumination of NEOs, enhancing discovery particularly for smaller and lower emissivity objects. Laser fiber amplifiers emit very narrow-band energy, simplifying detection. Results of simulated illumination scenarios are presented based on an orbiting emitter array with specified characteristics. Simulations indicate that return signals from small and low emissivity objects is strong enough to detect. The possibility for both directed and full sky blind surveys is discussed, and the resulting diameter and mass limits for objects in different observational scenarios. The ability to determine both position and speed of detected objects is also discussed.

  10. An Earth-Moon System Trajectory Design Reference Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Bosanac, Natasha; Guzzetti, Davide; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    As demonstrated by ongoing concept designs and the recent ARTEMIS mission, there is, currently, significant interest in exploiting three-body dynamics in the design of trajectories for both robotic and human missions within the Earth-Moon system. The concept of an interactive and 'dynamic' catalog of potential solutions in the Earth-Moon system is explored within this paper and analyzed as a framework to guide trajectory design. Characterizing and compiling periodic and quasi-periodic solutions that exist in the circular restricted three-body problem may offer faster and more efficient strategies for orbit design, while also delivering innovative mission design parameters for further examination.

  11. EarthCARE/CPR design results and PFM development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Kenta; Tomita, Eiichi; Nakatsuka, Hirotaka; Aida, Yoshihisa; Seki, Yoshihiro; Okada, Kazuyuki; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Tomiyama, Nobuhiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Ohno, Yuichi; Horie, Hiroaki; Sato, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) is a Japanese-European collaborative earth observation satellite mission aimed to deepen understanding of the interaction process between clouds and aerosols and their effects on the Earth's radiation. The outcome of this mission is expected to improve the accuracy of global climate change prediction. As one of instruments for EarthCARE, the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) is the world's first space-borne Doppler cloud radar jointly developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). In Japan, the critical design review of the CPR has been completed in 2013, and CPR proto-flight model was manufactured and integrated until summer in 2015. Finally, the proto-flight test have been just started. This paper describes the design results and current status of CPR proto-flight test.

  12. Earth's Changing Energy and Water Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, K. E.

    2008-05-01

    A new assessment of the flows of energy through the climate system will be presented. It features an imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere owing to an enhanced greenhouse effect that produces global warming. Most of the surplus energy trapped increases ocean heat content. Large upwards surface thermal radiation is offset by back radiation from greenhouse gases and clouds in the atmosphere. At the surface, the net losses of energy are greatest through evapotranspiration, followed closely by net radiation, while sensible heat losses are much smaller. This highlights the vital role of the hydrological cycle and why direct changes in the water cycle are a consequence of climate change. Nonetheless, net changes in surface evaporation are fairly modest and a much larger percentage change occurs in the water-holding capacity as atmospheric temperatures increase (4% per °F). A consequence is increased water vapor in the atmosphere which feeds all storms and thus leads to more intense precipitation; increased water vapor, heavier rains and stronger storms are already observed to be happening. However, the disparity between modestly enhanced evaporation and heavier rains means decreases in frequency of precipitation and enhanced droughts. With more precipitation per unit of upward motion in the atmosphere, the atmospheric circulation weakens, causing monsoons to falter. Observed changes in Atlantic hurricanes will be used to illustrate some of these aspects. Understanding these profound consequences of climate change is especially important for water managers. In reality that includes everyone.

  13. The Earth System's Missing Energy and Land Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Wang, H.; Duan, W.

    2013-05-01

    The energy content of the Earth system is determined by the balance or imbalance between the incoming energy from solar radiation and the outgoing energy of terrestrial long wavelength radiation. Change in the Earth system energy budget is the ultimate cause of global climate change. Satellite data show that there is a small yet persistent radiation imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere such that Earth has been steadily accumulating energy, consistent with the theory of greenhouse effect. It is commonly believed [IPCC, 2001; 2007] that up to 94% of the energy trapped by anthropogenic greenhouse gases is absorbed by the upper several hundred meter thick layer of global oceans, with the remaining to accomplish ice melting, atmosphere heating, and land warming, etc. However, the recent measurements from ocean monitoring system indicated that the rate of oceanic heat uptake has not kept pace with the greenhouse heat trapping rate over the past years [Trenberth and Fasullo, Science, 328: 316-317, 2010]. An increasing amount of energy added to the earth system has become unaccounted for, or is missing. A recent study [Loeb et al., Nature Geoscience, 5:110-113, 2012] suggests that the missing energy may be located in the deep ocean down to 1,800 m. Here we show that at least part of the missing energy can be alternatively explained by the land mass warming. We argue that the global continents alone should have a share greater than 10% of the global warming energy. Although the global lands reflect solar energy at a higher rate, they use less energy for evaporation than do the oceans. Taken into accounts the terrestrial/oceanic differences in albedo (34% vs. 28%) and latent heat (27% vs. 58% of net solar radiation at the surface), the radiative energy available per unit surface area for storage or other internal processes is more abundant on land than on ocean. Despite that the lands cover only about 29% of the globe, the portion of global warming energy stored in the lands

  14. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Enhancing opportunities for learning using an Earth systems science framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.; Divers, M. T.; Crowley, K. J.; Povis, K.; Scardina, A.; Steiner, M.

    2012-12-01

    We describe a newly funded collaborative NSF initiative, ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network), that brings together the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (CMNH) with the Learning Science and Geoscience research strengths at the University of Pittsburgh. ENERGY-NET aims to create rich opportunities for participatory learning and public education in the arena of energy, the environment, and society using an Earth systems science framework. We build upon a long-established teen docent program at CMNH and to form Geoscience Squads comprised of underserved teens. Together, the ENERGY-NET team, including museum staff, experts in informal learning sciences, and geoscientists spanning career stage (undergraduates, graduate students, faculty) provides inquiry-based learning experiences guided by Earth systems science principles. Together, the team works with Geoscience Squads to design "Exploration Stations" for use with CMNH visitors that employ an Earth systems science framework to explore the intersecting lenses of energy, the environment, and society. The goals of ENERGY-NET are to: 1) Develop a rich set of experiential learning activities to enhance public knowledge about the complex dynamics between Energy, Environment, and Society for demonstration at CMNH; 2) Expand diversity in the geosciences workforce by mentoring underrepresented teens, providing authentic learning experiences in earth systems science and life skills, and providing networking opportunities with geoscientists; and 3) Institutionalize ENERGY-NET collaborations among geosciences expert, learning researchers, and museum staff to yield long-term improvements in public geoscience education and geoscience workforce recruiting.

  15. Recent Changes in Earth's Energy Budget As Observed By CERES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    A central objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is to produce a long-term climate data record of Earth's radiation budget at the top-of-atmosphere, within-atmosphere and surface together with coincident cloud, aerosol and surface properties. CERES relies on a number of data sources, including broadband CERES radiometers on Terra, Aqua, and Suomi-NPP, high-resolution spectral imagers (MODIS and VIIRS), geostationary visible/infrared imagers, meteorological, aerosol and ozone assimilation data, and snow/sea-ice maps based on microwave radiometer data. The many input data sets are integrated and cross-calibrated to provide a consistent climate data record that accurately captures variations in Earth's radiation budget and associated cloud, aerosol and surface properties over a range of time and space scales. The CERES datasets are primarily used for climate model evaluation, process studies and climate monitoring. This presentation will review some of the ways in which the CERES record along with other datasets have been used to improve our understanding Earth's energy budget. At the top-of-atmosphere, we will show how Earth's energy imbalance, a critical indictor of climate change, has varied during the past 15 years relative to what is observed by in-situ observations of ocean heat content by the Argo observing system. We will use these results to place the so-called global warming hiatus into a larger context that takes Earth's energy budget into account. We will also discuss how recent advances in surface radiation budget estimation by the CERES group is reshaping the debate on why the surface energy budget cannot be closed to better than 15 Wm-2 using state-of-the-art observations. Finally, we will highlight the dramatic changes that have been observed by CERES over the Arctic Ocean, and discuss some of the yet unresolved observational challenges that limit our ability document change in this unique part of the planet.

  16. Solar power satellites: our next generation of satellites will deliver the sun's energy to Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flournoy, Don M.

    2009-12-01

    The paper addresses the means for gathering energy from sunlight in space and transmitting it to Earth via Solar Power Satellites. The motivating factor is that the output of our sun is the largest potential energy source available, with the capability of providing inexhaustible quantities of clean electrical energy to every location on Earth. The challenge is that considerable financial, intellectual and diplomatic resources must be focused on designing and implementing new types of energy infrastructures in space and on the ground. These include: 1) next-generation space platforms, arrays, and power transmission systems; 2) more flexible and powerful launch vehicles for delivering materials to space; 3) specialized receivers, converters and storage systems on earth, and the in-orbit position allocations, spectrum and software that make these systems work together efficiently and safely.

  17. Gravitational potential energy of the earth - A spherical harmonic approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    A spherical harmonic equation for the gravitational potential energy of the earth is derived for an arbitrary density distribution by conceptually bringing in mass-elements from infinity and building up the earth shell upon spherical shell. The zeroth degree term in the spherical harmonic expansion agrees with the usual expression for the energy of a radial density distribution. The second degree terms give a maximum nonhydrostatic energy in the crust and mantle of -2.77 x 10 to the 29th ergs, an order of magnitude below McKenzie's (1966) estimate. McKenzie's result stems from mathematical error. Our figure is almost identical with Kaula's (1963) estimate of the minimum shear strain energy in the mantle, a not unexpected result on the basis of the virial theorem. If the earth is assumed to be a homogeneous viscous oblate spheroid relaxing to an equilibrium shape, then a lower limit to the mantle viscosity of 1.3 x 10 to the 20th P is found by assuming that the total geothermal flux is due to viscous dissipation of energy. This number is almost six orders of magnitude below MacDonald's (1966) estimate of the viscosity and removes his objection to convection. If the nonequilibrium figure is dynamically maintained by the earth acting as a heat engine at 1% efficiency, then the viscosity is 10 to the 22nd P, a number preferred by Cathles (1975) and Peltier and Andrew (1976) as the viscosity of the mantle.

  18. Designing to Save Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santamaria, Joseph W.

    1977-01-01

    While tripling the campus size of Alvin Community College in Texas, architects and engineers cut back on nonessential lighting, recaptured waste heat, insulated everything possible, and let energy considerations dictate the size and shape of the building. (Author/MLF)

  19. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Research for Energy Management. Part 1; Overview of Energy Issues and an Assessment of the Potential for Application of NASA Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, E.; Engel-Cox, J.

    2005-01-01

    Effective management of energy resources is critical for the U.S. economy, the environment, and, more broadly, for sustainable development and alleviating poverty worldwide. The scope of energy management is broad, ranging from energy production and end use to emissions monitoring and mitigation and long-term planning. Given the extensive NASA Earth science research on energy and related weather and climate-related parameters, and rapidly advancing energy technologies and applications, there is great potential for increased application of NASA Earth science research to selected energy management issues and decision support tools. The NASA Energy Management Program Element is already involved in a number of projects applying NASA Earth science research to energy management issues, with a focus on solar and wind renewable energy and developing interests in energy modeling, short-term load forecasting, energy efficient building design, and biomass production.

  20. Gamma rays made on Earth have unexpectedly high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Johanna

    2011-01-15

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are the source of the highest-energy nonanthropogenic photons produced on Earth. Associated with thunder-storms - and in fact, with individual lightning discharges - they are presumed to be the bremsstrahlung produced when relativistic electrons, accelerated by the storms' strong electric fields, collide with air molecules some 10-20 km above sea level. The TGFs last up to a few milliseconds and contain photons with energies on the order of MeV.

  1. Solar energy system case study: Telex Communications, Blue Earth, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, M.G.

    1984-09-01

    A study is made of a solar energy system for space heating a 97,000-square-foot office, factory, and warehouse building owned by Telex Communications, Inc. in Blue Earth, Minnesota. The solar system has 11,520 square feet of ground-oriented flat-plate collectors and a 20,000-gallon storage tank inside the building. Freeze protection is by drainback. Solar heated water from the storage tank circulates around the clock throughout the heating season to heating coils in the ducts. The system achieves its design solar fraction, is efficient, and generally reliable, but not cost-effective. Performance data for the solar system was collected by the National Solar Data Network for three heating seasons from 1978 to 1981. Because of a freeze-up of the collector array in December 1978, the solar system was only partially operational in the 1978 to 1979 heating season. The data in this report were collected in the 1979 to 1980 and 1980 to 1981 heating seasons.

  2. Gravitational potential energy of the earth: A spherical harmonic approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    A spherical harmonic equation for the gravitational potential energy of the earth is derived for an arbitrary density distribution by conceptually bringing in mass-elements from infinity and building up the earth shell upon spherical shell. The zeroth degree term in the spherical harmonic equation agrees with the usual expression for the energy of a radial density distribution. The second degree terms give a maximum nonhydrostatic energy in the mantle and crust of -2.77 x 10 to the twenty-ninth power ergs, an order of magnitude. If the earth is assumed to be a homogeneous viscous oblate spheroid relaxing to an equilibrium shape, then a lower limit to the mantle viscosity of 1.3 x 10 to the twentieth power poises is found by assuming the total geothermal flux is due to viscous dissipation. If the nonequilibrium figure is dynamically maintained by the earth acting as a heat engine at one per cent efficiency, then the viscosity is ten to the twenty second power poises, a number preferred by some as the viscosity of the mantle.

  3. Earth Science by Design: Teaching the Big Ideas in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, H.; McAuliffe, C.

    2007-12-01

    Developed by TERC and the American Geological Institute with funding from the National Science Foundation, Earth Science by Design (ESBD) is a year-long program of professional development for middle or high school teachers based on the Understanding by Design approach pioneered by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. ESBD is designed to help teachers: · Teach for deep and enduring understanding of the "big ideas" in Earth system science. · Use "backward design" to create curriculum units and lessons that are engaging, rigorous, and aligned with national, state, and local standards. · Design effective classroom assessments and rubrics. · Incorporate powerful web-based Earth science visualizations and satellite imagery into an Earth system science approach. ESBD has developed a complete professional development package for staff developers and geoscience educators, including: · The ESBD Handbook, which provides everything you need to offer the program, including detailed workshop lesson plans. · The ESBD Web Site, where teachers can develop curriculum units online (www.esbd.org). · Online resources for Earth Science teaching and learning. · PowerPoint presentations for workshops and courses. · DVD of teacher reflections on their implementation experiences. In this session we will review the resources which ESBD makes available for geoscience educators: ·sample Earth science units produced by teachers in the program, ·field test results, ·the effect of the program on teacher practice, ·and how geoscience educators can get involved with ESBD. ESBD has been field-tested by staff developers in eight sites nationwide and is being adapted by college and university geoscience educators for use with pre-service teachers. In this session we will report on the results of field testing and on an experimental study of ESBD and other professional development approaches funded by the US Department of Education, Institute of Educational Sciences.

  4. Solar-powered Stirling engines - Energy converters on earth and in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinwaechter, H.; Kleinwaechter, J.

    The development of the crankshaft Stirling engine has resulted in a machine suitable for energy conversion on earth and in space, using solar energy. The principle of the Stirling engine is discussed, the realization of the engine in a variety of applications is shown. The advantages of the free-piston design of the Stirling engine are addressed, and the engine's use in a receiver antenna for direct reception from satellites is considered.

  5. Architecture Earth-Sheltered Buildings. Design Manual 1.4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    Bioclimat kpproach to Architectural Regionalismj Princeton, New Jersey, Princetk .niversity Press, 1963. " 7) 3. Givoni, B., Man, Climate and...AD-A 140 831 NAVFAC DM-1.4MARCH 1984 T OF ARCHITECTURE EARTH-SHELTERED BUILDINGS DESIGN MANUAL 1.4 Reproduced From Best Available Copy ~9J)O,3...design are included for the following disciplines: Planniing, Landscape Design, Life-Cycle Analysis, Architectural , Structural, Mechanical (criteria

  6. Earth's Energy Balance From Space: A 35 Year Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, B. A.

    2005-12-01

    The Earth's radiative energy balance is the most fundamental driver of long term climate. Changes of 1% or less are sufficient to cause major climate change. Earth orbiting satellites provide the optimal platform to observe this energy balance, and efforts began with Nimbus 3 in 1969. Prior to satellite missions, the Earths reflected and emitted radiation were estimated using earthshine from the moon, or by a radiative transfer calculation using surface observations of aerosol, cloud, temperature, humidity, and ozone. Observing the earths radiation balance from space is an 8-dimensional sampling problem, with a requirement for extremely high accuracy and stability to directly observe climate signals. The challenge is especially severe for decadal changes in aerosols and clouds. A perspective is given on the dramatic progress that has occurred in measuring radiation in space, from Nimbus 3 in 1969 to current CERES global and GERB geostationary observations. A vision for future advances in these observations as part of the global climate observing system is also given, including new ways to use the data in unscrambling the effects of aerosol indirect effects as well as cloud feedback in the climate system. These last two issues provide extraordinary challenges in climate forcing and climate sensitivity respectively.

  7. Spacecraft design project: Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroney, Dave; Lashbrook, Dave; Mckibben, Barry; Gardener, Nigel; Rivers, Thane; Nottingham, Greg; Golden, Bill; Barfield, Bill; Bruening, Joe; Wood, Dave

    1991-01-01

    This is the final product of the spacecraft design project completed to fulfill the academic requirements of the Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course (AE-4871) taught at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. The Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course is intended to provide students detailed design experience in selection and design of both satellite system and subsystem components, and their location and integration into a final spacecraft configuration. The design team pursued a design to support a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communications system (GLOBALSTAR) currently under development by the Loral Cellular Systems Corporation. Each of the 14 team members was assigned both primary and secondary duties in program management or system design. Hardware selection, spacecraft component design, analysis, and integration were accomplished within the constraints imposed by the 11 week academic schedule and the available design facilities.

  8. Electrical energy sources for organic synthesis on the early earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    It is pointed out that much of the contemporary origin-of-life research uses the original estimates of Miller and Urey (1959) for terrestrial energy dissipation by lightning and coronal discharges being equal to 2 x 10 to the 19th J/yr and 6 x 10 to the 19th J/yr, respectively. However, data from experiments that provide analogues to naturally-occurring lightning and coronal discharges indicate that lightning energy yields for organic synthesis (nmole/J) are about one order of magnitude higher than the coronal discharge yields. This suggests that, on early earth, organic production by lightning may have dominated that due to coronal emission. New values are recommended for lightning and coronal discharge dissipation rates on the early earth, 1 x 10 to the 18th J/yr and 5 x 10 to the 17th J/yr, respectively.

  9. Exemplary Learning Modules in the ESSE Design Guide for Undergraduate Earth System Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aron, J. L.; Ruzek, M.

    2006-12-01

    Supported by NASA through the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the cooperative university- based Earth System Science Education (ESSE) program fosters the development of undergraduate curriculum and courses designed to understand Earth as a system. The ESSE community has produced the web-based Design Guide for Undergraduate Earth System Science Education as a living synthesis of the program. One section of the Design Guide contains exemplary learning modules with demonstrated value in courses that include new perspectives and new audiences underrepresented in the sciences. Two highlights are applications of earth system science to the urban environment and the adaptation of course material for the K- 12 curriculum. These learning modules will be useful in existing courses and will provide ideas for future course development. Each module has a description that includes the rationale, the learning objectives, the target audience, types of activities supported, instructor's tips, evaluation procedures and other information to help faculty to make best use of the module. Vignettes of personal experiences with the learning modules and linkage to the Design Guide provide scientific, pedagogical and institutional context. The ESSE21 Evaluation Toolkit, packaged with the Design Guide, offers additional information about evaluation. The topics developed in the learning modules cover a broad range from the tropics to the poles to near-Earth space: urban land surface-atmosphere systems; carbon cycle; remote sensing; integrating earth system science and the urban environment; land use and land cover change; pollution protection of Earth systems; local energy balance at air/land and air/water interfaces; earth and space science; and polar remote sensing.

  10. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): An Earth Observing System Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Louis; Cooper, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation to examine the role of cloud/radiation feedback in the Earth's climate system. The CERES broadband scanning radiometers are an improved version of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) radiometers. The CERES instruments will fly on several National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites starting in 1998 and extending over at least 15 years. The CERES science investigations will provide data to extend the ERBE climate record of top-of-atmosphere shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes CERES will also combine simultaneous cloud property data derived using EOS narrowband imagers to provide a consistent set of cloud/radiation data, including SW and LW radiative fluxes at the surface and at several selected levels within the atmosphere. CERES data are expected to provide top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes with a factor of 2 to 3 less error than the ERBE data Estimates of radiative fluxes at the surface and especially within the atmosphere will be a much greater challenge but should also show significant improvements over current capabilities.

  11. Design of Landing PODS for Near Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, R. V.; Ball, J. M.; Pellz, L.

    2014-06-01

    Boeing has been developing design for a set of small landing PODS that could be deployed from a spacecraft bus orbiting a NEA to address the set of SKGs for investigation prior to crewed missions to Near Earth Asteroids or the moons of Mars.

  12. Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

  13. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy.

    PubMed

    Artemyev, A V; Agapitov, O V; Mourenas, D; Krasnoselskikh, V V; Mozer, F S

    2015-05-15

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave-particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity.

  14. Design of Scalable and Effective Earth Science Collaboration Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, M.; Ramachandran, R.; Kuo, K. S.; Lynnes, C.; Niamsuwan, N.; Chidambaram, C.

    2014-12-01

    Collaborative research is growing rapidly. Many tools including IDEs are now beginning to incorporate new collaborative features. Software engineering research has shown the effectiveness of collaborative programming and analysis. In particular, drastic reduction in software development time resulting in reduced cost has been highlighted. Recently, we have witnessed the rise of applications that allow users to share their content. Most of these applications scale such collaboration using cloud technologies. Earth science research needs to adopt collaboration technologies to reduce redundancy, cut cost, expand knowledgebase, and scale research experiments. To address these needs, we developed the Earth science collaboration workbench (CWB). CWB provides researchers with various collaboration features by augmenting their existing analysis tools to minimize learning curve. During the development of the CWB, we understood that Earth science collaboration tasks are varied and we concluded that it is not possible to design a tool that serves all collaboration purposes. We adopted a mix of synchronous and asynchronous sharing methods that can be used to perform collaboration across time and location dimensions. We have used cloud technology for scaling the collaboration. Cloud has been highly utilized and valuable tool for Earth science researchers. Among other usages, cloud is used for sharing research results, Earth science data, and virtual machine images; allowing CWB to create and maintain research environments and networks to enhance collaboration between researchers. Furthermore, collaborative versioning tool, Git, is integrated into CWB for versioning of science artifacts. In this paper, we present our experience in designing and implementing the CWB. We will also discuss the integration of collaborative code development use cases for data search and discovery using NASA DAAC and simulation of satellite observations using NASA Earth Observing System Simulation

  15. Impact Test and Simulation of Energy Absorbing Concepts for Earth Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Marcus D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamic finite element simulations have been performed to aid in the design of an energy absorbing concept for a highly reliable passive Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) that will directly impact the Earth without a parachute. EEV's are designed to return materials from asteroids, comets, or planets for laboratory analysis on Earth. The EEV concept uses an energy absorbing cellular structure designed to contain and limit the acceleration of space exploration samples during Earth impact. The spherical shaped cellular structure is composed of solid hexagonal and pentagonal foam-filled cells with hybrid graphite- epoxy/Kevlar cell walls. Space samples fit inside a smaller sphere at the center of the EEV's cellular structure. Comparisons of analytical predictions using MSC,Dytran with test results obtained from impact tests performed at NASA Langley Research Center were made for three impact velocities ranging from 32 to 40 m/s. Acceleration and deformation results compared well with the test results. These finite element models will be useful for parametric studies of off-nominal impact conditions.

  16. Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 5: Earth storable design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis and parametric design effort was conducted under the earth-storable phase of the program. Passive Acquisition/expulsion system concepts were evaluated for a reusable Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) application. The passive surface tension technique for providing gas free liquid on demand was superior to other propellant acquisition methods. Systems using fine mesh screens can provide the requisite stability and satisfy OMS mission requirements. Both fine mesh screen liner and trap systems were given detailed consideration in the parametric design, and trap systems were selected for this particular application. These systems are compatible with the 100- to 500-manned mission reuse requirements.

  17. Time and Energy, Exploring Trajectory Options Between Nodes in Earth-Moon Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Roland; Condon, Gerald; Williams, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) was released by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) in September of 2011. It describes mission scenarios that begin with the International Space Station and utilize it to demonstrate necessary technologies and capabilities prior to deployment of systems into Earth-Moon space. Deployment of these systems is an intermediate step in preparation for more complex deep space missions to near-Earth asteroids and eventually Mars. In one of the scenarios described in the GER, "Asteroid Next", there are activities that occur in Earth-Moon space at one of the Earth-Moon Lagrange (libration) points. In this regard, the authors examine the possible role of an intermediate staging point in an effort to illuminate potential trajectory options for conducting missions in Earth-Moon space of increasing duration, ultimately leading to deep space missions. This paper will describe several options for transits between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the libration points, transits between libration points, and transits between the libration points and interplanetary trajectories. The solution space provided will be constrained by selected orbital mechanics design techniques and physical characteristics of hardware to be used in both crewed missions and uncrewed missions. The relationships between time and energy required to transfer hardware between these locations will provide a better understanding of the potential trade-offs mission planners could consider in the development of capabilities, individual missions, and mission series in the context of the ISECG GER.

  18. Energy Conservation through Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Robert C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a teaching unit designed to create in students an awareness of and an appreciation for the possibilities for energy conservation as they relate to architecture. It is noted that the unit can be adapted for use in many industrial programs and with different teaching methods due to the variety of activities that can be used. (Editor/TA)

  19. Earth Science Contexts for Teaching Physics. Part 2: Contexts Relating to the Teaching of Energy, Earth and Beyond and Radioactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris; Kennett, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Explains how physics teaching can be more relevant for elementary and secondary students by integrating physics and earth science content that students can relate to and understand. Identifies and explains Earth contexts that can be appropriately implemented into the physics curriculum such as energy resources and radioactivity. (Author/YDS)

  20. Inference of Climate Sensitivity from Analysis of Earth's Energy Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, Piers M.

    2016-06-01

    Recent attempts to diagnose equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) from changes in Earth's energy budget point toward values at the low end of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (AR5)'s likely range (1.5-4.5 K). These studies employ observations but still require an element of modeling to infer ECS. Their diagnosed effective ECS over the historical period of around 2 K holds up to scrutiny, but there is tentative evidence that this underestimates the true ECS from a doubling of carbon dioxide. Different choices of energy imbalance data explain most of the difference between published best estimates, and effective radiative forcing dominates the overall uncertainty. For decadal analyses the largest source of uncertainty comes from a poor understanding of the relationship between ECS and decadal feedback. Considerable progress could be made by diagnosing effective radiative forcing in models.

  1. Low energy neutral atoms in the earth's magnetosphere: Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.R.; McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Detection of low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) produced by the interaction of the Earth's geocorona with ambient space plasma has been proposed as a technique to obtain global information about the magnetosphere. Recent instrumentation advances reported previously and in these proceedings provide an opportunity for detecting LENAs in the energy range of <1 keV to {approximately}50 keV. In this paper, we present results from a numerical model which calculates line of sight LENA fluxes expected at a remote orbiting spacecraft for various magnetospheric plasma regimes. This model uses measured charge exchange cross sections, either of two neural hydrogen geocorona models, and various empirical modes of the ring current and plasma sheet to calculate the contribution to the integrated directional flux from each point along the line of sight of the instrument. We discuss implications for LENA imaging of the magnetosphere based on these simulations. 22 refs.

  2. Physical Limits of Solar Energy Conversion in the Earth System.

    PubMed

    Kleidon, Axel; Miller, Lee; Gans, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy provides by far the greatest potential for energy generation among all forms of renewable energy. Yet, just as for any form of energy conversion, it is subject to physical limits. Here we review the physical limits that determine how much energy can potentially be generated out of sunlight using a combination of thermodynamics and observed climatic variables. We first explain how the first and second law of thermodynamics constrain energy conversions and thereby the generation of renewable energy, and how this applies to the conversions of solar radiation within the Earth system. These limits are applied to the conversion of direct and diffuse solar radiation - which relates to concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as biomass production or any other photochemical conversion - as well as solar radiative heating, which generates atmospheric motion and thus relates to wind power technologies. When these conversion limits are applied to observed data sets of solar radiation at the land surface, it is estimated that direct concentrated solar power has a potential on land of up to 11.6 PW (1 PW=10(15) W), whereas photovoltaic power has a potential of up to 16.3 PW. Both biomass and wind power operate at much lower efficiencies, so their potentials of about 0.3 and 0.1 PW are much lower. These estimates are considerably lower than the incoming flux of solar radiation of 175 PW. When compared to a 2012 primary energy demand of 17 TW, the most direct uses of solar radiation, e.g., by CSP or PV, have thus by far the greatest potential to yield renewable energy requiring the least space to satisfy the human energy demand. Further conversions into solar-based fuels would be reduced by further losses which would lower these potentials. The substantially greater potential of solar-based renewable energy compared to other forms of renewable energy simply reflects much fewer and lower unavoidable conversion losses when solar

  3. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for Returning Entire Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Oleson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    In situ resource utilization (ISRU) in general, and asteroid mining in particular are ideas that have been around for a long time, and for good reason. It is clear that ultimately human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit will have to utilize the material resources available in space. Historically, the lack of sufficiently capable in-space transportation has been one of the key impediments to the harvesting of near-Earth asteroid resources. With the advent of high-power (or order 40 kW) solar electric propulsion systems, that impediment is being removed. High-power solar electric propulsion (SEP) would be enabling for the exploitation of asteroid resources. The design of a 40-kW end-of-life SEP system is presented that could rendezvous with, capture, and subsequently transport a 1,000-metric-ton near-Earth asteroid back to cislunar space. The conceptual spacecraft design was developed by the Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team at the Glenn Research Center in collaboration with the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) team assembled to investigate the feasibility of an asteroid retrieval mission. Returning such an object to cislunar space would enable astronaut crews to inspect, sample, dissect, and ultimately determine how to extract the desired materials from the asteroid. This process could jump-start the entire ISRU industry.

  4. Earth Science Markup Language: Transitioning From Design to Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Karen; Graves, Sara; Ramachandran, Rahul

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of the proposed Earth Science Markup Language (ESML) research is to transition from design to application. The resulting schema and prototype software will foster community acceptance for the "define once, use anywhere" concept central to ESML. Supporting goals include: 1. Refinement of the ESML schema and software libraries in cooperation with the user community. 2. Application of the ESML schema and software libraries to a variety of Earth science data sets and analysis tools. 3. Development of supporting prototype software for enhanced ease of use. 4. Cooperation with standards bodies in order to assure ESML is aligned with related metadata standards as appropriate. 5. Widespread publication of the ESML approach, schema, and software.

  5. Geothermal energy: clean power from the Earth's heat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Sass, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Societies in the 21st century require enormous amounts of energy to drive the machines of commerce and to sustain the lifestyles that many people have come to expect. Today, most of this energy is derived from oil, natural gas, and coal, supplemented by nuclear power. Local exceptions exist, but oil is by far the most common source of energy worldwide. Oil resources, however, are nonrenewable and concentrated in only a few places around the globe, creating uncertainty in long-term supply for many nations. At the time of the Middle East oil embargo of the 1970s, about a third of the United States oil supply was imported, mostly from that region. An interruption in the flow of this import disrupted nearly every citizen’s daily life, as well as the Nation’s economy. In response, the Federal Government launched substantial programs to accelerate development of means to increasingly harness “alternative energies”—primarily biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind. The new emphasis on simultaneously pursuing development of several sources of energy recognized the timeless wisdom found in the proverb of “not putting all eggs in one basket.” This book helps explain the role that geothermal resources can play in helping promote such diversity and in satisfying our Nation’s vast energy needs as we enter a new millennium. For centuries, people have enjoyed the benefits of geothermal energy available at hot springs, but it is only through technological advances made during the 20th century that we can tap this energy source in the subsurface and use it in a variety of ways, including the generation of electricity. Geothermal resources are simply exploitable concentrations of the Earth’s natural heat (thermal energy). The Earth is a bountiful source of thermal energy, continuously producing heat at depth, primarily by the decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes—principally of uranium, thorium, and potassium—that occur in small amounts in all rocks

  6. Earth Observations and the Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.; Marx, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Water-Energy-Food (W-E-F) Security Nexus has received a great deal of attention internationally since 2011 when the World Economic Forum identified it as one of the three largest threats to the global economy. Since then several international conferences and research initiatives have focused on the linkages and synergies between these sectors. In addition, it has been recognized that land and/or ecosystems must also be considered as part of this nexus to fully understand the linkages between the sectors. The Global Water System Project carried out a preliminary assessment of the role of basin management on W-E-F security in a number of transboundary basins to determine the factors that drive this nexus, to understand how W-E-F security is perceived; to evaluate the degree to which data are used in making decisions related to this nexus; and to identify opportunities for enhancing the role of Earth Observations in making decisions relevant to W-E-F security. This assessment which relied on expert surveys is supplemented by a more in-depth case study in the Lake Winnipeg Basin which includes the basin of the Red River of the North. This paper provides a summary of the results of this assessment with an emphasis on the actual and potential roles of Earth Observations. In particular, their possible role is discussed in both national and transboundary basin contexts. Recommendations arising from the study deal with data sets and information systems, the need for targets related to the W-E-F Nexus, and possible new approaches for enhancing W-E-F resilience through the use Earth Observations to better plan and monitor the movement of water on the landscape.

  7. Precise halo orbit design and optimal transfer to halo orbits from earth using differential evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Pranav; Ramanan, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    The mission design to a halo orbit around the libration points from Earth involves two important steps. In the first step, we design a halo orbit for a specified size and in the second step, we obtain an optimal transfer trajectory design to the halo orbit from an Earth parking orbit. Conventionally, the preliminary design for these steps is obtained using higher order analytical solution and the dynamical systems theory respectively. Refinements of the design are carried out using gradient based methods such as differential correction and pseudo arc length continuation method under the of circular restricted three body model. In this paper, alternative single level schemes are developed for both of these steps based on differential evolution, an evolutionary optimization technique. The differential evolution based scheme for halo orbit design produces precise halo orbit design avoiding the refinement steps. Further, in this approach, prior knowledge of higher order analytical solutions for the halo orbit design is not needed. The differential evolution based scheme for the transfer trajectory, identifies the precise location on the halo orbit that needs minimum energy for insertion and avoids exploration of multiple points. The need of a close guess is removed because the present scheme operates on a set of bounds for the unknowns. The constraint on the closest approach altitude from Earth is handled through objective function. The use of these schemes as the design and analysis tools within the of circular restricted three body model is demonstrated through case studies for missions to the first libration point of Sun-Earth system.

  8. Conceptual radiometer design studies for Earth observations from low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual radiometer design study was performed to determine the optimum design approach for spaceborne radiometers in low Earth orbit. Radiometric system configurations which included total power radiometers, unbalanced Dicke radiometers, and balanced Dicke, or as known as noise injection, radiometers were studied. Radiometer receiver configurations which were analyzed included the direct detection radiometer receiver, the double sideband homodyne radiometer receiver, and the single sideband heterodyne radiometer receiver. Radiometer system performance was also studied. This included radiometric sensitivity analysis of the three different radiometer system configurations studied. Both external and internal calibration techniques were analyzed. An accuracy analysis with and without mismatch losses was performed. It was determined that the balanced Dicke radiometer system configuration with direct detection receivers and external calibrations was optimum where frequent calibration such as once per minute were not feasible.

  9. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for Space Station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

  10. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for space station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

  11. Designing Medical Support for a Near-Earth Asteroid Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, S. D.; Charles, J. B.; Kundrot, C. E.; Barr, Y. R.; Barsten, K. N.; Chin, D. A.; Kerstman, E. L.; Otto, C.

    2011-01-01

    This panel will discuss the design of medical support for a mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) from a variety of perspectives. The panelists will discuss the proposed parameters for a NEA mission, the NEA medical condition list, recommendations from the NASA telemedicine workshop, an overview of the Exploration Medical System Demonstration planned for the International Space Station, use of predictive models for mission planning, and mission-related concerns for behavioral health and performance. This panel is intended to make the audience aware of the multitude of factors influencing medical support during a NEA mission.

  12. Earth-to-Moon low energy transfers targeting L1 hyperbolic transit orbits.

    PubMed

    Topputo, Francesco; Vasile, Massimiliano; Bernelli-Zazzera, Franco

    2005-12-01

    In the frame of the lunar exploration, numerous future space missions will require maximization of payload mass, and simultaneously achieving reasonable transfer times. To fulfill this request, low energy non-Keplerian orbits could be used to reach the Moon instead of high energetic transfers. The low energy solutions can be separated into two main categories depending on the nature of the trajectory approaching the Moon: low energy transit orbits that approach the Moon from the interior equilibrium point L(1) and weak stability boundary transfers that reach the Moon after passing through L(2). This paper proposes an alternative way to exploit the opportunities offered by L(1) transit orbits for the design of Earth-Moon transfers. First, in a neighborhood of the L(1) point, the three-body dynamics is linearized and written in normal form; then the entire family of nonlinear transit orbits is obtained by selecting the appropriate nontrivial amplitudes associated with the hyperbolic part. The L(1)-Earth arc is close to a 5:2 resonant orbit with the Moon, whose perturbations cause the apogee to rise. In a second step, two selected low altitude parking orbits around the Earth and the Moon are linked with the transit orbit by means of two three-body Lambert arcs, solutions of two two-point boundary value problems. The resulting Earth-to-Moon trajectories prove to be very efficient in the Moon captured arc and save approximately 100 m/sec in Deltav cost when compared to the Hohmann transfer. Furthermore, such solutions demonstrate that Moon capture could be obtained in the frame of the Earth-Moon R3BP neglecting the presence of the Sun.

  13. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy

    PubMed Central

    Artemyev, A.V.; Agapitov, O.V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.V.; Mozer, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave–particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. PMID:25975615

  14. Education, energy, toilets, and Earth: The Operators' Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, R. B.; Haines-stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.

    2011-12-01

    Solid science shows the unsustainability of relying on fossil fuels for long-term future energy supply, with increasingly strong evidence that a measured shift to renewable sources will be economically beneficial while improving employment and national security, providing insurance against catastrophes, and more. Yet despite notable advances in renewable energy and related issues, the transition does not appear to be occurring at the economically optimal rate. Analogy may be useful. In biological evolution and business, successful innovation is met by competitors, but also by predators, parasites, and diseases. Trees must handle the competition, but also termites, bark beetles, fungal diseases, strangling vines, and more, while new software meets competitors plus viruses, worms, Trojan horses and other malware. By analogy, the emergence of a "denialsphere" as well as competitors may be a predictable response to the threat posed to business-as-usual by the success of the National Academies and the IPCC in defining the climate-energy problem with the best science, and the growing success of inventors and policy-makers in developing advantageous and increasingly cost-effective solutions. Real questions exist about the best way forward, but the discussion of the important issues is sometimes confused by arguments that are not especially forward-going. Success of beneficial innovations against such problems is not guaranteed but surely has occurred, with transitions as large as that to a low-carbon energy system-we did switch from chamber pots and night-soil haulers to modern sanitation and clean water, for example. Analogy suggests that education and outreach are integral in such a transition, not a job to be completed but a process to be continued. Our attempt to contribute to this large effort, the NSF-supported Earth: The Operators' Manual, emphasizes diverse, interlocking approaches to show the large benefits that are ultimately available, relying on assessed

  15. Systems and Methods for Providing Energy to Support Missions in Near Earth Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system has a plurality of spacecraft in orbit around the earth for collecting energy from the Sun in space, using stimulated emission to configure that energy as well defined states of the optical field and delivering that energy efficiently throughout the region of space surrounding Earth.

  16. Advanced Energy Conversion Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; Phillips, Dane J.; Laycock, Rustin L.; ONeill, Mark; Henley, Mark W.; Fork, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    system in a space solar power application. Near-term uses of this SLA-laser-SLA system may include terrestrial and space exploration in near Earth space. Later uses may include beamed power for bases or vehicles on Mars. Strategies for developing energy infrastructures in space which utilize this technology are presented. This dual use system produces electrical energy efficiently from either coherent light, such as from a highly coherent laser, or from conventional solar illumination. This allows, for example, supplementing solar energy with energy provided by highly coherent laser illumination during periods of low solar illumination or no illumination. This reduces the need for batteries and alternate sources of power. The capability of using laser illumination in a lowest order Gaussian laser mode provides means for transmitting power optically with maximum efficiency and precision over the long distances characteristic of space. A preliminary receiving system similar to that described here, has been produced and tested under solar and laser illumination. A summary of results is given.

  17. Problems of cosmic laser energy supply to users on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Boris A.; Batenin, Vyatcheslav M.; Klimovskii, Ivan I.; Konev, Yuri B.

    1999-01-01

    The global cosmic systems may be used for solution of problems of the Earth supply with energy in the nearest future. Such system can involve several cosmic platforms on the polar or heliostationary orbits. The present paper deals with prospects for using 3 types of the high power IR lasers for the cosmic power systems. The first laser type is a laser optically pumped by thermal radiation; it uses an intermediate 'black body' radiator heated by solar radiation and offers substantial and important advantages. The second laser type is a CO2 laser with radio frequency pumping. We can use several 33 X 30000 W lasers in one module for approximately 1 MW cosmic laser system. The module of 320 X 320 m2 solar cells is needed for such laser system energy supply. The third laser type is a CO2 gas-dynamic laser. The numerical studies of carbon dioxide laser that is pumped by solar-thermal heating were made, and the output laser power approximately 1 MW was calculated. The parameters studies were conducted for this laser conception.

  18. Creative Building Design for Innovative Earth Science Teaching and Outreach (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Earth Science departments can blend the physical “bricks and mortar” facility with programs and educational displays to create a facility that is a permanent outreach tool and a welcoming home for teaching and research. The new Frederick Albert Sutton building at the University of Utah is one of the first LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified Earth Science buildings in the country. Throughout the structure, creative architectural designs are combined with sustainability, artful geologic displays, and community partnerships. Distinctive features of the building include: 1) Unique, inviting geologic designs such as cross bedding pattern in the concrete foundation; “a river runs through it” (a pebble tile “stream” inside the entrance); “confluence” lobby with spectacular Eocene Green River fossil fish and plant walls; polished rock slabs; and many natural stone elements. All displays are also designed as teaching tools. 2) Student-generated, energy efficient, sustainable projects such as: solar tube lights, xeriscape & rock monoliths, rainwater collection, roof garden, pervious cement, and energy monitoring. 3) Reinforced concrete foundation for vibration-free analytical measurements, and exposed lab ceilings for duct work and infrastructure adaptability. The spectacular displays for this special project were made possible by new partnerships within the community. Companies participated with generous, in-kind donations (e.g., services, stone flooring and slabs, and landscape rocks). They received recognition in the building and in literature acknowledging donors. A beautiful built environment creates space that students, faculty, and staff are proud of. People feel good about coming to work, and they are happy about their surroundings. This makes a strong recruiting tool, with more productive and satisfied employees. Buildings with architectural interest and displays can showcase geology as art and science, while highlighting

  19. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  20. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  1. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  2. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  3. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  4. Exploring High-Energy Phenomena in Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailyan, B. G.; Chilingarian, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The electron acceleration downward during thunderstorms becomes possible after creation of the Lower Positive Charged Region below the main negative charged layer in the middle of the thundercloud. Varieties of particle detectors located at Aragats Space Environmental Center (3200 m above sea level|) are routinely register neutral and charged particle fluxes correlated with thunderstorms, so-called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs). Simultaneously the electric mills and lightning detectors are monitoring the near-surface electric field and lightning flashes. Study of TGEs provides unique information about particle acceleration and multiplication in the atmosphere during thunderstorms. Generation and propagation of large fluxes of electrons, positrons, gamma rays, and neutrons in the atmosphere and in near space are related to the development of thunderstorms and may be used for monitoring of dangerous consequences of extreme weather. Direct measurements of the intense particle fluxes at the Earth's surface may be used as well for understanding of intense radiation directed to space. Measured spatial and energetic characteristic of the Extensive cloud showers (initiated by runaway electrons) and precisely measured energy a spectrum of the TGE gamma rays and electrons allows to develop comprehensive model of high-energy phenomena in the lower atmosphere. However, only multivariate approach can provide necessary information for understanding high-energy phenomena in atmosphere and ionosphere. In addition to networks of particle detectors and field meters we plan to install lidar-based devices for remote estimation of the electric field in thundercloud; high frequency optical monitoring of lightnings and Transient luminous events (TLEs) and antennas for registering multi bandwidth radio emissions during thunderstorm.

  5. Energy Design Guides for Army Barracks: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Zhivov, A.; Herron, D.

    2008-08-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and NREL are developing target energy budgets and design guides to achieve 30% energy savings. This paper focuses the design guide for one type of barracks called unaccompanied enlisted personal housing.

  6. Streamlining the Design Tradespace for Earth Imaging Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nag, Sreeja; Hughes, Steven P.; Le Moigne, Jacqueline J.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite constellations and Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) architectures offer unique benefits to Earth observation scientists and unique challenges to cost estimators. The Cost and Risk (CR) module of the Tradespace Analysis Tool for Constellations (TAT-C) being developed by NASA Goddard seeks to address some of these challenges by providing a new approach to cost modeling, which aggregates existing Cost Estimating Relationships (CER) from respected sources, cost estimating best practices, and data from existing and proposed satellite designs. Cost estimation through this tool is approached from two perspectives: parametric cost estimating relationships and analogous cost estimation techniques. The dual approach utilized within the TAT-C CR module is intended to address prevailing concerns regarding early design stage cost estimates, and offer increased transparency and fidelity by offering two preliminary perspectives on mission cost. This work outlines the existing cost model, details assumptions built into the model, and explains what measures have been taken to address the particular challenges of constellation cost estimating. The risk estimation portion of the TAT-C CR module is still in development and will be presented in future work. The cost estimate produced by the CR module is not intended to be an exact mission valuation, but rather a comparative tool to assist in the exploration of the constellation design tradespace. Previous work has noted that estimating the cost of satellite constellations is difficult given that no comprehensive model for constellation cost estimation has yet been developed, and as such, quantitative assessment of multiple spacecraft missions has many remaining areas of uncertainty. By incorporating well-established CERs with preliminary approaches to approaching these uncertainties, the CR module offers more complete approach to constellation costing than has previously been available to mission architects or Earth

  7. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Sensors and Preflight Calibration Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Smith, G. Louis; Cooper, John E.; Kopia, Leonard P.; Lawrence, R. Wes; Thomas, Susan; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Crommelynck, Dominique A. H.

