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Sample records for earth explorer isee

  1. Contingency study for the third international Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE-3) satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    The third satellite of the international Sun-Earth Explorer program was inserted into a periodic halo orbit about L sub 1, the collinear libration point between the Sun and the Earth-Moon barycenter. A plan is presented that was developed to enable insertion into the halo orbit in case there was a large underperformance of the Delta second or third stage during the maneuver to insert the spacecraft into the transfer trajectory. After one orbit of the Earth, a maneuver would be performed near perigee to increase the energy of the orbit. A relatively small second maneuver would put the spacecraft in a transfer trajectory to the halo orbit, into which it could be inserted for a total cost within the fuel budget. Overburns (hot transfer trajectory insertions) were also studied.

  2. Restoration and Archiving of Data from the Plasma Composition Experiment on the International Sun-Earth Explorer One (ISEE 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, O. W.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to complete the archiving of energetic (10 eV/epsilon - 18 keV/epsilon) ion composition data from the Lockheed Plasma Composition Experiment on the International Sun-Earth Explorer One (ISEE 1) satellite, using a particular data format that had previously been approved by NASA and the NSSDC. That same format, a combination of ion velocity moments and differential flux spectra, had been used in 1991 to archive, at the NSSDC, the first 28 months (the "Prime" period of ISEE investigations) of data from the Lockheed instrument under NASA Contract NAS5-33047. With the completion of this project, the almost 4 1/2-year time span of these unique data is now covered by a very compact set, approximately 1 gigabyte in total, of electronic files with physical quantities, all in ASCII. The files are organized by data type and time of data acquisition, in Universal Time, and named according to year and day of year. Each calendar day has five separate files (five types of data), the lengths of which vary from day to day, depending on the instrument mode of operation. The data format and file structure are described in detail in appendices 1 and 2. The physical medium consists of high-density (6250 cpi) 9-track magnetic tapes, complemented by a set of hardcopy line plots of certain plasma parameters. In this case there are five tapes, to be added to the six previous ones from 1991, and 25 booklets of plots, one per month, to be added to the previous 28. The tapes, including an extra standard-density (1600 cpi) tape with electronic versions of the Data User's Guide and self-guiding VAX/VMS command files, and the hardcopy plots are being boxed for shipment to the NSSDC.

  3. Analysis of data from the plasma composition experiment on the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, O. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Lockheed plasma composition experiment on the ISEE 1 spacecraft has provided one of the largest and most varied sets of data on earth's energetic plasma environment, covering both the solar wind, well beyond the bow shock, and the near equatorial magnetosphere to a distance of almost 23 earth radii. This report is an overview of the last four years of data analysis and archiving. The archiving for NSSDC includes most data obtained during the initial 28-months of instrument operation, from early November 1977 through the end of February 1980. The data products are a combination of spectra (mass and energy angle) and velocity moments. A copy of the data user's guide and examples of the data products are attached as appendix A. The data analysis covers three major areas: solar wind ions upstream and downstream of the day side bowshock, especially He(++) ions; terrestrial ions flowing upward from the auroral regions, especially H(+), O(+), and He(+) ions; and ions of both solar and terrestrial origins in the tail plasma sheet and lobe regions. Copies of publications are attached.

  4. The 2014 Earth return of the ISEE-3/ICE spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, David W.; Farquhar, Robert W.; Loucks, Michel; Roberts, Craig E.; Wingo, Dennis; Cowing, Keith L.; Garcia, Leonard N.; Craychee, Tim; Nickel, Craig; Ford, Anthony; Colleluori, Marco; Folta, David C.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Nace, Edward; Spohr, John E.; Dove, William; Mogk, Nathan; Furfaro, Roberto; Martin, Warren L.

    2015-05-01

    In 1978, the 3rd International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE-3) became the first libration-point mission, about the Sun-Earth L1 point. Four years later, a complex series of lunar swingbys and small propulsive maneuvers ejected ISEE-3 from the Earth-Moon system, to fly by a comet (Giacobini-Zinner) for the first time in 1985, as the rechristened International Cometary Explorer (ICE). In its heliocentric orbit, ISEE-3/ICE slowly drifted around the Sun to return to the Earth's vicinity in 2014. Maneuvers in 1986 targeted a 2014 August 10th lunar swingby to recapture ISEE-3 into Earth orbit. In 1999, ISEE-3/ICE passed behind the Sun; after that, tracking of the spacecraft ceased and its control center at Goddard was shut down. In 2013, meetings were held to assess the viability of "re-awakening" ISEE-3. The goal was to target the 2014 lunar swingby, to recapture the spacecraft back into a halo-like Sun-Earth L1 orbit. However, special hardware for communicating with the spacecraft via NASA's Deep Space Network stations was discarded after 1999, and NASA had no funds to reconstruct the lost equipment. After ISEE-3's carrier signal was detected on March 1st with the 20 m antenna at Bochum, Germany, Skycorp, Inc. decided to initiate the ISEE-3 Reboot Project, to use software-defined radio with a less costly S-band transmitter that was purchased with a successful RocketHub crowdsourcing effort. NASA granted Skycorp permission to command the spacecraft. Commanding was successfully accomplished using the 300 m radio telescope at Arecibo. New capture trajectories were computed, including trajectories that would target the August lunar swingby and use a second ΔV (velocity change) that could target later lunar swingbys that would allow capture into almost any desired final orbit, including orbits about either the Sun-Earth L1 or L2 points, a lunar distant retrograde orbit, or targeting a flyby of the Earth-approaching active Comet Wirtanen in 2018. A tiny spinup maneuver was

  5. Earth Explorer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Explorer Web site provides access to millions of land-related products, including the following: Satellite images from Landsat, advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR), and Corona data sets. Aerial photographs from the National Aerial Photography Program, NASA, and USGS data sets.  Digital cartographic data from digital elevation models, digital line graphs, digital raster graphics, and digital orthophoto quadrangles. USGS paper maps Digital, film, and paper products are available, and many products can be previewed before ordering.

  6. EarthExplorer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houska, Treva

    2012-01-01

    The EarthExplorer trifold provides basic information for on-line access to remotely-sensed data from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center archive. The EarthExplorer (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/) client/server interface allows users to search and download aerial photography, satellite data, elevation data, land-cover products, and digitized maps. Minimum computer system requirements and customer service contact information also are included in the brochure.

  7. Skylab Explores the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This book describes the Skylab 4 Earth Explorations Project. Photographs of the earth taken by the Skylab astronauts are reproduced here and accompanied by an analytical and explanatory text. Some of the geological and geographical topics covered are: (1) global tectonics - some geological analyses of observations and photographs from Skylab; (2)…

  8. A model of the near-earth plasma environment and application to the ISEE-A and -B orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. W.; Sawyer, K. W.; Vette, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    A model of the near-earth environment to obtain a best estimate of the average flux of protons and electrons in the energy range from 0.1 to 100 keV for the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE)-A and -B spacecraft. The possible radiation damage to the thermal coating on these spinning spacecraft is also studied. Applications of the model to other high-altitude satellites can be obtained with the appropriate orbit averaging. This study is the first attempt to synthesize an overall quantitative environment of low-energy particles for high altitude spacecraft, using data from in situ measurements.

  9. Average configuration of the distant (less than 220-earth-radii) magnetotail - Initial ISEE-3 magnetic field results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.; Jones, D. E.; Sibeck, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic field measurements from the first two passes of the ISEE-3 GEOTAIL Mission have been used to study the structure of the trans-lunar tail. Good agreement was found between the ISEE-3 magnetopause crossings and the Explorer 33, 35 model of Howe and Binsack (1972). Neutral sheet location was well ordered by the hinged current sheet models based upon near earth measurements. Between X = -20 and -120 earth radii the radius of the tail increases by about 30 percent while the lobe field strength decreases by approximately 60 percent. Beyond X = -100 to -1200 earth radii the tail diameter and lobe field magnitude become nearly constant at terminal values of approximately 60 earth radii and 9 nT, respectively. The distance at which the tail was observed to cease flaring, 100-120 earth radii, is in close agreement with the predictions of the analytic tail model of Coroniti and Kennel (1972). Overall, the findings of this study suggest that the magnetotail retains much of its near earth structure out to X = -220 earth radii.

  10. Exploring Spaceship Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Noel F.

    1973-01-01

    Describes various activities to understand the nature of the earth as a spaceship and its impact on human life. A figure depicting a holocoenotic environmental complex is given which can be used to illustrate various interacting forces on earth. (PS)

  11. Skylab explores the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Data from visual observations are integrated with results of analyses of approxmately 600 of the nearly 2000 photographs taken of Earth during the 84-day Skylab 4 mission to provide additional information on (1) Earth features and processes; (2) operational procedures and constraints in observing and photographing the planet; and (3) the use of man in real-time analysis of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena.

  12. Exploring the Earth's Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindaman, Arnold D.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Describes three approaches to a study of the earth's past: (1) development of a time line of the ages; (2) a study of rocks and how each was formed; and (3) a study of fossils as found in certain kinds of stone. (Editor)

  13. Electrical Transport on the Shastry-Sutherland Lattice in Ising-type Rare Earth Tetraborides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Linda; Suzuki, Takehito; Checkelsky, Joseph. G.

    In the presence of a magnetic field, frustrated spin systems may exhibit plateaus at fractional values of their saturation magnetization. Study of the magnetic ordering and excitations at such plateaus are key to understanding the nature of the underlying ground states in these systems. Here we study the magnetization plateaus in metallic rare earth tetraborides RB4 with Ising-type anisotropy (R = Er, Tm) in which R resides on a Shastry-Sutherland lattice. We focus on electrical transport and find that the response reflects scattering of charge carriers with the static and dynamic plateau structure. Modeling of these results is consistent with the expected strong uniaxial anisotropy and provides a framework for the study of plateau states in metallic frustrated systems. We thank NSF Grant No. DMR-1231319, Tsinghua Education Foundation, Moore foundation Grant No. GBMF3848 for support.

  14. Electronic transport on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice in Ising-type rare-earth tetraborides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Linda; Suzuki, Takehito; Checkelsky, Joseph G.

    2017-05-01

    In the presence of a magnetic field frustrated spin systems may exhibit plateaus at fractional values of saturation magnetization. Such plateau states are stabilized by classical and quantum mechanisms including order by disorder, triplon crystallization, and various competing order effects. In the case of electrically conducting systems, free electrons represent an incisive probe for the plateau states. Here we study the electrical transport of Ising-type rare-earth tetraborides R B4 (R =Er , Tm), a metallic Shastry-Sutherland lattice showing magnetization plateaus. We find that the longitudinal and transverse resistivities reflect scattering with both the static and the dynamic plateau structure. We model these results consistently with the expected strong uniaxial anisotropy on a quantitative level, providing a framework for the study of plateau states in metallic frustrated systems.

  15. Solar wind deceleration and MHD turbulence in the earth's foreshock region - ISEE 1 and 2 and IMP 8 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonifazi, C.; Moreno, G.; Russell, C. T.; Lazarus, A. J.; Sullivan, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of the solar wind with ions backstreaming from the earth's bow shock is investigated using plasma and magnetic field measurements on ISEE 1 and 2 and IMP 8 at widely separated positions in the earth's foreshock. This technique separates temporal and spatial variations within the foreshock. It is found that the solar wind acceleration associated with backstreaming ions is correlated with the amplitude of the MHD turbulence, and that the largest decelerations are seen close to the bow shock. The density of the backstreaming ion beam is strongly correlated with distance from the shock, and decreases by about a factor of three in a distance of about 3R(e).

  16. ISEE/ICE plasma wave data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1989-01-01

    The work performed for the period 1 Jan. 1985 to 30 Oct. 1989 is presented. The objective was to provide reduction and analysis of data from a scientific instrument designed to study solar wind and plasma wave phenomena on the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3)/International Cometary Explorer (ICE) missions.

  17. Virtual Exploration of Earth's Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbar, A. D.; Bruce, G.; Semken, S. C.; Summons, R. E.; Buxner, S.; Horodyskyj, L.; Kotrc, B.; Swann, J.; Klug Boonstra, S. L.; Oliver, C.

    2014-12-01

    Traditional introductory STEM courses often reinforce misconceptions because the large scale of many classes forces a structured, lecture-centric model of teaching that emphasizes delivery of facts rather than exploration, inquiry, and scientific reasoning. This problem is especially acute in teaching about the co-evolution of Earth and life, where classroom learning and textbook teaching are far removed from the immersive and affective aspects of field-based science, and where the challenges of taking large numbers of students into the field make it difficult to expose them to the complex context of the geologic record. We are exploring the potential of digital technologies and online delivery to address this challenge, using immersive and engaging virtual environments that are more like games than like lectures, grounded in active learning, and deliverable at scale via the internet. The goal is to invert the traditional lecture-centric paradigm by placing lectures at the periphery and inquiry-driven, integrative virtual investigations at the center, and to do so at scale. To this end, we are applying a technology platform we devised, supported by NASA and the NSF, that integrates a variety of digital media in a format that we call an immersive virtual field trip (iVFT). In iVFTs, students engage directly with virtual representations of real field sites, with which they interact non-linearly at a variety of scales via game-like exploration while guided by an adaptive tutoring system. This platform has already been used to develop pilot iVFTs useful in teaching anthropology, archeology, ecology, and geoscience. With support the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, we are now developing and evaluating a coherent suite of ~ 12 iVFTs that span the sweep of life's history on Earth, from the 3.8 Ga metasediments of West Greenland to ancient hominid sites in East Africa. These iVFTs will teach fundamental principles of geology and practices of scientific inquiry, and expose

  18. Student Geoscientists Explore the Earth during Earth Science Week 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbow, Ann E.; Camphire, Geoff

    2005-01-01

    Taking place October 9-15, Earth Science Week 2005 will celebrate the theme "Geoscientists Explore the Earth." The American Geological Institute (AGI) is organizing the event, as always, to help people better understand and appreciate the Earth sciences and to encourage stewardship of the planet. This year, the focus will be on the wide range of…

  19. Exploring Earth Systems Through STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Loris; Salmon, Jennifer; Burns, Courtney

    2015-04-01

    During the 2010 school year, grade 8 science teachers at Dwight D. Eisenhower Middle School in Wyckoff, New Jersey, began using the draft of A Framework for K-12 Science Education to transition to the Next Generation Science Standards. In an evolutionary process of testing and revising, teachers work collaboratively to develop problem-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) units that integrate earth science, physical science, and life science topics. Students explore the interconnections of Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere through problem-based learning. Problem-based learning engages students in (1) direct observations in the field and classroom, (2) collection and analysis of data from remote sensors and hand-held sensors, and (3) analysis of physical, mathematical, and virtual models. Students use a variety of technologies and applications in their investigations, for example iPad apps, Google Classroom, and Vernier sensors. Data from NASA, NOAA, non-government organizations, and scientific research papers inspire student questions and spark investigations. Teachers create materials and websites to support student learning. Teachers curate reading, video, simulations, and other Internet resources for students. Because curriculum is standards-based as opposed to textbook-based, teacher participation in workshops and institutes frequently translates into new or improved study units. Recent programs include Toyota International Teacher Program to Costa Rica, Japan Society Going Global, Siemens STEM Academy, U.S. Naval Academy SET Sail, and NJSTA Maitland P. Simmons Memorial Award Summer Institute. Unit themes include weather and climate, introduction to general chemistry and biochemistry, and cells and heredity. Each if the three 12-week units has embedded engineering challenges inspired by current events, community needs, and/or the work of scientists. The unit segments begin with a problem, progress to

  20. Strategy for earth explorers in global earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the current NASA Earth System Science initiative is to obtain a comprehensive scientific understanding of the Earth as an integrated, dynamic system. The centerpiece of the Earth System Science initiative will be a set of instruments carried on polar orbiting platforms under the Earth Observing System program. An Earth Explorer program can open new vistas in the earth sciences, encourage innovation, and solve critical scientific problems. Specific missions must be rigorously shaped by the demands and opportunities of high quality science and must complement the Earth Observing System and the Mission to Planet Earth. The committee believes that the proposed Earth Explorer program provides a substantial opportunity for progress in the earth sciences, both through independent missions and through missions designed to complement the large scale platforms and international research programs that represent important national commitments. The strategy presented is intended to help ensure the success of the Earth Explorer program as a vital stimulant to the study of the planet.

  1. A scenario for solar wind penetration of earth's magnetic tail based on ion composition data from the ISEE 1 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, W.

    1992-01-01

    Based on He(2+) and H(-) ion composition data from the Plasma Composition Experiment on ISEE 1, a scenario is proposed for the solar wind penetration of the earth's magnetic tail, which does not require that the solar wind plasma be magnetized. While this study does not take issue with the notion that earth's magnetic field merges with the solar wind magnetic field on a regular basis, it focuses on certain aspects of interaction between the solar wind particles and the earth's field, e.g, the fact that the geomagnetic tail always has a plasma sheet, even during times when the physical signs of magnetic merging are weak or absent. It is argued that the solar plasma enters along slots between the tail lobes and the plasma sheet, even quite close to earth, convected inward along the plasma sheet boundary layer or adjacent to it, by the electric fringe field of the ever present low-latitude magnetopause boundary layer (LLBL). The required E x B drifts are produced by closing LLBL equipotential surfaces through the plasma sheet.

  2. Composition and energy spectra of low energy ions observed upstream of the earth's bow shock on ISEE-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipavich, F. M.; Galvin, A. B.; Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Scholer, M.; Fan, C. Y.; Fisk, L. A.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of eleven locally accelerated particle events in the energy range from 30 to 125 keV/Q observed upstream of the earth's bow shock have been determined, including composition, energy spectra, and intensity versus time profiles. The measurements were made with the Ultra Low Energy Charge Analyzer sensor on ISEE-1. The composition in these events is similar to that of the solar wind, with a He to proton ratio of 8% and a CNO to He ratio of 6%. The composition is reasonably constant only when evaluated at equal energy per charge. The energy spectra cannot be adequately fit by a single power law in energy; an exponential or Maxwellian in energy per charge gives a satisfactory representation of the spectra. The time-intensity profiles of these upstream events show an inverse velocity dispersion, which may provide clues to the responsible acceleration mechanism.

  3. Human Exploration of Earth's Neighborhood and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The presentation examines Mars landing scenarios, Earth to Moon transfers comparing direct vs. via libration points. Lunar transfer/orbit diagrams, comparison of opposition class and conjunction class missions, and artificial gravity for human exploration missions. Slides related to Mars landing scenarios include: mission scenario; direct entry landing locations; 2005 opportunity - Type 1; Earth-mars superior conjunction; Lander latitude accessibility; Low thrust - Earth return phase; SEP Earth return sequence; Missions - 200, 2007, 2009; and Mission map. Slides related to Earth to Moon transfers (direct vs. via libration points (L1, L2) include libration point missions, expeditionary vs. evolutionary, Earth-Moon L1 - gateway for lunar surface operations, and Lunar mission libration point vs. lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR). Slides related to lunar transfer/orbit diagrams include: trans-lunar trajectory from ISS parking orbit, trans-Earth trajectories, parking orbit considerations, and landing latitude restrictions. Slides related to comparison of opposition class (short-stay) and conjunction class (long-stay) missions for human exploration of Mars include: Mars mission planning, Earth-Mars orbital characteristics, delta-V variations, and Mars mission duration comparison. Slides related to artificial gravity for human exploration missions include: current configuration, NEP thruster location trades, minor axis rotation, and example load paths.

  4. Electron temperature and de Hoffmann-Teller potential change across the Earth's bow shock: New results from ISEE 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, A. J.; Scudder, J. D.; Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Newbury, J. A.; Russell, C. T.

    We present a survey of the trends between the electron temperature increase ΔTe and the de Hoffmann-Teller frame (HTF) electrostatic potential jump ΔΦHT and their correlation with other parameters that characterize the shock transition using a new ISEE 1 database of 129 Earth bow shock crossings. A fundamental understanding of the HTF potential is central to distinguishing the reversible and irreversible changes to electron temperature across collisionless shocks. The HTF potential is estimated using three different techniques: (1) integrating the steady state, electron fluid momentum equation across the shock layer using high time resolution plasma and field data from ISEE 1, (2) using the steady state, electron fluid energy equation, and (3) using an electron polytrope approximation. We find that ΔΦHT and ΔTe are strongly and positively correlated with |Δ(mpUn2/2)|, which is in good qualitative agreement with earlier experimental surveys [Thomsen et al., 1987b; Schwartz et al., 1988] that used bow shock model normals and used the flow in the spacecraft frame. There is a strong linear organization of the ΔTe with ΔΦHT, which suggests an average effective electron polytropic index of <γe>~2. In addition, ΔTe and ΔΦHT are organized by βe, although our results may be biased by our limited sampling of shock conditions. Comparisons indicate that the differentials in the HTF potential δΦHT are proportional to the differentials in the magnetic field intensity δB across the shock, with a proportionality constant κ that is a fixed constant for a given shock crossing.

  5. Exploring the Earth's Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, I. A.; Anastasiadis, A.; Chatzichristou, E. T.; Ropokis, G.; Giannakis, O.

    2012-09-01

    We present the outreach efforts of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, intended to provide the general public with simplified information concerning the scientific objectives of the project, its focus and its expected outcomes. MAARBLE involves monitoring of the geospace environment through space and ground-based observations, in order to understand various aspects of the radiation belts (torus-shaped regions encircling the Earth, in which high-energy charged particles are trapped by the geomagnetic field), which have direct impact on human endeavors in space (spacecraft and astronauts exposure). The public outreach website of MAARBLE, besides regular updates with relevant news, also employs a variety of multimedia (image and video galleries) and impressive sounds of space (characteristic sounds such as whistlers or tweeks) related to very low and ultra low frequency (VLF/ULF) electromagnetic waves. It also provides links to some of the most interesting relevant educational activities, including those at partner institutions such as the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at UCLA, the University of Alberta, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics and the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.

  6. Human Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A major goal for NASA's human spaceflight program is to send astronauts to near-Earth asteroids (NEA) in the coming decades. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, before sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Dr. Paul Abell discussed some of the physical characteristics of NEOs that will be relevant for EVA considerations, reviewed the current data from previous NEA missions (e.g., Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker and Hayabusa), and discussed why future robotic and human missions to NEAs are important from space exploration and planetary defense perspectives.

  7. Earth Trek...Explore Your Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This booklet for children emphasizes the exploration and protection of the environment. An introduction discusses the interaction between humankind and the environment, emphasizing that the earth is a closed system. Chapter 1, "Mission: Protect the Water," addresses human dependence on water, water pollution, and water treatment. Chapter…

  8. The quasiperpendicular environment of large magnetic pulses in Earth's quasiparallel foreshock - ISEE 1 and 2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.; Moses, S. L.; Coroniti, F. V.; Farris, M. H.; Russell, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    ULF waves in Earth's foreshock cause the instantaneous angle theta-B(n) between the upstream magnetic field and the shock normal to deviate from its average value. Close to the quasi-parallel (Q-parallel) shock, the transverse components of the waves become so large that the orientation of the field to the normal becomes quasi-perpendicular (Q-perpendicular) during applicable phases of each wave cycle. Large upstream pulses of B were observed completely enclosed in excursions of Theta-B(n) into the Q-perpendicular range. A recent numerical simulation included Theta-B(n) among the parameters examined in Q-parallel runs, and described a similar coincidence as intrinsic to a stage in development of the reformation process of such shocks. Thus, the natural environment of the Q-perpendicular section of Earth's bow shock seems to include an identifiable class of enlarged magnetic pulses for which local Q-perpendicular geometry is a necessary association.

  9. Deceleration of the solar wind in the earth's foreshock region - Isee 2 and Imp 8 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonifazi, C.; Moreno, G.; Lazarus, A. J.; Sullivan, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The deceleration of the solar wind in the region of the interplanetary space filled by ions backstreaming from the earth's bow shock and associated waves is studied using a two-spacecraft technique. This deceleration depends on the solar wind bulk velocity; at low velocities (below 300 km/s) the velocity decrease is about 5 km/s, while at higher velocities (above 400 km/s) the decrease may be as large as 30 km/s. The energy balance shows that the kinetic energy loss far exceeds the thermal energy which is possibly gained by the solar wind; therefore at least part of this energy must go into waves and/or into the backstreaming ions.

  10. Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A major goal for NASA's human spaceflight program is to send astronauts to near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) in the coming decades. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, prior to sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEA, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEA missions. Samples directly returned from a primitive body would lead to the same kind of breakthroughs for understanding NEAs that the Apollo samples provided for understanding the Earth-Moon system and its formation history. In addition, robotic precursor and human exploration missions to NEAs would allow the NASA and its international partners to gain operational experience in performing complex tasks (e.g., sample collection, deployment of payloads, retrieval of payloads, etc.) with crew, robots, and spacecraft under microgravity conditions at or near the surface of a small body. This would provide an important synergy between the worldwide Science and Exploration communities, which will be crucial for development of future

  11. Adventures in near-Earth object exploration.

    PubMed

    Asphaug, Erik

    2006-06-02

    Asteroids, because of the hazard they pose to Earth, are compelling targets for robotic and human space exploration. Yet because of their exotic low-gravity environment, simply landing on an asteroid appears to be much more challenging than we had appreciated 5 or 10 years ago. Thanks to a bold new mission from Japan that has made the first asteroid sample return attempt, this goal is now within our reach.

  12. Near earth tracking/data exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearing, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The future challenges facing NASA's data acquisition program are examined, with emphasis on the near-earth exploration activity and the associated data systems. It is noted that the process that is being followed is an evolutionary one: new technologies are being gradually integrated into currently operating systems. For example, advanced handling is already being introduced into such programs as the Space Telescope and the Gamma Ray Source Observatory System.

  13. GEOG 342: Exploring the Virtual Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. E.; Sfraga, M.

    2007-12-01

    First attributed to Eratosthenes around 200 BC, the word "geography" is derived from Greek words meaning "Earth" and "to describe". It describes the study of our planets, its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. The term "neogeography" put simply is new geography; where new refers to more than just practices that are new in usage. Methodologies of neogeography tend toward the intuitive, personal, artistic or even absurd, and general don't confirm to traditional protocols and boundaries. Mapping and spatial technologies such as Geobrowsers are typical of the tools used by neogeographers. Much of the success of Geobrowsers can be attributed to the fact that they use the methods and technologies of neogeography to provide a better understanding of traditional topics of Geography. The Geography program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks is embracing these new methodologies by offering a new class that explores the world around us through the use of Geobrowsers and other Web 2.0 technologies. Students will learn to use Keyhole Markup Language (KML), Google Maps API, SketchUp and a range of Virtual Globes programs, primarily through geospatial datasets from the Earth Sciences. A special focus will be given to datasets that look at the environments and natural hazards that make Alaska such a unique landscape. The role of forums, wikis and blogs in the expansion of the Geoweb will be explored, and students will be encouraged to be active on these websites. Students will also explore Second Life, the concept of which will be introduced through the class text, Neal Stephenson's "Snow Crash". The primary goal of the class is to encourage students to undertake their own explorations of virtual Earths, in order to better understand the physical and social structure of the real world.

  14. The Exploration of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets with orbits that intersect or pass near that of our planet. About 400 NEOs are currently known, but the entire population contains perhaps 3000 objects with diameters larger than 1 km. These objects, thought to be similar in many ways to the ancient planetesimal swarms that accreted to form the planets, are interesting and highly accessible targets for scientific research. They carry records of the solar system's birth and the geologic evolution of small bodies in the interplanetary region. Because collisions of NEOs with Earth pose a finite hazard to life, the exploration of these objects is particularly urgent. Devising appropriate risk-avoidance strategies requires quantitative characterization of NEOS. They may also serve as resources for use by future human exploration missions. The scientific goals of a focused NEO exploration program are to determine their orbital distribution, physical characteristics, composition, and origin. Physical characteristics, such as size, shape, and spin properties, have been measured for approximately 80 NEOs using observations at infrared, radar, and visible wavelengths. Mineralogical compositions of a comparable number of NEOs have been inferred from visible and near-infrared spectroscopy. The formation and geologic histories of NEOs and related main-belt asteroids are currently inferred from studies of meteorites and from Galileo and Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous spacecraft flybys of three main-belt asteroids. Some progress has also been made in associating specific types of meteorites with main-belt asteroids, which probably are the parent bodies of most NEOs. The levels of discovery of NEOs in the future will certainly increase because of the application of new detection systems. The rate of discovery may increase by an order of magnitude, allowing the majority of Earth-crossing asteroids and comets with diameters greater than 1 km to he discovered in the next decade. A

  15. Contingency plans for the ISEE-3 libration-point mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    During the planning stage of the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3 (ISEE-3) mission, a recovery strategy was developed in case the Delta rocket underperformed during the launch phase. If a large underburn had occurred, the ISEE-3 spacecraft would have been allowed to complete one revolution of its highly elliptical earth orbit. The recovery plan called for a maneuver near perigee to increase the energy of the off-nominal orbit; a relatively small second maneuver would then insert the spacecraft into a new transfer trajectory toward the desired halo orbit target, and a third maneuver would place the spacecraft in the halo orbit. Results of the study showed that a large range of underburns could be corrected for a total nominal velocity deviation cost within the ISEE-3 fuel budget.

  16. Exploring the Earth Using Deep Learning Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larraondo, P. R.; Evans, B. J. K.; Antony, J.

    2016-12-01

    Research using deep neural networks have significantly matured in recent times, and there is now a surge in interest to apply such methods to Earth systems science and the geosciences. When combined with Big Data, we believe there are opportunities for significantly transforming a number of areas relevant to researchers and policy makers. In particular, by using a combination of data from a range of satellite Earth observations as well as computer simulations from climate models and reanalysis, we can gain new insights into the information that is locked within the data. Global geospatial datasets describe a wide range of physical and chemical parameters, which are mostly available using regular grids covering large spatial and temporal extents. This makes them perfect candidates to apply deep learning methods. So far, these techniques have been successfully applied to image analysis through the use of convolutional neural networks. However, this is only one field of interest, and there is potential for many more use cases to be explored. The deep learning algorithms require fast access to large amounts of data in the form of tensors and make intensive use of CPU in order to train its models. The Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) has recently augmented its Raijin 1.2 PFlop supercomputer with hardware accelerators. Together with NCI's 3000 core high performance OpenStack cloud, these computational systems have direct access to NCI's 10+ PBytes of datasets and associated Big Data software technologies (see http://geonetwork.nci.org.au/ and http://nci.org.au/systems-services/national-facility/nerdip/). To effectively use these computing infrastructures requires that both the data and software are organised in a way that readily supports the deep learning software ecosystem. Deep learning software, such as the open source TensorFlow library, has allowed us to demonstrate the possibility of generating geospatial models by combining information from

  17. The ISEE-1 and ISEE-2 plasma wave investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.; Fredricks, R. W.; Smith, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The ISEE-1 and ISEE-2 plasma wave experiments are designed to provide basic information on wave-particle interactions in the earth's magnetosphere and in the solar wind. The ISEE-1 plasma wave instrument uses three electric dipole antennas with lengths of 215, 73.5 and 0.61 m for electric field measurements, and a triaxial search coil antenna for magnetic field measurements. The ISEE-2 instrument uses two electric dipole antennas with lengths of 30 and 0.61 m for electric field measurements and a single-axis search coil antenna for magnetic field measurements. The primary scientific objectives of the experiments are described, including the resolution of space-time relationships of plasma wave phenomena and VLBI studies. The instrumentation is described, with emphasis on the antennas and the electronics.

  18. Wind Streaks on Earth; Exploration and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Zada, Aviv Lee; Blumberg, Dan G.; Maman, Shimrit

    2015-04-01

    Wind streaks, one of the most common aeolian features on planetary surfaces, are observable on the surface of the planets Earth, Mars and Venus. Due to their reflectance properties, wind streaks are distinguishable from their surroundings, and they have thus been widely studied by remote sensing since the early 1970s, particularly on Mars. In imagery, these streaks are interpreted as the presence - or lack thereof - of small loose particles on the surface deposited or eroded by wind. The existence of wind streaks serves as evidence for past or present active aeolian processes. Therefore, wind streaks are thought to represent integrative climate processes. As opposed to the comprehensive and global studies of wind streaks on Mars and Venus, wind streaks on Earth are understudied and poorly investigated, both geomorphologically and by remote sensing. The aim of this study is, thus, to fill the knowledge gap about the wind streaks on Earth by: generating a global map of Earth wind streaks from modern high-resolution remotely sensed imagery; incorporating the streaks in a geographic information system (GIS); and overlaying the GIS layers with boundary layer wind data from general circulation models (GCMs) and data from the ECMWF Reanalysis Interim project. The study defines wind streaks (and thereby distinguishes them from other aeolian features) based not only on their appearance in imagery but more importantly on their surface appearance. This effort is complemented by a focused field investigation to study wind streaks on the ground and from a variety of remotely sensed images (both optical and radar). In this way, we provide a better definition of the physical and geomorphic characteristics of wind streaks and acquire a deeper knowledge of terrestrial wind streaks as a means to better understand global and planetary climate and climate change. In a preliminary study, we detected and mapped over 2,900 wind streaks in the desert regions of Earth distributed in

  19. Continental Drilling to Explore Earth's Sedimentary, Paleobiological, and Biogeochemical Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Andrew; Soreghan, Gerilyn

    2013-07-01

    A workshop to promote research using continental scientific drilling to explore the Earth's sedimentary, paleobiological, and biogeochemical record was held in Norman, Okla. The workshop, funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), was intended to encourage U.S.-based scientists to take advantage of the exceptional capacity of unweathered, continuous sediment cores to serve as archives of the Earth's history.

  20. Risk and Exploration: Earth, Sea and Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, Steven J. (Editor); Cowing, Keith L. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The NASA History Division is pleased to present the record of a unique meeting on risk and exploration held under the auspices of the NASA Administrator, Sean O Keefe, at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, from September 26-29, 2004. The meeting was the brainchild of Keith Cowing and astronaut John Grunsfeld, NASA's chief scientist at the time. Its goals, stated in the letter of invitation published herein, were precipitated by the ongoing dialogue on risk and exploration in the wake of the Columbia Shuttle accident, the Hubble Space Telescope servicing question, and, in a broader sense, by the many NASA programs that inevitably involve a balance between risk and forward-looking exploration. The meeting, extraordinarily broad in scope and participant experience, offers insights on why we explore, how to balance risk and exploration, how different groups defi ne and perceive risk differently, and the importance of exploration to a creative society. At NASA Headquarters, Bob Jacobs, Trish Pengra, and Joanna Adamus of NASA Public Affairs led the meeting's implementation. The Naval Postgraduate School, commanded by Rear Admiral Patrick W. Dunne, provided a congenial venue. The meeting was broadcast on NASA TV, and thanks are due in this regard to Al Feinberg, Tony Stewart, Jim Taylor, and the planners collaborative: Mark Shaddock and Spotlight Productions, Donovan Gates of Donovan Gates Production, and Michael Ditertay and his staff on this 30-person television crew. Thanks to their efforts, a DVD record of the meeting has also been produced. Thanks are also due to the moderators: Miles O Brien of CNN, Chris McKay of NASA Ames, David Halpern of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and John Grunsfeld, NASA Headquarters. In order to maintain the informal flavor of the meetings, these proceedings are based on transcripts that have been lightly edited for grammar and punctuation. Most references to slides shown during the

  1. Explore the virtual side of earth science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Scientists have always struggled to find an appropriate technology that could represent three-dimensional (3-D) data, facilitate dynamic analysis, and encourage on-the-fly interactivity. In the recent past, scientific visualization has increased the scientist's ability to visualize information, but it has not provided the interactive environment necessary for rapidly changing the model or for viewing the model in ways not predetermined by the visualization specialist. Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML 2.0) is a new environment for visualizing 3-D information spaces and is accessible through the Internet with current browser technologies. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are using VRML as a scientific visualization tool to help convey complex scientific concepts to various audiences. Kevin W. Laurent, computer scientist, and Maura J. Hogan, technical information specialist, have created a collection of VRML models available through the Internet at Virtual Earth Science (virtual.er.usgs.gov).

  2. ISE structural dynamic experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Malcolm H.; Clark, S. Y.

    1988-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: directed energy systems - vibration issue; Neutral Particle Beam Integrated Space Experiment (NPB-ISE) opportunity/study objective; vibration sources/study plan; NPB-ISE spacecraft configuration; baseline slew analysis and results; modal contributions; fundamental pitch mode; vibration reduction approaches; peak residual vibration; NPB-ISE spacecraft slew experiment; goodbye ISE - hello Zenith Star Program.

  3. Strategic Implications of Human Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2011-01-01

    The current United States Space Policy [1] as articulated by the White House and later confirmed by the Congress [2] calls for [t]he extension of the human presence from low-Earth orbit to other regions of space beyond low-Earth orbit will enable missions to the surface of the Moon and missions to deep space destinations such as near-Earth asteroids and Mars. Human exploration of the Moon and Mars has been the focus of numerous exhaustive studies and planning, but missions to Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) has, by comparison, garnered relatively little attention in terms of mission and systems planning. This paper examines the strategic implications of human exploration of NEAs and how they can fit into the overall exploration strategy. This paper specifically addresses how accessible NEAs are in terms of mission duration, technologies required, and overall architecture construct. Example mission architectures utilizing different propulsion technologies such as chemical, nuclear thermal, and solar electric propulsion were formulated to determine resulting figures of merit including number of NEAs accessible, time of flight, mission mass, number of departure windows, and length of the launch windows. These data, in conjunction with what we currently know about these potential exploration targets (or need to know in the future), provide key insights necessary for future mission and strategic planning.

  4. Planetary exploration - Earth's new horizon /Twelfth von Karman Lecture/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurmeier, H. M.

    1975-01-01

    Planetary exploration is examined in terms of the interaction of technological growth with scientific progress and the intangibles associated with exploring the unknown. The field is limited to unmanned exploration of the planets and their satellites. A descriptive model of the endeavor, its activities and achievements in the past decade, a characterization of the current state of the art, and a look at some of the planetary mission opportunities for the next decade are presented. A case is made for the value to civilization of ongoing planetary exploration. The pioneering U.S. planetary explorers, Mars, Venus, and Jupiter, are discussed in the second part of the work. Launch velocity, navigation, the remote system, the earth base, and management technology are considered in the third part. Authorized near-term U.S. planetary projects and opportunities of the next decade are described in the last section.

  5. The esa earth explorer land surface processes and interactions mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labandibar, Jean-Yves; Jubineau, Franck; Silvestrin, Pierluigi; Del Bello, Umberto

    2017-11-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is defining candidate missions for Earth Observation. In the class of the Earth Explorer missions, dedicated to research and pre-operational demonstration, the Land Surface Processes and Interactions Mission (LSPIM) will acquire the accurate quantitative measurements needed to improve our understanding of the nature and evolution of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and to contribute significantly to a solution of the scaling problems for energy, water and carbon fluxes at the Earth's surface. The mission is intended to provide detailed observations of the surface of the Earth and to collect data related to ecosystem processes and radiation balance. It is also intended to address a range of issues important for environmental monitoring, renewable resources assessment and climate models. The mission involves a dedicated maneuvering satellite which provides multi-directional observations for systematic measurement of Land Surface BRDF (BiDirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) of selected sites on Earth. The satellite carries an optical payload : PRISM (Processes Research by an Imaging Space Mission), a multispectral imager providing reasonably high spatial resolution images (50 m over 50 km swath) in the whole optical spectral domain (from 450 nm to 2.35 μm with a resolution close to 10 nm, and two thermal bands from 8.1 to 9.1 μm). This paper presents the results of the Phase A study awarded by ESA, led by ALCATEL Space Industries and concerning the design of LSPIM.

  6. The impact of earth resources exploration from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordberg, W.

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensing of the earth from satellite systems such as Landsat, Nimbus, and Skylab has demonstrated the potential influence of such observations on a number of major human concerns. These concerns include the management of food, water and fiber resources, the exploration and management of mineral and energy resources, the protection of the environment, the protection of life and property, and improvements in shipping and navigation.

  7. Architectures for Human Exploration of Near Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation explores human exploration of Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) key factors including challenges of supporting humans for long-durations in deep-space, incorporation of advanced technologies, mission design constraints, and how many launches are required to conduct a round trip human mission to a NEA. Topics include applied methodology, all chemical NEA mission operations, all nuclear thermal propulsion NEA mission operations, SEP only for deep space mission operations, and SEP/chemical hybrid mission operations. Examples of mass trends between datasets are provided as well as example sensitivity of delta-v and trip home, sensitivity of number of launches and trip home, and expected targets for various transportation architectures.

  8. Synergistic Activities of Near-Earth Object Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to near-Earth asteroids by 2025. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEO, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEO missions. Samples directly returned from a primitive body would lead to the same kind of breakthroughs for understanding NEOs that the Apollo samples provided for understanding the Earth-Moon system and its formation history. In addition, robotic precursor and human exploration missions to NEOs would allow the NASA and its international partners to gain operational experience in performing complex tasks (e.g., sample collection, deployment of payloads, retrieval of payloads, etc.) with crew, robots, and spacecraft under microgravity conditions at or near the surface of a small body. This would provide an important synergy between the worldwide Science and Exploration communities, which will be crucial for development of future international deep space exploration architectures and has potential benefits for future exploration of other destinations beyond low-Earth orbit.

  9. Exploring Earth's Magnetism and Northern lights in High School Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, M.; Peticolas, L.

    2008-05-01

    Present studies are being conducted as a part of the outreach project entitled Geomagnetic Event Observation Network by Students (GEONS) to share excitement of the THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macro scale Interactions during Substorm) mission launched during February, 2007. The goal of this mission is to investigate the causality of events that lead to the explosive release of energy (derived from the Sun) stored in the Earth's magnetic field. The visible manifestation of the energy release is Aurora Borealis observed in the Northern hemisphere of the Earth. Inherent to understanding the root-cause of formation of spectacular aurora is the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind charged particles. To achieve this ambitious objective in a high school classroom, students conducted activities using the magnetic field of bar magnets, electromagnets, electromagnetic induction, and Lenz's Law. Following the fundamental understanding of these concepts, students acquired the necessary vocabulary and explored the various components of the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind charged particles. They were also familiarized with the general format in which THEMIS spacecraft data is displayed. In this presentation, we will address student's misconceptions, their struggle to make connections before they can appreciate "Big Idea" in terms of its components. Discussion will highlight the relationship between student understanding of new ideas and how these ideas connect with their prior knowledge.

  10. Sagan Lecture : Exploring Titan, An Earth-like Organic Paradise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    Saturn's giant moon Titan has been called many things - 'The Mars of the Outer Solar System', 'A Fiercely-Frozen Echo of the Early Earth', 'A Place Like Home'- indeed, 'The Whole ball of Wax'. These various appelations reflect the richness and bewildering complexity of this most fascinating world which bears comparisons with both the terrestrial planets as well as other icy satellites. Titan's thick but dynamic atmosphere sculpts its surface with tidal winds and methane monsoons, and its climate has competing greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects as well as a seasonal polar haze structure analogous to the Earth's ozone hole. Titan is striking also in its massive organic inventory - its dunes and lakes make up an exposed carbon reservoir hundreds of times more massive than all of Earth's fossil fuels. At least part of this organic inventory has been processed by transient exposures to liquid water, in impact melt sheets and cryovolcanic flows (a scenario first pointed out by Thompson and Sagan in 1991). This aqueous chemical interaction is known from terrestrial laboratory experiments to yield amino acids, pyrimidines and other building blocks of living molecular systems. How far these chemical systems might evolve on geological, as opposed to laboratory, scales of space and time on Titan is completely unknown, but must surely be interesting to find out. The talk will review some of the surprising findings from Cassini-Huygens, their lessons for us here on Earth, and what future Titan exploration may tell us about the origins of worlds and the origins of life.

  11. Goals for Near-Earth-Object Exploration Examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-09-01

    With Japan's Hayabusa space probe having returned a sample of the Itokawa asteroid this past June, and with NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft impactor having successfully struck comet Tempel 1 in 2006, among other recent missions, the study of near-Earth objects (NEOs) recently has taken some major steps forward. The recent discovery of two asteroids that passed within the Moon's distance of Earth on 8 September is a reminder of the need to further understand NEOs. During NASA's Exploration of Near-Earth Objects (NEO) Objectives Workshop, held in August in Washington, D. C., scientists examined rationales and goals for studying NEOs. Several recent documents have recognized NEO research as important as a scientific precursor for a potential mission to Mars, to learn more about the origins of the solar system, for planetary defense, and for resource exploitation. The October 2009 Review of Human Space Flight Plans Committee report (known as the Augustine report), for example, recommended a “flexible path ” for human exploration, with people visiting sites in the solar system, including NEOs. The White House's National Space Policy, released in June, indicates that by 2025, there should be “crewed missions beyond the moon, including sending humans to an asteroid.” In addition, NASA's proposed budget for fiscal year 2011 calls for the agency to send robotic precursor missions to nearby asteroids and elsewhere and to increase funding for identifying and cataloging NEOs.

  12. A new trajectory concept for exploring the earth's geomagnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, R. W.; Dunham, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    An innovative trajectory technique for a magnetotail mapping mission is described which can control the apsidal rotation of an elliptical earth orbit and keep its apogee segment inside the tail region. The required apsidal rotation rate of approximately 1 deg/day is achieved by using the moon to carry out a prescribed sequence of gravity-assist maneuvers. Apogee distances are alternately raised and lowered by the lunar-swingby maneuvers; several categories of the 'sun-synchronous' swingby trajectories are identified. The strength and flexibility of the new trajectory concept is demonstrated by using real-world simulations showing that a large variety of trajectory shapes can be used to explore the earth's geomagnetic tail between 60 and 250 R sub E.

  13. Earth cloud, aerosol, and radiation explorer optical payload development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hélière, A.; Wallace, K.; Pereira do Carmo, J.; Lefebvre, A.

    2017-09-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) are co-operating to develop as part of ESA's Living Planet Programme, the third Earth Explorer Core Mission, EarthCARE, with the ojective of improving the understanding of the processes involving clouds, aerosols and radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. EarthCARE payload consists of two active and two passive instruments: an ATmospheric LIDar (ATLID), a Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), a Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) and a Broad-Band Radiometer (BBR). The four instruments data are processed individually and in a synergetic manner to produce a large range of products, which include vertical profiles of aerosols, liquid water and ice, observations of cloud distribution and vertical motion within clouds, and will allow the retrieval of profiles of atmospheric radiative heating and cooling. MSI is a compact instrument with a 150 km swath providing 500 m pixel data in seven channels, whose retrieved data will give context to the active instrument measurements, as well as providing cloud and aerosol information. BBR measures reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the scene. Operating in the UV range at 355 nm, ATLID provides atmospheric echoes from ground to an altitude of 40 km. Thanks to a high spectral resolution filtering, the lidar is able to separate the relative contribution of aerosol and molecular scattering, which gives access to aerosol optical depth. Co-polarised and cross-polarised components of the Mie scattering contribution are measured on dedicated channels. This paper will provide a description of the optical payload implementation, the design and characterisation of the instruments.

  14. Innovations in mission architectures for exploration beyond low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, D. R.; Joosten, B. J.; Lo, M. W.; Ford, K. M.; Hansen, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Through the application of advanced technologies and mission concepts, architectures for missions beyond Earth orbit have been dramatically simplified. These concepts enable a stepping stone approach to science driven; technology enabled human and robotic exploration. Numbers and masses of vehicles required are greatly reduced, yet the pursuit of a broader range of science objectives is enabled. The scope of human missions considered range from the assembly and maintenance of large aperture telescopes for emplacement at the Sun-Earth libration point L2, to human missions to asteroids, the moon and Mars. The vehicle designs are developed for proof of concept, to validate mission approaches and understand the value of new technologies. The stepping stone approach employs an incremental buildup of capabilities, which allows for future decision points on exploration objectives. It enables testing of technologies to achieve greater reliability and understanding of costs for the next steps in exploration. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human and Robotic Exploration of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    A study in late 2006 was sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the feasibility of sending the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve two or three astronauts on a 90 to 180 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. More recently U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for NEO exploration in order to follow U.S. space exploration policy. Prior to sending a human mission, a series of robotic spacecraft would be launched to reduce the risk to crew, and enhance the planning for the proximity and surface operations at the NEO. The human mission would ideally follow five or more years later. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other solar system destinations. Piloted missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. The main scientific advantage of sending piloted missions to NEOs would be the flexibility of the crew to perform tasks and to adapt to situations in real time. A crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) more efficiently than robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance the scientific return from these missions to NEOs, destinations vital to understanding the evolution and thermal histories of primitive bodies during the formation of the

  16. Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo (D.); Jones (T.); Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) has been analyzed in depth in 1989 as part of the Space Exploration Initiative. Since that time two other studies have investigated the possibility of sending similar missions to NEOs. A more recent study has been sponsored by the Advanced Programs Office within NASA's Constellation Program. This study team has representatives from across NASA and is currently examining the feasibility of sending a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. One of the significant advantages of this type of mission is that it strengthens and validates the foundational infrastructure for the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) and Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in the run up to the lunar sorties at the end of the next decade (approx.2020). Sending a human expedition to a NEO, within the context of the VSE and ESAS, demonstrates the broad utility of the Constellation Program s Orion (CEV) crew capsule and Ares (CLV) launch systems. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body outside of the cislunar system. Also, it will help NASA regain crucial operational experience conducting human exploration missions outside of low Earth orbit, which humanity has not attempted in nearly 40 years.

  17. Exploring the Earth System through online interactive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Upper level Earth Science students commonly have a strong background of mathematical training from Math courses, however their ability to use mathematical models to solve Earth Science problems is commonly limited. Their difficulty comes, in part, because of the nature of the subject matter. There is a large body of background ';conceptual' and ';observational' understanding and knowledge required in the Earth Sciences before in-depth quantification becomes useful. For example, it is difficult to answer questions about geological processes until you can identify minerals and rocks and understand the general geodynamic implications of their associations. However, science is fundamentally quantitative. To become scientists students have to translate their conceptual understanding into quantifiable models. Thus, it is desirable for students to become comfortable with using mathematical models to test hypotheses. With the aim of helping to bridging the gap between conceptual understanding and quantification I have started to build an interactive teaching website based around quantitative models of Earth System processes. The site is aimed at upper-level undergraduate students and spans a range of topics that will continue to grow as time allows. The mathematical models are all built for the students, allowing them to spend their time thinking about how the ';model world' changes in response to their manipulation of the input variables. The web site is divided into broad topics or chapters (Background, Solid Earth, Ocean and Atmosphere, Earth history) and within each chapter there are different subtopic (e.g. Solid Earth: Core, Mantle, Crust) and in each of these individual webpages. Each webpage, or topic, starts with an introduction to the topic, followed by an interactive model that the students can use sliders to control the input to and watch how the results change. This interaction between student and model is guided by a series of multiple choice questions that

  18. Robots Explore the Farthest Reaches of Earth and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    "We were the first that ever burst/Into that silent sea," the title character recounts in Samuel Taylor Coleridge s opus Rime of the Ancient Mariner. This famous couplet is equally applicable to undersea exploration today as surface voyages then, and has recently been applied to space travel in the title of a chronicle of the early years of human space flight ("Into That Silent Sea: Trailblazers of the Space Era, 1961-1965"), companion to the +n the Shadow of the Moon book and movie. The parallel is certainly fitting, considering both fields explore unknown, harsh, and tantalizingly inhospitable environments. For starters, exploring the Briny Deep and the Final Frontier requires special vehicles, and the most economical and safest means for each employ remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). ROVs have proven the tool of choice for exploring remote locations, allowing scientists to explore the deepest part of the sea and the furthest reaches of the solar system with the least weight penalty, the most flexibility and specialization of design, and without the need to provide for sustaining human life, or the risk of jeopardizing that life. Most NASA probes, including the historic Voyager I and II spacecraft and especially the Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, feature remote operation, but new missions and new planetary environments will demand new capabilities from the robotic explorers of the future. NASA has an acute interest in the development of specialized ROVs, as new lessons learned on Earth can be applied to new environments and increasingly complex missions in the future of space exploration.

  19. Earth Orbiting Support Systems for commercial low Earth orbit data relay: Assessing architectures through tradespace exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, Gianluca; Golkar, Alessandro; Gaudenzi, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    As small satellites and Sun Synchronous Earth Observation systems are assuming an increased role in nowadays space activities, including commercial investments, it is of interest to assess how infrastructures could be developed to support the development of such systems and other spacecraft that could benefit from having a data relay service in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), as opposed to traditional Geostationary relays. This paper presents a tradespace exploration study of the architecture of such LEO commercial satellite data relay systems, here defined as Earth Orbiting Support Systems (EOSS). The paper proposes a methodology to formulate architectural decisions for EOSS constellations, and enumerate the corresponding tradespace of feasible architectures. Evaluation metrics are proposed to measure benefits and costs of architectures; lastly, a multicriteria Pareto criterion is used to downselect optimal architectures for subsequent analysis. The methodology is applied to two case studies for a set of 30 and 100 customer-spacecraft respectively, representing potential markets for LEO services in Exploration, Earth Observation, Science, and CubeSats. Pareto analysis shows how increased performance of the constellation is always achieved by an increased node size, as measured by the gain of the communications antenna mounted on EOSS spacecraft. On the other hand, nonlinear trends in optimal orbital altitude, number of satellites per plane, and number of orbital planes, are found in both cases. An upward trend in individual node memory capacity is found, although never exceeding 256 Gbits of onboard memory for both cases that have been considered, assuming the availability of a polar ground station for EOSS data downlink. System architects can use the proposed methodology to identify optimal EOSS constellations for a given service pricing strategy and customer target, thus identifying alternatives for selection by decision makers.

  20. Exploring the Possibilities: Earth and Space Science Missions in the Context of Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara; Calabrese, Michael; Kirkpatrick, James; Malay, Jonathan T.

    2006-01-01

    According to Dr. Edward J. Weiler, Director of the Goddard Space Flight Center, "Exploration without science is tourism". At the American Astronautical Society's 43rd Annual Robert H. Goddard Memorial Symposium it was quite apparent to all that NASA's current Exploration Initiative is tightly coupled to multiple scientific initiatives: exploration will enable new science and science will enable exploration. NASA's Science Mission Directorate plans to develop priority science missions that deliver science that is vital, compelling and urgent. This paper will discuss the theme of the Goddard Memorial Symposium that science plays a key role in exploration. It will summarize the key scientific questions and some of the space and Earth science missions proposed to answer them, including the Mars and Lunar Exploration Programs, the Beyond Einstein and Navigator Programs, and the Earth-Sun System missions. It will also discuss some of the key technologies that will enable these missions, including the latest in instruments and sensors, large space optical system technologies and optical communications, and briefly discuss developments and achievements since the Symposium. Throughout history, humans have made the biggest scientific discoveries by visiting unknown territories; by going to the Moon and other planets and by seeking out habitable words, NASA is continuing humanity's quest for scientific knowledge.

  1. The Earth and Environmental Systems Podcast, and the Earth Explorations Video Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorey, C. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth and Environmental Systems Podcast, a complete overview of the theoretical basics of Earth Science in 64 episodes, was completed in 2009, but has continued to serve the worldwide community as evidenced by listener feedback (e.g. "I am a 65 year old man. I have been retired for awhile and thought that retirement would be nothing more than waiting for the grave. However I want to thank you for your geo podcasts. They have given me a new lease on life and taught me a great deal." - FP, 2015). My current project is a video series on the practical basics of Earth Science titled "Earth Explorations". Each video is under 12 minutes long and tackles a major Earth Science concept. These videos go beyond a talking head, or even voice-over with static pictures or white-board graphics. Moving images are combined with animations created with Adobe After Effects, and aerial shots using a UAV. The dialog is scripted in a way to make it accessible at many levels, and the episodes as they currently stand have been used in K-12, and Freshman college levels with success. Though these videos are made to be used at this introductory level, they are also designed as remedial episodes for upper level classes, freeing up time given to review for new content. When completed, the series should contain close to 200 episodes, and this talk will cover the full range of resources I have produced, plan to produce, and how to access these resources. Both resources are available on iTunesU, and the videos are also available on YouTube.

  2. Human Exploration Missions Study Launch Window from Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    2001-01-01

    The determination of orbital launch window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a Delta(V) penalty. Usually, because of the Delta(V) penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: (1) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Two impulsive maneuvers from LEO, (3) Three impulsive maneuvers from LEO, (4) One impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO), (5) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) The formulation of these five different launch window modes provides a rapid means of generating realistic parametric

  3. Earth Matters: Promoting Science Exploration through Blogs and Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, K.; Voiland, A. P.; Carlowicz, M. J.; Simmon, R. B.; Allen, J.; Scott, M.; Przyborski, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observatory (EO) is a 13-year old online publication focusing on the communication of NASA Earth science research, including climate change, weather, geology, oceanography, and solar flares. We serve two primary audiences: the "attentive public"--people interested in and willing to seek out information about science, technology, and the environment--and popular media. We use the EO website (earthobservatory.nasa.gov) to host a variety of content including image-driven stories (natural events and research-based), articles featuring NASA research and, more recently, blogs that give us the ability to increase interaction with our users. For much of our site's history, our communication has been largely one way, and we have relied primarily on traditional online marketing techniques such as RSS and email listservs. As the information ecosystem evolves into one in which many users expect to play a more active role in distributing and even developing content through social media, we've experimented with various social media outlets (blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc.) that offer new opportunities for people to interact with NASA data, scientists, and the EO editorial team. As part of our explorations, we are learning about how, and to what extent, these outlets can be used for interaction and outright promotion and how to achieve those goals with existing personnel and resources.

  4. Desert RATS 2011: Near-Earth Asteroid Human Exploration Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Chappel, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) 2011 field test involved the planning and execution of a series of exploration scenarios under operational conditions similar to those that would be expected during a human exploration mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA). The focus was on understanding the operations tempo during simulated NEA exploration and the implications of communications latency and limited data bandwidth. Anchoring technologies and sampling techniques were not evaluated due to the immaturity of those technologies and the inability to meaningfully test them at D-RATS. Reduced gravity analogs and simulations are being used to fully evaluate Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) and extravehicular (EVA) operations and interactions in near-weightlessness at a NEA as part of NASA s integrated analogs program. Hypotheses were tested by planning and performing a series of 1-day simulated exploration excursions comparing test conditions all of which involved a single Deep Space Habitat (DSH) and either zero, one, or two MMSEVs; three or four crewmembers; one of two different communications bandwidths; and a 100-second roundtrip communications latency between the field site and Houston. Excursions were executed at the Black Point Lava Flow test site with a Mission Control Center and Science Support Room at Johnson Space Center (JSC) being operated with 100-second roundtrip communication latency to the field. Crews were composed of astronauts and professional field geologists and teams of Mission Operations, Science, and Education & Public Outreach (EPO) experts also supported the mission simulations each day. Data were collected separately from the Crew, Mission Operations, Science, and EPO teams to assess the test conditions from multiple perspectives. For the operations tested, data indicates practically significant benefits may be realized by including at least one MMSEV and by including 4 versus 3 crewmembers in the NEA exploration

  5. Exploring Earth's Polar Regions Online at Windows to the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, L.; Johnson, R.; Russell, R.; Genyuk, J.; Bergman, J.; Lagrave, M.

    2007-12-01

    Earth's Polar Regions (www.windows.ucar.edu/polar.html), a new section of the Windows to the Universe Web site, made its debut in March 2007, at the start of International Polar Year. With this new online resource we seek to communicate information about the science, the history and cultures of the Arctic and Antarctic to students, teachers, and the general public. The Web section includes brief articles about diverse aspects of the science of polar regions including the cryosphere, climate change, geography, oceans, magnetic poles, the atmosphere, and ecology. Polar science topics link to related areas of the broader Web site as well. Other articles tell the stories of our human connections to the polar regions including the history of polar exploration and human cultures. Online "Postcards from the Field" allow contributing scientists to share their polar research with a broader audience. We continue to build content, games, puzzles, and interactives to complement and expand the existing resources. A new section about the poles of other planets is also in development. A growing collection of classroom activities which allow students to explore aspects of the polar regions is provided for K-12 educators. An image gallery of photographs from the polar regions and links to IPY and related educational programs provide additional resources for educators. We have been disseminating information about the Earth's Polar Regions Web resources to educators via National Science Teacher Association workshops, the Windows to the Universe educator newsletter, various education Listservs, and Climate Discovery courses offered through NCAR Online Education. Windows to the Universe (www.windows.ucar.edu), a long-standing and widely-used Web resource (with over 20 million user sessions in the past 12 months), provides extensive information about the Earth and space sciences at three levels - beginner, intermediate, and advanced - to serve the needs of upper elementary through lower

  6. The Scale of Exploration: Planetary Missions Set in the Context of Tourist Destinations on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garry, W. B.; Bleacher, L. V.; Bleacher, J. E.; Petro, N. E.; Mest, S. C.; Williams, S. H.

    2012-03-01

    What if the Apollo astronauts explored Washington, DC, or the Mars Exploration Rovers explored Disney World? We present educational versions of the traverse maps for Apollo and MER missions set in the context of popular tourist destinations on Earth.

  7. Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold William; Baysinger, Mike; Crane, Tracie; Capizzo, Pete; Sutherlin, Steven; Dankanich, John; Woodcock, Gordon; Edlin, George; Rushing, Johnny; Fabisinski, Leo; hide

    2007-01-01

    This work documents the advancements in MSFC threat modeling and mitigation technology research completed since our last major publication in this field. Most of the work enclosed here are refinements of our work documented in NASA TP-2004-213089. Very long development times from start of funding (10-20 years) can be expected for any mitigation system which suggests that delaying consideration of mitigation technologies could leave the Earth in an unprotected state for a significant period of time. Fortunately there is the potential for strong synergy between architecture requirements for some threat mitigators and crewed deep space exploration. Thus planetary defense has the potential to be integrated into the current U.S. space exploration effort. The number of possible options available for protection against the NEO threat was too numerous for them to all be addressed within the study; instead, a representative selection were modeled and evaluated. A summary of the major lessons learned during this study is presented, as are recommendations for future work.

  8. Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo, D.; Jones, T.; Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a crewed mission to a near-Earth object (NEO) has been previously analyzed several times in the past. A more in depth feasibility study has been sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the ability of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to support a mission to a NEO. The national mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day mission, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO.

  9. Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation considers the use of new launch vehicles in defense against near-Earth objects, building upon expertise in launch vehicle and spacecraft design, astronomy and planetary science and missile defense. This work also seeks to demonstrate the synergy needed between architectures for human/robotic exploration initiatives and planetary defense. Three different mitigation operations were baselined for this study--nuclear standoff explosion, kinetic interceptor, and solar collector--however, these are not the only viable options. The design and predicted performance of each of these methods is discussed and compared. It is determined that the nuclear interceptor option can deflect NEOs of smaller size (100-500 m) with 2 years or more time before impact, and larger NEOs with 5 or more years warning; kinetic interceptors may be effective for deflection of asteroids up to 300-400 m but require 8-10 years warning time; and, solar collectors may be able to deflect NEOs up to 1 km if issues pertaining to long operation can be overcome. Ares I and Ares V vehicles show sufficient performance to enable the development of a near-term categorization and mitigation architecture.

  10. ESA airborne campaigns in support of Earth Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Tania; Davidson, Malcolm; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Perrera, Andrea; Bianchi, Remo

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out ground based and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans and atmosphere. ESA has been conducting airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 by deploying a broad range of active and passive instrumentation in both the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such as lidars, limb/nadir sounding interferometers/spectrometers, high-resolution spectral imagers, advanced synthetic aperture radars, altimeters and radiometers. These campaigns take place inside and outside Europe in collaboration with national research organisations in the ESA member states as well as with international organisations harmonising European campaign activities. ESA campaigns address all phases of a spaceborne missions, from the very beginning of the design phase during which exploratory or proof-of-concept campaigns are carried out to the post-launch exploitation phase for calibration and validation. We present four recent campaigns illustrating the objectives and implementation of such campaigns. Wavemill Proof Of Concept, an exploratory campaign to demonstrate feasibility of a future Earth Explorer (EE) mission, took place in October 2011 in the Liverpool Bay area in the UK. The main objectives, successfully achieved, were to test Astrium UKs new airborne X-band SAR instrument capability to obtain high resolution ocean current and topology retrievals. Results showed that new airborne instrument is able to retrieve ocean currents to an accuracy of ± 10 cms-1. The IceSAR2012 campaign was set up to support of ESA's EE Candidate 7,BIOMASS. Its main objective was to document P-band radiometric signatures over ice-sheets, by upgrading ESA's airborne POLARIS P-band radar ice sounder with SAR capability. Campaign

  11. CarbonSat: ESA's Earth Explorer 8 Candidate Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Y. J.; Ingmann, P.; Löscher, A.

    2012-04-01

    The CarbonSat candidate mission is part of ESA's Earth Explorer Programme. In 2010, two candidate opportunity missions had been selected for feasibility and preliminary definition studies. The missions, called FLEX and CarbonSat, are now in competition to become ESA's eighth Earth Explorer, both addressing key climate and environmental change issues. In this presentation we will provide a mission overview of CarbonSat with a focus on science. CarbonSat's primary mission objective is the quantification and monitoring of CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks from the local to the regional scale for i) a better understanding of the processes that control carbon cycle dynamics and ii) an independent estimate of local greenhouse gas emissions (fossil fuel, geological CO2 and CH4, etc.) in the context of international treaties. A second priority objective is the monitoring/derivation of CO2 and CH4 fluxes on regional to global scale. These objectives will be achieved by a unique combination of frequent, high spatial resolution (2 x 2 km2) observations of XCO2 and XCH4 coupled to inverse modelling schemes. The required random error of a single measurement at ground-pixel resolution is of the order of between 1 and 3 ppm for XCO2 and between 9 and 17 ppb for XCH4. High spatial resolution is essential in order to maximize the probability for clear-sky observations and to identify flux hot spots. Ideally, CarbonSat shall have a wide swath allowing a 6-day global repeat cycle. The CarbonSat observations will enable CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants, localized industrial complexes, cities, and other large emitters to be objectively assessed at a global scale. Similarly, the monitoring of natural gas pipelines and compressor station leakage will become feasible. The detection and quantification of the substantial geological greenhouse gas emission sources such as seeps, volcanoes and mud volcanoes will be achieved for the first time. CarbonSat's Greenhouse Gas instrument will

  12. Eyes on Planet Earth! Exploring Your Local Watershed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.; Southard, John B.

    2003-01-01

    The American Geological Institute is helping teachers and geoscientists to emphasize the importance of inquiry and active investigation of the world around by selecting "Eyes on Planet Earth: Monitoring Our Changing World" as the theme of this year's Earth Science Week. The activity on the back of this month's poster insert, "Monitoring the…

  13. Learning More About Our Earth: An Exploration of NASA's Contributions to Earth Science Through Remote Sensing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Francis

    2017-01-01

    NASA is commonly known for its pioneering work in space exploration and the technological advancements that made access to space possible. NASA is now increasingly known for the agency's research and technologies that support the Earth sciences. This is a presentation focusing on NASA's Earth science efforts told mostly through the technological innovations NASA uses to achieve a greater understanding of the Earth, making it possible to explore the Earth as a system. Enabling this science is NASA's fleet of over two dozen Earth science spacecraft, supported by aircraft, ships and ground observations. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. With the launching of the three flagship satellite missions, Terra, Aqua and Aura, beginning in 1999, NASA's initial Mission to Planet Earth made it possible to measure aspects of the environment that touch the lives of every person around the world. NASA harnessing the unique space-based platform means, fortunately, no planet is better studied than the one we actually live on.

  14. An electromechanical Ising Hamiltonian

    PubMed Central

    Mahboob, Imran; Okamoto, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Solving intractable mathematical problems in simulators composed of atoms, ions, photons, or electrons has recently emerged as a subject of intense interest. We extend this concept to phonons that are localized in spectrally pure resonances in an electromechanical system that enables their interactions to be exquisitely fashioned via electrical means. We harness this platform to emulate the Ising Hamiltonian whose spin 1/2 particles are replicated by the phase bistable vibrations from the parametric resonances of multiple modes. The coupling between the mechanical spins is created by generating two-mode squeezed states, which impart correlations between modes that can imitate a random, ferromagnetic state or an antiferromagnetic state on demand. These results suggest that an electromechanical simulator could be built for the Ising Hamiltonian in a nontrivial configuration, namely, for a large number of spins with multiple degrees of coupling. PMID:28861469

  15. An electromechanical Ising Hamiltonian.

    PubMed

    Mahboob, Imran; Okamoto, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Solving intractable mathematical problems in simulators composed of atoms, ions, photons, or electrons has recently emerged as a subject of intense interest. We extend this concept to phonons that are localized in spectrally pure resonances in an electromechanical system that enables their interactions to be exquisitely fashioned via electrical means. We harness this platform to emulate the Ising Hamiltonian whose spin 1/2 particles are replicated by the phase bistable vibrations from the parametric resonances of multiple modes. The coupling between the mechanical spins is created by generating two-mode squeezed states, which impart correlations between modes that can imitate a random, ferromagnetic state or an antiferromagnetic state on demand. These results suggest that an electromechanical simulator could be built for the Ising Hamiltonian in a nontrivial configuration, namely, for a large number of spins with multiple degrees of coupling.

  16. Learning planar Ising models

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jason K.; Oyen, Diane Adele; Chertkov, Michael

    Inference and learning of graphical models are both well-studied problems in statistics and machine learning that have found many applications in science and engineering. However, exact inference is intractable in general graphical models, which suggests the problem of seeking the best approximation to a collection of random variables within some tractable family of graphical models. In this paper, we focus on the class of planar Ising models, for which exact inference is tractable using techniques of statistical physics. Based on these techniques and recent methods for planarity testing and planar embedding, we propose a greedy algorithm for learning the bestmore » planar Ising model to approximate an arbitrary collection of binary random variables (possibly from sample data). Given the set of all pairwise correlations among variables, we select a planar graph and optimal planar Ising model defined on this graph to best approximate that set of correlations. Finally, we demonstrate our method in simulations and for two applications: modeling senate voting records and identifying geo-chemical depth trends from Mars rover data.« less

  17. Learning planar Ising models

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Jason K.; Oyen, Diane Adele; Chertkov, Michael; ...

    2016-12-01

    Inference and learning of graphical models are both well-studied problems in statistics and machine learning that have found many applications in science and engineering. However, exact inference is intractable in general graphical models, which suggests the problem of seeking the best approximation to a collection of random variables within some tractable family of graphical models. In this paper, we focus on the class of planar Ising models, for which exact inference is tractable using techniques of statistical physics. Based on these techniques and recent methods for planarity testing and planar embedding, we propose a greedy algorithm for learning the bestmore » planar Ising model to approximate an arbitrary collection of binary random variables (possibly from sample data). Given the set of all pairwise correlations among variables, we select a planar graph and optimal planar Ising model defined on this graph to best approximate that set of correlations. Finally, we demonstrate our method in simulations and for two applications: modeling senate voting records and identifying geo-chemical depth trends from Mars rover data.« less

  18. Near-Earth Asteroids: Destinations for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.

    2014-01-01

    The Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) is a system that monitors the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population to identify NEAs whose orbital characteristics may make them potential destinations for future round-trip human space flight missions. To accomplish this monitoring, Brent Barbee (GSFC) developed and automated a system that applies specialized trajectory processing to the orbits of newly discovered NEAs, and those for which we have updated orbit knowledge, obtained from the JPL Small Bodies Database (SBDB). This automated process executes daily and the results are distributed to the general public and the astronomy community. This aids in prioritizing telescope radar time allocations for obtaining crucial follow-up observations of highly accessible NEAs during the critical, because it is often fleeting, time period surrounding the time at which the NEAs are initially discovered.

  19. Boots on Mars: Earth Independent Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, Josephine; Gill, Tracy R.; Ellis, Kim Gina

    2017-01-01

    This package is for the conduct of a workshop during the International Space University Space Studies Program in the summer of 2017 being held in Cork, Ireland. It gives publicly available information on NASA and international plans to move beyond low Earth orbit to Mars and discusses challenges and capabilities. This information will provide the participants a basic level of insight to develop a response on their perceived obstacles to a future vision of humans on Mars.

  20. Earth Science Education Plan: Inspire the Next Generation of Earth Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Education Enterprise Strategy, the expanding knowledge of how people learn, and the community-wide interest in revolutionizing Earth and space science education have guided us in developing this plan for Earth science education. This document builds on the success of the first plan for Earth science education published in 1996; it aligns with the new framework set forth in the NASA Education Enterprise Strategy; it recognizes the new educational opportunities resulting from research programs and flight missions; and it builds on the accomplishments th'at the Earth Science Enterprise has made over the last decade in studying Earth as a system. This document embodies comprehensive, practicable plans for inspiring our children; providing educators with the tools they need to teach science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and improving our citizens' scientific literacy. This plan describes an approach to systematically sharing knowledge; developing the most effective mechanisms to achieve tangible, lasting results; and working collaboratively to catalyze action at a scale great enough to ensure impact nationally and internationally. This document will evolve and be periodically reviewed in partnership with the Earth science education community.

  1. Studies of Life on Earth are Important for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The search for evidence of the early martian environment and a martian biosphere is benefitted by diverse studies of life on Earth. Most fundamentally, origin-of-life research highlights the challenge in formulating a rigorous definition of life. Because such definitions typically list several of life's most basic properties, they also help to define those observable features that distinguish life and thus might be sought through telescopes, spacecraft, and analyses of extraterrestrial samples. Studies of prebiotic chemistry also help by defining the range of environments and processes that sustain prebiotic organic synthesis. These studies might indicate if and where prebiotic processes occur today on Earth and elsewhere. Such studies should also help to identify which localities are good candidates for the origin of life. A better understanding of the most fundamental principles by which molecules are assembled into living systems will help us to appreciate possible alternatives to the path followed by life on Earth. These perspectives will sharpen our ability to recognize exotic life and/or those environments that can sustain it.

  2. Growing Beyond Earth; Students Exploring Plant Varieties for Future Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litzinger, Marion; Massa, Gioia

    2017-01-01

    Future space exploration and long duration space flight will pose an array of challenges to the health and wellbeing of astronauts. Since 2015, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (FTBG), in partnership with NASA's Veggie team, has been testing edible crops for space flight potential through a series of citizen science experiments. FTBG's interest in classroom-based science projects, along with NASA's successful operation of the Veggie system aboard the International Space Station (ISS), led to a NASA-FTBG partnership that gave rise to the Growing Beyond Earth STEM Initiative (GBE). Established in 2015, GBE now involves 131 middle and high school classrooms in South Florida, all conducting simultaneous plant science experiments. The results of those experiments (both numeric and visual) are directly shared with the space food production researchers at KSC. Through this session, we will explore the successful classroom implementation and integration into the curriculum, how the data is being used and the impact of the project on participating researchers, teachers, and students. Participating schools were supplied with specialized LED-lit growth chambers, mimicking the Veggie system on ISS, for growing edible plants under similar physical and environmental constraints. Research protocols were provided by KSC scientists, while edible plant varieties were selected mainly by the botanists at FTBG. In a jointly-led professional development workshop, participating teachers were trained to conduct GBE experiments in their classrooms. Teachers were instructed to not only teach basic botany concepts, but to also demonstrate practical applications of math, physics and chemistry. As experiments were underway, students shared data on plant germination, growth, and health in an online spreadsheet. Results from the students research show a promising selection of new plant candidates for possible further testing. Over a two year period, more than 5000 South Florida students, ages

  3. EarthRef.org: Exploring aspects of a Cyber Infrastructure in Earth Science and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, H.; Koppers, A.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Helly, J.

    2004-12-01

    EarthRef.org is the common host and (co-) developer of a range of earth science databases and IT resources providing a test bed for a Cyberinfrastructure in Earth Science and Education (CIESE). EarthRef.org data base efforts include in particular the Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM), the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC), the Educational Resources for Earth Science Education (ERESE) project, the Seamount Catalog, the Mid-Ocean Ridge Catalog, the Radio-Isotope Geochronology (RiG) initiative for CHRONOS, and the Microbial Observatory for Fe oxidizing microbes on Loihi Seamount (FeMO; the most recent development). These diverse databases are developed under a single database umbrella and webserver at the San Diego Supercomputing Center. All the data bases have similar structures, with consistent metadata concepts, a common database layout, and automated upload wizards. Shared resources include supporting databases like an address book, a reference/publication catalog, and a common digital archive making database development and maintenance cost-effective, while guaranteeing interoperability. The EarthRef.org CIESE provides a common umbrella for synthesis information as well as sample-based data, and it bridges the gap between science and science education in middle and high schools, validating the potential for a system wide data infrastructure in a CIESE. EarthRef.org experiences have shown that effective communication with the respective communities is a key part of a successful CIESE facilitating both utility and community buy-in. GERM has been particularly successful at developing a metadata scheme for geochemistry and in the development of a new electronic journal (G-cubed) that has made much progress in data publication and linkages between journals and community data bases. GERM also has worked, through editors and publishers, towards interfacing databases with the publication process, to accomplish a more scholarly and database friendly data

  4. Layers: Places in Peril, An Art and Earth Science Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Waller, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    As an Earth scientist (former U.W. Geography/Geology Professor-now Director of the Education Program at The American Meteorological Society) and a painter (Professor of Art, University of Wisconsin - Fox Valley), we have together twenty years of collaborative teaching and scholarly work. We have produced an exhibition of paintings and accompanying explanatory essays focusing on layers, a nexus of our two disciplines. Our traveling exhibition, entitled Layers: Places in Peril, highlights natural and human caused threats to selected beloved and treasured cities and areas. The Earth and its atmosphere are composed of layers, paintings are often layered and the built environment is often constructed in layers. We feel that this notion of overlapping and interleaving strata gives texture to reality. This realization and acknowledgement is something we wish to share with those who design or study the built environment. This reality also provides an important opportunity to convey the reality of hazards to a new and important audience. In this session, we will first describe our professional history of collaboration and then feature Layers as a culmination of our collaborative teaching and professional work. Through the success of our first two showings of our Layers exhibition of large paintings and Earth science text panels (at the Aylward Gallery at the University of Wisconsin, Fox Valley in 2012, followed in 2013 at the Indiana University of Pennsylvania Museum) and, most recently, through our participation at the National Academy of Sciences 'DASER on Disasters' event at the Keck Center in Washington D.C., we witnessed the essential educational power of this type of collaborative activity. To conclude our presentation, we will lead a brief conversation about strategy and practice that illustrates how engaged colleagues can flourish across disciplines and institutions. The result will hopefully inspire those who study, teach, shape, build and care about future

  5. Human Exploration of Near-Earth Objects Accessibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Drake, Bret; Friedensen, Victoria; Mazanek, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Key questions addressed: How short can the trip times be reduced in order to reduce crew exposure to the deep-space radiation and microgravity environment? Are there options to conduct easy, early missions?. What is the affect of infusion of advanced propulsion technologies on target availability When do the departure opportunities open up, how frequent and how long are they? How many launches are required to conduct a round trip human mission to a NEA? And, based on the above, how many Near-Earth Asteroids are available

  6. Factors controlling degree of correlation between ISEE 1 and ISEE 3 interplanetary magnetic field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooker, N. U.; Siscoe, G. L.; Russell, C. T.; Smith, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    Correlation variability between ISEE 1 and 3 IMF measurements is investigated, and factors governing the variability are discussed. About 200 two-hour periods when correlation was good, and 200 when correlation was poor, are examined, and both IMF variance and spacecraft separation distance in the plane perpendicular to the earth-sun line exert substantial control. The scale size of magnetic features is larger when variance is high, and abrupt changes in the correlation coefficient from poor to good or good to poor in adjacent two-hour intervals appear to be governed by the sense of change of IMF variance and vice versa. During periods of low variance, good correlations are most likely to occur when the distance between ISEE 1 and 3 perpendicular to the IMF is less than 20 earth radii.

  7. Building a Science Software Institute: Synthesizing the Lessons Learned from the ISEES and WSSI Software Institute Conceptualization Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idaszak, R.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Jones, M. B.; Ahalt, S.; Schildhauer, M.; Hampton, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF, in an effort to support the creation of sustainable science software, funded 16 science software institute conceptualization efforts. The goal of these conceptualization efforts is to explore approaches to creating the institutional, sociological, and physical infrastructures to support sustainable science software. This paper will present the lessons learned from two of these conceptualization efforts, the Institute for Sustainable Earth and Environmental Software (ISEES - http://isees.nceas.ucsb.edu) and the Water Science Software Institute (WSSI - http://waters2i2.org). ISEES is a multi-partner effort led by National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). WSSI, also a multi-partner effort, is led by the Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI). The two conceptualization efforts have been collaborating due to the complementarity of their approaches and given the potential synergies of their science focus. ISEES and WSSI have engaged in a number of activities to address the challenges of science software such as workshops, hackathons, and coding efforts. More recently, the two institutes have also collaborated on joint activities including training, proposals, and papers. In addition to presenting lessons learned, this paper will synthesize across the two efforts to project a unified vision for a science software institute.

  8. Exploring the limits of EDS microanalysis: rare earth element analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, N. W. M.; Newbury, D. E.; Lowers, H.; Mengason, M.

    2018-01-01

    It is a great time to be a microanalyst. After a few decades of incremental progress in energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), the last decade has seen the accuracy and precision surge forward. Today, the question is not whether EDS is generally useful but to identify the types of problems for which wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry remains the better choice. The full extent of EDS’s capabilities has surprised many. Low Z, low energy, and trace element detection have been demonstrated even in the presence of extreme peak interferences. In this paper, we will summarise the state-of-the-art and investigate a challenging problem domain, the analysis of minerals bearing multiple rare-earth elements.

  9. Between heaven and Earth: the exploration of Titan.

    PubMed

    Owen, Tobias C; Niemann, Hasso; Atreya, Sushil; Zolotov, Mikhail Y

    2006-01-01

    The atmosphere of Titan represents a bridge between the early solar nebula and atmospheres like ours. The low abundances of primordial noble gases in Titan's atmosphere relative to N2 suggest that the icy planetesimals that formed the satellite must have originated at temperatures higher than 75-100 K. Under these conditions, N2 would also be very poorly trapped and thus Titan's nitrogen, like ours, must have arrived as nitrogen compounds, of which ammonia was likely the major component. This temperature constraint also argues against the trapping of methane. Production of this gas on the satellite after formation appears reasonable based on terrestrial examples of serpentinization, disproportionation and reduction of carbon. These processes require rocks, water, suitable catalysts and the variety of primordial carbon compounds that were plausibly trapped in Titan's ices. Application of this same general scenario to Ganymede, Callisto, KBOs and conditions on the very early Earth seems promising.

  10. Exploring uncertainty in the Earth Sciences - the potential field perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltus, R. W.; Blakely, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Interpretation of gravity and magnetic anomalies is mathematically non-unique because multiple theoretical solutions are possible. The mathematical label of 'non-uniqueness' can lead to the erroneous impression that no single interpretation is better in a geologic sense than any other. The purpose of this talk is to present a practical perspective on the theoretical non-uniqueness of potential field interpretation in geology. There are multiple ways to approach and constrain potential field studies to produce significant, robust, and definitive results. For example, a smooth, bell-shaped gravity profile, in theory, could be caused by an infinite set of physical density bodies, ranging from a deep, compact, circular source to a shallow, smoothly varying, inverted bell-shaped source. In practice, however, we can use independent geologic or geophysical information to limit the range of possible source densities and rule out many of the theoretical solutions. We can further reduce the theoretical uncertainty by careful attention to subtle anomaly details. For example, short-wavelength anomalies are a well-known and theoretically established characteristic of shallow geologic sources. The 'non-uniqueness' of potential field studies is closely related to the more general topic of scientific uncertainty in the Earth sciences and beyond. Nearly all results in the Earth sciences are subject to significant uncertainty because problems are generally addressed with incomplete and imprecise data. The increasing need to combine results from multiple disciplines into integrated solutions in order to address complex global issues requires special attention to the appreciation and communication of uncertainty in geologic interpretation.

  11. Mission design for a halo orbiter of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, R. W.; Muhonen, D. P.; Richardson, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) scientific satellite to be stationed in 1978 in the vicinity of the sun-earth interior libration point to continuously monitor the space between the sun and the earth, including the distant geomagnetic tail is described. Orbit selection considerations for the ISEE-C are discussed along with stationkeeping requirements and fuel-optimal trajectories. Due to the alignment of the interior libration point with the sun as viewed from the earth, it will be necessary to place the satellite into a 'halo orbit' around the libration point, in order to eliminate solar interference with down-link telemetry. Parametric data for transfer trajectories between an earth parking orbit (altitude about 185 km) and a libration-point orbit are presented. It is shown that the insertion magnitude required for placing a satellite into an acceptable halo orbit is rather modest.

  12. The Ising model coupled to 2d orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Lisa

    2018-04-01

    In this article we make first steps in coupling matter to causal set theory in the path integral. We explore the case of the Ising model coupled to the 2d discrete Einstein Hilbert action, restricted to the 2d orders. We probe the phase diagram in terms of the Wick rotation parameter β and the Ising coupling j and find that the matter and the causal sets together give rise to an interesting phase structure. The couplings give rise to five different phases. The causal sets take on random or crystalline characteristics as described in Surya (2012 Class. Quantum Grav. 29 132001) and the Ising model can be correlated or uncorrelated on the random orders and correlated, uncorrelated or anti-correlated on the crystalline orders. We find that at least one new phase transition arises, in which the Ising spins push the causal set into the crystalline phase.

  13. Earth Sciences Requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, David E. (Editor); Katzberg, Steve J. (Editor); Wilson, R. Gale (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to further explore and define the earth sciences requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES), a proposed onboard data processor with real-time communications capability intended to support the Earth Observing System (Eos). A review of representative Eos instrument types is given and a preliminary set of real-time data needs has been established. An executive summary is included.

  14. ICE/ISEE plasma wave data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.; Moses, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of the final processing of ICE plasma wave (pw) data and analysis of late ISEE 3, ICE cometary, and ICE cruise trajectory data, where coronal mass ejections (CME's) were the first locus of attention. Interest in CME's inspired an effort to represent our pw data in a condensed spectrogram format that facilitated rapid digestion of interplanetary phenomena on long (greater than 1 day) time scales. The format serendipitously allowed us to also examine earth-orbiting data from a new perspective, invigorating older areas of investigation in Earth's immediate environment. We, therefore, continued to examine with great interest the last year of ISEE 3's precomet phase, when it spent considerable time far downwind from Earth, recording for days on end conditions upstream, downstream, and across the very weak, distant flank bow shock. Among other motivations has been the apparent similarity of some shock and post shock structures to the signatures of the bow wave surrounding comet Giacobini-Zinner, whose ICE-phase data we revisited.

  15. ICE/ISEE plasma wave data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    The interval reported on, from Jan. 1990 to Dec. 1991, has been one of continued processing and archiving of ICE plasma wave (pw) data and transition from analysis of ISEE 3 and ICE cometary data to ICE data taken along its cruise trajectory, where coronal mass ejections are the focus of attention. We have continued to examine with great interest the last year of ISEE 3's precomet phase, when it spent considerable time far downwind from Earth, recording conditions upstream, downstream, and across the very weak, distant flank bow shock. Among other motivations was the apparent similarity of some shock and post shock structures to the signatures of the bow wave surrounding comet Giacobini-Zinner, whose ICE-phase data was revisited. While pursuing detailed, second-order scientific inquiries still pending from the late ISEE 3 recordings, we have also sought to position ourselves for study of CME's by instituting a data processing format new to the ISEE 3/ICE pw detector. Processed detector output has always been summarized and archived in 24-hour segments, with all pw channels individually plotted and stacked one above the next down in frequency, with each channel calibrated separately to keep all data patterns equally visible in the plots, regardless of gross differences in energy content at the various frequencies. Since CME's, with their preceding and following solar wind plasmas, can take more than one day to pass by the spacecraft, a more condensed synoptic view of the pw data is required to identify, let alone assess, CME characteristics than has been afforded by the traditional routines. This requirement is addressed in a major new processing initiative in the past two years. Besides our own ongoing and fresh investigations, we have cooperated, within our resources, with studies conducted extramurally by distant colleagues irrespective of the phase of the ISEE 3/ICE mission under scrutiny. The remainder of this report summarizes our processing activities, our

  16. Applications of ISES for the atmospheric sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, James M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The proposed Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES) will offer the opportunity for real-time access to measurements acquired aboard the Earth Observation System (Eos) satellite. These measurements can then be transmitted to remotely located ground based stations. The application of such measurements to issues related to atmospheric science which was presented to a workshop convened to review possible application of the ISES in earth sciences is summarized. The proposed protocol for Eos instruments requires that measurement results be available in a central data archive within 72 hours of acquiring data. Such a turnaround of raw satellite data to the final product will clearly enhance the timeliness of the results. Compared to the time that results from many current satellite programs, the 72 hour turnaround may be considered real time. Examples are discussed showing how real-time measurements from one or more of the proposed Eos instruments could have been applied to the study of certain issues important to global atmospheric chemistry. Each of the examples discussed is based upon a field mission conducted during the past five years. Each of these examples will emphasize how real-time data could have been used to alter the course of a field experiment, thereby enhancing the scientific output. For the examples, brief overviews of the scientific rationale and objectives, the region of operation, the measurements aboard the aircraft, and finally how one or more of the proposed Eos instruments could have provided data to enhance the productivity of the mission are discussed.

  17. Time and Energy, Exploring Trajectory Options Between Nodes in Earth-Moon Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Roland; Condon, Gerald; Williams, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) was released by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) in September of 2011. It describes mission scenarios that begin with the International Space Station and utilize it to demonstrate necessary technologies and capabilities prior to deployment of systems into Earth-Moon space. Deployment of these systems is an intermediate step in preparation for more complex deep space missions to near-Earth asteroids and eventually Mars. In one of the scenarios described in the GER, "Asteroid Next", there are activities that occur in Earth-Moon space at one of the Earth-Moon Lagrange (libration) points. In this regard, the authors examine the possible role of an intermediate staging point in an effort to illuminate potential trajectory options for conducting missions in Earth-Moon space of increasing duration, ultimately leading to deep space missions. This paper will describe several options for transits between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the libration points, transits between libration points, and transits between the libration points and interplanetary trajectories. The solution space provided will be constrained by selected orbital mechanics design techniques and physical characteristics of hardware to be used in both crewed missions and uncrewed missions. The relationships between time and energy required to transfer hardware between these locations will provide a better understanding of the potential trade-offs mission planners could consider in the development of capabilities, individual missions, and mission series in the context of the ISECG GER.

  18. Human Health and Performance Considerations for Exploration of Near Earth Asteroids (NEA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Charles, John B.; Steinberg, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the health and performance issues for an manned exploration mission to some of the Near Earth Asteroids (NEA). The issues that NASA is reviewing are: 1. Radiation exposure 2. Inadequate food and nutrition 3. Challenges to behavioral health 4. Muscle, cardiovascular, bone atrophy 5. Dust and volatiles 6. Remote medical care 7. Decompression sickness.

  19. The impact of earth resources exploration from space. [technology assessment/LANDSAT satellites -technological forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordberg, W.

    1975-01-01

    The use of Earth Resources Technology Satellites in solving global problems is examined. Topics discussed are: (1) management of food, water, and fiber resources; (2) exploration and management of energy and mineral resources; (3) protection of the environment; (4) protection of life and property; and (5) improvements in shipping and navigation.

  20. Exploring Best Practices for Research Data Management in Earth Science through Collaborating with University Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Branch, B. D.

    2013-12-01

    Earth Science research data, its data management, informatics processing and its data curation are valuable in allowing earth scientists to make new discoveries. But how to actively manage these research assets to ensure them safe and secure, accessible and reusable for long term is a big challenge. Nowadays, the data deluge makes this challenge become even more difficult. To address the growing demand for managing earth science data, the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) partners with the Library and Technology Services (LTS) of Lehigh University and Purdue University Libraries (PUL) on hosting postdoctoral fellows in data curation activity. This inter-disciplinary fellowship program funded by the SLOAN Foundation innovatively connects university libraries and earth science departments and provides earth science Ph.D.'s opportunities to use their research experiences in earth science and data curation trainings received during their fellowship to explore best practices for research data management in earth science. In the process of exploring best practices for data curation in earth science, the CLIR Data Curation Fellows have accumulated rich experiences and insights on the data management behaviors and needs of earth scientists. Specifically, Ting Wang, the postdoctoral fellow at Lehigh University has worked together with the LTS support team for the College of Arts and Sciences, Web Specialists and the High Performance Computing Team, to assess and meet the data management needs of researchers at the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (EES). By interviewing the faculty members and graduate students at EES, the fellow has identified a variety of data-related challenges at different research fields of earth science, such as climate, ecology, geochemistry, geomorphology, etc. The investigation findings of the fellow also support the LTS for developing campus infrastructure for long-term data management in the sciences. Likewise

  1. Human Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids and Sample Collection Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. Subsequently, the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA on April 15, 2010 to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. Human Exploration Considerations: These missions would be the first human expeditions to interplanetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, prior to sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Sample Science Benefits: Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEA, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEA missions. Samples directly returned from a

  2. Anisotropies and flows of suprathermal particles in the distant magnetotail - ISEE 3 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Fan, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    The ISEE-3 spacecraft has been transferred in 1982 into an earth orbit which brings the satellite close to the tailward Lagrangian point L2 at about 220 R(E) and thus allows exploration of the distant geomagnetic tail. An initial analysis of energetic proton measurements greater than 30 keV from the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland sensor system on ISEE-3 is reported. It has been found that suprathermal protons are a persistent feature of the distant tail. Differential intensitites at 30 keV are essentially constant between the lunar distance and 220 R(E) and about one order of magnitude smaller than in the near earth, or greater than about 20 R(E), plasma sheet. Assuming that these protons are convected with the local plasma flow, it is possible to derive plasma velocities. During time periods where a comparison is possible, these velocities compare favourably well with the velocities derived from the Los Alamos National Laboratory plasma analyzer on board the same spacecraft. The appearance of the plasma sheet, as evidenced by the suprathermal particles, is rather bursty. Anisotropies are large, and predominantly tailward.

  3. Electromagnetic waves with frequencies near the local proton gyrofrequency: ISEE-3 1 AU observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Arballo, John K.; Mok, John; Smith, Edward J.; Mason, Glenn M.; Tan, Lun C.

    1994-01-01

    Low Frequency (LF) electromagnetic waves with periods near the local proton gyrofrequency have been detected in interplanetary space by the magnetometer onboard International-Sun-Earth-Explorer-3 (ISEE-3). Transverse peak-to-peak amplitudes as large as delta vector B/absolute value of B approximately 0.4 have been noted with compressional components (Delta absolute value of B/absolute value of B) typically less than or = 0.1. Generally, the waves have even smaller amplitudes, or are not detectable within the solar wind turbulence. The waves are elliptically/linearly polarized and are often, but not always, found to propagate nearly along vector B(sub zero). Both right- and left-hand polarizations in the spacecraft-frame have been detected. The waves are observed during all orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field, with the Parker spiral orientation being the most common case. Because the waves are detected at and near the local proton cyclotron frequency, the generation mechanism must almost certainly be solar wind pickup of freshly created hydrogen ions. Possible sources for the hydrogen are the Earth's atmosphere, coronal mass ejections from the Sun, comets and interstellar neutral atoms. At this time it is not obvious which potential source is the correct one. Statistical tests employing over one year of ISEE-3 data will be done in the near future to eliminate/confirm some of these possibilities.

  4. Exploring spiritual value in earth science concept through learning using chain till unanswered questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johan, Henny; Suhandi, Andi; Samsudin, Ahmad; Ratna Wulan, Ana

    2017-08-01

    Now days, the youth's moral decline is an urgent problem in our country. Natural science especially earth and space science learning is potential to insert spirituality value in its learning activities. The aim of this study is to explore concept of planet earth to embed spirituality attitude through earth science learning. Interactive conceptual learning model using chain till unanswered questions (CTUQ) with help visualizations was implemented in this study. 23 pre-service physics teacher in Bengkulu, Indonesia participated in this study. A sixth indicator of spiritual aspect about awareness of divinity were used to identify the shifted of students' spirituality. Quasi experimental research design had been utilized to implement the learning model. The data were collected using a questionnaire in pretest and posttest. Open ended question was given at post-test only. Questionnaire was analyzed quantitative while open ended question was analyzed qualitatively. The results show that after implementation student's spiritual shifted to be more awareness of divinity. Students' response at scale 10 increased been 97.8% from 87.5% of total responses. Based on analysis of open ended question known that the shifted was influenced by spiritual value inserted in concepts, CTUQ, and media visualization used to show unobservable earth phenomenon during learning activities. It can be concluded that earth science concepts can be explored to embed spiritual aspect.

  5. Innovations in Mission Architectures for Human and Robotic Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Douglas R.; Joosten, B. Kent; Lo, Martin W.; Ford, Ken; Hansen, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Through the application of advanced technologies, mission concepts, and new ideas in combining capabilities, architectures for missions beyond Earth orbit have been dramatically simplified. These concepts enable a stepping stone approach to discovery driven, technology enabled exploration. Numbers and masses of vehicles required are greatly reduced, yet enable the pursuit of a broader range of objectives. The scope of missions addressed range from the assembly and maintenance of arrays of telescopes for emplacement at the Earth-Sun L2, to Human missions to asteroids, the moon and Mars. Vehicle designs are developed for proof of concept, to validate mission approaches and understand the value of new technologies. The stepping stone approach employs an incremental buildup of capabilities; allowing for decision points on exploration objectives. It enables testing of technologies to achieve greater reliability and understanding of costs for the next steps in exploration.

  6. Self-Guided Field Explorations: Integrating Earth Science into Students' Lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, K. C.; Kirkby, S.

    2013-12-01

    Self-guided field explorations are a simple way to transform an earth science class into a more pedagogically effective experience. Previous experience demonstrated that self-guided student explorations of museum and aquarium exhibits were both extremely popular and remarkably effective. That success led our program to test an expansion of the concept to include self-guided student explorations in outdoor field settings. Preliminary assessment indicates these self-guided field explorations are nearly as popular with students as the museum and aquarium explorations and are as pedagogically effective. Student gains on post-instruction assessment match or exceed those seen in instructor-assisted, hands-on, small group laboratory activities and completely eclipse gains achieved by traditional lecture instruction. As importantly, self-guided field explorations provide a way to integrate field experiences into large enrollment courses where the sheer scale of class trips makes them logistically impossible. This expands course breadth, integrating new topics that could not be as effectively covered by the original class structure. Our introductory program assessed two models of self-guided field explorations. A walking/cycling exploration of the Saint Anthony Falls area, a mile from campus, focuses on the intersections of geological processes with human history. Students explore the geology behind the waterfalls' evolution as well as its subsequent social and economic impacts on human history. A second exploration focuses on the campus area geology, including its building stones as well as its landscape evolution. In both explorations, the goal was to integrate geology with the students' broader understanding of the world they live in. Although the explorations' creation requires a significant commitment, once developed, self-guided explorations are surprisingly low maintenance. These explorations provide a model of a simple, highly effective pedagogical tool that is

  7. Returning an Entire Near-Earth Asteroid in Support of Human Exploration Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Friedman, Louis

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study into the feasibility of identifying, robotically capturing, and returning an entire Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) to the vicinity of the Earth by the middle of the next decade. The feasibility of such an asteroid retrieval mission hinges on finding an overlap between the smallest NEAs that could be reasonably discovered and characterized and the largest NEAs that could be captured and transported in a reasonable flight time. This overlap appears to be centered on NEAs roughly 7 m in diameter corresponding to masses in the range of 250,000 kg to 1,000,000 kg. The study concluded that it would be possible to return a approx.500,000-kg NEA to high lunar orbit by around 2025. The feasibility is enabled by three key developments: the ability to discover and characterize an adequate number of sufficiently small near-Earth asteroids for capture and return; the ability to implement sufficiently powerful solar electric propulsion systems to enable transportation of the captured NEA; and the proposed human presence in cislunar space in the 2020s enabling exploration and exploitation of the returned NEA. Placing a 500-t asteroid in high lunar orbit would provide a unique, meaningful, and affordable destination for astronaut crews in the next decade. This disruptive capability would have a positive impact on a wide range of the nation's human space exploration interests. It would provide a high-value target in cislunar space that would require a human presence to take full advantage of this new resource. It would offer an affordable path to providing operational experience with astronauts working around and with a NEA that could feed forward to much longer duration human missions to larger NEAs in deep space. It represents a new synergy between robotic and human missions in which robotic spacecraft would retrieve significant quantities of valuable resources for exploitation by astronaut crews to enable human exploration farther out into

  8. Fun and Games: using Games and Immersive Exploration to Teach Earth and Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.