    1996-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft sensors are designed to measure broadband earth-reflected solar shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and earth-emitted longwave (5- > 100 microns) radiances at the top of the atmosphere as part of the Mission to Planet Earth program. The scanning thermistor bolometer sensors respond to radiances in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and total-wave (0.3- > 100 microns) spectral regions, as well as to radiances in the narrowband water vapor window (8-12 microns) region. 'ne sensors are designed to operate for a minimum of 5 years aboard the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System AM-1 spacecraft platforms that are scheduled for launches in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The flight sensors and the in-flight calibration systems will be calibrated in a vacuum ground facility using reference radiance sources, tied to the international temperature scale of 1990. The calibrations will be used to derive sensor gains, offsets, spectral responses, and point spread functions within and outside of the field of view. The shortwave, total-wave, and window ground calibration accuracy requirements (1 sigma) are +/-0.8, +/-0.6, and +/-0.3 W /sq m/sr, respectively, while the corresponding measurement precisions are +/-O.5% and +/-1.0% for the broadband longwave and shortwave radiances, respectively. The CERES sensors, in-flight calibration systems, and ground calibration instrumentation are described along with outlines of the preflight and in-flight calibration approaches.

  8. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, Part 5: Mars-to-Earth ballistic mission opportunities, 1992-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, Andrey; Cunniff, Ross

    1987-01-01

    This document contains graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions returning from Mars. Contours of Mars-departure energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Earth-arrival parameters are presented in arrival-date/launch-date space for all departure opportunities from 1992 through 2007. In addition, an extensive companion document (Part 2) is available; it contains Earth-Mars graphical data and explains mission design methods, using the graphical data as well as numerous equations relating various parameters. This is one of a planned series of mission design handbooks.

  9. Evaluating the design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with systen simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, L.; Ardanuy, P.; Hucek, R.; Abel, P.; Jacobowitz, H. ||

    1993-12-01

    A set of system simulations has been performed to evaluate candidate scanner designs for an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) of the late 1990s. Five different instruments are considered: (1) the Active Cavity Array (ACA), (2) the Clouds and Earth`s Radiant Energy System-Instrument (CERES-I), (3) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR), (4) the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Cross-Track Scanner (ERBE), and (5) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner (N7). Errors in instantaneous, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) satellite flux estimates are assumed to arise from two measurement problems: the sampling of space over a given geographic domain, and sampling in angle about a given spatial location. When angular sampling errors vanish due to the application of correct angular dependence models (ADMs) during inversion, the accuracy of each scanner design is determined by the instrument`s ability to map the TOA radiance field in a uniform manner. In this regard, the instruments containing a cross-track scanning component (CERES-I and ERBE) do best. As errors in ADMs are encountered, cross-track instruments incur angular sampling errors more rapidly than biaxial instruments (N7, ACA, and CSR) and eventually overtake the biaxial designs in their total error amounts. A latitude bias (north-south error gradient) in the ADM error of cross-track instruments also exists. This would be objectionable when ADM errors are systematic over large areas of the globe. For instantaneous errors, however, cross-track scanners outperform biaxial or conical scanners for 2.5 deg latitude x 2.5 deg longitude target areas, providing that the ADM error is less than or equal to 30%.

  10. Impact of decadal cloud variations on the Earth's energy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2016-12-01

    Feedbacks of clouds on climate change strongly influence the magnitude of global warming. Cloud feedbacks, in turn, depend on the spatial patterns of surface warming, which vary on decadal timescales. Therefore, the magnitude of the decadal cloud feedback could deviate from the long-term cloud feedback. Here we present climate model simulations to show that the global mean cloud feedback in response to decadal temperature fluctuations varies dramatically due to time variations in the spatial pattern of sea surface temperature. We find that cloud anomalies associated with these patterns significantly modify the Earth's energy budget. Specifically, the decadal cloud feedback between the 1980s and 2000s is substantially more negative than the long-term cloud feedback. This is a result of cooling in tropical regions where air descends, relative to warming in tropical ascent regions, which strengthens low-level atmospheric stability. Under these conditions, low-level cloud cover and its reflection of solar radiation increase, despite an increase in global mean surface temperature. These results suggest that sea surface temperature pattern-induced low cloud anomalies could have contributed to the period of reduced warming between 1998 and 2013, and offer a physical explanation of why climate sensitivities estimated from recently observed trends are probably biased low.

  11. Integrating energy expertise into building design

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M.R.; Stratton, R.C. ); Bailey, M.L. . Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Building Technologies)

    1990-08-01

    Most commercial buildings designed to today will use more energy to operate, and cost more to design and construct than necessary. Significant energy savings cold be achieved with little or not increase in first cost if energy-efficient design technologies were used. Research into integration of building systems indicates that by considering energy performance early in the design process, energy savings between 30% and 50% of current energy consumption rates are technically and economically feasible. However, most building design teams do not adequately consider the energy impacts of design decisions to achieve these savings. The US Department of Energy has initiated a project, led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to develop advanced computer-based technologies that will help designers take advantage of these large potential energy savings. The objective of this work is to develop automated, intelligent, energy design assistance that can be integrated into computer aided design systems of the future. This paper examines the need for this technology by identifying the impediments to energy-efficient design, identifies essential and desirable features of such systems, presents the concept under development in this effort, illustrates how energy expertise might be incorporated into design, and discusses the importance of an integrated approach. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Near-Earth object intercept trajectory design for planetary defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardaxis, George; Wie, Bong

    2014-08-01

    Tracking the orbit of asteroids and planning for asteroid missions have ceased to be a simple exercise, and become more of a necessity, as the number of identified potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroids increases. Several software tools such as Mystic, MALTO, Copernicus, SNAP, OTIS, and GMAT have been developed by NASA for spacecraft trajectory optimization and mission design. However, this paper further expands upon the development and validation of an Asteroid Mission Design Software Tool (AMiDST), through the use of approach and post-encounter orbital variations and analytic keyhole theory. Combining these new capabilities with that of a high-precision orbit propagator, this paper describes fictional mission trajectory design examples of using AMiDST as applied to a fictitious asteroid 2013 PDC-E. During the 2013 IAA Planetary Defense Conference, the asteroid 2013 PDC-E was used for an exercise where participants simulated the decision-making process for developing deflection and civil defense responses to a hypothetical asteroid threat.

  13. Optimal design of near-Earth asteroid sample-return trajectories in the Sun-Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shengmao; Zhu, Zhengfan; Peng, Chao; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Xiaolong; Gao, Yang

    2016-08-01

    In the 6th edition of the Chinese Space Trajectory Design Competition held in 2014, a near-Earth asteroid sample-return trajectory design problem was released, in which the motion of the spacecraft is modeled in multi-body dynamics, considering the gravitational forces of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is proposed that an electric-propulsion spacecraft initially parking in a circular 200-km-altitude low Earth orbit is expected to rendezvous with an asteroid and carry as much sample as possible back to the Earth in a 10-year time frame. The team from the Technology and Engineering Center for Space Utilization, Chinese Academy of Sciences has reported a solution with an asteroid sample mass of 328 tons, which is ranked first in the competition. In this article, we will present our design and optimization methods, primarily including overall analysis, target selection, escape from and capture by the Earth-Moon system, and optimization of impulsive and low-thrust trajectories that are modeled in multi-body dynamics. The orbital resonance concept and lunar gravity assists are considered key techniques employed for trajectory design. The reported solution, preliminarily revealing the feasibility of returning a hundreds-of-tons asteroid or asteroid sample, envisions future space missions relating to near-Earth asteroid exploration.

  14. Low-energy Earth-Moon transfers involving manifolds through isomorphic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontani, Mauro; Teofilatto, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Analysis and design of low-energy transfers to the Moon has been a subject of great interest for decades. Exterior and interior transfers, based on the transit through the regions where the collinear libration points are located, have been studied for a long time and some space missions have already taken advantage of the results of these studies. This paper is concerned with a geometrical approach for low-energy Earth-to-Moon mission analysis, based on isomorphic mapping. The isomorphic mapping of trajectories allows a visual, intuitive representation of periodic orbits and of the related invariant manifolds, which correspond to tubes that emanate from the curve associated with the periodic orbit. Two types of Earth-to-Moon missions are considered. The first mission is composed of the following arcs: (i) transfer trajectory from a circular low Earth orbit to the stable invariant manifold associated with the Lyapunov orbit at L1 (corresponding to a specified energy level) and (ii) transfer trajectory along the unstable manifold associated with the Lyapunov orbit at L1, with final injection in a periodic orbit around the Moon. The second mission is composed of the following arcs: (i) transfer trajectory from a circular low Earth orbit to the stable invariant manifold associated with the Lyapunov orbit at L1 (corresponding to a specified energy level) and (ii) transfer trajectory along the unstable manifold associated with the Lyapunov orbit at L1, with final injection in a capture (non-periodic) orbit around the Moon. In both cases three velocity impulses are needed to perform the transfer: the first at an unknown initial point along the low Earth orbit, the second at injection on the stable manifold, the third at injection in the final (periodic or capture) orbit. The final goal is in finding the optimization parameters, which are represented by the locations, directions, and magnitudes of the velocity impulses such that the overall delta-v of the transfer is

  15. Analytical Simulations of Energy-Absorbing Impact Spheres for a Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Marcus Dwight; Fasanella, Edwin L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamic finite element simulations were performed to aid in the design of an energy-absorbing impact sphere for a passive Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) that is a possible architecture for the Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. The MSR EEV concept uses an entry capsule and energy-absorbing impact sphere designed to contain and limit the acceleration of collected samples during Earth impact without a parachute. The spherical shaped impact sphere is composed of solid hexagonal and pentagonal foam-filled cells with hybrid composite, graphite-epoxy/Kevlar cell walls. Collected Martian samples will fit inside a smaller spherical sample container at the center of the EEV's cellular structure. Comparisons were made of analytical results obtained using MSC.Dytran with test results obtained from impact tests performed at NASA Langley Research Center for impact velocities from 30 to 40 m/s. Acceleration, velocity, and deformation results compared well with the test results. The correlated finite element model was then used for simulations of various off-nominal impact scenarios. Off-nominal simulations at an impact velocity of 40 m/s included a rotated cellular structure impact onto a flat surface, a cellular structure impact onto an angled surface, and a cellular structure impact onto the corner of a step.

  16. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  17. Design of an energy conservation building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The concepts in designing and predicting energy consumption in a low energy use building are summarized. The building will use less than 30,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr. of boarder energy. The building's primary energy conservation features include heavy concrete walls with external insulation, a highly insulated ceiling, and large amounts of glass for natural lighting. A solar collector air system is integrated into the south wall. Calculations for energy conservation features were performed using NASA's NECAP Energy Program.

  18. Enhanced solar energy options using earth-orbiting mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbreath, W. P.; Billman, K. W.; Bowen, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    A system of orbiting space reflectors is described, analyzed, and shown to economically provide nearly continuous insolation to preselected ground sites, producing benefits hitherto lacking in conventional solar farms and leading to large reductions in energy costs for such installations. Free-flying planar mirrors of about 1 sq km are shown to be optimum and can be made at under 10 g/sq m of surface, thus minimizing material needs and space transportation costs. Models are developed for both the design of such mirrors and for the analysis of expected ground insolation as a function of orbital parameters, time, and site location. Various applications (agricultural, solar-electric production, weather enhancement, etc.) are described.

  19. Energy-Conscious Design: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    There are many design features that can be used to achieve an energy-efficient building. Described are task lighting, unoccupied space shutoff, onsite well with heat pump, wide-band thermostats, and solar energy. (MLF)

  20. CEOS Contributions to Informing Energy Management and Policy Decision Making Using Space-Based Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckman, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the "space arm" for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. I discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  1. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Elevation Bearing Assembly Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Phillip L.; Miller, James B.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Rasmussen, Kent; Wheeler, Donald R.; Rana, Mauro; Peri, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) elevation scan bearings lubricated with Pennzane SHF X2000 and 2% lead naphthenate (PbNp) were life tested for a seven-year equivalent Low Earth Orbit (LEO) operation. The bearing life assembly was tested continuously at an accelerated and normal rate using the scanning patterns developed for the CERES Earth Observing System AM-1 mission. A post-life-test analysis was performed on the collected data, bearing wear, and lubricant behavior.

  2. 75 FR 34515 - American Energy Services, Inc., Dynacore Patent Litigation Trust, Earth Sciences, Inc., Empiric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION American Energy Services, Inc., Dynacore Patent Litigation Trust, Earth Sciences, Inc., Empiric... there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Earth Sciences,...

  3. Atmospheric radiative flux divergence from Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Louis G.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Crommelynk, D.; Rutan, David; Gupta, Shashi

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) is the computation of vertical profiles through the atmosphere of the divergence of radiation flux, with global coverage. This paper discusses the need for radiation divergence and presents some options for its inference from CERES measurements and other data from the Earth Observating System.

  4. Solar Sailing Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) Mission for Impacting/Deflecting Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong

    2005-01-01

    A solar sailing mission architecture, which requires a t least ten 160-m, 300-kg solar sail spacecraft with a characteristic acceleration of 0.5 mm/sqs, is proposed as a realistic near- term option for mitigating the threat posed by near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Its mission feasibility is demonstrated for a fictional asteroid mitigation problem created by AIAA. This problem assumes that a 200-m asteroid, designated 2004WR, was detected on July 4, 2004, and that the expected impact will occur on January 14, 2015. The solar sailing phase of the proposed mission for the AIAA asteroid mitigation problem is comprised of the initial cruise phase from 1 AU t o 0.25 AU (1.5 years), the cranking orbit phase (3.5 years), and the retrograde orbit phase (1 year) prior to impacting the target asteroid at its perihelion (0.75 AU from the sun) on January 1, 2012. The proposed mission will require at least ten kinetic energy interceptor (KEI) solar sail spacecraft. Each KEI sailcraft consists of a 160- m, 150-kg solar sail and a 150-kg microsatellite impactor. The impactor is to be separated from a large solar sail prior to impacting the 200-m target asteroid at its perihelion. Each 150-kg microsatellite impactor, with a relative impact velocity of at least 70 km/s, will cause a conservatively estimated AV of 0.3 cm/s in the trajectory of the 200-m target asteroid, due largely to the impulsive effect of material ejected from the newly-formed crater. The deflection caused by a single impactor will increase the Earth-miss-distance by 0.45Re (where Re denotes the Earth radius of 6,378 km). Therefore, at least ten KEI sailcraft will be required for consecutive impacts, but probably without causing fragmentation, to increase the total Earth-miss-distance by 4.5Re. This miss-distance increase of 29,000 km is outside of a typical uncertainty/error of about 10,000 km in predicting the Earth-miss- distance. A conventional Delta I1 2925 launch vehicle is capable of injecting at least two KEI

  5. Rocky super-Earths: variety in composition and energy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Solid exoplanets offer a unique opportunity for comparative planetology with the small solar system planets, and in particular with Earth. With more than 40 low-mass planets (with masses less than 10 earth-masses) with measured masses and radii, it is now possible to distinguish trends in the data. Although most of these planets have a substantial envelope that makes them closer in nature to Uranus and Neptune, there are about 10 low-mass exoplanets that are potentially rocky. Despite the uncertainties in the data (especially in the mass), it is becoming evident that there is variety in compositions expressed mostly in a wide range of Fe/Si ratios that may affect the interior dynamics and thermal evolution of these planets. In addition, numerous observing campaigns have targeted M stars to find super-Earths in the habitable zone, as this region is closer to the host star. It is well recognized that these planets may also be subjected to variable amounts of early and/or sustained tidal heating. This may in turn affect the mode of convection and outgassing of these planets. I will present results on the lessons learned from the super-Earth data and the implications of variable Fe/Si ratio and tidal heating for the dynamics of the interior using the model by [1] including a simple degassing model for water. [1] Tackley, P. J., M. Ammann, J. P. Brodholt, D. P. Dobson and D. Valencia (2013) Mantle dynamics in super-Earths: Post-perovskite rheology and self-regulation of viscosity, Icarus 225(1), 50-61

  6. Energy manager design for microgrids

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01

    On-site energy production, known as distributed energy resources (DER), offers consumers many benefits, such as bill savings and predictability, improved system efficiency, improved reliability, control over power quality, and in many cases, greener electricity. Additionally, DER systems can benefit electric utilities by reducing congestion on the grid, reducing the need for new generation and transmission capacity, and offering ancillary services such as voltage support and emergency demand response. Local aggregations of distributed energy resources (DER) that may include active control of on-site end-use energy devices can be called microgrids. Microgrids require control to ensure safe operation and to make dispatch decisions that achieve system objectives such as cost minimization, reliability, efficiency and emissions requirements, while abiding by system constraints and regulatory rules. This control is performed by an energy manager (EM). Preferably, an EM will achieve operation reasonably close to the attainable optimum, it will do this by means robust to deviations from expected conditions, and it will not itself incur insupportable capital or operation and maintenance costs. Also, microgrids can include supervision over end-uses, such as curtailing or rescheduling certain loads. By viewing a unified microgrid as a system of supply and demand, rather than simply a system of on-site generation devices, the benefits of integrated supply and demand control can be exploited, such as economic savings and improved system energy efficiency.

  7. Active Debris Removal mission design in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Th.; Pérot, E.; Desjean, M.-Ch.; Bitetti, L.

    2013-03-01

    Active Debris Removal (ADR) aims at removing large sized intact objects ― defunct satellites, rocket upper-stages ― from space crowded regions. Why? Because they constitute the main source of the long-term debris environment deterioration caused by possible future collisions with fragments and worse still with other intact but uncontrolled objects. In order to limit the growth of the orbital debris population in the future (referred to as the Kessler syndrome), it is now highly recommended to carry out such ADR missions, together with the mitigation measures already adopted by national agencies (such as postmission disposal). At the French Space Agency, CNES, and in the frame of advanced studies, the design of such an ADR mission in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is under evaluation. A two-step preliminary approach has been envisaged. First, a reconnaissance mission based on a small demonstrator (˜500 kg) rendezvousing with several targets (observation and in-flight qualification testing). Secondly, an ADR mission based on a larger vehicle (inherited from the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) concept) being able to capture and deorbit several preselected targets by attaching a propulsive kit to these targets. This paper presents a flight dynamics level tradeoff analysis between different vehicle and mission concepts as well as target disposal options. The delta-velocity, times, and masses required to transfer, rendezvous with targets and deorbit are assessed for some propelled systems and propellant less options. Total mass budgets are then derived for two end-to-end study cases corresponding to the reconnaissance and ADR missions mentioned above.

  8. Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…

  9. 50% Advanced Energy Design Guides: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Liu, B.; Wang, W.; Thornton, B.; Williams, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for the development of the 50% Energy Savings Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs), a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 in four building types: (1) Small to medium office buildings, (2) K-12 school buildings, (3) Medium to big box retail buildings, (4) Large hospital buildings.

  10. Preliminary Design Considerations for Access and Operations in Earth-Moon L1/L2 Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Pavlak, Thomas A.; Haapala, Amanda F.; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2013-01-01

    Within the context of manned spaceflight activities, Earth-Moon libration point orbits could support lunar surface operations and serve as staging areas for future missions to near-Earth asteroids and Mars. This investigation examines preliminary design considerations including Earth-Moon L1/L2 libration point orbit selection, transfers, and stationkeeping costs associated with maintaining a spacecraft in the vicinity of L1 or L2 for a specified duration. Existing tools in multi-body trajectory design, dynamical systems theory, and orbit maintenance are leveraged in this analysis to explore end-to-end concepts for manned missions to Earth-Moon libration points.

  11. Design strategies for human & earth systems modeling to meet emerging multi-scale decision support needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spak, S.; Pooley, M.

    2012-12-01

    The next generation of coupled human and earth systems models promises immense potential and grand challenges as they transition toward new roles as core tools for defining and living within planetary boundaries. New frontiers in community model development include not only computational, organizational, and geophysical process questions, but also the twin objectives of more meaningfully integrating the human dimension and extending applicability to informing policy decisions on a range of new and interconnected issues. We approach these challenges by posing key policy questions that require more comprehensive coupled human and geophysical models, identify necessary model and organizational processes and outputs, and work backwards to determine design criteria in response to these needs. We find that modular community earth system model design must: * seamlessly scale in space (global to urban) and time (nowcasting to paleo-studies) and fully coupled on all component systems * automatically differentiate to provide complete coupled forward and adjoint models for sensitivity studies, optimization applications, and 4DVAR assimilation across Earth and human observing systems * incorporate diagnostic tools to quantify uncertainty in couplings, and in how human activity affects them * integrate accessible community development and application with JIT-compilation, cloud computing, game-oriented interfaces, and crowd-sourced problem-solving We outline accessible near-term objectives toward these goals, and describe attempts to incorporate these design objectives in recent pilot activities using atmosphere-land-ocean-biosphere-human models (WRF-Chem, IBIS, UrbanSim) at urban and regional scales for policy applications in climate, energy, and air quality.

  12. Functional design for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J. (Principal Investigator); Bradford, L. H.; Hutson, D. E.; Jugle, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Study emphasis was on developing a unified concept for the required ground system, capable of handling data from all viable acquisition platforms and sensor groupings envisaged as supporting operational earth survey programs. The platforms considered include both manned and unmanned spacecraft in near earth orbit, and continued use of low and high altitude aircraft. The sensor systems include both imaging and nonimaging devices, operated both passively and actively, from the ultraviolet to the microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  13. Computational design and optimization of energy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Maria

    The use of density functional theory (DFT) to understand and improve energy materials for diverse applications - including energy storage, thermal management, catalysis, and photovoltaics - is widespread. The further step of using high throughput DFT calculations to design materials and has led to an acceleration in materials discovery and development. Due to various limitations in DFT, including accuracy and computational cost, however, it is important to leverage effective models and, in some cases, experimental information to aid the design process. In this talk, I will discuss efforts in design and optimization of energy materials using a combination of effective models, DFT, machine learning, and experimental information.

  14. Axial focusing of impact energy in the earth`s interior: A possible link to flood basalts and hotspots

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, M.B.; Chael, E.P.; Trucano, T.G.; Crawford, D.A.; Campbell, D.L.

    1994-12-01

    We present the results of shock physics and seismological computational simulations that show how energy from a large impact can be coupled to the interior of the Earth. The radially-diverging shock wave generated by the impact decays to linearly elastic seismic waves. These waves reconverge (minus attenuation) along the axis of symmetry between the impact and its antipode. The locations that experience the most strain cycles with the largest amplitudes will dissipate the most energy and have the largest increases in temperature (for a given attenuation efficiency). We have shown that the locus of maximum energy deposition in the mantle lies along the impact axis. Moreover, the most intense focusing is within the asthenosphere at the antipode, within the range of depths where mechanical energy is most readily converted to heat. We propose that if large impacts on the Earth leave geological evidence anywhere other than the impact site itself, it will be at the antipode. We suggest that the most likely result of the focusing for a sufficiently large impact, consistent with features observed in the geological record, would be a flood basalt eruption at the antipode followed by hotspot volcanism. A direct prediction of this model would be the existence of undiscovered impact structures whose reconstructed locations would be antipodal to flood basalt provinces. One such structure would be in the Indian Ocean, associated with the Columbia River Basalts and Yellowstone; another would be a second K/T impact structure in the Pacific Ocean, associated with the Deccan Traps and Reunion.

  15. Effect of the shrinking dipole on solar-terrestrial energy input to the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherron, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The global average temperature of the Earth is rising rapidly. This rise is primarily attributed to the release of greenhouse gases as a result of human activity. However, it has been argued that changes in radiation from the Sun might play a role. Most energy input to the Earth is light in the visible spectrum. Our best measurements suggest this power input has been constant for the last 40 years (the space age) apart from a small 11-year variation due to the solar cycle of sunspot activity. Another possible energy input from the Sun is the solar wind. The supersonic solar wind carries the magnetic field of the Sun into the solar system. As it passes the Earth it can connect to the Earth's magnetic field whenever it is antiparallel t the Earth's field. This connection allows mass, momentum, and energy from the solar wind to enter the magnetosphere producing geomagnetic activity. Ultimately much of this energy is deposited at high latitudes in the form of particle precipitation (aurora) and heating by electrical currents. Although the energy input by this process is miniscule compared to that from visible radiation it might alter the absorption of visible radiation. Two other processes affected by the solar cycle are atmospheric entry of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic protons (SEP). A weak solar magnetic field at sunspot minimum facilitates GCR entry which has been implicated in creation of clouds. Large coronal mass ejections and solar flares create SEP at solar maximum. All of these alternative energy inputs and their effects depend on the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently the Earth's field is decreasing rapidly and conceivably might reverse polarity in 1000 years. In this paper we describe the changes in the Earth's magnetic field and how this might affect GCR, SEP, electrical heating, aurora, and radio propagation. Whether these effects are important in global climate change can only be determined by detailed physical models.

  16. Diagnosing ocean energy transports from earth radiation budget measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Byung-Ju; Smith, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    The maximum energy production (MEP) principle suggested by Paltridge (1975) is applied to separate the satellite-inferred required total transports into the atmospheric and the oceanic components within a two-dimensional (2D) framework. For this purpose, the required 2D energy transports (Sohn and Smith, 1991) are imposed on Paltridge's energy balance model which is then solved as a variational problem. The results provide separated atmospheric and oceanic transports on a 2D basis such that the total divergence is equal to the net radiation measured from a satellite.

  17. The impact of rare earth cobalt permanent magnets on electromechanical device design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. L.; Studer, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    Specific motor designs which employ rare earth cobalt magnets are discussed with special emphasis on their unique properties and magnetic field geometry. In addition to performance improvements and power savings, high reliability devices are attainable. Both the mechanism and systems engineering should be aware of the new performance levels which are currently becoming available as a result of the rare earth cobalt magnets.

  18. Earth-Science Research for Addressing the Water-Energy Nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. W.; Alley, W. M.; Engle, M.; McMahon, P. B.; Bales, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, the United States will face two significant and sometimes competing challenges: preserving sustainable supplies of fresh water for humans and ecosystems, and ensuring available sources of energy. This presentation provides an overview of the earth-science data collection and research needed to address these challenges. Uncertainty limits our understanding of many aspects of the water-energy nexus. These aspects include availability of water, water requirements for energy development, energy requirements for treating and delivering fresh water, effects of emerging energy development technologies on water quality and quantity, and effects of future climates and land use on water and energy needs. Uncertainties can be reduced with an integrated approach that includes assessments of water availability and energy resources; monitoring of surface water and groundwater quantity and quality, water use, and energy use; research on impacts of energy waste streams, hydraulic fracturing, and other fuel-extraction processes on water quality; and research on the viability and environmental footprint of new technologies such as carbon capture and sequestration and conversion of cellulosic material to ethanol. Planning for water and energy development requires consideration of factors such as economics, population trends, human health, and societal values; however, sound resource management must be grounded on a clear understanding of the earth-science aspects of the water-energy nexus. Information gained from an earth-science data-collection and research program can improve our understanding of water and energy issues and lay the ground work for informed resource management.

  19. Star Power on Earth: Path to Clean Energy Future

    ScienceCinema

    Ed Moses

    2016-07-12

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's "Science on Saturday" lecture series presents Ed Moses, Director of the National Ignition Facility, discussing the world's largest laser system and its potential impact on society's upcoming energy needs.

  20. Star Power on Earth: Path to Clean Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Ed Moses

    2009-10-09

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's "Science on Saturday" lecture series presents Ed Moses, Director of the National Ignition Facility, discussing the world's largest laser system and its potential impact on society's upcoming energy needs.

  1. Explaining Earths Energy Budget: CERES-Based NASA Resources for K-12 Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K.; Marvel, M. T.; Ruhlman, K.; LaPan, J.; Lewis, P.; Madigan, J.; Oostra, D.; Taylor, J.

    2014-01-01

    Among atmospheric scientists, the importance of the Earth radiation budget concept is well understood. Papers have addressed the topic for over 100 years, and the large Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (among others), with its multiple on-orbit instruments, is working hard to quantify the details of its various parts. In education, Earth's energy budget is a concept that generally appears in middle school and Earth science curricula, but its treatment in textbooks leaves much to be desired. Students and the public hold many misconceptions, and very few people have an appreciation for the importance of this energy balance to the conditions on Earth. More importantly, few have a correct mental model that allows them to make predictions and understand the effect of changes such as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. As an outreach element of the core CERES team at NASA Langley, a multi-disciplinary group of scientists, educators, graphic artists, writers, and web developers has been developing and refining graphics and resources to explain the Earth's Energy budget over the last few decades. Resources have developed through an iterative process involving ongoing use in front of a variety of audiences, including students and teachers from 3rd to 12th grade as well as public audiences.

  2. Evaluating the design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with systen simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

    1993-01-01

    A set of system simulations has been performed to evaluate candidate scanner designs for an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) of the late 1990s. Five different instruments are considered: (1) the Active Cavity Array (ACA), (2) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System-Instrument (CERES-I), (3) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR), (4) the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Cross-Track Scanner (ERBE), and (5) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner (N7). Errors in instantaneous, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) satellite flux estimates are assumed to arise from two measurement problems: the sampling of space over a given geographic domain, and sampling in angle about a given spatial location. When angular sampling errors vanish due to the application of correct angular dependence models (ADMs) during inversion, the accuracy of each scanner design is determined by the instrument's ability to map the TOA radiance field in a uniform manner. In this regard, the instruments containing a cross-track scanning component (CERES-I and ERBE) do best. As errors in ADMs are encountered, cross-track instruments incur angular sampling errors more rapidly than biaxial instruments (N7, ACA, and CSR) and eventually overtake the biaxial designs in their total error amounts. A latitude bias (north-south error gradient) in the ADM error of cross-track instruments also exists. This would be objectionable when ADM errors are systematic over large areas of the globe. For instantaneous errors, however, cross-track scanners outperform biaxial or conical scanners for 2.5 deg latitude x 2.5 deg longitude target areas, providing that the ADM error is less than or equal to 30%. A key issue is the amount of systematic ADM error (departures from the mean models) that is present at the 2.5 deg resolution of the ERBE target areas. If this error is less than 30%, then the CERES-I, ERBE, and CSR, in order of increasing error, provide the most accurate instantaneous

  3. Near-earth thermal environmental criteria study. [for design of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, J. M.; Green, T. F.; Starr, T. P.

    1974-01-01

    A study was made to determine improved values and definitions to be used for thermal environmental design parameters for a spacecraft in near-earth orbit. An algorithm was used to derive a total earth thermal radiation based on a mathematical relationship. Several albedo and earth thermal radiation grid maps were produced on seven track digital magnetic tape. Each map contained the values obtained during a 24 hour period over the entire earth. The output statistics are summarized, and the data processing program is described.

  4. The Global Energy Situation on Earth, Student Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This is the student guide in a set of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. Contents of this guide are: (1) Introduction to the unit; (2) The "EARTH" program; (3) Exercises; and (4) Sources of information on the energy crisis. This guide supplements a simulation which allows students to analyze different aspects of…

  5. Designing the Nuclear Energy Attitude Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Lawrence; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a refined method for designing a valid and reliable Likert-type scale to test attitudes toward the generation of electricity from nuclear energy. Discusses various tests of validity that were used on the nuclear energy scale. Reports results of administration and concludes that the test is both reliable and valid. (CW)

  6. DSN energy data base preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, E. R.; Herrera, L. O.; Lascu, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    The design and implementation of a computerized data base created to support the DSN Energy Conservation Project with data relating to energy use at Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex are described. The results of development work to date, are presented along with work currently in progress or in the planning stage.

  7. Internal Charging Design Environments for the Earths Radiation Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts are a widely recognized threat to spacecraft because they penetrate lightly shielded vehicle hulls and deep into insulating materials where they accumulate to sufficient levels to produce electrostatic discharges. Strategies for evaluating the magnitude of the relativistic electron flux environment and its potential for producing ESD events are varied. Simple "rule of thumb" estimates such as the widely used 10(exp 10) e-/sq cm fluence within 10 hour threshold for the onset of pulsing in dielectric materials provide a quick estimate of when to expect charging issues. More sophisticated strategies based on models of the trapped electron flux within the Earth s magnetic field provide time dependent estimates of electron flux along spacecraft orbits and orbit integrate electron flux. Finally, measurements of electron flux can be used to demonstrate mean and extreme relativistic electron environments. This presentation will evaluate strategies used to specify energetic electron flux and fluence environments along spacecraft trajectories in the Earth s radiation belts.

  8. Energy Conscious Design in Schools of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villecco, Marguerite

    1977-01-01

    Major findings are summarized of an investigation of energy design teaching in schools of architecture, which led to recommendations described in this article addressed to theoretical and inspirational models of design teaching, rather than to technical courses. Available from: ACSA, 1735 New York Ave., Washington, D.C. 20006. (Author/LBH)

  9. Note to Energy Source of Tsunami Earthquake on the Planet Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, S.

    2012-04-01

    Note to Energy Source of Tsunami Earthquake on the Planet Earth Shigehisa Nakamura Kyoto University, Japan This note concerns to an energyy source of tsunami earthquake. In the case of the earthquake on 11 March 2011, a satellite monitoring by the Geographic Survey Institute informed some spcific pattern of the earth surface displacements just around tothe epicenter of the interested earthquake. The monitoring pattern shows that the pattern of the earth surface displacements must be understood well when the earth surface as a part of the spherical earth crusts with a physical property of a visco-plastic material rather than with a solid plate consisted by rigid material made by the products of the magma in the planet earth. This means that the pattern was appared in a short time of only several minutes, say, two or three munutes after the seismic shock was happened. The pattern of the displacement shows as if it was for a pattern of a visco-plastic fluid flowing to the pit hole force for the at the epicenter out of a conduit of the magma in order to return to the mother magma flow under the spherical crust of the planet earth. This pattern is raising us to find an updateddd model after an advanced reserarch as soon as possible in order to realize what should be a reasonable energy source to see the tsunami earthquake.

  10. Ion acceleration to supra-thermal energies in the near-Earth magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elena, Kronberg

    2016-07-01

    We here present an analysis of ion composition measurements by the RAPID instruments onboard Cluster. We discuss the evidence for an acceleration of ions to energies above 100 keV in the near-Earth current sheet, in the vicinity of a possible near-Earth neutral line, and we investigate the physical details of such an acceleration. We present observations of tailward bulk flows in the near-Earth tail associated with plasmoid-like magnetic structures. These flows are superimposed by low-frequency magnetic and electric field fluctuations. Observations and modelling show that resonant interactions between ions and low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuations facilitate the ion energization inside plasmoids.

  11. Automated Job Controller for Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Production Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.

    2011-12-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is one of NASA's highest priority Earth Observing System (EOS) scientific instruments. The CERES science team will integrate data from the CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) in addition to the four CERES scanning instrument on Terra and Aqua. The CERES production system consists of over 75 Product Generation Executives (PGEs) maintained by twelve subsystem groups. The processing chain fuses CERES instrument observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of FM5 to over 22 instrument years of data to be reprocessed from flight models 1-4 creates a need for an optimized production processing approach. This poster discusses a new approach, using JBoss and Perl to manage job scheduling and interdependencies between PGEs and external data sources. The new optimized approach uses JBoss to serve handler servlets which regulate PGE-level job interdependencies and job completion notifications. Additional servlets are used to regulate all job submissions from the handlers and to interact with the operator. Perl submission scripts are used to build Process Control Files and to interact directly with the operating system and cluster scheduler. The result is a reduced burden on the operator by algorithmically enforcing a set of rules that determine the optimal time to produce data products with the highest integrity. These rules are designed on a per PGE basis and periodically change. This design provides the means to dynamically update PGE rules at run time and increases the processing throughput by using an event driven controller. The immediate notification of a PGE's completion (an event) allows successor PGEs to launch at the proper time with minimal start up latency, thereby increasing computer system utilization.

  12. (BRI) Direct and Inverse Design Optimization of Magnetic Alloys with Minimized Use of Rare Earth Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-02

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0091 (BRI) Direct and Inverse Design Optimization of Magnetic Alloys with Minimized Use of Rare Earth Elements George...2012 – 31/10/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE (BRI) Direct and Inverse Design Optimization of Magnetic Alloys with Minimized Use of Rare Earth Elements... Science and Eng., Raleigh, NC (Profs. Justin Schwartz and Carl C. Koch). Their team performed all manufacturing and experimental measurements. 14

  13. High-energy cosmic ray muons in the Earth's atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanov, A. A.; Sinegovskaya, T. S.; Sinegovsky, S. I.

    2013-03-15

    We present the calculations of the atmospheric muon fluxes at energies 10-10{sup 7} GeV based on a numerical-analytical method for solving the hadron-nucleus cascade equations. It allows the non-power-law behavior of the primary cosmic ray (PCR) spectrum, the violation of Feynman scaling, and the growth of the total inelastic cross sections for hadron-nucleus collisions with increasing energy to be taken into account. The calculations have been performed for a wide class of hadron-nucleus interaction models using directly the PCR measurements made in the ATIC-2 and GAMMA experiments and the parameterizations of the primary spectrum based on a set of experiments. We study the dependence of atmospheric muon flux characteristics on the hadronic interaction model and the influence of uncertainties in the PCR spectrum and composition on the muon flux at sea level. Comparison of the calculated muon energy spectra at sea level with the data from a large number of experiments shows that the cross sections for hadron-nucleus interactions introduce the greatest uncertainty in the energy region that does not include the knee in the primary spectrum.

  14. Skylab Earth Resource Experiment Package critical design review. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An outline of the conference for reviewing the design of the EREP is presented. Systems design for review include: tape recorder, support equipment, view finder/tracking, support hardware, and control and display panel.

  15. Earth resources shuttle imaging radar. [systems analysis and design analysis of pulse radar for earth resources information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A report is presented on a preliminary design of a Synthetic Array Radar (SAR) intended for experimental use with the space shuttle program. The radar is called Earth Resources Shuttle Imaging Radar (ERSIR). Its primary purpose is to determine the usefulness of SAR in monitoring and managing earth resources. The design of the ERSIR, along with tradeoffs made during its evolution is discussed. The ERSIR consists of a flight sensor for collecting the raw radar data and a ground sensor used both for reducing these radar data to images and for extracting earth resources information from the data. The flight sensor consists of two high powered coherent, pulse radars, one that operates at L and the other at X-band. Radar data, recorded on tape can be either transmitted via a digital data link to a ground terminal or the tape can be delivered to the ground station after the shuttle lands. A description of data processing equipment and display devices is given.

  16. Computational efficiences for calculating rare earth f^n energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Donald R.

    2009-05-01

    RecentlyootnotetextD. R. Beck and E. J. Domeier, Can. J. Phys. Walter Johnson issue, Jan. 2009., we have used new computational strategies to obtain wavefunctions and energies for Gd IV 4f^7 and 4f^65d levels. Here we extend one of these techniques to allow efficent inclusion of 4f^2 pair correlation effects using radial pair energies obtained from much simpler calculationsootnotetexte.g. K. Jankowski et al., Int. J. Quant. Chem. XXVII, 665 (1985). and angular factors which can be simply computedootnotetextD. R. Beck and C. A. Nicolaides, Excited States in Quantum Chemistry, C. A. Nicolaides and D. R. Beck (editors), D. Reidel (1978), p. 105ff.. This is a re-vitalization of an older ideaootnotetextI. Oksuz and O. Sinanoglu, Phys. Rev. 181, 54 (1969).. We display relationships between angular factors involving the exchange of holes and electrons (e.g. f^6 vs f^8, f^13d vs fd^9). We apply the results to Tb IV and Gd IV, whose spectra is largely unknown, but which may play a role in MRI medicine as endohedral metallofullerenes (e.g. Gd3N-C80ootnotetextM. C. Qian and S. N. Khanna, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 09E105 (2007).). Pr III results are in good agreement (910 cm-1) with experiment. Pu I 5f^2 radial pair energies are also presented.

  17. Computational materials design for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds

    2013-03-01

    General adoption of sustainable energy technologies depends on the discovery and development of new high-performance materials. For instance, waste heat recovery and electricity generation via the solar thermal route require bulk thermoelectrics with a high figure of merit (ZT) and thermal stability at high-temperatures. Energy recovery applications (e.g., regenerative braking) call for the development of rapidly chargeable systems for electrical energy storage, such as electrochemical supercapacitors. Similarly, use of hydrogen as vehicular fuel depends on the ability to store hydrogen at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract it at ambient temperatures at sufficiently rapid rates. We will discuss how first-principles computational methods based on quantum mechanics and statistical physics can drive the understanding, improvement and prediction of new energy materials. We will cover prediction and experimental verification of new earth-abundant thermoelectrics, transition metal oxides for electrochemical supercapacitors, and kinetics of mass transport in complex metal hydrides. Research has been supported by the US Department of Energy under grant Nos. DE-SC0001342, DE-SC0001054, DE-FG02-07ER46433, and DE-FC36-08GO18136.

  18. Co-Seismic Energy Changes Induced by Earthquakes on a Rotating, Gravitating Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Gross, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    Besides operating its own energy budget, an earthquake acts as an agent transferring a much greater amount of energy among the Earth's rotation, elastic field, gravitational field and internal heat. We compute the co-seismic, globally integrated gravitational and rotation changes induced by some 20,000 large earthquakes that occurred in the last quarter century, according to Chao et al. (1995, GJI, 122,776- 783,784-789) and using the Harvard CMT catalog. The result confirms an extremely strong tendency for the earthquakes to decrease the global gravitational energy and to increase the spin energy. It is found that energy is being extracted from the Earth's gravitational field by the action of earthquakes at an average rate of about approx. 2 TeraW during the studied period, larger by far than the approx. 7 GigaW for the average rate of the earthquake-induced rotational energy increase and the approx. 5 GigaW for the seismic energy release. Based on energetics considerations and assuming the inability of the Earth to build up elastic energy continuously over time, it is argued that earthquakes, by converting gravitational energy, may make a significant contribution to the global hedflow.

  19. Design and analysis of a mode B and mode JD satellite Earth station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hance, Dennis J.

    1994-06-01

    This thesis focuses on the design, integration, and analysis of an amateur radio service mode B and mode JD satellite earth station. Preliminary designs were investigated to determine the optimum configuration for the earth station. Modern digital modems, cabling structures, an 80386-based computer system, satellite tracking software, transmission and reception antennas, preamplifiers, and sophisticated performance measurement technologies were integrated into a functioning earth station. Initially, component availability and station design dictated the selection and acquisition of the requisite station equipment, integration of the transmitter, receiver preamplifiers, antennas, and computer equipment followed. Preliminary testing of the various components in the integration station occupied a significant amount of time. Empirical test tracking of different amateur and commercial satellites verified proper operation of the earth station. Results are discussed throughout this thesis.

  20. Low Energy Particle Sensor for Medium Earth Orbit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-15

    thresholds are stable. We plan to implement this using an FPGA , where a PWM output from the FPGA determines the pulse amplitude, which is switched by the... FPGA to generate the fast pulses. When the test circuit is enabled, the pulser would start with a sequence of low amplitude pulses, then increase the...is multiplexed into a pulse height analysis circuit under FPGA control. In the preliminary design, a PWM output from the FPGA sets a threshold, and

  1. Turbine Design for Energy Extraction from Dust Devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaya, Nicholas; Moser, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Columnar vortices ("Dust-Devils") arise naturally in the atmosphere, over a wide range of scales in many different locations across the Earth, as well as on Mars. A new energy harvesting approach makes use of this ubiquitous process by creating and anchoring the vortices artificially and extracting energy from them. However, any analysis of the power that can be extracted is complicated by the presence of considerable vertical and azimuthal flow in the vortex, and so the design considerations are different from those for a classical wind turbine. This talk presents a modeling approach to estimate the upper limit on the power that could be extracted from such a flow. This method is based on the actuator disk model common to turbine design, but with generalized drag polars permitting exploration of a broader design space. This model can be fully coupled to the flow, which ensures the results do not violate any Betz-like considerations that might similarly arise in an analysis of frozen flow fields. The results of this model demonstrate a limit on how much of the energy can be extracted before disrupting the flow so greatly that the vortex cannot be maintained. This work supported by the Department of Energy [ARPA-E] un- der Award Number [DE-FOA-0000670].

  2. Power inversion design for ocean wave energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebani, Anwar N.

    The needs for energy sources are increasing day by day because of several factors, such as oil depletion, and global climate change due to the higher level of CO2, so the exploration of various renewable energy sources is very promising area of study. The available ocean waves can be utilized as free source of energy as the water covers 70% of the earth surface. This thesis presents the ocean wave energy as a source of renewable energy. By addressing the problem of designing efficient power electronics system to deliver 5 KW from the induction generator to the grid with less possible losses and harmonics as possible and to control current fed to the grid to successfully harvest ocean wave energy. We design an AC-DC full bridge rectifier converter, and a DC-DC boost converter to harvest wave energy from AC to regulated DC. In order to increase the design efficiency, we need to increase the power factor from (0.5-0.6) to 1. This is accomplished by designing the boost converter with power factor correction in continues mode with RC circuit as an input to the boost converter power factor correction. This design results in a phase shift between the input current and voltage of the full bridge rectifier to generate a small reactive power. The reactive power is injected to the induction generator to maintain its functionality by generating a magnetic field in its stator. Next, we design a single-phase pulse width modulator full bridge voltage source DC-AC grid-tied mode inverter to harvest regulated DC wave energy to AC. The designed inverter is modulated by inner current loop, to control current injected to the grid with minimal filter component to maintain power quality at the grid. The simulation results show that our design successfully control the current level fed to the grid. It is noteworthy that the simulated efficiency is higher than the calculated one since we used an ideal switch in the simulated circuit.

  3. Low-energy neutrino factory design

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Bogacz, S.A.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    The design of a low-energy (4 GeV) neutrino factory (NF) is described, along with its expected performance. The neutrino factory uses a high-energy proton beam to produce charged pions. The {pi}{sup {+-}} decay to produce muons ({mu}{sup {+-}}), which are collected, accelerated, and stored in a ring with long straight sections. Muons decaying in the straight sections produce neutrino beams. The scheme is based on previous designs for higher energy neutrino factories, but has an improved bunching and phase rotation system, and new acceleration, storage ring, and detector schemes tailored to the needs of the lower energy facility. Our simulations suggest that the NF scheme we describe can produce neutrino beams generated by {approx} 1.4 x 10{sup 21} {mu}{sup +} per year decaying in a long straight section of the storage ring, and a similar number of {mu}{sup -} decays.

  4. Differential neutron energy spectra measured on spacecraft low Earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.; Dudkin, E.V.; Potapov, Yu.V.; Akopova, A.B.; Melkumyan, L.V. |

    1995-03-01

    Two methods for measuring neutrons in the range from thermal energies to dozens of MeV were used. In the first method, alpha-particles emitted from the (sup 6) Li(n,x)T reaction are detected with the help of plastic nuclear track detectors, yielding results on thermal and resonance neutrons. Also, fission foils are used to detect fast neutrons. In the second method, fast neutrons are recorded by nuclear photographic emulsions (NPE). The results of measurements on board various satellites are presented. The neutron flux density does not appear to correlate clearly with orbital parameters. Up to 50% of neutrons are due to albedo neutrons from the atmosphere while the fluxes inside the satellites are 15-20% higher than those on the outside. Estimates show that the neutron contribution to the total equivalent radiation dose reaches 20-30%.

  5. Differential neutron energy spectra measured on spacecraft low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Dudkin, E. V.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Akopova, A. B.; Melkumyan, L. V.