    2011-12-01

    We have been using games to teach Earth and Space Science for over 15 years. Our software "TicTacToe" has been used continuously at the Houston Museum of Natural Science since 2002. It is the single piece of educational software in the "Earth Forum" suite that holds the attention of visitors the longest - averaging over 10 minutes compared to 1-2 minutes for the other software kiosks. We now have question sets covering solar system, space weather, and Earth science. In 2010 we introduced a new game technology - that of immersive interactive explorations. In our "Tikal Explorer", visitors use a game pad to navigate a three-dimensional environment of the Classic Maya city of Tikal. Teams of students climb pyramids, look for artifacts, identify plants and animals, and site astronomical alignments that predict the annual return of the rains. We also have a new 3D exploration of the International Space Station, where students can fly around and inside the ISS. These interactive explorations are very natural to the video-game generation, and promise to bring educational objectives to experiences that had previously been used strictly for gaming. If space permits, we will set up our portable Discovery Dome in the poster session for a full immersive demonstration of these game environments.

  9. Testing the Efficacy of Student Explorations of Earth Science Museum Exhibits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, K.; Phipps, M.; Tzenis, C.; Morin, P. J.; Hamilton, P.

    2009-12-01

    With their rock and mineral displays, fossil exhibits and hands-on nature, museum exhibits are a proven resource for elementary and secondary earth science education. However, due to a number of obstacles this success has not been emulated at the undergraduate level. Self-guided student explorations of science museum exhibits appear to be an effective way to circumvent these obstacles and easily expand earth science programs to include museum resources and tap their potential. Preliminary testing of this concept as an extra credit option by the University of Minnesota and the Science Museum of Minnesota not only showed that students enthusiastically respond to such explorations, but that explorations can be remarkably effective in changing student understanding of science concepts. Previously, a number of factors discouraged the integration of museum resources into undergraduate programs. Museum displays geared towards the general public often lack the level of detailed information necessary to integrate them into undergraduate science curriculum. Consequently, without an experienced guide (such as the course instructor), exhibits are of limited use. The logistics of arranging class visits can be daunting and given the limited opportunities for class trips, earth science instructors justifiably tend to choose field over museum experiences. However, well-designed explorations of the exhibits allow students to guide themselves through the exhibits, on their own or with friends and family, greatly expanding the range of course experiences with minimal cost to the program infrastructure. Student response to the preliminary testing of an exploration of dinosaur and pterosaur displays was very encouraging. Nearly half the class, 84 out of 176 students, volunteered to travel the eight miles to the museum to complete an exploration of the fossil gallery. When asked their likeliness of recommending the experience to others on a scale of 1-10 with 1 being “I would not

  10. Dynamics of the Random Field Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian

    The Random Field Ising Model (RFIM) is a general tool to study disordered systems. Crackling noise is generated when disordered systems are driven by external forces, spanning a broad range of sizes. Systems with different microscopic structures such as disordered mag- nets and Earth's crust have been studied under the RFIM. In this thesis, we investigated the domain dynamics and critical behavior in two dipole-coupled Ising ferromagnets Nd2Fe14B and LiHoxY 1-xF4. With Tc well above room temperature, Nd2Fe14B has shown reversible disorder when exposed to an external transverse field and crosses between two universality classes in the strong and weak disorder limits. Besides tunable disorder, LiHoxY1-xF4 has shown quantum tunneling effects arising from quantum fluctuations, providing another mechanism for domain reversal. Universality within and beyond power law dependence on avalanche size and energy were studied in LiHo0.65Y0.35 F4.

  11. Understanding Divergent Evolution Among Earth-like Planets, the Case for Venus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, D.

    2001-11-01

    Venus was once considered to be Earth's twin because of its similar size, mass, and solar distance. Prevailing theories early in the 20th century alternately characterized it as a hot, lifeless desert or a cool, habitable swamp. Venus was therefore the target of intense scrutiny during the first three decades of the space age. Those studies found that although Venus and Earth apparently formed in similar parts of the solar nebula, sharing common inventories of refractory and volatile constituents, these two planets followed dramatically different evolutionary paths. While the Earth evolved into the only known oasis for life, Venus developed an almost unimaginably inhospitable environment for such an Earth-like planet. Some features of Venus can be understood as products of its location in the solar system, but other properties and processes governing the evolution and present state of its interior, surface, and climate remain mysterious or even contradictory. A more comprehensive understanding of these factors is clearly essential as NASA embarks on efforts to detect and then characterize Earth-like planets in other solar systems. As part of the National Research Council's effort to identify themes and priorities for solar system exploration over the next decade, an open community panel was formed to provide input on future Venus exploration. A comprehensive investigation of the processes driving the divergent evolution of Venus is emerging as the primary focus. In other words, why is Venus a failed Earth? From this theme, we will define specific measurement objectives, instrument requirements, and mission requirements. Priorities will then be based on a number of factors including the needs for simultaneous or correlative measurements, technology readiness, and available opportunities.

  12. Exploring Connections Between Earth Science and Biology - Interdisciplinary Science Activities for Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vd Flier-Keller, E.; Carolsfeld, C.; Bullard, T.

    2009-05-01

    To increase teaching of Earth science in schools, and to reflect the interdisciplinary nature and interrelatedness of science disciplines in today's world, we are exploring opportunities for linking Earth science and Biology through engaging and innovative hands-on science activities for the classroom. Through the NSERC-funded Pacific CRYSTAL project based at the University of Victoria, scientists, science educators, and teachers at all levels in the school system are collaborating to research ways of enriching the preparation of students in math and science, and improving the quality of science education from Kindergarten to Grade 12. Our primary foci are building authentic, engaging science experiences for students, and fostering teacher leadership through teacher professional development and training. Interdisciplinary science activities represent an important way of making student science experiences real, engaging and relevant, and provide opportunities to highlight Earth science related topics within other disciplines, and to expand the Earth science taught in schools. The Earth science and Biology interdisciplinary project builds on results and experiences of existing Earth science education activities, and the Seaquaria project. We are developing curriculum-linked activities and resource materials, and hosting teacher workshops, around two initial areas; soils, and marine life and the fossil record. An example activity for the latter is the hands-on examination of organisms occupying the nearshore marine environment using a saltwater aquarium and touch tank or beach fieldtrip, and relating this to a suite of marine fossils to facilitate student thinking about representation of life in the fossil record e.g. which life forms are typically preserved, and how are they preserved? Literacy activities such as fossil obituaries encourage exploration of paleoenvironments and life habits of fossil organisms. Activities and resources are being tested with teachers

  13. The NASA GOLD Mission: Exploring the Interface between Earth and Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, T.; Costanza, B.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk, or GOLD, mission will explore a little understood area close to home, but historically hard to observe: the interface between Earth and space, a dynamic area of near-Earth space that responds both to space weather above, and the lower atmosphere below. GOLD, scheduled to launch into geostationary orbit in early 2018, will collect observations with a 30-minute cadence, much higher than any mission that has come before it. This will enable GOLD to be the first mission to study the day-to-day weather of a region of space—the thermosphere and ionosphere—rather than its long-term climate. GOLD will explore the near-Earth space environment, which is home to astronauts, radio signals used to guide airplanes and ships, and satellites that provide our communications and GPS systems. GOLD's unprecedented images and data will enable research that can improve situational awareness to help protect astronauts, spacecraft, and humans on the ground. As part of the GOLD communications and outreach program, the Office of Communications & Outreach at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) is developing a suite of products and programs to introduce the science of the GOLD mission to a broad range of public audiences, including students, teachers, journalists, social media practitioners, and the wider planetary and Earth science communities. We plan to showcase with this poster some of the tools we are developing to achieve this goal.

  14. A Reflight of the Explorer-1 Science Mission: The Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico Explorer (MEROPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Obland, M.; Hunyadi, G.; Jepsen, S.; Larsen, B.; Kankelborg, C.; Hiscock, W.

    2001-05-01

    Montana State University's interdisciplinary Space Science and Engineering Laboratory (SSEL) under support from the Montana NASA Space Grant Consortium is engaged in an earth orbiting satellite student design and flight project. The Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico Explorer (MEROPE) will carry a modern-day reproduction of the scientific payload carried on Explorer-1. On February 1, 1958 the United States launched its first earth orbiting satellite carrying a 14 kg scientific experiment built by Professor James Van Allen's group at the State University of Iowa (now The University of Iowa). The MEROPE student satellite will carry a reproduction, using current-day technology, of the scientific payload flown on Explorer-1. The CubeSat-class satellite will use currently available, low cost technologies to produce a payload-carrying satellite with a total orbital mass of 1 kg in a volume of 1 cubic liter. The satellite is to be launched in late 2001 into a 600 km, 65° inclination orbit. MEROPE will utilize passive magnetic orientation for 2-axis attitude control. A central microprocessor provides timing, controls on-board operations and switching, and enables data storage. Body mounted GaAs solar arrays are expected to provide in excess of 1.5 W. to maintain battery charge and operate the bus and payload. The Geiger counter will be operated at approximately 50% duty cycle, primarily during transits of the earth's radiation belts. Data will be stored on board and transmitted approximately twice per day to a ground station located on the Bozeman campus of the Montana State University. Owing to the 65° inclination, the instrument will also detect the higher energy portion of the electron spectrum responsible for the production of the Aurora Borealis. This paper describes both the technical implementation and design of the satellite and its payload as well as the not inconsiderable task of large team organization and management. As of March 2001, the student team consists of

  15. A Low Risk Strategy for the Exploration of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Rob R.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for asteroid exploration is scientific, political, and pragmatic. The notion of sending human explorers to asteroids is not new. Piloted missions to these primitive bodies were first discussed in the 1960s, pairing Saturn V rockets with enhanced Apollo spacecraft to explore what were then called "Earth-approaching asteroids." Two decades ago, NASA's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) also briefly examined the possibility of visiting these small celestial bodies. Most recently, the U.S. Human Space Flight Review Committee (the second Augustine Commission) suggested that near-Earth objects (NEOs) represent a target-rich environment for exploration via the "Flexible Path" option. However, prior to seriously considering human missions to NEOs, it has become clear that we currently lack a robust catalog of human accessible targets. The majority of the NEOs identified by a study team across several NASA centers as "human-accessible" are probably too small and have orbits that are too uncertain to consider mounting piloted expeditions to these small worlds. The first step in developing such a catalog is, therefore, to complete a space-based NEO survey. The resulting catalog of candidate NEOs would then be transformed into a matrix of opportunities for robotic and human missions for the next several decades. This initial step of a space-based NEO survey first is the linchpin to laying the foundation of a low-risk architecture to venture out and explore these primitive bodies. We suggest such a minimalist framework architecture from 1) extensive ground-based and precursor spacecraft investigations (while applying operational knowledge from science-driven robotic missions), 2) astronaut servicing of spacecraft operating at geosynchronous Earth orbit to retain essential skills and experience, and 3) applying the sum of these skills, knowledge and experience to piloted missions to NEOs.

  16. Model-Based Trade Space Exploration for Near-Earth Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald H.; Boncyk, Wayne; Brutocao, James; Beveridge, Iain

    2005-01-01

    We developed a capability for model-based trade space exploration to be used in the conceptual design of Earth-orbiting space missions. We have created a set of reusable software components to model various subsystems and aspects of space missions. Several example mission models were created to test the tools and process. This technique and toolset has demonstrated itself to be valuable for space mission architectural design.

  17. Techniques to minimize adjacent band emissions from Earth Exploration Satellites to protect the Space Research (Category B) Earth Stations in the 8400-8450 MHz band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles C.; Sue, Miles K.; Manshadi, Farzin

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Exploration Satellites operating in the 8025-8400 MHz band can have strong adjacent band emissions on the8400-8450 MHz band which is allocated for Space Research (Category-B). The unwanted emission may exceed the protection criterion establish by the ITU-R for the protection of the Space Research (Category B) earth stations, i.e., deep-space earth stations. An SFCG Action Item (SF 23/14) was created during the 23rd SFCG meeting to explore technical and operational techniques to reduce the adjacent band emissions. In response to this action item, a study was conducted and results are presented in this document.

  18. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning circa 2025 - 2030 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  19. Human Expeditions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Resource Utilization, Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Barbee, Brent; Landis, Rob; Johnson, Lindley; Yeomans, Don; Friedensen, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and planetary defence. Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. With respect to planetary defence, in 2005 the U.S. Congress directed NASA to implement a survey program to detect, track, and characterize NEAs equal or greater than 140 m in diameter in order to access the threat from such objects to the Earth. The current goal of this survey is to achieve 90% completion of objects equal or greater than 140 m in diameter by 2020.

  20. Conceptual Learning Outcomes of Virtual Experiential Learning: Results of Google Earth Exploration in Introductory Geoscience Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitting, Kelsey S.; McCartney, Marsha J.; Denning, Kathy R.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    2018-06-01

    Virtual globe programs such as Google Earth replicate real-world experiential learning of spatial and geographic concepts by allowing students to navigate across our planet without ever leaving campus. However, empirical evidence for the learning value of these technological tools and the experience students gain by exploration assignments framed within them remains to be quantified and compared by student demographics. This study examines the impact of a Google Earth-based exploration assignment on conceptual understanding in introductory geoscience courses at a research university in the US Midwest using predominantly traditional college-age students from a range of majors. Using repeated-measures ANOVA and paired-samples t tests, we test the significance of the activity using pretest and posttest scores on a subset of items from the Geoscience Concept Inventory, and the interactive effects of student gender and ethnicity on student score improvement. Analyses show that learning from the Google Earth exploration activity is highly significant overall and for all but one of the concept inventory items. Furthermore, we find no significant interactive effects of class format, student gender, or student ethnicity on the magnitude of the score increases. These results provide strong support for the use of experiential learning in virtual globe environments for students in introductory geoscience and perhaps other disciplines for which direct observation of our planet's surface is conceptually relevant.

  1. Earth Adventure: Virtual Globe-based Suborbital Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Landolt, K.; Boyer, A.; Santhana Vannan, S. K.; Wei, Z.; Wang, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth Venture Suborbital (EVS) mission is an important component of NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder program that aims at making substantial advances in Earth system science through measurements from suborbital platforms and modeling researches. For example, the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) project of EVS-1 collected measurements of greenhouse gases (GHG) on local to regional scales in the Alaskan Arctic. The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) project of EVS-2 will provide advanced, high-resolution measurements of atmospheric profiles and horizontal gradients of CO2 and CH4.As the long-term archival center for CARVE and the future ACT-America data, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) has been developing a versatile data management system for CARVE data to maximize their usability. One of these efforts is the virtual globe-based Suborbital Atmospheric GHG Exploration application. It leverages Google Earth to simulate the 185 flights flew by the C-23 Sherpa aircraft in 2012-2015 for the CARVE project. Based on Google Earth's 3D modeling capability and the precise coordinates, altitude, pitch, roll, and heading info of the aircraft recorded in every second during each flight, the application provides users accurate and vivid simulation of flight experiences, with an active 3D visualization of a C-23 Sherpa aircraft in view. This application provides dynamic visualization of GHG, including CO2, CO, H2O, and CH4 captured during the flights, at the same pace of the flight simulation in Google Earth. Photos taken during those flights are also properly displayed along the flight paths. In the future, this application will be extended to incorporate more complicated GHG measurements (e.g. vertical profiles) from the ACT-America project. This application leverages virtual globe technology to provide users an integrated framework to interactively explore information

  2. Applications of ISES for vegetation and land use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. Gale

    1990-01-01

    Remote sensing relative to applications involving vegetation cover and land use is reviewed to consider the potential benefits to the Earth Observing System (Eos) of a proposed Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES). The ISES concept has been proposed as an onboard experiment and computational resource to support advanced experiments and demonstrations in the information and earth sciences. Embedded in the concept is potential for relieving the data glut problem, enhancing capabilities to meet real-time needs of data users and in-situ researchers, and introducing emerging technology to Eos as the technology matures. These potential benefits are examined in the context of state-of-the-art research activities in image/data processing and management.

  3. International Space Station as a Base Camp for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raftery, Michael; Hoffman, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The idea for using the International Space Station (ISS) as platform for exploration has matured in the past year and the concept continues to gain momentum. ISS provides a robust infrastructure which can be used to test systems and capabilities needed for missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. International cooperation is a critical enabler and ISS has already demonstrated successful management of a large multi-national technical endeavor. Systems and resources needed for expeditions can be aggregated and thoroughly tested at ISS before departure thus providing wide operational flexibility and the best assurance of mission success. A small part of ISS called an Exploration Platform (ISS-EP) can be placed at Earth-Moon Libration point 1 (EML1) providing immediate benefits and flexibility for future exploration missions. We will show how ISS and the ISS-EP can be used to reduce risk and improve the operational flexibility for missions beyond low earth orbit. Life support systems and other technology developed for ISS can be evolved and adapted to the ISS-EP and other exploration spacecraft. New technology, such as electric propulsion and advanced life support systems can be tested and proven at ISS as part of an incremental development program. Commercial companies who are introducing transportation and other services will benefit with opportunities to contribute to the mission since ISS will serve as a focal point for the commercialization of low earth orbit services. Finally, we will show how use of ISS provides immediate benefits to the scientific community because its capabilities are available today and certain critical aspects of exploration missions can be simulated.

  4. Earth Exploration Toolbook Workshops: Helping Teachers and Students Analyze Web-based Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuliffe, C.; Ledley, T.; Dahlman, L.; Haddad, N.

    2007-12-01

    One of the challenges faced by Earth science teachers, particularly in K-12 settings, is that of connecting scientific research to classroom experiences. Helping teachers and students analyze Web-based scientific data is one way to bring scientific research to the classroom. The Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET) was developed as an online resource to accomplish precisely that. The EET consists of chapters containing step-by-step instructions for accessing Web-based scientific data and for using a software analysis tool to explore issues or concepts in science, technology, and mathematics. For example, in one EET chapter, users download Earthquake data from the USGS and bring it into a geographic information system (GIS), analyzing factors affecting the distribution of earthquakes. The goal of the EET Workshops project is to provide professional development that enables teachers to incorporate Web-based scientific data and analysis tools in ways that meet their curricular needs. In the EET Workshops project, Earth science teachers participate in a pair of workshops that are conducted in a combined teleconference and Web-conference format. In the first workshop, the EET Data Analysis Workshop, participants are introduced to the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). They also walk through an Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET) chapter and discuss ways to use Earth science datasets and tools with their students. In a follow-up second workshop, the EET Implementation Workshop, teachers share how they used these materials in the classroom by describing the projects and activities that they carried out with students. The EET Workshops project offers unique and effective professional development. Participants work at their own Internet-connected computers, and dial into a toll-free group teleconference for step-by-step facilitation and interaction. They also receive support via Elluminate, a Web

  5. Exploring the hidden interior of the Earth with directional neutrino measurements.

    PubMed

    Leyton, Michael; Dye, Stephen; Monroe, Jocelyn

    2017-07-10

    Roughly 40% of the Earth's total heat flow is powered by radioactive decays in the crust and mantle. Geo-neutrinos produced by these decays provide important clues about the origin, formation and thermal evolution of our planet, as well as the composition of its interior. Previous measurements of geo-neutrinos have all relied on the detection of inverse beta decay reactions, which are insensitive to the contribution from potassium and do not provide model-independent information about the spatial distribution of geo-neutrino sources within the Earth. Here we present a method for measuring previously unresolved components of Earth's radiogenic heating using neutrino-electron elastic scattering and low-background, direction-sensitive tracking detectors. We calculate the exposures needed to probe various contributions to the total geo-neutrino flux, specifically those associated to potassium, the mantle and the core. The measurements proposed here chart a course for pioneering exploration of the veiled inner workings of the Earth.

  6. Language of the Earth: Exploring Natural Hazards through a Literary Anthology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, B. D.; Rhodes, F. H. T.

    2009-04-01

    This paper explores natural hazards teaching and communications through the use of a literary anthology of writings about the earth aimed at non-experts. Teaching natural hazards in high-school and university introductory Earth Science and Geography courses revolves mostly around lectures, examinations, and laboratory demonstrations/activities. Often the results of such a course are that a student 'memorizes' the answers, and is penalized when they miss a given fact [e.g., "You lost one point because you were off by 50 km/hr on the wind speed of an F5 tornado."] Although facts and general methodologies are certainly important when teaching natural hazards, it is a strong motivation to a student's assimilation of, and enthusiasm for, this knowledge, if supplemented by writings about the Earth. In this paper, we discuss a literary anthology which we developed [Language of the Earth, Rhodes, Stone, Malamud, Wiley-Blackwell, 2008] which includes many descriptions about natural hazards. Using first- and second-hand accounts of landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions, through the writings of McPhee, Gaskill, Voltaire, Austin, Cloos, and many others, hazards become 'alive', and more than 'just' a compilation of facts and processes. Using short excerpts such as these, or other similar anthologies, of remarkably written accounts and discussions about natural hazards results in 'dry' facts becoming more than just facts. These often highly personal viewpoints of our catostrophic world, provide a useful supplement to a student's understanding of the turbulent world in which we live.

  7. Finding Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) Destinations for Human Exploration: Implications for Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Rob; Abell, Paul; Barbee, Brent; Johnson, Lindley

    2012-01-01

    The current number of known potential NEA targets for HSF is limited to those objects whose orbital characteristics are similar to that of the Earth. This is due to the projected capabilities of the exploration systems currently under consideration and development at NASA. However, NEAs with such orbital characteristics often have viewing geometries that place them at low solar elongations and thus are difficult to detect from the vicinity of Earth. While ongoing ground-based surveys and data archives maintained by the NEO Program Observation Program Office and the Minor Planet Center (MPC) have provided a solid basis upon which to build, a more complete catalog of the NEO population is required to inform a robust and sustainable HSF exploration program. Since all the present NEO observing assets are currently confined to the vicinity of the Earth, additional effort must be made to provide capabilities for detection of additional HSF targets via assets beyond Earth orbit. A space-based NEO survey telescope located beyond the vicinity of the Earth, has considerable implications for planetary science and astrobiology. Such a telescope will provide foundational knowledge of our Solar System small body population and detect targets of interest for both the HSF and scientific communities. Data from this asset will yield basic characterization data on the NEOs observed (i.e., albedo, size determination, potential for volatiles and organics, etc.) and help down select targets for future HSF missions. Ideally, the most attractive targets from both HSF and astrobiology perspectives are those NEAs that may contain organic and volatile materials, and which could be effectively sampled at a variety of locations and depths. Presented here is an overview of four space-based survey concepts; any one of which after just a few years of operation will discover many highly accessible NEO targets suitable for robotic and human exploration. Such a space-based survey mission will reveal

  8. Exploration Platform in the Earth-Moon Libration System Based on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raftery, Michael; Derechin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) industry partners have been working for the past two years on concepts using ISS development methods and residual assets to support a broad range of exploration missions. These concepts have matured along with planning details for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to allow serious consideration for a platform located in the Earth-Moon Libration (EML) system. This platform would provide a flexible basis for future exploration missions and would significantly reduce costs because it will enable re-use of expensive spacecraft and reduce the total number of launches needed to accomplish these missions. ISS provides a robust set of methods which can be used to test systems and capabilities needed for missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. We will show how ISS can be used to reduce risk and improve operational flexibility for missions beyond low earth orbit through the development of a new Exploration Platform based in the EML system. The benefits of using the EML system as a gateway will be presented along with additional details of a lunar exploration mission concept. International cooperation is a critical enabler and ISS has already demonstrated successful management of a large multi-national technical endeavor. We will show how technology developed for ISS can be evolved and adapted to the new exploration challenge. New technology, such as electric propulsion and advanced life support systems can be tested and proven at ISS as part of an incremental development program. Finally, we will describe how the EML Platform could be built and deployed and how International access for crew and cargo could be provided.

  9. East Meets West on "Double Star", a Joint Mission to Explore Earth's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    ESA Director General Antonio Rodotà and Luan Enjie, Administrator of the CNSA, signed an official agreement that will enable European experiments to be flown on Chinese satellites for the first time. "This agreement marks a significant advance for international cooperation in the exploration and peaceful use of outer space," said Mr. Rodotà. "It is one of the most important landmarks in scientific collaboration since ESA and the People's Republic of China first agreed to exchange scientific information more than 20 years ago." "The Double Star programme will be just the first step in substantial cooperation between the Chinese National Space Administration and ESA" said Mr Luan Enjie. "The signing of today's agreement paves the way not only for reciprocal cooperation between scientists, but for the establishment of comprehensive cooperation between the two agencies". Double Star will follow in the footsteps of ESA's groundbreaking Cluster mission by studying the effects of the Sun on the Earth's environment. Conducting joint studies with Cluster and Double Star should increase the overall scientific return from both missions. A key aspect of ESA's participation in the Double Star project is the inclusion of 10 instruments that are identical to those currently flying on the four Cluster spacecraft. A further eight experiments will be provided by Chinese institutes. "We hope it will be possible to make coordinated measurements with both Cluster and Double Star." said Cluster Project Scientist Philippe Escoubet. "For example, we would hope to carry out a joint exploration of the magnetotail, a region where storms of high energy particles are generated. When these particles reach Earth, they can cause power cuts, damage satellites and disrupt communications." Six of the eleven Cluster principal investigators have agreed to provide flight spares or duplicates of the experiments that are currently revolutionising our understanding of near-Earth space. This reuse of

  10. Science in Exploration: From the Moon to Mars and Back Home to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, James B.

    2007-01-01

    NASA is embarking on a grand journey of exploration that naturally integrates the past successes of the Apollo missions to the Moon, as well as robotic science missions to Mars, to Planet Earth, and to the broader Universe. The US Vision for Space Exporation (VSE) boldly lays out a plan for human and robotic reconnaissance of the accessible Universe, starting with the surface of the Moon, and later embracing the surface of Mars. Sustained human and robotic access to the Moon and Mars will enable a new era of scientific investigation of our planetary neighbors, tied to driving scientific questions that pertain to the evolution and destiny of our home planet, but which also can be related to the search habitable worlds across the nearby Universe. The Apollo missions provide a vital legacy for what can be learned from the Moon, and NASA is now poised to recapture the lunar frontier starting with the flight of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in late 2008. LRO will provide a new scientific context from which joint human and robotic exploration will ensue, guided by objectives some of which are focused on the grandest scientific challenges imaginable : Where did we come from? Are we alone? and Where are we going? The Moon will serve as an essential stepping stone for sustained human access and exploration of deep space and as a training ground while robotic missions with ever increasing complexity probe the wonders of Mars. As we speak, an armada of spacecraft are actively investigating the red planet both from orbit (NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey Orbiter, plus ESA's Mars Express) and from the surface (NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers, and in 2008 NASA's Phoenix polar lander). The dramatically changing views of Mars as a potentially habitable world, with its own flavor of global climate change and unique climate records, provides a new vantage point from which to observe and question the workings of our own planet Earth. By 2010 NASA will

  11. Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration

  12. Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration

  13. Requirements for Designing Life Support System Architectures for Crewed Exploration Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David; Perry,Jay; Sargusingh, Miriam; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    NASA's technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development on areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-situ maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.

  14. 60 Years of Studying the Earth-Sun System from Space: Explorer 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbuchen, T.

    2017-12-01

    The era of space-based observation of the Earth-Sun system initiated with the Explorer-1 satellite has revolutionized our knowledge of the Earth, Sun, and the processes that connect them. The space-based perspective has not only enabled us to achieve a fundamentally new understanding of our home planet and the star that sustains us, but it has allowed for significant improvements in predictive capability that serves to protect life, health, and property. NASA has played a leadership role in the United States in creating both the technology and science that has enabled and benefited from these new capabilities, and works closely with partner agencies and around the world to synergistically address these global challenges which are of sufficient magnitude that no one nation or organization can address on their own. Three areas are at the heart of NASA's comprehensive science program: Discovering the secrets of the universe, searching for life elsewhere, and safeguarding and improving life on Earth. Together, these tenets will help NASA lead on a civilization scale. In this talk, a review of these 60 years of advances, a status of current activities, and thoughts about their evolution into the future will be presented.

  15. New Dimensions of GIS Data: Exploring Virtual Reality (VR) Technology for Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolnik, S.; Ramirez-Linan, R.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Earth Science Division (ESD) Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) and Navteca are exploring virtual reality (VR) technology as an approach and technique related to the next generation of Earth science technology information systems. Having demonstrated the value of VR in viewing pre-visualized science data encapsulated in a movie representation of a time series, further investigation has led to the additional capability of permitting the observer to interact with the data, make selections, and view volumetric data in an innovative way. The primary objective of this project has been to investigate the use of commercially available VR hardware, the Oculus Rift and the Samsung Gear VR, for scientific analysis through an interface to ArcGIS to enable the end user to order and view data from the NASA Discover-AQ mission. A virtual console is presented through the VR interface that allows the user to select various layers of data from the server in both 2D, 3D, and full 4pi steradian views. By demonstrating the utility of VR in interacting with Discover-AQ flight mission measurements, and building on previous work done at the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley supporting analysis of sources of CO2 during the Discover-AQ mission, the investigation team has shown the potential for VR as a science tool beyond simple visualization.

  16. Search of exploration opportunity for near earth objects based on analytical gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Cui, P. Y.; Luan, E. J.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of searching for exploration opportunity of near Earth objects is investigated. For rendezvous missions, the analytical gradients of performance index with respect to free parameters are derived by combining the calculus of variation with the theory of state-transition matrix. Then, some initial guesses are generated random in the search space, and the performance index is optimized with the guidance of analytical gradients from these initial guesses. This method not only keeps the property of global search in traditional method, but also avoids the blindness in the traditional exploration opportunity search; hence, the computing speed could be increased greatly. Furthermore, by using this method, the search precision could be controlled effectively.

  17. The Astrobiology of the Subsurface: Exploring Cave Habitats on Earth, Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boston, Penelope Jane

    2016-01-01

    We are using the spectacular underground landscapes of Earth caves as models for the subsurfaces of other planets. Caves have been detected on the Moon and Mars and are strongly suspected for other bodies in the Solar System including some of the ice covered Ocean Worlds that orbit gas giant planets. The caves we explore and study include many extreme conditions of relevance to planetary astrobiology exploration including high and low temperatures, gas atmospheres poisonous to humans but where exotic microbes can flourish, highly acidic or salty fluids, heavy metals, and high background radiation levels. Some cave microorganisms eat their way through bedrock, some live in battery acid conditions, some produce unusual biominerals and rare cave formations, and many produce compounds of potential pharmaceutical and industrial significance. We study these unique lifeforms and the physical and chemical biosignatures that they leave behind. Such traces can be used to provide a "Field Guide to Unknown Organisms" for developing life detection space missions.

  18. Human Health and Performance Considerations for Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig; Steinberg, Susan; Charles, John

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will describe the human health and performance issues that are anticipated for the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEA). Humans are considered a system in the design of any such deep-space exploration mission, and exploration of NEA presents unique challenges for the human system. Key factors that define the mission are those that are strongly affected by distance and duration. The most critical of these is deep-space radiation exposure without even the temporary shielding of a nearby large planetary body. The current space radiation permissible exposure limits (PEL) restrict mission duration to 3-10 months depending on age and gender of crewmembers and stage of the solar cycle. Factors that affect mission architecture include medical capability; countermeasures for bone, muscle, and cardiovascular atrophy during continuous weightlessness; restricted food supplies; and limited habitable volume. The design of a habitat that can maintain the physical and psychological health of the crew and support mission operations with limited intervention from Earth will require an integrated research and development effort by NASA s Human Research Program, engineering, and human factors groups. Limited abort and return options for an NEA mission are anticipated to have important effects on crew psychology as well as influence medical supplies and training requirements of the crew. Other important factors are those related to isolation, confinement, communication delays, autonomous operations, task design, small crew size, and even the unchanging view outside the windows for most of the mission. Geological properties of the NEA will influence design of sample handling and containment, and extravehicular activity capabilities including suit ports and tools. A robotic precursor mission that collects basic information on NEA surface properties would reduce uncertainty about these aspects of the mission as well as aid in design of mission architecture and

  19. Giovanni in the Cloud: Earth Science Data Exploration in Amazon Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, M.; Petrenko, M.; Smit, C.; Zhang, H.; Pilone, P.; Zasorin, A. A.; Pham, L.

    2017-12-01

    Giovanni (https://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/giovanni/) is a popular online data exploration tool at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC), providing 22 analysis and visualization services for over 1600 Earth Science data variables. Owing to its popularity, Giovanni has experienced a consistent growth in overall demand, with periodic usage spikes attributed to trainings by education organizations, extensive data analysis in response to natural disasters, preparations for science meetings, etc. Furthermore, the new generation of spaceborne sensors and high resolution models have resulted in an exponential growth in data volume with data distributed across the traditional boundaries of datacenters. Seamless exploration of data (without users having to worry about data center boundaries) has been a key recommendation of the GES DISC User Working Group. These factors have required new strategies for delivering acceptable performance. The cloud-based Giovanni, built on Amazon Web Services (AWS), evaluates (1) AWS native solutions to provide a scalable, serverless architecture; (2) open standards for data storage in the Cloud; (3) a cost model for operations; and (4) end-user performance. Our preliminary findings indicate that the use of serverless architecture has a potential to significantly reduce development and operational cost of Giovanni. The combination of using AWS managed services, storage of data in open standards, and schema-on-read data access strategy simplifies data access and analytics, in addition to making data more accessible to the end users of Giovanni through popular programming languages.

  20. Giovanni in the Cloud: Earth Science Data Exploration in Amazon Web Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrenko, Maksym; Hegde, Mahabal; Smit, Christine; Zhang, Hailiang; Pilone, Paul; Zasorin, Andrey A.; Pham, Long

    2017-01-01

    Giovanni is an exploration tool at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC), providing 22 analysis and visualization services for over 1600 Earth Science data variables. Owing to its popularity, Giovanni has experienced a consistent growth in overall demand, with periodic usage spikes attributed to trainings by education organizations, extensive data analysis in response to natural disasters, preparations for science meetings, etc. Furthermore, the new generation of spaceborne sensors and high resolution models have resulted in an exponential growth in data volume with data distributed across the traditional boundaries of data centers. Seamless exploration of data (without users having to worry about data center boundaries) has been a key recommendation of the GES DISC User Working Group. These factors have required new strategies for delivering acceptable performance. The cloud-based Giovanni, built on Amazon Web Services (AWS), evaluates (1) AWS native solutions to provide a scalable, serverless architecture; (2) open standards for data storage in the Cloud; (3) a cost model for operations; and (4) end-user performance. Our preliminary findings indicate that the use of serverless architecture has a potential to significantly reduce development and operational cost of Giovanni. The combination of using AWS managed services, storage of data in open standards, and schema-on-read data access strategy simplifies data access and analytics, in addition to making data more accessible to the end users of Giovanni through popular programming languages.

  1. Resource Exploration Approaches on Mars Using Multidisciplinary Earth-based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrick, D. Y.; Ferrill, D. A.; Morris, A. P.; Smart, K. J.

    2005-12-01

    Water is the most important Martian exploration target - key to finding evidence of past life and providing a crucial resource for future exploration. Water is thought to be present in vapor, liquid, and ice phases on Mars. Except for ice in polar regions, little direct evidence of current surface accumulation of water has been found. Existing research has addressed potential source areas, including meteoric water, glacial ice, and volcanic centers and areas of discharge such as large paleo-outflow channels. Missing from these analyses is characterization of migration pathways of water in the subsurface from sources to discharge areas, and the present distribution of water. It has been estimated that ~90% of the global inventory of water on Mars resides in the subsurface. Targeting potential subsurface accumulations has relied primarily on theoretical modeling and geomorphic analysis. While global scale thermal modeling and analysis of the stability of ground ice provide important constraints on potential locations of large deposits of ice or liquid water, these studies have not accounted for variations in stratigraphy and structure that may strongly influence local distribution. Depth to water or ice on Mars is thought to be controlled primarily by latitude and elevation. However, the distribution of outflow channels clearly indicates that structural, stratigraphic, and geomorphic features all play important roles in determining past and present distribution of water and ice on Mars as they do on Earth. Resource exploration and extraction is a multi-billion dollar industry on Earth that has developed into a highly sophisticated enterprise with constantly improving exploration technologies. Common to all successful exploration programs, whether for hydrocarbons or water, is detailed analysis and integration of all available geologic, geophysical and remotely sensed data. The primary issues for identification and characterization of water or hydrocarbon resource

  2. Ising game: Nonequilibrium steady states of resource-allocation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, C.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Resource-allocation systems are ubiquitous in the human society. But how external fields affect the state of such systems remains poorly explored due to the lack of a suitable model. Because the behavior of spins pursuing energy minimization required by physical laws is similar to that of humans chasing payoff maximization studied in game theory, here we combine the Ising model with the market-directed resource-allocation game, yielding an Ising game. Based on the Ising game, we show theoretical, simulative and experimental evidences for a formula, which offers a clear expression of nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Interestingly, the formula also reveals a convertible relationship between the external field (exogenous factor) and resource ratio (endogenous factor), and a class of saturation as the external field exceeds certain limits. This work suggests that the Ising game could be a suitable model for studying external-field effects on resource-allocation systems, and it could provide guidance both for seeking more relations between NESSs and equilibrium states and for regulating human systems by choosing NESSs appropriately.

  3. Foundational Methane Propulsion Related Technology Efforts, and Challenges for Applications to Human Exploration Beyond Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas; Klem, Mark; McRight, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Current interest in human exploration beyond earth orbit is driving requirements for high performance, long duration space transportation capabilities. Continued advancement in photovoltaic power systems and investments in high performance electric propulsion promise to enable solar electric options for cargo delivery and pre-deployment of operational architecture elements. However, higher thrust options are required for human in-space transportation as well as planetary descent and ascent functions. While high thrust requirements for interplanetary transportation may be provided by chemical or nuclear thermal propulsion systems, planetary descent and ascent systems are limited to chemical solutions due to their higher thrust to weight and potential planetary protection concerns. Liquid hydrogen fueled systems provide high specific impulse, but pose challenges due to low propellant density and the thermal issues of long term propellant storage. Liquid methane fueled propulsion is a promising compromise with lower specific impulse, higher bulk propellant density and compatibility with proposed in-situ propellant production concepts. Additionally, some architecture studies have identified the potential for commonality between interplanetary and descent/ascent propulsion solutions using liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellants. These commonalities may lead to reduced overall development costs and more affordable exploration architectures. With this increased interest, it is critical to understand the current state of LOX/LCH4 propulsion technology and the remaining challenges to its application to beyond earth orbit human exploration. This paper provides a survey of NASA's past and current methane propulsion related technology efforts, assesses the accomplishments to date, and examines the remaining risks associated with full scale development.

  4. Using Google Earth to Explore Multiple Data Sets and Plate Tectonic Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodell, L. P.

    2015-12-01

    Google Earth (GE) offers an engaging and dynamic environment for exploration of earth science data. While GIS software offers higher-level analytical capability, it comes with a steep learning curve and complex interface that is not easy for the novice, and in many cases the instructor, to negotiate. In contrast, the intuitive interface of GE makes it easy for students to quickly become proficient in manipulating the globe and independently exploring relationships between multiple data sets at a wide range of scales. Inquiry-based, data-rich exercises have been developed for both introductory and upper-level activities including: exploration of plate boundary characteristics and relative motion across plate boundaries; determination and comparison of short-term and long-term average plate velocities; crustal strain analysis (modeled after the UNAVCO activity); and determining earthquake epicenters, body-wave magnitudes, and focal plane solutions. Used successfully in undergraduate course settings, for TA training and for professional development programs for middle and high school teachers, the exercises use the following GE data sets (with sources) that have been collected/compiled by the author and are freely available for non-commercial use: 1) tectonic plate boundaries and plate names (Bird, 2003 model); 2) real-time earthquakes (USGS); 3) 30 years of M>=5.0 earthquakes, plotted by depth (USGS); 4) seafloor age (Mueller et al., 1997, 2008); 5) location and age data for hot spot tracks (published literature); 6) Holocene volcanoes (Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program); 7) GPS station locations with links to times series (JPL, NASA, UNAVCO); 8) short-term motion vectors derived from GPS times series; 9) long-term average motion vectors derived from plate motion models (UNAVCO plate motion calculator); 10) earthquake data sets consisting of seismic station locations and links to relevant seismograms (Rapid Earthquake Viewer, USC/IRIS/DELESE).

  5. Earth Science Resource Teachers: A Mentor Program for NASA's Explorer Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireton, F.; Owens, A.; Steffen, P. L.

    2004-12-01

    Each year, the NASA Explorer Schools (NES) program establishes a three-year partnership between NASA and 50 school teams, consisting of teachers and education administrators from diverse communities across the country. While partnered with NASA, NES teams acquire and use new teaching resources and technology tools for grades 4 - 9 using NASA's unique content, experts and other resources. Schools in the program are eligible to receive funding (pending budget approval) over the three-year period to purchase technology tools that support science and mathematics instruction. Explorer School teams attend a one-week summer institute at one of NASA's field centers each summer. The weeklong institutes are designed to introduce the teachers and administrators to the wealth of NASA information and resources available and to provide them with content background on NASA's exploration programs. During the 2004 summer institutes at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) the National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA) entered into a pilot program with NES to test the feasibility of master teachers serving as mentors for the NES teams. Five master teachers were selected as Earth Science Resource Teachers (ESRT) from an application pool and attended the NES workshop at GSFC. During the workshop they participated in the program along side the NES teams which provided the opportunity for them to meet the teams and develop a rapport. Over the next year the ESRT will be in communication with the NES teams to offer suggestions on classroom management, content issues, classroom resources, and will be able to assist them in meeting the goals of NES. This paper will discuss the planning, selection, participation, outcomes, costs, and suggestions for future ESRT mentorship programs.

  6. Inspiring the Next Generation of Explorers: Scientist Involvement in the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige; Stefanov, William; Willis, Kim; Runco, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Scientists, science experts, graduate and even undergraduate student researchers have a unique ability to inspire the next generation of explorers. These science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts can serve as role models for students and can help inspire them to consider future STEM-related careers. They have an exceptional ability to instill a sense of curiosity and fascination in the minds of students as they bring science to life in the classroom. Students and teachers are hungry for opportunities to interact with scientists. They feel honored when these experts take time out of their busy day to share their science, their expertise, and their stories. The key for teachers is to be cognizant of opportunities to connect their students with scientists. For scientists, the key is to know how to get involved, to have options for participation that involve different levels of commitment, and to work with educational specialists who can help facilitate their involvement. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is an Earth and planetary science education program designed to inspire, engage, and educate teachers and students by getting them actively involved with NASA exploration, discovery, and the process of science. One of the main goals of the program is to facilitate student research in the classroom. The program uses astronaut photographs, provided through the ARES Crew Earth Observations (CEO) payload on the International Space Station (ISS) as the hook to help students gain an interest in a research topic. Student investigations can focus on Earth or involve comparative planetology. Student teams are encouraged to use additional imagery and data from Earth or planetary orbital spacecraft, or ground-based data collection tools, to augment the astronaut photography dataset. A second goal of the program is to provide

  7. Inspiring the Next Generation of Explorers: Scientist Involvement in the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K.; Runco, S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists, science experts, graduate and even undergraduate student researchers have a unique ability to inspire the next generation of explorers. These science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts can serve as role models for students and can help inspire them to consider future STEM-related careers. They have an exceptional ability to instill a sense of curiosity and fascination in the minds of students as they bring science to life in the classroom. Students and teachers are hungry for opportunities to interact with scientists. They feel honored when these experts take time out of their busy day to share their science, their expertise, and their stories. The key for teachers is to be cognizant of opportunities to connect their students with scientists. For scientists, the key is to know how to get involved, to have options for participation that involve different levels of commitment, and to work with educational specialists who can help facilitate their involvement. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is an Earth and planetary science education program designed to inspire, engage, and educate teachers and students by getting them actively involved with NASA exploration, discovery, and the process of science. One of the main goals of the program is to facilitate student research in the classroom. The program uses astronaut photographs, provided through the ARES Crew Earth Observations (CEO) payload on the International Space Station (ISS) as the hook to help students gain an interest in a research topic. Student investigations can focus on Earth or involve comparative planetology. Student teams are encouraged to use additional imagery and data from Earth or planetary orbital spacecraft, or ground-based data collection tools, to augment the astronaut photography dataset. A second goal of the program is to provide

  8. EarthInquiry: Using On-Line Data to Help Students Explore Fundamental Concepts in Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, M.; Keane, C. M.; Ridky, R. W.

    2002-12-01

    Using local case studies to learn about earth processes increases the relevance of science instruction. Students are encouraged to think about how geological processes affect their lives and experiences. Today, with many global data sets available on-line, instructors have unprecedented opportunities to bring local data into the classroom. However, while the resources are available, using on-line data presents a particular set of challenges. Access and entry to web sites frequently change and data format can be unpredictable. Often, instructors are faced with non-functional web sites on the day, or week, that they plan to assign a given activity. The American Geological Institute, with the participation of numerous geoscience professors, has developed EarthInquiry, a series of activities that utilize the abundant real-time and archived geoscience data available on-line. These modules are developed primarily for introductory college students. EarthInquiry modules follow a structured format, beginning with familiar examples at the global and national level to introduce students to the on-line data and the EarthInquiry web site. The web site offers detailed and up-to-date instructions on how to access the data, cached copies of sample data that can be used to complete each activity in the event of a network outage, and an assessment activity that helps students determine how well they have achieved an understanding of key concepts. The EarthInquiry booklet contains a series of engaging questions that allow students to solve problems in a scientific manner. As students gain content understanding and confidence in the requisite analysis, they examine the presented material at a more local level. In one activity, students explore the recurrence interval of a local stream. In other activities, they investigate the mineral resources and earthquake histories of their state. All modules are developed with the intent of building an appropriate cognitive foundation, while

  9. Exploring the implication of climate process uncertainties within the Earth System Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, B.; Lambert, F. H.; McNeal, D.; Harris, G.; Sexton, D.; Boulton, C.; Murphy, J.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainties in the magnitude of future climate change have been a focus of a great deal of research. Much of the work with General Circulation Models has focused on the atmospheric response to changes in atmospheric composition, while other processes remain outside these frameworks. Here we introduce an ensemble of new simulations, based on an Earth System configuration of HadCM3C, designed to explored uncertainties in both physical (atmospheric, oceanic and aerosol physics) and carbon cycle processes, using perturbed parameter approaches previously used to explore atmospheric uncertainty. Framed in the context of the climate response to future changes in emissions, the resultant future projections represent significantly broader uncertainty than existing concentration driven GCM assessments. The systematic nature of the ensemble design enables interactions between components to be explored. For example, we show how metrics of physical processes (such as climate sensitivity) are also influenced carbon cycle parameters. The suggestion from this work is that carbon cycle processes represent a comparable contribution to uncertainty in future climate projections as contributions from atmospheric feedbacks more conventionally explored. The broad range of climate responses explored within these ensembles, rather than representing a reason for inaction, provide information on lower likelihood but high impact changes. For example while the majority of these simulations suggest that future Amazon forest extent is resilient to the projected climate changes, a small number simulate dramatic forest dieback. This ensemble represents a framework to examine these risks, breaking them down into physical processes (such as ocean temperature drivers of rainfall change) and vegetation processes (where uncertainties point towards requirements for new observational constraints).

  10. Human Expeditions to Near-Earth Asteroids: An Update on NASA's Status and Proposed Activities for Small Body Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Barbee, Brent; Landis, Rob; Johnson, Lindley; Yeomans, Don; Reeves, David; Drake, Bret; Friedensen, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth- Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. The scientific and hazard mitigation benefits, along with the programmatic and operational benefits of a human venture beyond the Earth-Moon system, make a mission to a NEA using NASA s proposed exploration systems a compelling endeavor.

  11. Rethinking Approaches to Exploration and Analysis of Big Data in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, S. J.; Maskey, M.

    2015-12-01

    With increasing amounts of data available for exploration and analysis, there are increasing numbers of users that need information extracted from the data for very specific purposes. Many of the specific purposes may not have even been considered yet so how do computational and data scientists plan for this diverse and not well defined set of possible users? There are challenges to be considered in the computational architectures, as well as the organizational structures for the data to allow for the best possible exploration and analytical capabilities. Data analytics need to be a key component in thinking about the data structures and types of storage of these large amounts of data, coming from a variety of sensing platforms that may be space based, airborne, in situ and social media. How do we provide for better capabilities for exploration and anaylsis at the point of collection for real-time or near real-time requirements? This presentation will address some of the approaches being considered and the challenges the computational and data science communities are facing in collaboration with the Earth Science research and application communities.

  12. Exploring the hidden interior of the Earth with directional neutrino measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Leyton, Michael; Dye, Stephen; Monroe, Jocelyn

    2017-07-10

    Roughly 40% of the Earth’s total heat flow is powered by radioactive decays in the crust and mantle. Geo-neutrinos produced by these decays provide important clues about the origin, formation and thermal evolution of our planet, as well as the composition of its interior. Previous measurements of geo-neutrinos have all relied on the detection of inverse beta decay reactions, which are insensitive to the contribution from potassium and do not provide model-independent information about the spatial distribution of geo-neutrino sources within the Earth. Here in this paper we present a method for measuring previously unresolved components of Earth’s radiogenic heatingmore » using neutrino-electron elastic scattering and low-background, direction-sensitive tracking detectors.We calculate the exposures needed to probe various contributions to the total geo-neutrino flux, specifically those associated to potassium, the mantle and the core. The measurements proposed here chart a course for pioneering exploration of the veiled inner workings of the Earth.« less

  13. "Tormenta Espacial" - Exploring The Sun-earth Connection With A Spanish-language Planetarium Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elteto, Attila; Salas, F.; Duncan, D.; Traub-Metlay, S.

    2007-10-01

    Reaching out to Spanish speakers is increasingly vital to workforce development and public support of space science projects. Building on a successful partnership with NASA's TIMED mission, LASP and Space Science Institute, Fiske Planetarium has translated its original planetarium show - "Space Storm” - into "Tormenta Espacial". This show explores the Sun-Earth connection and explains how solar activity affects technology and life on Earth. Solar scientists from NOAA's Space Environment Center and the University of Colorado at Boulder contributed to provide scientific accuracy. Show content and accompanying educational materials are aligned with state and national science standards. While designed for students in grades 6-8, this show has been positively evaluated by students from grades 4-10 and shown to the general public with favorable responses. Curricular materials extend the planetarium experience into the K-12 classroom so that students inspired and engaged by the show continue to see real-life applications and workplace opportunities. Fiske Planetarium offers both "Space Storm” and "Tormenta Espacial” to other planetariums at a minimal rate, including technical support for the life of the show. Thanks to a request from a planetarium in Belgium, a version of "Space Storm” is available with no spoken dialogue so that languages other than English or Spanish may be accommodated. Collaborative projects among planetariums, NASA missions (planned as well as active), research scientists and other parties keep EPO activities healthy and well-funded. Fiske Planetarium staff strive to develop and maintain partnerships throughout the EPO and informal education communities.

  14. Exploring the hidden interior of the Earth with directional neutrino measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Leyton, Michael; Dye, Stephen; Monroe, Jocelyn

    Roughly 40% of the Earth’s total heat flow is powered by radioactive decays in the crust and mantle. Geo-neutrinos produced by these decays provide important clues about the origin, formation and thermal evolution of our planet, as well as the composition of its interior. Previous measurements of geo-neutrinos have all relied on the detection of inverse beta decay reactions, which are insensitive to the contribution from potassium and do not provide model-independent information about the spatial distribution of geo-neutrino sources within the Earth. Here in this paper we present a method for measuring previously unresolved components of Earth’s radiogenic heatingmore » using neutrino-electron elastic scattering and low-background, direction-sensitive tracking detectors.We calculate the exposures needed to probe various contributions to the total geo-neutrino flux, specifically those associated to potassium, the mantle and the core. The measurements proposed here chart a course for pioneering exploration of the veiled inner workings of the Earth.« less

  15. Exploring the hidden interior of the Earth with directional neutrino measurements

    PubMed Central

    Leyton, Michael; Dye, Stephen; Monroe, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Roughly 40% of the Earth’s total heat flow is powered by radioactive decays in the crust and mantle. Geo-neutrinos produced by these decays provide important clues about the origin, formation and thermal evolution of our planet, as well as the composition of its interior. Previous measurements of geo-neutrinos have all relied on the detection of inverse beta decay reactions, which are insensitive to the contribution from potassium and do not provide model-independent information about the spatial distribution of geo-neutrino sources within the Earth. Here we present a method for measuring previously unresolved components of Earth’s radiogenic heating using neutrino-electron elastic scattering and low-background, direction-sensitive tracking detectors. We calculate the exposures needed to probe various contributions to the total geo-neutrino flux, specifically those associated to potassium, the mantle and the core. The measurements proposed here chart a course for pioneering exploration of the veiled inner workings of the Earth. PMID:28691700

  16. Exploration Opportunity Search of Near-earth Objects Based on Analytical Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yuan; Cui, Ping-Yuan; Luan, En-Jie

    2008-07-01

    The problem of search of opportunity for the exploration of near-earth minor objects is investigated. For rendezvous missions, the analytical gradients of the performance index with respect to the free parameters are derived using the variational calculus and the theory of state-transition matrix. After generating randomly some initial guesses in the search space, the performance index is optimized, guided by the analytical gradients, leading to the local minimum points representing the potential launch opportunities. This method not only keeps the global-search property of the traditional method, but also avoids the blindness in the latter, thereby increasing greatly the computing speed. Furthermore, with this method, the searching precision could be controlled effectively.

  17. Behavior of Rare Earth Element In Geothermal Systems; A New Exploration/Exploitation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Scott A. Wood

    2002-01-28

    The goal of this four-year project was to provide a database by which to judge the utility of the rare earth elements (REE) in the exploration for and exploitation of geothermal fields in the United States. Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: (1) the North Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); (2) the Cascades of Oregon; (3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; (4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; (5) Palinpion, the Philippines: (6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fieldsmore » of southern California; and (7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two.« less

  18. Technology Development to Support Human Health and Performance in Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, C.E.; Steinberg, S. L.; Charles, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    In the course of defining the level of risks and mitigating the risks for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit, NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) has identified the need for technology development in several areas. Long duration missions increase the risk of serious medical conditions due to limited options for return to Earth; no resupply; highly limited mass, power, volume; and communication delays. New space flight compatible medical capabilities required include: diagnostic imaging, oxygen concentrator, ventilator, laboratory analysis (saliva, blood, urine), kidney stone diagnosis & treatment, IV solution preparation and delivery. Maintenance of behavioral health in such an isolated, confined and extreme environment requires new sensory stimulation (e.g., virtual reality) technology. Unobtrusive monitoring of behavioral health and treatment methods are also required. Prolonged exposure to weightlessness deconditions bone, muscle, and the cardiovascular system. Novel exercise equipment or artificial gravity are necessary to prevent deconditioning. Monitoring of the degree of deconditioning is required to ensure that countermeasures are effective. New technologies are required in all the habitable volumes (e.g., suit, capsule, habitat, exploration vehicle, lander) to provide an adequate food system, and to meet human environmental standards for air, water, and surface contamination. Communication delays require the crew to be more autonomous. Onboard decision support tools that assist crew with real-time detection and diagnosis of vehicle and habitat operational anomalies will enable greater autonomy. Multi-use shield systems are required to provide shielding from solar particle events. The HRP is pursuing the development of these technologies in laboratories, flight analog environments and the ISS so that the human health and performance risks will be acceptable with the available resources.

  19. Using Digital Globes to Explore the Deep Sea and Advance Public Literacy in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Brickley, A.; Emery, M.; Spargo, A.; Patterson, K.; Joyce, K.; Silva, T.; Madin, K.

    2014-12-01

    Digital globes are new technologies increasingly used in both informal and formal education to display global datasets. By creating a narrative using multiple datasets, linkages between Earth systems - lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere - can be conveyed. But how effective are digital globes in advancing public literacy in Earth system science? We addressed this question in developing new content for digital globes that interweaves imagery obtained by deep-diving vehicles with global datasets, including a new dataset locating the world's known hydrothermal vents. Our two narratives, "Life Without Sunlight" (LWS) and "Smoke and Fire Underwater" (SFU), each focus on STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) principles related to geology, biology, and exploration. We are preparing a summative evaluation for our content delivered on NOAA's Science on a Sphere as interactive presentations and as movies. We tested knowledge gained with respect to the STEM principles and the level of excitement generated by the virtual deep-sea exploration. We conducted a Post-test Only Design with quantitative data based on self-reporting on a Likert scale. A total of 75 adults and 48 youths responded to our questionnaire, distributed into test groups that saw either one of the two narratives delivered either as a movie or as an interactive presentation. Here, we report preliminary results for the youths, the majority (81%) of which live in towns with lower income and lower levels of educational attainment as compared to other towns in Massachusetts. For both narratives, there was knowledge gained for all 6 STEM principles and "Quite a Bit" of excitement. The mode in responses for knowledge gained was "Quite a Bit" for both the movie and the interactive presentation for 4 of the STEM principles (LWS geology, LWS biology, SFU geology, and SFU exploration) and "Some" for SFU biology. Only for LWS exploration was there a difference in mode between the

  20. NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. This fact drives the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. To arrive at the current SLS plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and arrived at the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. This paper will explore ways to fit this major development within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017. It will explain the SLS Program s long-range plan to keep the budget within bounds, yet evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through a competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface over 4 decades ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. NASA is refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. Space Policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap. Launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle s (MPCV s) first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. In addition, the SLS will accommodate

  1. NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. This fact drives the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. To arrive at the current SLS plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and arrived at the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. This paper will explore ways to fit this major development within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017. It will explain the SLS Program s long-range plan to keep the budget within bounds, yet evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through a competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface over 4 decades ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. NASA is refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. Space Policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap. Launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Cargo Vehicle s first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. In addition, the SLS will accommodate high

  2. Protection of passive radio frequencies used for earth exploration by satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochard, Guy

    2004-10-01

    Space-borne passive sensing of the Earth"s surface and atmosphere has an essential and increasing importance in Earth Observation. The impressive progress recently made or shortly expected in weather analysis, warning and forecasts (in particular for dangerous weather phenomena as rain and floods, storms, cyclones, droughts) as well as in the study and prediction of climate change, is mainly attributable to the spaceborne observations. On this basis, economic studies show that meteorological services have a high positive impact on a wide range of economic activities, notwithstanding safety of life and property aspects. Space-borne passive sensing feeds crucial observational data to numerical weather predction models run on the most advanced super-computers that are operated by a few global forecasting centers. All meteorological and environmental satellite organizations operate these crucial remote-sensing missions as part of the GOS of the World Weather Watch and others... Spaceborne passive sensing for meterological applications is performed in frequency bands allocated to the Earth Exploration-Satellite Service. This is named "EESS passive" in the ITU-R Radio Regulations. The appropriate bands are uniquely determined by the physical properties (e.g. molecular resonance) of constituents of the atmosphere, and are therefore one of the unique natural resources (similarly to Radio Astronomy bands). Passive measurements at several frequencies in the microwave spectrum must be made simultaneously in order to extract the individual contribution of the geophysical parameter of interest. Bands below 100 GHz are of particular importance to provide an "all-weather" capability since many clouds are almost transparent at these frequencies. Along this line, the two first figures below about zenithal opacity describes respectively the atmosphere optical thickness due to water vapor and dry components in the frequency range 1 to 275 GHz and 275 GHz to 1000 GHz on which have

  3. Semiconductor of spinons: from Ising band insulator to orthogonal band insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farajollahpour, T.; Jafari, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    We use the ionic Hubbard model to study the effects of strong correlations on a two-dimensional semiconductor. The spectral gap in the limit where on-site interactions are zero is set by the staggered ionic potential, while in the strong interaction limit it is set by the Hubbard U. Combining mean field solutions of the slave spin and slave rotor methods, we propose two interesting gapped phases in between: (i) the insulating phase before the Mott phase can be viewed as gapping a non-Fermi liquid state of spinons by the staggered ionic potential. The quasi-particles of underlying spinons are orthogonal to physical electrons, giving rise to the ‘ARPES-dark’ state where the ARPES gap will be larger than the optical and thermal gap. (ii) The Ising insulator corresponding to ordered phase of the Ising variable is characterized by single-particle excitations whose dispersion is controlled by Ising-like temperature and field dependences. The temperature can be conveniently employed to drive a phase transition between these two insulating phases where Ising exponents become measurable by ARPES and cyclotron resonance. The rare earth monochalcogenide semiconductors where the magneto-resistance is anomalously large can be a candidate system for the Ising band insulator. We argue that the Ising and orthogonal insulating phases require strong enough ionic potential to survive the downward renormalization of the ionic potential caused by Hubbard U.

  4. Semiconductor of spinons: from Ising band insulator to orthogonal band insulator.

    PubMed

    Farajollahpour, T; Jafari, S A

    2018-01-10

    We use the ionic Hubbard model to study the effects of strong correlations on a two-dimensional semiconductor. The spectral gap in the limit where on-site interactions are zero is set by the staggered ionic potential, while in the strong interaction limit it is set by the Hubbard U. Combining mean field solutions of the slave spin and slave rotor methods, we propose two interesting gapped phases in between: (i) the insulating phase before the Mott phase can be viewed as gapping a non-Fermi liquid state of spinons by the staggered ionic potential. The quasi-particles of underlying spinons are orthogonal to physical electrons, giving rise to the 'ARPES-dark' state where the ARPES gap will be larger than the optical and thermal gap. (ii) The Ising insulator corresponding to ordered phase of the Ising variable is characterized by single-particle excitations whose dispersion is controlled by Ising-like temperature and field dependences. The temperature can be conveniently employed to drive a phase transition between these two insulating phases where Ising exponents become measurable by ARPES and cyclotron resonance. The rare earth monochalcogenide semiconductors where the magneto-resistance is anomalously large can be a candidate system for the Ising band insulator. We argue that the Ising and orthogonal insulating phases require strong enough ionic potential to survive the downward renormalization of the ionic potential caused by Hubbard U.

  5. Exploring Sun-Earth Connections: A Physical Science Program for (K-8)Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michels, D. J.; Pickert, S. M.; Thompson, J. L.; Montrose, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    An experimental, inquiry-based physical science curriculum for undergraduate, pre-service K-8 teachers is under development at the Catholic University of America in collaboration with the Solar Physics Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection missions. This is a progress report. The current, stunningly successful exploratory phase in Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) physics, sparked by SOHO, Yohkoh, TRACE, and other International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) and Living With a Star (LWS) programs, has provided dynamic, visually intuitive data that can be used for teaching basic physical concepts such as the properties of gravitational and electromagnetic fields which are manifest in beautiful imagery of the astrophysical plasmas of the solar atmosphere and Earth's auroras. Through a team approach capitalizing on the combined expertise of the Catholic University's departments of Education and Physics and of NRL solar researchers deeply involved in SEC missions we have laid out a program that will teach non-science-major undergraduates a very limited number of physical science concepts but in such a way as to develop for each one both a formal understanding and an intuitive grasp that will instill confidence, spark interest and scientific curiosity and, ideally, inspire a habit of lifetime inquiry and professional growth. A three-semester sequence is planned. The first semester will be required of incoming Education freshmen. The second and third semesters will be of such a level as to satisfy the one-year science requirement for non-science majors in the College of Arts and Sciences. The approach as adopted will integrate physics content and educational methods, with each concept introduced through inquiry-based, hands-on investigation using methods and materials directly applicable to K-8 teaching situations (Exploration Phase). The topic is further developed through discussion, demonstration and lecture, introducing such mathematical

  6. EarthServer: Visualisation and use of uncertainty as a data exploration tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Peter; Clements, Oliver; Grant, Mike

    2013-04-01

    software from the EarthServer project we can produce a novel data offering that allows the use of traditional exploration and access mechanisms such as WMS and WCS. However the real benefits can be seen when utilising WCPS to explore the data . We will show two major benefits to this infrastructure. Firstly we will show that the visualisation of the combined chlorophyll and uncertainty datasets through a web based GIS portal gives users the ability to instantaneously assess the quality of the data they are exploring using traditional web based plotting techniques as well as through novel web based 3 dimensional visualisation. Secondly we will showcase the benefits available when combining these data with the WCPS standard. The uncertainty data can be utilised in queries using the standard WCPS query language. This allows selection of data either for download or use within the query, based on the respective uncertainty values as well as the possibility of incorporating both the chlorophyll data and uncertainty data into complex queries to produce additional novel data products. By filtering with uncertainty at the data source rather than the client we can minimise traffic over the network allowing huge datasets to be worked on with a minimal time penalty.

  7. ISING MODEL OF CHORIOCAPILLARIS FLOW.

    PubMed

    Spaide, Richard F

    2018-01-01

    To develop a mathematical model of local blood flow in the choriocapillaris using an Ising model. A JavaScript Ising model was used to create images that emulated the development of signal voids as would be seen in optical coherence tomography angiography of the choriocapillaris. The model was produced by holding the temperature near criticality and varying the field strength. Individual frames were evaluated, and a movie video was created to show the hypothetical development of flow-related signal voids over a lifetime. Much the same as actual choriocapillaris images in humans, the model of flow-related signal voids followed a power-law distribution. The slope and intercept both decreased with age, as is seen in human subjects. This model is a working hypothesis, and as such can help predict system characteristics, evaluate conclusions drawn from studies, suggest new research questions, and provide a way of obtaining an estimate of behavior in which experimental data are not yet available. It may be possible to understand choriocapillaris blood flow in health and disease states by determining by observing deviations from an expected model.

  8. Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  9. The Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) List of Near-Earth Asteroids: Identifying Potential Targets for Future Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Alberding, C. M.; Adamo, D. R.; Mazanek, D. D.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.; Chamberlin, A. B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs [1, 2], and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system [3]. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010 [4]. Detailed planning for such deep space exploration missions and identifying potential NEAs as targets for human spaceflight requires selecting objects from the ever growing list of newly discovered NEAs. Hence NASA developed and implemented the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Target Study (NHATS), which identifies potential candidate objects on the basis of defined dynamical trajectory performance constraints.

  10. Computer-simulated laboratory explorations for middle school life, earth, and physical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Blum, Ruth

    1992-06-01

    Explorations in Middle School Science is a set of 72 computer-simulated laboratory lessons in life, earth, and physical Science for grades 6 9 developed by Jostens Learning Corporation with grants from the California State Department of Education and the National Science Foundation.3 At the heart of each lesson is a computer-simulated laboratory that actively involves students in doing science improving their: (1) understanding of science concepts by applying critical thinking to solve real problems; (2) skills in scientific processes and communications; and (3) attitudes about science. Students use on-line tools (notebook, calculator, word processor) to undertake in-depth investigations of phenomena (like motion in outer space, disease transmission, volcanic eruptions, or the structure of the atom) that would be too difficult, dangerous, or outright impossible to do in a “live” laboratory. Suggested extension activities lead students to hands-on investigations, away from the computer. This article presents the underlying rationale, instructional model, and process by which Explorations was designed and developed. It also describes the general courseware structure and three lesson's in detail, as well as presenting preliminary data from the evaluation. Finally, it suggests a model for incorporating technology into the science classroom.

  11. NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making measurable progress toward delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration. To arrive at the current plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and selected the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. Slated for its maiden voyage in 2017, the SLS will provide a platform for further cooperation in space based on the International Space Station model. This briefing will focus on specific progress that has been made by the SLS team in its first year, as well as provide a framework for evolving the vehicle for far-reaching missions to destinations such as near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. As this briefing will show, the SLS will serve as an infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

  12. Applications of ISES for coastal zone studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    In contrast to the discipline- and process-oriented topics addressed, coastal zone studies are defined geographically by the special circumstances inherent in the interface between land and water. The characteristics of coastal zones which make them worthy of separate consideration are: (1) the dynamic nature of natural and anthropogenic processes taking place; (2) the relatively restricted spatial domain of the narrow land/water interface; and (3) the large proportion of the Earth's population living within coastal zones, and the resulting extreme pressure on natural and human resources. These characteristics place special constraints and priorities on remote sensing applications, even though the applications themselves bear close relation to those addressed by other elements of this report (e.g., oceans, ice, vegetation/land use). The discussion which follows first describes the suite of remote sensing activities relevant to coastal zone studies. Potential Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES) experiments will then be addressed within two general categories: applications of real-time data transmission and applications of onboard data acquisition and processing.

  13. The Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) List of Near-Earth Asteroids: Identifying Potential Targets for Future Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Adamo, D. R.; Alberding, C. M.; Mazanek, D. D.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.; Chamberlin, A. B.; Benner, L. A. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-10-01

    Introduction: Much attention has recently been focused on human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Detailed planning for deep space exploration and identification of potential NEA targets for human space flight requires selecting objects from the growing list of known NEAs. NASA therefore initiated the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Target Study (NHATS), which uses dynamical trajectory performance constraints to identify potentially accessible NEAs. Accessibility Criteria: Future NASA human space flight capability is being defined while the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Space Launch System are under development. Velocity change and mission duration are two of the most critical factors in any human spaceflight endeavor, so the most accessible NEAs tend to be those with orbits similar to Earth’s. To be classified as NHATS-compliant, a NEA must offer at least one round-trip trajectory solution satisfying purposely inclusive constraints, including total mission change in velocity ≤ 12 km/s, mission duration ≤ 450 days (with at least 8 days at the NEA), Earth departure between Jan 1, 2015 and Dec 31, 2040, Earth departure C3 ≤ 60 km2/s2, and Earth return atmospheric entry speed ≤ 12 km/s. Monitoring and Updates: The NHATS list of potentially accessible targets is continuously updated as NEAs are discovered and orbit solutions for known NEAs are improved. The current list of accessible NEAs identified as potentially viable for future human exploration under the NHATS criteria is available to the international community via a website maintained by NASA’s NEO Program Office (http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/nhats/). This website also lists predicted optical and radar observing opportunities for each NHATS-compliant NEA to facilitate acquisition of follow-up observations. Conclusions: This list of NEAs will be useful for analyzing robotic mission opportunities, identifying optimal round trip human space flight trajectories, and

  14. Data Prospecting Framework - a new approach to explore "big data" in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; Rushing, J.; Lin, A.; Kuo, K.

    2012-12-01

    Due to advances in sensors, computation and storage, cost and effort required to produce large datasets have been significantly reduced. As a result, we are seeing a proliferation of large-scale data sets being assembled in almost every science field, especially in geosciences. Opportunities to exploit the "big data" are enormous as new hypotheses can be generated by combining and analyzing large amounts of data. However, such a data-driven approach to science discovery assumes that scientists can find and isolate relevant subsets from vast amounts of available data. Current Earth Science data systems only provide data discovery through simple metadata and keyword-based searches and are not designed to support data exploration capabilities based on the actual content. Consequently, scientists often find themselves downloading large volumes of data, struggling with large amounts of storage and learning new analysis technologies that will help them separate the wheat from the chaff. New mechanisms of data exploration are needed to help scientists discover the relevant subsets We present data prospecting, a new content-based data analysis paradigm to support data-intensive science. Data prospecting allows the researchers to explore big data in determining and isolating data subsets for further analysis. This is akin to geo-prospecting in which mineral sites of interest are determined over the landscape through screening methods. The resulting "data prospects" only provide an interaction with and feel for the data through first-look analytics; the researchers would still have to download the relevant datasets and analyze them deeply using their favorite analytical tools to determine if the datasets will yield new hypotheses. Data prospecting combines two traditional categories of data analysis, data exploration and data mining within the discovery step. Data exploration utilizes manual/interactive methods for data analysis such as standard statistical analysis and

  15. NEEMO 15: Evaluation of Human Exploration Systems for Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 15 mission was focused on near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) exploration techniques evaluation. It began with a University of Delaware autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) systematically mapping the coral reef for hundreds of meters surrounding the Aquarius habitat. This activity is akin to the type of "far field survey" approach that may be used by a robotic precursor in advance of a human mission to a NEA. Data from the far-field survey were then examined by the NEEMO science team and follow-up exploration traverses were planned, which used Deepworker single-person submersibles. Science traverses at NEEMO 15 were planned according to a prioritized list of scientific objectives developed by the science team based on review and discussion of previous related marine science research including previous marine science saturation missions conducted at the Aquarius habitat. AUV data was used to select several areas of scientific interest. The Deepworker science traverses were then executed at these areas of interest during 4 days of the NEEMO 15 mission and provided higher resolution data such as coral species distribution and mortality. These traverses are analogous to the "near field survey" approach that is expected to be performed by a multi mission space exploration vehicle (MMSEV) during a human mission to a NEA before conducting extravehicular activities (EVA)s. In addition to the science objectives that were pursued, the NEEMO 15 science traverses provided an opportunity to test newly developed software and techniques. Sample collection and instrument deployment on the NEA surface by EVA crew would follow the "near field survey" in a human NEA mission. Sample collection was not necessary for the purposes of the NEEMO science objectives; however, the engineering and operations objectives during NEEMO 15 were to evaluate different combinations of vehicles, crewmembers, tools, and equipment that could be used to perform

  16. Invited Pesek lecture: Exploration rather than speculation-assembling the puzzle of potential life beyond Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominik, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Speculations about the existence of life beyond Earth are probably as old as mankind itself, but still there is no evidence - neither for its presence nor for its absence. Moreover, we neither know the necessary nor the sufficient conditions for life to emerge, sustain or evolve. The Drake equation famously quantifies our ignorance by writing the number of detectable civilizations as product of factors that get increasingly uncertain the further one goes to the right. As a result, the predictive power is poor, and it ultimately depends on the most uncertain factor. However, if we were able to derive a reasonable estimate, we would not need SETI experiments to tell us whether we are alone or not. What has changed substantially over human history is our ability to explore the Universe. Most significantly, radio transmission technology gives us the opportunity to communicate over interstellar distances, and we are now able to not only determine the population statistics of planets within the Milky Way, but even in principle to find biosignatures in their atmospheres. By finding life beyond Earth, we will learn how frequently it emerges. By finding signals from intelligent extra-terrestrial civilizations, we will get unprecedented insight into our biological, technological, and societal evolution. The Drake equation is not such a useful means for assessing the chances of success of SETI, but instead it provides the framework for using observational data in advancing towards understanding the origins of our existence and our role in the cosmos, and maybe to get a glimpse of our future.

  17. Exploring Secondary Science Teachers' Perceptions on the Goals of Earth Science Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Yang, Fang-Ying

    2009-01-01

    The educational reform movement since the 1990s has led the secondary earth science curriculum in Taiwan into a stage of reshaping. The present study investigated secondary earth science teachers' perceptions on the Goals of Earth Science Education (GESE). The GESE should express the statements of philosophy and purpose toward which educators…

  18. Earth Exploration Toolbook Workshops: Web-Conferencing and Teleconferencing Professional Development Bringing Earth Science Data Analysis and Visualization Tools to K-12 Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuliffe, C.; Ledley, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET) Workshops Project provides a mechanism for teachers and students to have successful data-using educational experiences. In this professional development project, teachers learn to use National Science Digital Library (NSDL), the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE), and an Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET) chapter. In an EET Data Analysis Workshop, participants walk through an Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET) chapter, learning basic data analysis techniques and discussing ways to use Earth science datasets and analysis tools with their students. We have offered twenty-eight Data Analysis Workshops since the project began. The total number of participants in the twenty-eight workshops to date is three hundred eleven, which reflects one hundred eighty different teachers participating in one or more workshops. Our workshops reach middle and high school teachers across the United States at schools with lower socioeconomic levels and at schools with large numbers of minority students. Our participants come from thirty-eight different states including Alaska, Maine, Florida, Montana, and many others. Eighty-six percent of our participants are classroom teachers. The remaining fourteen percent are staff development specialists, university faculty, or outreach educators working with teachers. Of the classroom teachers, one third are middle school teachers (grades 6 to 8) and two thirds are high school teachers (grades 9 to 12.) Thirty-four percent of our participants come from schools where minority populations are the majority make up of the school. Twenty-five percent of our participants are at schools where the majority of the students receive free or reduced cost lunches. Our professional development workshops are helping to raise teachers' awareness of both the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) and the National Science Digital Library (NSDL). Prior to taking one of our workshops, forty-two percent of

  19. Programmable superpositions of Ising configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieberer, Lukas M.; Lechner, Wolfgang

    2018-05-01

    We present a framework to prepare superpositions of bit strings, i.e., many-body spin configurations, with deterministic programmable probabilities. The spin configurations are encoded in the degenerate ground states of the lattice-gauge representation of an all-to-all connected Ising spin glass. The ground-state manifold is invariant under variations of the gauge degrees of freedom, which take the form of four-body parity constraints. Our framework makes use of these degrees of freedom by individually tuning them to dynamically prepare programmable superpositions. The dynamics combines an adiabatic protocol with controlled diabatic transitions. We derive an effective model that allows one to determine the control parameters efficiently even for large system sizes.

  20. ISE: An Integrated Search Environment. The manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Lon-Chan

    1992-01-01

    Integrated Search Environment (ISE), a software package that implements hierarchical searches with meta-control, is described in this manual. ISE is a collection of problem-independent routines to support solving searches. Mainly, these routines are core routines for solving a search problem and they handle the control of searches and maintain the statistics related to searches. By separating the problem-dependent and problem-independent components in ISE, new search methods based on a combination of existing methods can be developed by coding a single master control program. Further, new applications solved by searches can be developed by coding the problem-dependent parts and reusing the problem-independent parts already developed. Potential users of ISE are designers of new application solvers and new search algorithms, and users of experimental application solvers and search algorithms. The ISE is designed to be user-friendly and information rich. In this manual, the organization of ISE is described and several experiments carried out on ISE are also described.

  1. Understanding divergent evolution of Earth-like planets: The case for a Venus exploration program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, D.

    The planet Venus is our most Earth-like neighbor in size, mass, and solar distance. In spite of these similarities, the Venus surface and atmosphere are characterized by some of the most enigmatic features seen anywhere in the solar system. Here, we propose a Venus exploration program designed to explain the origin and divergent evolution of the interiors, surfaces, and atmospheres of the terrestrial planets in our solar system, and provide greater insight into the conditions that may affect the habitability of terrestrial planets in other solar systems. This program includes: - The Noble Gas and Trace Gas Explorer is the highest priority mission because itsdata are vital to our understanding of the origin of Venus. This Discovery classmission requires a single entry probe that will carry the state-of-the-art instrumentsneeded to complete the noble gas and trace gas inventories between the cloud topsand the surface. - The Global Geological Process Mapping Orbiter is a Discovery class mission. Itwill carry a C- and/or X-band radar designed for stereo or interferometric imaging,to provide global maps of the surface at horizontal resolutions of 25 to 50 metersto identify and characterize the geologic processes that have shaped the Venussurface. - The Atmospheric Composition Orbiter is a Discovery class mission that will carryremote sensing instruments for characterizing clouds and trace gas variationsthroughout the atmosphere. This mission will collect the data needed tocharacterize the radiative, chemical, and dynamical processes that are maintainingthe thermal structure and composition of the present atmosphere. - The Atmospheric Dynamics Explorer is a New Frontiers class mission that willdeploy 12 to 24 long-lived balloons over a range of latitudes and altitudes toidentify the mechanisms responsible for maintaining the atmosphericsuperrotation. - The Surface and Interior Explorer is a New Frontiers class mission that will deploythree or more long-lived landers on

  2. Power and Propulsion System Design for Near-Earth Object Robotic Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Randolph, Thomas M.; Landau, Damon F.; Bury, Kristen M.; Malone, Shane P.; Hickman, Tyler A.

    2011-01-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are exciting targets for exploration; they are relatively easy to reach but relatively little is known about them. With solar electric propulsion, a vast number of interesting NEOs can be reached within a few years and with extensive flexibility in launch date. An additional advantage of electric propulsion for these missions is that a spacecraft can be small, enabling a fleet of explorers launched on a single vehicle or as secondary payloads. Commercial, flight-proven Hall thruster systems have great appeal based on their performance and low cost risk, but one issue with these systems is that the power processing units (PPUs) are designed for regulated spacecraft power architectures which are not attractive for small NEO missions. In this study we consider the integrated design of power and propulsion systems that utilize the capabilities of existing PPUs in an unregulated power architecture. Models for solar array and engine performance are combined with low-thrust trajectory analyses to bound spacecraft design parameters for a large class of NEO missions, then detailed array performance models are used to examine the array output voltage and current over a bounded mission set. Operational relationships between the power and electric propulsion systems are discussed, and it is shown that both the SPT-100 and BPT-4000 PPUs can perform missions over a solar range of 0.7 AU to 1.5 AU - encompassing NEOs, Venus, and Mars - within their operable input voltage ranges. A number of design trades to control the array voltage are available, including cell string layout, array offpointing during mission operations, and power draw by the Hall thruster system.

  3. Integration of an Earth-Based Science Team During Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Beaton, Kara H.; Newton, Carolyn; Graff, Trevor G.; Young, Kelsey E.; Coan, David; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) is an underwater spaceflight analog that allows a true mission-like operational environment and uses buoyancy effects and added weight to simulate different gravity levels. A mission was undertaken in 2016, NEEMO 21, at the Aquarius undersea research habitat. During the mission, the effects of varied oper-ations concepts with representative communication latencies as-sociated with Mars missions were studied. Six subjects were weighed out to simulate partial gravity and evaluated different operations concepts for integration and management of a simulated Earth-based science team (ST) who provided input and direction during exploration activities. Exploration traverses were planned in advance based on precursor data collected. Subjects completed science-related tasks including presampling surveys and marine-science-based sampling during saturation dives up to 4 hours in duration that simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) on Mars. A communication latency of 15 minutes in each direction between space and ground was simulated throughout the EVAs. Objective data included task completion times, total EVA time, crew idle time, translation time, ST assimilation time (defined as time available for the science team to discuss, to review and act upon data/imagery after they have been collected and transmitted to the ground). Subjective data included acceptability, simulation quality, capability assessment ratings, and comments. In addition, comments from both the crew and the ST were captured during the post-mission debrief. Here, we focus on the acceptability of the operations concepts studied and the capabilities most enhancing or enabling in the operations concept. The importance and challenges of designing EVA time-lines to account for the length of the task, level of interaction with the ground that is required/desired, and communication latency, are discussed.

  4. The use of dual mode thermionic reactors in supporting Earth orbital and space exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrin, Robert M.; Sulmeisters, Tal K.

    1993-01-01

    Missions requiring large amounts of electric power to support their payload functions can be enabled through the employment of nuclear electric power reactors, which in some cases can also assist the mission by making possible the employment of high specific impulse electric propulsion. However it is found that the practicality and versality of using a power reactor to provide advanced propulsion is enormously enhanced if the reactor is configured in such a way to allow it to generate a certain amount of direct thrust as well. The use of such a system allows the creation of a common bus upper stage that can provide both high power and high impulse (with short orbit transfer times). It is shown that such a system, termed an Integral Power and Propulsion Stage (IPAPS), is optimal for supporting many Earth, Lunar, planetary and asteroidal observation, exploration, and communication support missions, and it is therefore recommended that the nuclear power reactor ultimately selected by the government for development and production be one that can be configured for such a function.

  5. Material engineering to fabricate rare earth erbium thin films for exploring nuclear energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, A.; Abhilash, S. R.; Umapathy, G. R.; Kabiraj, D.; Ojha, S.; Mandal, S.

    2018-04-01

    High vacuum evaporation and cold-rolling techniques to fabricate thin films of the rare earth lanthanide-erbium have been discussed in this communication. Cold rolling has been used for the first time to successfully fabricate films of enriched and highly expensive erbium metal with areal density in the range of 0.5-1.0 mg/cm2. The fabricated films were used as target materials in an advanced nuclear physics experiment. The experiment was designed to investigate isomeric states in the heavy nuclei mass region for exploring physics related to nuclear energy sources. The films fabricated using different techniques varied in thickness as well as purity. Methods to fabricate films with thickness of the order of 0.9 mg/cm2 were different than those of 0.4 mg/cm2 areal density. All the thin films were characterized using multiple advanced techniques to accurately ascertain levels of contamination as well as to determine their exact surface density. Detailed fabrication methods as well as characterization techniques have been discussed.

  6. Critical Spacecraft-to-Earth Communications for Mars Exploration Rover (MER) entry, descent and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, William J.; Estabrook, Polly; Racho, Caroline S.; Satorius, Edgar H.

    2002-01-01

    For planetary lander missions, the most challenging phase of the spacecraft to ground communications is during the entry, descent, and landing (EDL). As each 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) enters the Martian atmosphere, it slows dramatically. The extreme acceleration and jerk cause extreme Doppler dynamics on the X-band signal received on Earth. When the vehicle slows sufficiently, the parachute is deployed, causing almost a step in deceleration. After parachute deployment, the lander is lowered beneath the parachute on a bridle. The swinging motion of the lander imparts high Doppler dynamics on the signal and causes the received signal strength to vary widely, due to changing antenna pointing angles. All this time, the vehicle transmits important health and status information that is especially critical if the landing is not successful. Even using the largest Deep Space Network antennas, the weak signal and high dynamics render it impossible to conduct reliable phase coherent communications. Therefore, a specialized form of frequency-shift-keying will be used. This paper describes the EDL scenario, the signal conditions, the methods used to detect and frequency-track the carrier and to detect the data modulation, and the resulting performance estimates.

  7. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency. PMID:26819083

  8. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration.

    PubMed

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-28

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency.

  9. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency.

  10. International Space Station as a Platform for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raftery, Michael; Woodcock, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has established a new model for the achievement of the most difficult engineering goals in space: international collaboration at the program level with competition at the level of technology. This strategic shift in management approach provides long term program stability while still allowing for the flexible evolution of technology needs and capabilities. Both commercial and government sponsored technology developments are well supported in this management model. ISS also provides a physical platform for development and demonstration of the systems needed for missions beyond low earth orbit. These new systems at the leading edge of technology require operational exercise in the unforgiving environment of space before they can be trusted for long duration missions. Systems and resources needed for expeditions can be aggregated and thoroughly tested at ISS before departure thus providing wide operational flexibility and the best assurance of mission success. We will describe representative mission profiles showing how ISS can support exploration missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. Example missions would include humans to lunar surface and return, and humans to Mars orbit as well as Mars surface and return. ISS benefits include: international access from all major launch sites; an assembly location with crew and tools that could help prepare departing expeditions that involve more than one launch; a parking place for reusable vehicles; and the potential to add a propellant depot.

  11. Our school's Earth and Space Sciences Club: 12 years promoting interdisciplinary explorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarida Maria, Ana; Pereira, Hélder

    2017-04-01

    During the past 12 years, we have been engaging secondary level science students (15 to 18 years old) in the extracurricular activities of our school's Earth and Space Sciences Club, providing them with some of the skills needed to excel in science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM). Our approach includes the use of authentic scientific data, project based learning, and inquiry-centred activities that go beyond the models and theories present in secondary level textbooks. Moreover, the activities and projects carried out, being eminently practical, also function as an extension of the curriculum and frequently enable the demonstration of the applicability of several concepts taught in the classroom in real life situations. The tasks carried out during these activities and research projects often require the combination of two or more subjects, promoting an interdisciplinary approach to learning. Outside of the traditional classroom settings, through interdisciplinary explorations, students also gain hands-on experience doing real science. Thereby, during this time, we have been able to promote meaningful and lasting experiences and spark students' interest in a wide diversity of topics.

  12. ISEES: an institute for sustainable software to accelerate environmental science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Schildhauer, M.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Software is essential to the full science lifecycle, spanning data acquisition, processing, quality assessment, data integration, analysis, modeling, and visualization. Software runs our meteorological sensor systems, our data loggers, and our ocean gliders. Every aspect of science is impacted by, and improved by, software. Scientific advances ranging from modeling climate change to the sequencing of the human genome have been rendered possible in the last few decades due to the massive improvements in the capabilities of computers to process data through software. This pivotal role of software in science is broadly acknowledged, while simultaneously being systematically undervalued through minimal investments in maintenance and innovation. As a community, we need to embrace the creation, use, and maintenance of software within science, and address problems such as code complexity, openness,reproducibility, and accessibility. We also need to fully develop new skills and practices in software engineering as a core competency in our earth science disciplines, starting with undergraduate and graduate education and extending into university and agency professional positions. The Institute for Sustainable Earth and Environmental Software (ISEES) is being envisioned as a community-driven activity that can facilitate and galvanize activites around scientific software in an analogous way to synthesis centers such as NCEAS and NESCent that have stimulated massive advances in ecology and evolution. We will describe the results of six workshops (Science Drivers, Software Lifecycles, Software Components, Workforce Development and Training, Sustainability and Governance, and Community Engagement) that have been held in 2013 to envision such an institute. We will present community recommendations from these workshops and our strategic vision for how ISEES will address the technical issues in the software lifecycle, sustainability of the whole software ecosystem, and the critical

  13. FLORIS: phase A status of the fluorescence imaging spectrometer of the Earth Explorer mission candidate FLEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, S.; Bézy, J.-L.; Del Bello, U.; Berlich, R.; Drusch, M.; Franco, R.; Gabriele, A.; Harnisch, B.; Meynart, R.; Silvestrin, P.

    2013-10-01

    The Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission is currently subject to feasibility (Phase A) study as one of the two candidates of ESA's 8th Earth Explorer opportunity mission. The FLuORescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) will be an imaging grating spectrometer onboard of a medium sized satellite flying in tandem with Sentinel-3 in a Sun synchronous orbit at a height of about 815 km. FLORIS will observe vegetation fluorescence and reflectance within a spectral range between 500 nm and 780 nm. It will thereby cover the photochemical reflection features between 500 nm and 600 nm, the Chlorophyll absorption band between 600 and 677 nm, and the red-edge in the region from 697 nm to 755 nm being located between the Oxygen A and B absorption bands. By this measurement approach, it is expected that the full spectrum and amount of the vegetation fluorescence radiance can be retrieved, and that atmospheric corrections can efficiently be applied. FLORIS will measure Earth reflected spectral radiance at a relatively high spectral resolution of ~0.3 nm around the Oxygen absorption bands. Other spectral band areas with less pronounced absorption features will be measured at medium spectral resolution between 0.5 and 2 nm. FLORIS will provide imagery at 300 m resolution on ground with a swath width of 150 km. This will allow achieving global revisit times of less than one month so as to monitor seasonal variations of the vegetation cycles. The mission life time is expected to be at least 4 years. The fluorescence retrieval will make use of information coming from OLCI and SLSTR, which are onboard of Sentinel-3, to monitor temperature, to detect thin clouds and to derive vegetation reflectance and information on the aerosol content also outside the FLORIS spectral range. In order to mitigate the technological and programmatic risk of this Explorer mission candidate, ESA has initiated two comprehensive bread-boarding activities, in which the most critical technologies and instrument

  14. Atmospheric Neutrinos as a Tool for Exploring the Earth's Inner Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, P. Yu.; Sinev, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    Investigation of the Earth's inner parts requires developing new methods. It is well known that atmospheric neutrinos traverse the Earth, undergoing virtually no interaction. The change in the neutrino flux is due exclusively to neutrino oscillations, which are enhanced by the effect of Earth's matter. At the present time, there are two projects outside Russia (PINGU and ORCA) that are aimed at detecting atmospheric neutrinos that traversed the Earth, which are supposed to be used for purposes of Earth's tomography. The creation of a large neutrino detector on the basis of a liquid scintillator is planned at the BaksanNeutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences) in the North Caucasus. After testing this detector, there will arise the possibility of employing it as part of the worldwide network of neutrino detectors for studying the Earth's inner parts.

  15. Development of Multifunctional Radiation Shielding Materials for Long Duration Human Exploration Beyond the Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Bhattacharya, M.; Schofield, E.; Carranza, S.; O'Dell, S.

    2007-01-01

    One of the major challenges for long duration human exploration beyond the low Earth orbit and sustained human presence on planetary surfaces would be development of materials that would help minimize the radiation exposure to crew and equipment from the interplanetary radiation environment, This radiation environment consists primarily of a continuous flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and transient but intense fluxes of solar energetic particles (SEP). The potential for biological damage by the relatively low percentage of high-energy heavy-ions in the GCR spectrum far outweigh that due to lighter particles because of their ionizing-power and the quality of the resulting biological damage. Although the SEP spectrum does not contain heavy ions and their energy range is much lower than that for GCRs, they however pose serious risks to astronaut health particularly in the event of a bad solar storm The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss our recent efforts in development and evaluation of materials for minimizing the hazards from the interplanetary radiation environment. Traditionally, addition of shielding materials to spacecrafts has invariably resulted in paying a penalty in terms of additional weight. It would therefore be of great benefit if materials could be developed not only with superior shielding effectiveness but also sufficient structural integrity. Such a multifunctional material could then be considered as an integral part of spacecraft structures. Any proposed radiation shielding material for use in outer space should be composed of nuclei that maximize the likelihood of projectile fragmentation while producing the minimum number of target fragments. A modeling based approach will be presented to show that composite materials using hydrogen-rich epoxy matrices reinforced with polyethylene fibers and/or fabrics could effectively meet this requirement. This paper will discuss the fabrication of such a material for a crewed vehicle. Ln addition

  16. Statistical mechanics of the cluster Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smacchia, Pietro; Amico, Luigi; Facchi, Paolo; Fazio, Rosario; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Vedral, Vlatko

    2011-08-01

    We study a Hamiltonian system describing a three-spin-1/2 clusterlike interaction competing with an Ising-like antiferromagnetic interaction. We compute free energy, spin-correlation functions, and entanglement both in the ground and in thermal states. The model undergoes a quantum phase transition between an Ising phase with a nonvanishing magnetization and a cluster phase characterized by a string order. Any two-spin entanglement is found to vanish in both quantum phases because of a nontrivial correlation pattern. Nevertheless, the residual multipartite entanglement is maximal in the cluster phase and dependent on the magnetization in the Ising phase. We study the block entropy at the critical point and calculate the central charge of the system, showing that the criticality of the system is beyond the Ising universality class.

  17. An Exploration Of Fuel Optimal Two-impulse Transfers To Cyclers in the Earth-Moon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinisianaki, Saghar

    2011-12-01

    This research explores the optimum two-impulse transfers between a low Earth orbit and cycler orbits in the Earth-Moon circular restricted three-body framework, emphasizing the optimization strategy. Cyclers are those types of periodic orbits that meet both the Earth and the Moon periodically. A spacecraft on such trajectories are under the influence of both the Earth and the Moon gravitational fields. Cyclers have gained recent interest as baseline orbits for several Earth-Moon mission concepts, notably in relation to human exploration. In this thesis it is shown that a direct optimization starting from the classic lambert initial guess may not be adequate for these problems and propose a three-step optimization solver to improve the domain of convergence toward an optimal solution. The first step consists of finding feasible trajectories with a given transfer time. I employ Lambert's problem to provide initial guess to optimize the error in arrival position. This includes the analysis of the liability of Lambert's solution as an initial guess. Once a feasible trajectory is found, the velocity impulse is only a function of transfer time, departure, and arrival points' phases. The second step consists of the optimization of impulse over transfer time which results in the minimum impulse transfer for fixed end points. Finally, the third step is mapping the optimal solutions as the end points are varied.

  18. An Exploration Of Fuel Optimal Two-impulse Transfers To Cyclers in the Earth-Moon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinisianaki, Saghar

    This research explores the optimum two-impulse transfers between a low Earth orbit and cycler orbits in the Earth-Moon circular restricted three-body framework, emphasizing the optimization strategy. Cyclers are those types of periodic orbits that meet both the Earth and the Moon periodically. A spacecraft on such trajectories are under the influence of both the Earth and the Moon gravitational fields. Cyclers have gained recent interest as baseline orbits for several Earth-Moon mission concepts, notably in relation to human exploration. In this thesis it is shown that a direct optimization starting from the classic lambert initial guess may not be adequate for these problems and propose a three-step optimization solver to improve the domain of convergence toward an optimal solution. The first step consists of finding feasible trajectories with a given transfer time. I employ Lambert's problem to provide initial guess to optimize the error in arrival position. This includes the analysis of the liability of Lambert's solution as an initial guess. Once a feasible trajectory is found, the velocity impulse is only a function of transfer time, departure, and arrival points' phases. The second step consists of the optimization of impulse over transfer time which results in the minimum impulse transfer for fixed end points. Finally, the third step is mapping the optimal solutions as the end points are varied.

  19. Human Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: An Update on NASA's Current Status and Proposed Activities for Small Body Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Larman, K. T.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010.

  20. Initial survey of the wave distribution functions for plasmaspheric hiss observed by ISEE 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, L. R. O.; Lefeuvre, F.; Parrot, M.; Cairo, L.; Anderson, R. R.

    1991-01-01

    The generation mechanism of hiss observed by ISEE 1 satellite in the earth magnetosphere is investigated by analyzing the ELF/VLF wave data obtained from four passes of ISEE 1, all of which occurring during magnetically quiet periods. The results of these measurements, together with those published earlier, indicate that the generation mechanisms proposed by Kennel alnd Petschek (1966), by Thorne et al. (1979), and by Solomon et al. (1988, 1989) are all physically possible and can come into action whenever the necessary conditions exist. However, plasmaspheric hiss was observed by ISEE even when the conditions for any of these mechanisms existed; under these conditions, hiss appears to be generated near the equatorial plane over a wide range of L values, with the wave normals at large angles to the field. The generation mechanism that applies in such cases is still unknown.

  1. Using Digital Globes to Explore the Deep Sea and Advance Public Literacy in Earth System Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Stace E.; Emery, Emery; Brickley, Annette; Spargo, Abbey; Patterson, Kathleen; Joyce, Katherine; Silva, Tim; Madin, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Digital globes are new technologies increasingly used in informal and formal education to display global datasets and show connections among Earth systems. But how effective are digital globes in advancing public literacy in Earth system science? We addressed this question by developing new content for digital globes with the intent to educate and…

  2. Using GIS in an Earth Sciences Field Course for Quantitative Exploration, Data Management and Digital Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Wouter A.; van de Grint, Liesbeth; Alberti, Koko; Karssenberg, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Field courses are essential for subjects like Earth Sciences, Geography and Ecology. In these topics, GIS is used to manage and analyse spatial data, and offers quantitative methods that are beneficial for fieldwork. This paper presents changes made to a first-year Earth Sciences field course in the French Alps, where new GIS methods were…

  3. Viewpoints: Interactive Exploration of Large Multivariate Earth and Space Science Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levit, C.; Gazis, P. R.

    2006-05-01

    Analysis and visualization of extremely large and complex data sets may be one of the most significant challenges facing earth and space science investigators in the forthcoming decades. While advances in hardware speed and storage technology have roughly kept up with (indeed, have driven) increases in database size, the same is not of our abilities to manage the complexity of these data. Current missions, instruments, and simulations produce so much data of such high dimensionality that they outstrip the capabilities of traditional visualization and analysis software. This problem can only be expected to get worse as data volumes increase by orders of magnitude in future missions and in ever-larger supercomputer simulations. For large multivariate data (more than 105 samples or records with more than 5 variables per sample) the interactive graphics response of most existing statistical analysis, machine learning, exploratory data analysis, and/or visualization tools such as Torch, MLC++, Matlab, S++/R, and IDL stutters, stalls, or stops working altogether. Fortunately, the graphics processing units (GPUs) built in to all professional desktop and laptop computers currently on the market are capable of transforming, filtering, and rendering hundreds of millions of points per second. We present a prototype open-source cross-platform application which leverages much of the power latent in the GPU to enable smooth interactive exploration and analysis of large high- dimensional data using a variety of classical and recent techniques. The targeted application is the interactive analysis of large, complex, multivariate data sets, with dimensionalities that may surpass 100 and sample sizes that may exceed 106-108.

  4. Exploring the anisotropic Kondo model in and out of equilibrium with alkaline-earth atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanász-Nagy, Márton; Ashida, Yuto; Shi, Tao; Moca, Cǎtǎlin Paşcu; Ikeda, Tatsuhiko N.; Fölling, Simon; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Zaránd, Gergely; Demler, Eugene A.