    1995-01-01

    Two methods for measuring neutrons in the range from thermal energies to dozens of MeV were used. In the first method, alpha-particles emitted from the (sup 6) Li(n.x)T reaction are detected with the help of plastic nuclear track detectors, yielding results on thermal and resonance neutrons. Also, fission foils are used to detect fast neutrons. In the second method, fast neutrons are recorded by nuclear photographic emulsions (NPE). The results of measurements on board various satellites are presented. The neutron flux density does not appear to correlate clearly with orbital parameters. Up to 50% of neutrons are due to albedo neutrons from the atmosphere while the fluxes inside the satellites are 15-20% higher than those on the outside. Estimates show that the neutron contribution to the total equivalent radiation dose reaches 20-30%.

  6. Satellite Collectors of Solar Energy for Earth and Colonized Planet Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusiolek, Richard

    Summary An array of 55,000 40-foot antennas can generate from the rays of the Sun enough electrical power to replace 50 The economic potential is huge. There are new industries that will only grow and there are different ways to collect solar energy, including wind power. The energy sources we rely on for the most part are finite - fossil fuels, coal, oil and natural gas are all limited in supply. The cost will only continue to rise as demand increases. The time of global economic crossover between the EU, Asia Pacific and North America is coming within less than five years. The biggest opportunity for solar energy entrepreneurs would seem to be in municipal contracting where 1500 40-foot stacking antennas can be hooked into a grid to power an entire city. The antenna can generate 45 kilowatts of energy, enough to satisfy the electrical needs 7x24 of ten to twenty homes. It is possible to design and build 35-by-80-foot pedestals that track the sun from morning until night to provide full efficiency. A normal solar cell looks in the sky for only four or five hours of direct sunlight. Fabrication of these pedestals would sell for USD 50, 000-70,000 each. The solar heat collected by the antennas can be bounced into a Stirling engine, creating electricity at a focal point. Water can be heated by running through that focal point. In addition, salt water passing through the focal point can be desalinated, and since the antenna can generate up to 2,000 degrees of heat at the focal point. The salt water passing through the focal point turns to steam, which separates the salt and allows the steam to be turned into fresh drinking water. Collector energy can be retained in betavoltaics which uses semiconductors to capture energy from radioactive materials and turn it into usable electricity for automobiles. In a new battery, the silicon wafers in the battery are etched with a network of deep pores. These pores vastly increase the exposure surface area of the silicon, allowing

  7. Manifestations of the rotation and gravity of the Earth in high-energy physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, Yuri N.; Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V.

    2016-08-01

    The inertial (due to rotation) and gravitational fields of the Earth affect the motion of an elementary particle and its spin dynamics. This influence is not negligible and should be taken into account in high-energy physics experiments. Earth's influence is manifest in perturbations in the particle motion, in an additional precession of the spin, and in a change of the constitutive tensor of the Maxwell electrodynamics. Bigger corrections are oscillatory, and their contributions average to zero. Other corrections due to the inhomogeneity of the inertial field are not oscillatory but they are very small and may be important only for the storage ring electric dipole moment experiments. Earth's gravity causes the Newton-like force, the reaction force provided by a focusing system, and additional torques acting on the spin. However, there are no observable indications of the electromagnetic effects due to Earth's gravity.

  8. Energy recovery transport design for PKU FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Guimei Wang; Yu-Chiu Chao; KUI Zhao; Xiangyang Lu; Jiejia Zhuang; Chuyu Liu; Zhenchao Liu; Jiaer Chen

    2007-06-25

    A free-electron laser based on superconducting linac is under construction in Peking University(PKU). To increase FEL output power, energy recovery is chosen as one of the most potential and popular way. The design of beam transport system for energy recovery is presented, which is suitable for Peking University construction area. Especially, a chicane structure is chosen to change path length at +/-18 degree and R56 in the arc is adjusted for fully bunch compression.

  9. Design Concepts for a Small Space-Based GEO Relay Satellite for Missions Between Low Earth and near Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, Joseph D.; Oleson, Steven; Schier, James

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the Small Space-Based Geosynchronous Earth orbiting (GEO) satellite is to provide a space link to the user mission spacecraft for relaying data through ground networks to user Mission Control Centers. The Small Space Based Satellite (SSBS) will provide services comparable to those of a NASA Tracking Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) for the same type of links. The SSBS services will keep the user burden the same or lower than for TDRS and will support the same or higher data rates than those currently supported by TDRS. At present, TDRSS provides links and coverage below GEO; however, SSBS links and coverage capability to above GEO missions are being considered for the future, especially for Human Space Flight Missions (HSF). There is also a rising need for the capability to support high data rate links (exceeding 1 Gbps) for imaging applications. The communication payload on the SSBS will provide S/Ka-band single access links to the mission and a Ku-band link to the ground, with an optical communication payload as an option. To design the communication payload, various link budgets were analyzed and many possible operational scenarios examined. To reduce user burden, using a larger-sized antenna than is currently in use by TDRS was considered. Because of the SSBS design size, it was found that a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket could deliver three SSBSs to GEO. This will greatly reduce the launch costs per satellite. Using electric propulsion was also evaluated versus using chemical propulsion; the power system size and time to orbit for various power systems were also considered. This paper will describe how the SSBS will meet future service requirements, concept of operations, and the design to meet NASA users' needs for below and above GEO missions. These users' needs not only address the observational mission requirements but also possible HSF missions to the year 2030. We will provide the trade-off analysis of the communication payload design in terms of

  10. Numerical and experimental design of coaxial shallow geothermal energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Niranjan

    Geothermal Energy has emerged as one of the front runners in the energy race because of its performance efficiency, abundance and production competitiveness. Today, geothermal energy is used in many regions of the world as a sustainable solution for decreasing dependence on fossil fuels and reducing health hazards. However, projects related to geothermal energy have not received their deserved recognition due to lack of computational tools associated with them and economic misconceptions related to their installation and functioning. This research focuses on numerical and experimental system design analysis of vertical shallow geothermal energy systems. The driving force is the temperature difference between a finite depth beneath the earth and its surface stimulates continuous exchange of thermal energy from sub-surface to the surface (a geothermal gradient is set up). This heat gradient is captured by the circulating refrigerant and thus, tapping the geothermal energy from shallow depths. Traditionally, U-bend systems, which consist of two one-inch pipes with a U-bend connector at the bottom, have been widely used in geothermal applications. Alternative systems include coaxial pipes (pipe-in-pipe) that are the main focus of this research. It has been studied that coaxial pipes have significantly higher thermal performance characteristics than U-bend pipes, with comparative production and installation costs. This makes them a viable design upgrade to the traditional piping systems. Analytical and numerical heat transfer analysis of the coaxial system is carried out with the help of ABAQUS software. It is tested by varying independent parameters such as materials, soil conditions and effect of thermal contact conductance on heat transfer characteristics. With the above information, this research aims at formulating a preliminary theoretical design setup for an experimental study to quantify and compare the heat transfer characteristics of U-bend and coaxial

  11. Design of experiment for earth rotation and baseline parameter determination from very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermanis, A.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of recovering earth rotation and network geometry (baseline) parameters are emphasized. The numerical simulated experiments performed are set up in an environment where station coordinates vary with respect to inertial space according to a simulated earth rotation model similar to the actual but unknown rotation of the earth. The basic technique of VLBI and its mathematical model are presented. The parametrization of earth rotation chosen is described and the resulting model is linearized. A simple analysis of the geometry of the observations leads to some useful hints on achieving maximum sensitivity of the observations with respect to the parameters considered. The basic philosophy for the simulation of data and their analysis through standard least squares adjustment techniques is presented. A number of characteristic network designs based on present and candidate station locations are chosen. The results of the simulations for each design are presented together with a summary of the conclusions.

  12. Design and benefits of a multibeam Earth Observing Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.; Walsh, E. J.; Beck, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    The oceanographic rationale is described for continuing to advance the state of the art in satellite radar altimetry, and the expected capabilities of a multibeam Earth Observing Radar are noted. At the end of this decade, there is the possibility that altimeters may be in orbit aboard the American TOPEX, the ESA ERS-1, and the French SPOT satellites at the same time. The TOPEX version will be the most precise altimeter yet built. Global ocean circulation will be measured by using TOPEX to monitor the elevation changes across the ocean basins due to oceanic currents. It will then be possible to monitor the 'mean' circulation patterns in the oceans. The multiple beams of EOR might be used to measure the curvature of the topographic surface. The use of curvature is especially beneficial because it is directly related to ocean circulation, which is a function only of the Laplacian of the topographic height field in a given area. With the EOR, that height field will be known and ocean circulation can be immediately computed.

  13. Spacecraft systems design trade-offs for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branchflower, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Earth Resources Technology Satellite Program's use of flight proven hardware in the design of a satellite for earth sensor payload support and data handling is discussed. The use of an existing satellite as the building block around which additional support systems such as the orbit adjust system, the redundant wideband telemetry systems, the second regulated power system, and the quad redundant command system is analyzed. System performance seen in orbit vs design objectives are discussed to point up the success of the design approach chosen. Also discussed are the schedule and cost benefits derived from the use of previously developed hardware with additional subsystems as required to meet program requirements.

  14. Concept design, modeling and station-keeping attitude control of an earth observation platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yueneng; Wu, Jie; Zheng, Wei

    2012-11-01

    The stratosphere airship provides a unique and promising platform for earth observation. Researches on the project design and control scheme for earth observation platforms are still rarely documented. Nonlinear dynamics, model uncertainties, and external disturbances contribute to the difficulty in maneuvering the stratosphere airship. A key technical challenge for the earth observation platform is station keeping, or the ability to remain fixed over a geo-location. This paper investigates the conceptual design, modeling and station-keeping attitude control of the near-space earth observation platform. A conceptual design of the earth observation platform is presented. The dynamics model of the platform is derived from the Newton-Euler formulation, and the station-keeping control system of the platform is formulated. The station-keeping attitude control approach for the platform is proposed. The multi-input multi-output nonlinear control system is decoupled into three single-input single-output linear subsystems via feedback linearization, the attitude controller design is carried out on the new linear systems using terminal sliding mode control, and the global stability of the closed-loop system is proven by using the Lyapunov theorem. The performance of the designed control system is simulated by using the variable step Runge-Kutta integrator. Simulation results show that the control system tracks the commanded attitude with an error of zero, which verify the effectiveness and robustness of the designed control system in the presence of parametric uncertainties. The near-space earth observation platform has several advantages over satellites, such as high resolution, fast to deploy, and convenient to retrieve, and the proposed control scheme provides an effective approach for station-keeping attitude control of the earth observation platform.

  15. Requirements and concept design for large earth survey telescope for SEOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mailhot, P.; Bisbee, J.

    1975-01-01

    The efforts of a one year program of Requirements Analysis and Conceptual Design for the Large Earth Survey Telescope for the Synchronous Earth Observatory Satellite is summarized. A 1.4 meter aperture Cassegrain telescope with 0.6 deg field of view is shown to do an excellent job in satisfying the observational requirements for a wide range of earth resources and meteorological applications. The telescope provides imagery or thermal mapping in ten spectral bands at one time in a field sharing grouping of linear detector arrays. Pushbroom scanning is accomplished by spacecraft slew.

  16. Inertial Fusion Energy Studies on an Earth Simulator-Class Computer

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Stephens, R

    2002-08-13

    The U.S. is developing fusion energy based on inertial confinement of the burning fusion fuel, as a complement to the magnetic confinement approach. DOE's Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program within the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) is coordinated with, and gains leverage from, the much larger Inertial Confinement Fusion program of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Advanced plasma and particle beam simulations play a major role in the IFE effort, and the program is well poised to benefit from an Earth Simulator-class resource. Progress in all key physics areas of IFE, including heavy-ion ''drivers'' which impart the energy to the fusion fuel, the targets for both ion- and laser-driven approaches, and an advanced concept known as fast ignition, would be dramatically accelerated by an Earth Simulator-class resource.

  17. Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a Review: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project s objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation

  18. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low Earth orbit space station

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K.B.

    1984-08-01

    Results of a study to define the characteristics of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a large space station operating in low earth orbit (LEO) are presented. The regenerative fuel cell system employs an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell with the option of employing either an alkaline or a solid polymer electrolyte electrolyzer.

  19. Ground Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Lou; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Direndra K.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Bolden, William C.; Wilson, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers will measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emmitted,longwave radiances, at the top-of-the-atmosphere. The measurements are performed in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5.0 micron) and longwave (5.0 - >100 micron) spectral regions as well as in the 8 -12 micron water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. The CERES measurements are designed to improve our knowledge of the earth's natural climate processes, in particular those related to clouds, and man's impact upon climate as indicated by atmospheric temperature. November 1997, the first set of CERES bolometers is scheduled for launch on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft. The CERES bolometers were calibrated radiometrically in a vacuum ground facility using absolute reference sources, tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Accurate bolometer calibrations are dependent upon the derivations of the radiances from the spectral properties [reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.] of both the sources and bolometers. In this paper, the overall calibration approaches are discussed for the longwave and shortwave calibrations. The spectral responses for the TRMM bolometer units are presented and applied to the bolometer ground calibrations in order to determine pre-launch calibration gains.

  20. Distributed Space Mission Design for Earth Observation Using Model-Based Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nag, Sreeja; LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Cervantes, Ben; DeWeck, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) are gaining momentum in their application to earth observation missions owing to their unique ability to increase observation sampling in multiple dimensions. DSM design is a complex problem with many design variables, multiple objectives determining performance and cost and emergent, often unexpected, behaviors. There are very few open-access tools available to explore the tradespace of variables, minimize cost and maximize performance for pre-defined science goals, and therefore select the most optimal design. This paper presents a software tool that can multiple DSM architectures based on pre-defined design variable ranges and size those architectures in terms of predefined science and cost metrics. The tool will help a user select Pareto optimal DSM designs based on design of experiments techniques. The tool will be applied to some earth observation examples to demonstrate its applicability in making some key decisions between different performance metrics and cost metrics early in the design lifecycle.

  1. Biodigester Feasibility and Design for Space and Earth Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald; Shutts, Stacy (Principal Investigator); Bacon, John; Ewert, Michael; Paul, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biodigesters harness and utilize byproducts, and are a valuable technology for waste conversion and advanced exploration closed loops targets (6.1.a-E), including that of human waste. On Mars and at JSC, this could lead to growing food and to more sustainable uses of waste. It is critical to understand biogas generation rates, odor management of the effluent, and nutrient viability. Improved efficiency and reliance on this renewable energy source can become feasible for deep space missions.

  2. An update on Earth's energy balance in light of the latest global observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Li, Juilin; Wild, Martin; Clayson, Carol Anne; Loeb, Norman; Kato, Seiji; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Lebsock, Matthew; Andrews, Timothy

    2012-10-01

    Climate change is governed by changes to the global energy balance. At the top of the atmosphere, this balance is monitored globally by satellite sensors that provide measurements of energy flowing to and from Earth. By contrast, observations at the surface are limited mostly to land areas. As a result, the global balance of energy fluxes within the atmosphere or at Earth's surface cannot be derived directly from measured fluxes, and is therefore uncertain. This lack of precise knowledge of surface energy fluxes profoundly affects our ability to understand how Earth's climate responds to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. In light of compilations of up-to-date surface and satellite data, the surface energy balance needs to be revised. Specifically, the longwave radiation received at the surface is estimated to be significantly larger, by between 10 and 17 Wm-2, than earlier model-based estimates. Moreover, the latest satellite observations of global precipitation indicate that more precipitation is generated than previously thought. This additional precipitation is sustained by more energy leaving the surface by evaporation -- that is, in the form of latent heat flux -- and thereby offsets much of the increase in longwave flux to the surface.

  3. Advancing Water and Water-Energy-Food Cluster Activities within Future Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.; Bhaduri, A.; Pahl-Wostl, C.

    2014-12-01

    In building its emerging program, Future Earth has encouraged former Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) projects to redefine their objectives, priorities and problem approaches so they are aligned with those of Future Earth. These new projects will be characterized by more integrated applications of natural and social sciences as well as dialogue and science integrated across disciplinary boundaries to address a wide range of environmental and social issues. The Global Water System Project (GWSP) has had a heritage of integrating natural and social sciences, and recently started to also look at issues within the Water-Energy-Food (WEF) cluster using similar integrated approaches. As part of the growth of the scientific elements of this cluster, GWSP has approached Future Earth opportunities by addressing the sustainability for Water, Energy, and Food through integrated water information and improved governance.In this presentation the approaches being considered for promoting integration in both water and the WEF cluster will be discussed. In particular, potential contributions of Future Earth to research related to the use and management of water and to issues and science underpinning the W-E-F nexus deliberations will be identified. In both cases the increasing ability to utilize Earth observations and big data will advance this research agenda. In addition, the better understanding of the implications of governance structures in addressing these issues and the options for harmonizing the use of scientific knowledge and technological advances will be explored. For example, insights gained from water management studies undertaken within the GWSP are helping to focus plans for a "sustainable water futures" project and a WEF cluster within Future Earth. The potential role of the Sustainable Development Goals in bringing together the monitoring and science capabilities, and understanding of governance approaches, will be discussed as a framework for facilitating

  4. Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yefeng; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Li, Gan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Xinyue; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The Lorenz energy cycle is widely used to investigate atmospheres and climates on planets. However, the long-term temporal variations of such an energy cycle have not yet been explored. Here we use three independent meteorological data sets from the modern satellite era, to examine the temporal characteristics of the Lorenz energy cycle of Earth's global atmosphere in response to climate change. The total mechanical energy of the global atmosphere basically remains constant with time, but the global-average eddy energies show significant positive trends. The spatial investigations suggest that these positive trends are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant positive trends are also found in the conversion, generation and dissipation rates of energies. The positive trends in the dissipation rates of kinetic energies suggest that the efficiency of the global atmosphere as a heat engine increased during the modern satellite era.

  5. Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yefeng; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Li, Gan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Xinyue; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The Lorenz energy cycle is widely used to investigate atmospheres and climates on planets. However, the long-term temporal variations of such an energy cycle have not yet been explored. Here we use three independent meteorological data sets from the modern satellite era, to examine the temporal characteristics of the Lorenz energy cycle of Earth's global atmosphere in response to climate change. The total mechanical energy of the global atmosphere basically remains constant with time, but the global-average eddy energies show significant positive trends. The spatial investigations suggest that these positive trends are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant positive trends are also found in the conversion, generation and dissipation rates of energies. The positive trends in the dissipation rates of kinetic energies suggest that the efficiency of the global atmosphere as a heat engine increased during the modern satellite era. PMID:28117324

  6. Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yefeng; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Li, Gan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Xinyue; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2017-01-24

    The Lorenz energy cycle is widely used to investigate atmospheres and climates on planets. However, the long-term temporal variations of such an energy cycle have not yet been explored. Here we use three independent meteorological data sets from the modern satellite era, to examine the temporal characteristics of the Lorenz energy cycle of Earth's global atmosphere in response to climate change. The total mechanical energy of the global atmosphere basically remains constant with time, but the global-average eddy energies show significant positive trends. The spatial investigations suggest that these positive trends are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant positive trends are also found in the conversion, generation and dissipation rates of energies. The positive trends in the dissipation rates of kinetic energies suggest that the efficiency of the global atmosphere as a heat engine increased during the modern satellite era.

  7. Building Student Awareness of Societal Decision-Making Challenges about Energy through the Study of Earth System Data and Innovations in Energy-Related Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, D. R.; Acker, J. G.; Berding, M.

    2014-12-01

    Energy literacy requires knowledge about the trade-offs inherent in energy alternatives, about how humans use energy and have choices in how much energy to use, and about what changes to the Earth system are occurring from energy uses. It also requires collaborative decision-making skills coupled with awareness about what values we bring to the table as we negotiate solutions that serve both personal needs and the common good. Coming up with a notion of the common good requires delineating how environmental crises occurring in other parts of the world compare to our own. We also need to understand criteria for judging what might be viable solutions. This presentation describes work that SRI International is carrying out to meet these awareness-building needs. SRI educational researchers created a curriculum that immerses students in studying regional climate change data about California in comparison to global climate change. Students ponder solution energy-related strategies and impact analyses. The curriculum will be described, as will a collaboration between SRI educational researchers and materials scientists. The scientists are designing and testing technologies for producing biofuels and solar power, and for sequestering carbon from coal fired power plants. As they apply principles of science and engineering to test materials intended to meet these energy challenges, they understand that even if the tests prove successful, if there is not economic feasibility or environmental advantage, the technology may not stand as a viable solution. This educator-scientist team is using the Essential Energy Principles and Next Generation Science Standards to articulate milestones along a trajectory of energy learning. The trajectory starts with simple understandings of what energy is and what constitute our energy challenges. It ends with more the types of more sophisticated understandings needed for designing and testing energy technology solutions.

  8. Thermonuclear Processes as a Principal Source of the Earth's Internal Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terez, E. I.; Terez, I. E.

    2011-12-01

    A cosmological model of the formation of the Solar System is presented. It is shown that the main source of the Earth's energy is delivered from the thermonuclear processes in the inner Earth's core consisting of metallic hydrides. Several theoretical studies showed that under low temperature (T<104 K) and sufficiently high density of plasma, the characteristics of nuclear synthesis could be explained only with some adjustments to a thermonuclear synthesis theory. By building a diagram of the mass luminosity for the giant planets and the Earth, Wang Hong-Zhang (1990) illustrated that this diagram was similar to the one corresponding to stars. This could have only one explanation-the energy is due to the thermonuclear reactions and the energy rate is increasing exponentially with temperature and pressure. In the local areas where thermonuclear reactions occur in the Earth core, one should expect a sharp increase in temperature which causes of the dissolution of hydrides, e.g. release of hydrogen from the hydride-ionic form to the proton gas in large quantities (Larin, 2005). The pressure in this zone would sharply rise, and this would cause expulsion of the streams of the hydrogen plasma outside of the Earth's core. As a result of the Earth rotation and existence of the Coriolis' acceleration, the hydrogen plumes (more exactly, the proton gas) characterized by a high electrical conductivity twirl in spirals in the outer core of the Earth. These spirals form solenoid and, as a result, create the dipole magnetic field of the Earth. The suggest hypothesis of the thermonuclear nature of the Earth's energy flux is a main reason for the endogenic geodynamic and tectonic processes in the Earth's history. This hypothesis is supported by known experimental facts, and it opens new ways to study not only our planet but other planets of the Solar System. One should note that according to accepted concepts, the dipole magnetic field could exist in planets with a sufficient

  9. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Visualization Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) Plot Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.

    1995-01-01

    The first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched in 1997 to collect data on the Earth's radiation budget. The data retrieved from the satellite will be processed through twelve subsystems. The Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) plot generator software was written to assist scientists in the early stages of CERES data analysis, producing two-dimensional plots of the footprint radiation and cloud data generated by one of the subsystems. Until the satellite is launched, however, software developers need verification tools to check their code. This plot generator will aid programmers by geolocating algorithm result on a global map.

  10. Global Change Research Related in the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Linda R.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle is to enhance the scientific knowledge and educational benefits obtained from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the U.S. Global Change Research Program, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). This paper presents the final technical report on this collaborative effort. Various appendices include: A) Staff Travel Activities years one through three; B) Publications and Presentations years one through three; C) Education Activities; D) Students year one through three; E) Seminars year one through three; and F) Center for Applied Optics Projects.

  11. Understanding and Measuring Earth's Energy Budget: From Fourier, Humboldt, and Tyndall to CERES and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Robert

    2012-07-01

    This historical perspective on the determination of Earth's energy fluxes, beginning with the classical description of climate, outlines the establishment of the basic physics of the Earth climate system in the nineteenth century. After recalling the early twentieth century ground-based attempts to determine the Earth's energy budget, I review the growing contributions of observations from space to quantifying these exchanges. In particular, space observations have shown that variations of solar luminosity have been extremely small (of order 0.1%) over past decades and probably past centuries and that they play practically no role in present-day climate variations or variations that may be expected in coming decades. Overall geographical structure, diurnal and seasonal cycles, and some of the interannual and interdecadal variations of Earth's energy exchanges with the Sun and space are now quite well determined, but much remains to be done regarding, on the one hand, fluxes at the surface and, on the other hand, variations of clouds. Improvements are essential if scientific assessment of anthropogenic climate change risk is to keep up with the changes themselves.

  12. The optical antenna system design research on earth integrative network laser link in the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianzhu; Fu, Qiang; He, Jingyi

    2014-11-01

    Earth integrated information network can be real-time acquisition, transmission and processing the spatial information with the carrier based on space platforms, such as geostationary satellites or in low-orbit satellites, stratospheric balloons or unmanned and manned aircraft, etc. It is an essential infrastructure for China to constructed earth integrated information network. Earth integrated information network can not only support the highly dynamic and the real-time transmission of broadband down to earth observation, but the reliable transmission of the ultra remote and the large delay up to the deep space exploration, as well as provide services for the significant application of the ocean voyage, emergency rescue, navigation and positioning, air transportation, aerospace measurement or control and other fields.Thus the earth integrated information network can expand the human science, culture and productive activities to the space, ocean and even deep space, so it is the global research focus. The network of the laser communication link is an important component and the mean of communication in the earth integrated information network. Optimize the structure and design the system of the optical antenna is considered one of the difficulty key technologies for the space laser communication link network. Therefore, this paper presents an optical antenna system that it can be used in space laser communication link network.The antenna system was consisted by the plurality mirrors stitched with the rotational paraboloid as a substrate. The optical system structure of the multi-mirror stitched was simulated and emulated by the light tools software. Cassegrain form to be used in a relay optical system. The structural parameters of the relay optical system was optimized and designed by the optical design software of zemax. The results of the optimal design and simulation or emulation indicated that the antenna system had a good optical performance and a certain

  13. Artificial Earth Satellites Designed and Fabricated by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Revised

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    until propellant exhaustion on 18 April 1975 , exceeding substantially its one-year design life. Experiments with an orbital prediction span of up to two...UWafeinS APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY SDO 1600 -- May 1975 I. 3 Appendix B THE NAVY NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM! One of the earliest programs designed to...SDO-1600 7 (Revised)lCL SARTIFICIAL EARTH SATELLITEStQ DESIGNED AND FABRICATED 9 by I THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY I __CD

  14. Magnetic to magnetic and kinetic to magnetic energy transfers at the top of the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguet, Ludovic; Amit, Hagay; Alboussière, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    We develop the theory for the magnetic to magnetic and kinetic to magnetic energy transfer between different spherical harmonic degrees due to the interaction of fluid flow and radial magnetic field at the top of the Earth's core. We show that non-zero secular variation of the total magnetic energy could be significant and may provide evidence for the existence of stretching secular variation, which suggests the existence of radial motions at the top of the Earth's core-whole core convection or MAC waves. However, the uncertainties of the small scales of the geomagnetic field prevent a definite conclusion. Combining core field and flow models we calculate the detailed magnetic to magnetic and kinetic to magnetic energy transfer matrices. The magnetic to magnetic energy transfer shows a complex behaviour with local and non-local transfers. The spectra of magnetic to magnetic energy transfers show clear maxima and minima, suggesting an energy cascade. The kinetic to magnetic energy transfers, which are much weaker due to the weak poloidal flow, are either local or non-local between degree one and higher degrees. The patterns observed in the matrices resemble energy transfer patterns that are typically found in 3-D MHD numerical simulations.

  15. An enhanced model of land water and energy for global hydrologic and earth-system studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, Paul C.D.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Shevliakova, Elena; Dunne, Krista A.; Findell, Kirsten L.; Gleeson, Tom; Liang, Zhi; Phillips, Peter; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Swenson, Sean

    2014-01-01

    LM3 is a new model of terrestrial water, energy, and carbon, intended for use in global hydrologic analyses and as a component of earth-system and physical-climate models. It is designed to improve upon the performance and to extend the scope of the predecessor Land Dynamics (LaD) and LM3V models by better quantifying the physical controls of climate and biogeochemistry and by relating more directly to components of the global water system that touch human concerns. LM3 includes multilayer representations of temperature, liquid water content, and ice content of both snowpack and macroporous soil–bedrock; topography-based description of saturated area and groundwater discharge; and transport of runoff to the ocean via a global river and lake network. Sensible heat transport by water mass is accounted throughout for a complete energy balance. Carbon and vegetation dynamics and biophysics are represented as in LM3V. In numerical experiments, LM3 avoids some of the limitations of the LaD model and provides qualitatively (though not always quantitatively) reasonable estimates, from a global perspective, of observed spatial and/or temporal variations of vegetation density, albedo, streamflow, water-table depth, permafrost, and lake levels. Amplitude and phase of annual cycle of total water storage are simulated well. Realism of modeled lake levels varies widely. The water table tends to be consistently too shallow in humid regions. Biophysical properties have an artificial stepwise spatial structure, and equilibrium vegetation is sensitive to initial conditions. Explicit resolution of thick (>100 m) unsaturated zones and permafrost is possible, but only at the cost of long (≫300 yr) model spinup times.

  16. Design + energy: results of a national student design competition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A national competition for students in schools of architecture was conducted during the Spring of 1980. The competition was the first of a series of competitions that emphasized the integration of architectural design and energy considerations in medium-scale building projects, and specifically applying passive solar design strategies and the appropriate use of brick masonry materials. Some 300 faculty members and over 2200 students representing 80 of the 92 US architecture schools participated in the program. A summary is presented of the program and the range of submissions grouped by problem types and general climatic region.

  17. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2016-07-12

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  18. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-28

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  19. Optimization methods for alternative energy system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Michael Henry

    An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal panels, layers of glazing in windows), the literature shows that the optimization methods used historically for design utilize continuous decision variables. Integer programming, used to find the optimal investment in conservation measures as a function of life cycle cost of an electric vehicle heating system, is compared to linear programming, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the discrete nature of design variables. The electric vehicle study shows that conservation methods similar to those used in building design, that reduce the overall UA of a 22 ft. electric shuttle bus from 488 to 202 (Btu/hr-F), can eliminate the need for fossil fuel heating systems when operating in the northeast United States. Fuzzy integer programming is presented as a means of accounting for imprecise design constraints such as being environmentally friendly in the optimization process. The solar thermal coffee dryer study focuses on a deep-bed design using unglazed thermal collectors (UTC). Experimental data from parchment coffee drying are gathered, including drying constants and equilibrium moisture. In this case, fuzzy linear programming is presented as a means of optimizing experimental procedures to produce the most information under imprecise constraints. Graphical optimization is used to show that for every 1 m2 deep-bed dryer, of 0.4 m depth, a UTC array consisting of 5, 1.1 m 2 panels, and a photovoltaic array consisting of 1, 0.25 m 2 panels produces the most dry coffee per dollar invested in the system. In general this study

  20. Revolutions in energy input and material cycling in Earth history and human history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga

    2016-04-01

    Major revolutions in energy capture have occurred in both Earth and human history, with each transition resulting in higher energy input, altered material cycles and major consequences for the internal organization of the respective systems. In Earth history, we identify the origin of anoxygenic photosynthesis, the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis, and land colonization by eukaryotic photosynthesizers as step changes in free energy input to the biosphere. In human history we focus on the Palaeolithic use of fire, the Neolithic revolution to farming, and the Industrial revolution as step changes in free energy input to human societies. In each case we try to quantify the resulting increase in energy input, and discuss the consequences for material cycling and for biological and social organization. For most of human history, energy use by humans was but a tiny fraction of the overall energy input to the biosphere, as would be expected for any heterotrophic species. However, the industrial revolution gave humans the capacity to push energy inputs towards planetary scales and by the end of the 20th century human energy use had reached a magnitude comparable to the biosphere. By distinguishing world regions and income brackets we show the unequal distribution in energy and material use among contemporary humans. Looking ahead, a prospective sustainability revolution will require scaling up new renewable and decarbonized energy technologies and the development of much more efficient material recycling systems - thus creating a more autotrophic social metabolism. Such a transition must also anticipate a level of social organization that can implement the changes in energy input and material cycling without losing the large achievements in standard of living and individual liberation associated with industrial societies.

  1. Design approaches to more energy efficient engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, N. T.; Colladay, R. S.; Macioce, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    In 1976 NASA initiated the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program to assist in the development of technology for more fuel-efficient aircraft for commercial airline use. The Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) Project of the ACEE program is intended to lay the advanced-technology foundation for a new generation of turbofan engines. This project, planned as a seven-year cooperative government-industry effort, is aimed at developing and demonstrating advanced component and systems technologies for engines that could be introduced into airline service by the late 1980s or early 1990s. In addition to fuel savings, new engines must offer potential for being economically attractive to the airline users and environmentally acceptable. A description is presented of conceptual energy-efficient engine designs which offer potential for achieving all of the goals established for the EEE Project.

  2. Design of an unmanned, reusable vehicle to de-orbit debris in Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aziz, Shahed; Cunningham, Timothy W.; Moore-Mccassey, Michelle

    1990-01-01

    The space debris problem is becoming more important because as orbital missions increase, the amount of debris increases. It was the design team's objective to present alternative designs and a problem solution for a deorbiting vehicle that will alleviate the problem by reducing the amount of large debris in earth orbit. The design team was asked to design a reusable, unmanned vehicle to de-orbit debris in earth orbit. The design team will also construct a model to demonstrate the system configuration and key operating features. The alternative designs for the unmanned, reusable vehicle were developed in three stages: selection of project requirements and success criteria, formulation of a specification list, and the creation of alternatives that would satisfy the standards set forth by the design team and their sponsor. The design team selected a Chain and Bar Shot method for deorbiting debris in earth orbit. The De-orbiting Vehicle (DOV) uses the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) as the propulsion and command modules with the deorbiting module attached to the front.

  3. The effect of cloud type on Earth's energy balance - Global analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dennis L.; Ockert-Bell, Maureen E.; Michelsen, Marc L.

    1992-01-01

    The role of fractional area coverage by cloud types in the energy balance of the earth is investigated through joint use of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) C1 cloud data and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) broadband energy flux data for the one-year period March 1985 through February 1986. Multiple linear regression is used to relate the radiation budget data to the cloud data. Comparing cloud forcing estimates obtained from the ISCCP-ERBE regression with those derived from the ERBE scene identification shows generally good agreement except over snow, in tropical convective regions, and in regions that are either nearly cloudless or always overcast. It is suggested that a substantial fraction of the disagreement in longwave cloud forcing in tropical convective regions is associated with the fact that the ERBE scene identification does not take into account variations in upper-tropospheric water vapor. On a global average basis, low clouds make the largest contribution to the net energy balance of the Earth, because they cover such a large area and because their albedo effect dominates their effect on emitted thermal radiation. High, optically thick clouds can also very effectively reduce the energy balance, however, because their very high albedos overcome their low emission temperatures.

  4. Design for minimum energy in interstellar communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerschmitt, David G.

    2015-02-01

    Microwave digital communication at interstellar distances is the foundation of extraterrestrial civilization (SETI and METI) communication of information-bearing signals. Large distances demand large transmitted power and/or large antennas, while the propagation is transparent over a wide bandwidth. Recognizing a fundamental tradeoff, reduced energy delivered to the receiver at the expense of wide bandwidth (the opposite of terrestrial objectives) is advantageous. Wide bandwidth also results in simpler design and implementation, allowing circumvention of dispersion and scattering arising in the interstellar medium and motion effects and obviating any related processing. The minimum energy delivered to the receiver per bit of information is determined by cosmic microwave background alone. By mapping a single bit onto a carrier burst, the Morse code invented for the telegraph in 1836 comes closer to this minimum energy than approaches used in modern terrestrial radio. Rather than the terrestrial approach of adding phases and amplitudes increases information capacity while minimizing bandwidth, adding multiple time-frequency locations for carrier bursts increases capacity while minimizing energy per information bit. The resulting location code is simple and yet can approach the minimum energy as bandwidth is expanded. It is consistent with easy discovery, since carrier bursts are energetic and straightforward modifications to post-detection pattern recognition can identify burst patterns. Time and frequency coherence constraints leading to simple signal discovery are addressed, and observations of the interstellar medium by transmitter and receiver constrain the burst parameters and limit the search scope.

  5. The feasibility and application of using gravitational energy to allow efficient travel between earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, O. L.; Avvento, Gennaro J.

    This paper discusses the feasibility and application of using gravitational energy attained in a planetary swing-by to control the trajectory of an interplanetary transfer vehicle (IPTV) - establishing nonstop round trip orbits between earth and Mars. Energy supplied by the swing-by process and supplemented by minor correction burns will allow efficient nonstop round trip travel between earth and Mars. The IPTV will have all the necessary support equipment to maintain the cargo (manned/unmanned) during transit. At the planetary 'landfall' points, the IPTV will not decelerate but will perform a swing-by maneuver returning to the planet of origin. Cargo elements will either depart or dock with the IPTV at the planetary approach asymptote. This will be the only component of the system to undergo propulsive maneuvers.

  6. Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.; Gallagher, Lawrence P.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with…

  7. System design and specifications. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A design summary of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) is presented. The systems considered in the summary are: (1) the spacecraft structure, (2) electrical power modules, (3) communications and data handling module, (4) attitude determination module, (5) actuation module, and (6) solar array and drive module. The documents which provide the specifications for the systems and the equipment are identified.

  8. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

  9. Microscopic energy correction to the ground states of some rare-earth nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Allal, N.H.; Fellah, M. )

    1994-09-01

    The total microscopic correction to the deformation energy of the rare-earth even-even nuclei is evaluated by a method that takes simultaneously into account the shell and pairing effects. The single-particle basis used is the Woods-Saxon potential. The results are in good agreement with experiments and represent an improvement as compared to the usual Strutinsky and BCS methods.

  10. High Earth Orbit Design for Lunar-Assisted Medium Class Explorer Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGiffin, Daniel A.; Mathews, Michael; Cooley, Steven

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the application of high-Earth orbit (HEO) trajectories to missions requiring long on-target integration times, avoidance of the Earth's radiation belt, and minimal effects of Earth and Lunar shadow periods which could cause thermal/mechanical stresses on the science instruments. As used here, a HEO trajectory is a particular solution to the restricted three-body problem in the Earth-Moon system with the orbit period being either 1/2 of, or 1/4 of, the lunar sidereal period. A primary mission design goal is to find HEO trajectories where, for a five-year mission duration, the minimum perigee radius is greater than seven Earth radii (R(sub E)). This minimum perigee radius is chosen so that, for the duration of the mission, the perigee is always above the relatively heavily populated geosynchronous radius of 6.6 R(sub E). A secondary goal is to maintain as high an ecliptic inclination as possible for the duration of the mission to keep the apsis points well out of the Ecliptic plane. Mission design analysis was completed for launch dates in the month of June 2003, using both direct transfer and phasing loop transfer techniques, to a lunar swingby for final insertion into a HEO. Also provided are analysis results of eclipse patterns for the trajectories studied, as well as the effects of launch vehicle errors and launch delays.

  11. Enhancing Decision Making in the Energy Sector Using Space-Based Earth Observations: A GEO and CEOS Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckman, R. S.; Stackhouse, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    Earth observations from space are playing an increasing role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, spaceborne observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations to improve solar energy resource assessment globally. As one of the nine Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of policy and management decision making in the energy sector employing Earth observations and related models is being conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS supports the space-based activities of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), contributing directly to GEO work plan tasks supporting the energy societal benefit area. We describe several projects being conducted by CEOS member agencies, including NASA, to engage and partner with end-user energy decision makers to enhance their decision support systems using space-based observations. These prototype projects have been pursued through the GEO Energy Community of Practice and, more recently, in collaboration with the CEOS Energy societal benefit area. Several case studies exhibiting the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment, improve the forecast of space-weather impacts on the power grid, and augment integrated assessment modeling studies for energy technology scenario evaluation are discussed. In addition, ongoing activities to engage stakeholders in other Federal agencies, industry, and academia are described.

  12. [Transparent evolution of the energy/matter interactions on earth: from gas whirlwind to technogenic civilization].

    PubMed

    Pechurkin, N S; Shuvaev, A N

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the idea of transparent evolution through the long-term reaction of the planet Earth on the external flow of radiant energy from the Sun. Due to limitations of matter on Earth, as well as on any other planet, the continuous pumping flow of radiant energy was shown to lead to cyclization and transport of substance on emerging gradients. The evolution of energy-matter interaction follows the path of capturing and transferring more energy by the fewer matter, i.e., the path of growth of the amount of energy used by each unit mass. For this indicator, the least effective mass transfer is a simple mass transfer as vortices of gases, in the gradients of temperature and pressure, which occurred on the primary surface of the planet. A long-term natural selection related to the accumulation of water on the planet has played a special role in developing the interaction of energy and matter. Phase transformations (ice, water, vapor) and mechanical transfers are the most common energy-matter processes. Based on water cycles, cyclic transports and transformations, chemical transformation of substances became possible developing over time into a biological transformation. This kind of the interaction of energy and matter is most efficient. In particular, during photosynthesis the energy of our star "is captured and utilized" in the most active part of the spectrum of its radiation. In the process of biological evolution of heterotrophs, a rise (by a factor of hundreds) in the coefficient that characterizes the intensity of energy exchange from protozoa to mammals is most illustratory. The development and the current dominance of humans as the most energy-using active species in capturing the energy and meaningful organization of its new flows especially on the basis of organic debris of former biospheres is admirable, but quite natural from the energy positions. In the course of technological evolution of humankind, the measure of the intensity of energy for

  13. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The key issues in the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) program which are subject to configuration study and tradeoff are identified. The issue of a combined operational and research and development program is considered. It is stated that cost and spacecraft weight are the key design variables and design options are proposed in terms of these parameters. A cost analysis of the EOS program is provided. Diagrams of the satellite configuration and subsystem components are included.

  14. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 3: Design cost trade-off studies and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the design and cost tradeoff aspects of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) development is presented. The design/cost factors that affect a series of mission/system level concepts are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) spacecraft subsystem cost tradeoffs, (2) ground system cost tradeoffs, and (3) program cost summary. Tables of data are provided to summarize the results of the analyses. Illustrations of the various spacecraft configurations are included.

  15. Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 2: Cryogenic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Detailed designs were made for three earth orbital propulsion systems; (1) the space shuttle (integrated) OMS/RCS, (2) the space shuttle (dedicated) OMS (LO2), and (3) the space tug. The preferred designs from the integrated OMS/RCS were used as the basis for the flight test article design. A plan was prepared that outlines the steps, cost, and schedule required to complete the development of the prototype DSL tank and feedline (LH2 and LO2) systems. Ground testing of a subscale model using LH2 verified the expulsion characteristics of the preferred DSL designs.

  16. Eigensensitivity in integrated design. [of earth-pointing satellite's control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Hou, Gene J.; Belvin, W. K.

    1990-01-01

    An application of eigensensitivity analysis to the control-structure integrated design process is presented with an emphasis placed on computational efficiency improvement of the overall design optimization process. The computational efficiency of eigenvalue/vector sensitivity analysis is demonstrated using the Earth Pointing Satellite in the context of a control-structure integrated design program. Results for a 2 percent design variable perturbation with and without the effects of the actuator mass show a 42 and 52 percent reduction in CPU time, respectively.

  17. A REVISED SOLAR TRANSFORMITY FOR TIDAL ENERGY RECEIVED BY THE EARTH AND DISSIPATED GLOBALLY: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar transformities for the tidal energy received by the earth and the tidal energy dissipated globally can be calculated because both solar energy and the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon drive independent processes that produce an annual flux of geopotential energy...

  18. Effects of rare-earth co-doping on the local structure of rare-earth phosphate glasses using high and low energy X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Alisha J; Cole, Jacqueline M; FitzGerald, Vicky; Honkimaki, Veijo; Roberts, Mark A; Brennan, Tessa; Martin, Richard A; Saunders, George A; Newport, Robert J

    2013-06-14

    Rare-earth co-doping in inorganic materials has a long-held tradition of facilitating highly desirable optoelectronic properties for their application to the laser industry. This study concentrates specifically on rare-earth phosphate glasses, (R2O3)x(R'2O3)y(P2O5)(1-(x+y)), where (R, R') denotes (Ce, Er) or (La, Nd) co-doping and the total rare-earth composition corresponds to a range between metaphosphate, RP3O9, and ultraphosphate, RP5O14. Thereupon, the effects of rare-earth co-doping on the local structure are assessed at the atomic level. Pair-distribution function analysis of high-energy X-ray diffraction data (Q(max) = 28 Å(-1)) is employed to make this assessment. Results reveal a stark structural invariance to rare-earth co-doping which bears testament to the open-framework and rigid nature of these glasses. A range of desirable attributes of these glasses unfold from this finding; in particular, a structural simplicity that will enable facile molecular engineering of rare-earth phosphate glasses with 'dial-up' lasing properties. When considered together with other factors, this finding also demonstrates additional prospects for these co-doped rare-earth phosphate glasses in nuclear waste storage applications. This study also reveals, for the first time, the ability to distinguish between P-O and P[double bond, length as m-dash]O bonding in these rare-earth phosphate glasses from X-ray diffraction data in a fully quantitative manner. Complementary analysis of high-energy X-ray diffraction data on single rare-earth phosphate glasses of similar rare-earth composition to the co-doped materials is also presented in this context. In a technical sense, all high-energy X-ray diffraction data on these glasses are compared with analogous low-energy diffraction data; their salient differences reveal distinct advantages of high-energy X-ray diffraction data for the study of amorphous materials.

  19. Energy Conscious Design: Educational Facilities. [Brief No.] 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    An energy task group of the American Institute of Architects discusses design features and options that educational facility designers can use to create an energy efficient school building. Design elements cover the building envelope, energy storage system, hydronic heating/cooling systems, solar energy collection, building orientation and shape,…

  20. Energy deposition in the earth's atmosphere due to impact of solar activity-generated disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Kan, L. C.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Dryer, M.

    1979-01-01

    Energy deposition in and dynamic responses of the terrestrial atmosphere to solar flare-generated shocks and other physical processes - such as particle precipitation and local heating - are investigated self-consistently in the context of hydrodynamics, the problem being treated as an initial boundary-value problem. It is extremely difficult to construct a general model for the line solar activity-magnetosphere-atmosphere; however, a limited model for this link is possible. The paper describes such a model, and presents some results on energy deposition into the earth's atmosphere due to solar activity-generated disturbances. Results from the present calculations are presented and discussed.

  1. Photovoltaic energy systems: Design and installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buresch, M.

    The characteristics of solar radiation, the design of solar cells, and the installation of Si solar cell arrays for various applications are described. The discussion is limited to medium-scale photovoltaic systems, from 0.1-100 kW peak output, mounted in fixed flat plate modules, the simplest, most maintenance-free concept. Solar cell functioning principles are outlined, including the parasitic mechanisms which reduce cell efficiency. The magnitude, variations, and distribution of the global solar energy input are quantified. Consideration is given to series and parallel connected solar arrays, and to performance under a variable load. Array protection and failure detection are explored, as are integrated array power conditioning equipment comprising energy storage, voltage regulation, and ac to dc converters. Attention is also devoted to array mounting and matching solar cell systems to load.

  2. Simulation of energy-dependent electron diffusion processes in the Earth's outer radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Nishimura, Y.; Zhang, X.-J.; Reeves, G. D.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Henderson, M. G.; Spence, H. E.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2016-05-01

    The radial and local diffusion processes induced by various plasma waves govern the highly energetic electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts, causing distinct characteristics in electron distributions at various energies. In this study, we present our simulation results of the energetic electron evolution during a geomagnetic storm using the University of California, Los Angeles 3-D diffusion code. Following the plasma sheet electron injections, the electrons at different energy bands detected by the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) and Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) instruments on board the Van Allen Probes exhibit a rapid enhancement followed by a slow diffusive movement in differential energy fluxes, and the radial extent to which electrons can penetrate into depends on energy with closer penetration toward the Earth at lower energies than higher energies. We incorporate radial diffusion, local acceleration, and loss processes due to whistler mode wave observations to perform a 3-D diffusion simulation. Our simulation results demonstrate that chorus waves cause electron flux increase by more than 1 order of magnitude during the first 18 h, and the subsequent radial extents of the energetic electrons during the storm recovery phase are determined by the coupled radial diffusion and the pitch angle scattering by EMIC waves and plasmaspheric hiss. The radial diffusion caused by ULF waves and local plasma wave scattering are energy dependent, which lead to the observed electron flux variations with energy dependences. This study suggests that plasma wave distributions in the inner magnetosphere are crucial for the energy-dependent intrusions of several hundred keV to several MeV electrons.

  3. An investigation of ESSA 7 radiation data for use in long-term earth energy experiments, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, F. B.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of an investigation of ESSA 7 satellite radiation data for use in long-term earth energy experiments. Satellite systems for performing long-term earth radiation balance measurements over geographical areas, hemispheres, and the entire earth for periods of 10 to 30 years are examined. The ESSA 7 satellite employed plate and cone radiometers to measure earth albedo and emitted radiation. Each instrument had a black and white radiometer which discriminated the components of albedo and emitted radiation. Earth measurements were made continuously from ESSA 7 for ten months. The ESSA 7 raw data is processed to a point where it can be further analyzed for: (1) development of long-term earth energy experiments; and (2) document climate trends.

  4. The Dark Energy Survey CCD imager design

    SciTech Connect

    Cease, H.; DePoy, D.; Diehl, H.T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Guarino, V.; Kuk, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schultz, K.; Schmitt, R.L.; Stefanik, A.; /Fermilab /Ohio State U. /Argonne

    2008-06-01

    The Dark Energy Survey is planning to use a 3 sq. deg. camera that houses a {approx} 0.5m diameter focal plane of 62 2kx4k CCDs. The camera vessel including the optical window cell, focal plate, focal plate mounts, cooling system and thermal controls is described. As part of the development of the mechanical and cooling design, a full scale prototype camera vessel has been constructed and is now being used for multi-CCD readout tests. Results from this prototype camera are described.

  5. Earth Entry Vehicle Design for Sample Return Missions Using M-SAPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Most mission concepts that return sample material to Earth share one common element: an Earth entry vehicle (EEV). The primary focus of this paper is the examination of EEV design space for relevant sample return missions. Mission requirements for EEV concepts can be divided into three major groups: entry conditions (e.g., velocity and flight path angle), payload (e.g., mass, volume, and g-load limit), and vehicle characteristics (e.g., thermal protection system, structural topology, and landing concepts). The impacts of these requirements on the EEV design have been studied with an integrated system analysis tool, and the results will be discussed in details. In addition, through sensitivities analyses, critical design drivers that have been identified will be reviewed.

  6. NASA Earth Observations Informing Renewable Energy Management and Policy Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckman, Richard S.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program partners with domestic and international governmental organizations, universities, and private entities to improve their decisions and assessments. These improvements are enabled by using the knowledge generated from research resulting from spacecraft observations and model predictions conducted by NASA and providing these as inputs to the decision support and scenario assessment tools used by partner organizations. The Program is divided into eight societal benefit areas, aligned in general with the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) themes. The Climate Application of the Applied Sciences Program has as one of its focuses, efforts to provide for improved decisions and assessments in the areas of renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency, and climate change impacts. The goals of the Applied Sciences Program are aligned with national initiatives such as the U.S. Climate Change Science and Technology Programs and with those of international organizations including the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). Activities within the Program are funded principally through proposals submitted in response to annual solicitations and reviewed by peers.

  7. Earth Shelter Buildings Coupled with the Sun: Opportunities and Constraints in Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David J.

    1982-01-01

    The new Civil/Mineral Engineering Building on the University of Minnesota Minneapolis campus is a demonstration design in energy conservation and innovation in active and passive solar energy applications. Its antecedents at the university represent contributory steps in the identification of issues and the development of design principles. (MLW)

  8. Preview of the BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Wilson, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; McCollough, M. L.; Robinson, C. R.; Sahi, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has been detecting and monitoring point sources in the high energy sky since 1991. Although BATSE is best known for gamma ray bursts, it also monitors the sky for longer-lived sources of radiation. Using the Earth occultation technique to extract flux information, a catalog is being prepared of about 150 sources potential emission in the large area detectors (20-1000 keV). The catalog will contain light curves, representative spectra, and parametric data for black hole and neutron star binaries, active galaxies, and super-nova remnants. In this preview, we present light curves for persistent and transient sources, and also show examples of what type of information can be obtained from the BATSE Earth occultation database. Options for making the data easily accessible as an "on line" WWW document are being explored.

  9. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data Products for Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rutan, David A.; Rose, Fred G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project integrates CERES, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and geostationary satellite observations to provide top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances derived from broadband radiance observations by CERES instruments. It also uses snow cover and sea ice extent retrieved from microwave instruments as well as thermodynamic variables from reanalysis. In addition, these variables are used for surface and atmospheric irradiance computations. The CERES project provides TOA, surface, and atmospheric irradiances in various spatial and temporal resolutions. These data sets are for climate research and evaluation of climate models. Long-term observations are required to understand how the Earth system responds to radiative forcing. A simple model is used to estimate the time to detect trends in TOA reflected shortwave and emitted longwave irradiances.

  10. Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Institute for Global Change Research and Education (IGCRE) is a joint initiative of the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) for coordinating and facilitating research and education relevant to global environmental change. Created in 1992 with primary support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), IGCRE fosters participation by university, private sector and government scientists who seek to develop long-term collaborative research in global change science, focusing on the role of water and energy in the Earth's atmosphere and physical climate system. IGCRE is also chartered to address educational needs of Earth system and global change science, including the preparation of future scientists and training of primary and secondary education teachers.

  11. Monitoring the Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Sky Using Earth Occultation with GLAST GBM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, G.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Cherry, M.; Kippen, M.; Ling, J.; Radocinski, R.; Wheaton, W.

    2007-01-01

    Long term all-sky monitoring of the 20 keV - 2 MeV gamma-ray sky using the Earth occultation technique was demonstrated by the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The principles and techniques used for the development of an end-to-end earth occultation data analysis system for BATSE can be extended to the GLAST Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), resulting in multiband light curves and time-resolved spectra in the energy range 8 keV to above 1 MeV for known gamma-ray sources and transient outbursts, as well as the discovery of new sources of gamma-ray emission. In this paper we describe the application of the technique to the GBM. We also present the expected sensitivity for the GBM.

  12. Optimal hydraulic design of earth dam cross section using saturated-unsaturated seepage flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.-Q.; Unami, K.; Kawachi, T.

    An optimal hydraulic design problem regarding an earth dam cross section is formulated as an inverse problem for the steady model of saturated-unsaturated seepage flows in porous media. In the problem formulation, the choice of soil material to be used in each point of the dam cross sectional domain is considered as the control variable to be identified. The performance index used to evaluate the appropriateness of the design is defined as the sum of two square integral norms, which represent reducing the saturated zone and minimizing material costs. It is also shown that the first norm bounds the total seepage discharge through the earth dam. Since the governing variational boundary value problem as well as the adjoint problem is well-posed, a deterministic approach is taken. A numerical scheme including pseudo-unsteady terms is developed to calculate the optimal solution in an ideal earth dam cross section to be designed utilizing two different types of soil material. The results show that an inclined clay core of less hydraulic conductivity should be located on the upstream side of the cross section. The unsaturated zone turns out to play an important role in the flow field and the optimal design.

  13. EarthCube as an information resource marketplace; the GEAR Project conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.; Zaslavsky, I.; Gupta, A.; Valentine, D.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscience Architecture for Research (GEAR) is approaching EarthCube design as a complex and evolving socio-technical federation of systems. EarthCube is intended to support the science research enterprise, for which there is no centralized command and control, requirements are a moving target, the function and behavior of the system must evolve and adapt as new scientific paradigms emerge, and system participants are conducting research that inherently implies seeking new ways of doing things. EarthCube must address evolving user requirements and enable domain and project systems developed under different management and for different purposes to work together. The EC architecture must focus on creating a technical environment that enables new capabilities by combining existing and newly developed resources in various ways, and encourages development of new resource designs intended for re-use and interoperability. In a sense, instead of a single architecture design, GEAR provides a way to accommodate multiple designs tuned to different tasks. This agile, adaptive, evolutionary software development style is based on a continuously updated portfolio of compatible components that enable new sub-system architecture. System users make decisions about which components to use in this marketplace based on performance, satisfaction, and impact metrics collected continuously to evaluate components, determine priorities, and guide resource allocation decisions by the system governance agency. EC is designed as a federation of independent systems, and although the coordinator of the EC system may be named an enterprise architect, the focus of the role needs to be organizing resources, assessing their readiness for interoperability with the existing EC component inventory, managing dependencies between transient subsystems, mechanisms of stakeholder engagement and inclusion, and negotiation of standard interfaces, rather than actual specification of components. Composition of

  14. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    Design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into construction or renovation plans, schools can reduce energy consumption and costs.

  15. Mechanisms of Earth activity forsed by external celestial bodies:energy budjet and nature of cyclicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    In given report we discuss tidal and non-tidal mechanisms of forced tectonic (endogenous) activity of the Earth caused by gravitational attraction of the Moon, Sun and the planets. On the base of the classical solution of the problem of elasticity for model of the Earth with concentric mass distribution the evaluations of the tidal energy and power of Earth lunar-solar deformations, including their joint effect, were obtained. Important role of the joint energetic effect of rotational deformation of the Earth with lunar and solar tides was illustrated. Gravitational interaction of the Moon and Sun with non-spherical, non-homogeneous shells of the Earth generates big additional mechanical forces and moments of the interaction of the neighboring shells (rigid core, liquid core, mantle, lithosphere and separate plates). Acting of these forces and moments in the different time scales on the corresponding sells generates cyclic perturbations of the tensional state of the shells, their deformations, small relative translational displacements and small relative rotational oscillations of the shells. In geological period of time it leads to a fundamental tectonic reconstruction of the Earth. These additional forces and moments of the cyclic celestial-mechanical nature produce cyclic deformations of the all layers of the body and organize and control practically all natural processes. The additional force between mantle and core is cyclic and characterized by the wide basis of frequencies typical for orbital motions (of the Sun, Moon and planets), for rotational motion of the Earth, Moon and Sun and for many from observed natural processes. The problem about small relative translatory-rotary motion of the two shells separated by the thin viscous-elastic layer is studied. The differential equations of motion were obtained and have been studied in particular cases (plane motion of system; case of two axisymmetrical interacting shells and oth.) by approximate methods of small

  16. Earth-Moon low energy trajectory optimization in the real system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Hanlun; Xu, Bo; Sun, Yisui

    2013-03-01

    The problem of the Earth-Moon low energy trajectory optimization in the real system (the model defined by the JPL ephemeris DE405) is considered in this paper. First, this problem is investigated in the model of circular restricted three-body problem, since the fuel consumption is closely related to the Jacobi integral of the transfer trajectory, a method based on Jacobi integral is proposed and eight optimal trajectories are obtained. These optimal trajectories provide initial information (the flight time and the braking velocity impulse) to search the optimal low energy trajectories in the real system through optimization techniques. Considering the merit and drawback of particle swarm optimization and differential evolution algorithm in solving the space trajectory problem, an improved cooperative evolutionary algorithm is put forward. Result shows that the low energy trajectories in the real system are more fuel-efficient than the corresponding ones under the circular restricted three-body problem.

  17. First observation of low-energy γ-ray enhancement in the rare-earth region

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Anna; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Beausang, C. W.; Humby, P.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Ross, T. J.; Allmond, James M.; Chyzh, R.; Dag, M.; Koglin, J.; McCleskey, E.; McCleskey, M.; Ota, S.; Saastamoinen, A.

    2016-03-04

    Here, the γ-ray strength function and level density in the quasi-continuum of 151,153Sm have been measured using bismuth germanate shielded Ge clover detectors of the STARLiTeR system. The Compton shields allow an extraction of the γ strength down to unprecedentedly low γ energies of ≈ 500 keV. For the first time an enhanced low-energy γ-ray strength has been observed in the rare-earth region. In addition, for the first time both the upbend and the well-known scissors resonance have been observed simultaneously for the same nucleus. Hauser-Feshbach calculations show that this strength enhancement at low γ energies could have an impact of 2 3 orders of magnitude on the (n, γ) reaction rates for r-process nucleosynthesis.

  18. Characterising the energy deposition events produced by trapped protons in low earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Brackenbush, L W; Braby, L A; Anderson, G A

    1989-01-01

    Men and equipment in space vehicles in low earth orbit are exposed to a wide variety of radiations, but the majority of the dose is due to trapped protons, which have energies of the order of 100 MeV and are low LET particles. These high energy particles produce nuclear fragmentation with high LET secondaries that may be responsible for a significant fraction of dose equivalent. In order to understand better the biological effectiveness of this radiation environment, a portable tissue equivalent proportional counter spectrometer has been developed that automatically records the distribution of energy in a small tissue-like site as a function of time. This instrument weighs about 700 g and will be flown on a number of future space shuttle flights.

  19. First observation of low-energy γ-ray enhancement in the rare-earth region

    DOE PAGES

    Simon, Anna; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; ...

    2016-03-04

    Here, the γ-ray strength function and level density in the quasi-continuum of 151,153Sm have been measured using bismuth germanate shielded Ge clover detectors of the STARLiTeR system. The Compton shields allow an extraction of the γ strength down to unprecedentedly low γ energies of ≈ 500 keV. For the first time an enhanced low-energy γ-ray strength has been observed in the rare-earth region. In addition, for the first time both the upbend and the well-known scissors resonance have been observed simultaneously for the same nucleus. Hauser-Feshbach calculations show that this strength enhancement at low γ energies could have an impactmore » of 2 3 orders of magnitude on the (n, γ) reaction rates for r-process nucleosynthesis.« less

  20. [Improvement of anti-stokes energy transfer between rare earth ions--2. Numerical calculation and analysis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-bo; Wang, Ce; Kang, Dong-guo; Sawanobori, Naruhito; Wang, Shui-feng; Li, Yong-liang; Wang, Ping

    2010-08-01

    The dynamics of all levels were calculated numerically in the present article for Er(0.5)Yb(3):FOV oxyfluoride nanophase vitroceramics. The population dynamical processes were analyzed carefully. It was found for the first time that traditional phonon-assisted energy transfer theory of rare earth ion energy transfer can not well explain the observed experimental calibrated results, as it does not take into account the difference between Stokes and anti-Stokes process. A coefficient, the improved factor of the intensity ratio of Stokes to anti-Stokes process in quantum Raman theory compared to classical Raman theory, was introduced for the first time to successfully describe the anti-Stokes energy transfer. The theoretical improvement results are coincident with experiments very well. This improvement is very significant and indispensable when the photonics of nanomaterials is probed.

  1. Conduction of thermal energy in the neighborhood of the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohlfeld, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The Rankine-Hugoniot equations for MHD shocks are generalized by the addition of a term to the energy conservation equation representing a nonzero heat flow in the plasma in the neighborhood of the shock. This generalization is found to be compatible with the assumption of infinite electrical conductivity. The effects of plasma waves in this treatment are of the order of the reciprocal Alfvenic Mach number squared and hence are neglected. The effect of alpha particles in the solar wind is discussed. Seven crossings of the earth's bow shock by Explorer 35 in lunar orbit are analyzed. Sufficient data are available so that the determination of a dimensionless parameter, psi, characterizing the heat-flow difference across the bow shock is possible. The values of psi indicate energy-flux densities due to heat flow which are a nonnegligible fraction of the total energy flux. Two possible interpretations of psi are discussed.

  2. Design and Application of a Community Land Benchmarking System for Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, M.; Hoffman, F. M.; Lawrence, D. M.; Riley, W. J.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Koven, C. D.; Kluzek, E. B.; Mao, J.; Randerson, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Benchmarking has been widely used to assess the ability of climate models to capture the spatial and temporal variability of observations during the historical era. For the carbon cycle and terrestrial ecosystems, the design and development of an open-source community platform has been an important goal as part of the International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) project. Here we developed a new benchmarking software system that enables the user to specify the models, benchmarks, and scoring metrics, so that results can be tailored to specific model intercomparison projects. Evaluation data sets included soil and aboveground carbon stocks, fluxes of energy, carbon and water, burned area, leaf area, and climate forcing and response variables. We used this system to evaluate simulations from the 5th Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) with prognostic atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the period from 1850 to 2005 (i.e., esmHistorical simulations archived on the Earth System Grid Federation). We found that the multi-model ensemble had a high bias in incoming solar radiation across Asia, likely as a consequence of incomplete representation of aerosol effects in this region, and in South America, primarily as a consequence of a low bias in mean annual precipitation. The reduced precipitation in South America had a larger influence on gross primary production than the high bias in incoming light, and as a consequence gross primary production had a low bias relative to the observations. Although model to model variations were large, the multi-model mean had a positive bias in atmospheric carbon dioxide that has been attributed in past work to weak ocean uptake of fossil emissions. In mid latitudes of the northern hemisphere, most models overestimate latent heat fluxes in the early part of the growing season, and underestimate these fluxes in mid-summer and early fall, whereas sensible heat fluxes show the opposite trend.

  3. Energy efficient building design. A transfer guide for local governments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  4. Navigation Design and Analysis for the Orion Earth-Moon Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DSouza, Christopher; Zanetti, Renato

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the design of the cislunar optical navigation system being proposed for the Orion Earth-Moon (EM) missions. In particular, it presents the mathematics of the navigation filter. The unmodeled accelerations and their characterization are detailed. It also presents the analysis that has been performed to understand the performance of the proposed system, with particular attention paid to entry flight path angle constraints and the delta-V performance.

  5. Applicability of the control configured design approach to advanced earth orbital transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Zeck, H.; Walker, W. H.; Shafer, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The applicability of the control configured design approach (CCV) to advanced earth orbital transportation systems was studied. The baseline system investigated was fully reusable vertical take-off/horizontal landing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle and had mission requirements similar to the space shuttle orbiter. Technical analyses were made to determine aerodynamic, flight control and subsystem design characteristics. Figures of merit were assessed on vehicle dry weight and orbital payload. The results indicated that the major parameters for CCV designs are hypersonic trim, aft center of gravity, and control surface heating. Optimized CCV designs can be controllable and provide substantial payload gains over conventional non-CCV design vertical take-off vehicles.

  6. Comparison of high-energy trapped particle environments at the Earth and Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B

    2005-01-01

    The 'Van Allen belts' of the trapped energetic particles in the Earth's magnetosphere were discovered by the Explorer I satellite in 1958. In addition, in 1959, it was observed that UHF radio emissions from Jupiter probably had a similar source--the Jovian radiation belts. In this paper, the global characteristics of these two planets' trapped radiation environments and respective magnetospheres are compared and state-of-the-art models used to generate estimates of the high-energy electron (> or = 100 keV) and proton (> or = 1 MeV) populations--the dominant radiation particles in these environments. The models used are the AP8/AE8 series for the Earth and the Divine-Garrett/GIRE model for Jupiter. To illustrate the relative magnitude of radiation effects at each planet, radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the total ionising dose levels at the geosynchronous orbit for the Earth and at Europa (Jupiter's 4th largest moon) for Jupiter. The results show that the dose rates are -0.1 krad(Si) d(-1) at the geosynchronous orbit and -30 krad(Si) d((-1) at Europa for a 2.5 mm spherical shell aluminium shield--a factor of -300 between the two planets.

  7. Pairing Essential Climate Science with Sustainable Energy Information: the "EARTH-The Operators' Manual" experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuginow, E.; Alley, R. B.; Haines-Stiles, G.

    2010-12-01

    Social science research on the effective communication of climate science suggests that today's audiences may be effectively engaged by presenting information about Earth's climate in the context of individual and community actions that can be taken to increase energy efficiency and to reduce carbon emissions. "EARTH-The Operators' Manual" (ETOM) is an informal science education and outreach project supported by NSF, comprising three related components: a 3-part broadcast television mini-series; on-site outreach at 5 major science centers and natural history museums strategically located across the USA; and a website with innovative social networking tools. A companion tradebook, written by series presenter and Penn State glaciologist Richard Alley, is to be published by W. W. Norton in spring 2011. Program 1, THE BURNING QUESTION, shows how throughout human history our need for energy has been met by burning wood, whale oil and fossil fuels, but notes that fossil fuels produce carbon dioxide which inevitably change the composition of Earth's atmosphere. The program uses little known stories (such as US Air Force atmospheric research immediately after WW2, looking at the effect of CO2 levels on heat-seeking missiles, and Abraham Lincoln's role in the founding of the National Academy of Sciences and the Academy's role in solving navigation problems during the Civil War) to offer fresh perspectives on essential but sometimes disputed aspects of climate science: that today's levels of CO2 are unprecedented in the last 400,000 and more years; that human burning of fossil fuel is the scientifically-proven source, and that multiple lines of evidence show Earth is warming. Program 2, TEN WAYS TO KEEP TEN BILLION SMILING, offers a list of appealing strategies (such as "Get Rich and Save the World": Texas & wind energy, and "Do More with Less": how glow worms make cool light without waste heat, suggesting a role for organic LEDs) to motivate positive responses to the

  8. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  9. Use of excess solar array power by regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems in low earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Hoberecht, M.A.; Green, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC`s) are a competing energy storage system technology for a number of low-earth-orbit applications. The system is comprised of an electrolyzer which utilizes solar array power to convert water into hydrogen and oxygen reactants, a fuel cell that recombines the reactants back into water and produces power during eclipse, and associated controls and reactant storage. Round-trip electrical efficiencies of RFC systems are typically lower than competing battery energy storage systems. This results in larger solar arrays for the same application, with inherent drag, mass, and cost penalties. However, the increase in solar array size can be limited, if not totally eliminated, because of the ability of RFC systems to use excess solar array power. For this paper, the International Space Station (ISS) application was chosen for evaluation and comparison of battery and RFC energy storage systems. This selection was based on the authors` familiarity with the ISS design and the availability of a detailed in-house computer model specific to the ISS electrical power system (SPACE). Combined altitude and orientation effects, seasonal variations, and beginning-of-life solar array performance were examined for individual orbits at and above specified reference points. Charging characteristics of the battery system were also investigated. The evaluation allowed a comparison of the solar array size required with the existing battery energy storage system to the projected solar array size required with a possible RFC system. The results of the examination indicated that no increase in solar array size would be necessary for the ISS if outfitted with a RFC energy storage system, in spite of the lower round-trip electrical efficiency. For orbits with a minimum of excess power, the battery energy storage system used only 73% of the available solar array power as compared to 100% usage for a RFC system. The usage by the battery system was far less for the orbits

  10. Designating Earth's Moon as a United Nations World Heritage Site - Permanently Protected from Commercial or Military Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes that Earth's Moon, in its entirety, be designated a United Nations World Heritage Site (WHS), permanently protected from any and all commercial or military utilization and reserved exclusively for scientific and aesthetic purposes. The paper discusses: 1) the extraordinary importance of the Moon for science, culture, and religion - past, present and future; 2) the history of proposals to exploit the Moon for commercial and military purposes and the shortcomings of this colonial, exploitation paradigm; and 3) the necessity, policy mechanisms, and political dynamics of designating the Moon as a World Heritage Site, permanently protected from commercial and/or military uses. The first part of the paper discusses the extraordinary importance of the Moon as it exists today - as a scientific laboratory, a source of beauty and inspiration throughout human evolution, a source for artistic expression, and as an object that is considered sacred by many cultures. Next, the paper traces the history of specific proposals for the exploitation of the Moon for commercial and/or military purposes - including plans by the U.S. Air Force in 1959 to detonate a nuclear explosion on the Moon, proposals to strip-mine the lunar regolith for helium-3 and rocket-fuel hydrogen; construction of solar power plants to transmit energy to Earth, and proposals to use the lunar surface as a billboard upon which to project commercial advertisements visible from Earth. The profound ethical, legal, and scientific shortcomings of this exploitation paradigm are described as an emerging Extraterrestrial Manifest Destiny that we have a collective obligation to challenge and constrain. The paper proposes that space exploration be infused with an ethical commitment to compassion, reverence, conservation, and non-interference to abiotic and biotic systems alike; as opposed to the expansion and extraterrestrial imposition of the colonization, exploitation, domination, and despoliation

  11. Design description report for a photovoltaic power system for a remote satellite earth terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, N. A.; Naff, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) power system has been installed as an adjunct to an agricultural school at Wawatobi on the large northern island of the Republic of Indonesia. Its purpose is to provide power for a satellite earth station and a classroom. The renewable energy developed supports the video and audio teleconferencing systems as well as the facility at large. The ground station may later be used to provide telephone service. The installation was made in support of the Agency for International Development's Rural Satellite Program, whose purpose is to demonstrate the use of satellite communications for rural development assistance applications. The objective of this particular PV power system is to demonstrate the suitability of a hybrid PV engine-generator configuration for remote satellite earth stations.

  12. Global shortwave energy budget at the earth's surface from ERBE observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breon, Francois-Marie; Frouin, Robert

    1994-01-01

    A method is proposed to compute the net solar (shortwave) irradiance at the earth's surface from Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data in the S4 format. The S4 data are monthly averaged broadband planetary albedo collected at selected times during the day. Net surface shortwave irradiance is obtained from the shortwave irradiance incident at the top of the atmosphere (known) by subtracting both the shortwave energy flux reflected by the earth-atmosphere system (measured) and the energy flux absorbed by the atmosphere (modeled). Precalculated atmospheric- and surface-dependent functions that characterize scattering and absorption in the atmosphere are used, which makes the method easily applicable and computationally efficient. Four surface types are distinguished, namely, ocean, vegetation, desert, and snow/ice. Over the tropical Pacific Ocean, the estimates based on ERBE data compare well with those obtained from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B3 data. For the 9 months analyzed the linear correlation coefficient and the standard difference between the two datasets are 0.95 and 14 W/sq m (about 6% of the average shortwave irradiance), respectively, and the bias is 15 W/sq m (higher ERBE values). The bias, a strong function of ISCCP satellite viewing zenith angle, is mostly in the ISCCP-based estimates. Over snow/ice, vegetation, and desert no comparison is made with other satellite-based estimates, but theoretical calculations using the discrete ordinate method suggest that over highly reflective surfaces (snow/ice, desert) the model, which accounts crudely for multiple reflection between the surface and clouds, may substantially overestimate the absorbed solar energy flux at the surface, especially when clouds are optically thick. The monthly surface shortwave irradiance fields produced for 1986 exhibit the main features characteristic of the earth's climate. As found in other studies, our values are generally higher than

  13. Climate-induced tree mortality: earth system consequences for carbon, energy, and water exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, H. D.; Macalady, A.; Breshears, D. D.; Allen, C. D.; Luce, C.; Royer, P. D.; Huxman, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    One of the greatest uncertainties in global environmental change is predicting changes in feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere that could present hazards to current earth system function. Terrestrial ecosystems, and in particular forests, exert strong controls on the global carbon cycle and influence regional hydrology and climatology directly through water and surface energy budgets. Widespread, rapid, drought- and infestation-triggered tree mortality is now emerging as a phenomenon affecting forests globally and may be linked to increasing temperatures and drought frequency and severity. We demonstrate the link between climate-sensitive tree mortality and risks of altered earth system function though carbon, water, and energy exchange. Tree mortality causes a loss of carbon stocks from an ecosystem and a reduction sequestration capacity. Recent research has shown that the 2000s pinyon pine die-off in the southwest US caused the loss of 4.6 Tg of aboveground carbon stocks from the region in 5 years, far exceeding carbon loss from other disturbances. Widespread tree mortality in British Columbia resulted in the loss of 270 Tg of carbon, shifting affected forestland from a carbon sink to a source, and influenced Canadian forest policy on carbon stocks. Tree mortality, as an immediate loss of live tree cover, directly alters albedo, near-ground solar radiation, and the relative contributions of evaporation and transpiration to total evapotranspiration. Near-ground solar radiation, an important ecosystem trait affecting soil heating and water availability, increased regionally following the pinyon pine die-off. Conversely, forest canopy loss with tree mortality, is expected to increase regional albedo, especially for forests which experience winter snow cover, potentially offsetting the climate forcing of terrestrial carbon releases to the atmosphere. Initial hydrological response to die-off is likely a reduction in evapotranspiration, which can increase

  14. Precise analytical description of the Earth matter effect on oscillations of low energy neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Ioannisian, A.N.; Kazarian, N.A.; Smirnov, A.Yu.; Wyler, D.

    2005-02-01

    We present a formalism for the matter effects in the Earth on low energy neutrino fluxes which is both accurate and has all the advantages of a full analytic treatment. The oscillation probabilities are calculated up to the second order term in {epsilon}(x){identical_to}2V(x)E/{delta}m{sup 2}, where V(x) is the neutrino potential at position x. We show the absence of large undamped phases which makes the expansion in {epsilon} well behaved. An improved expansion is presented in terms of the variation of V(x) around a suitable mean value which allows one to treat energies up to those relevant for supernova neutrinos. We discuss also the case of three-neutrino mixing.

  15. The influence of the Earth's magnetosphere on the high-energy solar protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Makhmutov, V. S.; Charakhchyan, T. N.

    1985-01-01

    In the Earth's polar regions the intensity of the solar protons with the energy above the critical energy of geomagnetic cutoff is the same as in the interplanetary space. The penumbra in the polar regions is small and the East-West effect is also small. However the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity R sub c in polar regions is difficult to calculate because it is not sufficient to include only the internal sources of the geomagnetic field. During the magneto-quiescent periods the real value of R sub c can be less by 0.1 GV than the calculated value because of the external sources. During the geomagnetic storms the real value of R sub c is still lower.

  16. Earth Occultation Monitoring of the Hard X-ray/Low-Energy Gamma Ray Sky with GBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Michael L.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Case, G. L.; Chaplin, V.; Finger, M. H.; Jenke, P. A.; Rodi, J. C.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; GBM Earth Occultation Team

    2012-01-01

    By utilizing the Earth occultation technique (EOT), the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) instrument aboard Fermi has been used to make nearly continuous full-sky observations in the 8-1000 keV energy range. The GBM EOT analysis program currently monitors an input catalog containing 235 sources. We will present the GBM catalog of sources observed in the first 3 years of the EOT monitoring program, with special emphasis on the high energy (>100 keV) and time-variable sources, in particular the Crab, Cyg X-1, and A0535+26. We will also describe the initial results of an all-sky imaging analysis of the EOT data, with comparisons to the Swift, INTEGRAL, and Fermi LAT catalogs. This work is supported by the NASA Fermi Guest Investigator program, NASA/Louisiana Board of Regents, and Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia de Innovacion.

  17. Cloud Effects on Meridional Atmospheric Energy Budget Estimated from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Charlock, Thomas P.

    2008-01-01

    The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect, defined as the difference of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface cloud radiative effects, is estimated from three years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The zonal mean shortwave effect is small, though it tends to be positive (warming). This indicates that clouds increase shortwave absorption in the atmosphere, especially in midlatitudes. The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect is, however, dominated by the longwave effect. The zonal mean longwave effect is positive in the tropics and decreases with latitude to negative values (cooling) in polar regions. The meridional gradient of cloud effect between midlatitude and polar regions exists even when uncertainties in the cloud effect on the surface enthalpy flux and in the modeled irradiances are taken into account. This indicates that clouds increase the rate of generation of mean zonal available potential energy. Because the atmospheric cooling effect in polar regions is predominately caused by low level clouds, which tend to be stationary, we postulate that the meridional and vertical gradients of cloud effect increase the rate of meridional energy transport by dynamics in the atmosphere from midlatitude to polar region, especially in fall and winter. Clouds then warm the surface in polar regions except in the Arctic in summer. Clouds, therefore, contribute in increasing the rate of meridional energy transport from midlatitude to polar regions through the atmosphere.

  18. Design of Round-trip Trajectories to Near-Earth Asteroids Utilizing a Lunar Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Sonia; Barbee, Brent W.

    2011-01-01

    There are currently over 7,700 known Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and more are being discovered on a continual basis. Current models predict that the actual order of magnitude of the NEA population may range from 10' to 10 6 . The close proximity of NEA orbits to Earth's orbit makes it possible to design short duration round-trip trajectories to NEAs under the proper conditions. In previous work, 59 potentially accessible NEAs were identified for missions that depart Earth between the years 2016 and 2050 and have round-trip flight times of a year or less. We now present a new method for designing round-trip trajectories to NEAs in which the Moon's gravity aids the outbound trajectory via a lunar flyby. In some cases this gravity assist can reduce the overall spacecraft propellant required for the mission, which in turn can allow NEAs to be reached which would otherwise be inaccessible to a given mission architecture. Results are presented for a specific case study on NEA 2003 LN6.

  19. The Earth-Moon Transfer Trajectory Design and Analysis using Intermediate Loop Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Joo; Woo, Jin; Park, Sang-Young; Kyu-Hong Choi; Sim, Eun-Sup

    2009-06-01

    Various Earth-Moon transfer trajectories are designed and analyzed to prepare the future Korea's Lunar missions. Minimum fuel trajectory solutions are obtained for the departure year of 2017, 2020, 2022, and every required mission phases are analyzed from Earth departure to the final lunar mission orbit. N-body equations of motion are formulated which include the gravitational effect of the Sun, Earth and Moon. In addition, accelerations due to geopotential harmonics, Lunar J2 and solar radiation pressures are considered. Impulsive high thrust is assumed as the main thrusting method of spacecraft with launcher capability of KSLV-2 which is planned to be developed. For the method of injecting a spacecraft into a trans Lunar trajectory, both direct shooting from circular parking orbit and shooting from the multiple elliptical intermediate orbits are adapted, and their design results are compared and analyzed. In addition, spacecraft's visibility from Deajeon ground station are constrained to see how they affect the magnitude of TLI (Trans Lunar Injection) maneuver. The results presented in this paper includes launch opportunities, required optimal maneuver characteristics for each mission phase as well as the trajectory characteristics and numerous related parameters. It is confirmed that the final mass of Korean lunar explorer strongly depends onto the initial parking orbit's altitude and launcher's capability, rather than mission start time.

  20. Coloration Determination of Spectral Darkening Occurring on a Broadband Earth Observing Radiometer: Application to Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Grant; Priestley, Kory; Loeb, Norman G.; Loukachine, Konstantin; Thomas, Susan; Walikainen, Dale; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    2006-01-01

    It is estimated that in order to best detect real changes in the Earth s climate system, space based instrumentation measuring the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) must remain calibrated with a stability of 0.3% per decade. Such stability is beyond the specified accuracy of existing ERB programs such as the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES, using three broadband radiometric scanning channels: the shortwave 0.3 - 5microns, total 0.3. > 100microns, and window 8 - 12microns). It has been shown that when in low earth orbit, optical response to blue/UV radiance can be reduced significantly due to UV hardened contaminants deposited on the surface of the optics. Since typical onboard calibration lamps do not emit sufficient energy in the blue/UV region, this darkening is not directly measurable using standard internal calibration techniques. This paper describes a study using a model of contaminant deposition and darkening, in conjunction with in-flight vicarious calibration techniques, to derive the spectral shape of darkening to which a broadband instrument is subjected. Ultimately the model uses the reflectivity of Deep Convective Clouds as a stability metric. The results of the model when applied to the CERES instruments on board the EOS Terra satellite are shown. Given comprehensive validation of the model, these results will allow the CERES spectral responses to be updated accordingly prior to any forthcoming data release in an attempt to reach the optimum stability target that the climate community requires.

  1. Design of impulsive Earth-Moon Halo transfers: lunar proximity and direct options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hao; Zhang, Jingrui

    2016-10-01

    Techniques associated with stable manifold and lunar flyby have been applied to the construction of optimal transfers to Earth-Moon L1 /L2 libration point orbits. Compared with traditional design methods and to reduce maneuver cost, the design process presents a detailed analysis on the effect of lunar proximity with multiple constraints. An accurate and fast design strategy for seeking an insertion point and modifying the stable manifold to satisfy these constraints is proposed. Combined this strategy with the differential correction algorithm, the optimal transfer trajectory can be determined from a low-Earth orbit to a halo orbit around the L1 /L2 libration point within a little computational time. Different amplitudes and insertion points of halo orbit in conjunction with various constraint conditions about lunar flyby are considered to deeply examine the efficiency and reliability of the design algorithm. Preliminary results indicate that the required mission cost has a significant correlation with lunar proximity constraints, and demonstrate that the method of constructing impulsive lunar halo transfer trajectories with multiple constraints is feasible.

  2. Design Guide for Earth System Science Education: Common Student Learning Objectives and Special Pedagogical Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the NASA-supported undergraduate Earth System Science Education (ESSE) program, fifty-seven institutions have developed and implemented a wide range of Earth system science (ESS) courses, pedagogies, and evaluation tools. The Teaching, Learning, and Evaluation section of USRA's online ESSE Design Guide showcases these ESS learning environments. This Design Guide section also provides resources for faculty who wish to develop ESS courses. It addresses important course design issues including prior student knowledge and interests, student learning objectives, learning resources, pedagogical approaches, and assessments tied to student learning objectives. The ESSE Design Guide provides links to over 130 ESS course syllabi at introductory, senior, and graduate levels. ESS courses over the past 15 years exhibit common student learning objectives and unique pedagogical approaches. From analysis of ESS course syllabi, seven common student learning objectives emerged: 1) demonstrate systems thinking, 2) develop an ESS knowledge base, 3) apply ESS to the human dimension, 4) expand and apply analytical skills, 5) improve critical thinking skills, 6) build professional/career skills, and 7) acquire an enjoyment and appreciation for science. To meet these objectives, ESSE often requires different ways of teaching than in traditional scientific disciplines. This presentation will highlight some especially successful pedagogical approaches for creating positive and engaging ESS learning environments.

  3. Guidelines for the Selection of Near-Earth Thermal Environment Parameters for Spacecraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Justus, C. G.; Batts, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal analysis and design of Earth orbiting systems requires specification of three environmental thermal parameters: the direct solar irradiance, Earth's local albedo, and outgoing longwave radiance (OLR). In the early 1990s data sets from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment were analyzed on behalf of the Space Station Program to provide an accurate description of these parameters as a function of averaging time along the orbital path. This information, documented in SSP 30425 and, in more generic form in NASA/TM-4527, enabled the specification of the proper thermal parameters for systems of various thermal response time constants. However, working with the engineering community and SSP-30425 and TM-4527 products over a number of years revealed difficulties in interpretation and application of this material. For this reason it was decided to develop this guidelines document to help resolve these issues of practical application. In the process, the data were extensively reprocessed and a new computer code, the Simple Thermal Environment Model (STEM) was developed to simplify the process of selecting the parameters for input into extreme hot and cold thermal analyses and design specifications. In the process, greatly improved values for the cold case OLR values for high inclination orbits were derived. Thermal parameters for satellites in low, medium, and high inclination low-Earth orbit and with various system thermal time constraints are recommended for analysis of extreme hot and cold conditions. Practical information as to the interpretation and application of the information and an introduction to the STEM are included. Complete documentation for STEM is found in the user's manual, in preparation.

  4. Heat production by energy viscous dissipation at the stage of the Earth's accumulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurie Khachay, Professor; Olga Hachay, Professor

    2016-04-01

    In [1] it is suggested the model of Sun's protoplanetary cloud matter differentiation during the process of terrestrial planets accumulation. In [2] it was shown that the energy released during the decay of short-lived radioactive elements in the small size more than 50 km, it is enough that the temperature inside of the protoplanet becomes larger than the temperature of iron melting. It provides a realization of the matter differentiation process and convection development inside the inner envelopes. In [3] it is shown that during the sequence of changes in the growth of accumulated protoplanets, three types of driving mechanisms of convection are realized: internal heat sources; heated top; finally in the outer forming core of the Earth, heated from bottom and chemical and thermal convection. At all stages of proto Earth's development the convective heat-mass transfer becomes a most significant factor in the dynamics of the planet. However, the heat release due to friction in the viscous liquid is still considered only for the formed planetary envelopes with a constant radius and angular speed. In this paper we present the first results of numerical modeling of thermal evolution of 3D spherical segment for a protoplanet with increasing radius. To describe the planetary accumulation Safronov equation is used [4]. For the quantitative determination of the released heat by viscous friction a system of hydro dynamic equations of a viscous liquid is used. The obtained results show that the heat input due to viscous friction heat release at the early stage of planetary accumulation was very significant. This work was supported by grant RFFI №16-05-00540 Reference. 1. Anfilogov V., Khachay Y., 2015, Some Aspects of the Solar System Formation. Springer Briefs of the Earth Sciences. 75p 2. Anfilogov V., Khachay Y., 2005, A possible variant of matter differentiation on the initial stage of Earth's forming. DAN, V. 403, No 6, pp. 803-806. 3. Khachay Yu. Realization of

  5. The EOS Aqua/Aura Experience: Lessons Learned on Design, Integration, and Test of Earth-Observing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosek, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    NASA and NOAA earth observing satellite programs are flying a number of sophisticated scientific instruments which collect data on many phenomena and parameters of the earth's environment. The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Program originated the EOS Common Bus approach, which featured two spacecraft (Aqua and Aura) of virtually identical design but with completely different instruments. Significant savings were obtained by the Common Bus approach and these lessons learned are presented as information for future program requiring multiple busses for new diversified instruments with increased capabilities for acquiring earth environmental data volume, accuracy, and type.

  6. Energy-Efficient Design for Florida Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral.

    This manual provides a detailed simulation analysis of a variety of energy conservation measures (ECMs) with the intent of giving educational facility design teams in Florida a basis for decision making. The manual's three sections cover energy efficiency design considerations that appear throughout the following design processes: schematic…

  7. Community Design for Optimal Energy and Resource Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilenky, Stephen; And Others

    Presented is a study which investigated the energy and resource dynamics of a semi-autonomous domestic system for 30 people. The investigation is organized on three levels: (1) developing a preliminary design and design parameters; (2) development and quantification of the energy and resource dynamics; and (3) designing a model to extrapolate…

  8. Designing RFPs and Contracts that Promote Energy ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    The environmental and economic impacts of energy management are becoming a high priority in the drinking water and wastewater treatment industry. Energy accounts for approximately 35% of a utility's annual expenses, and energy management can help indicate if a plant is functioning properly.

  9. Design Guide for Aerodynamics Testing of Earth and Planetary Entry Vehicles in a Ballistic Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to aid in the design of an aerodynamics test of an earth or planetary entry capsule in a ballistic range. In this manual, much use is made of the results and experience gained in 50 years of ballistic range aerodynamics testing at the NASA Ames Research Center, and in particular, that gained in the last 27 years, while the author was working at NASA Ames. The topics treated herein include: Data to be obtained; flight data needed to design test; Reynolds number and dynamic similarity of flight trajectory and ballistic range test; capabilities of various ballistic ranges; Calculations of swerves due to average and oscillating lift and of drag-induced velocity decreases; Model and sabot design; materials, weights and stresses; Sabot separation; Launches at angle of attack and slapping with paper to produce pitch/yaw oscillations.

  10. Improvements in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Products Based on Instrument Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N. M.; Priestley, K.; Loeb, N. G.; Thomas, S.; Shankar, M.; Walikainen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) mission is instrumental in providing highly accurate radiance measurements that are critical for monitoring the Earth's radiation budget. Two identical CERES instruments are deployed aboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites Terra and Aqua. Each CERES instrument consists of scanning thermistor bolometer sensors that measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5 micron), total (0.3 to < 100 micron) and water vapor window (8 to 12 micron) regions. CERES instruments have the capability of scanning in either the cross-track or rotating azimuth plane (RAP) scan mode. Cross-track scanning, the primary mode of CERES operation, allows for the geographical mapping of the radiation fields while RAP scanning enables the acquisition of data over a more extensive combination of viewing configurations, needed for developing vastly improved angular distribution models used in radiance to flux conversion. To evaluate, achieve and maintain radiometric stability, a rigorous and comprehensive radiometric calibration and validation protocol is implemented. Calibrations and validation studies have indicated spectral changes in the reflected solar spectral regions of the shortwave and total sensors. Spectral darkening is detected in the shortwave channel optics, which is more prominent while the instrument operates in RAP mode. In the absence of a climatological explanation for this darkening, this likely occurs during part of the RAP scan cycle when the scan plane is aligned with the direction of motion, making the optics more susceptible to increased UV exposure and molecular contamination. Additionally, systematic daytime-nighttime longwave top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux inconsistency was also detected during validation, which highlights the changes in the shortwave region of the total sensor. This paper briefly describes the strategy to correct for the sensor response changes and presents the improvements in

  11. Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle Design Study for Cargo Transfer to Earth-moon L1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Falck, Robert D.; Dudzinski, Leonard J.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    A design study for a cargo transfer vehicle using solar electric propulsion was performed for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts program. Targeted for 2016, the solar electric propulsion (SEP) transfer vehicle is required to deliver a propellant supply module with a mass of approximately 36 metric tons from Low Earth Orbit to the first Earth-Moon libration point (LL1) within 270 days. Following an examination of propulsion and power technology options, a SEP transfer vehicle design was selected that incorporated large-area (approx. 2700 sq m) thin film solar arrays and a clustered engine configuration of eight 50 kW gridded ion thrusters mounted on an articulated boom. Refinement of the SEP vehicle design was performed iteratively to properly estimate the required xenon propellant load for the out-bound orbit transfer. The SEP vehicle performance, including the xenon propellant estimation, was verified via the SNAP trajectory code. Further efforts are underway to extend this system model to other orbit transfer missions.

  12. Low-earth-orbit Satellite Internet Protocol Communications Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slywezak, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a design concept for a low-Earth-orbit end-to-end Internet-Protocol- (IP-) based mission. The goal is to maintain an up-to-date communications infrastructure that makes communications seamless with the protocols used in terrestrial computing. It is based on the premise that the use of IPs will permit greater interoperability while also reducing costs and providing users the ability to retrieve data directly from the satellite. However, implementing an IP-based solution also has a number of challenges, since wireless communications have different characteristics than wired communications. This report outlines the design of a low-Earth-orbit end-to-end IP-based mission; the ideas and concepts of Space Internet architectures and networks are beyond the scope of this document. The findings of this report show that an IP-based mission is plausible and would provide benefits to the user community, but the outstanding issues must be resolved before a design can be implemented.