    2018-04-01

    We propose a scheme to realize the Kondo model with tunable anisotropy using alkaline-earth atoms in an optical lattice. The new feature of our setup is Floquet engineering of interactions using time-dependent Zeeman shifts, that can be realized either using state-dependent optical Stark shifts or magnetic fields. The properties of the resulting Kondo model strongly depend on the anisotropy of the ferromagnetic interactions. In particular, easy-plane couplings give rise to Kondo singlet formation even though microscopic interactions are all ferromagnetic. We discuss both equilibrium and dynamical properties of the system that can be measured with ultracold atoms, including the impurity spin susceptibility, the impurity spin relaxation rate, as well as the equilibrium and dynamical spin correlations between the impurity and the ferromagnetic bath atoms. We analyze the nonequilibrium time evolution of the system using a variational non-Gaussian approach, which allows us to explore coherent dynamics over both short and long timescales, as set by the bandwidth and the Kondo singlet formation, respectively. In the quench-type experiments, when the Kondo interaction is suddenly switched on, we find that real-time dynamics shows crossovers reminiscent of poor man's renormalization group flow used to describe equilibrium systems. For bare easy-plane ferromagnetic couplings, this allows us to follow the formation of the Kondo screening cloud as the dynamics crosses over from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic behavior. On the other side of the phase diagram, our scheme makes it possible to measure quantum corrections to the well-known Korringa law describing the temperature dependence of the impurity spin relaxation rate. Theoretical results discussed in our paper can be measured using currently available experimental techniques.

  5. ESAS-Derived Earth Departure Stage Design for Human Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flaherty, Kevin; Grant, Michael; Korzun, Ashley; Malo-Molina, Faure; Steinfeldt, Bradley; Stahl, Benjamin; Wilhite, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration has set the nation on a course to have humans on Mars as early as 2030. To reduce the cost and risk associated with human Mars exploration, NASA is planning for the Mars architecture to leverage the lunar architecture as fully as possible. This study takes the defined launch vehicles and system capabilities from ESAS and extends their application to DRM 3.0 to design an Earth Departure Stage suitable for the cargo and crew missions to Mars. The impact of a propellant depot in LEO was assessed and sLzed for use with the EDS. To quantitatively assess and compare the effectiveness of alternative designs, an initial baseline architecture was defined using the ESAS launch vehicles and DRM 3.0. The baseline architecture uses three NTR engines, LH2 propellant, no propellant depot in LEO, and launches on the Ares I and Ares V. The Mars transfer and surface elements from DRM 3.0 were considered to be fixed payloads in the design of the EDS. Feasible architecture alternatives were identified from previous architecture studies and anticipated capabilities and compiled in a morphological matrix. ESAS FOMs were used to determine the most critical design attributes for the effectiveness of the EDS. The ESAS-derived FOMs used in this study to assess alternative designs are effectiveness and performance, affordability, reliability, and risk. The individual FOMs were prioritized using the AHP, a method for pairwise comparison. All trades performed were evaluated with respect to the weighted FOMs, creating a Pareto frontier of equivalently ideal solutions. Additionally, each design on the frontier was evaluated based on its fulfillment of the weighted FOMs using TOPSIS, a quantitative method for ordinal ranking of the alternatives. The designs were assessed in an integrated environment using physics-based models for subsystem analysis where possible. However, for certain attributes such as engine type, historical, performance-based mass estimating

  6. Applications of ISES for meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Try, Paul D.

    1990-01-01

    The results are summarized from an initial assessment of the potential real-time meteorological requirements for the data from Eos systems. Eos research scientists associated with facility instruments, investigator instruments, and interdisciplinary groups with data related to meteorological support were contacted, along with those from the normal operational user and technique development groups. Two types of activities indicated the greatest need for real-time Eos data: technology transfer groups (e.g., NOAA's Forecasting System Laboratory and the DOD development laboratories), and field testing groups with airborne operations. A special concern was expressed by several non-U.S. participants who desire a direct downlink to be sure of rapid receipt of the data for their area of interest. Several potential experiments or demonstrations are recommended for ISES which include support for hurricane/typhoon forecasting, space shuttle reentry, severe weather forecasting (using microphysical cloud classification techniques), field testing, and quick reaction of instrumented aircraft to measure such events as polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic eruptions.

  7. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  8. Explore Earth Science Datasets for STEM with the NASA GES DISC Online Visualization and Analysis Tool, Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z.; Acker, J.; Kempler, S.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center(DISC) is one of twelve NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Data Centers that provide Earth science data, information, and services to users around the world including research and application scientists, students, citizen scientists, etc. The GESDISC is the home (archive) of remote sensing datasets for NASA Precipitation and Hydrology, Atmospheric Composition and Dynamics, etc. To facilitate Earth science data access, the GES DISC has been developing user-friendly data services for users at different levels in different countries. Among them, the Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni, http:giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) allows users to explore satellite-based datasets using sophisticated analyses and visualization without downloading data and software, which is particularly suitable for novices (such as students) to use NASA datasets in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) activities. In this presentation, we will briefly introduce Giovanni along with examples for STEM activities.

  9. Human Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: An Update on NASA's Current Status and Proposed Activities for Small Body Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Larman, K. T.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. Dynamical Assessment: The current near-term NASA human spaceflight capability is in the process of being defined while the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and Space Launch System (SLS) are still in development. Hence, those NEAs in more accessible heliocentric orbits relative to a minimal interplanetary exploration capability will be considered for the first missions. If total mission durations for the first voyages to NEAs are to be kept to less than one year, with minimal velocity changes, then NEA rendezvous missions ideally will take place within 0.1 AU of Earth (approx about 5 million km or 37 lunar distances). Human Exploration Considerations: These missions would be the first human expeditions to inter-planetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting detailed scientific investigations of these primitive objects. Current analyses of operational concepts suggest that stay times of 15 to 30 days may be possible at these destinations. In addition, the

  10. Human Health and Performance Considerations for Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan L.; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John B.

    2011-01-01

    This poster paper reviews the Astronaut health and performance issues for a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission. Risks and other considerations are grouped into four categories and they are characterized for criticality.

  11. Designing a network of critical zone observatories to explore the living skin of the terrestrial Earth

    Treesearch

    Susan L. Brantley; William H. McDowell; William E. Dietrich; Timothy S. White; Praveen Kumar; Suzanne P. Anderson; Jon Chorover; Kathleen Ann Lohse; Roger C. Bales; Daniel D. Richter; Gordon Grant; Jérôme Gaillardet

    2017-01-01

    The critical zone (CZ), the dynamic living skin of the Earth, extends from the top of the vegetative canopy through the soil and down to fresh bedrock and the bottom of the groundwater. All humans live in and depend on the CZ. This zone has three co-evolving surfaces: the top of the vegetative canopy, the ground surface, and a deep subsurface below which Earth’s...

  12. Collaborative Business Models for Exploration: - The Expansion of Public-Private Partnerships to Enable Exploration and Improve the Quality of Life on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    In May of 2007, The Space Life Sciences Strategy was published, launching a series of efforts aimed at driving human health and performance innovations that both meet space flight needs and benefit life on Earth. These efforts, led by the Space Life Science Directorate (SLSD) at the NASA Johnson Space Center, led to the development and implementation of the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) in October 2010. The NHHPC now has over 100 members including seven NASA centers; other federal agencies; some of the International Space Station partners; industry; academia and non-profits. The NHHPC seeks to share best practices, develop collaborative projects and experiment with open collaboration techniques such as crowdsourcing. Using this approach, the NHHPC collaborative projects are anticipated to be at the earliest possible stage of development utilizing the many possible public-private partnerships in this center. Two workshops have been successfully conducted in 2011 (January and October) with a third workshop planned for the spring of 2012. The challenges of space flight are similar in many respects to providing health care and environmental monitoring in challenging settings on the earth. These challenges to technology development include the need for low power consumption, low weight, in-situ analysis, operator independence (i.e., minimal training), robustness, and limited resupply or maintenance. When similar technology challenges are identified (such as the need to provide and monitor a safe water supply or develop a portable medical diagnostic device for remote use), opportunities arise for public-private partnerships to engage in co-creation of novel approaches for space exploration and health and environmental applications on earth. This approach can enable the use of shared resources to reduce costs, engage other organizations and the public in participatory exploration (solving real-world problems), and provide technologies with multiple uses

  13. A knowledge discovery approach to explore some Sun/Earth's climate relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pou, A.; Valdes, J.

    2009-09-01

    Recent developments in data driven modeling and analysis including computational intelligence techniques may throw new light on the exploration of possible solar activity/Earth's climate relationships. Here we present three different examples of methodologies under development and some preliminary results. a) Multivariate Time Series Model Mining (MVTSMM) analysis [1] and Genetic Programming were applied to Greenland's CRETE Site-E ice core Delta O18/16 values (1721-1983, one year interval sampling) and with sunspots activity (International Sunspots Number) during the same time span [2]. According to the results (1771 to 1933 period) indicated by the lag importance spectrum obtained with MVTSMM analysis, the sun's activity itself shows high internal variability and is inhomogeneous. The Dalton minimum, a low activity period usually considered to occur between 1790 and 1830, is shown to be a complex structure beginning about 1778 and ending in 1840. Apparently, the system entered a new state in 1912. In the joint analysis, the analytical tool uses extensively the solar activity data to explain the Delta O18/16 data, showing areas of stable patterns, lag drifts and abrupt pattern disruptions, indicating changes of state in the solar processes of several kinds at different times. b) A similar MVTSMM analysis was conducted on Central England Temperature (CET) and solar activity data using Group Sunspots Number (GSN) with a useful interpretive span of time from 1771 to 1916. The joint analysis involved large amounts of solar activity variables, except for the 1843-1862 and 1877-1889 periods where the discovered models used much less information from GSN data. As with the Crete-E/ISN analysis the lag importance spectrum of CET/GSN shows a number of clear discontinuities. A quarter of them are present in both (1778-1779, 1806, 1860-1862, 1912-1913). These experiments were designed for testing methodologies and not for specific hypothesis testing. However, it seems that

  14. Perennial Lakeshores as an Exploration Target for Microbial Remains on Mars Based on Earth Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, T. C.

    2013-12-01

    Exploring for evidence of present or past life is a key part of the NASA Mars program. Satellite data show the existence on the Martian surface of several types of potentially habitable settings for past microbial life if it existed, including remnants of former environments still in morphologic context. Of these environments, lakeshores are a prime target for future rover missions because they manifest a past critical interface between atmosphere, sunlit water, and a solid substrate. Case studies were made of possible analog remnants from now desiccated late Pleistocene perennial lakes of the western Basin and Range province, USA, to better understand microbial remains in this setting. These case studies show that the best preserved and most concentrated records of fossil microbial life developed in the upper photic zone of former shorezones where: 1) coeval clastic sedimentation was low; 2) a solid substrate such as coarse clasts or bedrock was present for colonization; 3) lake level was relatively stable for at least a few thousand years; and 4) chemical conditions promoted some mineral precipitation, such as of calcite. Although not a prerequisite, microbial accumulations also are common in the studied Pleistocene lakes where effluent from piedmont groundwater mixed with chemically different lake water either diffusely in the beachface or at springs in the shoreface. Martian river deltas with discernible multi-sequence deposits are a good indicator of past stable levels in associated lakes because such deltaic intervals record a sustained history. An example is the Eberswalde delta. River discharge delivered sediment to build the deltas and concurrently added water to maintain the lakes. A distinction between river deltas and alluvial fans or fan deltas is necessary to identify these targets, and this can easily be achieved using Earth case studies. An appreciation that river deltas are not reclassified as alluvial fans simply because they were abandoned also

  15. Life Support and Habitation Systems: Crew Support and Protection for Human Exploration Missions Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently expanded its mission set for possible future human exploration missions. With multiple options there is interest in identifying technology needs across these missions to focus technology investments. In addition to the Moon and other destinations in cis-lunar space, other destinations including Near Earth Objects and Mars have been added for consideration. Recently, technology programs and projects have been re-organizing to better meet the Agency s strategic goals and address needs across these potential future missions. Life Support and Habitation Systems (LSHS) is one of 10 Foundational Domains as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Exploration Technology Development Program. The chief goal of LSHS is to develop and mature advanced technologies to sustain human life on missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to increase reliability, reduce dependency on resupply and increase vehicle self-sufficiency. For long duration exploration missions, further closure of life support systems is of interest. Focus includes key technologies for atmosphere revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control and crew accommodations. Other areas of focus include technologies for radiation protection, environmental monitoring and fire protection. The aim is to recover additional consumable mass, reduce requirements for power, volume, heat rejection, crew involvement, and meet exploration vehicle requirements. This paper provides a brief description of the LSHS Foundational Domain as defined for fiscal year 2011.

  16. A Hands-on Exploration of the Retrograde Motion of Mars as Seen from the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincelli, M. M.; Otranto, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a set of activities based on the use of a celestial simulator to gain insights into the retrograde motion of Mars as seen from the Earth. These activities provide a useful link between the heliocentric concepts taught in schools and those tackled in typical introductory physics courses based on classical mechanics for…

  17. Anomalously high potentials observed on ISEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C.; Krinsky, I. S.; Torbert, R. B.; Olsen, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Data from two electric field experiments and from the plasma composition experiment on ISEE-1 are used to show that the spacecraft charged to close to -70 V in sunlight at 0700 UT on March 17, 1978. Data from the electron spectrometer experiment show that there was a potential barrier of -10 to -20 V about the spacecraft during this event. The potential barrier was effective in turning back emitted photoelectrons to the spacecraft. The stringent electrostatic cleanliness specifications imposed on ISEE make the presence of differential charging unlikely. Modeling of this event is required to determine if the barrier was produced by the presence of space charge.

  18. Sun, Earth and man: The need to know. The quest for knowledge of Sun-Earth relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stafford, E. P.

    1982-01-01

    Solar physics and the effects of emanations from the Sun on communications and Earth's weather and climate are discussed. Scientific interest in the solar system from the old Stone Age to the present is reviewed with particular emphasis on the objectives sought and information obtained by Explorer satellites, Pioneer satellites, Skylab, Helios, ISEE, the solar maximum mission, and the Dynamics Explorer. The goals of missions planned for the 1980's are discussed including those using space shuttle, Spacelab, the Solar Mesosphere Explorer, the solar optical telescope, the upper atmosphere research satellite, and the solar probe. The objectives of the international solar polar mission and of the Origin of Plasma in Earth's Neighborhood mission are also delineated. Other missions being considered are reviewed and the prospect of taming the fusion process to provide clean, harmless electrical energy like that obtained from the Sun is entertained.

  19. Beyond Earth's boundaries: Human exploration of the Solar System in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This is an annual report describing work accomplished in developing the knowledge base that will permit informed recommendations and decisions concerning national space policy and the goal of human expansion into the solar system. The following topics are presented: (1) pathways to human exploration; (2) human exploration case studies; (3) case study results and assessment; (4) exploration program implementation strategy; (5) approach to international cooperation; (6) recommendations; and (7) future horizons.

  20. Planetary exploration - Earth's new horizon /12th von Karman Lecture/. [ground based and spaceborne

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurmeier, H. M.

    1975-01-01

    The article gives an account of the history of unmanned exploration of the planets of the solar system, including both earthbound exploration and exploration with spacecraft. Examples of images of the Martian surface are presented along with images obtained in Jupiter and Mercury flybys. Data are presented on the growth of US launch vehicle performance capability, navigation performance, and planetary data rate capability. Basic information regarding the nature of the scientific experiments aboard the Pioneer and Viking spacecraft is given. A case is put forward for the ongoing exploration of the planets as a worthwhile endeavor for man.

  1. Use of data from space for earth resources exploration and management in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamoreaux, P. E.; Henry, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    The University of Alabama, the Geological Survey of Alabama, and the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center are involved in an interagency, interdisciplinary effort to use remotely sensed, multispectral observations to yield improved and timely assessment of earth resources and environmental quality in Alabama. It is the goal of this effort to interpret these data and provide them in a format which is meaningful to and readily usable by agencies, industries, and individuals who are potential users throughout the State.

  2. Low cost missions to explore the diversity of near Earth objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S.; Delamere, Alan

    1992-01-01

    We propose a series of low-cost flyby missions to perform a reconnaissance of near-Earth cometary nuclei and asteroids. The primary scientific goal is to study the physical and chemical diversity in these objects. The mission concept is based on the Pegasus launch vehicle. Mission costs, inclusive of launch, development, mission operations, and analysis are expected to be near $50 M per mission. Launch opportunities occur in all years. The benefits of this reconnaissance to society are stressed.

  3. Data-driven exploration of copper mineralogy and its application to Earth's near-surface oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, S. M.; Eleish, A.; Runyon, S.; Prabhu, A.; Fox, P. A.; Ralph, J.; Golden, J. J.; Downs, R. T.; Liu, C.; Meyer, M.; Hazen, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's atmospheric composition has changed radically throughout geologic history.1,2 The oxidation of our atmosphere, driven by biology, began with the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) 2.5 Ga and has heavily influenced Earth's near surface mineralogy. Therefore, temporal trends in mineral occurrence elucidate large and small scale geologic and biologic processes. Cu, and other first-row transition elements, are of particular interest due to their variation in valance state and sensitivity to ƒO2. Widespread formation of oxidized Cu mineral species (Cu2+) would not have been possible prior to the GOE and we have found that the proportion of oxidized Cu minerals increased steadily with the increase in atmospheric O2 on Earth's surface (see Fig. 1). To better characterize the changes in Cu mineralogy through time, we have employed advanced analytical and visualization methods. These techniques rely on large and growing mineral databases (e.g., rruff.info, mindat.org, earthchem.org, usgs.gov) and allow us to quantify and visualize multi-dimensional trends.5

  4. Truncation effects in computing free wobble/nutation modes explored using a simple Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, Behnam; Rochester, Michael G.; Rogers, Christopher M.

    2017-06-01

    The displacement field accompanying the wobble/nutation of the Earth is conventionally represented by an infinite chain of toroidal and spheroidal vector spherical harmonics, coupled by rotation and ellipticity. Numerical solutions for the eigenperiods require truncation of that chain, and the standard approaches using the linear momentum description (LMD) of deformation during wobble/nutation have truncated it at very low degrees, usually degree 3 or 4, and at most degree 5. The effects of such heavy truncation on the computed eigenperiods have hardly been examined. We here investigate the truncation effects on the periods of the free wobble/nutation modes using a simplified Earth model consisting of a homogeneous incompressible inviscid liquid outer core with a rigid (but not fixed) inner core and mantle. A novel Galerkin method is implemented using a Clairaut coordinate system to solve the classic Poincaré problem in the liquid core and, to close the problem, we use the Lagrangean formulation of the Liouville equation for each of the solid parts of the Earth model. We find that, except for the free inner core nutation (FICN), the periods of the free rotational modes converge rather quickly. The period of the tiltover mode is found to excellent accuracy. The computed periods of the Chandler wobble and free core nutation are nearly identical to the values cited in the literature for similar Earth models, but that for the inner core wobble is slightly different. Truncation at low-degree harmonics causes the FICN period to fluctuate over a range as large as 90 sd, with different values at different truncation levels. For example, truncation at degree 6 gives a period of 752 sd (almost identical with the value cited in the literature for such an Earth model) but truncation at degree 24 is required to obtain convergence, and the resulting period is 746 ± 1 sd, as more terms are included, with no guarantee that its proximity to earlier values is other than fortuitous

  5. Truncation Effects in Computing Free Wobble/Nutation Modes Explored Using a Simple Earth Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, B.; Rochester, M. G.; Rogers, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    The displacement field accompanying the wobble/nutation of the Earth is conventionally represented by an infinite chain of toroidal and spheroidal vector spherical harmonics, coupled by rotation and ellipticity. Numerical solutions for the eigenperiods require truncation of that chain, and the standard approaches using the linear momentum description (LMD) of deformation during wobble/nutation have truncated it at very low degrees, usually degree 3 or 4, and at most degree 5. The effects of such heavy truncation on the computed eigenperiods have hardly been examined. We here investigate the truncation effects on the periods of the free wobble/nutation modes using a simplified Earth model consisting of a homogeneous incompressible inviscid liquid outer core with a rigid (but not fixed) inner core and mantle. A novel Galerkin method is implemented using a Clairaut coordinate system to solve the classic Poincare problem in the liquid core and, to close the problem, we use the Lagrangean formulation of the Liouville equation for each of the solid parts of the Earth model. We find that, except for the free inner core nutation (FICN), the periods of the free rotational modes converge rather quickly. The period of the tiltover mode (TOM) is found to excellent accuracy. The computed periods of the Chandler wobble (CW) and free core nutation (FCN) are nearly identical to the values cited in the literature for similar Earth models, but that for the inner core wobble (ICW) is slightly different. Truncation at low-degree harmonics causes the FICN period to fluctuate over a range as large as 90 sd, with different values at different truncation levels. For example, truncation at degree 6 gives a period of 752 sd (almost identical with the value cited in the literature for such an Earth model) but truncation at degree 24 is required to obtain convergence, and the resulting period is 746 sd, with no guarantee that its proximity to earlier values is other than fortuitous. We

  6. Becoming Earth Independent: Human-Automation-Robotics Integration Challenges for Future Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquez, Jessica J.

    2016-01-01

    Future exploration missions will require NASA to integrate more automation and robotics in order to accomplish mission objectives. This presentation will describe on the future challenges facing the human operator (astronaut, ground controllers) as we increase the amount of automation and robotics in spaceflight operations. It will describe how future exploration missions will have to adapt and evolve in order to deal with more complex missions and communication latencies. This presentation will outline future human-automation-robotic integration challenges.

  7. Using Google Earth to Explore Strain Rate Models of Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, G. A.; Bell, E. A.; Holt, W. E.

    2007-12-01

    A series of strain rate models for the Transverse Ranges of southern California were developed based on Quaternary fault slip data and geodetic data from high precision GPS stations in southern California. Pacific-North America velocity boundary conditions are applied for all models. Topography changes are calculated using the model dilatation rates, which predict crustal thickness changes under the assumption of Airy isostasy and a specified rate of crustal volume loss through erosion. The models were designed to produce graphical and numerical output representing the configuration of the region from 3 million years ago to 3 million years into the future at intervals of 50 thousand years. Using a North American reference frame, graphical output for the topography and faults and numerical output for locations of faults and points on the crust marked by the locations on cities were used to create data in KML format that can be used in Google Earth to represent time intervals of 50 thousand years. As markers familiar to students, the cities provide a geographic context that can be used to quantify crustal movement, using the Google Earth ruler tool. By comparing distances that markers for selected cities have moved in various parts of the region, students discover that the greatest amount of crustal deformation has occurred in the vicinity of the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates. Students can also identify areas of compression or extension by finding pairs of city markers that have converged or diverged, respectively, over time. The Google Earth layers also reveal that faults that are not parallel to the plate boundary have tended to rotate clockwise due to the right lateral motion along the plate boundary zone. KML TimeSpan markup was added to two versions of the model, enabling the layers to be displayed in an automatic sequenced loop for a movie effect. The data is also available as QuickTime (.mov) and Graphics Interchange Format (.gif

  8. Exploring the isopycnal mixing and helium-heat paradoxes in a suite of Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Abernathey, R.; Pradal, M.-A.

    2014-11-01

    This paper uses a suite of Earth System models which simulate the distribution of He isotopes and radiocarbon to examine two paradoxes in Earth science. The helium-heat paradox refers to the fact that helium emissions to the deep ocean are far lower than would be expected given the rate of geothermal heating, since both are thought to be the result of radioactive decay in the earth's interior. The isopycnal mixing paradox comes from the fact that many theoretical parameterizations of the isopycnal mixing coefficient ARedi that link it to baroclinic instability project it to be small (of order a few hundred m2 s-1) in the ocean interior away from boundary currents. However, direct observations using tracers and floats (largely in the upper ocean) suggest that values of this coefficient are an order of magnitude higher. Because helium isotopes equilibrate rapidly with the atmosphere, but radiocarbon equilibrates slowly, it might be thought that resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox in favor of the higher observational estimates of ARedi might also solve the helium paradox. In this paper we show that this is not the case. In a suite of models with different spatially constant and spatially varying values of ARedi the distribution of radiocarbon and helium isotopes is sensitive to the value of ARedi. However, away from strong helium sources in the Southeast Pacific, the relationship between the two is not sensitive, indicating that large-scale advection is the limiting process for removing helium and radiocarbon from the deep ocean. The helium isotopes, in turn, suggest a higher value of ARedi in the deep ocean than is seen in theoretical parameterizations based on baroclinic growth rates. We argue that a key part of resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox is to abandon the idea that ARedi has a direct relationship to local baroclinic instability and to the so called "thickness" mixing coefficient AGM.

  9. Geolokit: An interactive tool for visualising and exploring geoscientific data in Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllou, Antoine; Watlet, Arnaud; Bastin, Christophe

    2017-10-01

    Virtual globes have been developed to showcase different types of data combining a digital elevation model and basemaps of high resolution satellite imagery. Hence, they became a standard to share spatial data and information, although they suffer from a lack of toolboxes dedicated to the formatting of large geoscientific dataset. From this perspective, we developed Geolokit: a free and lightweight software that allows geoscientists - and every scientist working with spatial data - to import their data (e.g., sample collections, structural geology, cross-sections, field pictures, georeferenced maps), to handle and to transcribe them to Keyhole Markup Language (KML) files. KML files are then automatically opened in the Google Earth virtual globe and the spatial data accessed and shared. Geolokit comes with a large number of dedicated tools that can process and display: (i) multi-points data, (ii) scattered data interpolations, (iii) structural geology features in 2D and 3D, (iv) rose diagrams, stereonets and dip-plunge polar histograms, (v) cross-sections and oriented rasters, (vi) georeferenced field pictures, (vii) georeferenced maps and projected gridding. Therefore, together with Geolokit, Google Earth becomes not only a powerful georeferenced data viewer but also a stand-alone work platform. The toolbox (available online at http://www.geolokit.org) is written in Python, a high-level, cross-platform programming language and is accessible through a graphical user interface, designed to run in parallel with Google Earth, through a workflow that requires no additional third party software. Geolokit features are demonstrated in this paper using typical datasets gathered from two case studies illustrating its applicability at multiple scales of investigation: a petro-structural investigation of the Ile d'Yeu orthogneissic unit (Western France) and data collection of the Mariana oceanic subduction zone (Western Pacific).

  10. Exploring earth's atmosphere with radio occultation: contributions to weather, climate and space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthes, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    The launch of the proof-of-concept mission GPS/MET in 1995 began a revolution in profiling earth's atmosphere through radio occultation (RO). GPS/MET; subsequent single-satellite missions CHAMP, SAC-C, GRACE, METOP-A, and TerraSAR-X; and the six-satellite constellation, FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC, have proven the theoretical capabilities of RO to provide accurate and precise profiles of electron density in the ionosphere and refractivity, containing information on temperature and water vapor, in the stratosphere and troposphere. This paper summarizes results from these RO missions and the applications of RO observations to atmospheric research and operational weather analysis and prediction.

  11. Gamma-Ray Bursts and the Earth: Exploration of Atmospheric, Biological, Climatic, and Biogeochemical Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Brian C.; Melott, Adrian L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Laird, Claude M.; Medvedev, Mikhail V.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Hogan, Daniel P.; Ejzak, Larissa M.

    2005-11-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are likely to have made a number of significant impacts on the Earth during the last billion years. The gamma radiation from a burst within a few kiloparsecs would quickly deplete much of the Earth's protective ozone layer, allowing an increase in solar UVB radiation reaching the surface. This radiation is harmful to life, damaging DNA and causing sunburn. In addition, NO2 produced in the atmosphere would cause a decrease in visible sunlight reaching the surface and could cause global cooling. Nitric acid rain could stress portions of the biosphere, but the increased nitrate deposition could be helpful to land plants. We have used a two-dimensional atmospheric model to investigate the effects on the Earth's atmosphere of GRBs delivering a range of fluences, at various latitudes, at the equinoxes and solstices, and at different times of day. We have estimated DNA damage levels caused by increased solar UVB radiation, reduction in solar visible light due to NO2 opacity, and deposition of nitrates through rainout of HNO3. For the ``typical'' nearest burst in the last billion years, we find globally averaged ozone depletion up to 38%. Localized depletion reaches as much as 74%. Significant global depletion (at least 10%) persists up to about 7 yr after the burst. Our results depend strongly on time of year and latitude over which the burst occurs. The impact scales with the total fluence of the GRB at the Earth but is insensitive to the time of day of the burst and its duration (1-1000 s). We find DNA damage of up to 16 times the normal annual global average, well above lethal levels for simple life forms such as phytoplankton. The greatest damage occurs at mid- to low latitudes. We find reductions in visible sunlight of a few percent, primarily in the polar regions. Nitrate deposition similar to or slightly greater than that currently caused by lightning is also observed, lasting several years. We discuss how these results support the

  12. Guiding Requirements for Designing Life Support System Architectures for Crewed Exploration Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development in areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-flight maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.

  13. A Delphi-Based Framework for systems architecting of in-orbit exploration infrastructure for human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliakbargolkar, Alessandro; Crawley, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The current debate in the U.S. Human Spaceflight Program focuses on the development of the next generation of man-rated heavy lift launch vehicles. While launch vehicle systems are of critical importance for future exploration, a comprehensive analysis of the entire exploration infrastructure is required to avoid costly pitfalls at early stages of the design process. This paper addresses this need by presenting a Delphi-Based Systems Architecting Framework for integrated architectural analysis of future in-orbit infrastructure for human space exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit. The paper is structured in two parts. The first part consists of an expert elicitation study to identify objectives for the in-space transportation infrastructure. The study was conducted between November 2011 and January 2012 with 15 senior experts involved in human spaceflight in the United States and Europe. The elicitation study included the formation of three expert panels representing exploration, science, and policy stakeholders engaged in a 3-round Delphi study. The rationale behind the Delphi approach, as imported from social science research, is discussed. Finally, a novel version of the Delphi method is presented and applied to technical decision-making and systems architecting in the context of human space exploration. The second part of the paper describes a tradespace exploration study of in-orbit infrastructure coupled with a requirements definition exercise informed by expert elicitation. The uncertainties associated with technical requirements and stakeholder goals are explicitly considered in the analysis. The outcome of the expert elicitation process portrays an integrated view of perceived stakeholder needs within the human spaceflight community. Needs are subsequently converted into requirements and coupled to the system architectures of interest to analyze the correlation between exploration, science, and policy goals. Pareto analysis is used to identify architectures

  14. ISECG Mission Scenarios and Their Role in Informing Next Steps for Human Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Christopher J.; Mongrard, Olivier; Satoh, Naoki; Goodliff, Kandyce; Seaman, Calvin H.; Troutman, Patrick; Martin, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) was established in response to The Global Exploration Strategy (GES): The Framework for Coordination developed by fourteen space agencies* and released in May 2007. This GES Framework Document recognizes that preparing for human space exploration is a stepwise process, starting with basic knowledge and culminating in a sustained human presence in deep space. ISECG has developed several optional global exploration mission scenarios enabling the phased transition from human operations in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) to human missions beyond LEO leading ultimately to human missions to cis-lunar space, the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids, Mars and its environs. Mission scenarios provide the opportunity for judging various exploration approaches in a manner consistent with agreed international goals and strategies. Each ISECG notional mission scenario reflects a series of coordinated human and robotic exploration missions over a 25-year horizon. Mission scenarios are intended to provide insights into next steps for agency investments, following on the success of the ISS. They also provide a framework for advancing the definition of Design Reference Missions (DRMs) and the concepts for capabilities contained within. Each of the human missions contained in the scenarios has been characterized by a DRM which is a top level definition of mission sequence and the capabilities needed to execute that mission. While DRMs are generally destination focused, they will comprise capabilities which are reused or evolved from capabilities used at other destinations. In this way, an evolutionary approach to developing a robust set of capabilities to sustainably explore our solar system is defined. Agencies also recognize that jointly planning for our next steps, building on the accomplishments of ISS, is important to ensuring the robustness and sustainability of any human

  15. Life Support and Habitation Systems: Crew Support and Protection for Human Exploration Missions Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Life Support and Habitation Systems (LSHS) is one of 10 Foundational Domains as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s proposed Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration (ETDD) Program. LSHS will develop and mature technologies to sustain life on long duration human missions beyond Low Earth Orbit that are reliable, have minimal logistics supply and increase self-sufficiency. For long duration exploration missions, further closure of life support systems is paramount, including focus on key technologies for atmosphere revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control and crew accommodation that recover additional consumable mass, reduce requirements for power, volume, heat rejection, crew involvement, and which have increased reliability and capability. Other areas of focus include technologies for radiation protection, environmental monitoring and fire protection. Beyond LEO, return to Earth will be constrained. The potability of recycled water and purity of regenerated air must be measured and certified aboard the spacecraft. Missions must be able to recover from fire events through early detection, use of non-toxic suppression agents, and operation of recovery systems that protect on-board Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) hardware. Without the protection of the Earth s geomagnetic field, missions beyond LEO must have improved radiation shielding and dosimetry, as well as warning systems to protect the crew against solar particle events. This paper will describe plans for the new LSHS Foundational Domain and mission factors that will shape its technology development portfolio.

  16. Explore Earth Science Datasets for STEM with the NASA GES DISC Online Visualization and Analysis Tool, GIOVANNI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Acker, J. G.; Kempler, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) is one of twelve NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Data Centers that provide Earth science data, information, and services to research scientists, applications scientists, applications users, and students around the world. The GES DISC is the home (archive) of NASA Precipitation and Hydrology, as well as Atmospheric Composition and Dynamics remote sensing data and information. To facilitate Earth science data access, the GES DISC has been developing user-friendly data services for users at different levels. Among them, the Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/) allows users to explore satellite-based data using sophisticated analyses and visualizations without downloading data and software, which is particularly suitable for novices to use NASA datasets in STEM activities. In this presentation, we will briefly introduce GIOVANNI and recommend datasets for STEM. Examples of using these datasets in STEM activities will be presented as well.

  17. High Earth orbit design for lunar assisted small Explorer class missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, M.; Hametz, M.; Cooley, J.; Skillman, D.

    1994-01-01

    Small Expendable launch vehicles are capable of injecting modest payloads into high Earth orbits having apogee near the lunar distance. However, lunar and solar perturbations can quickly lower perigee and cause premature reentry. Costly perigee raising maneuvers by the spacecraft are required to maintain the orbit. In addition, the range of inclinations achievable is limited to those of launch sites unless costly spacecraft maneuvers are performed. This study investigates the use of a lunar swingby in a near-Hohmann transfer trajectory to raise perigee into the 8 to 25 solar radius range and reach a wide variety of inclinations without spacecraft maneuvers. It is found that extremely stable orbits can be obtained if the postencounter spacecraft orbital period is one-half of a lunar sidereal revolution and the Earth-vehicle-Moon geometry is within a specified range. Criteria for achieving stable orbits with various perigee heights and ecliptic inclinations are developed, and the sensitivity of the resulting mission orbits to transfer trajectory injection (TTI) errors is examined. It is shown that carefully designed orbits yield lifetimes of several years, with excellent ground station coverage characteristics and minimal eclipses. A phasing loop error correction strategy is considered with the spacecraft propulsion system delta V demand for TTI error correction and a postlunar encounter apogee trim maneuver typically in the 30 to 120 meters per second range.

  18. Ising tricriticality in the extended Hubbard model with bond dimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehske, Holger; Ejima, Satoshi; Lange, Florian; Essler, Fabian H. L.

    We explore the quantum phase transition between Peierls and charge-density-wave insulating states in the one-dimensional, half-filled, extended Hubbard model with explicit bond dimerization. We show that the critical line of the continuous Ising transition terminates at a tricritical point, belonging to the universality class of the tricritical Ising model with central charge c=7/10. Above this point, the quantum phase transition becomes first order. Employing a numerical matrix-product-state based (infinite) density-matrix renormalization group method we determine the ground-state phase diagram, the spin and two-particle charge excitations gaps, and the entanglement properties of the model with high precision. Performing a bosonization analysis we can derive a field description of the transition region in terms of a triple sine-Gordon model. This allows us to derive field theory predictions for the power-law (exponential) decay of the density-density (spin-spin) and bond-order-wave correlation functions, which are found to be in excellent agreement with our numerical results. This work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Germany), SFB 652, project B5, and by the EPSRC under Grant No. EP/N01930X/1 (FHLE).

  19. Exploring Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production Using Earth Observation Satellites and Statistical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, M.; Bounoua, L.

    2004-12-01

    A unique combination of satellite and socio-economic data were used to explore the relationship between human consumption and the carbon cycle. Biophysical models were applied to consumption data to estimate the annual amount of Earth's terrestrial net primary production humans require for food, fiber and fuel using the same modeling architecture as satellite-supported NPP measurements. The amount of Earth's NPP required to support human activities is a powerful measure of the aggregate human impacts on the biosphere and indicator of societal vulnerability to climate change. Equations were developed estimating the amount of landscape-level NPP required to generate all the products consumed by 230 countries including; vegetal foods, meat, milk, eggs, wood, fuel-wood, paper and fiber. The amount of NPP required was calculated on a per capita basis and projected onto a global map of population to create a spatially explicit map of NPP-carbon demand in units of elemental carbon. NPP demand was compared to a map of Earth's average annual net primary production or supply created using 17 years (1982-1998) of AVHRR vegetation index to produce a geographically accurate balance sheet of terrestrial NPP-carbon supply and demand. Globally, humans consume 20 percent of Earth's total net primary production on land. Regionally the NPP-carbon balance percentage varies from 6 to over 70 percent and locally from near 0 to over 30,000 percent in major urban areas. The uneven distribution of NPP-carbon supply and demand, indicate the degree to which various human populations rely on NPP imports, are vulnerable to climate change and suggest policy options for slowing future growth in NPP demand.

  20. Aerospace technology can be applied to exploration 'back on earth'. [offshore petroleum resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1977-01-01

    Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum exploration are described. Attention is given to seismic reflection techniques, sea-floor mapping, remote geochemical sensing, improved drilling methods and down-hole acoustic concepts, such as down-hole seismic tomography. The seismic reflection techniques include monitoring of swept-frequency explosive or solid-propellant seismic sources, as well as aerial seismic surveys. Telemetry and processing of seismic data may also be performed through use of aerospace technology. Sea-floor sonor imaging and a computer-aided system of geologic analogies for petroleum exploration are also considered.

  1. International space station accomplishments update: Scientific discovery, advancing future exploration, and benefits brought home to earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of “ocular syndrome” affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new “cold flame” phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28

  2. Exploring the isopycnal mixing and helium-heat paradoxes in a suite of Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Pradal, M.-A.; Abernathey, R.

    2015-07-01

    This paper uses a suite of Earth system models which simulate the distribution of He isotopes and radiocarbon to examine two paradoxes in Earth science, each of which results from an inconsistency between theoretically motivated global energy balances and direct observations. The helium-heat paradox refers to the fact that helium emissions to the deep ocean are far lower than would be expected given the rate of geothermal heating, since both are thought to be the result of radioactive decay in Earth's interior. The isopycnal mixing paradox comes from the fact that many theoretical parameterizations of the isopycnal mixing coefficient ARedi that link it to baroclinic instability project it to be small (of order a few hundred m2 s-1) in the ocean interior away from boundary currents. However, direct observations using tracers and floats (largely in the upper ocean) suggest that values of this coefficient are an order of magnitude higher. Helium isotopes equilibrate rapidly with the atmosphere and thus exhibit large gradients along isopycnals while radiocarbon equilibrates slowly and thus exhibits smaller gradients along isopycnals. Thus it might be thought that resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox in favor of the higher observational estimates of ARedi might also solve the helium paradox, by increasing the transport of mantle helium to the surface more than it would radiocarbon. In this paper we show that this is not the case. In a suite of models with different spatially constant and spatially varying values of ARedi the distribution of radiocarbon and helium isotopes is sensitive to the value of ARedi. However, away from strong helium sources in the southeastern Pacific, the relationship between the two is not sensitive, indicating that large-scale advection is the limiting process for removing helium and radiocarbon from the deep ocean. The helium isotopes, in turn, suggest a higher value of ARedi below the thermocline than is seen in theoretical

  3. International Space Station Accomplishments Update: Scientific Discovery, Advancing Future Exploration, and Benefits Brought Home to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; hide

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of "ocular syndrome" affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new "cold flame" phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28 million

  4. Exploring the isopycnal mixing and helium–heat paradoxes in a suite of Earth system models

    DOE PAGES

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Pradal, M.-A.; Abernathey, R.

    2015-07-27

    This paper uses a suite of Earth system models which simulate the distribution of He isotopes and radiocarbon to examine two paradoxes in Earth science, each of which results from an inconsistency between theoretically motivated global energy balances and direct observations. The helium–heat paradox refers to the fact that helium emissions to the deep ocean are far lower than would be expected given the rate of geothermal heating, since both are thought to be the result of radioactive decay in Earth's interior. The isopycnal mixing paradox comes from the fact that many theoretical parameterizations of the isopycnal mixing coefficient Amore » Redi that link it to baroclinic instability project it to be small (of order a few hundred m 2 s −1) in the ocean interior away from boundary currents. However, direct observations using tracers and floats (largely in the upper ocean) suggest that values of this coefficient are an order of magnitude higher. Helium isotopes equilibrate rapidly with the atmosphere and thus exhibit large gradients along isopycnals while radiocarbon equilibrates slowly and thus exhibits smaller gradients along isopycnals. Thus it might be thought that resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox in favor of the higher observational estimates of A Redi might also solve the helium paradox, by increasing the transport of mantle helium to the surface more than it would radiocarbon. In this paper we show that this is not the case. In a suite of models with different spatially constant and spatially varying values of A Redi the distribution of radiocarbon and helium isotopes is sensitive to the value of A Redi. However, away from strong helium sources in the southeastern Pacific, the relationship between the two is not sensitive, indicating that large-scale advection is the limiting process for removing helium and radiocarbon from the deep ocean. The helium isotopes, in turn, suggest a higher value of A Redi below the thermocline than is seen in

  5. Exploring the Atmosphere of Neoproterozoic Earth: The Effect of O2 on Haze Formation and Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörst, Sarah M.; He, Chao; Ugelow, Melissa S.; Jellinek, A. Mark; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies of haze formation in the atmosphere of the early Earth have focused on N2/CO2/CH4 atmospheres. Here, we experimentally investigate the effect of O2 on the formation and composition of aerosols to improve our understanding of haze formation on the Neoproterozoic Earth. We obtained in situ size, particle density, and composition measurements of aerosol particles produced from N2/CO2/CH4/O2 gas mixtures subjected to FUV radiation (115–400 nm) for a range of initial CO2/CH4/O2 mixing ratios (O2 ranging from 2 ppm to 0.2%). At the lowest O2 concentration (2 ppm), the addition increased particle production for all but one gas mixture. At higher oxygen concentrations (20 ppm and greater), particles are still produced, but the addition of O2 decreases the production rate. Both the particle size and number density decrease with increasing O2, indicating that O2 affects particle nucleation and growth. The particle density increases with increasing O2. The addition of CO2 and O2 not only increases the amount of oxygen in the aerosol, but it also increases the degree of nitrogen incorporation. In particular, the addition of O2 results in the formation of nitrate-bearing molecules. The fact that the presence of oxygen-bearing molecules increases the efficiency of nitrogen fixation has implications for the role of haze as a source of molecules required for the origin and evolution of life. The composition changes also likely affect the absorption and scattering behavior of these particles but optical property measurements are required to fully understand the implications for the effect on the planetary radiative energy balance and climate.

  6. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of

  7. The Voyage of Exploration and Discovery: Earth-Moon, Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph is a printout of a presentation which originally contained multimedia components. The presentation summarizes the accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, with numerous images and video clips of Saturn, its rings, and its moons. The presentation also summarizes a feasibility analysis of the Neptune-Triton Explorer (NExTEP).

  8. Exploring the Moon: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Earth and Space Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educational guide concerns exploring the moon. Activities are divided into three units: Pre-Apollo, Learning from Apollo, and The Future. These correspond, at least roughly, to exercises that can be done before the Lunar Sample Disk (available from NASA) arrives to the school (Pre-Apollo), while it is there (Learning from Apollo), and after…

  9. Astronaut photography of the earth - Low cost images for resource exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    Applications for photographs taken with handheld cameras by astronauts on the Space Shuttle are examined. The amount, types, and quality of photographs taken between 1981 and 1986 are described. Examples of these photographs and a portion of a map displaying the coverage of these photographs are presented. The possible use of handheld Space Shuttle photography in conjunction with Landsat mosaics for geologic exploration is discussed.

  10. Exploring Research Contributions of the North American Carbon Program using Google Earth and Google Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, P. C.; Wilcox, L. E.; Morrell, A.

    2009-12-01

    The central objective of the North American Carbon Program (NACP), a core element of the US Global Change Research Program, is to quantify the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane in North America and adjacent ocean regions. The NACP consists of a wide range of investigators at universities and federal research centers. Although many of these investigators have worked together in the past, many have had few prior interactions and may not know of similar work within knowledge domains, much less across the diversity of environments and scientific approaches in the Program. Coordinating interactions and sharing data are major challenges in conducting NACP. The Google Earth and Google Map Collections on the NACP website (www.nacarbon.org) provide a geographical view of the research products contributed by each core and affiliated NACP project. Other relevant data sources (e.g. AERONET, LVIS) can also be browsed in spatial context with NACP contributions. Each contribution links to project-oriented metadata, or “project profiles”, that provide a greater understanding of the scientific and social context of each dataset and are an important means of communicating within the NACP and to the larger carbon cycle science community. Project profiles store information such as a project's title, leaders, participants, an abstract, keywords, funding agencies, associated intensive campaigns, expected data products, data needs, publications, and URLs to associated data centers, datasets, and metadata. Data products are research contributions that include biometric inventories, flux tower estimates, remote sensing land cover products, tools, services, and model inputs / outputs. Project leaders have been asked to identify these contributions to the site level whenever possible, either through simple latitude/longitude pair, or by uploading a KML, KMZ, or shape file. Project leaders may select custom icons to graphically categorize their

  11. Clean, Logistically Light Access to Explore the Closest Places on Earth to Europa and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winebrenner, D. P.; Elam, W. T.; Kintner, P. M. S.; Tyler, S.; Selker, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    At present, the logistical costs of ice drilling to depths of kilometers severely limit sampling and measurements beneath ice sheets. Thus only a tiny fraction of the 400 known subglacial lakes beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet can ever be sampled by drilling, and study of large lakes may be limited to observations at one or, at best, a few sites. Antarctic lakes are likely highly diverse in their geochemical and geothermal fluxes, the timing and duration of their glaciations, and other characteristics. They constitute a remarkable collection of natural laboratories for learning biogeochemistries and adaptations of subglacial life on Earth. Moreover, they are arguably Earth-analogs to ice-covered seas on Europa and Enceladus, closer not only in relative terms than other analogs, but also usefully close in absolute terms for learning solar-system-wide features of ice-covered seas. It is therefore essential to sample Antarctic lakes with enough range and density, in space and time, to gain better understanding of their workings than drilling alone can provide. The logistics of thermal melt probes makes them attractive, provided that key limitations can be overcome. In particular, melt probes from the 1960s through the 1990s were unreliable, all halted in their descents by electrical failures at high voltages (which are necessary for efficient power use). Moreover, the hole above a classical melt probe refreezes, so neither samples nor the probe itself can be recovered. Here we report progress in overcoming both of these limitations with modern materials and components for reliable high-voltage operation. We have demonstrated in Greenland a 6.5 cm-diameter melt probe operating at 1050V/2.15 kW (electrical) that descended at 2.4 m/hr to 80 m depth in 2013, and after restarting in 2014, to 400 m depth, where we turned it off. We also operated a probe at 2000V/4.5 kW in 2014, which descended at 6.6 m/hr (according to a validated engineering model). These results are the

  12. Designing a network of critical zone observatories to explore the living skin of the terrestrial Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, Susan L.; McDowell, William H.; Dietrich, William E.; White, Timothy S.; Kumar, Praveen; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Chorover, Jon; Lohse, Kathleen Ann; Bales, Roger C.; Richter, Daniel D.; Grant, Gordon; Gaillardet, Jérôme

    2017-12-01

    The critical zone (CZ), the dynamic living skin of the Earth, extends from the top of the vegetative canopy through the soil and down to fresh bedrock and the bottom of the groundwater. All humans live in and depend on the CZ. This zone has three co-evolving surfaces: the top of the vegetative canopy, the ground surface, and a deep subsurface below which Earth's materials are unweathered. The network of nine CZ observatories supported by the US National Science Foundation has made advances in three broad areas of CZ research relating to the co-evolving surfaces. First, monitoring has revealed how natural and anthropogenic inputs at the vegetation canopy and ground surface cause subsurface responses in water, regolith structure, minerals, and biotic activity to considerable depths. This response, in turn, impacts aboveground biota and climate. Second, drilling and geophysical imaging now reveal how the deep subsurface of the CZ varies across landscapes, which in turn influences aboveground ecosystems. Third, several new mechanistic models now provide quantitative predictions of the spatial structure of the subsurface of the CZ.Many countries fund critical zone observatories (CZOs) to measure the fluxes of solutes, water, energy, gases, and sediments in the CZ and some relate these observations to the histories of those fluxes recorded in landforms, biota, soils, sediments, and rocks. Each US observatory has succeeded in (i) synthesizing research across disciplines into convergent approaches; (ii) providing long-term measurements to compare across sites; (iii) testing and developing models; (iv) collecting and measuring baseline data for comparison to catastrophic events; (v) stimulating new process-based hypotheses; (vi) catalyzing development of new techniques and instrumentation; (vii) informing the public about the CZ; (viii) mentoring students and teaching about emerging multidisciplinary CZ science; and (ix) discovering new insights about the CZ. Many of these

  13. Quasiperiodic Quantum Ising Transitions in 1D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, P. J. D.; Chandran, A.; Laumann, C. R.

    2018-04-01

    Unlike random potentials, quasiperiodic modulation can induce localization-delocalization transitions in one dimension. In this Letter, we analyze the implications of this for symmetry breaking in the quasiperiodically modulated quantum Ising chain. Although weak modulation is irrelevant, strong modulation induces new ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases which are fully localized and gapless. The quasiperiodic potential and localized excitations lead to quantum criticality that is intermediate to that of the clean and randomly disordered models with exponents of ν =1+ (exact) and z ≈1.9 , Δσ≈0.16 , and Δγ≈0.63 (up to logarithmic corrections). Technically, the clean Ising transition is destabilized by logarithmic wandering of the local reduced couplings. We conjecture that the wandering coefficient w controls the universality class of the quasiperiodic transition and show its stability to smooth perturbations that preserve the quasiperiodic structure of the model.

  14. Ising model versus normal form game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge; Walliser, Bernard

    2010-02-01

    The 2-spin Ising model in statistical mechanics and the 2×2 normal form game in game theory are compared. All configurations allowed by the second are recovered by the first when the only concern is about Nash equilibria. But it holds no longer when Pareto optimum considerations are introduced as in the prisoner’s dilemma. This gap can nevertheless be filled by adding a new coupling term to the Ising model, even if that term has up to now no physical meaning. An individual complete bilinear objective function is thus found to be sufficient to reproduce all possible configurations of a 2×2 game. Using this one-to-one mapping new perspectives for future research in both fields can be envisioned.

  15. Seismic imaging at the cross-roads: Active, passive, exploration and solid Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlinson, N.; Stephenson, R.; Carbonell, R.

    2017-10-01

    Science has grown from our need to understand the world around us. Seismology is no different, with earthquakes and their destructive effect on society providing the motivation to understand the Earth's seismic wavefield. The question of when seismology as a science really began is an interesting one, but it is unlikely that there will ever be a universally agreed-upon date, partly because of the incompleteness of the historical record, and partly because the definition of what constitutes science varies from person to person. For instance, one could regard 1889 as the true birth of seismology, because that is when the first distant earthquake was detected by an instrument; in this case Ernst von Rebeur-Paschwitz detected an earthquake in Japan using a pendulum in Potsdam, Germany (Ben-Menahem, 1995). However, even the birth of instrumental seismology could be contested; the so-called Zhang Heng directional ;seismoscope; (detects ground motion but not as a function of time) was invented in 132 CE (Rui and Yan-xiang, 2006), and is said to have detected a four-hundred mile distant earthquake which was not felt at the location of the instrument (Needham, 1959; Dewey and Byerly, 1969). Prior to instrumental seismology, observations of earthquakes were not uncommon; for instance, Aristotle provided a classification of earthquakes based on the nature of observed ground motion (Ben-Menahem, 1995).

  16. Lifted worm algorithm for the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elçi, Eren Metin; Grimm, Jens; Ding, Lijie; Nasrawi, Abrahim; Garoni, Timothy M.; Deng, Youjin

    2018-04-01

    We design an irreversible worm algorithm for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model by using the lifting technique. We study the dynamic critical behavior of an energylike observable on both the complete graph and toroidal grids, and compare our findings with reversible algorithms such as the Prokof'ev-Svistunov worm algorithm. Our results show that the lifted worm algorithm improves the dynamic exponent of the energylike observable on the complete graph and leads to a significant constant improvement on toroidal grids.

  17. Diffusion on an Ising chain with kinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamma, Alioscia; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone

    2009-07-01

    We count the number of histories between the two degenerate minimum energy configurations of the Ising model on a chain, as a function of the length n and the number d of kinks that appear above the critical temperature. This is equivalent to count permutations of length n avoiding certain subsequences depending on d. We give explicit generating functions and compute the asymptotics. The setting considered has a role when describing dynamics induced by quantum Hamiltonians with deconfined quasi-particles.

  18. Down-to-Earth Benefits of Space Exploration: Past, Present, Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    A ventricular device that helps a weakened heart keep pumping while awaiting a transplant. A rescue tool for extracting victims from dangerous situations such as car wrecks. A video analysis tool used to investigate the bombing at the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta. A sound-differentiation tool for safer air traffic control. A refrigerator that run without electricity or batteries. These are just a few of the spin-offs of NASA technology that have benefited society in recent years. Now, as NASA sets its vision on space exploration, particularly of the moon and Mars, even more benefits to society are possible. This expansion of societal benefits is tied to a new emphasis on technology infusion or spin-in. NASA is seeking partners with industry, universities, and other government laboratories to help the Agency address its specific space exploration needs in five areas: (1) advanced studies, concepts, and tools; (2) advanced materials; (3) communications, computing, electronics, and imaging; (4) software, intelligent systems, and modeling; and (5) power, propulsion, and chemical systems. These spin-in partnerships will offer benefits to U.S. economic development as well as new products for the global market. As a complement to these spin-in benefits, NASA also is examining the possible future spin-outs of the innovations related to its new space exploration mission. A matrix that charts NASA's needs against various business sectors is being developed to fully understand the implications for society and industry of spin-in and spin-out. This matrix already has been used to help guide NASA s efforts to secure spin-in partnerships. This paper presents examples of NASA spin-offs, discusses NASA s present spin-in/spin-out projects for pursuing partnerships, and considers some of the future societal benefits to be reaped from these partnerships. This paper will complement the proposed paper by Frank Schowengerdt on the Innovative Partnerships Program structure and how to work

  19. Exploring Earth's Atmospheric Biology using a Platform-Extensible Sampling Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentry, D.; Rothschild, L.

    2012-12-01

    The interactions between Earth's atmosphere and its biosphere, or aerobiology, remain a significant unknown. What few studies have been done conclusively show that Earth's atmosphere has a rich and dynamic microbial presence[Bowers et al., 2010]; that microbes suspended in air survive over long times (1-2 weeks)[Smith et al., 2010] and travel great distances (>5000 km)[Kellogg and Griffin, 2006]; that some airborne bacteria actively nucleate ice crystals, affecting meteorology[Delort et al., 2010]; and that the presence of microbes in the atmosphere has other planetary-scale effects[Delort et al., 2010]. Basic questions, however, such as the number of microbes present, their activity level and state, the different species present and their variance over time and space, remain largely unquantified. Compounding the significant physical and environmental challenges of reliable aerobiological sampling, collection and analysis of biological samples at altitudes above ~10-20 km has traditionally used ad hoc instrumentation and techniques, yielding primarily qualitative analytical results that lack a common basis for comparison[Bowers et al., 2010]. There is a strong need for broad-basis, repeatable, reliably comparable data about aerobiological basics. We describe here a high-altitude environmental and biological sampling project designed specifically to address these issues. The goal is a robust, reliable, re-usable sampling system, with open reproducibility and adaptability for multiple low-cost flight platforms (including ground-tethered systems, high-altitude balloons, and suborbital sounding rockets); by establishing a common modular payload structure for high-altitude sampling with appeal to a broad user base, we hope to encourage widespread collection of comparable aerobiological data. We are on our third prototype iteration, with demonstrated function of two sample capture modules, a support backbone (tracking, data logging, event response, etc.), a simple ground

  20. Exploring Earth's Ionosphere with CINDI: Bringing an Upper Atmosphere Mission into Pre-College Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M. R.; Richardson, J. M.; Olson, C.

    2003-12-01

    We will present the Education and Public Outreach work in progress for the joint Air Force/NASA project CINDI (Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamic Investigation), which will launch in early 2004 on a US Air Force C/NOFS (Communications/Navigations Outage Forecast System) Satellite. CINDI, in conjunction with the other instruments on C/NOFS, will study how radio signals sent through the ionosphere are affected by variability with this layer of the atmosphere. The Educational outreach for CINDI is focused on helping students, educators, and the general public better understand the link between the ionosphere and our technological civilization. The ionosphere is typically neglected in pre-college science classes despite its impact on modern society and the substantial resources invested by funding agencies on furthering our understanding of this atmospheric layer. Our approach is to increase student understanding of the terrestrial ionosphere and Sun-Earth connections through strong connections to existing pre-college curricula and standards. We have created a partnership between the William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences and the Science Education Program within the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) to produce a quality Educator Guide and a Summer Educator Workshop. A senior graduate student in physics and an experienced middle school educator in UTD's Science Education Master of Science Teaching Program have been partnered to ensure that our the Educator Guide and Workshop will contain both science and pedagogy, and be easily integrated into secondary science classes. The summer 2004 workshop will be offered in the Dallas area, which has a significant population of minority and economically disadvantaged students. We will recruit teachers from districts that serve a large number of underserved/underrepresented students. The Educator Guide and workshop materials will be made available on the CINDI Web site for distribution to a national audience.

  1. The Space Launch System -The Biggest, Most Capable Rocket Ever Built, for Entirely New Human Exploration Missions Beyond Earth's Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, C. Herb

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System -- an advanced heavy-lift launch vehicle that will provide an entirely new capability for human exploration beyond Earth's orbit. The Space Launch System will provide a safe, affordable and sustainable means of reaching beyond our current limits and opening up new discoveries from the unique vantage point of space. The first developmental flight, or mission, is targeted for the end of 2017. The Space Launch System, or SLS, will be designed to carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, as well as important cargo, equipment and science experiments to Earth's orbit and destinations beyond. Additionally, the SLS will serve as a backup for commercial and international partner transportation services to the International Space Station. The SLS rocket will incorporate technological investments from the Space Shuttle Program and the Constellation Program in order to take advantage of proven hardware and cutting-edge tooling and manufacturing technology that will significantly reduce development and operations costs. The rocket will use a liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propulsion system, which will include the RS-25D/E from the Space Shuttle Program for the core stage and the J-2X engine for the upper stage. SLS will also use solid rocket boosters for the initial development flights, while follow-on boosters will be competed based on performance requirements and affordability considerations.

  2. Radiometric assessment method for diffraction effects in hyperspectral imagers applied to the earth explorer #8 mission candidate flex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlich, R.; Harnisch, B.

    2017-11-01

    An accurate stray light analysis represents a crucial part in the early design phase of hyperspectral imaging systems, since scattering effects can severely limit the radiometric accuracy performance. In addition to conventional contributors including ghost images and surface scattering, i.e. caused by a residual surface micro-roughness and particle contamination, diffraction effects can result in significant radiometric errors in the spatial and spectral domain of pushbroom scanners. In this paper, we present a mathematical approach that efficiently evaluates these diffraction effects based on a Fourier analysis. It is shown that considering the conventional diffraction at the systems entrance pupil only, significantly overestimates the stray light contribution. In fact, a correct assessment necessitates taking into account the joint influence of the entrance pupil, the spectrometer slit as well as the dispersion element. We quantitatively investigate the corresponding impact on the Instrument Spectral Response Function (ISRF) of the Earth Explorer #8 Mission Candidate FLEX and analyse the expected radiometric error distribution for a typical earth observation scenario requirement.

  3. Shape of the terrestrial plasma sheet in the near-Earth magnetospheric tail as imaged by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer

    DOE PAGES

    Dayeh, M. A.; Fuselier, S. A.; Funsten, H. O.; ...

    2015-04-11

    We present remote, continuous observations from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer of the terrestrial plasma sheet location back to -16 Earth radii (R E) in the magnetospheric tail using energetic neutral atom emissions. The time period studied includes two orbits near the winter and summer solstices, thus associated with large negative and positive dipole tilt, respectively. Continuous side-view images reveal a complex shape that is dominated mainly by large-scale warping due to the diurnal motion of the dipole axis. Superposed on the global warped geometry are short-time fluctuations in plasma sheet location that appear to be consistent with plasma sheet flappingmore » and possibly twisting due to changes in the interplanetary conditions. We conclude that the plasma sheet warping due to the diurnal motion dominates the average shape of the plasma sheet. Over short times, the position of the plasma sheet can be dominated by twisting and flapping.« less

  4. Exploring uncertainty of Amazon dieback in a perturbed parameter Earth system ensemble.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Chris A; Booth, Ben B B; Good, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The future of the Amazon rainforest is unknown due to uncertainties in projected climate change and the response of the forest to this change (forest resiliency). Here, we explore the effect of some uncertainties in climate and land surface processes on the future of the forest, using a perturbed physics ensemble of HadCM3C. This is the first time Amazon forest changes are presented using an ensemble exploring both land vegetation processes and physical climate feedbacks in a fully coupled modelling framework. Under three different emissions scenarios, we measure the change in the forest coverage by the end of the 21st century (the transient response) and make a novel adaptation to a previously used method known as "dry-season resilience" to predict the long-term committed response of the forest, should the state of the climate remain constant past 2100. Our analysis of this ensemble suggests that there will be a high chance of greater forest loss on longer timescales than is realized by 2100, especially for mid-range and low emissions scenarios. In both the transient and predicted committed responses, there is an increasing uncertainty in the outcome of the forest as the strength of the emissions scenarios increases. It is important to note however, that very few of the simulations produce future forest loss of the magnitude previously shown under the standard model configuration. We find that low optimum temperatures for photosynthesis and a high minimum leaf area index needed for the forest to compete for space appear to be precursors for dieback. We then decompose the uncertainty into that associated with future climate change and that associated with forest resiliency, finding that it is important to reduce the uncertainty in both of these if we are to better determine the Amazon's outcome. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Value of Context Images at the Mars Surveyor Landing Sites: Insights from Deep Ocean Exploration on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, T. K.; Bulmer, M. H.

    1999-06-01

    Exploration of the Martian surface with a rover is similar to investigation of Earth's oceans using remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) or deep submergence vehicles (DSVs). In the case of Mars, the techniques required to perform a robust scientific survey are similar to those that have been developed by the deep ocean research community. In both instances, scientists are challenged by having to choose and characterize a target site, identify favorable sites for detailed analysis and possible sample collection, only being able to maneuver within a few meters of the landing site and integrating data sets with a range of spatial resolutions that span 1-2 orders of magnitude (rover data versus satellite data, or submersible data versus bathymetric data). In the search for biologic communities at Earth's mid-ocean ridges, it is important to note that the vast majority of the terrain is completely barren of life: no microbes live in the thousands to hundreds of thousands of meters that separate the life-sustaining hydrothermal vent fields. In attempts to better understanding the origin and emplacement of geologic and biologic features on the seafloor, techniques have been developed to select sites of special interest (target sites), by combining the low-resolution, high spatial-coverage data with medium-resolution, higher spatial-coverage data. Once individual sites are selected, then a DSV or ROV is used to obtain high-resolution, low-spatial-coverage data. By integrating the different resolution data sets, the individual target sites can be placed into the larger context of the regional and global geologic system. Methods of exploration of the oceans are pertinent to the Mars Lander Missions because they highlight the importance and value of the acquisition of 'context' images. Over 60% of Earth's mid-ocean ridge crests have been surveyed using multibeam bathymetry. The typical resolution of such data is 100 m in the vertical and 20 m in the horizontal. This data set is

  6. Citizen Explorer. 1; An Earth Observer With New Small Satellite Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Zachary; Dunn, Catherine E.

    2003-01-01

    Citizen Explorer-I (CX-I), designed and built by students at Colorado Space Grant Consortium in Boulder to provide global ozone monitoring, employs a unique mission architecture and several innovative technologies during its mission. The mission design allows K-12 schools around the world to be involved as ground stations available to receive science data and telemetry from CX-I. Another important technology allows the spacecraft to be less reliant on ground operators. Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) allows mission designers to set constraints on the satellite operations. The satellite then automatically adheres to the constraints when the satellite is out of contact with Mission Operations. In addition to SCL, a low level of artificial intelligence will be supplied to the spacecraft through the use of the Automated Scheduling and Planning ENvironment (ASPEN). ASPEN is used to maintain a spacecraft schedule in order to achieve the objectives a mission operator would normally have to complete. Within the communications system of CX-I, internet of CX-I, internet protocols are the main method for communicating with the satellite. As internet protocols have not been widely used in satellite communication, CX-I provides an opportunity to study the effectiveness of using internet protocols over radio links. The Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) on CX-I uses a gravity gradient boom as a means of orienting the satellite's science instruments toward nadir. The boom design is unique because it is constructed of tape measure material. These new technologies' effectiveness will be tested for use on future small satellite projects within the space satellite industry.

  7. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1996 uses available data from literature, industry, and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on minerals industry direction are drawn from these data.

  8. Nuclear and ionic charge distribution experiment on ISEE-1 and ISEE-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Galvin, A. B.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental work carried out under this contract is a continuation of that originally performed under Contracts NAS5-20062 and NAS5-26739. The data analyzed are from the Max-Planck Institut/Univ. of Maryland experiment on ISEE-1 and ISEE-3. Each spacecraft experiment consists of a nearly identical set of three sensors (designated the ULECA, ULEWAT, and ULEZEQ sensors) designed to measure the energy spectra and composition of suprathermal and energetic ions over a broad energy range (less than 3 keV/e to more than 20 MeV/nucleon). Since the launch of ISEE's 2 and 3, the MPI/Univ. of Maryland experiments have generally performed as expected except for a partial failure of the ULEWAT sensor on ISEE-1 in August 1978. A number of scientific studies have either been completed, initiated or are at various stages of completion. A brief summary of Primary Results is given, followed by a more detailed summary of the major accomplishments at the Univ. of Maryland.

  9. Sustainable Systems for exploration, stays with increased duration in LEO and Earth application -an overview about life support activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slenzka, Klaus; Duenne, Matthias

    Solar system exploration with extended stays in totally closed habitats far away from Earth as well as longer stays in LEO requires intensive preparatory activities. Activities supporting life in a more or less close meaning are essential in this context -on a scientific as well as on a technical level. These needed activities are supporting life by e.g.: i) increasing knowledge about the impact of single and combined effects of different exploration related environmental conditions (e. g. microgravity, radiation, reduced pressure and temperature, lunar soil etc.) on biological systems. This is needed to enable safe life of humans itself as well as safe operating of required bioregenerative life support systems. Thus, different human cell types as well as representatives of bioregenerative life support system protagonists (algae, bacteria as well as higher organisms) needs to be addressed. ii) provision of required consumables (oxygen, food, energy equivalents etc.) on site, mainly via bioregenerative life support systems, Bio-ISRU-units etc. Preparation is needed on a scientific as well as technological level. iii) ensuring reduced negative effects on humans (and partially also equipment), which could be caused by living in a closed habitat in general (and thus being not space related per se): E. g. detection systems for the quality of water and air, antimicrobial and selfhealing as well as anti-icing materials without dangerous hazard substances, psychological health enhancing components etc. Referring payloads for above mentioned investigations (scientific evaluation and technology demonstration) must be developed. Extended stays and extended closure in habitats without the possibility of material transport into and out of the system are leading to the necessity of more autonomous technologies and sustainable processes. Latter one will rely mainly on biological processes and structures, which increases additionally the necessity of an intensive scientific and

  10. Exact sampling hardness of Ising spin models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fefferman, B.; Foss-Feig, M.; Gorshkov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    We study the complexity of classically sampling from the output distribution of an Ising spin model, which can be implemented naturally in a variety of atomic, molecular, and optical systems. In particular, we construct a specific example of an Ising Hamiltonian that, after time evolution starting from a trivial initial state, produces a particular output configuration with probability very nearly proportional to the square of the permanent of a matrix with arbitrary integer entries. In a similar spirit to boson sampling, the ability to sample classically from the probability distribution induced by time evolution under this Hamiltonian would imply unlikely complexity theoretic consequences, suggesting that the dynamics of such a spin model cannot be efficiently simulated with a classical computer. Physical Ising spin systems capable of achieving problem-size instances (i.e., qubit numbers) large enough so that classical sampling of the output distribution is classically difficult in practice may be achievable in the near future. Unlike boson sampling, our current results only imply hardness of exact classical sampling, leaving open the important question of whether a much stronger approximate-sampling hardness result holds in this context. The latter is most likely necessary to enable a convincing experimental demonstration of quantum supremacy. As referenced in a recent paper [A. Bouland, L. Mancinska, and X. Zhang, in Proceedings of the 31st Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2016), Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl, 2016)], our result completes the sampling hardness classification of two-qubit commuting Hamiltonians.

  11. The ISEE-C plasma wave investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.; Fredricks, R. W.; Gurnett, D. A.; Smith, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The ISEE-C plasma wave investigation is designed to provide comprehensive information on interplanetary wave-particle interactions. Three spectrum analyzers with a total of 19 bandpass channels cover the frequency range 0.3 Hz to 100 kHz. The main analyzer, which uses 16 continuously active amplifiers, gives two complete spectral scans per second in each of 16 filter channels. The instrument sensors include a high-sensitivity magnetic search coil, and electric antennas with effective lengths of 0.6 and 45 m.

  12. Real-time ISEE data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Baker, D. N.

    1979-01-01

    A real-time ISEE data system directed toward predicting geomagnetic substorms and storms is discussed. Such a system may allow up to 60+ minutes advance warning of magnetospheric substorms and up to 30 minute warnings of geomagnetic storms (and other disturbances) induced by high-speed streams and solar flares. The proposed system utilizes existing capabilities of several agencies (NASA, NOAA, USAF), and thereby minimizes costs. This same concept may be applicable to data from other spacecraft, and other NASA centers; thus, each individual experimenter can receive quick-look data in real time at his or her base institution.

  13. Dynamical transitions of a driven Ising interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Manish K.; Sengupta, Surajit

    2008-03-01

    We study the structure of an interface in a three-dimensional Ising system created by an external nonuniform field H(r,t) . H changes sign over a two-dimensional plane of arbitrary orientation. When the field is pulled with velocity ve , [i.e., H(r,t)=H(r-vet) ], the interface undergoes several dynamical transitions. For low velocities it is pinned by the field profile and moves along with it, the distribution of local slopes undergoing a series of commensurate-incommensurate transitions. For large ve the interface depins and grows with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang exponents.

  14. Inverse Ising Inference Using All the Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurell, Erik; Ekeberg, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    We show that a method based on logistic regression, using all the data, solves the inverse Ising problem far better than mean-field calculations relying only on sample pairwise correlation functions, while still computationally feasible for hundreds of nodes. The largest improvement in reconstruction occurs for strong interactions. Using two examples, a diluted Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and a two-dimensional lattice, we also show that interaction topologies can be recovered from few samples with good accuracy and that the use of l1 regularization is beneficial in this process, pushing inference abilities further into low-temperature regimes.

  15. Exploring Google Earth Engine platform for big data processing: classification of multi-temporal satellite imagery for crop mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelestov, Andrii; Lavreniuk, Mykola; Kussul, Nataliia; Novikov, Alexei; Skakun, Sergii

    2017-02-01

    Many applied problems arising in agricultural monitoring and food security require reliable crop maps at national or global scale. Large scale crop mapping requires processing and management of large amount of heterogeneous satellite imagery acquired by various sensors that consequently leads to a “Big Data” problem. The main objective of this study is to explore efficiency of using the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform when classifying multi-temporal satellite imagery with potential to apply the platform for a larger scale (e.g. country level) and multiple sensors (e.g. Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2). In particular, multiple state-of-the-art classifiers available in the GEE platform are compared to produce a high resolution (30 m) crop classification map for a large territory ( 28,100 km2 and 1.0 M ha of cropland). Though this study does not involve large volumes of data, it does address efficiency of the GEE platform to effectively execute complex workflows of satellite data processing required with large scale applications such as crop mapping. The study discusses strengths and weaknesses of classifiers, assesses accuracies that can be achieved with different classifiers for the Ukrainian landscape, and compares them to the benchmark classifier using a neural network approach that was developed in our previous studies. The study is carried out for the Joint Experiment of Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) test site in Ukraine covering the Kyiv region (North of Ukraine) in 2013. We found that Google Earth Engine (GEE) provides very good performance in terms of enabling access to the remote sensing products through the cloud platform and providing pre-processing; however, in terms of classification accuracy, the neural network based approach outperformed support vector machine (SVM), decision tree and random forest classifiers available in GEE.

  16. Learning GIS and exploring geolocated data with the all-in-one Geolokit toolbox for Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watlet, A.; Triantafyllou, A.; Bastin, C.

    2016-12-01

    GIS software are today's essential tools to gather and visualize geological data, to apply spatial and temporal analysis and finally, to create and share interactive maps for further investigations in geosciences. Such skills are especially essential to learn for students who go through fieldtrips, samples collections or field experiments. However, time is generally missing to teach in detail all the aspects of visualizing geolocated geoscientific data. For these purposes, we developed Geolokit: a lightweight freeware dedicated to geodata visualization and written in Python, a high-level, cross-platform programming language. Geolokit software is accessible through a graphical user interface, designed to run in parallel with Google Earth, benefitting from the numerous interactive capabilities. It is designed as a very user-friendly toolbox that allows `geo-users' to import their raw data (e.g. GPS, sample locations, structural data, field pictures, maps), to use fast data analysis tools and to visualize these into the Google Earth environment using KML code; with no require of third party software, except Google Earth itself. Geolokit comes with a large number of geosciences labels, symbols, colours and placemarks and is applicable to display several types of geolocated data, including: Multi-points datasets Automatically computed contours of multi-points datasets via several interpolation methods Discrete planar and linear structural geology data in 2D or 3D supporting large range of structures input format Clustered stereonets and rose diagrams 2D cross-sections as vertical sections Georeferenced maps and grids with user defined coordinates Field pictures using either geo-tracking metadata from a camera built-in GPS module, or the same-day track of an external GPS In the end, Geolokit is helpful for quickly visualizing and exploring data without losing too much time in the numerous capabilities of GIS software suites. We are looking for students and teachers to

  17. Exploration of the region near the sun-earth collinear libration points for the control of large formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heritier, Aurelie

    Spacecraft formations possess many applications in the future of space exploration. During the last decade, due to the detection of a large number of extrasolar planets, new studies on formation flying in multi-body regimes have emerged to support searches for Earth-like planets in other solar systems. The L2 Sun-Earth libration point region has been a popular destination in creating an architecture for astronomical missions. It is a relatively cold environment, far from the disturbances of the Sun and, therefore, ideal for astronomical instruments. However, controlling multiple spacecraft in a multi-body environment is challenging and a good understanding of the natural dynamics in this regime is essential. The current investigation explores the dynamical environment near the L2 Sun-Earth libration point to aid in the control of formations of spacecraft. By exploiting the natural dynamics in the circular restricted three-body model (CR3BP), natural regions are determined that are particularly suitable for maintaining formations of spacecraft. The natural dynamics at small distances from a given reference trajectory are initially investigated for the placement of small formations of spacecraft. Some regions with low relative drift represent suitable locations to maintain small formations and are derived analytically using variational equations. Spacecraft located in such regions avoid large variations in their mutual distances while maintaining the orientation of the formation. These regions represent quadric surfaces, and the type of quadric surfaces, either ellipsoids or elliptic cylinders, depends on the eigenstructure reflecting the phase space along the given reference trajectory. The natural flow at large distances from a given reference trajectory is explored next to characterize regions that are suitable to maintain large formations, i.e., when the mutual distances between the spacecraft reaches tens of thousands of kilometers. Spheres of points at various

  18. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1999 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The report documents data on exploration budgets by region and commodity and identifies significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas. It also discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry. And it presents inferences and observations on mineral industry direction based on these data and discussions.

  19. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  20. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1997 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Sulvey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  1. Networked Ising-Sznajd AR-β Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Tomonori; Ohmiya, Mayumi

    2009-09-01

    The modified Ising-Sznajd model is studied to clarify the machanism of price formation in the stock market. The conventional Ising-Sznajd model is improved as a small world network with the rewireing probability β(t) which depends on the time. Numerical experiments show that phase transition, regarded as a economical crisis, is inevitable in this model.

  2. CEP populations observed by ISEE 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; Chen, Jiasheng; Fritz, Theodore A.

    2006-12-01

    Observations on October 30, 1978 show the ISEE 1 spacecraft passing though the high-altitude dayside northern cusp region from roughly 16:00 to 18:30 UT, during a slow solar wind period (~380 km/s). More than two orders of magnitude enhancements of the cusp energetic particle (CEP) fluxes are observed along with a depressed and turbulent local magnetic field and both ionospheric and solar wind plasma. The clock angle of the local magnetic field is different from that of the IMF, implying that the spacecraft was indeed inside the magnetosphere. The observed variations of the pitch angle distributions provide a unique opportunity to determine the structure of the cusp. The CEP fluxes were measured at about 8.5 hours MLT when the IMF had both an 8-10 nT duskward and southward component. The dawnside location of the cusp under these IMF conditions is unexpected by the existing models. No obvious time-energy dispersion is measured for the CEP fluxes. The time evolution of the phase space density as the spacecraft crossed the cusp boundary layer exhibits a positive gradient pointed to the high-altitude cusp, indicating a probable cusp source of the energetic particles. Through a careful analysis of the data available, we report the first detailed study of the equatorial orbiting ISEE 1 spacecraft passing through the high altitude cusp region.

  3. The magnetisation distribution of the Ising model - a new approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakan Lundow, Per; Rosengren, Anders

    2010-03-01

    A completely new approach to the Ising model in 1 to 5 dimensions is developed. We employ a generalisation of the binomial coefficients to describe the magnetisation distributions of the Ising model. For the complete graph this distribution is exact. For simple lattices of dimensions d=1 and d=5 the magnetisation distributions are remarkably well-fitted by the generalized binomial distributions. For d=4 we are only slightly less successful, while for d=2,3 we see some deviations (with exceptions!) between the generalized binomial and the Ising distribution. The results speak in favour of the generalized binomial distribution's correctness regarding their general behaviour in comparison to the Ising model. A theoretical analysis of the distribution's moments also lends support their being correct asymptotically, including the logarithmic corrections in d=4. The full extent to which they correctly model the Ising distribution, and for which graph families, is not settled though.

  4. Our Place in Space: Exploring the Earth-Moon System and Beyond with NASA's CINDI E/PO Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Where does space begin? How far is the Moon? How far is Mars? How does our dynamic star, the Sun, affect its family of planets? All of these questions relate to exploration of our Solar System, and are also part of the Education/Public Outreach (E/PO) Program for NASA’s CINDI project, a space weather mission of opportunity. The Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation has been flying aboard the US Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite in the upper atmosphere of the Earth since April 2008. The Earth’s ionosphere, the part of the atmosphere CINDI studies, is also in space. The CINDI E/PO program uses this fact in lessons designed to help students in middle schools and introductory astronomy classes develop a sense of their place in space. In the activity "How High is Space?" students’ start by building an 8-page scale model of the Earth’s atmosphere with 100 km/page. The peak of Mount Everest, commercial airplanes, and the tops of thunderheads all appear at the bottom of the first page of the model, with astronaut altitude -where space begins- at the top of the same sheet of paper. In "Where Would CINDI Be?" the idea of scale is further developed by modeling the Earth-Moon system to scale first in size, then in distance, using half of standard containers of play dough. With a lowest altitude of about 400 km, similar to that of the International Space Station and orbiting Space Shuttle, CINDI is close to the Earth when compared with the nearly thousand times greater distance to the Moon. Comparing and combining the atmosphere and Earth-Moon system models help reinforce ideas of scale and build student understanding of how far away the Moon actually is. These scale models have also been adapted for use in Family Science Nights, and to include the planet Mars. In this presentation, we will show how we use CINDI’s scale modeling activities and others from our broader space sciences E/PO program in formal and informal

  5. Whither Arctic Sea Ice? - An Earth Exploration Toolbook chapter on the climate's canary in a coal mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, W. N.; Youngman, E.; Dahlman, L.

    2007-12-01

    Arctic sea ice is declining rapidly. Since 2002, summer Arctic sea ice extents have been at record or near-record lows; winter extents have also showed a marked decline. Even in comparison to the previous five extreme low years, the 2007 summer melt season has been stunning, with dramatically less ice than the previous record in 2005. This is further evidence that the Arctic sea ice may have already passed a tipping point toward a state without ice during the summer by 2050 or before. Such a change will have profound impacts on climate as well as human and wildlife activities in the region. The "Whither Arctic Sea Ice?" Earth Exploration Toolbook chapter (http://serc.carleton.edu/eet/seaice/index.html) exposes students to satellite-derived sea ice data and allows them to process and interpret the data to "discover" these sea ice changes for themselves. A sample case study in Hudson Bay has been developed that relates the physical changes occurring on the sea ice to peoples and wildlife that depend on the ice for their livelihood. This approach provides a personal connection for students and allows them to relate to the impacts of the changes. Suggestions are made for further case studies that can be developed using the same data relating to topical events in the Arctic. The EET chapter exposes students to climate change, scientific data, statistical concepts, and image processing software providing an avenue for the communication of IPY data and science to teachers and students.

  6. NEOSURVEY 1: INITIAL RESULTS FROM THE WARM SPITZER EXPLORATION SCIENCE SURVEY OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECT PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are small solar system bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth’s orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey—a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive a diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. Wemore » present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single-band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in η , the beaming parameter used in our thermal modeling; for albedos, improvements in solar system absolute magnitudes would also help significantly. All data and derived diameters and albedos from this entire program are being posted on a publicly accessible Web page at nearearthobjects.nau.edu.« less

  7. Constructing Understanding in Primary Science: An Exploration of Process and Outcomes in the Topic Areas of Light and the Earth in Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Allen; Grant, G.; Topping, K. J.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the process and outcomes of constructivist methods of enhancing science understanding in the topic areas of light and the earth in space. The sample was drawn from a group of 41 nine-year-old children, delivered in four two-hour weekly sessions. Each session involved different combinations of interactive discussion and…

  8. Ferroelectricity of domain walls in rare earth iron garnet films.

    PubMed

    Popov, A I; Zvezdin, K A; Gareeva, Z V; Mazhitova, F A; Vakhitov, R M; Yumaguzin, A R; Zvezdin, A K

    2016-11-16

    In this paper, we report on electric polarization arising in a vicinity of Bloch-like domain walls in rare-earth iron garnet films. The domain walls generate an intrinsic magnetic field that breaks an antiferroelectric structure formed in the garnets due to an exchange interaction between rare earth and iron sublattices. We explore 180° domain walls whose formation is energetically preferable in the films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Magnetic and electric structures of the 180° quasi-Bloch domain walls have been simulated at various relations between system parameters. Singlet, doublet ground states of rare earth ions and strongly anisotropic rare earth Ising ions have been considered. Our results show that electric polarization appears in rare earth garnet films at Bloch domain walls, and the maximum of magnetic inhomogeneity is not always linked to the maximum of electric polarization. A number of factors including the temperature, the state of the rare earth ion and the type of a wall influence magnetically induced electric polarization. We show that the value of polarization can be enhanced by the shrinking of the Bloch domain wall width, decreasing the temperature, and increasing the deviations of magnetization from the Bloch rotation that are regulated by impacts given by magnetic anisotropies of the films.

  9. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonferrous, nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 58 percent in 2004 from the 2003 budget, according to Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes two years after a five-year period of declining spending for mineral exploration (1998 to 2002). Figures suggest a subsequent 27 percent increase in budgeted expenditures from 2002 to 2003. For the second consecutive year, all regional exploration budget estimates were anticipated to increase.

  10. The 1983 tail-era series. Volume 1: ISEE 3 plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairfield, D. H.; Phillips, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    Observations from the ISEE 3 electron analyzer are presented in plots. Electrons were measured in 15 continuous energy levels between 8.5 and 1140 eV during individual 3-sec spacecraft spins. Times associated with each data point are the beginning time of the 3 sec data collection interval. Moments calculated from the measured distribution function are shown as density, temperature, velocity, and velocity azimuthal angle. Spacecraft ephemeris is shown at the bottom in GSE and GSM coordinates in units of Earth radii, with vertical ticks on the time axis corresponding to the printed positions.

  11. Structure of the plasmapause from ISEE 1 low-energy ion and plasma wave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagai, T.; Horwitz, J. L.; Anderson, R. R.; Chappell, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Low-energy ion pitch angle distributions are compared with plasma density profiles in the near-earth magnetosphere using ISEE 1 observations. The classical plasmapause determined by the sharp density gradient is not always observed in the dayside region, whereas there almost always exists the ion pitch angle distribution transition from cold, isotropic to warm, bidirectional, field-aligned distributions. In the nightside region the plasmapause density gradient is typically found, and it normally coincides with the ion pitch angle distribution transition. The sunward motion of the plasma is found in the outer part of the 'plasmaspheric' plasma in the dusk bulge region.

  12. Phase diagram and re-entrant fermionic entanglement in a hybrid Ising-Hubbard ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, H. S.; Pereira, M. S. S.; de Oliveira, I. N.; Strečka, J.; Lyra, M. L.

    2018-05-01

    The degree of fermionic entanglement is examined in an exactly solvable Ising-Hubbard ladder, which involves interacting electrons on the ladder's rungs described by Hubbard dimers at half-filling on each rung, accounting for intrarung hopping and Coulomb terms. The coupling between neighboring Hubbard dimers is assumed to have an Ising-like nature. The ground-state phase diagram consists of four distinct regions corresponding to the saturated paramagnetic, the classical antiferromagnetic, the quantum antiferromagnetic, and the mixed classical-quantum phase. We have exactly computed the fermionic concurrence, which measures the degree of quantum entanglement between the pair of electrons on the ladder rungs. The effects of the hopping amplitude, the Coulomb term, temperature, and magnetic fields on the fermionic entanglement are explored in detail. It is shown that the fermionic concurrence displays a re-entrant behavior when quantum entanglement is being generated at moderate temperatures above the classical saturated paramagnetic ground state.

  13. Ising antiferromagnet on the Archimedean lattices.

    PubMed

    Yu, Unjong

    2015-06-01

    Geometric frustration effects were studied systematically with the Ising antiferromagnet on the 11 Archimedean lattices using the Monte Carlo methods. The Wang-Landau algorithm for static properties (specific heat and residual entropy) and the Metropolis algorithm for a freezing order parameter were adopted. The exact residual entropy was also found. Based on the degree of frustration and dynamic properties, ground states of them were determined. The Shastry-Sutherland lattice and the trellis lattice are weakly frustrated and have two- and one-dimensional long-range-ordered ground states, respectively. The bounce, maple-leaf, and star lattices have the spin ice phase. The spin liquid phase appears in the triangular and kagome lattices.

  14. Ising antiferromagnet on the Archimedean lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Unjong

    2015-06-01

    Geometric frustration effects were studied systematically with the Ising antiferromagnet on the 11 Archimedean lattices using the Monte Carlo methods. The Wang-Landau algorithm for static properties (specific heat and residual entropy) and the Metropolis algorithm for a freezing order parameter were adopted. The exact residual entropy was also found. Based on the degree of frustration and dynamic properties, ground states of them were determined. The Shastry-Sutherland lattice and the trellis lattice are weakly frustrated and have two- and one-dimensional long-range-ordered ground states, respectively. The bounce, maple-leaf, and star lattices have the spin ice phase. The spin liquid phase appears in the triangular and kagome lattices.

  15. Compressed quantum simulation of the Ising model.

    PubMed

    Kraus, B

    2011-12-16

    Jozsa et al. [Proc. R. Soc. A 466, 809 2009)] have shown that a match gate circuit running on n qubits can be compressed to a universal quantum computation on log(n)+3 qubits. Here, we show how this compression can be employed to simulate the Ising interaction of a 1D chain consisting of n qubits using a universal quantum computer running on log(n) qubits. We demonstrate how the adiabatic evolution can be realized on this exponentially smaller system and how the magnetization, which displays a quantum phase transition, can be measured. This shows that the quantum phase transition of very large systems can be observed experimentally with current technology. © 2011 American Physical Society

  16. Hypergeometric Forms for Ising-Class Integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, David; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2006-07-01

    We apply experimental-mathematical principles to analyzecertain integrals relevant to the Ising theory of solid-state physics. Wefind representations of the these integrals in terms of MeijerG-functions and nested-Barnes integrals. Our investigations began bycomputing 500-digit numerical values of Cn,k,namely a 2-D array of Isingintegrals for all integers n, k where n is in [2,12]and k is in [0,25].We found that some Cn,k enjoy exact evaluations involving DirichletL-functions or the Riemann zeta function. In theprocess of analyzinghypergeometric representations, we found -- experimentally and strikingly-- that the Cn,k almost certainly satisfy certain inter-indicialrelations including discrete k-recursions. Using generating functions,differential theory, complex analysis, and Wilf-Zeilbergermore » algorithms weare able to prove some central cases of these relations.« less

  17. Spacecraft potential control on ISEE-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonfalone, A.; Pedersen, A.; Fahleson, U. V.; Faelthammar, C. G.; Mozer, F. S.; Torbert, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    Active control of the potential of the ISEE-1 satellite by the use of electron guns is reviewed. The electron guns contain a special cathode capable of emitting an electron current selectable between 10 to the -8th power and 10 to the -3rd power at energies from approximately .6 to 41 eV. Results obtained during flight show that the satellite potential can be stabilized at a value more positive than the normally positive floating potential. The electron guns also reduce the spin modulation of the spacecraft potential which is due to the aspect dependent photoemission of the long booms. Plasma parameters like electron temperature and density can be deduced from the variation of the spacecraft potential as a function of the gun current. The effects of electron beam emission on other experiments are briefly mentioned.

  18. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration budgets fell for a fourth successive year in 2001. These decreases reflected low mineral commodity prices, mineral-market investment reluctance, company failures and a continued trend of company mergers and takeovers.

  19. Planetary Defense. Department of Defense Cost for the Detection, Exploration, and Rendezvous Mission of Near-Earth Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    or even impact the Earth. In the past 15 years, research on NEOs has dra­ mati cally increased as astrono mers and ge­ olo gists real ize the Earth...fig. 7). In 1989, astrono mers discov ered an aster­ oid labeled 1989FC after its closest approach to Earth. This illus trates a disturb ing fact...Cur rently only astrono mers on shoestring, aca demic budgets are trying to locate and track NEOs, making esti mates of NEO popu­ la tions very impre

  20. Sampling algorithms for validation of supervised learning models for Ising-like systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portman, Nataliya; Tamblyn, Isaac

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we build and explore supervised learning models of ferromagnetic system behavior, using Monte-Carlo sampling of the spin configuration space generated by the 2D Ising model. Given the enormous size of the space of all possible Ising model realizations, the question arises as to how to choose a reasonable number of samples that will form physically meaningful and non-intersecting training and testing datasets. Here, we propose a sampling technique called ;ID-MH; that uses the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm creating Markov process across energy levels within the predefined configuration subspace. We show that application of this method retains phase transitions in both training and testing datasets and serves the purpose of validation of a machine learning algorithm. For larger lattice dimensions, ID-MH is not feasible as it requires knowledge of the complete configuration space. As such, we develop a new ;block-ID; sampling strategy: it decomposes the given structure into square blocks with lattice dimension N ≤ 5 and uses ID-MH sampling of candidate blocks. Further comparison of the performance of commonly used machine learning methods such as random forests, decision trees, k nearest neighbors and artificial neural networks shows that the PCA-based Decision Tree regressor is the most accurate predictor of magnetizations of the Ising model. For energies, however, the accuracy of prediction is not satisfactory, highlighting the need to consider more algorithmically complex methods (e.g., deep learning).

  1. Visualization tool for three-dimensional plasma velocity distributions (ISEE_3D) as a plug-in for SPEDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keika, Kunihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Machida, Shinobu; Ieda, Akimasa; Seki, Kanako; Hori, Tomoaki; Miyashita, Yukinaga; Shoji, Masafumi; Shinohara, Iku; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Lewis, Jim W.; Flores, Aaron

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces ISEE_3D, an interactive visualization tool for three-dimensional plasma velocity distribution functions, developed by the Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Japan. The tool provides a variety of methods to visualize the distribution function of space plasma: scatter, volume, and isosurface modes. The tool also has a wide range of functions, such as displaying magnetic field vectors and two-dimensional slices of distributions to facilitate extensive analysis. The coordinate transformation to the magnetic field coordinates is also implemented in the tool. The source codes of the tool are written as scripts of a widely used data analysis software language, Interactive Data Language, which has been widespread in the field of space physics and solar physics. The current version of the tool can be used for data files of the plasma distribution function from the Geotail satellite mission, which are publicly accessible through the Data Archives and Transmission System of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The tool is also available in the Space Physics Environment Data Analysis Software to visualize plasma data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale and the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms missions. The tool is planned to be applied to data from other missions, such as Arase (ERG) and Van Allen Probes after replacing or adding data loading plug-ins. This visualization tool helps scientists understand the dynamics of space plasma better, particularly in the regions where the magnetohydrodynamic approximation is not valid, for example, the Earth's inner magnetosphere, magnetopause, bow shock, and plasma sheet.

  2. Quantum-information approach to the Ising model: Entanglement in chains of qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štelmachovič, Peter; Bužek, Vladimír

    2004-09-01

    Simple physical interactions between spin- 1/2 particles may result in quantum states that exhibit exotic correlations that are difficult to find if one simply explores state spaces of multipartite systems. In particular, we present a detailed investigation of the well-known Ising model of a chain (ring) of spin- 1/2 particles (qubits) in a transverse magnetic field. We present explicit expressions for eigenstates of the model Hamiltonian for arbitrary number of spin- 1/2 particles in the chain in the standard (computer) basis, and we investigate quantum entanglement between individual qubits. We analyze bipartite as well as multipartite entanglement in the ground state of the model. In particular, we show that bipartite entanglement between pairs of qubits of the Ising chain (measured in terms of a concurrence) as a function of the parameter λ has a maximum around the point λ=1 , and it monotonically decreases for large values of λ . We prove that in the limit λ→∞ this state is locally unitary equivalent to an N -partite Greenberger-Horn-Zeilinger state. We also analyze a very specific eigenstate of the Ising Hamiltonian with a zero eigenenergy (we denote this eigenstate as the X -state). This X -state exhibits the “extreme” entanglement in a sense that an arbitrary subset A of k⩽n qubits in the Ising chain composed of N=2n+1 qubits is maximally entangled with the remaining qubits (set B ) in the chain. In addition, we prove that by performing a local operation just on the subset B , one can transform the X -state into a direct product of k singlets shared by the parties A and B . This property of the X -state can be utilized for new secure multipartite communication protocols.

  3. Plasma wave experiment for the ISEE-3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of data from a scientific instrument designed to study solar wind and plasma wave phenomena on the ISEE-3 mission is presented. The performance of work on the data analysis phase is summarized.

  4. Explorers

    Science.gov Websites

    Atmosphere Explorers Patrick Megonigal Melissa McCormick Dennis Whigham Curator and Soil Ecologist Soil Scientist Brigham Young University Sophomore Waiakea High School Hilo, Hawaii Graduate Student USDA/NRCS St. Croix Field Office National Leader for World Soil Resources USDA/NRCS Soil Scientist USDA

  5. A Space-Based Near-Earth Object Survey Telescope in Support of Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning in 2025 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. As such, mission concepts have received much interest from the exploration, science, and planetary defense communities. One particular system that has been suggested by all three of these communities is a space-based NEO survey telescope. Such an asset is crucial for enabling affordable human missions to NEOs circa 2025 and learning about the primordial population of objects that could present a hazard to the Earth in the future.

  6. Enabling Future Science and Human Exploration with NASA's Next Generation Near Earth and Deep Space Communications and Navigation Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard; Schier, James; Israel, David; Tai, Wallace; Liebrecht, Philip; Townes, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is studying alternatives for the United States space communications architecture through the 2040 timeframe. This architecture provides communication and navigation services to both human exploration and science missions throughout the solar system. Several of NASA's key space assets are approaching their end of design life and major systems are in need of replacement. The changes envisioned in the relay satellite architecture and capabilities around both Earth and Mars are significant undertakings and occur only once or twice each generation, and therefore is referred to as NASA's next generation space communications architecture. NASA's next generation architecture will benefit from technology and services developed over recent years. These innovations will provide missions with new operations concepts, increased performance, and new business and operating models. Advancements in optical communications will enable high-speed data channels and the use of new and more complex science instruments. Modern multiple beam/multiple access technologies such as those employed on commercial high throughput satellites will enable enhanced capabilities for on-demand service, and with new protocols will help provide Internet-like connectivity for cooperative spacecraft to improve data return and coordinate joint mission objectives. On-board processing with autonomous and cognitive networking will play larger roles to help manage system complexity. Spacecraft and ground systems will coordinate among themselves to establish communications, negotiate link connectivity, and learn to share spectrum to optimize resource allocation. Spacecraft will autonomously navigate, plan trajectories, and handle off-nominal events. NASA intends to leverage the ever-expanding capabilities of the satellite communications industry and foster its continued growth. NASA's technology development will complement and extend commercial capabilities

  7. Enabling Future Science and Human Exploration with NASA's Next Generation near Earth and Deep Space Communications and Navigation Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Schier, James S.; Israel, David J.; Tai, Wallace; Liebrecht, Philip E.; Townes, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is studying alternatives for the United States space communications architecture through the 2040 timeframe. This architecture provides communication and navigation services to both human exploration and science missions throughout the solar system. Several of NASA's key space assets are approaching their end of design life and major systems are in need of replacement. The changes envisioned in the relay satellite architecture and capabilities around both Earth and Mars are significant undertakings and occur only once or twice each generation, and therefore is referred to as NASA's next generation space communications architecture. NASA's next generation architecture will benefit from technology and services developed over recent years. These innovations will provide missions with new operations concepts, increased performance, and new business and operating models. Advancements in optical communications will enable high-speed data channels and the use of new and more complex science instruments. Modern multiple beam/multiple access technologies such as those employed on commercial high throughput satellites will enable enhanced capabilities for on-demand service, and with new protocols will help provide Internet-like connectivity for cooperative spacecraft to improve data return and coordinate joint mission objectives. On-board processing with autonomous and cognitive networking will play larger roles to help manage system complexity. Spacecraft and ground systems will coordinate among themselves to establish communications, negotiate link connectivity, and learn to share spectrum to optimize resource allocation. Spacecraft will autonomously navigate, plan trajectories, and handle off-nominal events. NASA intends to leverage the ever-expanding capabilities of the satellite communications industry and foster its continued growth. NASA's technology development will complement and extend commercial capabilities

  8. Hyperscaling breakdown and Ising spin glasses: The Binder cumulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2018-02-01

    Among the Renormalization Group Theory scaling rules relating critical exponents, there are hyperscaling rules involving the dimension of the system. It is well known that in Ising models hyperscaling breaks down above the upper critical dimension. It was shown by Schwartz (1991) that the standard Josephson hyperscaling rule can also break down in Ising systems with quenched random interactions. A related Renormalization Group Theory hyperscaling rule links the critical exponents for the normalized Binder cumulant and the correlation length in the thermodynamic limit. An appropriate scaling approach for analyzing measurements from criticality to infinite temperature is first outlined. Numerical data on the scaling of the normalized correlation length and the normalized Binder cumulant are shown for the canonical Ising ferromagnet model in dimension three where hyperscaling holds, for the Ising ferromagnet in dimension five (so above the upper critical dimension) where hyperscaling breaks down, and then for Ising spin glass models in dimension three where the quenched interactions are random. For the Ising spin glasses there is a breakdown of the normalized Binder cumulant hyperscaling relation in the thermodynamic limit regime, with a return to size independent Binder cumulant values in the finite-size scaling regime around the critical region.