  13. Constellation design for earth observation based on the characteristics of the satellite ground track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xin; Wang, Maocai; Dai, Guangming; Song, Zhiming

    2017-04-01

    This paper responds to the increasing need for Earth observation missions and deals with the design of Repeating Sun-Synchronous Constellations (RSSCs) which takes into consideration of constellations composed of one or more orbital planes. Based on the mature design approach of Repeating Sun-synchronous orbits, a novel technique to design RSSCs is presented, which takes the second gravitational zonal harmonic into consideration. In order to obtain regular cycles of observation of the Earth by a single satellite, the orbital relationships have to be satisfied firstly are illustrated. Then, by making full analyses of the characteristics of the satellite ground track, orbital parameters are properly calculated to make other satellites pass on the same or different ground track of the single satellite. Last, single-plane or multi-plane constellations are used to improve the repetitions of the observation and the ground resolution. RSSCs allow observing the same region once at the same local time in a solar day and several times at the different local time in a solar day. Therefore, this kind of constellations meets all requirements for the remote sensing applications, which need to observe the same region under the same or different visible conditions. Through various case studies, the calculation technique is successfully demonstrated.

  14. Lagrangian and energy forms for retrieving the impulse response of the Earth due to random electromagnetic forcing.

    PubMed

    Slob, Evert; Weiss, Chester J

    2011-08-01

    We distinguish between trivial and nontrivial differences in retrieving the real or imaginary parts of the Green's function. Trivial differences come from different Green's function definitions. The energy and lagrangian forms constitute nontrivial differences. Magnetic noise sources suffice to extract the quasistatic electromagnetic-field Earth impulse response in the lagrangian form. This is of interest for Earth subsurface imaging. A numerical example demonstrates that all source vector components are necessary to extract a single-field vector component.

  15. Earth resources data systems design: S192 instrument measurements and characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, A. S.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and characteristics of the S192 instrument for use with the earth resources data systems are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) multispectral scanner measurements, (2) measurement characteristics, (3) calibration and aligment, (4) operating modes, and (5) time tagging and references. The S192 will obtain high spatial resolution, quantitative line scan imagery data of the radiation reflected and emitted by selected test sites in up to 13 spectral bands of visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  16. Human factors analysis of workstation design: Earth Radiation Budget Satellite Mission Operations Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, L. J.; Murphy, E. D.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    A human factors analysis addressed three related yet distinct issues within the area of workstation design for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) mission operation room (MOR). The first issue, physical layout of the MOR, received the most intensive effort. It involved the positioning of clusters of equipment within the physical dimensions of the ERBS MOR. The second issue for analysis was comprised of several environmental concerns, such as lighting, furniture, and heating and ventilation systems. The third issue was component arrangement, involving the physical arrangement of individual components within clusters of consoles, e.g., a communications panel.

  17. Fast Track to the Cloud: Design Patterns for 12-Factor Earth Sciences Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawloski, Andrew; McLaughlin, Brett; Lynnes, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    As expanding service offerings and decreasing prices make the cloud increasingly attractive to Earth Science applications, there are nontrivial practical considerations which can hinder its meaningful use. In this talk, we will discuss architectural recommendations and lessons learned while working on EOSDIS' cloud efforts, particularly the NASA-compliant General Application Platform (NGAP) and its associated applications. Prominent in our findings is the importance of 12-factor design patterns and the powerful "wins" they enable in the cloud. We will share our strategies for "fast-tracking" applications to the cloud --whether they be legacy, planned for the future, or somewhere in between.

  18. Juno Earth Flyby as a Sensitive Detector of Anomalous Orbital-Energy Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Jordan, J. F.; Campbell, J. K.; Ekelund, J. E.; Bordi, J. J.; Abrahamson, M.; Ardalan, S. M.; Thompson, P. F.

    2013-12-01

    The fact that unexplained energy changes occur in some Earth flybys, but not all, was reported in 2008 by Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102. The anomaly is detected by analyzing radio Doppler and ranging data used for space navigation. It is most significant for the closest flybys at altitudes of 539 km for the NEAR spacecraft, 960 km for the first Galileo flyby, and 1956 km for the first Rosetta flyby, with anomalous total changes in the hyperbolic excess velocity at infinity of 13.5 mm/s, 3.9 mm/s and 1.8 mm/s, respectively. There is also a correlation with the amount of asymmetry of the flyby trajectory with respect to the Earth's equator. As it turns out, the Juno flyby is well suited for another detection of this anomaly, with an altitude of about 500 km, and a declination of the incoming hyperbolic asymptote of 14.6 deg and an outgoing asymptote of 40.4 deg. Further, the control sequence for the spacecraft introduces no significant translational forces for an interval of plus and minus four days of perigee. Based on eight flybys analyzed previously, and an empirical formula given in the 2008 paper, the expected size of the Juno anomaly is about 7 mm/s. The standard error of the measurement is about 0.01 mm/s. We report first results of the data analysis.

  19. Evidence for Seismogenic Hydrogen Gas, a Potential Microbial Energy Source on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Sean; Parnell, John; Blamey, Nigel J. F.

    2016-09-01

    The oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2) is thought to be a major source of metabolic energy for life in the deep subsurface on Earth, and it could likewise support any extant biosphere on Mars, where stable habitable environments are probably limited to the subsurface. Faulting and fracturing may stimulate the supply of H2 from several sources. We report the H2 content of fluids present in terrestrial rocks formed by brittle fracturing on fault planes (pseudotachylites and cataclasites), along with protolith control samples. The fluids are dominated by water and include H2 at abundances sufficient to support hydrogenotrophic microorganisms, with strong H2 enrichments in the pseudotachylites compared to the controls. Weaker and less consistent H2 enrichments are observed in the cataclasites, which represent less intense seismic friction than the pseudotachylites. The enrichments agree quantitatively with previous experimental measurements of frictionally driven H2 formation during rock fracturing. We find that conservative estimates of current martian global seismicity predict episodic H2 generation by Marsquakes in quantities useful to hydrogenotrophs over a range of scales and recurrence times. On both Earth and Mars, secondary release of H2 may also accompany the breakdown of ancient fault rocks, which are particularly abundant in the pervasively fractured martian crust. This study strengthens the case for the astrobiological investigation of ancient martian fracture systems.

  20. Systematic approach in designing rare-Earth-free hybrid semiconductor phosphors for general lighting applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Wei; Wei, George Z; Banerjee, Debasis; Hu, Zhichao; Li, Jing

    2014-10-08

    As one of the most rapidly evolving branches of solid-state lighting technologies, light emitting diodes (LEDs) are gradually replacing conventional lighting sources due to their advantages in energy saving and environmental protection. At the present time, commercially available white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) are predominantly phosphor based (e.g., a yellow-emitting phosphor, such as cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet or (YAG):Ce(3+), coupled with a blue-emitting InGaN/GaN diode), which rely heavily on rare-earth (RE) metals. To avoid potential supply risks of these elements, we have developed an inorganic-organic hybrid phosphor family based on I-VII binary semiconductors. The hybrid phosphor materials are totally free of rare-earth metals. They can be synthesized by a simple, low-cost solution process and are easily scalable. Their band gap and emission energy, intensity, and color can be systematically tuned by incorporating ligands with suitable electronic properties. High quantum efficiency is achieved for some of these compounds. Such features make this group of materials promising candidates as alternative phosphors for use in general lighting devices.

  1. Analyses of On-orbit Determinations of the Clouds and the Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometer Sensor Zero-radiance Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Thomas, Susan; Priestley, Kory J.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Smith, G. Louis; Al-hajjah, Aiman; Wilson, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) missions were designed to measure broadband earth-reflected shortwave solar (0.3 micrometers to less than 5.0 micrometers) and earth-emitted longwave (5.0 micrometers to greater than 100 micrometers) radiances as well as earth-emitted narrow-band radiances in the water vapor window region between 8 micrometers and 12 micrometers. However, the CERES scanning thermistor bolometer sensor zero-radiance offsets were found to vary as much as 1.0 Wm (exp -2) sr (exp -1) with the scan angle measurement geometry due to gravitational forces and systematic electronic noise. To minimize the gravitational effects, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft CERES sensors' offsets were derived on-orbit as functions of scan elevation and azimuth angles from the January 7-8, 1998 radiometric observations of deep cold space, representative of a 3 K blackbody. In this paper, the TRMM/CERES six orbit data base of on-orbit derived offsets is presented and analyzed to define the sampling requirements for the CERES sensors located on the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Terra Spacecraft and on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon (PM-1) Spacecraft, scheduled for launches in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Analyses of the TRMM/CERES shortwave sensor earth radiance measurements indicate that offsets can be determined on-orbit at the plus or minus 0.02 Wm (exp -2) sr (exp -1) precision level. Offset measuring techniques and sampling requirements are discussed for the TRMM and ESE missions. Ground, pre-launch Terra CERES cross-track scan offsets are presented and described which were measured as a function of scan angle.

  2. Hydrogeologic Controls on the Deep Terrestrial Biosphere - Chemolithotrophic Energy for Subsurface Life on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Moran, J.; Tille, S.; Voglesonger, K.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.; Onstott, T.; Pratt, L.; Slater, G.

    2009-05-01

    potential clathrates will affect the porosity and permeability, and net flux of gases from the Martian crust, the underlying principles of fracture-controlled energy sequestration and episodic release remain. Furthermore understanding the origin and distribution of biogenic and geologic sources of CH4 at these analog Earth sites will inform models and strategies for deciphering the origin of CH4 recently reported in the Martian atmosphere.

  3. Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Parnell, T.A.; Watts, J.W. Jr.; Akopova, A.B.; Magradze, N.V.; Dudkin, V.E.; Kovalev, E.E.; Potapov, Yu.V.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.; Benton, E.R. ||

    1995-03-01

    Integral linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation (CR) particles were measured on five Cosmos series spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO). Particular emphasis is placed on results of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite which carried a set of joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. radiation experiments involving passive detectors that included thermoluminescent detectors (TLD`s), plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD`s), fission foils, nuclear photo-emulsions, etc. which were located both inside and outside the spacecraft. Measured LET spectra are compared with those theoretically calculated. Results show that there is some dependence of LET spectra on orbital parameters. The results are used to estimate the CR quality factor (QF) for the COSMOS 1887 mission.

  4. Determination of Unfiltered Radiances from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Priestley, K. J.; Kratz, D. P.; Geier, E. B.; Green, R. N.; Wielicki, B. A.; Hinton, P. OR.; Nolan, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    A new method for determining unfiltered shortwave (SW), longwave (LW) and window (W) radiances from filtered radiances measured by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite instrument is presented. The method uses theoretically derived regression coefficients between filtered and unfiltered radiances that are a function of viewing geometry, geotype and whether or not cloud is present. Relative errors in insta.ntaneous unfiltered radiances from this method are generally well below 1% for SW radiances (approx. 0.4% 1(sigma) or approx.l W/sq m equivalent flux), < 0.2% for LW radiances (approx. 0.1% 1(sigma) or approx.0.3 W/sq m equivalent flux) and < 0.2% (approx. 0.1% 1(sigma) for window channel radiances.

  5. Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.; Watts, J. W., Jr.; Akopova, A. B.; Magradze, N. V.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Potapov, Yu. V.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    Integral linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of cosmic radiation (CR) particles were measured on five Cosmos series spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO). Particular emphasis is placed on results of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite which carried a set of joint U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. radiation experiments involving passive detectors that included thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's), plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's), fission foils, nuclear photo-emulsions, etc. which were located both inside and outside the spacecraft. Measured LET spectra are compared with those theoretically calculated. Results show that there is some dependence of LET spectra on orbital parameters. The results are used to estimate the CR quality factor (QF) for the COSMOS 1887 mission.

  6. Constraints on Energy Dissipation in the Earth's Body Tide From Satellite Tracking and Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Eanes, Richard J.; Lemoine, Frank G.

    1992-01-01

    The phase lag by which the earth's body tide follows the tidal potential is estimated for the principal lunar semidiurnal tide M(sub 2). The estimate results from combining recent tidal solutions from satellite tracking data and from Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. Each data type is sensitive to the body-tide lag: gravitationally for the tracking data, geometrically for the altimetry. Allowance is made for the lunar atmospheric tide. For the tidal potential Love number kappa(sub 2) we obtain a lag epsilon of 0.20 deg +/- 0.05 deg, implying an effective body-tide Q of 280 and body-tide energy dissipation of 110 +/- 25 gigawatts.

  7. Wavelength-stable rare earth-free green light-emitting diodes for energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Christian; Detchprohm, Theeradetch

    2011-07-04

    Solid state lighting seeks to replace both, incandescent and fluorescent lighting by energy efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Just like compact fluorescent tubes, current white LEDs employ costly rare earth-based phosphors, a drawback we propose to overcome with direct emitting LEDs of all colors. We show the benefits of homoepitaxial LEDs on bulk GaN substrate for wavelength-stable green spectrum LEDs. By use of non-polar growth orientation we avoid big color shifts with drive current and demonstrate polarized light emitters that prove ideal for pairing with liquid crystal display modulators in back light units of television monitors. We further offer a comparison of the prospects of non-polar a- and m-plane growth over conventional c-plane growth.

  8. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. Process emissio...

  9. Design of a Representative Low Earth Orbit Satellite to Improve Existing Debris Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S.; Dietrich, A.; Werremeyer, M.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Liou, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the process and methodologies used in the design of a small-satellite, DebriSat, that represents materials and construction methods used in modern day Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. This satellite will be used in a future hypervelocity impact test with the overall purpose to investigate the physical characteristics of modern LEO satellites after an on-orbit collision. The major ground-based satellite impact experiment used by DoD and NASA in their development of satellite breakup models was conducted in 1992. The target used for that experiment was a Navy Transit satellite (40 cm, 35 kg) fabricated in the 1960 s. Modern satellites are very different in materials and construction techniques from a satellite built 40 years ago. Therefore, there is a need to conduct a similar experiment using a modern target satellite to improve the fidelity of the satellite breakup models. The design of DebriSat will focus on designing and building a next-generation satellite to more accurately portray modern satellites. The design of DebriSat included a comprehensive study of historical LEO satellite designs and missions within the past 15 years for satellites ranging from 10 kg to 5000 kg. This study identified modern trends in hardware, material, and construction practices utilized in recent LEO missions, and helped direct the design of DebriSat.

  10. The World's Largest Experiment Manipulating Solar Energy Input To Earth Resumed In 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    Small amounts of solar-ultraviolet-energy absorbing gases such as ozone, SO2, and NO2 play an unusually large role warming the atmosphere. A mere 3 to 8 ppmv ozone at elevations of 15 to 50 km and associated exothermic chemical reactions warm the atmosphere >50oC, forming the stratosphere. All three molecules have an asymmetric top shape that, unlike linear molecules of CO2, forms a permanent electromagnetic dipole enhancing interaction with electromagnetic radiation. Planck’s postulate (Energy = a constant times frequency) implies that solar ultraviolet energy strongly absorbed by SO2 is 43 times greater than infrared energy radiated by earth and strongly absorbed by CO2. Solar energy in the blue visible spectrum and ultraviolet causes electronic transitions and an absorption spectrum that is a continuum, absorbing far more energy per unit gas than spectral line absorption of infrared energy caused by rotational and vibrational transitions. Absorption of electromagnetic energy by atmospheric gases increases rapidly with increasing frequency, an observation not accounted for by the use of specific heat in atmospheric models to link energy flux with temperature. While SO2 in the stratosphere is oxidized to a sulfuric acid aerosol that reflects sunlight, cooling the earth, SO2 in the troposphere is oxidized much more slowly than commonly assumed. Well-documented concentrations of tens of ppbv SO2 emitted by humans burning fossil fuels, especially coal, in northern mid-latitudes are contemporaneous, with suitable time delays for warming the ocean, with increased global warming during the 20th century, greatest by nearly a factor of two in the northern hemisphere. A decrease by 18% of anthropogenic SO2 emissions between 1979 and 2000 aimed at reducing acid rain had the unintended effect of reducing the global mean rate of temperature increase to zero by 1998. By 2003, global SO2 emissions began to rise sharply due to the rapid increase in number of new coal

  11. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

  12. Design/cost tradeoff studies. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results of design/cost tradeoff studies conducted during the Earth Observatory Satellite system definition studies are presented. The studies are concerned with the definition of a basic modular spacecraft capable of supporting a variety of operational and/or research and development missions, with the deployment either by conventional launch vehicles or by means of the space shuttle. The three levels investigated during the study are: (1) subsystem tradeoffs, (2) spacecraft tradeoffs, and (3) system tradeoffs. The range of requirements which the modular concept must span is discussed. The mechanical, thermal, power, data and electromagnetic compatibility aspects of modularity are analyzed. Other data are provided for the observatory design concept, the payloads, integration and test, the ground support equipment, and ground data management systems.

  13. Design of rare-earth-ion doped chalcogenide photonic crystals for enhancing the fluorescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peiqing; Dai, Shixun; Niu, Xueke; Xu, Yinsheng; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Yuehao; Xu, Tiefeng; Nie, Qiuhua

    2014-07-01

    Rare-earth-ion doped chalcogenide glass is a promising material for developing mid-infrared light sources. In this work, Tm3+-doped chalcogenide glass was prepared and photonic crystal structures were designed to enhance its fluorescence emission at approximately 3.8 μm. By employing the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation, the emission characteristics of the luminescent centers in the bulk material and in the photonic crystals were worked out. Utilizing analysis of the photon excitation inside the sample and the photon extraction on the sample surface, it was found that fluorescence emission can be significantly enhanced 260-fold with the designed photonic crystal structure. The results of this work can be used to realize high-efficiency mid-infrared light sources.

  14. Sustainable Design and Renewable Energy Concepts in Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Lawrence

    2009-07-01

    The energy use of residential and non-residential buildings in the US makes up a full 50% of the total energy use in the country. The Architects role in positively altering this equation has become more and more apparent. A change in the paradigm of how buildings are designed and the integration of renewable energy sources to meet their energy requirements can have tremendous impacts on sustainability, energy consumption, environment impacts, and the potential for climate change.

  15. Evaluation of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Scanner Pointing Accuracy using a Coastline Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currey, Chris; Smith, Lou; Neely, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigation to examine the role of clouds in the radiative energy flow through the Earth-atmosphere system. The first CERES scanning radiometer was launched on November 27, 1997 into a 35 inclination, 350 km altitude orbit, on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. The CERES instrument consists of a three channel scanning broadband radiometer. The spectral bands measure shortwave (0.3 - 5 microns), window (8 - 12 microns), and total (0.3 - 100 microns) radiation reflected or emitted from the Earth-atmosphere system. Each Earth viewing measurement is geolocated to the Earth fixed coordinate system using satellite ephemeris, Earth rotation and geoid, and instrument pointing data. The interactive CERES coastline detection system is used to assess the accuracy of the CERES geolocation process. By analyzing radiative flux gradients at the boundaries of ocean and land masses, the accuracy of the scanner measurement locations may be derived for the CERES/TRMM instrument/satellite system. The resulting CERES measurement location errors are within 10% of the nadir footprint size. Precise pointing knowledge of the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) is required for convolution of cloud properties onto the CERES footprint; initial VIRS coastline results are included.

  16. Energy Efficient School Designed for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    When completed, the planned Greeley Elementary School will be able to accommodate any future changes in enrollment and technological developments, while maintaining a constant energy efficient heating and cooling operation. (Author/MLF)

  17. Architects Retool for Energy-Conscious Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Elizabeth

    1982-01-01

    Discusses programs, courses, and curricula sponsored by professional organizations and architecture schools to foster a change in the way professionals design commercial buildings. Includes an annotated list of curricula for passive design in architecture available at no cost while supplies last. (JN)

  18. Reconciled climate response estimates from climate models and the energy budget of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Mark; Cowtan, Kevin; Hawkins, Ed; Stolpe, Martin B.

    2016-10-01

    Climate risks increase with mean global temperature, so knowledge about the amount of future global warming should better inform risk assessments for policymakers. Expected near-term warming is encapsulated by the transient climate response (TCR), formally defined as the warming following 70 years of 1% per year increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, by which point atmospheric CO2 has doubled. Studies based on Earth's historical energy budget have typically estimated lower values of TCR than climate models, suggesting that some models could overestimate future warming. However, energy-budget estimates rely on historical temperature records that are geographically incomplete and blend air temperatures over land and sea ice with water temperatures over open oceans. We show that there is no evidence that climate models overestimate TCR when their output is processed in the same way as the HadCRUT4 observation-based temperature record. Models suggest that air-temperature warming is 24% greater than observed by HadCRUT4 over 1861-2009 because slower-warming regions are preferentially sampled and water warms less than air. Correcting for these biases and accounting for wider uncertainties in radiative forcing based on recent evidence, we infer an observation-based best estimate for TCR of 1.66 °C, with a 5-95% range of 1.0-3.3 °C, consistent with the climate models considered in the IPCC 5th Assessment Report.

  19. The BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.; Finger, M. H.; Connaughton, V.; Koshut, T. M.; Henze, W.; McCollough, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the hard X-ray/low energy gamma ray sky between April 1991 and June 2000. During that time, a catalog of known sources was derived from existing catalogs such as HEAO A-4 (Levine et al. 1984), as well as new transient sources discovered with BATSE and other X-ray monitors operating in the CGRO era. The Earth Occultation Technique (Harmon et al. 2001, astro-ph/0109069) was used to monitor a combination of these sources, mostly galactic, totaling to about 175 objects. The catalog will present the global properties of these sources and their probability of detection (greater than 10 mCrab, 20-100 keV) with BATSE. Systematic errors due to unknown sources or background components are included. Cursory analyses to search for new transients (35-80 mCrab in the 20-100 keV band) and super-orbital periods in known binary sources are also presented. Whole mission light curves and associated data production/analysis tools are being delivered to the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) for public use.

  20. On the dynamics of latitudinal profiles of low-energy solar protons in the Earth magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazutin, L. L.

    2017-03-01

    Many works have been devoted to studying the boundaries of the penetration of solar protons into the Earth's magnetosphere. This work first considers the dynamics of not only the boundary, but the latitudinal profiles of penetration in general depending on the energy and local time of measurement according to the data of the low-altitude CORONAS-F satellite. When flying through the polar cap, the isotropic pitchangle distribution of protons leads to the equality of the recorded precipitating flux and the proton flux in the interplanetary space. Beginning at a particular latitude, the proton flux begins to drop and, over time, reaches the level of the background of galactic cosmic rays. The latitudinal profile measured in this manner on the night side reaches the bending point when the Larmor radius of the proton becomes comparable with the radius of the curvature of the line of force; after partial trapping, the flux of precipitating protons successively drops. The protons are transferred to the day side by the magnetic drift and, unlike the night profile, the character of the day profile depends on the configuration of the entire magnetosphere. The character of latitudinal profiles has been studied depending on the local time and energy of the particles, which enabled the features of the magnetosphere deformation to be evaluated at certain times of magnetic storms.

  1. The measurement of the earth's radiation budget as a problem in information theory - A tool for the rational design of earth observing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    The measurement of the earth's radiation budget has been chosen to illustrate the technique of objective system design. The measurement process is an approximately linear transformation of the original field of radiant exitances, so that linear statistical techniques may be employed. The combination of variability, measurement strategy, and error propagation is presently made with the help of information theory, as suggested by Kondratyev et al. (1975) and Peckham (1974). Covariance matrices furnish the quantitative statement of field variability.

  2. Design Concepts for Optimum Energy Use in HVAC Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

    Much of the innovative work in the design and application of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is concentrated on improving the cost effectiveness of such systems through optimizing energy use. One approach to the problem is to reduce a building's HVAC energy demands by designing it for lower heat gains and losses in the…

  3. The opto-mechanical design of the GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Mark; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Baldwin, Daniel; Bean, Jacob; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Brennan, Patricia; Budynkiewicz, J.; Chun, Moo-Yung; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Epps, Harland; Evans, Ian; Evans, Janet; Foster, Jeff; Frebel, Anna; Gauron, Thomas; Glenday, Alex; Hare, Tyson; Jang, Bi-Ho; Jang, Jeong-Gyun; Jordan, Andreas; Kim, Jihun; Kim, Kang-Min; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; McCracken, Kenneth; McMuldroch, Stuart; Miller, Joseph; Oh, Jae Sok; Onyuksel, Cem; Ordway, Mark; Park, Chan; Park, Sung-Joon; Paxson, Charles; Phillips, David; Plummer, David; Podgorski, William; Seifahrt, Andreas; Steiner, Joao; Uomoto, Alan; Walsworth, Ronald; Yu, Young-Sam

    2016-08-01

    The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is a fiber-fed, optical echelle spectrograph selected as the first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) now under construction at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. G-CLEF has been designed to be a general-purpose echelle spectrograph with precision radial velocity (PRV) capability for exoplanet detection. The radial velocity (RV) precision goal of G-CLEF is 10 cm/sec, necessary for detection of Earth-sized exoplanets. This goal imposes challenging stability requirements on the optical mounts and the overall spectrograph support structures especially when considering the instrument's operational environment. The accuracy of G-CLEF's PRV measurements will be influenced by minute changes in temperature and ambient air pressure as well as vibrations and micro gravity-vector variations caused by normal telescope slewing. For these reasons we have chosen to enclose G-CLEF's spectrograph in a well-insulated, vibration isolated vacuum chamber in a gravity invariant location on GMT's azimuth platform. Additional design constraints posed by the GMT telescope include: a limited space envelope, a thermal emission ceiling, and a maximum weight allowance. Other factors, such as manufacturability, serviceability, available technology and budget are also significant design drivers. All of the above considerations must be managed while ensuring performance requirements are achieved. In this paper, we discuss the design of G-CLEF's optical mounts and support structures including the choice of a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) carbon-fiber optical bench to minimize the system's sensitivity to thermal soaks and gradients. We discuss design choices made to the vacuum chamber geared towards minimize the influence of daily ambient pressure variations on image motion during observation. We discuss the design of G-CLEF's insulated enclosure and thermal control systems which will maintain the spectrograph at

  4. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  5. Design Considerations of a Solid State Thermal Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janbozorgi, Mohammad; Houssainy, Sammy; Thacker, Ariana; Ip, Peggy; Ismail, Walid; Kavehpour, Pirouz

    2016-11-01

    With the growing governmental restrictions on carbon emission, renewable energies are becoming more prevalent. A reliable use of a renewable source however requires a built-in storage to overcome the inherent intermittent nature of the available energy. Thermal design of a solid state energy storage has been investigated for optimal performance. The impact of flow regime, laminar vs. turbulent, on the design and sizing of the system is also studied. The implications of low thermal conductivity of the storage material are discussed and a design that maximizes the round trip efficiency is presented. This study was supported by Award No. EPC-14-027 Granted by California Energy Commission (CEC).

  6. Developing an energy design tool: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    Heidell, J.A.; Deringer, J.D.

    1987-02-01

    This report documents the planning phase of a proposed four-phase project for creating computer software to provide energy expertise in a manageable form to architects and engineers - thereby decreasing energy use in new buildings. The government sponsored software would be integrated with commercially developed software for use in the design of buildings. The result would be an integrated software package to aid the designer in the building design process and to provide expert insight into the energy related implications of a proposed design.

  7. The opto-mechanical design of the GMT-consortium large earth finder (G-CLEF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Mark; Baldwin, Daniel; Bean, Jacob; Bergner, Henry; Bigelow, Bruce; Chun, Moo-Young; Crane, Jeffrey; Foster, Jeff; Fżrész, Gabor; Gauron, Thomas; Guzman, Dani; Hertz, Edward; Jordán, Andrés.; Kim, Kang-Min; McCracken, Kenneth; Norton, Timothy; Ordway, Mark; Park, Chan; Park, Sang; Podgorski, William A.; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Uomoto, Alan; Yuk, In-Soo

    2014-08-01

    The GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) is a fiber fed, optical echelle spectrograph that has been selected as a first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) currently under construction at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile's Atacama desert region. We designed G-CLEF as a general-purpose echelle spectrograph with precision radial velocity (PRV) capability used for exoplanet detection. The radial velocity (RV) precision goal of GCLEF is 10 cm/sec, necessary for detection of Earth-sized planets orbiting stars like our Sun in the habitable zone. This goal imposes challenging stability requirements on the optical mounts and the overall spectrograph support structures. Stability in instruments of this type is typically affected by changes in temperature, orientation, and air pressure as well as vibrations caused by telescope tracking. For these reasons, we have chosen to enclose G-CLEF's spectrograph in a thermally insulated, vibration isolated vacuum chamber and place it at a gravity invariant location on GMT's azimuth platform. Additional design constraints posed by the GMT telescope include: a limited space envelope, a thermal emission ceiling, and a maximum weight allowance. Other factors, such as manufacturability, serviceability, available technology and budget are also significant design drivers. All of the previously listed considerations must be managed while ensuring that performance requirements are achieved. In this paper, we discuss the design of G-CLEF's optical mounts and support structures including technical choices made to minimize the system's sensitivity to thermal gradients. A more general treatment of the properties of G-CLEF can be found elsewhere in these proceedings1. We discuss the design of the vacuum chamber which houses the irregularly shaped optical bench and optics while conforming to a challenging space envelope on GMT's azimuth platform. We also discuss the design of G-CLEF's insulated enclosure and thermal

  8. Revisiting the Earth's sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, John A.; White, Neil J.; Konikow, Leonard F.; Domingues, Catia M.; Cogley, J. Graham; Rignot, Eric; Gregory, Jonathan M.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Velicogna, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    We review the sea-level and energy budgets together from 1961, using recent and updated estimates of all terms. From 1972 to 2008, the observed sea-level rise (1.8 0.2 mm yr-1 from tide gauges alone and 2.1 0.2 mm yr -1 from a combination of tide gauges and altimeter observations) agrees well with the sum of contributions (1.8 0.4 mm yr-1) in magnitude and with both having similar increases in the rate of rise during the period. The largest contributions come from ocean thermal expansion (0.8 mm yr-1) and the melting of glaciers and ice caps (0.7 mm yr -1), with Greenland and Antarctica contributing about 0.4 mm yr -1. The cryospheric contributions increase through the period (particularly in the 1990s) but the thermosteric contribution increases less rapidly. We include an improved estimate of aquifer depletion (0.3 mm yr -1), partially offsetting the retention of water in dams and giving a total terrestrial storage contribution of-0.1 mm yr-1. Ocean warming (90% of the total of the Earth's energy increase) continues through to the end of the record, in agreement with continued greenhouse gas forcing. The aerosol forcing, inferred as a residual in the atmospheric energy balance, is estimated as-0.8 0.4 W m-2 for the 1980s and early 1990s. It increases in the late 1990s, as is required for consistency with little surface warming over the last decade. This increase is likely at least partially related to substantial increases in aerosol emissions from developing nations and moderate volcanic activity. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Fundamentals of the route theory for satellite constellation design for Earth discontinuous coverage. Part 1: Analytic emulation of the Earth coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razoumny, Yury N.

    2016-11-01

    This paper opens a series of articles expounding the fundamentals of the route theory for satellite constellation design for Earth discontinuous coverage. In Part 1 of the series the analytical model for Earth coverage by satellites' swath conforming to the essential of discontinuous coverage, in contrast to continuous coverage, is presented. The analytic relations are consecutively derived for calculation of single- and multi-satellite Earth surface latitude coverage as well as for generating full set of typical satellite visibility zone time streams realized in the repeating latitude coverage pattern for given arbitrary satellite constellation. The analytic relations mentioned are used for developing the method for analysis of discontinuous coverage of fixed arbitrary Earth region for given satellite constellation using both deterministic and stochastic approaches. The method provides analysis of the revisit time for given satellite constellation, as a result of high speed (fractions of a second or seconds) computer calculations in a wide range of possible revisit time variations for different practical purposes with high accuracy which is at least on par with that provided by known numerical simulating methods based on direct modeling of the satellite observation mission, or in a number of cases is even superior to it.

  10. High Earth orbit design for lunar assisted small Explorer class missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, M.; Hametz, M.; Cooley, J.; Skillman, D.

    1994-01-01

    Small Expendable launch vehicles are capable of injecting modest payloads into high Earth orbits having apogee near the lunar distance. However, lunar and solar perturbations can quickly lower perigee and cause premature reentry. Costly perigee raising maneuvers by the spacecraft are required to maintain the orbit. In addition, the range of inclinations achievable is limited to those of launch sites unless costly spacecraft maneuvers are performed. This study investigates the use of a lunar swingby in a near-Hohmann transfer trajectory to raise perigee into the 8 to 25 solar radius range and reach a wide variety of inclinations without spacecraft maneuvers. It is found that extremely stable orbits can be obtained if the postencounter spacecraft orbital period is one-half of a lunar sidereal revolution and the Earth-vehicle-Moon geometry is within a specified range. Criteria for achieving stable orbits with various perigee heights and ecliptic inclinations are developed, and the sensitivity of the resulting mission orbits to transfer trajectory injection (TTI) errors is examined. It is shown that carefully designed orbits yield lifetimes of several years, with excellent ground station coverage characteristics and minimal eclipses. A phasing loop error correction strategy is considered with the spacecraft propulsion system delta V demand for TTI error correction and a postlunar encounter apogee trim maneuver typically in the 30 to 120 meters per second range.

  11. Design and development of a gossamer sail system for deorbiting in low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Juan M.; Visagie, Lourens; Schenk, Mark; Stohlman, Olive R.; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Lappas, Vaios J.; Erb, Sven

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of space debris in low Earth orbits poses an increasing threat of collisions and damage to spacecraft. As a low-cost solution to the space debris problem the Gossamer Deorbiter proposed herein is designed as a scalable stand-alone system that can be attached to a low-to-medium mass host satellite for end-of-life disposal from low Earth orbit. It consists of a 5 m by 5 m square solar/drag sail that uses four bistable carbon fiber booms for deployment and support. Prior to deployment of the gossamer structure, a telescopic enclosure system is used to displace the sail from the host craft in order to extend the sail without hindrance from the host peripherals, and also provide passive stabilization. The principal advantage of an entirely passive operational mode allows the drag augmentation system to act as a “fail-safe” device that would activate if the spacecraft suffers a catastrophic failure. Several scenarios are analyzed to study the potential application and performance of the system to current and future missions. A detailed breakdown of the mechanical subsystems of the Gossamer Deorbiter is presented, as well as the characterization process of the deployable booms and sail membrane and the full qualification testing campaign at component and system levels. Finally, the performance scalability of the concept is analyzed.

  12. Previously hidden low-energy ions: a better map of near-Earth space and the terrestrial mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Mats

    2015-12-01

    This is a review of the mass balance of planet Earth, intended also for scientists not usually working with space physics or geophysics. The discussion includes both outflow of ions and neutrals from the ionosphere and upper atmosphere, and the inflow of meteoroids and larger objects. The focus is on ions with energies less than tens of eV originating from the ionosphere. Positive low-energy ions are complicated to detect onboard sunlit spacecraft at higher altitudes, which often become positively charged to several tens of volts. We have invented a technique to observe low-energy ions based on the detection of the wake behind a charged spacecraft in a supersonic ion flow. We find that low-energy ions usually dominate the ion density and the outward flux in large volumes in the magnetosphere. The global outflow is of the order of 1026 ions s-1. This is a significant fraction of the total number outflow of particles from Earth, and changes plasma processes in near-Earth space. We compare order of magnitude estimates of the mass outflow and inflow for planet Earth and find that they are similar, at around 1 kg s-1 (30 000 ton yr-1). We briefly discuss atmospheric and ionospheric outflow from other planets and the connection to evolution of extraterrestrial life.

  13. Phased array feed design technology for Large Aperture Microwave Radiometer (LAMR) Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuman, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the potential and limitations of phased array antennas in space-based geophysical precision radiometry is described. Mathematical models exhibiting the dependence of system and scene temperatures and system sensitivity on phased array antenna parameters and components such as phase shifters and low noise amplifiers (LNA) are developed. Emphasis is given to minimum noise temperature designs wherein the LNA's are located at the array level, one per element or subarray. Two types of combiners are considered: array lenses (space feeds) and corporate networks. The result of a survey of suitable components and devices is described. The data obtained from that survey are used in conjunction with the mathematical models to yield an assessment of effective array antenna noise temperature for representative geostationary and low Earth orbit systems. Practical methods of calibrating a space-based, phased array radiometer are briefly addressed as well.

  14. Improved vertical optical fiber borehole strainmeter design for measuring Earth strain.

    PubMed

    DeWolf, Scott; Wyatt, Frank K; Zumberge, Mark A; Hatfield, William

    2015-11-01

    Fiber-based interferometers provide the means to sense very small displacements over long baselines, and have the advantage of being nearly completely passive in their operation, making them particularly well suited for geophysical applications. A new 250 m, interferometric vertical borehole strainmeter has been developed based completely on passive optical components. Details of the design and deployment at the Piñon Flat Observatory are presented. Power spectra show an intertidal noise level of -130 dB (re. 1 ϵ(2)/Hz), consistent within 1-3 dB between redundant components. Examination of its response to Earth tides and earthquakes relative to the areal strain recorded by an orthogonal pair of collocated, 730 m horizontal laser strainmeters yield a Poisson's ratio for local near surface material of 0.25 that is consistent with previous results.

  15. Climate Model Evaluation using New Datasets from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, Norman G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Doelling, David R.

    2008-01-01

    There are some in the science community who believe that the response of the climate system to anthropogenic radiative forcing is unpredictable and we should therefore call off the quest . The key limitation in climate predictability is associated with cloud feedback. Narrowing the uncertainty in cloud feedback (and therefore climate sensitivity) requires optimal use of the best available observations to evaluate and improve climate model processes and constrain climate model simulations over longer time scales. The Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a satellite-based program that provides global cloud, aerosol and radiative flux observations for improving our understanding of cloud-aerosol-radiation feedbacks in the Earth s climate system. CERES is the successor to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which has widely been used to evaluate climate models both at short time scales (e.g., process studies) and at decadal time scales. A CERES instrument flew on the TRMM satellite and captured the dramatic 1998 El Nino, and four other CERES instruments are currently flying aboard the Terra and Aqua platforms. Plans are underway to fly the remaining copy of CERES on the upcoming NPP spacecraft (mid-2010 launch date). Every aspect of CERES represents a significant improvement over ERBE. While both CERES and ERBE measure broadband radiation, CERES calibration is a factor of 2 better than ERBE. In order to improve the characterization of clouds and aerosols within a CERES footprint, we use coincident higher-resolution imager observations (VIRS, MODIS or VIIRS) to provide a consistent cloud-aerosol-radiation dataset at climate accuracy. Improved radiative fluxes are obtained by using new CERES-derived Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) for converting measured radiances to fluxes. CERES radiative fluxes are a factor of 2 more accurate than ERBE overall, but the improvement by cloud type and at high latitudes can be as high as a factor of 5

  16. Preliminary Downlink Design and Performance Assessment for Advanced Radio Interferometry Between Space and Earth (ARISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, T.-Y.; Wang, C. C.; Gray, A.; Hemmati, H.; Mittskus, A.; Golshan, N.; Noca, M.

    1998-10-01

    Advanced Radio Interferometry Between Space and Earth (ARISE) is a space very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) mission with a nominal launch date of 2008. It consists of an inflatable 25-m radio telescope circulating in a highly elliptical Earth orbit with a perigee of 5,000 km and an apogee of 40,000 km. The objective is to observe in conjunction with Earth-based telescopes to obtain high-resolution maps of quasars and active galactic nuclei for science investigations. ARISE requires an 8-Gb/s downlink of science data, which is a challenge using today's technology. In this article, 8-Gb/s systems using both traditional radio frequency (RF) and laser communication are proposed with the goal of minimizing both the cost and the risk of the design. Either option requires appropriate technology investments. The RF system requires the use of dual polarization, high-order modulations such as 32-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), and spectrally efficient square-root raised-cosine (SRRC) filters to meet the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) spectral allocation. If additional bandwidth is allocated by the FCC, constant-envelope modulations such as cross-correlated trellis-coded quadrature modulation (XTCQM) can be used in place of SRRC filters and QAM to reduce the power required on the spacecraft. The proposed laser communication system uses on-off keying (OOK) and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). The wavelength of 1550 nm has the advantage of lower background light subtended at the ground receiver for downlink communications. The critical components of the system are based on mature fiber-optic technologies. The downlink transceiver terminal will be a modified Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) that has been in development at JPL over the past 3 years. This article includes a road map on how the 8-Gb/s RF and laser communication systems can be developed with a series of demonstrations between now and the launch date. The demonstrations are

  17. Towards a critical design of an operational ground segment for an Earth observation mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storch, Tobias; Habermeyer, Martin; Eberle, Sabrina; Mühle, Helmut; Müller, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    The ground segment for the future remote sensing mission Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP; www.enmap.org) is developed by the Earth Observation Center and the German Space Operations Center at the German Aerospace Center. The launch is scheduled for 2017. An operational satellite ground segment is a highly complex heterogeneous system which has to cope with different levels of criticality, novelty, specificity, and to be operated for many years. It consists of equipment, hard- and software as well as operators with their procedures. The strengths of the global coherence of the segment-wide approach bringing these aspects together is examined and not on the local details of segment-specific issues. However, the effects on two software-based elements of the ground segment are considered in more detail, namely the product library and the level 2geo processor. The development methodology and how the critical design of the complete ground segment finished its detailed design phase successfully was achieved is analyzed. As a measure of the maturity of the design, its stability across the project phases is proposed.

  18. ESAS-Derived Earth Departure Stage Design for Human Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flaherty, Kevin; Grant, Michael; Korzun, Ashley; Malo-Molina, Faure; Steinfeldt, Bradley; Stahl, Benjamin; Wilhite, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration has set the nation on a course to have humans on Mars as early as 2030. To reduce the cost and risk associated with human Mars exploration, NASA is planning for the Mars architecture to leverage the lunar architecture as fully as possible. This study takes the defined launch vehicles and system capabilities from ESAS and extends their application to DRM 3.0 to design an Earth Departure Stage suitable for the cargo and crew missions to Mars. The impact of a propellant depot in LEO was assessed and sLzed for use with the EDS. To quantitatively assess and compare the effectiveness of alternative designs, an initial baseline architecture was defined using the ESAS launch vehicles and DRM 3.0. The baseline architecture uses three NTR engines, LH2 propellant, no propellant depot in LEO, and launches on the Ares I and Ares V. The Mars transfer and surface elements from DRM 3.0 were considered to be fixed payloads in the design of the EDS. Feasible architecture alternatives were identified from previous architecture studies and anticipated capabilities and compiled in a morphological matrix. ESAS FOMs were used to determine the most critical design attributes for the effectiveness of the EDS. The ESAS-derived FOMs used in this study to assess alternative designs are effectiveness and performance, affordability, reliability, and risk. The individual FOMs were prioritized using the AHP, a method for pairwise comparison. All trades performed were evaluated with respect to the weighted FOMs, creating a Pareto frontier of equivalently ideal solutions. Additionally, each design on the frontier was evaluated based on its fulfillment of the weighted FOMs using TOPSIS, a quantitative method for ordinal ranking of the alternatives. The designs were assessed in an integrated environment using physics-based models for subsystem analysis where possible. However, for certain attributes such as engine type, historical, performance-based mass estimating

  19. Microstructural Design for Stress Wave Energy Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    simulations are based on elastic moduli of generic CFRP taken from literature. We ordered 8 customized 16"xl6"xl/8" panel of unidirectional CFRP from a...speed measurements. We plan to use ultrasonic transducers to measure pressure and shear wave speeds in samples taken from CFRP panel in order to find...of CFRP panel and assembling in a multilayered design. Then we will investigate wave propagation in the layered structure by sending an elastic

  20. Constraints on magnetic energy and mantle conductivity from the forced nutations of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffett, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of a presence of a conducting layer at the base of the mantle, as suggested by Knittle and Jeanloz (1986, 1989), was examined using observations of the earth's nutations. Evidence favoring the presence of a conducting layer is found in the effect of ohmic dissipation, which can cause the amplitude of the earth's nutation to be out-of-phase with tidal forcings. It is shown that the earth's magnetic field can produce observable signatures in the forced nutations of the earth when a thin conducting layer is located at the base of the mantle. The present theoretical calculations are compared with VLBI determinations of forced nutations.

  1. Bond ionicity of alkaline-earth oxides studied by low-energy D+ scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souda, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Hayami, W.; Aizawa, T.; Ishizawa, Y.

    1994-08-01

    Low-energy D+ scattering is employed to explore the nature of the bonding of polycrystalline alkaline-earth oxides MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO, with particular emphasis on the investigation of the ionicity of the topmost-layer atoms. Increasing ionicity as one goes to the heavier cations is concluded from the probability of the resonance neutraliztion of the D+ ions, which is consistent with the conventional chemical arguments based on electronegativity scales but is in apparent contradiction to the results of recent ab initio cluster-model calculations. It is also concluded that the metallic Ba layer is formed rather patchily on the BaO surface after the heat treatment up to 1000 °C. This is probably because free Ba atoms, being supplied by the reaction of BaO with the Ta substrate, are precipitated at the BaO surface. Another example is concerned with the interactions of the Ba adatoms with Si(001) and Pt(111) surfaces; Ba is found to have marked covalency with the substrate atoms.

  2. The BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.; Finger, M. H.; Connaughton, V.; Koshut, T. M.; Henze, W.; McCollough, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE),aboard the COmptOn Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the hard X-ray/low energy gamma ray sky between April 1991 and June 2000. During that time, a catalog of known sources was derived from existing catalogs such as HEAO A-4 (Levine et al. 19841, as well as new transient sources discovered with RATSE and other X-ray monitors operating in the CGRO era. The Earth Occultation Technique (Harmon et al. 2001, astro-ph/0109069) was used to monitor a combination of these sources, mostly galactic, totaling about 175 objects. The catalog will present the global properties of these sources and their probability of detection (>lO mCrab, 20-100 keV) with BATSE. Systematic errors due to unknown sources or background components are included. Cursory analyses to search for new transients (35-80 mCrab in the 20-100 keV band) and super-orbital periods in known binary sources are also presented. Whole mission light curves and associated data production/analysis tools are being delivered to the HEASARC for public use.

  3. The BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; WilsonHodge, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the hard X-ray/low energy gamma ray sky between April 1991 and June 2000. During that time, a catalog of known sources was derived from existing catalogs such as HEAO A-4, as well as new transient sources discovered with BATSE and other X-ray monitors operating in the CGRO era. The Earth Occultation Technique was used to monitor a combination of these sources, mostly galactic, totaling to about 175 objects. The catalog will present the global properties of these sources and their probability of detection (> 10 mCrab, 20-100 keV) with BATSE. Systematic errors due to unknown sources or background components are included. Cursory analyses to search for new transients (35-80 mCrab in the 20-100 keV band) and super-orbital periods in known binary sources are also presented. Whole mission light curves and associated data production/analysis tools are being delivered to the HEASARC for public use.

  4. The effect of cloud type on earth's energy balance - Results for selected regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ockert-Bell, Maureen E.; Hartmann, Dennis L.