  9. Energetic particles flux experiment for ISEE mother/daughter spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the energetic particle experiments on the International Sun Earth Explorer 1 and 2 spacecraft is outlined, and descriptions of the instruments are given. The inflight performance and data analysis are summarized. The research is completed and ongoing are described and a bibliography is included.

  10. Glaubers Ising chain between two thermostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornu, F.; Hilhorst, H. J.

    2017-04-01

    We consider a one-dimensional Ising model with N spins, each in contact with two thermostats of distinct temperatures, T 1 and T 2. Under Glauber dynamics the stationary state happens to coincide with the equilibrium state at an effective intermediate temperature T≤ft({{T}1},{{T}2}\\right) . The system nevertheless carries a nontrivial energy current between the thermostats. By means of the fermionization technique, for a chain initially in equilibrium at an arbitrary temperature T 0 we calculate the Fourier transform of the probability P≤ft(Q;τ \\right) for the time-integrated energy current Q during a finite time interval τ. In the long time limit we determine the corresponding generating function for the cumulants per site and unit of time, {< {{Q}n}>\\text{c}}/(Nτ ) , and explicitly give those with n  =  1, 2, 3, 4. We exhibit various phenomena in specific regimes: kinetic mean-field effects when one thermostat flips any spin less often than the other one, as well as dissipation towards a thermostat at zero temperature. Moreover, when the system size N goes to infinity while the effective temperature T vanishes, the cumulants of Q per unit of time grow linearly with N and are equal to those of a random walk process. In two adequate scaling regimes involving T and N we exhibit the dependence of the first correction upon the ratio of the spin-spin correlation length ξ (T) and the size N.

  11. Investigation of the Transport of Solar Ions Through the Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, O. W.; Evans, David (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study has been to infer, by statistical means, the most probable mode of entry of solar wind plasma into Earth's magnetotail, using a particular set of archived data from the Lockheed Plasma Composition Experiment on the International Sun-Earth Explorer One (ISEE-1) satellite, jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) in the 1970's and 80's. Despite their considerable age, the Lockheed ISEE-1 data are still, at the time of this report, the only substantial ion composition data in the sub-keV to keV energy range available from the magnetotail beyond 9 R(sub E), because of various technical problems with ion mass spectrometers on later missions, and are therefore a unique source of information about the mixing of solar and terrestrial origin plasmas in the tail, within the ISEE-1 apogee of almost 23 R(sub E). The entire set of archived data used in this study, covering the 4.5 years of operation of the instrument and comprising not only tail measurements but also data from the inner magnetosphere as well as data from outside the magnetopause, is now available to the public via the WorldWideWeb at the address: http://cis.spasci.com/ISEE_ions The fundamental assumption of this and other studies of magnetosphere ion composition is that He++ and O+ ions are virtually certain "tags" of solar and terrestrial origins, respectively. This is an assumption with strong theoretical basis and it is corroborated by observational evidence, including the often substantial differences between the velocity distribution functions of those two species. The H+ ions can have a dual origin, in principle, but the close resemblance in the ISEE-1 data between the dynamics of H+ and He++ ions indicates a predominantly solar origin of the H+ ions in the tail, at least. By the same token, the usually minor He+ ions are probably almost entirely of terrestrial origin, because of their similarity to the O

  12. Students and Teachers Exploring Live the Limits of Life on Earth with a Nasa/seti Expedition to the Highest Lakes on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grigsby, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    "Life at the Extreme" is an education and public outreach (E/PO) project that engaged teachers and 4-12th grade students (an in part, Prek-3rd grade students) in an internet-based, virtual expedition with scientists as they conducted experiments in a unique planetary analog environment in the Bolivian High-Andes at nearly 6,000 m (~20,000ft). Through high altitude diving and sampling, they explored the Licancabur volcano summit lake, which is one of the closest analogs to ancient lakes on Mars. Their goal was to characterize the environment and to study the defense strategies of life against extreme physical conditions in order to understand the biological potential of Mars and prepare future planetary missions. This "virtual field" was in the form of an interactive web site, live interactive discussions, a live video webcast with the San Francisco Exploratorium, and videotapes. Through this medium, about 2,700 students, 90 schools and teachers were able to directly participate and extend their knowledge of scientific processes as they explored an extreme and unique terrestrial environment. In the weeks leading up to the expedition, and during in-the-field activities, students were able to communicate with scientists as they prepared for and conducted scientific investigations. The general public could follow the expedition as well on the web. Overall, the website received ~70,000 hits from all over the world during the time of the expedition. Allowing this access to scientists as they performed their investigations proved invaluable as students understood the implications of scientific work. The broader impact of this experience provided ground work for other educational institutions to conduct similar activities with leading scientists and bridge the gap that often exists between scientists and education. The project was conducted in partnership with the NASA's Ames Research Center's expedition to the Licancabur volcano, located on the border between Chile and

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Virtual Learning Environment Preference, Use, and Learning Outcomes in 10th Grade Earth Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ming-Chao; Tutwiler, M. Shane; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the use of a three-dimensional Virtual Reality Learning Environment for Field Trip (3DVLE[subscript (ft)]) system and the achievement levels of senior high school earth science students. The 3DVLE[subscript (ft)] system was presented in two separate formats: Teacher Demonstrated Based and Student…

  14. Mars Exploration: Is There Water on Mars? An Educator's Guide with Activities for Physical and Earth and Space Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TERC, Cambridge, MA.

    This educator's guide discusses whether there is water on the planet Mars. The activities, written for grades 9-12, concern physical, earth, and space sciences. By experimenting with water as it changes state and investigating some effects of air pressure, students not only learn core ideas in physical science but can also deduce the water…

  15. In-Situ Resource Utilization for Space Exploration: Resource Processing, Mission-Enabling Technologies, and Lessons for Sustainability on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jaworske, D. A.; Colozza, A. J.; Kulis, M. J.; Heller, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    As humanity begins to reach out into the solar system, it has become apparent that supporting a human or robotic presence in transit andor on station requires significant expendable resources including consumables (to support people), fuel, and convenient reliable power. Transporting all necessary expendables is inefficient, inconvenient, costly, and, in the final analysis, a complicating factor for mission planners and a significant source of potential failure modes. Over the past twenty-five years, beginning with the Space Exploration Initiative, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), academic collaborators, and industrial partners have analyzed, researched, and developed successful solutions for the challenges posed by surviving and even thriving in the resource limited environment(s) presented by near-Earth space and non-terrestrial surface operations. In this retrospective paper, we highlight the efforts of the co-authors in resource simulation and utilization, materials processing and consumable(s) production, power systems and analysis, fuel storage and handling, propulsion systems, and mission operations. As we move forward in our quest to explore space using a resource-optimized approach, it is worthwhile to consider lessons learned relative to efficient utilization of the (comparatively) abundant natural resources and improving the sustainability (and environment) for life on Earth. We reconsider Lunar (and briefly Martian) resource utilization for potential colonization, and discuss next steps moving away from Earth.

  16. In-Situ Resource Utilization for Space Exploration: Resource Processing, Mission-Enabling Technologies, and Lessons for Sustainability on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jaworske, D. A.; Colozza, A. J.; Kulis, M. J.; Heller, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    As humanity begins to reach out into the solar system, it has become apparent that supporting a human or robotic presence in transit and/or on station requires significant expendable resources including consumables (to support people), fuel, and convenient reliable power. Transporting all necessary expendables is inefficient, inconvenient, costly, and, in the final analysis, a complicating factor for mission planners and a significant source of potential failure modes. Over the past twenty-five years, beginning with the Space Exploration Initiative, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), academic collaborators, and industrial partners have analyzed, researched, and developed successful solutions for the challenges posed by surviving and even thriving in the resource limited environment(s) presented by near-Earth space and non-terrestrial surface operations. In this retrospective paper, we highlight the efforts of the co-authors in resource simulation and utilization, materials processing and consumable(s) production, power systems and analysis, fuel storage and handling, propulsion systems, and mission operations. As we move forward in our quest to explore space using a resource-optimized approach, it is worthwhile to consider lessons learned relative to efficient utilization of the (comparatively) abundant natural resources and improving the sustainability (and environment) for life on Earth. We reconsider Lunar (and briefly Martian) resource utilization for potential colonization, and discuss next steps moving away from Earth.

  17. Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling and the distant magnetotail: ISEE-3 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.; Sibeck, D. G.; Baker, D. N.; Zwickl, R. D.; Akasofu, S. I.; Lepping, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    ISEE-3 Geotail observations are used to investigate the relationship between the interplanetary magnetic field, substorm activity, and the distant magnetotail. Magnetic field and plasma observations are used to present evidence for the existence of a quasi-permanent, curved reconnection neutral line in the distant tail. The distance to the neutral line varies from absolute value of X = 120 to 140 R/sub e near the center of the tail to beyond absolute value of X = 200 R/sub e at the flanks. Downstream of the neutral line the plasma sheet magnetic field is shown to be negative and directly proportional to negative B/sub z in the solar wind as observed by IMP-8. V/sub x in the distant plasma sheet is also found to be proportional to IMF B/sub z with southward IMF producing the highest anti-solar flow velocities. A global dayside reconnection efficiency of 20 +- 5% is derived from the ISEE-3/IMP-8 magnetic field comparisons. Substorm activity, as measured by the AL index, produces enhanced negative B/sub z and tailward V/sub x in the distant plasma sheet in agreement with the basic predictions of the reconnection-based models of substorms. The rate of magnetic flux transfer out of the tail as a function of AL is found to be consistent with previous near-Earth studies. Similarly, the mass and energy fluxes carried by plasma sheet flow down the tail are consistent with theoretical mass and energy budgets for an open magnetosphere. In summary, the ISEE-3 Geotail observations appear to provide good support for reconnection models of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling and substorm energy rates.

  18. Estimating Attitude, Trajectory, and Gyro Biases in an Extended Kalman Filter using Earth Magnetic Field Data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally satellite attitude and trajectory have been estimated with completely separate systems, using different measurement data. The estimation of both trajectory and attitude for low earth orbit satellites has been successfully demonstrated in ground software using magnetometer and gyroscope data. Since the earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of both the spacecraft trajectory and attitude errors. Therefore, these errors can be used to estimate both trajectory and attitude. This work further tests the single augmented Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft trajectory and attitude with data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) magnetometer and gyro-measured body rates. In addition, gyro biases are added to the state and the filter's ability to estimate them is presented.

  19. Quantum simulation of transverse Ising models with Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauss, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Quantum Ising models are canonical models for the study of quantum phase transitions (Sachdev 1999 Quantum Phase Transitions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)) and are the underlying concept for many analogue quantum computing and quantum annealing ideas (Tanaka et al Quantum Spin Glasses, Annealing and Computation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). Here we focus on the implementation of finite-range interacting Ising spin models, which are barely tractable numerically. Recent experiments with cold atoms have reached the interaction-dominated regime in quantum Ising magnets via optical coupling of trapped neutral atoms to Rydberg states. This approach allows for the tunability of all relevant terms in an Ising spin Hamiltonian with 1/{r}6 interactions in transverse and longitudinal fields. This review summarizes the recent progress of these implementations in Rydberg lattices with site-resolved detection. Strong correlations in quantum Ising models have been observed in several experiments, starting from a single excitation in the superatom regime up to the point of crystallization. The rapid progress in this field makes spin systems based on Rydberg atoms a promising platform for quantum simulation because of the unmatched flexibility and strength of interactions combined with high control and good isolation from the environment.

  20. Localization and Symmetry Breaking in the Quantum Quasiperiodic Ising Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, A.; Laumann, C. R.

    2017-07-01

    Quasiperiodic modulation can prevent isolated quantum systems from equilibrating by localizing their degrees of freedom. In this article, we show that such systems can exhibit dynamically stable long-range orders forbidden in equilibrium. Specifically, we show that the interplay of symmetry breaking and localization in the quasiperiodic quantum Ising chain produces a quasiperiodic Ising glass stable at all energy densities. The glass order parameter vanishes with an essential singularity at the melting transition with no signatures in the equilibrium properties. The zero-temperature phase diagram is also surprisingly rich, consisting of paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and quasiperiodically alternating ground-state phases with extended, localized, and critically delocalized low-energy excitations. The system exhibits an unusual quantum Ising transition whose properties are intermediate between those of the clean and infinite randomness Ising transitions. Many of these results follow from a geometric generalization of the Aubry-André duality that we develop. The quasiperiodic Ising glass may be realized in near-term quantum optical experiments.

  1. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Science Applications Program: Exploring Partnerships to Enhance Decision Making in Public Health Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi S.; Venezia, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Earth Science Enterprise is engaged in applications of NASA Earth science and remote sensing technologies for public health. Efforts are focused on establishing partnerships with those agencies and organizations that have responsibility for protecting the Nation's Health. The program's goal is the integration of NASA's advanced data and technology for enhanced decision support in the areas of disease surveillance and environmental health. A focused applications program, based on understanding partner issues and requirements, has the potential to significantly contribute to more informed decision making in public health practice. This paper intends to provide background information on NASA's investment in public health and is a call for partnership with the larger practice community.

  2. Application of unsupervised pattern recognition approaches for exploration of rare earth elements in Se-Chahun iron ore, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarparandeh, Mohammadali; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

    2017-12-01

    The use of efficient methods for data processing has always been of interest to researchers in the field of earth sciences. Pattern recognition techniques are appropriate methods for high-dimensional data such as geochemical data. Evaluation of the geochemical distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) requires the use of such methods. In particular, the multivariate nature of REE data makes them a good target for numerical analysis. The main subject of this paper is application of unsupervised pattern recognition approaches in evaluating geochemical distribution of REEs in the Kiruna type magnetite-apatite deposit of Se-Chahun. For this purpose, 42 bulk lithology samples were collected from the Se-Chahun iron ore deposit. In this study, 14 rare earth elements were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Pattern recognition makes it possible to evaluate the relations between the samples based on all these 14 features, simultaneously. In addition to providing easy solutions, discovery of the hidden information and relations of data samples is the advantage of these methods. Therefore, four clustering methods (unsupervised pattern recognition) - including a modified basic sequential algorithmic scheme (MBSAS), hierarchical (agglomerative) clustering, k-means clustering and self-organizing map (SOM) - were applied and results were evaluated using the silhouette criterion. Samples were clustered in four types. Finally, the results of this study were validated with geological facts and analysis results from, for example, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ICP-MS and optical mineralogy. The results of the k-means clustering and SOM methods have the best matches with reality, with experimental studies of samples and with field surveys. Since only the rare earth elements are used in this division, a good agreement of the results with lithology is considerable. It is concluded that the combination of the proposed

  3. An ISEE 3 high time resolution study of interplanetary parameter correlations with magnetospheric activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Zwickl, R. D.; Bame, S. J.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1983-01-01

    The coupling between the solar wind and the geomagnetic disturbances was examined using data from the ISEE-3 spacecraft at an earth-sun libration point and ground-based data. One minute data were used to avoid aliasing in determining the internal magnetospheric response to solar wind conditions. Attention was given to the cross-correlations between the geomagnetic index (AE), the total energy dissipation rate (UT), and the solar wind parameters, as well as the spatial and temporal scales on which the magnetosphere reacts to the solar wind conditions. It was considered necessary to characterize the physics of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling in order to define the requirements for a spacecraft like the ISEE-3 that could be used as a real time monitoring system for predicting storms and substorms. The correlations among all but one parameter were lower during disturbance intervals; UT was highly correlated with all parameters during the disturbed times. An intrinsic 25-40 min delay was detected between interplanetary activity and magnetospheric response in quite times, diminishing to no more than 15 min during disturbed times.

  4. Conical pitch angle distributions of very low-energy ion fluxes observed by ISEE 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J. L.; Baugher, C. R.; Chappell, C. R.; Shelley, E. G.; Young, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    Observations are presented of conical distributions of low-energy ion fluxes from throughout the magnetosphere. The data were provided by the plasma composition experiment (PCE) on ISEE 1. ISEE 1 was launched in October 1977 into a highly elliptical orbit with a 30 deg inclination to the equator and 22.5 earth radii apogee. Particular attention is given to data taken when the instrument was in its thermal plasma mode, sampling ions in the energy per charge range 0-100 eV/e. Attention is given to examples of conical distributions in 0- to 100-eV/e ions, the occurrence of conical distributions of 0- to 100-eV ions in local time-geocentric distance and latitude-geocentric distance coordinates, the cone angles in 0- to 100-eV ion conics, Kp distributions of 0- to 100-eV ion conics, and some compositional aspects of 0- to 100-eV ion conics.

  5. A coherent Ising machine for 2000-node optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Takahiro; Haribara, Yoshitaka; Igarashi, Koji; Sonobe, Tomohiro; Tamate, Shuhei; Honjo, Toshimori; Marandi, Alireza; McMahon, Peter L.; Umeki, Takeshi; Enbutsu, Koji; Tadanaga, Osamu; Takenouchi, Hirokazu; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi; Inoue, Kyo; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Takesue, Hiroki

    2016-11-01

    The analysis and optimization of complex systems can be reduced to mathematical problems collectively known as combinatorial optimization. Many such problems can be mapped onto ground-state search problems of the Ising model, and various artificial spin systems are now emerging as promising approaches. However, physical Ising machines have suffered from limited numbers of spin-spin couplings because of implementations based on localized spins, resulting in severe scalability problems. We report a 2000-spin network with all-to-all spin-spin couplings. Using a measurement and feedback scheme, we coupled time-multiplexed degenerate optical parametric oscillators to implement maximum cut problems on arbitrary graph topologies with up to 2000 nodes. Our coherent Ising machine outperformed simulated annealing in terms of accuracy and computation time for a 2000-node complete graph.

  6. Cosmic ray composition investigations using ICE/ISEE-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of data from the high energy cosmic experiment on ISEE-3 and associated modeling and interpretation activities are discussed. The ISEE-3 payload included two instruments capable of measuring the composition of heavy cosmic rays. The designs of these two instruments incorporated innovations which made it possible, for the first time, to measure isotopic as well as the chemical composition for a wide range of elements. As the result of the demonstrations by these two instruments of the capability to resolve individual cosmic ray isotopes, a new generation of detectors was developed using very similar designs, but having improved reliability and increased sensitive area. The composition measurements which were obtained from the ISEE-3 experiment are summarized.

  7. One-dimensional Ising model with multispin interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turban, Loïc

    2016-09-01

    We study the spin-1/2 Ising chain with multispin interactions K involving the product of m successive spins, for general values of m. Using a change of spin variables the zero-field partition function of a finite chain is obtained for free and periodic boundary conditions and we calculate the two-spin correlation function. When placed in an external field H the system is shown to be self-dual. Using another change of spin variables the one-dimensional Ising model with multispin interactions in a field is mapped onto a zero-field rectangular Ising model with first-neighbour interactions K and H. The 2D system, with size m × N/m, has the topology of a cylinder with helical BC. In the thermodynamic limit N/m\\to ∞ , m\\to ∞ , a 2D critical singularity develops on the self-duality line, \\sinh 2K\\sinh 2H=1.

  8. Humans in earth orbit and planetary exploration missions; IAA Man in Space Symposium, 8th, Tashkent, Uzbek SSR, Sept. 29-Oct. 3, 1990, Selection of Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigor'ev, A. I. (Editor); Klein, K. E. (Editor); Nicogossian, A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on findings from space life science investigations relevant to long-term earth orbit and planetary exploration missions, as well as considerations for future research projects on these issues, discusses the cardiovascular system and countermeasures against its deterioration in the microgravity environment, cerebral and sensorimotor functions, findings to date in endocrinology and immunology, the musculoskeletal system, and health maintenance and medical care. Also discussed are radiation hazards and protective systems, life-support and habitability factors, and such methodologies and equipment for long space mission research as the use of animal models, novel noninvasive techniques for space crew health monitoring, and an integrated international aerospace medical information system.

  9. C-MORE Scholars Program: Encouraging Hawaii`s Undergraduates to Explore the Ocean and Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, B. C.; Gibson, B.

    2008-05-01

    Hawaii residents make up 60% of the undergraduate student body at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), but they are not studying ocean and earth science. The UHM School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology offers four undergraduate majors: Geology (22%), Geology & Geophysics (19%), Meteorology (16%), and Global Environmental Science (23%). The numbers in parentheses show the proportion of Hawaii residents in each major, based on 2006 data obtained from the UHM Institutional Research Office. The numbers of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are considerably smaller. The primary goal of the C-MORE Scholars Program, which will launch in Summer 2008, is to recruit and retain local Hawaii students (esp. NHPI) into earth and ocean science majors. To achieve this goal, the C-MORE Scholars Program will: 1. Actively recruit local students, partly by introducing them and their families to job opportunities in their community. Recruiting will be done in partnership with organizations that have successful track records in working with NHPI students; 2. Retain existing students through proactive counseling and course tutoring. Math and physics courses are stumbling blocks for many ocean and earth science majors, often delaying or even preventing graduation. By offering individual and group tutoring, we hope to help local students succeed in these courses; 3. Provide closely mentored, paid undergraduate research experiences at three different academic levels (trainee, intern, and fellow). This research is the cornerstone of the C-MORE Scholars Program. As students progress through the levels, they conduct higher level research with less supervision. Fellows (the highest level) may serve as peer advisors and tutors to underclassmen and assist with recruitment-related activities; and 4. Create a sense of community among the cohort of C-MORE scholars. A two-day summer residential experience will be instrumental in developing a strong cohort, emphasizing links

  10. Quantum quench in an atomic one-dimensional Ising chain.

    PubMed

    Meinert, F; Mark, M J; Kirilov, E; Lauber, K; Weinmann, P; Daley, A J; Nägerl, H-C

    2013-08-02

    We study nonequilibrium dynamics for an ensemble of tilted one-dimensional atomic Bose-Hubbard chains after a sudden quench to the vicinity of the transition point of the Ising paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic quantum phase transition. The quench results in coherent oscillations for the orientation of effective Ising spins, detected via oscillations in the number of doubly occupied lattice sites. We characterize the quench by varying the system parameters. We report significant modification of the tunneling rate induced by interactions and show clear evidence for collective effects in the oscillatory response.

  11. Effective-field renormalization-group method for Ising systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fittipaldi, I. P.; De Albuquerque, D. F.

    1992-02-01

    A new applicable effective-field renormalization-group (ERFG) scheme for computing critical properties of Ising spins systems is proposed and used to study the phase diagrams of a quenched bond-mixed spin Ising model on square and Kagomé lattices. The present EFRG approach yields results which improves substantially on those obtained from standard mean-field renormalization-group (MFRG) method. In particular, it is shown that the EFRG scheme correctly distinguishes the geometry of the lattice structure even when working with the smallest possible clusters, namely N'=1 and N=2.

  12. Chaotic Ising-like dynamics in traffic signals

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The green and red lights of a traffic signal can be viewed as the up and down states of an Ising spin. Moreover, traffic signals in a city interact with each other, if they are controlled in a decentralised way. In this paper, a simple model of such interacting signals on a finite-size two-dimensional lattice is shown to have Ising-like dynamics that undergoes a ferromagnetic phase transition. Probabilistic behaviour of the model is realised by chaotic billiard dynamics that arises from coupled non-chaotic elements. This purely deterministic model is expected to serve as a starting point for considering statistical mechanics of traffic signals. PMID:23350034

  13. Solar wind observations with the ion composition instrument aboard the ISEE-3 ICE spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogilvie, K. W.; Coplan, M. A.; Bochsler, P.; Geiss, J.

    1989-01-01

    The principal observations obtained by the Ion Composition Instrument (ICI) flown on the ISEE-3/ICE spacecraft, which was in the solar wind from September 1978 to the end of 1982, before being directed to the far magnetotail of the Earth are discussed. Almost continuous observations were made of the abundances of 3He++, 4He++, O6+, O7+, Ne, Si and Fe in various charge states, and of their bulk speeds and temperatures. The results show that there is a strong tendency in the collisionless solar wind for the ionic temperatures to be proportional to the masses. For heavier ions these temperatures exceed typical coronal electron temperatures. 4He++, especially in high speed streams, moves faster than H+, and travels at the same speed as heavier ions. The mechanism leading to this heating and rapid streaming is still not entirely clear.

  14. Solar wind observations with the ion composition instrument aboard the ISEE-3/ICE spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogilvie, K. W.; Coplan, M. A.; Bochsler, P.; Geiss, J.

    1989-01-01

    The principal observations obtained by the Ion Composition Instrument (ICI) flown on the ISEE-3/ICE spacecraft, which was in the solar wind from September 1978 to the end of 1982, before being directed to the far magnetotail of the Earth are discussed. Almost continuous observations were made of the abundances of 3He++, 4He++, 06+, 07+, Ne, Si and Fe in various charge states, and of their bulk speeds and temperatures. The results show that there is a strong tendency in the collisionless solar wind for the ionic temperatures to be proportional to the masses. For heavier ions these temperatures exceed typical coronal electron temperatures. 4He++, especially in high speed streams, moves faster than H+, and travels at the same speed as heavier ions. The mechanism leading to this heating and rapid streaming is still not entirely clear.

  15. Progress Toward Electrostatic Radiation Shielding of Interplanetary Spacecraft: Strategies, Concepts and Technical Challenges of Human Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    The radiation problem is a serious obstacle to solar system exploration. Electrostatic shielding was previously dismissed as unworkable. This was based on the false assumption that radial symmetry is needed to provide isotropic protection. KSC recently demonstrated the feasibility of asymmetric, multipole electrostatic shielding. Combined with passive shielding it might solve the radiation problem

  16. Beyond Earth's Boundaries: Human Exploration of the Solar System in the 21st Century. 1988 Annual Report to the Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Office of Exploration.

    In June 1987, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Administrator established the Office of Exploration in response to a national need for a long-term goal to energize the civilian space program and stimulate the development of new technology. This document describes work accomplished in developing the knowledge base that will…

  17. Measurements of the spatial structure and directivity of 100 KeV photon sources in solar flares using PVO and ISEE-3 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kinsey A.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this grant was to measure the spatial structure and directivity of the hard X-ray and low energy gamma-ray (100 keV-2 MeV) continuum sources in solar flares using stereoscopic observations made with spectrometers aboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and Third International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE-3) spacecraft. Since the hard X-ray emission is produced by energetic electrons through the bremsstrahlung process, the observed directivity can be directly related to the 'beaming' of electrons accelerated during the flare as they propagate from the acceleration region in the corona to the chromosphere/transition region. Some models (e.g., the thick-target model) predict that most of the impulsive hard X-ray/low energy gamma-ray source is located in the chromosphere, the effective height of the X-ray source above the photosphere increasing with the decrease in the photon energy. This can be verified by determining the height-dependence of the photon source through stereoscopic observations of those flares which are partially occulted from the view of one of the two spacecraft. Thus predictions about beaming of electrons as well as their spatial distributions could be tested through the analysis proposed under this grant.

  18. Earth Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-08

    NASA Galileo spacecraft took this image of Earth moon on December 7, 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. The distinct bright ray crater at the bottom of the image is the Tycho impact basin. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00405

  19. Inverse Ising problem in continuous time: A latent variable approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, Christian; Opper, Manfred

    2017-12-01

    We consider the inverse Ising problem: the inference of network couplings from observed spin trajectories for a model with continuous time Glauber dynamics. By introducing two sets of auxiliary latent random variables we render the likelihood into a form which allows for simple iterative inference algorithms with analytical updates. The variables are (1) Poisson variables to linearize an exponential term which is typical for point process likelihoods and (2) Pólya-Gamma variables, which make the likelihood quadratic in the coupling parameters. Using the augmented likelihood, we derive an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate of network parameters. Using a third set of latent variables we extend the EM algorithm to sparse couplings via L1 regularization. Finally, we develop an efficient approximate Bayesian inference algorithm using a variational approach. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithms on data simulated from an Ising model. For data which are simulated from a more biologically plausible network with spiking neurons, we show that the Ising model captures well the low order statistics of the data and how the Ising couplings are related to the underlying synaptic structure of the simulated network.

  20. Phase transitions in Ising models on directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowski, Adam; Ferreira, António Luis; Lipowska, Dorota; Gontarek, Krzysztof

    2015-11-01

    We examine Ising models with heat-bath dynamics on directed networks. Our simulations show that Ising models on directed triangular and simple cubic lattices undergo a phase transition that most likely belongs to the Ising universality class. On the directed square lattice the model remains paramagnetic at any positive temperature as already reported in some previous studies. We also examine random directed graphs and show that contrary to undirected ones, percolation of directed bonds does not guarantee ferromagnetic ordering. Only above a certain threshold can a random directed graph support finite-temperature ferromagnetic ordering. Such behavior is found also for out-homogeneous random graphs, but in this case the analysis of magnetic and percolative properties can be done exactly. Directed random graphs also differ from undirected ones with respect to zero-temperature freezing. Only at low connectivity do they remain trapped in a disordered configuration. Above a certain threshold, however, the zero-temperature dynamics quickly drives the model toward a broken symmetry (magnetized) state. Only above this threshold, which is almost twice as large as the percolation threshold, do we expect the Ising model to have a positive critical temperature. With a very good accuracy, the behavior on directed random graphs is reproduced within a certain approximate scheme.

  1. Plasma wave experiment for the ISEE-3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of data from a scientific instrument designed to study solar wind and plasma wave phenomena on the ISEE-3 Mission is provided. Work on the data analysis phase of the contract from 1 October 1982 through 30 March 1983 is summarized.

  2. From outer space to Earth-The social significance of isolated and confined environment research in human space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Koji; Tachibana, Shoichi; Inoue, Natsuhiko

    2017-11-01

    Human space exploration requires massive budgets every fiscal year. Especially under severe financial constraint conditions, governments are forced to justify to society why spending so much tax revenue for human space exploration is worth the cost. The value of human space exploration might be estimated in many ways, but its social significance and cost-effectiveness are two key ways to gauge that worth. Since these measures should be applied country by country because sociopolitical conditions differ in each country and must be taken into consideration, the study on the social significance of human space exploration must take the coloration of a case-study. This paper, focusing on the case of Japan with surveying Japanese literary and national documents as well as taking its sociopolitical conditions into account, examines the social significance of human space exploration. First, we give an overview of the circumstances surrounding Japan's human space exploration program. Derived from the statements of such relevant parties as scholars, journalists, policy makers, and astronauts, this overview indicates that the main concerns about human space exploration in Japan are its social significance and cost-effectiveness (Section 1). Next, an overview of behavioral science-an essential field for human space exploration (referred to in this paper as space behavioral science) that provides support for astronauts-is presented from the perspective of stress research in isolated and confined environments (Section 2). We then give two examples of where such knowledge from space behavioral science research has been applied to terrestrial isolated and confined environments. One is JAXA's support in 2009 for people who were vulnerable to infection by a new strain of flu and accordingly placed in an isolated and confined facility under the Infectious Disease Law and the Quarantine Law. The other is NASA's support in 2010 for Chilean mine workers who were trapped 700 m

  3. The Closed Aquatic System AquaHab® as part of a CELSS for Exploration, Space and Earth Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slenzka, Klaus

    AquaHab R is a small, self-sustaining closed microcosm, based on the former space shuttle payload C.E.B.A.S. (Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System). AquaHab R contains on laboratory scale within 8 liters of water volume different groups of organisms (fish, snails, amphipods, plants). During the last years, it was developed to a system for the risk assessment of chemicals as well as an early warning tool for air and water contamination, major concerns during long-term stays in closed habitats for example on Earth's subsurface (deep sea) or later on the Moon or Mars. AquaHab R is now enhanced developed for exploratory missions having implemented an algae reactor system for biomass production etc.. During first tests, the transport of oxygen from the algae reactor into the AquaHab R was demonstrated successfully. In the common AquaHab R - bioreactor system, the different subsystems will serve for several tasks. In the AquaHab R - tank, the removal of waste water (mainly nutrients) as well as the production of some higher plants and fish as food source will be most beneficial; additionally the AquaHab R -tank is supporting astronauts psychological health recovery (home aquaria effect, taking care for pets). The beneficially output of the algae reactors will e.g. be the increased delivery of oxygen and metabolic products with application potential for humans (as e.g. vitamins, drug like acting substances) as well as being a food source in general and also the removal of carbon dioxide. Furthermore, specialized algae can also serve as early warning tool, as all the organisms in the AquaHab R do, or producing energy equivalents. The different subsystems will interact with each other to treat the products of humans being in the closed habitat in the most effective way. This new life support subsystem will be bioregenerative and sustainable in the meaning, that no material transport into the system is needed, and non-usable and maybe toxic end products won‘t be

  4. The Licancabur Project: Exploring the Limits of Life in the Highest Lake on Earth as an Analog to Martian Paleolakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; McKay, C. P.; Friedmann, I.; Diaz, G. Chong; Demergasso, C.; Kisse, K.; Grigorszky, I.; Friedmann, R. Ocampo; Hock, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Licancabur volcano (6017 m) hosts the highest and one of the least explored lakes in the world in its summit crater. It is located 22 deg.50 min. South / 67 deg.53 min. West at the boundary of Chile and Bolivia in the High-Andes. In a freezing environment, the lake located in volcano-tectonic environment combines low-oxygen, low atmospheric pressure due to altitude, and high-UV radiation (see table). However, its bottom water temperature remains above 0 C year-round. These conditions make Licancabur a unique analog to Martian paleolakes considered high-priority sites for the search for life on Mars.

  5. Use of a GCM to Explore Sampling Issues in Connection with Satellite Remote Sensing of the Earth Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, Laura D.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Randall, David A.; Branson, Mark D.; Gibson, Gary G.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    2000-01-01

    Collocated in time and space, top-of-the-atmosphere measurements of the Earth radiation budget (ERB) and cloudiness from passive scanning radiometers, and lidar- and radar-in-space measurements of multilayered cloud systems, are the required combination to improve our understanding of the role of clouds and radiation in climate. Experiments to fly multiple satellites "in formation" to measure simultaneously the radiative and optical properties of overlapping cloud systems are being designed. Because satellites carrying ERB experiments and satellites carrying lidars- or radars-in space have different orbital characteristics, the number of simultaneous measurements of radiation and clouds is reduced relative to the number of measurements made by each satellite independently. Monthly averaged coincident observations of radiation and cloudiness are biased when compared against more frequently sampled observations due, in particular, to the undersampling of their diurnal cycle, Using the Colorado State University General Circulation Model (CSU GCM), the goal of this study is to measure the impact of using simultaneous observations from the Earth Observing System (EOS) platform and companion satellites flying lidars or radars on monthly averaged diagnostics of longwave radiation, cloudiness, and its cloud optical properties. To do so, the hourly varying geographical distributions of coincident locations between the afternoon EOS (EOS-PM) orbit and the orbit of the ICESAT satellite set to fly at the altitude of 600 km, and between the EOS PM orbit and the orbits of the PICASSO satellite proposed to fly at the altitudes of 485 km (PICA485) or 705 km (PICA705), are simulated in the CSU GCM for a 60-month time period starting at the idealistic July 1, 2001, launch date. Monthly averaged diagnostics of the top-of-the-atmosphere, atmospheric, and surface longwave radiation budgets and clouds accumulated over grid boxes corresponding to satellite overpasses are compared against

  6. Potential Applications of Modularity to Enable a Deep Space Habitation Capability for Future Human Exploration Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry; Smitherman, David

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating preliminary concepts of a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) enabling long duration crewed exploration of asteroids, the Moon, and Mars is a technically challenging problem. Sufficient habitat volumes and equipment, necessary to ensure crew health and functionality, increase propellant requirements and decrease launch flexibility to deliver multiple elements on a single launch vehicle; both of which increase overall mission cost. Applying modularity in the design of the habitat structures and subsystems can alleviate these difficulties by spreading the build-up of the overall habitation capability across several smaller parts. This allows for a more flexible habitation approach that accommodates various crew mission durations and levels of functionality. This paper provides a technical analysis of how various modular habitation approaches can impact the parametric design of a DSH with potential benefits in mass, packaging volume, and architectural flexibility. This includes a description of the desired long duration habitation capability, the definition of a baseline model for comparison, a small trade study to investigate alternatives, and commentary on potentially advantageous configurations to enable different levels of habitability. The approaches investigated include modular pressure vessel strategies, modular subsystems, and modular manufacturing approaches to habitat structure. The paper also comments upon the possibility of an integrated habitation strategy using modular components to create all short and long duration habitation elements required in the current exploration architectures.

  7. Research and Technology Development to Advance Environmental Monitoring, Food Systems, and Habitat Design for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.; Perchonek, M. H.; Ott, C. M.; Kaiser, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration missions will carry crews far beyond the relatively safe environs of cis-lunar space. Such trips will have little or no opportunity for resupply or rapid aborts and will be of a duration that far exceeds our experience to date. The challenges this imposes on the requirements of systems that monitor the life support and provide food and shelter for the crew are the focus of much research within the Human Research Program. Making all of these technologies robust and reliable enough for multi-year missions with little or no ability to run for home calls for a thorough understanding of the risks and impacts of failure. The way we currently monitor for microbial contamination of water, air, and surfaces, by sampling and growing cultures on nutrient media, must be reconsidered for exploration missions which have limited capacity for consumables. Likewise, the shelf life of food must be increased so that the nutrients required to keep the crewmembers healthy do not degrade over the life of the mission. Improved formulations, preservation, packaging, and storage technologies are all being investigated for ways slow this process or replace stowed food with key food items grown fresh in situ. Ensuring that the mass and volume of a spacecraft are used to maximum efficiency calls for infusing human factors into the design from its inception to increase efficiency, improve performance, and retain robustness toward operational realities. Integrating the human system with the spacecraft systems is the focus of many lines of investigation.

  8. A primary exploration to quasi-two-dimensional rare-earth ferromagnetic particles: holmium-doped MoS2 sheet as room-temperature magnetic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Lin, Zheng-Zhe

    2018-05-01

    Recently, two-dimensional materials and nanoparticles with robust ferromagnetism are even of great interest to explore basic physics in nanoscale spintronics. More importantly, room-temperature magnetic semiconducting materials with high Curie temperature is essential for developing next-generation spintronic and quantum computing devices. Here, we develop a theoretical model on the basis of density functional theory calculations and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida theory to predict the thermal stability of two-dimensional magnetic materials. Compared with other rare-earth (dysprosium (Dy) and erbium (Er)) and 3 d (copper (Cu)) impurities, holmium-doped (Ho-doped) single-layer 1H-MoS2 is proposed as promising semiconductor with robust magnetism. The calculations at the level of hybrid HSE06 functional predict a Curie temperature much higher than room temperature. Ho-doped MoS2 sheet possesses fully spin-polarized valence and conduction bands, which is a prerequisite for flexible spintronic applications.

  9. Exploring the Hydrothermal System in the Chicxulub Crater and Implications for the Early Evolution of Life on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kring, D. A.; Schmieder, M.; Tikoo, S.; Riller, U. P.; Simpson, S. L.; Osinski, G.; Cockell, C. S.; Coolen, M.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    Impact cratering, particularly large basin-size craters with diameters >100 km, have the potential to generate vast subsurface hydrothermal systems. There were dozens of such impacts during the Hadean and early Archean, some of which vaporized seas for brief periods of time, during which the safest niches for early life may have been in those subsurface hydrothermal systems. The Chicxulub crater can serve as a proxy for those events. New IODP-ICDP core recovered by Expedition 364 reveals a high-temperature (>300 degree C) system that may have persisted for more than 100,000 years. Of order 105 to 106 km3 of crust was structurally deformed, melted, and vaporized within about 10 minutes of the impact. The crust had to endure immense strain rates of 104/s to 106/s, up to 12 orders of magnitude greater than those associated with igneous and metamorphic processes. The outcome is a porous, permeable region that is a perfect host for hydrothermal circulation across the entire diameter of the crater to depths up to 5 or 6 km. The target rocks at Chicxulub are composed of an 3 km-thick carbonate platform sequence over a crystalline basement composed of igneous granite, granodiorite, and a few other intrusive components, such as dolerite, and metamorphic assemblages composed, in part, of gneiss and mica schist. Post-impact hydrothermal alteration includes Ca-Na- and K-metasomatism, pervasive hydration to produce layered silicates, and lower-temperature vug-filling zeolites as the system cycled from high temperatures to low temperatures. While the extent of granitic crust on early Earth is still debated and, thus, the direct application of those mineral reactions to the Hadean and early Archean can be debated, the thermal evolution of the system should be applicable to diverse crustal compositions. It is important to point out that pre-impact thermal conditions of Hadean and early Archean crust can affect the size of an impact basin and, in turn, the proportion of that basin

  10. Recurrence relations in one-dimensional Ising models.

    PubMed

    da Conceição, C M Silva; Maia, R N P

    2017-09-01

    The exact finite-size partition function for the nonhomogeneous one-dimensional (1D) Ising model is found through an approach using algebra operators. Specifically, in this paper we show that the partition function can be computed through a trace from a linear second-order recurrence relation with nonconstant coefficients in matrix form. A relation between the finite-size partition function and the generalized Lucas polynomials is found for the simple homogeneous model, thus establishing a recursive formula for the partition function. This is an important property and it might indicate the possible existence of recurrence relations in higher-dimensional Ising models. Moreover, assuming quenched disorder for the interactions within the model, the quenched averaged magnetic susceptibility displays a nontrivial behavior due to changes in the ferromagnetic concentration probability.

  11. A flower-like Ising model. Thermodynamic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejdani, R.; Ifti, M.

    1995-03-01

    We consider a flower-like Ising model, in which there are some additional bonds (in the “flower-core”) compared to a pure Ising chain. To understand the behaviour of this system and particularly the competition between ferromagnetic (usual) bonds along the chain and antiferromagnetic (additional) bonds across the chain, we study analytically and iteratively the main thermodynamic quantities. Very interesting is, in the zero-field and zero-temperature limit, the behaviour of the magnetization and the susceptibility, closely related to the ground state configurations and their degeneracies. This degeneracy explains the existence of non-zero entropy at zero temperature, in our results. Also, this model could be useful for the experimental investigations in studying the saturation curves for the enzyme kinetics or the melting curves for DNA-denaturation in some flower-like configurations.

  12. Ising Model on Tangled Chain, Some Thermodynamic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejdani, R.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper we consider an Ising model on tangled chain, where some additional bonds compared to a pure Ising chain are presented. To understand the behavior of this system and the competition between ferromagnetic bonds J along the chain and antiferromagnetic bonds J' across the chain, we have studied in detail analytically and iteratively some of the thermodynamic quantities. Particularly interesting is, in the zero-field and zero-temperature limit, the behavior of the magnetization and the susceptibility closely related to the ground-state configurations and their degeneracies. This degeneracy, presented at the condition J' ≤ -J between J and J', explains, also, the existence of nonzero entropy at zero temperature. This model applied as a lattice gas model defined on a tangled chain could be also useful for the experimental investigations in studying the saturation curves for the enzyme kinetics or the melting curves for DNA-denaturation.

  13. Ecological risk assessment of TBT in Ise Bay.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Joji; Yonezawa, Yoshitaka; Nakata, Kisaburo; Horiguchi, Fumio

    2009-02-01

    An ecological risk assessment of tributyltin (TBT) in Ise Bay was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) method. The assessment endpoint was defined to protect the survival, growth and reproduction of marine organisms. Sources of TBT in this study were assumed to be commercial vessels in harbors and navigation routes. Concentrations of TBT in Ise Bay were estimated using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, an ecosystem model and a chemical fate model. Estimated MOEs for marine organisms for 1990 and 2008 were approximately 0.1-2.0 and over 100 respectively, indicating a declining temporal trend in the probability of adverse effects. The chemical fate model predicts a much longer persistence of TBT in sediments than in the water column. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the harmful effects of TBT on benthic organisms.

  14. Nature versus nurture: Predictability in low-temperature Ising dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, J.; Machta, J.; Newman, C. M.; Stein, D. L.

    2013-10-01

    Consider a dynamical many-body system with a random initial state subsequently evolving through stochastic dynamics. What is the relative importance of the initial state (“nature”) versus the realization of the stochastic dynamics (“nurture”) in predicting the final state? We examined this question for the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet following an initial deep quench from T=∞ to T=0. We performed Monte Carlo studies on the overlap between “identical twins” raised in independent dynamical environments, up to size L=500. Our results suggest an overlap decaying with time as t-θh with θh=0.22±0.02; the same exponent holds for a quench to low but nonzero temperature. This “heritability exponent” may equal the persistence exponent for the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet, but the two differ more generally.

  15. OpenCL Implementation of NeuroIsing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapart, C. A.

    Recent advances in graphics card hardware combined with anintroduction of the OpenCL standard promise to accelerate numerical simulations across diverse scientific disciplines. One such field benefiting from new hardware/software paradigms is econophysics. The paper describes an OpenCL implementation of a selected econophysics model: NeuroIsing, which has been designed to execute in parallel on a vendor-independent graphics card. Originally introduced in the paper [C.~A.~Zapart, ``Econophysics in Financial Time Series Prediction'', PhD thesis, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Japan (2009)], at first it was implemented on a CELL processor running inside a SONY PS3 games console. The NeuroIsing framework can be applied to predicting and trading foreign exchange as well as stock market index futures.

  16. Dynamical quantum phase transitions in extended transverse Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; Dutta, Amit

    2018-04-01

    We study the dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs) manifested in the subsequent unitary dynamics of an extended Ising model with an additional three spin interactions following a sudden quench. Revisiting the equilibrium phase diagram of the model, where different quantum phases are characterized by different winding numbers, we show that in some situations the winding number may not change across a gap closing point in the energy spectrum. Although, usually there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the change in winding number and the number of critical time scales associated with DQPTs, we show that the extended nature of interactions may lead to unusual situations. Importantly, we show that in the limit of the cluster Ising model, three critical modes associated with DQPTs become degenerate, thereby leading to a single critical time scale for a given sector of Fisher zeros.

  17. Precision islands in the Ising and O(N ) models

    DOE PAGES

    Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Simmons-Duffin, David; ...

    2016-08-04

    We make precise determinations of the leading scaling dimensions and operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients in the 3d Ising, O(2), and O(3) models from the conformal bootstrap with mixed correlators. We improve on previous studies by scanning over possible relative values of the leading OPE coefficients, which incorporates the physical information that there is only a single operator at a given scaling dimension. The scaling dimensions and OPE coefficients obtained for the 3d Ising model, (Δ σ , Δ ϵ , λ σσϵ , λ ϵϵϵ ) = (0.5181489(10), 1.412625(10), 1.0518537(41), 1.532435(19) , give the most precise determinations of thesemore » quantities to date.« less

  18. Ising Processing Units: Potential and Challenges for Discrete Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Coffrin, Carleton James; Nagarajan, Harsha; Bent, Russell Whitford

    The recent emergence of novel computational devices, such as adiabatic quantum computers, CMOS annealers, and optical parametric oscillators, presents new opportunities for hybrid-optimization algorithms that leverage these kinds of specialized hardware. In this work, we propose the idea of an Ising processing unit as a computational abstraction for these emerging tools. Challenges involved in using and bench- marking these devices are presented, and open-source software tools are proposed to address some of these challenges. The proposed benchmarking tools and methodology are demonstrated by conducting a baseline study of established solution methods to a D-Wave 2X adiabatic quantum computer, one examplemore » of a commercially available Ising processing unit.« less

  19. On the dynamics of the Ising model of cooperative phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Montroll, Elliott W.

    1981-01-01

    A two-dimensional (and to some degree three-dimensional) version of Glauber's one-dimensional spin relaxation model is described. The model is constructed to yield the Ising model of cooperative phenomena at equilibrium. A complete hierarchy of differential equations for multispin correlation functions is constructed. Some remarks are made concerning the solution of them for the initial value problem of determining the relaxation of an initial set of spin distributions. PMID:16592955

  20. Stochastic thermodynamics for Ising chain and symmetric exclusion process.

    PubMed

    Toral, R; Van den Broeck, C; Escaff, D; Lindenberg, Katja

    2017-03-01

    We verify the finite-time fluctuation theorem for a linear Ising chain in contact with heat reservoirs at its ends. Analytic results are derived for a chain consisting of two spins. The system can be mapped onto a model for particle transport, namely, the symmetric exclusion process in contact with thermal and particle reservoirs. We modify the symmetric exclusion process to represent a thermal engine and reproduce universal features of the efficiency at maximum power.

  1. Data reduction and analysis of ISEE magnetometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1982-01-01

    The ISEE-1 and -2 magnetometer data was reduced. The up and downstream turbulence associated with interplanetary shocks were studied, including methods of determining shock normals, and the similarities and differences in laminar and quasi-laminar shock structure. The associated up and downstream turbulence was emphasized. The distributions of flux transfer events, field aligned currents in the near tail, and substorm dynamics in the magnetotail were also investigated.

  2. Performance evaluation of coherent Ising machines against classical neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haribara, Yoshitaka; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2017-12-01

    The coherent Ising machine is expected to find a near-optimal solution in various combinatorial optimization problems, which has been experimentally confirmed with optical parametric oscillators and a field programmable gate array circuit. The similar mathematical models were proposed three decades ago by Hopfield et al in the context of classical neural networks. In this article, we compare the computational performance of both models.

  3. `Teaching What I Learned': Exploring students' Earth and Space Science learning experiences in secondary school with a particular focus on their comprehension of the concept of `geologic time'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol; Peate, David W.

    2015-06-01

    According to the national survey of science education, science educators in the USA currently face many challenges such as lack of qualified secondary Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers. Less qualified teachers may have difficulty teaching ESS because of a lack of conceptual understanding, which leads to diminished confidence in content knowledge. More importantly, teachers' limited conceptual understanding of the core ideas automatically leads to a lack of pedagogical content knowledge. This mixed methods study aims to explore the ways in which current secondary schooling, especially the small numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in the USA, might influence students' learning of the discipline. To gain a better understanding of the current conditions of ESS education in secondary schools, in the first phase, we qualitatively examined a sample middle and high school ESS textbook to explore how the big ideas of ESS, particularly geological time, are represented. In the second phase, we quantitatively analyzed the participating college students' conceptual understanding of geological time by comparing those who had said they had had secondary school ESS learning experience with those who did not. Additionally, college students' perceptions on learning and teaching ESS are discussed. Findings from both the qualitative and quantitative phases indicate participating students' ESS learning experience in their secondary schools seemed to have limited or little influence on their conceptual understandings of the discipline. We believe that these results reflect the current ESS education status, connected with the declining numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in secondary schools.