    1992-01-01

    International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) C1 cloud information is compared with planetary albedo, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation measured at the top of the atmosphere by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Principal component analysis indicates that the day-to-day variations of the abundances of the 35 cloud types of the C1 data are correlated with each other, so that for many purposes the data set can be well represented by about five cloud types. Using stepwise multiple regression, the ISCCP C1 data can be used to predict the day-to-day variations of the energy balance measured by ERBE for 2.5-deg regions. Total fractional area coverage of cloudiness is a relatively poor predictor of radiation budget quantities. If the total fractional area coverage by clouds is divided into contributions from several distinct cloud types, the fractional coverages by these several cloud types will together form a much better prediction of radiation budget quantities than the single variable of total fractional-area cloud coverage. The regression equations can be used to estimate the net effect of clouds on the radiation balance and the contributions from particular types of clouds to albedo, OLR, and net radiation.

  5. Department of Energy's Virtual Lab Infrastructure for Integrated Earth System Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. N.; Palanisamy, G.; Shipman, G.; Boden, T.; Voyles, J.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) produces a diversity of data, information, software, and model codes across its research and informatics programs and facilities. This information includes raw and reduced observational and instrumentation data, model codes, model-generated results, and integrated data products. Currently, most of this data and information are prepared and shared for program specific activities, corresponding to CESD organization research. A major challenge facing BER CESD is how best to inventory, integrate, and deliver these vast and diverse resources for the purpose of accelerating Earth system science research. This talk provides a concept for a CESD Integrated Data Ecosystem and an initial roadmap for its implementation to address this integration challenge in the "Big Data" domain. Towards this end, a new BER Virtual Laboratory Infrastructure will be presented, which will include services and software connecting the heterogeneous CESD data holdings, and constructed with open source software based on industry standards, protocols, and state-of-the-art technology.

  6. Training the next generation of Space and Earth Science Engineers and Scientists through student design and development of an Earth Observation Nanosatellite, AlbertaSat-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, B. A.; Bottoms, J.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation addresses the design and developmental process of a Nanosatellite by an interdisciplinary team of undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Alberta. The Satellite, AlbertaSat-1, is the University of Alberta's entry in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CDSC); an initiative to entice Canadian students to contribute to space and earth observation technologies and research. The province of Alberta, while home to a few companies, is very limited in its space industry capacity. The University of Alberta reflects this fact, where one of the major unifying foci of the University is oil, the provinces greatest resource. For students at the U of A, this lack of focus on astronautical, aerospace and space/earth observational research limits their education in these industries/disciplines. A fully student operated project such as AlbertaSat-1 provides this integral experience to almost every discipline. The AlbertaSat-1 team is comprised of students from engineering, physics, chemistry, earth and atmospheric science, business, and computer science. While diverse in discipline, the team is also diverse in experience, spanning all levels from 1st year undergraduate to experienced PhD. Many skill sets are required and the diverse group sees that this is covered and all opinions voiced. Through immersion in the project, students learn quickly and efficiently. The necessity for a flawless product ensures that only the highest quality of work is presented. Students participating must research and understand their own subsystem as well as all others. This overall system view provides the best educational tool, as students are able to see the real impacts of their work on other subsystems. As the project is completely student organized, the participants gain not only technical engineering, space and earth observational education, but experience in operations and financial management. The direct exposure to all aspects of the space and earth

  7. The Dark Energy Survey instrument design

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    We describe a new project, the Dark Energy Survey (DES), aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of {approx}5%, with four complementary techniques. The survey will use a new 3 sq. deg. mosaic camera (DECam) mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). DECam includes a large mosaic camera, a five element optical corrector, four filters (g,r,i,z), and the associated infrastructure for operation in the prime focus cage. The focal plane consists of 62 2K x 4K CCD modules (0.27''/pixel) arranged in a hexagon inscribed within the 2.2 deg. diameter field of view. We plan to use the 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs that have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). At Fermilab, we will establish a packaging factory to produce four-side buttable modules for the LBNL devices, as well as to test and grade the CCDs. R&D is underway and delivery of DECam to CTIO is scheduled for 2009.

  8. Energy program of requirements for a new detention center -- Energy design criteria for prisons

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, P.C.; Stanton-Hoyle, D.; Krout, R.

    1995-08-01

    Correctional facilities are typically ``energy hogs.`` Prison facilities normally have the highest energy costs and are the most energy-intensive building type for local and state jurisdictions. The 24-hour operation and continuous, year-round use of these facilities means very high maintenance and operating costs. To minimize future utility costs, an integrated energy planning approach for a new detention facility is highly desirable at the earliest stages of programming. When energy-efficiency criteria are integrated early in a planning and design process, significant energy and operating cost savings can be achieved with little or no additional construction costs. A planning document in the form of an energy program of requirements (EPOR) can be incorporated into the solicitation of design proposals and can be very effective in ensuring energy-efficient design for a new facility.

  9. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements

    PubMed Central

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 mAh·g−1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide–triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems. PMID:25011939

  10. Total energy control system autopilot design with constrained parameter optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Uy-Loi; Voth, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of the application of a multivariable control design method (SANDY) based on constrained parameter optimization to the design of a multiloop aircraft flight control system. Specifically, the design method is applied to the direct synthesis of a multiloop AFCS inner-loop feedback control system based on total energy control system (TECS) principles. The design procedure offers a structured approach for the determination of a set of stabilizing controller design gains that meet design specifications in closed-loop stability, command tracking performance, disturbance rejection, and limits on control activities. The approach can be extended to a broader class of multiloop flight control systems. Direct tradeoffs between many real design goals are rendered systematic by proper formulation of the design objectives and constraints. Satisfactory designs are usually obtained in few iterations. Performance characteristics of the optimized TECS design have been improved, particularly in the areas of closed-loop damping and control activity in the presence of turbulence.

  11. Power and Propulsion System Design for Near-Earth Object Robotic Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Randolph, Thomas M.; Landau, Damon F.; Bury, Kristen M.; Malone, Shane P.; Hickman, Tyler A.

    2011-01-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are exciting targets for exploration; they are relatively easy to reach but relatively little is known about them. With solar electric propulsion, a vast number of interesting NEOs can be reached within a few years and with extensive flexibility in launch date. An additional advantage of electric propulsion for these missions is that a spacecraft can be small, enabling a fleet of explorers launched on a single vehicle or as secondary payloads. Commercial, flight-proven Hall thruster systems have great appeal based on their performance and low cost risk, but one issue with these systems is that the power processing units (PPUs) are designed for regulated spacecraft power architectures which are not attractive for small NEO missions. In this study we consider the integrated design of power and propulsion systems that utilize the capabilities of existing PPUs in an unregulated power architecture. Models for solar array and engine performance are combined with low-thrust trajectory analyses to bound spacecraft design parameters for a large class of NEO missions, then detailed array performance models are used to examine the array output voltage and current over a bounded mission set. Operational relationships between the power and electric propulsion systems are discussed, and it is shown that both the SPT-100 and BPT-4000 PPUs can perform missions over a solar range of 0.7 AU to 1.5 AU - encompassing NEOs, Venus, and Mars - within their operable input voltage ranges. A number of design trades to control the array voltage are available, including cell string layout, array offpointing during mission operations, and power draw by the Hall thruster system.

  12. Energy Design Plugin: An EnergyPlus Plugin for SketchUp; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P. G.; Torcellini, P. A.; Crawley, D. B.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the Energy Design Plugin, a new software plugin that aims to integrate simulation as a tool during the earliest phases of the design process. The plugin couples the EnergyPlus whole-building simulation engine to the Google SketchUp drawing program.

  13. Teaching Earth Sciences as an interdisciplinary subject: Novel module design involving research literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Vincent C. H.

    2010-05-01

    The study of Earth Sciences requires an interdisciplinary approach as it involves understanding scientific knowledge originating from a wide spectrum of research areas. Not only does it include subjects ranging from, for instance, hydrogeology to deep crustal seismology and from climate science to oceanography, but it also has many direct applications in closely related disciplines such as environmental engineering and natural resources management. While research crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in geosciences is becoming increasingly common, there is only limited integration of interdisciplinary research in the teaching of the subject. Given that the transition from undergraduate education based on subject modules to postgraduate interdisciplinary research is never easy, such integration is a highly desirable pedagogical approach at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. My presentation is based on a recent teaching project involving novel design of an undergraduate course. The course is implemented in order to address the synergy between research and teaching (Tong, 2009). This project has been shown to be effective and successful in teaching geosciences undergraduates at the University of London. The module consists of studying core geophysical principles and linking them directly to a selection of recently published research papers in a wide range of interdisciplinary applications. Research reviewing and reporting techniques are systematically developed, practised and fully integrated into teaching of the core scientific theories. A fully-aligned assignment with a feedback website invites the students to reflect on the scientific knowledge and the study skills related to research literature they have acquired in the course. This teaching project has been recognized by a teaching award (http://www.clpd.bbk.ac.uk/staff/BETA). In this presentation, I will discuss how undergraduate teaching with a focus on research literature in Earth Sciences can

  14. Design New Buildings To Save Energy -- and Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittelmann, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Buildings should be designed so that energy systems function with maximum efficiency. Re-evaluation of standards for ventilation and lighting is recommended. Heat recovery techniques and topography can reduce heating loads. (MF)

  15. High efficiency waste to energy facility -- Pilot plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Orita, Norihiko; Kawahara, Yuuzou; Takahashi, Kazuyoshi; Yamauchi, Toru; Hosoda, Takuo

    1998-07-01

    Waste To Energy facilities are commonly acceptable to the environment and give benefits in two main areas: one is a hygienic waste disposal and another is waste heat energy recovery to save fossil fuel consumption. Recovered energy is used for electricity supply, and it is required to increase the efficiency of refuse to electric energy conversion, and to spread the plant construction throughout the country of Japan, by the government. The national project started in 1992, and pilot plant design details were established in 1995. The objective of the project is to get 30% of energy conversion efficiency through the measure by raising the steam temperature and pressure to 500 C and 9.8 MPa respectively. The pilot plant is operating under the design conditions, which verify the success of applied technologies. This paper describes key technologies which were used to design the refuse burning boiler, which generates the highest steam temperature and pressure steam.

  16. Combustor design tool for a gas fired thermophotovoltaic energy converter

    SciTech Connect

    Lindler, K.W.; Harper, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. A TPV device converts radiant energy from a high temperature incandescent emitter directly into electricity by photovoltaic cells. The current Department of Energy sponsored research involves the design, construction and demonstration of a prototype TPV converter that uses a hydrocarbon fuel (such as natural gas) as the energy source. As the photovoltaic cells are designed to efficiently convert radiant energy at a prescribed wavelength, it is important that the temperature of the emitter be nearly constant over its entire surface. The US Naval Academy has been tasked with the development of a small emitter (with a high emissivity) that can be maintained at 1,756 K (2,700 F). This paper describes the computer spreadsheet model that was developed as a tool to be used for the design of the high temperature emitter.

  17. Design of a Formation of Earth Orbiting Satellites: The Auroral Lites Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hametz, Mark E.; Conway, Darrel J.; Richon, Karen

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has proposed a set of spacecraft flying in close formation around the Earth in order to measure the behavior of the auroras. The mission, named Auroral Lites, consists of four spacecraft configured to start at the vertices of a tetrahedron, flying over three mission phases. During the first phase, the distance between any two spacecraft in the formation is targeted at 10 kilometers (km). The second mission phase is much tighter, requiring satellite interrange spacing targeted at 500 meters. During the final phase of the mission, the formation opens to a nominal 100-km interrange spacing. In this paper, we present the strategy employed to initialize and model such a close formation during each of these phases. The analysis performed to date provides the design and characteristics of the reference orbit, the evolution of the formation during Phases I and II, and an estimate of the total mission delta-V budget. AI Solutions' mission design tool, FreeFlyer(R), was used to generate each of these analysis elements. The tool contains full force models, including both impulsive and finite duration maneuvers. Orbital maintenance can be fully modeled in the system using a flexible, natural scripting language built into the system. In addition, AI Solutions is in the process of adding formation extensions to the system facilitating mission analysis for formations like Auroral Lites. We will discuss how FreeFlyer(R) is used for these analyses.

  18. Design of a Formation of Earth-Orbiting Satellites: The Auroral Lites Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hametz, Mark E.; Conway, Darrel J.; Richon, Karen

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has proposed a set of spacecraft flying in close formation around the Earth in order to measure the behavior of the auroras. The mission, named Auroral Lites, consists of four spacecraft configured to start at the vertices of a tetrahedron, flying over three mission phases. During the first phase, the distance between any two spacecraft in the formation is targeted at 10 kilometers (km). The second mission phase is much tighter, requiring satellite interrange spacing targeted at 500 meters. During the final phase of the mission, the formation opens to a nominal 100-km interrange spacing. In this paper, we present the strategy employed to initialize and model such a close formation during each of these phases. The analysis performed to date provides the design and characteristics of the reference orbit, the evolution of the formation during Phases I and II, and an estimate of the total mission delta-V budget. AI Solutions' mission design tool, FreeFlyer, was used to generate each of these analysis elements. The tool contains full force models, including both impulsive and finite duration maneuvers. Orbital maintenance can be fully modeled in the system using a flexible, natural scripting language built into the system. In addition, AI Solutions is in the process of adding formation extensions to the system facilitating mission analysis for formations like Auroral Lites. We will discuss how FreeFlyer is used for these analyses.

  19. Design, Delivery, and Results of the Earth and Space Science Partnership Teacher Professional Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, Christopher; Flarend, A.; Petula, J.; Richards, M. T.; Spotts, H.; McDonald, S.; Furman, T.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth and Space Science Partnership (ESSP) is a collaboration among Penn State scientists and science educators with seven school districts across Pennsylvania. Part of the multi-faceted ESSP effort includes long-term professional development that is built around annual summer workshops for middle grades teachers in several content areas, including Solar System astronomy. Our project was initially funded for five years (we are in year 3 now), so teachers remain engaged with the ESSP for longer than many professional development programs. This project duration allows us to implement several methods for building on the summer workshops: (1) Teachers are able to repeat workshops in a content area more than once, which means that in most of our workshops we have a mix of veteran teachers and those new to the program, (2) three meetings are held throughout the school year where all partners revisit the content and pedagogy from the summer, and (3) the teachers are encouraged and supported in their own efforts to create learning communities in their districts that meet more frequently. In this poster, we report on our efforts to impact the teaching of Earth and Space Science by offering a professional development program designed around coherent content storylines and a claims/evidence/reasoning (CER) framework. We will present the storyline from our summer 2012 astronomy workshop and samples of the CER activities that were developed to align with pieces of the storyline. Finally, we will discuss how aspects of the storyline / CER approach are being implemented in the sixth grade curriculum of one of our partner school districts, the Bellefonte Area School District. We gratefully acknowledge support from the NSF from a Targeted Math Science Partnership award DUE#0962792.

  20. Solar total energy project at Shenandoah, Georgia system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poche, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The solar total energy system (STES) was to provide 50% of the total electrical and thermal energy requirements of the 25,000 sq ft Bleyle of America knitwear plant located at the Shenandoah Site. The system will provide 400 kilowatts electrical and 3 megawatts of thermal energy. The STES has a classical, cascaded total energy system configuration. It utilizes one hundred twenty (120), parabolic dish collectors, high temperature (750 F) trickle oil thermal energy storage and a steam turbine generator. The electrical load shaving system was designed for interconnected operation with the Georgia Power system and for operation in a stand alone mode.

  1. Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Design and Guidance for Terminal Area Energy Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchett, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    The second generation reusable launch vehicle will leverage many new technologies to make flight to low earth orbit safer and more cost effective. One important capability will be completely autonomous flight during reentry and landing, thus making it unnecessary to man the vehicle for cargo missions with stringent weight constraints. Implementation of sophisticated new guidance and control methods will enable the vehicle to return to earth under less than favorable conditions. The return to earth consists of three phases--Entry, Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM), and Approach and Landing. The Space Shuttle is programmed to fly all three phases of flight automatically, and under normal circumstances the astronaut-pilot takes manual control only during the Approach and Landing phase. The automatic control algorithms used in the Shuttle for TAEM and Approach and Landing have been developed over the past 30 years. They are computationally efficient, and based on careful study of the spacecraft's flight dynamics, and heuristic reasoning. The gliding return trajectory is planned prior to the mission, and only minor adjustments are made during flight for perturbations in the vehicle energy state. With the advent of the X-33 and X-34 technology demonstration vehicles, several authors investigated implementing advanced control methods to provide autonomous real-time design of gliding return trajectories thus enhancing the ability of the vehicle to adjust to unusual energy states. The bulk of work published to date deals primarily with the approach and landing phase of flight where changes in heading angle are small, and range to the runway is monotonically decreasing. These benign flight conditions allow for model simplification and fairly straightforward optimization. This project focuses on the TAEM phase of flight where mathematically precise methods have produced limited results. Fuzzy Logic methods are used to make onboard autonomous gliding return trajectory

  2. Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

    1980-06-01

    A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

  3. A design guide for energy-efficient research laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Wishner, N.; Chen, A.; Cook, L.; Bell, G.C.; Mills, E.; Sartor, D.; Avery, D.; Siminovitch, M.; Piette, M.A.

    1996-09-24

    This document--A Design Guide for Energy-Efficient Research Laboratories--provides a detailed and holistic framework to assist designers and energy managers in identifying and applying advanced energy-efficiency features in laboratory-type environments. The Guide fills an important void in the general literature and compliments existing in-depth technical manuals. Considerable information is available pertaining to overall laboratory design issues, but no single document focuses comprehensively on energy issues in these highly specialized environments. Furthermore, practitioners may utilize many antiquated rules of thumb, which often inadvertently cause energy inefficiency. The Guide helps its user to: introduce energy decision-making into the earliest phases of the design process, access the literature of pertinent issues, and become aware of debates and issues on related topics. The Guide does focus on individual technologies, as well as control systems, and important operational factors such as building commissioning. However, most importantly, the Guide is intended to foster a systems perspective (e.g. right sizing) and to present current leading-edge, energy-efficient design practices and principles.

  4. Energy codes and the building design process: Opportunities for improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.; Rigler, E.J.

    1994-05-01

    The Energy Policy Act (EPAct), passed by Congress in 1992, requires states to adopt building energy codes for new commercial buildings that meet or exceed the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and Illuminating Engineers Society of North America (IES) Standard 90.1-1989 by October 24, 1994. In response to EPAct many states will be adopting a state-wide energy code for the first time. Understanding the role of stakeholders in the building design process is key to the successful implementation of these codes. In 1993, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a survey of architects and designers to determine how much they know about energy codes, to what extent energy-efficiency concerns influence the design process, and how they convey information about energy-efficient designs and products to their clients. Findings of the PNL survey, together with related information from a survey by the American Institute of Architects (AIA) and other reports, are presented in this report. This information may be helpful for state and utility energy program managers and others who will be involved in promoting the adoption and implementation of state energy codes that meet the requirements of EPAct.

  5. Challenge Students to Design an Energy-Efficient Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jack

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an activity that gives students a practical understanding of how much energy the average home consumes and wastes, and shows how the construction technologies used in home design affect overall energy usage. In this activity, students will outline the cost of a home's electrical system, give a breakdown of how much power the…

  6. Building Design Guidelines for Solar Energy Technologies

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of "solar architecture" and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings.

  7. Design for Manufacturing for Energy Absorption Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Del Prete, A.; Primo, T.; Papadia, G.; Manisi, B.

    2011-05-04

    In the typical scenario of a helicopter crash, impact with the ground is preceded by a substantially vertical drop, with the result that a seated occupant of a helicopter experiences high spinal loads and pelvic deceleration during such crash due to the sudden arresting of vertical downward motion. It has long been recognized that spinal injuries to occupants of helicopters in such crash scenario can be minimized by seat arrangements which limit the deceleration to which the seated occupant is subjected, relative to the helicopter, to a predetermined maximum, by allowing downward movement of the seated occupant relative to the helicopter, at the time of impact with the ground, under a restraining force which, over a limited range of such movement, is limited to a predetermined maximum. In practice, significant benefits, in the way of reduced injuries and reduced seriousness of injuries, can be afforded in this way in such crash situations even where the extent of such controlled vertical movement permitted by the crashworthy seat arrangement is quite limited. Important increase of accident safety is reached with the installation of crashworthy shock absorbers on the main landing gear, but this solution is mostly feasible on military helicopters with long fixed landing gear. Seats can then give high contribution to survivability. Commonly, an energy absorber is a constant load device, if one excludes an initial elastic part of the load-stroke curve. On helicopter seats, this behavior is obtained by plastic deformation of a metal component or scraping of material. In the present work the authors have studied three absorption systems, which differ in relation to their shape, their working conditions and their constructive materials. All the combinations have been analyzed for applications in VIP helicopter seats.

  8. Use of thulium-sensitized rare earth-doped low phonon energy crystalline hosts for IR sources.

    PubMed

    Ganem, Joseph; Bowman, Steven R

    2013-11-01

    Crystalline hosts with low phonon energies enable novel energy transfer processes when doped with rare earth ions. Two applications of energy transfer for rare earth ions in thulium-sensitized low phonon energy crystals that result in infrared luminescence are discussed. One application is an endothermic, phonon-assisted cross-relaxation process in thulium-doped yttrium chloride that converts lattice phonons to infrared emission, which raises the possibility of a fundamentally new method for achieving solid-state optical cooling. The other application is an optically pumped mid-IR phosphor using thulium-praseodymium-doped potassium lead chloride that converts 805-nm diode light to broadband emission from 4,000 to 5,500 nm. These two applications in chloride crystals are discussed in terms of critical radii calculated from Forster-Dexter energy transfer theory. It is found that the critical radii for electric dipole-dipole interactions in low phonon energy chloride crystals are comparable to those in conventional oxide and fluoride crystals. It is the reduction in multi-phonon relaxation rates in chloride crystals that enable these additional energy transfer processes and infrared luminescence.

  9. Use of thulium-sensitized rare earth-doped low phonon energy crystalline hosts for IR sources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Crystalline hosts with low phonon energies enable novel energy transfer processes when doped with rare earth ions. Two applications of energy transfer for rare earth ions in thulium-sensitized low phonon energy crystals that result in infrared luminescence are discussed. One application is an endothermic, phonon-assisted cross-relaxation process in thulium-doped yttrium chloride that converts lattice phonons to infrared emission, which raises the possibility of a fundamentally new method for achieving solid-state optical cooling. The other application is an optically pumped mid-IR phosphor using thulium-praseodymium-doped potassium lead chloride that converts 805-nm diode light to broadband emission from 4,000 to 5,500 nm. These two applications in chloride crystals are discussed in terms of critical radii calculated from Forster-Dexter energy transfer theory. It is found that the critical radii for electric dipole-dipole interactions in low phonon energy chloride crystals are comparable to those in conventional oxide and fluoride crystals. It is the reduction in multi-phonon relaxation rates in chloride crystals that enable these additional energy transfer processes and infrared luminescence. PMID:24180684

  10. Use of thulium-sensitized rare earth-doped low phonon energy crystalline hosts for IR sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganem, Joseph; Bowman, Steven R.

    2013-11-01

    Crystalline hosts with low phonon energies enable novel energy transfer processes when doped with rare earth ions. Two applications of energy transfer for rare earth ions in thulium-sensitized low phonon energy crystals that result in infrared luminescence are discussed. One application is an endothermic, phonon-assisted cross-relaxation process in thulium-doped yttrium chloride that converts lattice phonons to infrared emission, which raises the possibility of a fundamentally new method for achieving solid-state optical cooling. The other application is an optically pumped mid-IR phosphor using thulium-praseodymium-doped potassium lead chloride that converts 805-nm diode light to broadband emission from 4,000 to 5,500 nm. These two applications in chloride crystals are discussed in terms of critical radii calculated from Forster-Dexter energy transfer theory. It is found that the critical radii for electric dipole-dipole interactions in low phonon energy chloride crystals are comparable to those in conventional oxide and fluoride crystals. It is the reduction in multi-phonon relaxation rates in chloride crystals that enable these additional energy transfer processes and infrared luminescence.

  11. Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of solar architecture'' and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings. 15 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. New window design options for CEBAF energy upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, L.; Mammosser, J.; Nguyen, V.

    1997-07-01

    As the Jefferson Laboratory upgrades the existing CEBAF electron accelerator to operate at higher energies, the fundamental power coupler windows will be required to operate with lower RF dissipation and increased immunity to radiation from cavity field emission. New designs and modifications to existing designs which can achieve these goals are described.

  13. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in Office Buildings, Advanced Energy Design Guides: Office Buildings (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing new office buildings that result in 50% less energy use than conventional designs meeting minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use office buildings with gross floor areas up to 100,000 ft2 (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller office buildings with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of office buildings.

  14. EDECT: An Energy Design, Evaluation, and Comparison Tool.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    medium offices and retail stores , and private clinics are envelope dosinant examples. Conversely, system dominant buildings’ major energy loads come from...AD-A17l 261 EDECT: AN ENERGY DESIGN EVALUATION AND COMPARISON TOOL 1/2 (U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH &RIGHT-PATTERSON AFS OH Wi D ALLEY 1986 RFIT/CI/NR...TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED EDECT: An Energy Design, Evaluation, and TlESIS/I~$ /r/t N Comparison Tool 6. PERFORMING ORG

  15. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 5: System design and specifications. Part 1: Observatory system element specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The performance, design, and quality assurance requirements for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Observatory and Ground System program elements required to perform the Land Resources Management (LRM) A-type mission are presented. The requirements for the Observatory element with the exception of the instruments specifications are contained in the first part.

  16. Designing an Energy Drink: High School Students Learn Design and Marketing Skills in This Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Doug

    2008-01-01

    A decade ago, energy drinks were almost nonexistent in the United States, but in the past five years they've become wildly popular. In fact, the $3.4 billion energy-drink market is expected to double this year alone, and the younger generation is the market targeted by manufacturers. This article presents an energy-drink designing activity. This…

  17. One Earth for Me and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Chihiro

    1993-01-01

    Describes Japan's New Sunshine Program and its contributions to three programs designed to produce international public good: the Action Program to Arrest Global Warming; New Earth 21; and the Relaxing Energy and Environmental Constraints in Less Developed Countries Program. (MDH)

  18. Solar array design based on shadow analysis for increasing net energy collection in a competition vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) applications such as in the architectural, automotive, and aerospace industries face design contradictions because they are expected to produce a lot of energy but are constrained by available area, surface shape, incident irradiance, shadows, and other aspects that have a negative influence on the energy produced by the solar panel. Solar competition vehicles are some of these challenging PV applications. The design of such solar arrays needs to consider efficiency evaluation in order to optimize space; it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows. A design procedure for a solar array configuration based on shadow analysis for competition vehicles is presented. The principle is that shadows in moving objects can be simulated, since the vehicle, the earth and the sun are are moving in semipredictable patterns, thus net energy collection can be forecast. The case study presented is the solar array design of a vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013. The obtained results illustrate how the employment of the procedure gives insights on important aspects to consider and also delivers qualitative and quantitative information for decision making. In addition, the experience in competition highlights some issues to be considered, modified, or improved in further vehicle designs.

  19. Low launch-energy trajectories to the outer solar system via Venus and earth gravity-assist flybys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Roger; Belbruno, Edward; Bender, David; Myers, Mark; Stetson, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Recent cancellation of the program to develop a Centaur upper stage for use in the Space Transportation System (STS) has motivated considerable interest in trajectory modes with low launch-energy requirements to the outer solar system. Flyby encounters of the inner planets, especially Venus and earth, may be used to enable missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and a restricted class of comets. An examination of mission opportunities to these targets is presented through the end of this century using gravity-assist trajectories.

  20. Aiding Design of Wave Energy Converters via Computational Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebeli Aqdam, Hejar; Ahmadi, Babak; Raessi, Mehdi; Tootkaboni, Mazdak

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing interest in renewable energy sources, wave energy converters will continue to gain attention as a viable alternative to current electricity production methods. It is therefore crucial to develop computational tools for the design and analysis of wave energy converters. A successful design requires balance between the design performance and cost. Here an analytical solution is used for the approximate analysis of interactions between a flap-type wave energy converter (WEC) and waves. The method is verified using other flow solvers and experimental test cases. Then the model is used in conjunction with a powerful heuristic optimization engine, Charged System Search (CSS) to explore the WEC design space. CSS is inspired by charged particles behavior. It searches the design space by considering candidate answers as charged particles and moving them based on the Coulomb's laws of electrostatics and Newton's laws of motion to find the global optimum. Finally the impacts of changes in different design parameters on the power takeout of the superior WEC designs are investigated. National Science Foundation, CBET-1236462.

  1. The Design of a High Performance Earth Imagery and Raster Data Management and Processing Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qingyun

    2016-06-01

    This paper summarizes the general requirements and specific characteristics of both geospatial raster database management system and raster data processing platform from a domain-specific perspective as well as from a computing point of view. It also discusses the need of tight integration between the database system and the processing system. These requirements resulted in Oracle Spatial GeoRaster, a global scale and high performance earth imagery and raster data management and processing platform. The rationale, design, implementation, and benefits of Oracle Spatial GeoRaster are described. Basically, as a database management system, GeoRaster defines an integrated raster data model, supports image compression, data manipulation, general and spatial indices, content and context based queries and updates, versioning, concurrency, security, replication, standby, backup and recovery, multitenancy, and ETL. It provides high scalability using computer and storage clustering. As a raster data processing platform, GeoRaster provides basic operations, image processing, raster analytics, and data distribution featuring high performance computing (HPC). Specifically, HPC features include locality computing, concurrent processing, parallel processing, and in-memory computing. In addition, the APIs and the plug-in architecture are discussed.

  2. Advanced Spacecraft Designs in Support of Human Missions to Earth's Neighborhood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    NASA's strategic planning for technology investment draws on engineering studies of potential future missions. A number of hypothetical mission architectures have been studied. A recent study completed by The NASA/JSC Advanced Design Team addresses one such possible architecture strategy for missions to the moon. This conceptual study presents an overview of each of the spacecraft elements that would enable such missions. These elements include an orbiting lunar outpost at lunar L1 called the Gateway, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) which ferries a crew of four from the ISS to the Gateway, a lunar lander which ferries the crew from the Gateway to the lunar surface, and a one-way lunar habitat lander capable of supporting the crew for 30 days. Other supporting elements of this architecture discussed below include the LTV kickstage, a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) stage, and a logistics lander capable of re-supplying the 30-day habitat lander and bringing other payloads totaling 10.3 mt in support of surface mission activities. Launch vehicle infrastructure to low-earth orbit includes the Space Shuttle, which brings up the LTV and crew, and the Delta-IV Heavy expendable launch vehicle which launches the landers, kickstage, and SEP.

  3. Design and realization of RS application system for earthquake emergency based on digital earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaoqing; Guo, Jianxing; Dou, Aixia; Ding, Xiang

    2016-11-01

    The current RS-based earthquake emergency system is mainly based on stand-alone software which cannot meet the requirements of massive remote sensing data and parallel seismic damage information extraction after a devastating earthquake. Taking Shaanxi Province as an example, this paper explored firstly the network-based working mode of seismic damage information extraction and data management strategy for multi-user cooperative operation based on analysing work flow of the RS application to earthquake emergency. Then, using WorldWind java SDK, the RS application system for earthquake emergency based on digital earth platform was brought out in CS architecture. Finally, spatial data tables of classification and grade of seismic damage were designed and the system was developed. This system realized functions including 3D display, management of seismic RS image and GIS data obtained before and after earthquake for different user levels and cooperative extraction and publish of such seismic information as building damage, traffic damage and seismo-geological disasters caused by earthquake in real time. Some application to earthquake cases such as 2014 M s6.5 Ludian earthquake show that this system can improve the efficiency of seismic damage information interpretation and data sharing, and provide import disaster information for decision making of earthquake emergency rescue and disaster relief.

  4. Experimental Tests of UltraFlex Array Designs in Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Charging Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

    2011-01-01

    The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the expected on-orbit charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex array coupons in the Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Environments. Furthermore, it is important to note that the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station as well as to the lunar mission charging environments. The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar orbital and lunar surface mission environments. The UltraFlex thin film photovoltaic array technology has been targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Aires Crew Exploration Vehicle. It is therefore, crucial to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues in an attempt to ascertain that a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Testing was limited to four array coupons, two coupons each from two different array manufactures, Emcore and Spectrolab. The layout of each array design is identical and varies only in the actual cell technology used. The individual array cells from each manufacturer have an antireflection layered coating and come in two different varieties either uncoated (only AR coating) or coated with a thin conducting ITO layer. The LEO Plasma tests revealed that all four coupons passed the arc threshold -120 V bias tests. GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only front side area of ITO coated coupons passed tests. Only the Emcore AR array passed backside Stage 2 GEO Tests.

  5. Earth to space dc to dc power transmission system utilizing a microwave beam as source of energy for electric propelled interorbital vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    The paper contributes to the credibility of an electric propelled interorbital transportation system by introducing a new low-mass source of continuous dc power for electric propulsion and illustrating how the source can be economically tied to an electric utility on earth by an electronically steered microwave beam. The new thin-film rectenna, which functions as the receiving end of an earth-to-space microwave power transmission system is described. It is easily fabricated, is over 80 percent efficient, has a specific mass of no more than 2 kilograms per kilowatt of continuous dc power output, and is well adapted for deployment in space. The paper then describes a complete system consisting of the interorbital vehicle and the microwave power transmission system that supplies it with power. A design scenario is used to obtain performance data from the system in terms of vehicle transfer times, payload fractions, and costs. Electric energy costs are found to be less than $1000 per kilogram of payload delivered to geosynchronous orbit from low-earth orbit.

  6. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  7. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent go-to group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA s design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer s needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  8. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in New Schools, Advanced Energy Design Guides: K-12 Schools (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing elementary, middle, and high school buildings that will result in 50% less energy use than conventional new schools built to minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use school buildings (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller schools with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of schools.

  9. On the relationship of the earth radiation budget to the variability of atmospheric available potential and kinetic energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, David L.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1990-01-01

    The zonal and eddy kinetics energies and available potential energies are examined for both the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres, using a data set produced by 8 years of continuous simultaneous observations of the circulation parameters and measurements of the earth radiation budget (ERB) from the Nimbus-7 ERB experiment. The relationships between the seasonal cycles in ERB and those of the energetics are obtained, showing that the solar annual cycle accounts for most of the seasonal variability. It was found that the ERB midlatitude gradients of the net balance and the outgoing radiation lead the annual cycle of the energetics by 2-3 weeks.

  10. Energy density of ionospheric and solar wind origin ions in the near-Earth magnetotail during substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daglis, Loannis A.; Livi, Stefano; Sarris, Emmanuel T.; Wilken, Berend

    1994-01-01

    Comprehensive energy density studies provide an important measure of the participation of various sources in energization processes and have been relatively rare in the literature. We present a statistical study of the energy density of the near-Earth magnetotail major ions (H(+), O(+), He(++), He(+)) during substorm expansion phase and discuss its implications for the solar wind/magnetosphere/ionosphere coupling. Our aim is to examine the relation between auroral activity and the particle energization during substorms through the correlation between the AE indices and the energy density of the major magnetospheric ions. The data we used here were collected by the charge-energy-mass (CHEM) spectrometer on board the Active Magnetospheric Particle Trace Explorer (AMPTE)/Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) satellite in the near-equatorial nightside magnetosphere, at geocentric distances approximately 7 to 9 R(sub E). CHEM provided the opportunity to conduct the first statistical study of energy density in the near-Earth magnetotail with multispecies particle data extending into the higher energy range (greater than or equal to 20 keV/E). the use of 1-min AE indices in this study should be emphasized, as the use (in previous statistical studies) of the (3-hour) Kp index or of long-time averages of AE indices essentially smoothed out all the information on substorms. Most distinct feature of our study is the excellent correlation of O(+) energy density with the AE index, in contrast with the remarkably poor He(++) energy density - AE index correlation. Furthermore, we examined the relation of the ion energy density to the electrojet activity during substorm growth phase. The O(+) energy density is strongly correlated with the pre-onset AU index, that is the eastward electrojet intensity, which represents the growth phase current system. Our investigation shows that the near-Earth magnetotail is increasingly fed with energetic ionospheric ions during periods of enhanced

  11. Tribological design constraints of marine renewable energy systems.

    PubMed

    Wood, Robert J K; Bahaj, AbuBakr S; Turnock, Stephen R; Wang, Ling; Evans, Martin

    2010-10-28

    Against the backdrop of increasing energy demands, the threat of climate change and dwindling fuel reserves, finding reliable, diverse, sustainable/renewable, affordable energy resources has become a priority for many countries. Marine energy conversion systems are at the forefront of providing such a resource. Most marine renewable energy conversion systems require tribological components to convert wind or tidal streams to rotational motion for generating electricity while wave machines typically use oscillating hinge or piston within cylinder geometries to promote reciprocating linear motion. This paper looks at the tribology of three green marine energy systems, offshore wind, tidal and wave machines. Areas covered include lubrication and contamination, bearing and gearbox issues, biofouling, cavitation erosion, tribocorrosion, condition monitoring as well as design trends and loading conditions associated with tribological components. Current research thrusts are highlighted along with areas needing research as well as addressing present-day issues related to the tribology of offshore energy conversion technologies.

  12. An internet tool for designing energy efficient homes

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, M.; Gomez, C.; Leeper, D.; Zurick, J.; Nindra, A.; Shen, J.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1999-07-01

    To help their 4.5 million residential customers make energy efficient decisions, Southern California Gas asked UCLA to develop an Internet-based simulation tool called Project REED (Residential Energy Efficient Design). The critical problem is to give these ratepayers an easy way to visualize the relative effectiveness of their various options. REED is a internet-based tool that calculates the annual gas and electricity cost for each separate building design or operating decision. Hourly climate data for the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY2) in all the climate zones in the SoCalGas service area are built in, as well as utility rates for each type of residential service. REED's Expert System first designs a basic Code Compliant home, then designs a more Energy Efficient design based on local climate, and it shows how much money ratepayers would save. The simulation engine inside REED is SOLAR-5, one of the nation's most widely used whole building energy design tools. SOLAR-5 has been validated against DOE-2 using the BESTEST procedure. This paper, one of a pair describing REED, explains the project from the user's point of view and describes what was learned from the Ratepayer Usability Test. The second paper explains the project from the simulation and software engineering point of view.

  13. Educating the design professional: energy-conscious design for commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, N.; Franta, G.

    1981-04-01

    The energy problem in a residence is substantially different from that in a commercial building; therefore, the approach to using renewable resources in a commercial building differs from that in a residence. For this reason, educational materials, seminars, and workshops developed to teach architects and engineers basic design principles to integrate renewable energy into commercial buildings must differ from that developed for residential building designers. The purpose of this paper is to identify some of the differences in approach between residential and commercial solar design, discuss what the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) Commercial Buildings Group has learned about educating commercial building design professionals through experience, and describe the American Institute of Architects (AIA) national effort to educate architects about energy-conscious design.

  14. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  15. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores--50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, E. T.; Macumber, D. L.; Long, N. L.; Griffith, B. T.; Benne, K. S.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini, P. A.

    2008-09-01

    This report provides recommendations that architects, designers, contractors, developers, owners, and lessees of grocery store buildings can use to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  16. Prediction of the lowest-energy structures of rare-earth metallic clusters with a Moebius inversion pair potential

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, You-Hua; Wang, Yuzhu

    2001-07-01

    The Moebius inversion pair potential has been employed, in combination with genetic algorithms, to predict the lowest-energy structures of the rare-earth metallic clusters La{sub N}, Ce{sub N}, and Pr{sub N} (N=3--20). Results are given for the symmetries, binding energies, nearest-neighbor distances of these clusters, and lowest-energy configurations of Ce{sub N} clusters. Also, the calculated second finite difference of the total energy shows that for three species elements, the 13-atom clusters with I{sub d} symmetry are particularly stable. Some minor peaks are also found at size N=4, 6, 11, and 15, which indicates that the corresponding clusters are relatively stable in structure. Present work points out a route to studying clusters.

  17. Commercial building design and energy conservation: A preliminary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, A. L.; Rosoff, D.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine the degree of change in commercial building design practice relating to energy conservation since the enactment of the Energy Conservation Standard for New Buildings Act of 1976. Data on current design practices consisted of information from 400 buildings advertised for bids or under construction in 1979 to 1980 on glass in windows and doors, exterior wall systems, roof system, heating plants, and lighting systems. In addition to these building design components, energy conservation measures used included: natural lighting; deadband thermostat; greenhouse-effect atrium collector, heat recovery from the top of the atrium, greenhouse passive heating panels; natural ventilation; insulating shutters, closable skylights, thermal shutters, Trombe wall, corridor trombe; attic ventilation; wind shielding, concrete wall; titled windows; night flushing cycle; and cooling coils using cooling tower water. A brief explanation of these measures is given.

  18. Commercial building design and energy conservation: a preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, A.; Rosoff, D.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine the degree of change in commercial building design practice relating to energy conservation since the enactment of the Energy Conservation Standard for New Buildings Act of 1976. Data on current design practices consisted of information from 400 buildings advertised for bids or under construction in 1979 to 1980 on glass in windows and doors, exterior wall systems, roof system, heating plants, and lighting systems. In addition to these building design components, energy conservation measures used included: natural lighting; deadband thermostat; greenhouse-effect atrium collector, heat recovery from the top of the atrium, greenhouse passive heating panels; natural ventilation; insulating shutters, closable skylights, thermal shutters, Trombe wall, corridor trombe; attic ventilation; wind shielding, concrete wall; titlted windows; night flushing cycle; and cooling coils using cooling tower water. A brief explanation of these measures is given. (MCW)

  19. Thermoelectric Generator Design in Dynamic Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiziroglou, M. E.; Becker, Th; Wright, S. W.; Yeatman, E. M.; Evans, J. W.; Wright, P. K.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports an analysis of thermoelectric generator design for dynamic thermoelectric harvesting. In such devices, the available energy for a given temperature cycle is finite and determined by the heat storage unit capacity. It is shown by simulation and experimentally that specific thermoelectric generator designs can increase the energy output, by optimizing the balance between heat leakage and dynamic response delay. A 3D printed, doublewall heat storage unit is developed for the experiments. Output energy of 30 J from 7.5 gr of phase change material, from a temperature cycle between ± 22 °C is demonstrated, enough to supply typical duty-cycled wireless sensor platforms. These results may serve as guidelines for the design and fabrication of dynamic thermoelectric harvesters for applications involving environments with moderate temperature fluctuations.

  20. Axial focusing of impact energy in the Earth's interior: Proof-of-principle tests of a new hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Chael, E. P.; Trucano, T. G.; Kipp, M. E.; Crawford, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    A causal link between major impact events and global processes would probably require a significant change in the thermal state of the Earth's interior, presumably brought about by coupling of impact energy. One possible mechanism for such energy coupling from the surface to the deep interior would be through focusing due to axial symmetry. Antipodal focusing of surface and body waves from earthquakes is a well-known phenomenon which has previously been exploited by seismologists in studies of the Earth's deep interior. Antipodal focusing from impacts on the Moon, Mercury, and icy satellites has also been invoked by planetary scientists to explain unusual surface features opposite some of the large impact structures on these bodies. For example, 'disrupted' terrains have been observed antipodal to the Caloris impact basis on Mercury and Imbrium Basin on the Moon. Very recently there have been speculations that antipodal focusing of impact energy within the mantle may lead to flood basalt and hotspot activity, but there has not yet been an attempt at a rigorous model. A new hypothesis was proposed and preliminary proof-of-principle tests for the coupling of energy from major impacts to the mantle by axial focusing of seismic waves was performed. Because of the axial symmetry of the explosive source, the phases and amplitudes are dependent only on ray parameter (or takeoff angle) and are independent of azimuthal angle. For a symmetric and homogeneous Earth, all the seismic energy radiated by the impact at a given takeoff angle will be refocused (minus attenuation) on the axis of symmetry, regardless of the number of reflections and refractions it has experienced. Mantle material near the axis of symmetry will experience more strain cycles with much greater amplitude than elsewhere and will therefore experience more irreversible heating. The situation is very different than for a giant earthquake, which in addition to having less energy, has an asymmetric focal

  1. The concepts of energy, environment, and cost for process design

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Khader, M.M.; Speight, J.G.

    2004-05-01

    The process industries (specifically, energy and chemicals) are characterized by a variety of reactors and reactions to bring about successful process operations. The design of energy-related and chemical processes and their evolution is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environmental impact. Thus, we have developed an Enviro-Energy Concept designed to facilitate sustainable industrial development. The Complete Onion Model represents a complete methodology for chemical process design and illustrates all of the requirements to achieve the best possible design within the accepted environmental standards. Currently, NOx emissions from industrial processes continue to receive maximum attention, therefore the issue problem of NOx emissions from industrial sources such as power stations and nitric acid plants is considered. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the most promising and effective commercial technologies. It is considered the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx reduction. The solution of NOx emissions problem is either through modifying the chemical process design and/or installing an end-of-pipe technology. The degree of integration between the process design and the installed technology plays a critical role in the capital cost evaluation. Therefore, integrating process units and then optimizing the design has a vital effect on the total cost. Both the environmental regulations and the cost evaluation are the boundary constraints of the optimum solution.

  2. TRUST: A Successful Formal-Informal Teacher Education Partnership Designed to Improve and Promote Urban Earth Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, H.; Drantch, K.; Steenhuis, J.

    2006-12-01

    We present an NSF-funded collaborative formal-informal partnership for urban Earth science teacher preparation and professional development. This model brings together The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) and Brooklyn and Lehman College of the City University of New York (CUNY) to address science-impoverished classrooms that lack highly qualified teachers by focusing on Earth science teacher certification. Project design was based on identified needs in the local communities and schools, careful analysis of content knowledge mastery required for Earth science teacher certification, and existing impediments to certification. The problem-based approach required partners to push policy envelopes and to invent new ways of articulating content and pedagogy at both intra- and inter-institutional levels. One key element of the project is involvement of the local board of education, teachers, and administrators in initial design and ongoing assessment. Project components include formal Earth systems science courses, a summer institute primarily led and delivered by AMNH scientists through an informal series of lectures coupled to workshops led by AMNH educators, a mechanism for assigning course credit for informal experiences, development of new teaching approaches that include teacher action plans and an external program of evaluation. The principal research strand of this project focuses on the resulting model for formal-informal teacher education partnership, the project's impact on participating teachers, policy issues surrounding the model and the changes required for its development and implementation, and its potential for Earth science education reform. As the grant funded portion of the project draws to a close we begin to analyze data collected over the past 3 years. Third-year findings of the project's external evaluation indicate that the problem-based approach has been highly successful, particularly its impact on participating teachers. In addition

  3. Radiative Energy Budget Studies Using Observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Frey, R.; Shie, M.; Olson, R.; Collimore, C.; Friedman, M.

    1997-01-01

    Our research activities under this NASA grant have focused on two broad topics associated with the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE): (1) the role of clouds and the surface in modifying the radiative balance; and (2) the spatial and temporal variability of the earth's radiation budget. Each of these broad topics is discussed separately in the text that follows. The major points of the thesis are summarized in section 3 of this report. Other dissertation focuses on deriving the radiation budget over the TOGA COARE region.

  4. Photovoltaic power system for satellite Earth stations in remote areas: Project status and design description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic power system which will be installed at a remote location in Indonesia to provide power for a satellite Earth station and a classroom for video and audio teleconferences are described. The Earth station may also provide telephone service to a nearby village. The use of satellite communications for development assistance applications and the suitability of a hybrid photovoltaic engine generator power system for remote satellite Earth stations are demonstrated. The Indonesian rural satellite project is discussed and the photovoltaic power system is described.

  5. Investigation of Alternative Return Strategies for Orion Trans-earth Injection Design Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchand, Belinda G.; Scarritt, Sara K.; Howell, Kathleen C.; Weeks, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate alternative return strategies for the Orion trans-Earth injection (TEI) phase. A dynamical systems analysis approach considers the structure of the stable and unstable Sun perturbed Earth-Moon manifolds near the Earth-Moon interface region. A hybrid approach, then, combines the results from this analysis with classical two-body methods in a targeting process that seeks to expand the window of return opportunities in a precision entry scenario. The resulting startup arcs can be used, for instance, to enhance the block set of solutions available onboard during an autonomous targeting process.

  6. Energy Recovery Transport Design for Peking University FEL

    SciTech Connect

    G. M. Wang; Y.-C. Chao; J.-E. Chen; C. Liu; Z. C. Liu; X. Y. Lu; K. Zhao; J. Zhuang

    2007-08-01

    A free-electron laser based on a superconducting linac is under construction in Peking University. To increase FEL output power, energy recovery is chosen as one of the most potential and popular ways. The design of a beam transport system for energy recovery is presented, which is suitable for the Peking University construction area. Especially, a chicane structure is chosen to change path length at ±20 degree and M56 in the arc is adjusted for fully bunch compression.

  7. Fundamentals of the route theory for satellite constellation design for Earth discontinuous coverage. Part 3: Low-cost Earth observation with minimal satellite swath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razoumny, Yury N.

    2016-12-01

    Continuing the series of papers with description of the fundamentals of the Route Theory for satellite constellation design, the general method for minimization of the satellite swath width required under given constraint on the maximum revisit time (MRT), the main quality characteristic of the satellite constellation discontinuous coverage, is presented. The interrelation between MRT and multiplicity of the periodic coverage - the minimum number of the observation sessions realized for the points of observation region during the satellite tracks' repetition period - is revealed and described. In particular, it is shown that a change of MRT can occur only at points of coverage multiplicity changing. Basic elements of multifold Earth coverage theory are presented and used for obtaining analytical relations for the minimum swath width providing given multifold coverage. The satellite swath width calculation procedure for the multifold coverage of rotating Earth using the iterations on the sphere of stationary coverage is developed. The numerical results for discontinuous coverage with minimal satellite swath, including comparison with some known particular cases and implementations of the method, are presented.

  8. The Energy Balance Study: The Design and Baseline Results for a Longitudinal Study of Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Paluch, Amanda E.; Baruth, Meghan; Crowley, E. Patrick; Jaggers, Jason R.; Prasad, Vivek K.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hebert, James R.; O'Connor, Daniel P.; Archer, Edward; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The Energy Balance Study (EBS) was a comprehensive study designed to determine over a period of 12 months the associations of caloric intake and energy expenditure on changes in body weight and composition in a population of healthy men and women. Method: EBS recruited men and women aged 21 to 35 years with a body mass index between 20…

  9. Sweet Grass Elementary School: A Study in Energy Conservation. Energy Conservation: School Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonton Public Schools (Alberta).

    The results of building a new school in Edmonton (Alberta) in accordance with energy efficient principles are described in this report, the third and last in a series describing three projects utilizing different approaches to energy conservation. The Sweet Grass Elementary School project consisted in designing, building, and monitoring an energy…

  10. Donohue Corporate Office Headquarters: a cost effective energy conscious design

    SciTech Connect

    Marcheske, M.; Ruppel, D.; Gau, R.; Vita, D.; Walsh, T.; Daryanani, S.

    1981-01-01

    The focus is on the design techniques in the recently completed corporate office building of Donohue and Associates, Engineers and Architects, located in Sheboygan, Wisconsin. The new location, located at a latitude of 43/sup 0/ north, will provide 25,000 additional square feet on two floors, while providing a regional show case for energy-efficient commercial building design that emphasizes a quality environment predicated on the integration of daylighting and indirect lighting systems as well as the coordination of passive solar techniques with auxiliary mechanical systems. Emphasis is on the utilization of a design-build approach, coupled with a design-team approach that required close cooperation between the architect, engineer, energy consultant and owner as well as the general contractor and subcontractors, in order to provide a qualtiy office environment in which to work.

  11. Donohue corporate office headquarters: a cost effective energy conscious design

    SciTech Connect

    Marcheske, M.; Ruppel, D.; Vita, D.; Walsh, T.; Daryanani, S.

    1982-01-01

    Focus is on the design technqiues utilized in the recently completed corporate office building of Donohue and Associates, Engineers and Architects, located in Sheboygan, Wisconsin. The new facility located at a latitude of 43/sup 0/ north, will provide 25,000 additional square feet on two floors, while providing a regional showcase for energy-efficient commercial buildings design that emphasizes a quality environment predicated on the integration of daylighting and indirect lighting systems as well as the coordination of passive solar techniques with auxiliary mechanical systems. The utilization of a design-build approach coupled with a design-team approach required close cooperation between the architect, engineer, energy consultant, and owner, as well as the general contractor and subcontractors, in order to provide a quality office environment in which to work.

  12. Relationship Between the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements and Surface Temperatures of Selected Ocean Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Dhirendra, K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Brown, Shannon B.; Paden, Jack; Spence, Peter L.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

    2001-01-01

    Clear sky longwave radiances and fluxes are compared with the sea surface temperatures for three oceanic regions: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements were obtained by the three thermistor bolometers: total channel which measures the radiation arising from the earth-atmosphere system between 0.3 - greater than 100 micrometers; the window channel which measures the radiation from 8-12 micrometers; and the shortwave channel which measures the reflected energy from 0.3 - less than 5.0 micrometers. These instruments have demonstrated measurement precisions of approximately 0.3% on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) between ground and on-orbit sensor calibrations. In this work we have used eight months of clear sky earth-nadir-view radiance data starting from January 1998 through August 1998. We have found a very strong correlation of 0.97 between the CERES window channel's weekly averaged unfiltered spectral radiance values at satellite altitude (350 km) and the corresponding weekly averaged sea surface temperature (SST) data covering all the oceanic regions. Such correlation can be used in predicting the sea surface temperatures using the present CERES Terra's window channel radiances at satellite altitude very easily.

  13. Opportunities and limitations in low earth subsonic testing for qualification of extraterrestrial supersonic parachute designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, A.; Cruz, J.; Bruno, R.; Mitcheltree, R.

    2003-01-01

    Parachutes for Mars and other planetary missions often need to operate at supersonic speeds in very low density atmospheres. Flight testing of such parachutes at appropriate conditions in the Earth's atmosphere is possible at high altitudes.

  14. Fluid manifold design for a solar energy storage tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.; Hewitt, H. C.; Griggs, E. I.

    1975-01-01

    A design technique for a fluid manifold for use in a solar energy storage tank is given. This analytical treatment generalizes the fluid equations pertinent to manifold design, giving manifold pressures, velocities, and orifice pressure differentials in terms of appropriate fluid and manifold geometry parameters. Experimental results used to corroborate analytical predictions are presented. These data indicate that variations in discharge coefficients due to variations in orifices can cause deviations between analytical predictions and actual performance values.

  15. Surface interactions with compartmentalized cellular phosphates explain rare earth oxide nanoparticle hazard and provide opportunities for safer design.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruibin; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Dunphy, Darren R; Cai, Xiaoming; Meng, Huan; Zhang, Haiyuan; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Dong, Juyao; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Meiying; Liao, Yu-Pei; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Nel, Andre; Xia, Tian

    2014-02-25

    Growing international exploitation of rare earth oxides (REOs) for commercial and biological use has increased the possibility of human exposure and adverse health effects. Occupational exposure to rare earth materials in miners and polishers leads to a severe form of pneumoconiosis, while gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal impairment. The mechanisms for inducing these adverse pro-fibrogenic effects are of considerable importance for the safety assessment of REO particles as well as presenting opportunities for safer design. In this study, using a well-prepared REO library, we obtained a mechanistic understanding of how REOs induce cellular and pulmonary damage by a compartmentalized intracellular biotransformation process in lysosomes that results in pro-fibrogenic growth factor production and lung fibrosis. We demonstrate that rare earth oxide ion shedding in acidifying macrophage lysosomes leads to biotic phosphate complexation that results in organelle damage due to stripping of phosphates from the surrounding lipid bilayer. This results in nanoparticle biotransformation into urchin shaped structures and setting in motion a series of events that trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1β release, TGF-β1 and PDGF-AA production. However, pretreatment of REO nanoparticles with phosphate in a neutral pH environment prevents biological transformation and pro-fibrogenic effects. This can be used as a safer design principle for producing rare earth nanoparticles for biological use.

  16. On the formulation of gravitational potential difference between the GRACE satellites based on energy integral in Earth fixed frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y. Y.; Guo, J. Y.; Shang, K.; Shum, C. K.; Yu, J. H.

    2015-09-01

    Two methods for computing gravitational potential difference (GPD) between the GRACE satellites using orbit data have been formulated based on energy integral; one in geocentric inertial frame (GIF) and another in Earth fixed frame (EFF). Here we present a rigorous theoretical formulation in EFF with particular emphasis on necessary approximations, provide a computational approach to mitigate the approximations to negligible level, and verify our approach using simulations. We conclude that a term neglected or ignored in all former work without verification should be retained. In our simulations, 2 cycle per revolution (CPR) errors are present in the GPD computed using our formulation, and empirical removal of the 2 CPR and lower frequency errors can improve the precisions of Stokes coefficients (SCs) of degree 3 and above by 1-2 orders of magnitudes. This is despite of the fact that the result without removing these errors is already accurate enough. Furthermore, the relation between data errors and their influences on GPD is analysed, and a formal examination is made on the possible precision that real GRACE data may attain. The result of removing 2 CPR errors may imply that, if not taken care of properly, the values of SCs computed by means of the energy integral method using real GRACE data may be seriously corrupted by aliasing errors from possibly very large 2 CPR errors based on two facts: (1) errors of bar C_{2,0} manifest as 2 CPR errors in GPD and (2) errors of bar C_{2,0} in GRACE data-the differences between the CSR monthly values of bar C_{2,0} independently determined using GRACE and SLR are a reasonable measure of their magnitude-are very large. Our simulations show that, if 2 CPR errors in GPD vary from day to day as much as those corresponding to errors of bar C_{2,0} from month to month, the aliasing errors of degree 15 and above SCs computed using a month's GPD data may attain a level comparable to the magnitude of gravitational potential

  17. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  18. Shielding design for multiple-energy linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Barish, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    The introduction of medical linear accelerators (linacs) capable of producing three different x-ray energies has complicated the process of designing shielding for these units. The conventional approach for the previous generation of dual-energy linacs relied on the addition of some amount of supplementary shielding to that calculated for the higher-energy beam, where the amount of that supplement followed the historical "two-source" rule, also known as the "add one HVL rule," a practice derived from other two-source shielding considerations. The author describes an iterative approach that calculates shielding requirements accurately for any number of multiple beam energies assuming the workload at each energy can be specified at the outset. This method is particularly useful when considering the requirements for possible modifications to an existing vault when new equipment is to be installed as a replacement for a previous unit.

  19. Design of energy-based terrain following flight control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Aijun; Xie, Yanwu; Tan, Jian

    2006-11-01

    Historically, aircraft longitudinal control has been realized by means of two loops: flight path (the control variable is elevator displacement) and speed control (the control variable is propulsive thrust or engine power). Both the elevator and throttle control cause coupled altitude and speed response, which exerts negative effects on longitudinal flight performance of aircraft, especially for Terrain Following(TF) flight. Energy-based method can resolve coupled problem between flight speed and path by controlling total energy rate and energy distribution rate between elevator and throttle. In this paper, energy-based control method is applied to design a TF flight control system for controlling flight altitude directly. An error control method of airspeed and altitude is adopted to eliminate the stable error of the total energy control system when decoupling control. Pitch loop and pitch rate feedback loop are designed for the system to damp the oscillatory response produced by TF system. The TF flight control system structure diagram and an aircraft point-mass energy motion model including basic control loops are given and used to simulate decoupling performance of the TF fight control system. Simulation results show that the energy-based TF flight control system can decouple flight velocity and flight path angle, exactly follow planned flight path, and greatly reduce altitude error, which is between +10m and -8m.

  20. Solar Energy: Progress and Design Concerns of Nanostructured Solar Energy Harvesting Devices (Small 19/2016).

    PubMed

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Zhang, Qianpeng; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; He, Jin; Mo, Xiaoliang; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-05-01

    Nanoengineered materials and structures can harvest light efficiently for photovoltaic applications. Device structure design optimization and material property improvement are equally important for high performance. On page 2536, X. Mo, Z. Fan, and co-workers summarize the design guidelines of solar energy harvesting devices to assist with a better understanding of device physics.

  1. Solar Energy: Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts: Student Material. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Charles; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Designed for student use in "Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, bibliographies, and illustrations for seven course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the same course, covers the…

  2. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells.

  3. Multi objective decision making in hybrid energy system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Gabriel Guillermo

    The design of grid-connected photovoltaic wind generator system supplying a farmstead in Nebraska has been undertaken in this dissertation. The design process took into account competing criteria that motivate the use of different sources of energy for electric generation. The criteria considered were 'Financial', 'Environmental', and 'User/System compatibility'. A distance based multi-objective decision making methodology was developed to rank design alternatives. The method is based upon a precedence order imposed upon the design objectives and a distance metric describing the performance of each alternative. This methodology advances previous work by combining ambiguous information about the alternatives with a decision-maker imposed precedence order in the objectives. Design alternatives, defined by the photovoltaic array and wind generator installed capacities, were analyzed using the multi-objective decision making approach. The performance of the design alternatives was determined by simulating the system using hourly data for an electric load for a farmstead and hourly averages of solar irradiation, temperature and wind speed from eight wind-solar energy monitoring sites in Nebraska. The spatial variability of the solar energy resource within the region was assessed by determining semivariogram models to krige hourly and daily solar radiation data. No significant difference was found in the predicted performance of the system when using kriged solar radiation data, with the models generated vs. using actual data. The spatial variability of the combined wind and solar energy resources was included in the design analysis by using fuzzy numbers and arithmetic. The best alternative was dependent upon the precedence order assumed for the main criteria. Alternatives with no PV array or wind generator dominated when the 'Financial' criteria preceded the others. In contrast, alternatives with a nil component of PV array but a high wind generator component

  4. Design for a High Energy Density Kelvin-Helmholtz Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O A

    2007-10-29

    While many high energy density physics (HEDP) Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiments have been fielded as part of basic HEDP and astrophysics studies, not one HEDP Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) experiment has been successfully performed. Herein, a design for a novel HEDP x-ray driven KH experiment is presented along with supporting radiation-hydrodynamic simulation and theory.

  5. Energy Efficient Engine core design and performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, E. Marshall

    1982-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) is a NASA program to develop fuel saving technology for future large transport aircraft engines. Testing of the General Electric E3 core showed that the core component performance and core system performance necessary to meet the program goals can be achieved. The E3 core design and test results are described.

  6. Best Practices Guide for Energy-Efficient Data Center Design

    SciTech Connect

    O. VanGeet: NREL

    2010-02-24

    This guide provides an overview of best practices for energy-efficient data center design which spans the categories of Information Technology (IT) systems and their environmental conditions, data center air management, cooling and electrical systems, on-site generation, and heat recovery.

  7. A Novel Design of Circular Edge Bow-Tie Nano Antenna for Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Ahasanul; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Kumar, Narendra

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a novel nano antenna is designed in order to convert the high frequency solar energy, thermal energy or earth re-emitted sun's energy into electricity. The proposed antenna is gold printed on a SiO2 layer, designed as a circular edge bow-tie with a ground plane at the bottom of the substrate. The Lorentz-Drude model is used to analyze the behavior of gold at the infrared band of frequencies. The proposed antenna is designed by 3D-electromagnetic solver, and analyzed for optimization of metal thickness, gap size, and antenna's geometrical length. Simulations are conducted in order to investigate the behavior of the antenna illuminated by the circularly polarized plane wave. The numerical simulations are studied for improving the harvesting E-field of the antenna within 5 THz-40 THz frequency range. The proposed antenna offers multiple resonance frequency and better return loss within the frequency bands of 23.2 THz to 27 THz (bandwidth 3.8 THz) and 31 THz to 35.9 THz (bandwidth 4.9 THz). An output electric field of 0.656 V/µm is simulated at 25.3 THz. The best fitted gap size at the feed point is achieved as 50 nm with the substrate thickness of 1.2 µm.

  8. Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

    Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market

  9. Modeling long-term changes in forested landscapes and their relation to the Earth's energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shugart, H. H.; Emanuel, W. R.; Solomon, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    The dynamics of the forested parts of the Earth's surface on time scales from decades to centuries are discussed. A set of computer models developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and elsewhere are applied as tools. These models simulate a landscape by duplicating the dynamics of growth, death and birth of each tree living on a 0.10 ha element of the landscape. This spatial unit is generally referred to as a gap in the case of the forest models. The models were tested against and applied to a diverse array of forests and appear to provide a reasonable representation for investigating forest-cover dynamics. Because of the climate linkage, one important test is the reconstruction of paleo-landscapes. Detailed reconstructions of changes in vegetation in response to changes in climate are crucial to understanding the association of the Earth's vegetation and climate and the response of the vegetation to climate change.

  10. Observations of low-energy electrons upstream of the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of electron fluxes with a lunar-based electron spectrometer when the moon was upstream of the earth have shown that a subset of observed fluxes are strongly controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field direction. The fluxes occur only when the IMF lines connect back to the earth's bow shock. Observed densities and temperatures were in the ranges 2-4 x 0,001/cu cm and 1.7-2.8 x 1,000,000 K. It is shown that these electrons can account for increases in effective solar wind electron temperatures on bow-shock connected field lines which have been observed previously by other investigators. It is further shown that if a model of the bow shock with an electrostatic potential barrier is assumed, the potential can be estimated to be 500 volts.

  11. Mesoscale mapping of available solar energy at the earth's surface by use of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiser, H. W.; Senn, H. V.

    1980-01-01

    A method is presented for use of cloud images in the visual spectrum from the SMS/GOES geostationary satellites to determine the hourly distribution of sunshine on the mesoscale. Cloud coverage and density as a function of time of day and season are evaluated through the use of digital data processing techniques. Seasonal geographic distributions of cloud cover/sunshine are converted to joules of solar radiation received at the earth's surface through relationships developed from long-term measurements of these two parameters at six widely distributed stations. The technique can be used to generate maps showing the geographic distribution of total solar radiation on the mesoscale which is received at the earth's surface.

  12. Energy efficient engine combustor test hardware detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeisser, M. H.; Greene, W.; Dubiel, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The combustor for the Energy Efficient Engine is an annular, two-zone component. As designed, it either meets or exceeds all program goals for performance, safety, durability, and emissions, with the exception of oxides of nitrogen. When compared to the configuration investigated under the NASA-sponsored Experimental Clean Combustor Program, which was used as a basis for design, the Energy Efficient Engine combustor component has several technology advancements. The prediffuser section is designed with short, strutless, curved-walls to provide a uniform inlet airflow profile. Emissions control is achieved by a two-zone combustor that utilizes two types of fuel injectors to improve fuel atomization for more complete combustion. The combustor liners are a segmented configuration to meet the durability requirements at the high combustor operating pressures and temperatures. Liner cooling is accomplished with a counter-parallel FINWALL technique, which provides more effective heat transfer with less coolant.

  13. "Gaa-Noodin-Oke" (Alternative Energy/Wind Power): A Curriculum Implementation on the White Earth Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzey, Siddika Selcen; Nyachwaya, James; Moore, Tamara J.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2014-01-01

    A wind energy focused curriculum for grades 4-8 was designed and implemented to promote the understanding of wind energy concepts with American Indian students. 57 students who participated in the 2009 summer program of the "Reach for the Sky" (RFTS) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) received the curriculum. The…

  14. Orbital Simulations on Deflecting Near-Earth Objects by Directed Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qicheng; Walsh, Kevin J.; Melis, Carl; Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip M.

    2016-04-01

    Laser ablation of a near-Earth object (NEO) on a collision course with Earth produces a cloud of ejecta that exerts a thrust on the NEO, deflecting it from its original trajectory. Ablation may be performed from afar by illuminating an Earth-targeting asteroid or comet with a stand-off “DE-STAR” system consisting of a large phased-array laser in Earth orbit. Alternatively, a much smaller stand-on “DE-STARLITE” system may travel alongside the target, slowly deflecting it from nearby over a long period. This paper presents orbital simulations comparing the effectiveness of both systems across a range of laser and NEO parameters. Simulated parameters include magnitude, duration and, for the stand-on system, direction of the thrust, as well as the type, size, and orbital characteristics of the target NEO. These simulations indicate that deflection distance is approximately proportional to the magnitude of thrust and to the square of the duration of ablation, and is inversely proportional to the mass. Furthermore, deflection distance shows strong dependence on thrust direction with the optimal direction of thrust varying with the duration of laser activity. As one example, consider a typical 325 m asteroid: beginning 15 years in advance, just 2 N of thrust from a ∼20 kW stand-on DE-STARLITE system is sufficient to deflect the asteroid by 2 {R}\\oplus . Numerous scenarios are discussed as is a practical implementation of such a system consistent with current launch vehicle capabilities.

  15. Design Challenges of Power Systems for Instrumented Spacecraft with Very Low Perigees in the Earth's Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Vickie Eakin; Manzer, Dominic D.; Pfaff, Robert E.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Gervin, Jan C.

    1999-01-01

    Designing a solar array to power a spacecraft bus supporting a set of instruments making in situ plasma and neutral atmosphere measurements in the ionosphere at altitudes of 120km or lower poses several challenges. The driving scientific requirements are the field-of-view constraints of the instruments resulting in a three-axis stabilized spacecraft, the need for an electromagnetically unperturbed environment accomplished by designing an electrostatically conducting solar array surface to avoid large potentials, making the spacecraft body as small and as symmetric as possible, and body-mounting the solar array. Furthermore, the life and thermal constraints, in the midst of the effects of the dense atmosphere at low altitude, drive the cross-sectional area of the spacecraft to be small particularly normal to the ram direction. Widely varying sun angles and eclipse durations add further complications, as does the growing desire for multiple spacecraft to resolve spatial and temporal variations packaged into a single launch vehicle. Novel approaches to insure adequate orbit-averaged power levels of approximately 250W include an oval-shaped cross section to increase the solar array collecting area during noon-midnight orbits and the use of a flywheel energy storage system. The flywheel could also be used to help maintain the spacecraft's attitude, particularly during excursions to the lowest perigee altitudes. This paper discusses the approaches used in conceptual power designs for both the proposed Dipper and the Global Electrodynamics Connections (GEC) Mission currently being studied at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

  16. Energy Efficient Engine combustor test hardware detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrus, D. L.; Chahrour, C. A.; Foltz, H. L.; Sabla, P. E.; Seto, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Combustor Development effort was conducted as part of the overall NASA/GE E3 Program. This effort included the selection of an advanced double-annular combustion system design. The primary intent was to evolve a design which meets the stringent emissions and life goals of the E3 as well as all of the usual performance requirements of combustion systems for modern turbofan engines. Numerous detailed design studies were conducted to define the features of the combustion system design. Development test hardware was fabricated, and an extensive testing effort was undertaken to evaluate the combustion system subcomponents in order to verify and refine the design. Technology derived from this development effort will be incorporated into the engine combustion system hardware design. This advanced engine combustion system will then be evaluated in component testing to verify the design intent. What is evolving from this development effort is an advanced combustion system capable of satisfying all of the combustion system design objectives and requirements of the E3. Fuel nozzle, diffuser, starting, and emissions design studies are discussed.

  17. Rare Earth Complex as Electron Trapper and Energy Transfer Ladder for Efficient Red Iridium Complex Based Electroluminescent Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Li, Leijiao; Jiang, Yunlong; Cui, Rongzhen; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Xuesen; Zhang, Hongjie

    2015-07-29

    In this work, we experimentally demonstrated the new functions of trivalent rare earth complex in improving the electroluminescent (EL) performances of iridium complex by codoping trace Eu(TTA)3phen (TTA = thenoyltrifluoroacetone, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) into a light-emitting layer based on PQ2Ir(dpm) (iridium(III)bis(2-phenylquinoly-N,C(2'))dipivaloylmethane). Compared with a reference device, the codoped devices displayed higher efficiencies, slower efficiency roll-off, higher brightness, and even better color purity. Experimental results demonstrated that Eu(TTA)3phen molecules function as electron trappers due to its low-lying energy levels, which are helpful in balancing holes and electrons and in broadening recombination zone. In addition, the matched triplet energy of Eu(TTA)3phen is instrumental in facilitating energy transfer from host to emitter. Finally, highly efficient red EL devices with the highest current efficiency, power efficiency and brightness up to 58.98 cd A(-1) (external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 21%), 61.73 lm W(-1) and 100870 cd m(-2), respectively, were obtained by appropriately decreasing the doping concentration of iridium complex. At certain brightness of 1000 cd m(-2), EL current efficiency up to 51.94 cd A(-1) (EQE = 18.5%) was retained. Our investigation extends the application of rare earth complexes in EL devices and provides a chance to improve the device performances.

  18. Wind, Water, Fire, and Earth. Energy Lessons for the Physical Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Shirley L., Ed.; And Others

    The current energy situation in the United States is a web of complicated and related elements. This document attempts to address some of these variables in presenting interdisciplinary energy lessons taken from instructional packets previously developed by the Project for an Energy-Enriched Curriculum (PEEC). The 19 physical science lessons…

  19. Design Principles for Covalent Organic Frameworks as Efficient Electrocatalysts in Clean Energy Conversion and Green Oxidizer Production.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Zhang, Lipeng; Zhao, Zhenghang; Xia, Zhenhai

    2017-02-23

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), an emerging class of framework materials linked by covalent bonds, hold potential for various applications such as efficient electrocatalysts, photovoltaics, and sensors. To rationally design COF-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in fuel cells and metal-air batteries, activity descriptors, derived from orbital energy and bonding structures, are identified with the first-principle calculations for the COFs, which correlate COF structures with their catalytic activities. The calculations also predict that alkaline-earth metal-porphyrin COFs could catalyze the direct production of H2 O2 , a green oxidizer and an energy carrier. These predictions are supported by experimental data, and the design principles derived from the descriptors provide an approach for rational design of new electrocatalysts for both clean energy conversion and green oxidizer production.

  20. Designing gondola using satcom services and solar cell energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cau, M.; Dezen, P.

    Introduction of compact, and lightweight terminals for mobile satellite communication, opens up many opportunities to design new telecommunication systems for balloons. Architecture of this gondola, named Narcisse, is built around a control process unit able to support interface with all Inmarsat services, and Iridium or Thuraya satellite network as well. A first technological gondola was launched from Brazil in February 2001, under a Infra Red Mongolfiere (hot air balloon). This gondola used an Inmarsat terminal C which can support in two ways , store and forward messages at a data rate of 600 bits per second. During the 3 turns around the earth, the system worked well, and demonstrated its ability to handle change over from one geostationary spacecraft to the next, when balloon changes ocean region. Moreover this system provides high telemetry rate (Mbits) or telecommand capability, and greatly increase the performances of the scientific payloads . On the other hand, such types of gondola can be useful to operate long duration flight (days) with large stratospheric balloons, currently limited to range capability of UHF ground station . When line of sight of view is lost, between ground station and gondola, the switch would be made from UHF to the Inmarsat or iridium system to complete the mission. In this case, the TM/TC system has no range or altitude limitation, and the gondola descent trajectory can be followed until the ground improving the localization of landing which will be helpful for recovery operation. So, using a real time duplex mini M Inmarsat terminal, the Narcisse gondola has been operationally involved early 2002 in Archeops project. Launched from Kiruna, Narcisse provided a full duplex 2400bits per second link, all along the flight across Russia. Narcisse has been again involved in march 2003 in Mipas project, using Iridium as a cold redundancy to secure Inmarsat mini M not working at extreme polar regions (latitude more than 80°). During this

  1. Apollo-Soyuz pamphlet no. 5: The earth from orbit. [experimental design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, L. W.; From, T. P.

    1977-01-01

    Astronaut training in the recognition of various geological features from space is described as well as the cameras, lenses and film used in experiment MA-136 to measure their effectiveness in photographing earth structural features from orbit. Aerosols that affect climate and weather are discussed in relation to experiment Ma-007 which relied on infrared observations of the setting or rising sun, as seen from Apollo, to measure the amount of dust and droplets in the lower 150 km of earth's atmosphere. The line spectra of atomic oxygen and nitrogen and their densities at 22 km above the earth's surface are examined along with experiment MA-059 which measured ultraviolet absorption at that altitude.

  2. Estimation of Characteristic Period for Energy Based Seismic Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hancloglu, Baykal; Polat, Zekeriya; Kircil, Murat Serdar

    2008-07-08

    Estimation of input energy using approximate methods has been always a considerable research topic of energy based seismic design. Therefore several approaches have been proposed by many researchers to estimate the energy input to SDOF systems in the last decades. The characteristic period is the key parameter of most of these approaches and it is defined as the period at which the peak value of the input energy occurs. In this study an equation is proposed for estimating the characteristic period considering an extensive earthquake ground motion database which includes a total of 268 far-field records, two horizontal components from 134 recording stations located on both soft and firm soil sites. For this purpose statistical regression analyses are performed to develop an equation in terms of a number of structural parameters, and it is found that the developed equation yields satisfactory results comparing the characteristic periods calculated from time history analyses of SDOF systems.

  3. Engineering theory of slide processes in the design of earth dams on a soft ground foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Krasil'nikov, N.A.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses the slope stability and landslide propensity of several hydroelectric plant earth dams throughout the Soviet Union from the standpoint of slide theory and compares the research of several Soviet institutions into this problem with existing standards and recommendations on dam stability and reliability. The comparisons are made for earth dams having a soft ground foundation under static loading conditions. Applicable properties are discussed for a wide range of soils and rocks including clays, loams, sands, alluvials, and soft and hard gravels. Seismic effects are not discussed.

  4. Strategic design and refinement of Lewis acid-base catalysis by rare-earth-metal-containing polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kosuke; Sugawa, Midori; Kikukawa, Yuji; Kamata, Keigo; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2012-06-18

    Efficient polyoxometalate (POM)-based Lewis acid-base catalysts of the rare-earth-metal-containing POMs (TBA(6)RE-POM, RE = Y(3+), Nd(3+), Eu(3+), Gd(3+), Tb(3+), or Dy(3+)) were designed and synthesized by reactions of TBA(4)H(4)[γ-SiW(10)O(36)] (TBA = tetra-n-butylammonium) with RE(acac)(3) (acac = acetylacetonato). TBA(6)RE-POM consisted of two silicotungstate units pillared by two rare-earth-metal cations. Nucleophilic oxygen-enriched surfaces of negatively charged POMs and the incorporated rare-earth-metal cations could work as Lewis bases and Lewis acids, respectively. Consequently, cyanosilylation of carbonyl compounds with trimethylsilyl cyanide ((TMS)CN) was efficiently promoted in the presence of the rare-earth-metal-containing POMs via the simultaneous activation of coupling partners on the same POM molecules. POMs with larger metal cations showed higher catalytic activities for cyanosilylation because of the higher activation ability of C═O bonds (higher Lewis acidities) and sterically less hindered Lewis acid sites. Among the POM catalysts examined, the neodymium-containing POM showed remarkable catalytic performance for cyanosilylation of various kinds of structurally diverse ketones and aldehydes, giving the corresponding cyanohydrin trimethylsilyl ethers in high yields (13 substrates, 94-99%). In particular, the turnover frequency (714,000 h(-1)) and the turnover number (23,800) for the cyanosilylation of n-hexanal were of the highest level among those of previously reported catalysts.

  5. Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 Schools -- 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2013-02-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-K12) (ASHRAE et al. 2011a). The AEDG-K12 provides recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in K-12 schools over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-K12 was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  6. Trajectories and energy transfer of saltating particles onto rock surfaces : application to abrasion and ventifact formation on Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, Nathan T.; Phoreman, James; White, Bruce R.; Greeley, Ronald; Eddlemon, Eric E.; Wilson, Gregory R.; Meyer, Christine J.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction between saltating sand grains and rock surfaces is assessed to gauge relative abrasion potential as a function of rock shape, wind speed, grain size, and planetary environment. Many kinetic energy height profiles for impacts exhibit a distinctive increase, or kink, a few centimeters above the surface, consistent with previous field, wind tunnel, and theoretical investigations. The height of the kink observed in natural and wind tunnel settings is greater than predictions by a factor of 2 or more, probably because of enhanced bouncing off hard ground surfaces. Rebounded grains increase the effective flux and relative kinetic energy for intermediate slope angles. Whether abrasion occurs, as opposed to simple grain impact with little or no mass lost from the rock, depends on whether the grain kinetic energy (EG) exceeds a critical value (EC), as well as the flux of grains with energies above EC. The magnitude of abrasion and the shape change of the rock over time depends on this flux and the value of EG > EC. Considering the potential range of particle sizes and wind speeds, the predicted kinetic energies of saltating sand hitting rocks overlap on Earth and Mars. However, when limited to the most likely grain sizes and threshold conditions, our results agree with previous work and show that kinetic energies are about an order of magnitude greater on Mars.

  7. Progress and Design Concerns of Nanostructured Solar Energy Harvesting Devices.

    PubMed

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Zhang, Qianpeng; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; He, Jin; Mo, Xiaoliang; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-05-01

    Integrating devices with nanostructures is considered a promising strategy to improve the performance of solar energy harvesting devices such as photovoltaic (PV) devices and photo-electrochemical (PEC) solar water splitting devices. Extensive efforts have been exerted to improve the power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of such devices by utilizing novel nanostructures to revolutionize device structural designs. The thicknesses of light absorber and material consumption can be substantially reduced because of light trapping with nanostructures. Meanwhile, the utilization of nanostructures can also result in more effective carrier collection by shortening the photogenerated carrier collection path length. Nevertheless, performance optimization of nanostructured solar energy harvesting devices requires a rational design of various aspects of the nanostructures, such as their shape, aspect ratio, periodicity, etc. Without this, the utilization of nanostructures can lead to compromised device performance as the incorporation of these structures can result in defects and additional carrier recombination. The design guidelines of solar energy harvesting devices are summarized, including thin film non-uniformity on nanostructures, surface recombination, parasitic absorption, and the importance of uniform distribution of photo-generated carriers. A systematic view of the design concerns will assist better understanding of device physics and benefit the fabrication of high performance devices in the future.

  8. Distributed energy storage: Time-dependent tree flow design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, A.; Ziaei, S.; Lorente, S.

    2016-05-01

    This article proposes "distributed energy storage" as a basic design problem of distributing energy storage material on an area. The energy flows by fluid flow from a concentrated source to points (users) distributed equidistantly on the area. The flow is time-dependent. Several scenarios are analyzed: sensible-heat storage, latent-heat storage, exergy storage vs energy storage, and the distribution of a finite supply of heat transfer surface between the source fluid and the distributed storage material. The chief conclusion is that the finite amount of storage material should be distributed proportionally with the distribution of the flow rate of heating agent arriving on the area. The total time needed by the source stream to "invade" the area is cumulative (the sum of the storage times required at each storage site) and depends on the energy distribution paths and the sequence in which the users are served by the source stream. Directions for future designs of distributed storage and retrieval are outlined in the concluding section.

  9. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 1: Baseline system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A system baseline design oriented to the requirements of the next generation of Earth Observatory Satellite missions is presented. The first mission (EOS-A) is envisioned as a two-fold mission which (1) provides a continuum of data of the type being supplied by ERTS for the emerging operational applications and also (2) expands the research and development activities for future instrumentation and analysis techniques. The baseline system specifically satisfies the requirements of this first mission. However, EOS-A is expected to be the first of a series of earth observation missions. Thus the baseline design has been developed so as to accommodate these latter missions effectively as the transition is made from conventional, expendable launch vehicles and spacecraft to the Shuttle Space Transportation System era. Further, a subset of alternative missions requirements including Seasat, SEOS, SMM and MSS-5 have been analyzed to verify that the spacecraft design to serve a multi-mission role is economically sound. A key feature of the baseline system design is the concept of a modular observatory system whose elements are compatible with varying levels of launch vehicle capability. The design configuration can be used with either the Delta or Titan launch vehicles and will adapt readily to the space shuttle when that system becomes available in the early 1980's.

  10. Energy efficient engine high-pressure turbine detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thulin, R. D.; Howe, D. C.; Singer, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    The energy efficient engine high-pressure turbine is a single stage system based on technology advancements in the areas of aerodynamics, structures and materials to achieve high performance, low operating economics and durability commensurate with commercial service requirements. Low loss performance features combined with a low through-flow velocity approach results in a predicted efficiency of 88.8 for a flight propulsion system. Turbine airfoil durability goals are achieved through the use of advanced high-strength and high-temperature capability single crystal materials and effective cooling management. Overall, this design reflects a considerable extension in turbine technology that is applicable to future, energy efficient gas-turbine engines.

  11. Energy storage and thermal control system design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Stephen N.; Willhoite, Bryan C.; Vanommering, Gert

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) will initially rely on photovoltaics for power generation and Ni/H2 batteries for electrical energy storage. The current design for and the development status of two major subsystems in the PV Power Module is discussed. The energy storage subsystem comprised of high capacity Ni/H2 batteries and the single-phase thermal control system that rejects the excess heat generated by the batteries and other components associated with power generation and storage is described.

  12. Comparison of Earth Science Achievement between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Chia-Li D.; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chueh

    2010-01-01

    This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students' achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of…

  13. Trajectory design for a lunar mapping and near-Earth-asteroid flyby mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, David W.; Farquhar, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    In August, 1994, the unusual asteroid (1620) Geographos will pass very close to the Earth. This provides one of the best opportunities for a low-cost asteroid flyby mission that can be achieved with the help of a gravity assist from the Moon during the years 1994 and 1995. A Geographos flyby mission, including a lunar orbiting phase, was recommended to the Startegic Defense Initiative (SDI) Office when they were searching for ideas for a deep-space mission to test small imaging systems and other lightweight technologies. The goals for this mission, called Clementine, were defined to consist of a comprehensive lunar mapping phase before leaving the Earth-Moon system to encounter Geographos. This paper describes how the authors calculated a trajectory that met the mission goals within a reasonable total Delta-V budget. The paper also describes some refinements of the initially computed trajectory and alternative trajectories were investigated. The paper concludes with a list of trajectories to fly by other near-Earth asteroids during the two years following the Geographos opportunity. Some of these could be used if the Geographos schedule can not be met. If the 140 deg phase angle of the Geographos encounter turns out to be too risky, a flyby of (2120) Tantalus in January, 1995, has a much more favorable approach illumination. Tantalus apparently can be reached from the same lunar orbit needed to get to Geographos. However, both the flyby speed and distance from the Earth are much larger for Tantalus than for Geographos.

  14. Design of a Low-Energy FARAD Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.; Rose, M. F.; Miller, R.; Best, S.; Owens, T.; Dankanich, J.

    2007-01-01

    The design of an electrodeless thruster that relies on a pulsed, rf-assisted discharge and electromagnetic acceleration using an inductive coil is presented. The thruster design is optimized using known performance,scaling parameters, and experimentally-determined design rules, with design targets for discharge energy, plasma exhaust velocity; and thrust efficiency of 100 J/pulse, 25 km/s, and 50%, respectively. Propellant is injected using a high-speed gas valve and preionized by a pulsed-RF signal supplied by a vector inversion generator, allowing for current sheet formation at lower discharge voltages and energies relative to pulsed inductive accelerators that do not employ preionization. The acceleration coil is designed to possess an inductance of at least 700 nH while the target stray (non-coil) inductance in the circuit is 70 nH. A Bernardes and Merryman pulsed power train or a pulse compression power train provide current to the acceleration coil and solid-state components are used to switch both powertrains.

  15. Method for Predicting the Energy Characteristics of Li-Ion Cells Designed for High Specific Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William, R.

    2012-01-01

    Novel electrode materials with increased specific capacity and voltage performance are critical to the NASA goals for developing Li-ion batteries with increased specific energy and energy density. Although performance metrics of the individual electrodes are critically important, a fundamental understanding of the interactions of electrodes in a full cell is essential to achieving the desired performance, and for establishing meaningful goals for electrode performance in the first place. This paper presents design considerations for matching positive and negative electrodes in a viable design. Methods for predicting cell-level performance, based on laboratory data for individual electrodes, are presented and discussed.

  16. Energy efficient engine ICLS Nacelle detail design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskridge, R. R.; Kuchar, A. P.; Stotler, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of the detail design of the Nacelle for the General Electric Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Integrated Core Low Spool (ICLS) test vehicles are presented. A slave nacelle is designed for the ICLS test. Cost and reliability are the important factors considered. The slave nacelle simulates the internal flow lines of the actual Flight Propulsion System (FPS) but has no external fairing. The aerodynamic differences between the ICLS and FPS nacelles are presented, followed by the structural description and analysis of the various nacelle components.

  17. Sample design for the residential energy consumption survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide detailed information about the multistage area-probability sample design used for the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). It is intended as a technical report, for use by statisticians, to better understand the theory and procedures followed in the creation of the RECS sample frame. For a more cursory overview of the RECS sample design, refer to the appendix entitled ``How the Survey was Conducted,`` which is included in the statistical reports produced for each RECS survey year.

  18. Computer aided optimal design of compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, F. W.; Sharma, A.; Ragsdell, K. M.

    1980-07-01

    An automated procedure for the design of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems is presented. The procedure relies upon modern nonlinear programming algorithms, decomposition theory, and numerical models of the various system components. Two modern optimization methods are employed; BIAS, a Method of Multipliers code and OPT, a Generalized Reduced Gradient code. The procedure is demonstrated by the design of a CAES facility employing the Media, Illinois Galesville aquifer as the reservoir. The methods employed produced significant reduction in capital and operating cost, and in number of aquifer wells required.

  19. Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

    2010-11-30

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  20. Design Principles for Covalent Organic Frameworks in Energy Storage Applications.

    PubMed

    Alahakoon, Sampath B; Thompson, Christina M; Occhialini, Gino; Smaldone, Ronald Alexander

    2017-03-16

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are an exciting class of microporous materials that have been explored as energy storage materials for more than a decade. This review will discusses the efforts to develop these materials for applications in gas and electrical power storage. This review will also discuss some of the design strategies for developing the gas sorption properties of COFs and mechanistic studies on their formation.

  1. State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: Design, Status, and Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, D.; Zinaman, O.

    2014-05-01

    An energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) is a policy that requires utilities or other entities to achieve a specified amount of energy savings through customer energy efficiency programs within a specified timeframe. EERSs may apply to electricity usage, natural gas usage, or both. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of EERSs for electricity, reviews the variation in design of EERSs across states, and provides an estimate of the amount of savings required by currently specified EERSs in each state. As of December, 2013, 23 states have active and binding EERSs for electricity. We estimate that state EERSs will require annual electricity savings of approximately 8-11% of total projected demand by 2020 in states with EERSs, however the level of savings targeted by the policies varies significantly across states. In addition to the variation in targeted savings, the design of EERSs varies significantly across states leading to differences in the suite of incentives created by the policy, the flexibility of compliance with the policy, the balance of benefits and costs of the policy between producers and consumers, and the certainty with which the policy will drive long-term savings.

  2. Energy and time determine scaling in biological and computer designs.

    PubMed

    Moses, Melanie; Bezerra, George; Edwards, Benjamin; Brown, James; Forrest, Stephanie

    2016-08-19

    Metabolic rate in animals and power consumption in computers are analogous quantities that scale similarly with size. We analyse vascular systems of mammals and on-chip networks of microprocessors, where natural selection and human engineering, respectively, have produced systems that minimize both energy dissipation and delivery times. Using a simple network model that simultaneously minimizes energy and time, our analysis explains empirically observed trends in the scaling of metabolic rate in mammals and power consumption and performance in microprocessors across several orders of magnitude in size. Just as the evolutionary transitions from unicellular to multicellular animals in biology are associated with shifts in metabolic scaling, our model suggests that the scaling of power and performance will change as computer designs transition to decentralized multi-core and distributed cyber-physical systems. More generally, a single energy-time minimization principle may govern the design of many complex systems that process energy, materials and information.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'.

  3. Molecular design of aminopolynitroazole-based high-energy materials.

    PubMed

    Ghule, Vikas D; Srinivas, Dharavath; Sarangapani, Radhakrishnan; Jadhav, Pandurang M; Tewari, Surya P

    2012-07-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) was employed to calculate the energetic properties of several aminopolynitroazoles. The calculations were performed to study the effect of amino and nitro substituents on the heats of formation, densities, detonation performances, thermal stabilities, and sensitivity characteristics of azoles. DFT-B3LYP, DFT-B3PW91, and MP2 methods utilizing the basis sets 6-31 G* and 6-311 G (2df, 3p) were adopted to predict HOFs via designed isodesmic reactions. All of the designed aminopolynitroazoles had heats of formation of >220 kJ mol(-1). The crystal densities of the aminopolynitroazoles were predicted with the cvff force field. All of the energetic azoles had densities of >1.83 g/cm(3). The detonation velocities and pressures were evaluated using the Kamlet-Jacobs equations, utilizing the predicted densities and heats of formation. It was found that aminopolynitroazoles have a detonation velocity of about 9.1 km/s and detonation pressure of 36 GPa. The bond dissociation energies for the C-NO(2) and N-NO(2) bonds were analyzed to investigate the stabilities of the designed molecules. The charge on the nitro group was used to assess impact sensitivity in the present study. The results obtained imply that the designed molecules are stable and are expected to be candidates for high-energy materials (HEMs).

  4. Energy-absorbing-beam design for composite aircraft subfloors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.; Kellas, Sotiris

    1993-01-01

    Data have been presented from the design support testing of composite energy absorbing (EA) aircraft subfloor structures. The focus of the current study is the design and testing of subfloor structural concepts that would limit the loads transmitted to occupants to less than 20 g at crush speeds of approximately 30 fps. The EA composite subfloor is being designed to replace an existing noncrashworthy metallic subfloor in a composite aircraft prior to a full-scale crash test. A sandwich spar construction of a sine wave beam was chosen for evaluation and was found to have excellent energy absorbing characteristics. The design objective of obtaining sustained crushing loads of the spar between 200-300 lbf/inch were achieved for potentially limiting occupants loads to around 20 g's. Stroke efficiency of up to 79 percent of the initial spar height under desired sustained crushing loads was obtained which is far greater than the level provided by metal structure. Additionally, a substantial residual spar stiffness was retained after impact, and the flange integrity, which is critical for seat retention, was maintained after crushing of the spars.

  5. Baffle design for earth radiation rejection in the Cryogenic Limb-Scanning Interferometer/Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bremer, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The Cryogenic Limb-Scanning Interferometer/Radiometer (CLIR) is being developed to observe infrared emissions of the earth's upper atmosphere from space. The earth's surface is an extended source of intense background radiation with a small angular separation from the desired scene. The CLIR employs an off-axis Gregorian Telescope whose primary mirror and baffles are cooled by an open-cycle cryogen system. A system of specular annular baffles has been developed to minimize both stray light problems and cryogen consumption by retro-mapping the aperture into itself. Each off-axis ray which enters the aperture and strikes the specular baffle surface is reflected so that it passes out of the aperture and is not absorbed on a cryogenic surface. The specular baffle which lies closest to the aperture is an ellipsoid whose foci trace out the circular aperture on revolution about the axis. Its theoretical 'ray trace' efficiency is 100 percent. A subsequent baffle has an elliptical cross section whose near focus traces out the central hole in the ellipsoidal baffle and whose far focus traces out the aperture. Its theoretical efficiency is about 90 percent. These baffles reduce the earth radiation heat load on the cryogenic cooler by an order of magnitude, changing it from the dominant cause of cryogen consumption to a relatively small effect. An aperture shield is also desirable to reduce cryogen consumption, stray light, and contamination.

  6. Parameter Design and Optimal Control of an Open Core Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, D.; Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    In low earth orbit (LEO) satellite applications spacecraft power is provided by photovoltaic cells and batteries. To overcome battery shortcomings the University of Maryland, working in cooperation with NASA/GSFC and NASA/LeRC, has developed a magnetically suspended flywheel for energy storage applications. The system is referred to as an Open Core Composite Flywheel (OCCF) energy storage system. Successful application of flywheel energy storage requires integration of several technologies, viz. bearings, rotor design, motor/generator, power conditioning, and system control. In this paper we present a parameter design method which has been developed for analyzing the linear SISO model of the magnetic bearing controller for the OCCF. The objective of this continued research is to principally analyze the magnetic bearing system for nonlinear effects in order to increase the region of stability, as determined by high speed and large air gap control. This is achieved by four tasks: (1) physical modeling, design, prototyping, and testing of an improved magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system, (2) identification of problems that limit performance and their corresponding solutions, (3) development of a design methodology for magnetic bearings, and (4) design of an optimal controller for future high speed applications. Both nonlinear SISO and MIMO models of the magnetic system were built to study limit cycle oscillations and power amplifier saturation phenomenon observed in experiments. The nonlinear models include the inductance of EM coils, the power amplifier saturation, and the physical limitation of the flywheel movement as discussed earlier. The control program EASY5 is used to study the nonlinear SISO and MIMO models. Our results have shown that the characteristics and frequency responses of the magnetic bearing system obtained from modeling are comparable to those obtained experimentally. Although magnetic saturation is shown in the bearings, there

  7. City of Hoboken Energy Surety Analysis: Preliminary Design Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Stamp, Jason Edwin; Baca, Michael J.; Munoz-Ramos, Karina; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Eddy, John P.; Smith, Mark A.; Guttromson, Ross; Henry, Jordan M.; Jensen, Richard Pearson

    2014-09-01

    In 2012, Hurricane Sandy devastated much of the U.S. northeast coastal areas. Among those hardest hit was the small community of Hoboken, New Jersey, located on the banks of the Hudson River across from Manhattan. This report describes a city-wide electrical infrastructure design that uses microgrids and other infrastructure to ensure the city retains functionality should such an event occur in the future. The designs ensure that up to 55 critical buildings will retain power during blackout or flooded conditions and include analysis for microgrid architectures, performance parameters, system control, renewable energy integration, and financial opportunities (while grid connected). The results presented here are not binding and are subject to change based on input from the Hoboken stakeholders, the integrator selected to manage and implement the microgrid, or other subject matter experts during the detailed (final) phase of the design effort.

  8. Energy efficient engine: fan test hardware detailed design report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1980-10-01

    A single stage fan and quarter stage booster were designed for the energy efficient engine. The fan has an inlet radius ratio of 0.342 and a specific flow rate of 208.9 Kg/S sq m (42.8 lbm/sec sq ft). The fan rotor has 32 medium aspect ratio (2.597) titanium blades with a partspan shroud at 55% blade height. The design corrected fan tip speed is 411.5 M/S (1350 ft/sec). The quarter stage island splits the total fan flow with approximately 22% of the flow being supercharged by the quarter stage rotor. The fan bypass ratio is 6.8. The core flow total pressure ratio is 1.67 and the fan bypass pressure ratio is 1.65. The design details of the fan and booster blading, and the fan frame and static structure for the fan configuration are presented.

  9. Energy efficient engine: Fan test hardware detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    A single stage fan and quarter stage booster were designed for the energy efficient engine. The fan has an inlet radius ratio of 0.342 and a specific flow rate of 208.9 Kg/S sq m (42.8 lbm/sec sq ft). The fan rotor has 32 medium aspect ratio (2.597) titanium blades with a partspan shroud at 55% blade height. The design corrected fan tip speed is 411.5 M/S (1350 ft/sec). The quarter stage island splits the total fan flow with approximately 22% of the flow being supercharged by the quarter stage rotor. The fan bypass ratio is 6.8. The core flow total pressure ratio is 1.67 and the fan bypass pressure ratio is 1.65. The design details of the fan and booster blading, and the fan frame and static structure for the fan configuration are presented.

  10. Energy efficient engine fan component detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halle, J. E.; Michael, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    The fan component which was designed for the energy efficient engine is an advanced high performance, single stage system and is based on technology advancements in aerodynamics and structure mechanics. Two fan components were designed, both meeting the integrated core/low spool engine efficiency goal of 84.5%. The primary configuration, envisioned for a future flight propulsion system, features a shroudless, hollow blade and offers a predicted efficiency of 87.3%. A more conventional blade was designed, as a back up, for the integrated core/low spool demonstrator engine. The alternate blade configuration has a predicted efficiency of 86.3% for the future flight propulsion system. Both fan configurations meet goals established for efficiency surge margin, structural integrity and durability.

  11. Design optimization of superconducting magnetic energy storage coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunia, Uttam; Saha, Subimal; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2014-05-01

    An optimization formulation has been developed for a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) solenoid-type coil with niobium titanium (Nb-Ti) based Rutherford-type cable that minimizes the cryogenic refrigeration load into the cryostat. Minimization of refrigeration load reduces the operating cost and opens up the possibility to adopt helium re-condensing system using cryo-cooler especially for small-scale SMES system. Dynamic refrigeration load during charging or discharging operational mode of the coil dominates over steady state load. The paper outlines design optimization with practical design constraints like actual critical characteristics of the superconducting cable, maximum allowable hoop stress on winding, etc., with the objective to minimize refrigeration load into the SMES cryostat. Effect of design parameters on refrigeration load is also investigated.

  12. Energy Integrated Design of Lighting, Heating, and Cooling Systems, and Its Effect on Building Energy Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckler, Gershon

    Comments on the need for integrated design of lighting, heating, and cooling systems. In order to eliminate the penalty of refrigerating the lighting heat, minimize the building non-usable space, and optimize the total energy input, a "systems approach" is recommended. This system would employ heat-recovery techniques based on the ability of the…

  13. Through the Past Decade: How Advanced Energy Design Guides have influenced the Design Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bing; Athalye, Rahul A.

    2015-07-31

    Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs) were originally developed intended to provide a simple approach to building professionals seeking energy efficient building designs better than ASHRAE Standard 90.1. Since its first book was released in 2004, the AEDG series provided inspiration for the design industry and were seen by designers as a starting point for buildings that wished to go beyond minimum codes and standards. In addition, U.S. Department of Energy’s successful Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program leveraged many of the recommendations from the AEDGs to achieve 50% energy savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 for prototypical designs of large commercial entities in the retail, banking and lodging sectors. Low-energy technologies and strategies developed during the CBP process have been applied by commercial partners throughout their national portfolio of buildings. Later, the AEDGs served as the perfect platform for both Standard 90.1 and ASHRAE’s high performance buildings standard, Standard 189.1. What was high performance a few years ago, however, has become minimum code today. Indeed, most of the prescriptive envelope component requirements in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 are values recommended in the 50% AEDGs several years ago. Similarly, AEDG strategies and recommendations have penetrated the lighting and HVAC sections of both Standard 189.1 and Standard 90.1. Finally, as we look to the future of codes and standards, the AEDGs are serving as a blueprint for how minimum code requirements could be expressed. By customizing codes to specific building types, design strategies tailored for individual buildings could be prescribed as minimum code, just like in the AEDGs. This paper describes the impact that AEDGs have had over the last decade on the design industry and how they continue to influence the future of codes and Standards. From design professionals to code officials, everyone in the building industry has been affected by the AEDGs.

  14. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 2: Earth to Mars ballistic mission opportunities, 1990-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.; Cunniff, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Mars are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Mars arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1990 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Mars probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

  15. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 1: Earth to Venus ballistic mission opportunities, 1991-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Yin, N. H.

    1983-01-01

    Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Venus is presented. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and arrival parameters, are presented in launch data/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1991 through 2005. An extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Venus probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

  16. Parametric design studies of toroidal magnetic energy storage units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, J. Stephen

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units have a number of advantages as storage devices. Electrical current is the input, output and stored medium, allowing for completely solid-state energy conversion. The magnets themselves have no moving parts. The round trip efficiency is higher than those for batteries, compressed air or pumped hydro. Output power can be very high, allowing complete discharge of the unit within a few seconds. Finally, the unit can be designed for a very large number of cycles, limited basically by fatigue in the structural components. A small systems code was written to produce and evaluate self-consistent designs for toroidal superconducting energy storage units. The units can use either low temperature or high temperature superconductors. The coils have D shape where the conductor and its stabilizer/structure is loaded only in tension and the centering forces are borne by a bucking cylinder. The coils are convectively cooled from a cryogenic reservoir in the bore of the coils. The coils are suspended in a cylindrical metal shell which protects the magnet during rail, automotive or shipboard use. It is important to note that the storage unit does not rely on its surroundings for structural support, other than normal gravity and inertial loads. Designs are presented for toroidal energy storage units produced by the systems code. A wide range of several parameters have been considered, resulting in units storing from 1 MJ to 72 GJ. Maximum fields range from 5 T to 20 T. The masses and volumes of the coils, bucking cylinder, coolant, insulation and outer shell are calculated. For unattended use, the allowable operating time using only the boiloff of the cryogenic fluid for refrigeration is calculated. For larger units, the coils were divided into modules suitable for normal truck or rail transport.

  17. Energy transfer kinetics in oxy-fluoride glass and glass-ceramics doped with rare-earth ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sontakke, Atul D.; Annapurna, K.

    2012-07-01

    An investigation of donor-acceptor energy transfer kinetics in dual rare earths doped precursor oxy-fluoride glass and its glass-ceramics containing NaYF{sub 4} nano-crystals is reported here, using three different donor-acceptor ion combinations such as Nd-Yb, Yb-Dy, and Nd-Dy. The precipitation of NaYF{sub 4} nano-crystals in host glass matrix under controlled post heat treatment of precursor oxy-fluoride glasses has been confirmed from XRD, FESEM, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. Further, the incorporation of dopant ions inside fluoride nano-crystals has been established through optical absorption and TEM-EDX analysis. The noticed decreasing trend in donor to acceptor energy transfer efficiency from precursor glass to glass-ceramics in all three combinations have been explained based on the structural rearrangements that occurred during the heat treatment process. The reduced coupling phonon energy for the dopant ions due to fluoride environment and its influence on the overall phonon assisted contribution in energy transfer process has been illustrated. Additionally, realization of a correlated distribution of dopant ions causing clustering inside nano-crystals has also been reported.

  18. Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution Earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Lyle C.; Bailey, M. C.; Harrington, Richard F.; Kendall, Bruce M.; Campbell, Thomas G.

    1994-01-01

    High-spatial-resolution microwave radiometer sensing from space with reasonable swath widths and revisit times favors large aperture systems. However, with traditional precision antenna design, the size and weight requirements for such systems are in conflict with the need to emphasize small launch vehicles. This paper describes tradeoffs between the science requirements, basic operational parameters, and expected sensor performance for selected satellite radiometer concepts utilizing novel lightweight compactly packaged real apertures. Antenna, feed, and radiometer subsystem design and calibration are presented. Preliminary results show that novel lightweight real aperture coupled with state-of-the-art radiometer designs are compatible with small launch systems, and hold promise for high-resolution earth science measurements of sea ice, precipitation, soil moisture, sea surface temperature, and ocean wind speeds.

  19. 76 FR 34684 - Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design Conditions AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... meteorological and oceanographic information to support cost-effective deployment of offshore renewable...

  20. Design, simulation, fabrication, and characterization of MEMS vibration energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxaal, John

    Energy harvesting from ambient sources has been a longtime goal for microsystem engineers. The energy available from ambient sources is substantial and could be used to power wireless micro devices, making them fully autonomous. Self-powered wireless sensors could have many applications in for autonomous monitoring of residential, commercial, industrial, geological, or biological environments. Ambient vibrations are of particular interest for energy harvesting as they are ubiquitous and have ample kinetic energy. In this work a MEMS device for vibration energy harvesting using a variable capacitor structure is presented. The nonlinear electromechanical dynamics of a gap-closing type structure is experimentally studied. Important experimental considerations such as the importance of reducing off-axis vibration during testing, characterization methods, dust contamination, and the effect of grounding on parasitic capacitance are discussed. A comprehensive physics based model is developed and validated with two different microfabricated devices. To achieve maximal power, devices with high aspect ratio electrodes and a novel two-level stopper system are designed and fabricated. The maximum achieved power from the MEMS device when driven by sinusoidal vibrations was 3.38 muW. Vibrations from HVAC air ducts, which have a primary frequency of 65 Hz and amplitude of 155 mgrms, are targeted as the vibration source and devices are designed for maximal power harvesting potential at those conditions. Harvesting from the air ducts, the devices reached 118 nW of power. When normalized to the operating conditions, the best figure of merit of the devices tested was an order of magnitude above state-of-the-art of the devices (1.24E-6).

  1. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 5: Specification for EROS operations control center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The functional, performance, and design requirements for the Operations Control Center (OCC) of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system are presented. The OCC controls the operations of the EOS satellite to acquire mission data consisting of: (1) thematic mapper data, (2) multispectral scanner data on EOS-A, or High Resolution Pointable Imager data on EOS-B, and (3) data collection system (DCS) data. The various inputs to the OCC are identified. The functional requirements of the OCC are defined. The specific systems and subsystems of the OCC are described and block diagrams are provided.

  2. Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix A. Supporting analyses and tradeoffs, book 2. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Attitude reference systems for use with the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) are described. The systems considered are fixed and gimbaled star trackers, star mappers, and digital sun sensors. Covariance analyses were performed to determine performance for the most promising candidate in low altitude and synchronous orbits. The performance of attitude estimators that employ gyroscopes which are periodically updated by a star sensor is established by a single axis covariance analysis. The other systems considered are: (1) the propulsion system design, (2) electric power and electrical integration, (3) thermal control, (4) ground data processing, and (5) the test plan and cost reduction aspects of observatory integration and test.

  3. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix C: EOS program requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the requirements for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system specifications is presented. The analysis consists of requirements obtained from existing documentation and those derived from functional analysis. The requirements follow the hierarchy of program, mission, system, and subsystem. The code for designating specific requirements is explained. Among the subjects considered are the following: (1) the traffic model, (2) space shuttle related performance, (3) booster related performance, (4) the data collection system, (5) spacecraft structural tests, and (6) the ground support requirements.

  4. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals - 50% Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-LH) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-LH is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in large hospitals over levels achieved by following Standard 90.1-2004. The AEDG-LH was created for a 'standard' mid- to large-size hospital, typically at least 100,000 ft2, but the strategies apply to all sizes and classifications of new construction hospital buildings. Its primary focus is new construction, but recommendations may be applicable to facilities undergoing total renovation, and in part to many other hospital renovation, addition, remodeling, and modernization projects (including changes to one or more systems in existing buildings).

  5. Design of energy efficient building with radiant slab cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhen

    2007-12-01

    Air-conditioning comprises a substantial fraction of commercial building energy use because of compressor-driven refrigeration and fan-driven air circulation. Core regions of large buildings require year-round cooling due to heat gains from people, lights and equipment. Negative environmental impacts include CO2 emissions from electric generation and leakage of ozone-depleting refrigerants. Some argue that radiant cooling simultaneously improves building efficiency and occupant thermal comfort, and that current thermal comfort models fail to reflect occupant experience with radiant thermal control systems. There is little field evidence to test these claims. The University of Calgary's Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Building, is a pioneering radiant slab cooling installation in North America. Thermal comfort and energy performance were evaluated. Measurements included: (1) heating and cooling energy use, (2) electrical energy use for lighting and equipment, and (3) indoor temperatures. Accuracy of a whole building energy simulation model was evaluated with these data. Simulation was then used to compare the radiant slab design with a conventional (variable air volume) system. The radiant system energy performance was found to be poorer mainly due to: (1) simultaneous cooling by the slab and heating by other systems, (2) omission of low-exergy (e.g., groundwater) cooling possible with the high cooling water temperatures possible with radiant slabs and (3) excessive solar gain and conductive heat loss due to the wall and fenestration design. Occupant thermal comfort was evaluated through questionnaires and concurrent measurement of workstation comfort parameters. Analysis of 116 sets of data from 82 occupants showed that occupant assessment was consistent with estimates based on current thermal comfort models. The main thermal comfort improvements were reductions in (1) local discomfort from draft and (2) vertical air temperature stratification. The

  6. Flywheel Energy Storage System Designed for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delventhal, Rex A.

    2002-01-01

    Following successful operation of a developmental flywheel energy storage system in fiscal year 2000, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center began developing a flight design of a flywheel system for the International Space Station (ISS). In such an application, a two-flywheel system can replace one of the nickel-hydrogen battery strings in the ISS power system. The development unit, sized at approximately one-eighth the size needed for ISS was run at 60,000 rpm. The design point for the flight unit is a larger composite flywheel, approximately 17 in. long and 13 in. in diameter, running at 53,000 rpm when fully charged. A single flywheel system stores 2.8 kW-hr of useable energy, enough to light a 100-W light bulb for over 24 hr. When housed in an ISS orbital replacement unit, the flywheel would provide energy storage with approximately 3 times the service life of the nickel-hydrogen battery currently in use.

  7. Theoretical design of a compact energy recovering divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baver, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    An energy recovering divertor (ERD) is a type of plasma direct converter (PDC) designed to fit in the divertor channel of a tokamak. Such a device reduces the heat load to the divertor plate by converting a portion of it into electrical energy. This recovered energy can then be used for auxiliary heating and current drive, fundamentally altering the relationship between scientific and engineering breakeven and reducing dependence on bootstrap current. Previous work on the ERD concept focused on amplification of Alfven waves in a manner similar to a free-electron laser. While conceptually straightforward, this concept was also bulky, thus limiting its applicability to existing tokamak experiments. A design is presented for an ERD based on sheath-localized waves. This makes possible a device sufficiently compact to fit in the divertor channel of many existing tokamak experiments, and moreover requires no new shaping coils to achieve the desired magnetic geometry or topology. In addition, incidental advantages of this concept will be discussed.

  8. The Near-Earth Orbital Environment Coupling to Its Energy Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-21

    NP F49620-87-C-0039 Bolling AFB DC 20332-6448 V3 11 . S&UPPUMENTAAY NOTIS 12& 11111MUr1 I AVAILAMUJT STATMUlI 11iL OISTIMIOUT1 COO4 Approved for...Coupling to its Energy Sources MCDONNELL Final Report DOUGLAS (0002AA) CORPORATION A.OSR.TR. 9 0 06 58 April 1990 F49620-87-C-0039 Accession For NTIS GRA...3.3 Magnetosheath Model 11 3.4 Low-Latitude Boundary Layer Model 14 3.5 Calculation Procedure 14 4. Results 17 4.1 LLBL Structure 17 4.2 Energy Spectra

  9. Test of developing long-term forecasts of world energy impact on the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Klimenko, A. V.; Tereshin, A. G.

    2015-03-01

    It has been established that the historical approach to world energy forecasting can yield useful results at time horizons with a depth of several decades. The genetic forecast supposes reaching a plateau of global energy consumption at the level of 30 billion tons of coal equivalent and an increase in the carbon dioxide concentration almost to 500 parts per million by the end of the century against the background of a continuing decrease in sulfur dioxide emission. From the historical point of view, the implementation of the most aggressive scenarios of human impact on the atmosphere and climate seems very unlikely.

  10. High-energy electrons in the inner radiation belt of the earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilova, R. N.; Gusev, A. A.; Pugacheva, G. I.; Titenkov, A. F.

    1982-08-01

    Measurements of electron fluxes with energies greater than 40 MeV obtained by Kosmos 490, Salut 6, and Interkosmos 17 satellites at heights of 270-500 km in the Brazilian anomaly region are discussed. The observed electron flux is explained in terms of the decomposition of pi meson, produced by the interaction between high-energy protons (0.35-1 GeV) of the inner radiation belt and atoms of the residual atmosphere. A formula describing the electron flux is presented.

  11. Teaching for Understanding in Earth Science: Comparing Impacts on Planning and Instruction in Three Professional Development Designs for Middle School Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.; McWilliams, Harold; McAuliffe, Carla; Benbow, Ann E.; Mably, Colin; Hayden, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts the impacts of three professional development designs aimed at middle school Earth science teachers on how teachers plan and enact instruction. The designs were similar in their alignment to research-based practices in science professional development: each design was of an extended duration and time span,…

  12. Design and installation manual for thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R L; Nield, K J; Rohde, R R; Wolosewicz, R M

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide information on the design and installation of thermal energy storage in active solar systems. It is intended for contractors, installers, solar system designers, engineers, architects, and manufacturers who intend to enter the solar energy business. The reader should have general knowledge of how solar heating and cooling systems operate and knowledge of construction methods and building codes. Knowledge of solar analysis methods such as f-Chart, SOLCOST, DOE-1, or TRNSYS would be helpful. The information contained in the manual includes sizing storage, choosing a location for the storage device, and insulation requirements. Both air-based and liquid-based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to latent heat storage include properties of phase-change materials, sizing the storage unit, insulating the storage unit, available systems, and cost. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single- and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air- and liquid-based space heating systems, and stand alone domestics hot water systems. Several appendices present common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, economic insulation thickness, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.

  13. A novel design for a variable energy positron lifetime spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D.; Zhang, J. D.; Cheng, C. C.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.

    2008-10-01

    We present computer simulations of a new design of a variable energy positron lifetime beam that uses for a start signal the secondary electron emission from a 25-nm thick carbon foil (C-foil) located in front of the sample. A needle of ˜30 μm diameter is positioned on-axis right behind the foil, creating a radial electric field that deflects the secondary electrons radially outward so as to miss the sample and to hit the micro-channel plate (MCP) detector placed down beam. The MCP signal provides the start signal for the positron lifetime spectrometer. A grid can be further introduced between the sample holder and the MCP to yield a cleaner signal by preventing the positrons with large transmitted scattering angle from hitting the MCP. The cylindrical symmetry of this design reduces the experimental complexity and offers good timing resolution. We show that the design is robust against the transmitted energy and angle of the secondary electrons and positrons.

  14. Design of an electromagnetic-transducer energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, L.; Ghandchi Tehrani, M.; Elliott, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the design and the manufacturing of an electromagnetic- transducer energy harvester. The design considers the coupling between the mechanical vibrating behaviour, generated by a base excitation, and the electromagnetic conversion of energy, which is aimed to produce the voltage across a load resistance. The design is based on some constraints, which are related to the characteristics of the shaker and aimed to obtain the best performance of the device. Current tests show the presence friction at low input levels, which is associated with the gearbox. The output voltage and the harvested power of the device are studied experimentally for different values of load. By increasing the value of the load from zero (short circuit) to high values (open circuit) the swing angle increases, while the harvested power presents a peak associated with the electrical damping. Also, harmonic tests are run at resonance for different levels of excitation to demonstrate the effect of the nonlinearity on the voltage and the harvested power. A nonlinear load resistance, is then introduced as part of future work. The aim is to try to increase the harvested power with respect to the linear load, at low level of excitation.

  15. Design, Development and Preliminary Student Evaluation of Virtual Field Guides as aids to teaching and learning in the Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, Tim

    2010-05-01

    , J., Kneale, P., Sougnez, Y., Stewart, M., and Stott, T. A. (2003). Carrying out Pedagogic research into the Constructive Alignment of Fieldwork. Planet Special Edition 5: Linking Teaching and Research and undertaking Pedagogic Research in Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 51-52. Carmichael, P. (2008) ‘The Semantic Web and ‘Web 3.0' in: Selwyn, N. (ed.) Education 2.0? Designing the web for teaching and learning. London: ESRC Teaching and Learning Research Programme. Fletcher, S., France, D., Moore, K. and Robinson, G. (2002). Fieldwork education and technology: A GEES perspective, Planet 4, 17-19. Fletcher, S., France, D., Moore, K. and Robinson, G. (2007). Putting technology into fieldwork education: A pedagogic evaluation. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 31, 2, 319 - 330 Maskall, J., Stokes, A., Truscott, J. B., Bridge, A., Magnier, K. and Calderbank, V. (2007) Supporting fieldwork using information technology, Planet 18, 18-21. Stott, TA., Nuttall, AM. and McCloskey, J. (2009a) Design, Development and Student Evaluation of a Virtual Alps Field Guide www.virtualalps.co.uk. Planet 22, 64-71. Publication of the Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Learning & Teaching Support Network www.gees.ac.uk/planet/. Stott, TA, Clark, H., Milson, C., McCloskey, J. and Crompton, K. (2009b) The Ingleton Waterfalls Virtual Field Trip: Design, Development and Preliminary Evaluation, Teaching Earth Sciences 34 (1), 13-19, Magazine of the Earth Science Teachers Association.

  16. Spin clusters and low-energy excitations in rare earth kagome systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoch, M. J. R.

    2017-01-01

    The rare earth kagome systems R3Ga5SiO14 (R = Nd or Pr), which are weakly frustrated antiferromagnets, do not exhibit long-range order at temperatures down to 40 mK as revealed by neutron scattering. The neutron experiments provide evidence for the emergence at low temperatures of correlated spins in nanoscale cluster regions with magnetic field-dependent correlation lengths. A variety of techniques have been used to determine the magnetic and thermal properties of these systems. In particular, high-field electron spin resonance (ESR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin resonance (μSR) experiments have established that dynamic correlation of spins remains significant at temperatures well above 1 K. ESR provides evidence for spin wave excitations in spin clusters and the spectra have been interpreted using a Heisenberg model approach. While Nd3+ (J = 9/2) is a Kramers ion Pr3+ (J = 4) is not. This difference leads to contrasts in the magnetic properties of the two systems. This review surveys the information that has been obtained on the properties of these kagome materials over the past decade.

  17. Decreased Sun-Earth energy-coupling efficiency starting from 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi

    2015-03-01

    The geoeffect of extremely low solar (sunspot) activity starting from the last solar minimum is one of the major space science issues. The present study examines long-term changes of geomagnetic responses seen as Dst, Kp, and AL indices to the same solar wind conditions (density, velocity, magnetic field, and their products) using the NASA OMNI hourly values up to August 2014. Both decadal averages (1965 to 1974, 1975 to 1984, 1985 to 1994, 1995 to 2004 that approximately correspond to solar cycles #20 to 23, respectively, and from 2005) and annual averages indicate that the geomagnetic activity for a given solar wind condition, namely the Sun-Earth coupling efficiency, decreased quantitatively from around 2006 until now compared to the previous four decades. The decrease remains even after the EUV flux (using F10.7 index) is considered and is more obvious in the low-latitude geomagnetic disturbances (Dst) than in the high-latitude geomagnetic disturbances (AL). The results cannot be explained by existing explanations including the ionospheric conductivity effect in the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system.

  18. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low earth orbit space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K. B.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to define characteristics of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) for low earth orbit Space Station missions. The RFCS's were defined and characterized based on both an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an alkaline electrolyte water electrolyzer and an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an acid solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer. The study defined the operating characteristics of the systems including system weight, volume, and efficiency. A maintenance philosophy was defined and the implications of system reliability requirements and modularization were determined. Finally, an Engineering Model System was defined and a program to develop and demonstrate the EMS and pacing technology items that should be developed in parallel with the EMS were identified. The specific weight of an optimized RFCS operating at 140 F was defined as a function of system efficiency for a range of module sizes. An EMS operating at a nominal temperature of 180 F and capable of delivery of 10 kW at an overall efficiency of 55.4 percent is described. A program to develop the EMS is described including a technology development effort for pacing technology items.

  19. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low earth orbit space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K. B.

    1988-04-01

    A study was conducted to define characteristics of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) for low earth orbit Space Station missions. The RFCS's were defined and characterized based on both an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an alkaline electrolyte water electrolyzer and an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an acid solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer. The study defined the operating characteristics of the systems including system weight, volume, and efficiency. A maintenance philosophy was defined and the implications of system reliability requirements and modularization were determined. Finally, an Engineering Model System was defined and a program to develop and demonstrate the EMS and pacing technology items that should be developed in parallel with the EMS were identified. The specific weight of an optimized RFCS operating at 140 F was defined as a function of system efficiency for a range of module sizes. An EMS operating at a nominal temperature of 180 F and capable of delivery of 10 kW at an overall efficiency of 55.4 percent is described. A program to develop the EMS is described including a technology development effort for pacing technology items.

  20. Department of Energy's Biological and Environmental Research Strategic Data Roadmap for Earth System Science

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Palanisamy, Giri; Shipman, Galen; Boden, Thomas A.; Voyles, Jimmy W.

    2014-04-25

    Rapid advances in experimental, sensor, and computational technologies and techniques are driving exponential growth in the volume, acquisition rate, variety, and complexity of scientific data. This wealth of scientifically meaningful data has tremendous potential to lead to scientific discovery. However, to achieve scientific breakthroughs, these data must be exploitable—they must be analyzed effectively and efficiently and the results shared and communicated easily within the wider Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) community. The explosion in data complexity and scale makes these tasks exceedingly difficult to achieve, particularly given that an increasing number of disciplines are working across techniques, integrating simulation and experimental or observational results (see Table 5 in Appendix 2). Consequently, we need new approaches to data management, analysis, and visualization that provide research teams with easy-to-use and scalable end-to-end solutions. These solutions must facilitate (and where feasible, automate and capture) every stage in the data lifecycle (shown in Figure 1), from collection to management, annotation, sharing, discovery, analysis, and visualization. In addition, the core functionalities are the same across climate science communities, but they require customization to adapt to specific needs and fit into research and analysis workflows. To this end, the mission of CESD’s Data and Informatics Program is to integrate all existing and future distributed CESD data holdings into a seamless and unified environment for the acceleration of Earth system science.

  1. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. Volume 1; Overviews (subsystem 0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator); Baum, Bryan A.; Cess, Robert D.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Coakley, James A.; Green, Richard N.; Lee, Robert B., III; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, G. Louis

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 1 provides both summarized and detailed overviews of the CERES Release 1 data analysis system. CERES will produce global top-of-the-atmosphere shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere by using the combination of a large variety of measurements and models. The CERES processing system includes radiance observations from CERES scanning radiometers, cloud properties derived from coincident satellite imaging radiometers, temperature and humidity fields from meteorological analysis models, and high-temporal-resolution geostationary satellite radiances to account for unobserved times. CERES will provide a continuation of the ERBE record and the lowest error climatology of consistent cloud properties and radiation fields. CERES will also substantially improve our knowledge of the Earth's surface radiation budget.

  2. A Survey Course: The Energy and Mass Budget at the Surface of the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Geographers, Washington, DC. Commission on College Geography.

    The objectives of this geography course for liberal arts students include the following: 1) to demonstrate cooperative action among sciences, by showing that physical and chemical phenomena occur at biological surfaces that usually exist in economic and cultural frameworks; 2) to show that laboratory principles of mass and energy exchange and…

  3. High-energy neutrino fluxes and flavor ratio in the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinegovskaya, T. S.; Morozova, A. D.; Sinegovsky, S. I.

    2015-03-01

    We calculate the atmospheric neutrino fluxes in the energy range 100 GeV-10 PeV with the use of several known hadronic models and a few parametrizations of the cosmic-ray spectra which take into account the knee. The calculations are compared with the atmospheric neutrino measurements by Frejus, AMANDA, IceCube, and ANTARES. An analytic description is presented for the conventional (νμ+ν¯ μ ) and (νe+ν¯e) energy spectra, averaged over zenith angles, which can be used to obtain test data of the neutrino event reconstruction in neutrino telescopes. The sum of the calculated atmospheric νμ flux and the IceCube best-fit astrophysical flux gives the evidently higher flux as compared to the IceCube59 data, giving rise the question concerning the hypothesis of the equal flavor composition of the high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux. Calculations show that the transition from the atmospheric electron neutrino flux to the predominance of the astrophysical neutrinos occurs at 30-100 TeV if the prompt neutrino component is taken into consideration. The neutrino flavor ratio, extracted from the IceCube data, does not tend to increase with the energy as is expected for the conventional neutrino flux in the energy range 100 GeV-30 TeV. A depression of the ratio Rνμ/νe possibly indicates that the atmospheric electron neutrino flux obtained in the IceCube experiment contains an admixture of the astrophysical neutrinos in the range 10-50 TeV.

  4. The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment nonscanner instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luther, M. R.; Cooper, J. E.; Taylor, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Two Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) nonscanner instruments are flying with companion scanner instruments to measure the earth's energy budget from low earth orbit. A third set of instruments will be launched in March 1986. This program is the first designed to make a comprehensive set of highly accurate measurements of the earth's energy budget on the spectral, spatial, and temporal scales specified by the scientific community for use in climatological research. The ERBE nonscanner combines the use of the highly accurate active cavity radiometer (ACR) detector with a comprehensive preflight calibration and characterization program and a design which includes operational flexibility and in-flight calibration checks to achieve and maintain, throughout its 2-year design life, a measurement accuracy capability not previously possible. This paper describes the ERBE nonscanner instrument, its operation, calibration, and mission profile.

  5. Designing energy dissipation properties via thermal spray coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Brake, Matthew R. W.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Madison, Jonathan D.

    2016-12-14

    The coefficient of restitution is a measure of energy dissipation in a system across impact events. Often, the dissipative qualities of a pair of impacting components are neglected during the design phase. This research looks at the effect of applying a thin layer of metallic coating, using thermal spray technologies, to significantly alter the dissipative properties of a system. We studied the dissipative properties across multiple impacts in order to assess the effects of work hardening, the change in microstructure, and the change in surface topography. The results of the experiments indicate that any work hardening-like effects are likely attributable to the crushing of asperities, and the permanent changes in the dissipative properties of the system, as measured by the coefficient of restitution, are attributable to the microstructure formed by the thermal spray coating. Furthermore, the microstructure appears to be robust across impact events of moderate energy levels, exhibiting negligible changes across multiple impact events.

  6. Design of nitride semiconductors for solar energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Nitride semiconductors are a promising class of materials for solar energy conversion applications, such as photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells. Nitrides can have better solar absorption and electrical transport properties than the more widely studied oxides, as well as the potential for better scalability than other pnictides or chalcogenides. In addition, nitrides are also relatively unexplored compared to other chemistries, so they provide a great opportunity for new materials discovery. This paper reviews the recent advances in the design of novel semiconducting nitrides for solar energy conversion technologies. Both binary and multinary nitrides are discussed, with a range of metal chemistries (Cu3N, ZnSnN2, Sn3N4, etc.) and crystal structures (delafossite, perovskite, spinel, etc.), including a brief overview of wurtzite III-N materials and devices. The current scientific challenges and promising future directions in the field are also highlighted.

  7. Aerospace energy systems laboratory: Requirements and design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards, California, operates a mixed fleet of research aircraft employing nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries in a variety of flight-critical applications. Dryden's Battery Systems Laboratory (BSL), a computerized facility for battery maintenance servicing, has developed over two decades into one of the most advanced facilities of its kind in the world. Recently a major BSL upgrade was initiated with the goal of modernization to provide flexibility in meeting the needs of future advanced projects. The new facility will be called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL) and will employ distributed processing linked to a centralized data base. AESL will be both a multistation servicing facility and a research laboratory for the advancement of energy storage system maintenance techniques. This paper describes the baseline requirements for the AESL and the design approach being taken for its mechanization.

  8. Design Enhancements of the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer to Enable Detection of Earth Twins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Richard K.; Danchi, William C.; Lopez, Bruno; Rinehart, Stephan; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Beust, Herve; Bonfils, Xavier; Borde, Pascal; Kern, Pierre; Leger, Alain; Monin, Jean-Louis; Mourard, Denis; Ollivier, Marc; Petrov, Roman; Vakhili, Farrokh

    2009-01-01

    During the last few years, considerable effort has been directed towards very large-scale (> $5 billion) missions to detect and characterize Mars-radius to Earth-radius planets around nearby stars; such as the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer and Darwin missions. However, technological issues such as formation flying and control of systematic noise sources will likely prevent these missions from entering Phase A until at least the end of the next decade. Presently more than 350 planets have been discovered by a variety of techniques, and little is known about the majority of them other than their approximate mass. However, a simplified nulling interferometer operating in the near- to mid-infrared (e.g. approx. 5-15 microns), like the enhanced version of the Fourier Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI), can characterize the atmospheres of a large sample of the known planets - including Earth twins. Many other scientific problems can be addressed with a system like FKSI, including the studies of debris disks, active galactic nuclei, and low mass companions around nearby stars. We report results of a recent engineering study on an enhanced version of FKSI that includes 1-meter primary mirrors, 20-meter boom length, and an advanced sun shield that will provide a 45-degree FOR and 40K operating temperature for all optics including siderostats.

  9. Using Lunar Observations to Validate In-Flight Calibrations of Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Janet L.; Smith, G. Louis; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The validation of in-orbit instrument performance requires stability in both instrument and calibration source. This paper describes a method of validation using lunar observations scanning near full moon by the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments. Unlike internal calibrations, the Moon offers an external source whose signal variance is predictable and non-degrading. From 2006 to present, in-orbit observations have become standardized and compiled for the Flight Models-1 and -2 aboard the Terra satellite, for Flight Models-3 and -4 aboard the Aqua satellite, and beginning 2012, for Flight Model-5 aboard Suomi-NPP. Instrument performance parameters which can be gleaned are detector gain, pointing accuracy and static detector point response function validation. Lunar observations are used to examine the stability of all three detectors on each of these instruments from 2006 to present. This validation method has yielded results showing trends per CERES data channel of 1.2% per decade or less.

  10. Fiber system design for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppett, Claire; Sharples, Ray; Edelstein, Jerry; Schmoll, Jürgen; Bramall, David; Fagrelius, Parker

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique. The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14000 sq deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. We will describe the Fiber Systems design with specific emphasis on novel approaches and essential elements that lead to exceptional performance.

  11. High specific energy, high capacity nickel-hydrogen cell design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.

    1993-01-01

    A 3.5 inch rabbit-ear-terminal nickel-hydrogen cell has been designed and tested to deliver high capacity at a C/1.5 discharge rate. Its specific energy yield of 60.6 wh/kg is believed to be the highest yet achieved in a slurry-process nickel-hydrogen cell, and its 10 C capacity of 113.9 AH the highest capacity yet made at a discharge rate this high in the 3.5 inch diameter size. The cell also demonstrated a pulse capability of 180 amps for 20 seconds. Specific cell parameters, performance, and future test plans are described.

  12. Smart design selftuning piezoelectric energy harvester intended for gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staaf, L. G. H.; Köhler, E.; Soeiro, M.; Lundgren, P.; Enoksson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting on a gas turbine implies constraints like high temperature tolerance, size limitation and a particular range of vibrations to utilise. In order to be able to operate under these conditions a harvester needs to be small and efficient and to respond to the appropriate range of frequencies. We present the design, simulation and measurements for a clamped-clamped coupled piezoelectric harvester with a free-sliding weight which adds self-tuning for improved response within the range of vibrations from the gas tufbine. We show a peak open circuit voltage of 11.7 V and a 3dB bandwidth of 12 Hz.

  13. First-Principles Calculation of Solution Energy of Alkaline-Earth Metal Elements to BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriwake, Hiroki; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Tanaka, Isao

    2007-10-01

    Quantitative analysis of the solution energy of alkaline-earth metal elements to perovskite-type BaTiO3 was carried out by a first-principles calculation combined with thermodynamics theory. The solution energies of neutral solute and a compensated solute with an oxygen vacancy were systematically calculated. They were obtained for two cation sites and four thermodynamical conditions with different chemical potentials of constituent atoms. Both Ca and Sr preferably occupy the Ba site of BaTiO3. On the other hand, Mg occupies the Ti site. This corresponds well to the widely accepted experimental findings regarding site preference. Moreover, under the condition of coexising BaO, CaO and BaTiO3, energy difference between the Ba-site solution and O-vacancy compensated Ti-site solution of Ca ions has been found to be smaller than that of Sr. Under this condition, the O-vacancy compensated Ti-site solution of Ca should be favorable compared with that of Sr. The same number of oxygen vacancies as Ca ions occupying Ti sites can be introduced. This also explains well experimental feature of the Ca-doped BaTiO3-based nonreducible multilayer ceramics capacitor (MLCC) materials regarding solution site of the Ca ion and abundance of O-vacancy.

  14. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 4: Earth to Saturn ballistic mission opportunities, 1985-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Saturn are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements as well as many other launch and Saturn arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1985 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Saturn probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations elating various parameters. This is the first of a planned series of mission design documents which will apply to all planets and some other bodies in the solar system.

  15. Energy Efficient Engine: Flight propulsion system final design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald Y.; Stearns, E. Marshall

    1985-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) is a NASA program to create fuel saving technology for future transport engines. The Flight Propulsion System (FPS) is the engine designed to achieve E3 goals. Achieving these goals required aerodynamic, mechanical and system technologies advanced beyond that of current production engines. These technologies were successfully demonstrated in component rigs, a core engine and a turbofan ground test engine. The design and benefits of the FPS are presented. All goals for efficiency, environmental considerations, and economic payoff were met. The FPS has, at maximum cruise, 10.67 km (35,000 ft), M0.8, standard day, a 16.9 percent lower installed specific fuel consumption than a CF6-50C. It provides an 8.6 percent reduction in direct operating cost for a short haul domestic transport and a 16.2 percent reduction for an international long distance transport.

  16. Design and installation manual for thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, R. L.; Nield, K. J.; Rohde, R. R.; Wolosewicz, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The design and installation of thermal energy storage in active solar systems is discussed. Both air based and liquid based systems are covered with topics on designing rock beds, tank types, pump and fan selection, installation, costs, and operation and maintenance. Topics relevant to latent heat storage include properties of phase change materials, sizing the storage unit, insulating the storage unit, available systems, and cost. Topics relevant to heating domestic water include safety, single-, and dual-tank systems, domestic water heating with air and liquid based space heating systems, and stand alone domestics hot water systems. Also examined are common problems with storage systems and their solutions, heat transfer fluid properties, economic insulation thickness, heat exchanger sizing, and sample specifications for heat exchangers, wooden rock bins, steel tanks, concrete tanks, and fiberglass reinforced plastic tanks.

  17. High-energy cosmic-ray fluxes in the Earth atmosphere: Calculations vs experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanov, A. A.; Sinegovskaya, T. S.; Sinegovsky, S. I.

    2008-12-01

    A new calculation of the atmospheric fluxes of cosmic-ray hadrons and muons in the energy range 10-105 GeV has been performed for the set of hadron production models, EPOS 1.6, QGSJET II-03, SIBYLL 2.1, and others that are of interest to cosmic-ray physicists. The fluxes of secondary cosmic rays at several levels in the atmosphere are computed using directly data of the ATIC-2, GAMMA experiments, and the model proposed recently by Zatsepin and Sokolskaya as well as the parameterization of the primary cosmic-ray spectrum by Gaisser and Honda. The calculated energy spectra of the hadrons and muon flux as a function of zenith angle are compared with measurements as well as other calculations. The effect of uncertainties both in the primary cosmic-ray flux and hadronic model predictions on the spectra of atmospheric hadrons and muons is considered.

  18. Earth-Abundant Materials as Photosensitizers in the Molecular Assemblies for Solar Energy Conversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-31

    solar cells : Can iron complexes serve as photosensitizers in DSSCs?" The Southeastern Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Raleigh...Tsuchiya, E. Jakubikova, "Hydroxamate Linker Results in Fastest Interfacial Electron Transfer Rates in Fe(bpy)2(CN)2 - Sensitized Solar Cell ," The...ways to utilize solar energy is conversion of sunlight to electricity via dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) or to chemical fuels via photocatalytic

  19. Spatial variation of energy conversion at the Earth's magnetopause: Statistics from Cluster observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anekallu, Chandrasekhar R.; Palmroth, M.; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.; Lucek, E.; Dandouras, I.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate magnetopause energy conversion in a large statistical data set utilizing Cluster spacecraft observations. We have compiled a database of about 4000 magnetopause crossings from Cluster spacecraft 1 measurements during years 2001-2008. We have estimated the local energy conversion across the magnetopause for these crossings using Generic Residue Analysis and analyzed the spatial distribution of load and generator regions during dayside and lobe reconnection as a function of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) magnitude and solar wind dynamic pressure. We found scatter in the load and the generator regions on the magnetopause surface. Categorizing the crossings into equatorward or tailward of the cusp improves the organization of the load and generator regions on the surface. During dayside reconnection, equatorward (tailward) of the cusp indicates more load (generator) than generator (load) and is in agreement with theory. During lobe reconnection, we find that a faint load region dominates both equatorward and tailward of the cusp. We compare these statistics with Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling Simulation version 4 (GUMICS 4) global magnetohydrodynamic simulation results and find that there is a reasonable agreement, although disagreements are also found especially during lobe reconnection. We also investigate the influence of IMF magnitude on the load and generator locations and suggest that the spatial mixing of load and generators is due to rapid movement of the magnetopause surface which in turn moves the locations where load and generator processes appear. The solar wind dynamic pressure controls the magnitude of energy conversion across the magnetopause such that higher dynamic pressures lead to more energy conversion. A similar dependence is observed for IMF magnitude as well.

  20. Energy Transfer between Post-Transition Elements & Rare Earths in Oxide & Chalcogenide Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-27

    narrow- 37 line excitation F. Optical transitions of Sm3+ in oxide glasses 41 G. Energy transfer from U i+ to Sm3+ in phosphate glass 45 H. Transition...probabilities of europium(III) in zirconium 50 and beryllium fluoride glasses, phosphate glass and pentaphosphate crystals I. Multiphonon relaxation in...in phosphate , borate, germa- nate and tellurite glasses. The level fluorescent lifetime was derived from these rates and from the calculated radiative