  4. Optimal structure and parameter learning of Ising models

    DOE PAGES

    Lokhov, Andrey; Vuffray, Marc Denis; Misra, Sidhant; ...

    2018-03-16

    Reconstruction of the structure and parameters of an Ising model from binary samples is a problem of practical importance in a variety of disciplines, ranging from statistical physics and computational biology to image processing and machine learning. The focus of the research community shifted toward developing universal reconstruction algorithms that are both computationally efficient and require the minimal amount of expensive data. Here, we introduce a new method, interaction screening, which accurately estimates model parameters using local optimization problems. The algorithm provably achieves perfect graph structure recovery with an information-theoretically optimal number of samples, notably in the low-temperature regime, whichmore » is known to be the hardest for learning. Here, the efficacy of interaction screening is assessed through extensive numerical tests on synthetic Ising models of various topologies with different types of interactions, as well as on real data produced by a D-Wave quantum computer. Finally, this study shows that the interaction screening method is an exact, tractable, and optimal technique that universally solves the inverse Ising problem.« less

  5. Effective field renormalization group approach for Ising lattice spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fittipaldi, Ivon P.

    1994-03-01

    A new applicable real-space renormalization group framework (EFRG) for computing the critical properties of Ising lattice spin systems is presented. The method, which follows up the same strategy of the mean-field renormalization group scheme (MFRG), is based on rigorous Ising spin identities and utilizes a convenient differential operator expansion technique. Within this scheme, in contrast with the usual mean-field type of equation of state, all the relevant self-spin correlations are taken exactly into account. The results for the critical coupling and the critical exponent v, for the correlation length, are very satisfactory and it is shown that this technique leads to rather accurate results which represent a remarkable improvement on those obtained from the standard MFRG method. In particular, it is shown that the present EFRG approach correctly distinguishes the geometry of the lattice structure even when employing its simplest size-cluster version. Owing to its simplicity we also comment on the wide applicability of the present method to problems in crystalline and disordered Ising spin systems.

  6. Optimal structure and parameter learning of Ising models

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhov, Andrey; Vuffray, Marc Denis; Misra, Sidhant

    Reconstruction of the structure and parameters of an Ising model from binary samples is a problem of practical importance in a variety of disciplines, ranging from statistical physics and computational biology to image processing and machine learning. The focus of the research community shifted toward developing universal reconstruction algorithms that are both computationally efficient and require the minimal amount of expensive data. Here, we introduce a new method, interaction screening, which accurately estimates model parameters using local optimization problems. The algorithm provably achieves perfect graph structure recovery with an information-theoretically optimal number of samples, notably in the low-temperature regime, whichmore » is known to be the hardest for learning. Here, the efficacy of interaction screening is assessed through extensive numerical tests on synthetic Ising models of various topologies with different types of interactions, as well as on real data produced by a D-Wave quantum computer. Finally, this study shows that the interaction screening method is an exact, tractable, and optimal technique that universally solves the inverse Ising problem.« less

  7. Study on the Ising Antiferromagnet in an External Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Yeon

    2018-06-01

    In an external magnetic field, the properties of an antiferromagnet are much less well understood than those of a ferromagnet are. An abnormal peak in the specific heat of matter at a low temperature, the so-called Schottky anomaly, is one of the most universal phenomena, and it is the most important concept in studying experimentally the low-energy structure of matter. We investigate the unknown properties of the Ising antiferromagnet in an external magnetic field B, in particular, the magnetic-field dependence of the Schottky anomaly of the Ising antiferromagnet systematically. We find three different kinds of Schottky anomalies for the Ising antiferromagnet. First, for B > B c , where B c is the critical magnetic field, both the maximum of the Schottky anomaly C s ( B) and the Schottky temperature T s ( B) increase as B increases. In particular, T s ( B) follows T s ( B) = 0.8336( B - B c ) only for B > B c . Second, for B < B c , both the maximum of the Schottky anomaly and the Schottky temperature decrease as B increases, in clear contrast to the increasing behaviors of the Schottky anomaly for B > B c . Third, at B = B c , the unusual Schottky anomaly appears due to the nonzero ground-state entropy, similar to real ice and spin glass. We expect that our results will play a vital role in measuring and understanding the properties of an antiferromagnet and related materials in an external magnetic field.

  8. Ising-like patterns of spatial synchrony in population biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Andrew; Hastings, Alan; Machta, Jon

    2014-03-01

    Systems of coupled dynamical oscillators can undergo a phase transition between synchronous and asynchronous phases. In the case of coupled map lattices, the spontaneous symmetry breaking of a temporal-phase order parameter is known to exhibit Ising-like critical behavior. Here, we investigate a noisy coupled map motivated by the study of spatial synchrony in ecological populations far from the extinction threshold. Ising-like patterns of criticality, as well as spinodal decomposition and homogeneous nucleation, emerge from the nonlinear interactions of environmental fluctuations in habitat quality, local density-dependence in reproduction, and dispersal. In the mean-field limit, the correspondence to the Ising model is exact: the fixed points of our dynamical system are given by the equation of state for Weiss mean-field theory under an appropriate mapping of parameters. We have strong evidence that a quantitative correspondence persists, both near and far from the critical point, in the presence of fluctuations. Our results provide a formal connection between equilibrium statistical physics and population biology. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1344187.

  9. ISEE observations of low frequency waves and ion distribution function evolution in the plasma sheet boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Gary, S. P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes ISEE plasma and magnetic fluctuation observations during two crossings of the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) in the earth's magnetotail. Distribution function observations show that the counterstreaming ion components undergo pitch-angle scattering and evolve into a shell distribution in velocity space. This evolution is correlated with the development of low frequency, low amplitude magnetic fluctuations. However, the measured wave amplitudes are insufficient to accomplish the observed degree of ion pitch-angle scatttering locally; the near-earth distributions may be the result of processes occurring much farther down the magnetotail. Results show a clear correlation between the ion component beta and the relative streaming speed of the two components, suggesting that electromagnetic ion/ion instabilities do play an important role in the scattering of PSBL ions.

  10. Unusual locations of Earth's bow shock on September 24 - 25, 1987: Mach number effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Fairfield, Donald H.; Anderson, Oger R.; Carlton, Victoria E. H.; Paularena, Karolen I.; Lazarus, Alan J.

    1995-01-01

    International Sun Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE 1) and Interplanetary Monitoring Platform 8 (IMP 8) data are used to identify 19 crossings of Earth's bow shock during a 30-hour period following 0000 UT on September 24, 1987. Apparent standoff distances for the shock are calculated for each crossing using two methods and the spacecraft location; one method assumes the average shock shape, while the other assumes a ram pressure-dependent shock shape. The shock's apparent standoff distance, normally approximately 14 R(sub E), is shown to increase from near 10 R(sub E) initially to near 19 R(sub E) during an 8-hour period, followed by an excursion to near 35 R(sub E) (where two IMP 8 shock crossings occur) and an eventual return to values smaller than 19 R(sub E). The Alfven M(sub A) and fast magnetosonic M(sub ms). Mach numbers remain above 2 and the number density above 4/cu cm for almost the entire period. Ram pressure effects produce the initial near-Earth shock location, whereas expansions and contractions of the bow shock due to low Mach number effects account, qualitatively and semiquantitatively, for the timing and existence of almost all the remaining ISEE crossings and both IMP 8 crossings. Significant quantitative differences exist between the apparent standoff distances for the shock crossings and those predicted using the observed plasma parameters and the standard model based on Spreiter et al.'s (1966) gasdynamic equation. These differences can be explained in terms of either a different dependence of the standoff distance on Mach number at low M(sub A) and M(sub ms), or variations in shock shape with M(sub A) and M(sub ms) (becoming increasingly "puffed up" with decreasing M(sub A) and M(sub ms), as expected theoretically), or by a combination of both effects.

  11. Network of time-multiplexed optical parametric oscillators as a coherent Ising machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marandi, Alireza; Wang, Zhe; Takata, Kenta; Byer, Robert L.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    Finding the ground states of the Ising Hamiltonian maps to various combinatorial optimization problems in biology, medicine, wireless communications, artificial intelligence and social network. So far, no efficient classical and quantum algorithm is known for these problems and intensive research is focused on creating physical systems—Ising machines—capable of finding the absolute or approximate ground states of the Ising Hamiltonian. Here, we report an Ising machine using a network of degenerate optical parametric oscillators (OPOs). Spins are represented with above-threshold binary phases of the OPOs and the Ising couplings are realized by mutual injections. The network is implemented in a single OPO ring cavity with multiple trains of femtosecond pulses and configurable mutual couplings, and operates at room temperature. We programmed a small non-deterministic polynomial time-hard problem on a 4-OPO Ising machine and in 1,000 runs no computational error was detected.

  12. What can we learn from the toughest animals of the Earth? Water bears (tardigrades) as multicellular model organisms in order to perform scientific preparations for lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Rizzo, Angela Maria; Altiero, Tiziana; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2012-12-01

    Space missions of long duration required a series of preliminary experiments on living organisms, validated by a substantial phase of ground simulation experiments, in the field of micro- and inter-mediate gravities, radiobiology, and, for planetary explorations, related to risks deriving from regolith and dust exposure. In this review, we present the tardigrades, whose characteristics that recommend them as an emerging model for space biology. They are microscopic animals but are characterized by a complex structural organization similar to that of larger animals; they can be cultured in lab in small facilities, having small size; they are able to produce clonal lineages by means of parthenogenesis; they can completely suspend their metabolism when entering in dormant states (anhydrobiosis induced by dehydration and cryobiosis induced by freezing); desiccated anhydrobiotic tardigrades are able to withstand chemical and physical extremes, but a large tolerance is showed also by active animals; they can be stored in dry state for many years without loss of viability. Tardigrades have already been exposed to space stressors on Low Earth Orbit several times. The relevance of ground-based and space studies on tardigrades rests on the presumption that results could suggest strategies to protect organisms, also humans, when exposed to the space and lunar environments.

  13. "We Put on the Glasses and Moon Comes Closer!" Urban Second Graders Exploring the Earth, the Sun and Moon through 3D Technologies in a Science and Literacy Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik-Ercan, Zeynep; Zeynep Inan, Hatice; Nowak, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Beomjin

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study describes (a) the ways 3D visualization, coupled with other science and literacy experiences, supported young children's first exploration of the Earth-Sun-Moon system and (b) the perspectives of classroom teachers and children on using 3D visualization. We created three interactive 3D software modules that simulate day…

  14. In-Space Engine (ISE-100) Development - Design Verification Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Popp, Chris; Bullard, Brad

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, NASA has formulated science mission concepts with an anticipation of landing spacecraft on the lunar surface, meteoroids, and other planets. Advancing thruster technology for spacecraft propulsion systems has been considered for maximizing science payload. Starting in 2010, development of In-Space Engine (designated as ISE-100) has been carried out. ISE-100 thruster is designed based on heritage Missile Defense Agency (MDA) technology aimed for a lightweight and efficient system in terms volume and packaging. It runs with a hypergolic bi-propellant system: MON-25 (nitrogen tetroxide, N2O4, with 25% of nitric oxide, NO) and MMH (monomethylhydrazine, CH6N2) for NASA spacecraft applications. The utilization of this propellant system will provide a propulsion system capable of operating at wide range of temperatures, from 50 C (122 F) down to -30 C (-22 F) to drastically reduce heater power. The thruster is designed to deliver 100 lb(sub f) of thrust with the capability of a pulse mode operation for a wide range of mission duty cycles (MDCs). Two thrusters were fabricated. As part of the engine development, this test campaign is dedicated for the design verification of the thruster. This presentation will report the efforts of the design verification hot-fire test program of the ISE-100 thruster in collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) test teams. The hot-fire tests were conducted at Advance Mobile Propulsion Test (AMPT) facility in Durango, Colorado, from May 13 to June 10, 2016. This presentation will also provide a summary of key points from the test results.

  15. Interacting damage models mapped onto ising and percolation models

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, Renaud; Pride, Steven R.

    The authors introduce a class of damage models on regular lattices with isotropic interactions between the broken cells of the lattice. Quasistatic fiber bundles are an example. The interactions are assumed to be weak, in the sense that the stress perturbation from a broken cell is much smaller than the mean stress in the system. The system starts intact with a surface-energy threshold required to break any cell sampled from an uncorrelated quenched-disorder distribution. The evolution of this heterogeneous system is ruled by Griffith's principle which states that a cell breaks when the release in potential (elastic) energy in themore » system exceeds the surface-energy barrier necessary to break the cell. By direct integration over all possible realizations of the quenched disorder, they obtain the probability distribution of each damage configuration at any level of the imposed external deformation. They demonstrate an isomorphism between the distributions so obtained and standard generalized Ising models, in which the coupling constants and effective temperature in the Ising model are functions of the nature of the quenched-disorder distribution and the extent of accumulated damage. In particular, they show that damage models with global load sharing are isomorphic to standard percolation theory, that damage models with local load sharing rule are isomorphic to the standard ising model, and draw consequences thereof for the universality class and behavior of the autocorrelation length of the breakdown transitions corresponding to these models. they also treat damage models having more general power-law interactions, and classify the breakdown process as a function of the power-law interaction exponent. Last, they also show that the probability distribution over configurations is a maximum of Shannon's entropy under some specific constraints related to the energetic balance of the fracture process, which firmly relates this type of quenched-disorder based

  16. Nonequilibrium dynamic critical scaling of the quantum Ising chain.

    PubMed

    Kolodrubetz, Michael; Clark, Bryan K; Huse, David A

    2012-07-06

    We solve for the time-dependent finite-size scaling functions of the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising chain during a linear-in-time ramp of the field through the quantum critical point. We then simulate Mott-insulating bosons in a tilted potential, an experimentally studied system in the same equilibrium universality class, and demonstrate that universality holds for the dynamics as well. We find qualitatively athermal features of the scaling functions, such as negative spin correlations, and we show that they should be robustly observable within present cold atom experiments.

  17. Simulating the Rayleigh-Taylor instability with the Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Justin R.; Elliott, James B.

    2011-08-26

    The Ising model, implemented with the Metropolis algorithm and Kawasaki dynamics, makes a system with its own physics, distinct from the real world. These physics are sophisticated enough to model behavior similar to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and by better understanding these physics, we can learn how to modify the system to better re ect reality. For example, we could add a v x and a v y to each spin and modify the exchange rules to incorporate them, possibly using two body scattering laws to construct a more realistic system.

  18. Ising model simulation in directed lattices and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. W. S.; Stauffer, D.

    2006-01-01

    On directed lattices, with half as many neighbours as in the usual undirected lattices, the Ising model does not seem to show a spontaneous magnetisation, at least for lower dimensions. Instead, the decay time for flipping of the magnetisation follows an Arrhenius law on the square and simple cubic lattice. On directed Barabási-Albert networks with two and seven neighbours selected by each added site, Metropolis and Glauber algorithms give similar results, while for Wolff cluster flipping the magnetisation decays exponentially with time.

  19. Frustration and correlations in stacked triangular-lattice Ising antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnell, F. J.; Chalker, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    We study multilayer triangular-lattice Ising antiferromagnets with interlayer interactions that are weak and frustrated in an abc stacking. By analyzing a coupled height model description of these systems, we show that they exhibit a classical spin liquid regime at low temperature, in which both intralayer and interlayer correlations are strong but there is no long-range order. Diffuse scattering in this regime is concentrated on a helix in reciprocal space, as observed for charge ordering in the materials LuFe2O4 and YbFe2O4 .

  20. Ising model of financial markets with many assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckrot, A.; Jurczyk, J.; Morgenstern, I.

    2016-11-01

    Many models of financial markets exist, but most of them simulate single asset markets. We study a multi asset Ising model of a financial market. Each agent has two possible actions (buy/sell) for every asset. The agents dynamically adjust their coupling coefficients according to past market returns and external news. This leads to fat tails and volatility clustering independent of the number of assets. We find that a separation of news into different channels leads to sector structures in the cross correlations, similar to those found in real markets.

  1. Simulation of financial market via nonlinear Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Bonggyun; Song, Jae Wook; Chang, Woojin

    2016-09-01

    In this research, we propose a practical method for simulating the financial return series whose distribution has a specific heaviness. We employ the Ising model for generating financial return series to be analogous to those of the real series. The similarity between real financial return series and simulated one is statistically verified based on their stylized facts including the power law behavior of tail distribution. We also suggest the scheme for setting the parameters in order to simulate the financial return series with specific tail behavior. The simulation method introduced in this paper is expected to be applied to the other financial products whose price return distribution is fat-tailed.

  2. Monte Carlo technique for very large ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalle, C.; Winkelmann, V.

    1982-08-01

    Rebbi's multispin coding technique is improved and applied to the kinetic Ising model with size 600*600*600. We give the central part of our computer program (for a CDC Cyber 76), which will be helpful also in a simulation of smaller systems, and describe the other tricks necessary to go to large lattices. The magnetization M at T=1.4* T c is found to decay asymptotically as exp(-t/2.90) if t is measured in Monte Carlo steps per spin, and M( t = 0) = 1 initially.

  3. Renormalization group, normal form theory and the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Archishman; Hayden, Lorien; Clement, Colin; Liarte, Danilo; Sethna, James

    The results of the renormalization group are commonly advertised as the existence of power law singularities at critical points. Logarithmic and exponential corrections are seen as special cases and dealt with on a case-by-case basis. We propose to systematize computing the singularities in the renormalization group using perturbative normal form theory. This gives us a way to classify all such singularities in a unified framework and to generate a systematic machinery to do scaling collapses. We show that this procedure leads to some new results even in classic cases like the Ising model and has general applicability.

  4. Entanglement dynamics in critical random quantum Ising chain with perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yichen, E-mail: ychuang@caltech.edu

    We simulate the entanglement dynamics in a critical random quantum Ising chain with generic perturbations using the time-evolving block decimation algorithm. Starting from a product state, we observe super-logarithmic growth of entanglement entropy with time. The numerical result is consistent with the analytical prediction of Vosk and Altman using a real-space renormalization group technique. - Highlights: • We study the dynamical quantum phase transition between many-body localized phases. • We simulate the dynamics of a very long random spin chain with matrix product states. • We observe numerically super-logarithmic growth of entanglement entropy with time.

  5. The Transport of Solar Ions Through the Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, O. W.

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the initial phase of an investigation that was originally selected by NASA Headquarters for funding by a grant but was later transferred to NASA GSFC for continued funding under a new and separate contract. The principal objective of the investigation, led by Dr. O.W. Lennartsson, is to extract information about the solar origin plasma in Earth's magnetosphere, specifically about the entry and transport of this plasma, using energetic (10 eV/e to 18 keV/e) ion composition data from the Lockheed Plasma Composition Experiment on the NASA/ESA International Sun-Earth Explorer One (ISEE 1) satellite. These data were acquired many years ago, from November 1977 through March of 1982, but, because of subsequent failures of similar experiments on several other spacecraft, they are still the only substantial ion composition data available from Earth's magnetotail, beyond 10 R(sub E), in the critically important sub-kev to keV energy range. All of the Lockheed data now exist in a compacted scientific format, suitable for large-scale statistical investigations, which has been archived both at Lockheed Martin in Palo Alto and at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) in Greenbelt. The completion of the archiving, by processing the remaining half of the data, was made possible by separate funding through a temporary NASA program for data restoration and was given priority over the data analysis by a no-cost extension of the subject grant. By chance, the period of performance coincided with an international study of source and loss processes of magnetospheric plasma, sponsored by the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland, for which Dr. Lennartsson was invited to serve as one of 12 co-chairs. This study meshed well with the continued analysis of the NASA/Lockheed ISEE ion composition data and provided a natural forum for a broader discussion of the results from this unique experiment. What follows is arranged, for the most

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Jim Kennedy talks to students in Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Kennedy made the trip with NASA astronaut Kay Hire to share the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Jim Kennedy talks to students in Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Kennedy made the trip with NASA astronaut Kay Hire to share the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla., is the site where Center Director Jim Kennedy and astronaut Kay Hire shared the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy talked with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla., is the site where Center Director Jim Kennedy and astronaut Kay Hire shared the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy talked with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Kay Hire talks to students in Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. She joined Center Director Jim Kennedy in sharing the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Kay Hire talks to students in Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. She joined Center Director Jim Kennedy in sharing the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Jim Kennedy talks to radio station WFLA-AM and Florida Radio Network about his trip to Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Kennedy made the trip with NASA astronaut Kay Hire to share the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Jim Kennedy talks to radio station WFLA-AM and Florida Radio Network about his trip to Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Kennedy made the trip with NASA astronaut Kay Hire to share the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Kay Hire poses with 8th grader Kristy Wiggins at Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Hire joined Center Director Jim Kennedy at the school in sharing the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Kay Hire poses with 8th grader Kristy Wiggins at Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Hire joined Center Director Jim Kennedy at the school in sharing the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Warren Elly (left), with WTVT-TV, Fox News, talks with Center Director Jim Kennedy at Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Kennedy was joined by astronaut Kay Hire in sharing the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy talked with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Warren Elly (left), with WTVT-TV, Fox News, talks with Center Director Jim Kennedy at Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Kennedy was joined by astronaut Kay Hire in sharing the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy talked with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Students at Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla., listen attentively to astronaut Kay Hire. She and Center Director Jim Kennedy were at the school to share the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Students at Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla., listen attentively to astronaut Kay Hire. She and Center Director Jim Kennedy were at the school to share the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Jim Kennedy talks to WTSP-ABC News about his trip to Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Kennedy made the trip with NASA astronaut Kay Hire to share the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Jim Kennedy talks to WTSP-ABC News about his trip to Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Kennedy made the trip with NASA astronaut Kay Hire to share the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  14. Heat conduction in one-dimensional aperiodic quantum Ising chains.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjuan; Tong, Peiqing

    2011-03-01

    The heat conductivity of nonperiodic quantum Ising chains whose ends are connected with heat baths at different temperatures are studied numerically by solving the Lindblad master equation. The chains are subjected to a uniform transverse field h, while the exchange coupling J{m} between the nearest-neighbor spins takes the two values J{A} and J{B} arranged in Fibonacci, generalized Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and period-doubling sequences. We calculate the energy-density profile and energy current of the resulting nonequilibrium steady states to study the heat-conducting behavior of finite but large systems. Although these nonperiodic quantum Ising chains are integrable, it is clearly found that energy gradients exist in all chains and the energy currents appear to scale as the system size ~N{α}. By increasing the ratio of couplings, the exponent α can be modulated from α > -1 to α < -1 corresponding to the nontrivial transition from the abnormal heat transport to the heat insulator. The influences of the temperature gradient and the magnetic field to heat conduction have also been discussed.

  15. Critical frontier of the triangular Ising antiferromagnet in a field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiaofeng; Wegewijs, Maarten; Blöte, Henk W.

    2004-03-01

    We study the critical line of the triangular Ising antiferromagnet in an external magnetic field by means of a finite-size analysis of results obtained by transfer-matrix and Monte Carlo techniques. We compare the shape of the critical line with predictions of two different theoretical scenarios. Both scenarios, while plausible, involve assumptions. The first scenario is based on the generalization of the model to a vertex model, and the assumption that the exact analytic form of the critical manifold of this vertex model is determined by the zeroes of an O(2) gauge-invariant polynomial in the vertex weights. However, it is not possible to fit the coefficients of such polynomials of orders up to 10, such as to reproduce the numerical data for the critical points. The second theoretical prediction is based on the assumption that a renormalization mapping exists of the Ising model on the Coulomb gas, and analysis of the resulting renormalization equations. It leads to a shape of the critical line that is inconsistent with the first prediction, but consistent with the numerical data.

  16. On the quantum symmetry of the chiral Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecsernyés, Peter

    1994-03-01

    We introduce the notion of rational Hopf algebras that we think are able to describe the superselection symmetries of rational quantum field theories. As an example we show that a six-dimensional rational Hopf algebra H can reproduce the fusion rules, the conformal weights, the quantum dimensions and the representation of the modular group of the chiral Ising model. H plays the role of the global symmetry algebra of the chiral Ising model in the following sense: (1) a simple field algebra F and a representation π on Hπ of it is given, which contains the c = {1}/{2} unitary representations of the Virasoro algebra as subrepresentations; (2) the embedding U: H → B( Hπ) is such that the observable algebra π( A) - is the invariant subalgebra of B( Hπ) with respect to the left adjoint action of H and U(H) is the commutant of π( A); (3) there exist H-covariant primary fields in B( Hπ), which obey generalized Cuntz algebra properties and intertwine between the inequivalent sectors of the observables.

  17. Capability 9.1 Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckelkamp, Rick; Blacic, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The exploration challenge are: To build an efficient, cost effective exploration infrastructure, To coordinate exploration robots & crews from multiple. earth sites to accomplish science and exploration objectives. and To maximize self-sufficiency of the lunar/planetary exploration team.

  18. Towards disentangling natural and anthropogenic GHG emissions by space-based atmospheric concentration imaging - The CarbonSat Earth Explorer 8 Candidate Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovensmann, Heinrich; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krings, Thomas; Reuter, Max; Burrows, John P.; Buchwitz, Michael; Bösch, Hartmut; Brunner, Dominik; Ciais, Philippe; Breon, Francois-Marie; Crisp, David; Dolman, Han; Hayman, Garry; Houweling, Sander; Lichtenberg, Günter; Ingmann, Paul; Meijer, Yasjka

    2013-04-01

    CarbonSat was selected by ESA as a candidate for the 8 Earth Explorer Opportunity (EE8). The objective of the CarbonSat mission is to determine natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks of the two most important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane. The unique features of the CarbonSat mission concept are that it offers a combination of high spatial resolution (2 x 2 km2) and broad swath (240 km) to provide global imaging of localised strong emission source areas such as large cities (Megacities), landfills, power plants, volcanoes, etc. and to be able to separate anthropogenic from natural fluxes. In addition, CarbonSat data will also quantify natural fluxes of CO2 and CH4 (biospheric CO2, wetland CH4 etc.) and their changes, to better understand these important sources and sinks and their sensitivity to a changing climate. CarbonSat aims to deliver global data sets of dry column mixing ratios of CO2 and CH4 with high precision (goal: CO2 < 1 ppm, CH4 < 9 ppb) and accuracy. Benefiting from its imaging capabilities, CarbonSat will provide an at least one order of magnitude larger number of cloud free measurements than GOSAT and OCO and one order of magnitude better spatial coverage than OCO. The CarbonSat mission concept builds on the heritage and lessons learned from SCIAMACHY (2002-2012), GOSAT (2009-present) and OCO-2 (2014 onwards) to make scientifically and strategically important measurements of the amounts and distribution of CO2 and CH4 for biogeochemical and climate change research. CarbonSat entered industrial system feasibility activities in 2012, which are supported by scientific studies and campaigns. The current status of the mission concept and selected results from the scientific studies documenting the expected data quality and characteristics will be presented.

  19. Identifying differentially expressed genes in cancer patients using a non-parameter Ising model.

    PubMed

    Li, Xumeng; Feltus, Frank A; Sun, Xiaoqian; Wang, James Z; Luo, Feng

    2011-10-01

    Identification of genes and pathways involved in diseases and physiological conditions is a major task in systems biology. In this study, we developed a novel non-parameter Ising model to integrate protein-protein interaction network and microarray data for identifying differentially expressed (DE) genes. We also proposed a simulated annealing algorithm to find the optimal configuration of the Ising model. The Ising model was applied to two breast cancer microarray data sets. The results showed that more cancer-related DE sub-networks and genes were identified by the Ising model than those by the Markov random field model. Furthermore, cross-validation experiments showed that DE genes identified by Ising model can improve classification performance compared with DE genes identified by Markov random field model. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Exploring the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Highlights National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) space exploration studies, focusing on Voyager at Saturn, advanced Jupiter exploration, infrared observatory, space telescope, Dynamics Explorers (satellites designed to provide understanding of earth/sun energy relationship), and ozone studies. (JN)

  1. Cloudy Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-08

    Decades of satellite observations and astronaut photographs show that clouds dominate space-based views of Earth. One study based on nearly a decade of satellite data estimated that about 67 percent of Earth’s surface is typically covered by clouds. This is especially the case over the oceans, where other research shows less than 10 percent of the sky is completely clear of clouds at any one time. Over land, 30 percent of skies are completely cloud free. Earth’s cloudy nature is unmistakable in this global cloud fraction map, based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite. While MODIS collects enough data to make a new global map of cloudiness every day, this version of the map shows an average of all of the satellite’s cloud observations between July 2002 and April 2015. Colors range from dark blue (no clouds) to light blue (some clouds) to white (frequent clouds). Read more here: 1.usa.gov/1P6lbMU Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Toward an Ising Model of Cancer and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    The holy grail of tumor modeling is to formulate theoretical and computational tools that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies to control cancer growth. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for the numerous complex mechanisms involved in tumor growth. Here we review resarch work that we have done toward the development of an “Ising model” of cancer. The Ising model is an idealized statistical-mechanical model of ferromagnetism that is based on simple local-interaction rules, but nonetheless leads to basic insights and features of real magnets, such as phase transitions with a critical point. The review begins with a description of a minimalist four-dimensional (three dimensions in space and one in time) cellular automaton (CA) model of cancer in which healthy cells transition between states (proliferative, hypoxic, and necrotic) according to simple local rules and their present states, which can viewed as a stripped-down Ising model of cancer. This model is applied to model the growth of glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant of brain cancers. This is followed by a discussion of the extension of the model to study the effect on the tumor dynamics and geometry of a mutated subpopulation. A discussion of how tumor growth is affected by chemotherapeutic treatment, including induced resistance, is then described. How angiogenesis as well as the heterogeneous and confined environment in which a tumor grows is incorporated in the CA model is discussed. The characterization of the level of organization of the invasive network around a solid tumor using spanning trees is subsequently described. Then, we describe open problems and future promising avenues for future research, including the need to develop better molecular-based models that incorporate the true heterogeneous environment over wide range of length and time scales (via imaging data), cell

  3. A Small Spacecraft Swarm Deployment and Stationkeeping Strategy for Sun-Earth L1 Halo Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conn, Tracie R.; Bookbinder, Jay

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft orbits about the Sun-Earth librarian point L1 have been of interest since the 1950s. An L1 halo orbit was first achieved with the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3 (ISEE-3) mission, and similar orbits around Sun-Earth L1 were achieved in the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Genesis, and Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) missions. With recent advancements in CubeSat technology, we envision that it will soon be feasible to deploy CubeSats at L1. As opposed to these prior missions where one large satellite orbited alone, a swarm of CubeSats at L1 would enable novel science data return, providing a topology for intersatellite measurements of heliophysics phenomena both spatially and temporally, at varying spatial scales.The purpose of this iPoster is to present a flight dynamics strategy for a swarm of numerous CubeSats orbiting Sun-Earth L1. The presented method is a coupled, two-part solution. First, we present a deployment strategy for the CubeSats that is optimized to produce prescribed, time-varying intersatellite baselines for the purposes of collecting magnetometer data as well as radiometric measurements from cross-links. Second, we employ a loose control strategy that was successfully applied to SOHO and ACE for minimized stationkeeping fuel expenditure. We emphasize that the presented solution is practical within the current state-of-the-art and heritage CubeSat technology, citing capabilities of CubeSat designs that will launch on the upcoming Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) to lunar orbits and beyond. Within this iPoster, we present animations of the simulated deployment strategy and resulting spacecraft trajectories. Mission design parameters such as total delta-v required for long-term station keeping and minimummaximummean spacecraft separation distances are also presented.

  4. A Small Spacecraft Swarm Deployment and Stationkeeping Strategy for Sun-Earth L1 Halo Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renea Conn, Tracie; Bookbinder, Jay

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft orbits about the Sun-Earth librarian point L1 have been of interest since the 1950s. An L1 halo orbit was first achieved with the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3 (ISEE-3) mission, and similar orbits around Sun-Earth L1 were achieved in the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Genesis, and Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) missions. With recent advancements in CubeSat technology, we envision that it will soon be feasible to deploy CubeSats at L1. As opposed to these prior missions where one large satellite orbited alone, a swarm of CubeSats at L1 would enable novel science data return, providing a topology for intersatellite measurements of heliophysics phenomena both spatially and temporally, at varying spatial scales.The purpose of this iPoster is to present a flight dynamics strategy for a swarm of numerous CubeSats orbiting Sun-Earth L1. The presented method is a coupled, two-part solution. First, we present a deployment strategy for the CubeSats that is optimized to produce prescribed, time-varying intersatellite baselines for the purposes of collecting magnetometer data as well as radiometric measurements from cross-links. Second, we employ a loose control strategy that was successfully applied to SOHO and ACE for minimized stationkeeping propellant expenditure. We emphasize that the presented solution is practical within the current state-of-the-art and heritage CubeSat technology, citing capabilities of CubeSat designs that will launch on the upcoming Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) to lunar orbits and beyond. Within this iPoster, we present animations of the simulated deployment strategy and resulting spacecraft trajectories. Mission design parameters such as total Δv required for long-term station keeping and minimum/maximum/mean spacecraft separation distances are also presented.

  5. Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System (B) Past, Present and Future of Small Body Science and Exploration (B0.4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, Dan; Chodas, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human space flight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low- Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human space flight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM).

  6. Robust criticality of an Ising model on rewired directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowski, Adam; Gontarek, Krzysztof; Lipowska, Dorota

    2015-06-01

    We show that preferential rewiring, which is supposed to mimic the behavior of financial agents, changes a directed-network Ising ferromagnet with a single critical point into a model with robust critical behavior. For the nonrewired random graph version, due to a constant number of out-links for each site, we write a simple mean-field-like equation describing the behavior of magnetization; we argue that it is exact and support the claim with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. For the rewired version, this equation is obeyed only at low temperatures. At higher temperatures, rewiring leads to strong heterogeneities, which apparently invalidates mean-field arguments and induces large fluctuations and divergent susceptibility. Such behavior is traced back to the formation of a relatively small core of agents that influence the entire system.

  7. Thermal contact through a two-temperature kinetic Ising chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, M.; Cornu, F.

    2018-05-01

    We consider a model for thermal contact through a diathermal interface between two macroscopic bodies at different temperatures: an Ising spin chain with nearest neighbor interactions is endowed with a Glauber dynamics with different temperatures and kinetic parameters on alternating sites. The inhomogeneity of the kinetic parameter is a novelty with respect to the model of Racz and Zia (1994 Phys. Rev. E 49 139), and we exhibit its influence upon the stationary non equilibrium values of the two-spin correlations at any distance. By mapping to the dynamics of spin domain walls and using free fermion techniques, we determine the scaled generating function for the cumulants of the exchanged heat amounts per unit of time in the long time limit.

  8. A hydromagnetic vortex seen by ISEE-1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, M. A.; Southwood, D. J.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Russell, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetometer and plasma data from the dual ISEE spacecraft are combined in a study of the initial plasma vortex event reported by Hones et al. (1978) in the dawn plasma sheet. The event is a transient hydromagnetic wave of two cycles duration with a six minute period. Large amplitude compressional and transverse magnetic components were present. Particle and magnetic pressure oscillations were in strict antiphase, but did not balance. When combined with the plasma velocity data these properties show that substantial Earthward field-aligned flows of electromagnetic energy and heat flux occurred during the vortex. The net energy flow perpendicular to B was in the antisolar direction. This event possesses hydromagnetic features unique to a hot plasma environment.

  9. Modelling sodium cobaltate by mapping onto magnetic Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemperline, Patrick; Morris, David Jonathan Pryce

    Fast Ion conductors are a class of crystals that are frequently used as battery materials, especially in smart phones, laptops, and other portable devices. Sodium Cobalt Oxide, NaxCoO2, falls into this class of crystals, but is unique because it possesses the ability to act as a thermoelectric material and a superconductor at different concentrations of Na+. The crystal lattice is mapped onto an Ising Magnetic Spin model and a Monte-Carol Simulation is used to find the most energetically favorable configuration of spins. This spin configuration is mapped back to the crystal lattice resulting in the most stable crystal structure of Sodium Cobalt Oxide at various concentrations. Knowing the atomic structures of the crystals will aid in the research of the materials capabilities and the possible uses of the material commercially. Ohio Supercomputer Center. 1987. Ohio Supercomputer Center. Columbus OH: Ohio Supercomputer Center. and the John Hauck Foundation.

  10. Coevolution of Glauber-like Ising dynamics and topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrà, Salvatore; Fortunato, Santo; Castellano, Claudio

    2009-11-01

    We study the coevolution of a generalized Glauber dynamics for Ising spins with tunable threshold and of the graph topology where the dynamics takes place. This simple coevolution dynamics generates a rich phase diagram in the space of the two parameters of the model, the threshold and the rewiring probability. The diagram displays phase transitions of different types: spin ordering, percolation, and connectedness. At variance with traditional coevolution models, in which all spins of each connected component of the graph have equal value in the stationary state, we find that, for suitable choices of the parameters, the system may converge to a state in which spins of opposite sign coexist in the same component organized in compact clusters of like-signed spins. Mean field calculations enable one to estimate some features of the phase diagram.

  11. Restoration of dimensional reduction in the random-field Ising model at five dimensions.

    PubMed

    Fytas, Nikolaos G; Martín-Mayor, Víctor; Picco, Marco; Sourlas, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The random-field Ising model is one of the few disordered systems where the perturbative renormalization group can be carried out to all orders of perturbation theory. This analysis predicts dimensional reduction, i.e., that the critical properties of the random-field Ising model in D dimensions are identical to those of the pure Ising ferromagnet in D-2 dimensions. It is well known that dimensional reduction is not true in three dimensions, thus invalidating the perturbative renormalization group prediction. Here, we report high-precision numerical simulations of the 5D random-field Ising model at zero temperature. We illustrate universality by comparing different probability distributions for the random fields. We compute all the relevant critical exponents (including the critical slowing down exponent for the ground-state finding algorithm), as well as several other renormalization-group invariants. The estimated values of the critical exponents of the 5D random-field Ising model are statistically compatible to those of the pure 3D Ising ferromagnet. These results support the restoration of dimensional reduction at D=5. We thus conclude that the failure of the perturbative renormalization group is a low-dimensional phenomenon. We close our contribution by comparing universal quantities for the random-field problem at dimensions 3≤D<6 to their values in the pure Ising model at D-2 dimensions, and we provide a clear verification of the Rushbrooke equality at all studied dimensions.

  12. Restoration of dimensional reduction in the random-field Ising model at five dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytas, Nikolaos G.; Martín-Mayor, Víctor; Picco, Marco; Sourlas, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The random-field Ising model is one of the few disordered systems where the perturbative renormalization group can be carried out to all orders of perturbation theory. This analysis predicts dimensional reduction, i.e., that the critical properties of the random-field Ising model in D dimensions are identical to those of the pure Ising ferromagnet in D -2 dimensions. It is well known that dimensional reduction is not true in three dimensions, thus invalidating the perturbative renormalization group prediction. Here, we report high-precision numerical simulations of the 5D random-field Ising model at zero temperature. We illustrate universality by comparing different probability distributions for the random fields. We compute all the relevant critical exponents (including the critical slowing down exponent for the ground-state finding algorithm), as well as several other renormalization-group invariants. The estimated values of the critical exponents of the 5D random-field Ising model are statistically compatible to those of the pure 3D Ising ferromagnet. These results support the restoration of dimensional reduction at D =5 . We thus conclude that the failure of the perturbative renormalization group is a low-dimensional phenomenon. We close our contribution by comparing universal quantities for the random-field problem at dimensions 3 ≤D <6 to their values in the pure Ising model at D -2 dimensions, and we provide a clear verification of the Rushbrooke equality at all studied dimensions.

  13. The quantum Ising chain with a generalized defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Uwe

    1990-08-01

    The finite-size scaling properties of the quantum Ising chain with different types of generalized defects are studied. This not only means an alteration of the coupling constant as previously examined, but also an additional arbitrary transformation in the algebra of observables at one site of the chain. One can distinguish between two classes of generalized defects: on the one hand those which do not affect the finite-size integrability of the Ising chain, and on the other hand those that destroy this property. In this context, finite-size integrability is always understood as a synonym for the possibility to write the hamiltonian of the finite chain as a bilinear expression in fermionic operators by means of a Jordan-Wigner transformation. Concerning the first type of defect, an exact solution for the scaling spectrum is obtained for the most universal defect that preserves the global Z2 symmetry of the chain. It is shown that in the continuum limit this yields the same result as for one properly chosen ordinary defect, that is changing the coupling constant only, and thus the finite-size scaling spectra can be described by irreps of a shifted u(1) Kac-Moody algebra. The other type of defect is examined by means of numerical finite-size calculations. In contrast to the first case, these calculations suggest a non-continuous dependence of the scaling dimensions on the defect parameters. A conjecture for the operator content involving only one primary field of a Virasoro algebra with central charge c= {1}/{2} is given.

  14. Ising formulation of associative memory models and quantum annealing recall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, Siddhartha; Shehab, Omar; Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2017-12-01

    Associative memory models, in theoretical neuro- and computer sciences, can generally store at most a linear number of memories. Recalling memories in these models can be understood as retrieval of the energy minimizing configuration of classical Ising spins, closest in Hamming distance to an imperfect input memory, where the energy landscape is determined by the set of stored memories. We present an Ising formulation for associative memory models and consider the problem of memory recall using quantum annealing. We show that allowing for input-dependent energy landscapes allows storage of up to an exponential number of memories (in terms of the number of neurons). Further, we show how quantum annealing may naturally be used for recall tasks in such input-dependent energy landscapes, although the recall time may increase with the number of stored memories. Theoretically, we obtain the radius of attractor basins R (N ) and the capacity C (N ) of such a scheme and their tradeoffs. Our calculations establish that for randomly chosen memories the capacity of our model using the Hebbian learning rule as a function of problem size can be expressed as C (N ) =O (eC1N) , C1≥0 , and succeeds on randomly chosen memory sets with a probability of (1 -e-C2N) , C2≥0 with C1+C2=(0.5-f ) 2/(1 -f ) , where f =R (N )/N , 0 ≤f ≤0.5 , is the radius of attraction in terms of the Hamming distance of an input probe from a stored memory as a fraction of the problem size. We demonstrate the application of this scheme on a programmable quantum annealing device, the D-wave processor.

  15. Earth on the Horizon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-13

    This is the first image ever taken of Earth from the surface of a planet beyond the Moon. It was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit one hour before sunrise on the 63rd martian day, or sol, of its mission. Earth is the tiny white dot in the center. The image is a mosaic of images taken by the rover's navigation camera showing a broad view of the sky, and an image taken by the rover's panoramic camera of Earth. The contrast in the panoramic camera image was increased two times to make Earth easier to see. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05560

  16. Probing strong correlations with light scattering: Example of the quantum Ising model

    DOE PAGES

    Babujian, H. M.; Karowski, M.; Tsvelik, A. M.

    2016-10-01

    In this article we calculate the nonlinear susceptibility and the resonant Raman cross section for the paramagnetic phase of the ferromagnetic quantum Ising model in one dimension. In this region the spectrum of the Ising model has a gap m. The Raman cross section has a strong singularity when the energy of the outgoing photon is at the spectral gap ω f ≈ m and a square root threshold when the frequency difference between the incident and outgoing photons ω i₋ω f≈2m. Finally, the latter feature reflects the fermionic nature of the Ising model excitations.

  17. Probing strong correlations with light scattering: Example of the quantum Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Babujian, H. M.; Karowski, M.; Tsvelik, A. M.

    In this article we calculate the nonlinear susceptibility and the resonant Raman cross section for the paramagnetic phase of the ferromagnetic quantum Ising model in one dimension. In this region the spectrum of the Ising model has a gap m. The Raman cross section has a strong singularity when the energy of the outgoing photon is at the spectral gap ω f ≈ m and a square root threshold when the frequency difference between the incident and outgoing photons ω i₋ω f≈2m. Finally, the latter feature reflects the fermionic nature of the Ising model excitations.

  18. Earth Day 2017

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Happy Earth Day! Explore the diverse colors, unique shapes and striking patterns of our very favorite planet, Earth - as only NASA can see it. Credit: NASA/Goddard #nasagoddard NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  19. Comparison of the ferromagnetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model and the AF spin-1 longitudinal Ising model at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomaz, M. T.; Corrêa Silva, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    We derive the exact Helmholtz free energy (HFE) of the standard and staggered one-dimensional Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model in the presence of an external longitudinal magnetic field. We discuss in detail the thermodynamic behavior of the ferromagnetic version of the model, which exhibits magnetic field-dependent plateaux in the z-component of its magnetization at low temperatures. We also study the behavior of its specific heat and entropy, both per site, at finite temperature. The degeneracy of the ground state, at T=0, along the lines that separate distinct phases in the phase diagram of the ferromagnetic BEG model is calculated, extending the study of the phase diagram of the spin-1 antiferromagnetic (AF) Ising model in S.M. de Souza and M.T. Thomaz, J. Magn. and Magn. Mater. 354 (2014) 205 [5]. We explore the implications of the equality of phase diagrams, at T=0, of the ferromagnetic BEG model with K/|J| = - 2 and of the spin-1 AF Ising model for D/|J| > 1/2.

  20. Entangled state teleportation through a couple of quantum channels composed of XXZ dimers in an Ising- XXZ diamond chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, M.; de Souza, S. M.; Rojas, Onofre

    2017-02-01

    The quantum teleportation plays an important role in quantum information process, in this sense, the quantum entanglement properties involving an infinite chain structure is quite remarkable because real materials could be well represented by an infinite chain. We study the teleportation of an entangled state through a couple of quantum channels, composed by Heisenberg dimers in an infinite Ising-Heisenberg diamond chain, the couple of chains are considered sufficiently far away from each other to be ignored the any interaction between them. To teleporting a couple of qubits through the quantum channel, we need to find the average density operator for Heisenberg spin dimers, which will be used as quantum channels. Assuming the input state as a pure state, we can apply the concept of fidelity as a useful measurement of teleportation performance of a quantum channel. Using the standard teleportation protocol, we have derived an analytical expression for the output concurrence, fidelity, and average fidelity. We study in detail the effects of coupling parameters, external magnetic field and temperature dependence of quantum teleportation. Finally, we explore the relations between entanglement of the quantum channel, the output entanglement and the average fidelity of the system. Through a kind of phase diagram as a function of Ising-Heisenberg diamond chain model parameters, we illustrate where the quantum teleportation will succeed and a region where the quantum teleportation could fail.

  1. AIM for Allostery: Using the Ising Model to Understand Information Processing and Transmission in Allosteric Biomolecular Systems.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Michael V; Weinstein, Harel

    2015-05-01

    In performing their biological functions, molecular machines must process and transmit information with high fidelity. Information transmission requires dynamic coupling between the conformations of discrete structural components within the protein positioned far from one another on the molecular scale. This type of biomolecular "action at a distance" is termed allostery . Although allostery is ubiquitous in biological regulation and signal transduction, its treatment in theoretical models has mostly eschewed quantitative descriptions involving the system's underlying structural components and their interactions. Here, we show how Ising models can be used to formulate an approach to allostery in a structural context of interactions between the constitutive components by building simple allosteric constructs we termed Allosteric Ising Models (AIMs). We introduce the use of AIMs in analytical and numerical calculations that relate thermodynamic descriptions of allostery to the structural context, and then show that many fundamental properties of allostery, such as the multiplicative property of parallel allosteric channels, are revealed from the analysis of such models. The power of exploring mechanistic structural models of allosteric function in more complex systems by using AIMs is demonstrated by building a model of allosteric signaling for an experimentally well-characterized asymmetric homodimer of the dopamine D2 receptor.

  2. Intraoperative 3D Navigation for Single or Multiple 125I-Seed Localization in Breast-Preserving Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pouw, Bas; de Wit-van der Veen, Linda J; van Duijnhoven, Frederieke; Rutgers, Emiel J Th; Stokkel, Marcel P M; Valdés Olmos, Renato A; Vrancken Peeters, Marie-Jeanne T F D

    2016-05-01

    Mammographic screening has led to the identification of more women with nonpalpable breast cancer, many of them to be treated with breast-preserving surgery. To accomplish radical tumor excision, adequate localization techniques such as radioactive seed localization (RSL) are required. For RSL, a radioactive I-seed is implanted central in the tumor to enable intraoperative localization using a γ-probe. In case of extensive tumor or multifocal carcinoma, multiple I-seeds can be used to delineate the involved area. Preoperative imaging is performed different from surgical positioning; therefore, exact I-seed depth remains unknown during surgery. Twenty patients (mean age, 56.8 years) with 25 implanted I-seeds scheduled for RSL were included. Sixteen patients had 1 I-seed implanted in the primary lesion, 3 patients had 2 I-seeds, and 1 patient had 3 I-seeds. Freehand SPECT localized I-seeds by measuring γ-counts from different directions, all registered by an optical tracking system. A reconstruction and visualization algorithm enabled 3-dimensional (3D) navigation toward the I-seeds. Freehand SPECT visualized all I-seeds in primary tumors and provided preincision depth information. The deviation, mean (SD), between the freehand SPECT depth and the surgical depth estimation was 1.9 (2.1) mm (range, 0-7 mm). Three-dimensional freehand SPECT was especially useful identifying multiple implanted I-seeds because the conventional γ-probe has more difficulty discriminating I-seeds transcutaneous. Freehand SPECT with 3D navigation is a valuable tool in RSL for both single and multiple implanted I-seeds in breast-preserving cancer surgery. Freehand SPECT provides continuous updating 3D imaging with information about depth and location of the I-seeds contributing to adequate excision of nonpalpable breast cancer.

  3. Emergent Ising degrees of freedom above a double-stripe magnetic ground state [Emergent Ising degrees of freedom above double-stripe magnetism

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Guanghua; Flint, Rebecca

    2017-12-27

    Here, double-stripe magnetism [Q=(π/2,π/2)] has been proposed as the magnetic ground state for both the iron-telluride and BaTi 2Sb 2O families of superconductors. Double-stripe order is captured within a J 1–J 2–J 3 Heisenberg model in the regime J 3 >> J 2 >> J 1. Intriguingly, besides breaking spin-rotational symmetry, the ground-state manifold has three additional Ising degrees of freedom associated with bond ordering. Via their coupling to the lattice, they give rise to an orthorhombic distortion and to two nonuniform lattice distortions with wave vector (π,π). Because the ground state is fourfold degenerate, modulo rotations in spin space,more » only two of these Ising bond order parameters are independent. Here, we introduce an effective field theory to treat all Ising order parameters, as well as magnetic order, and solve it within a large-N limit. All three transitions, corresponding to the condensations of two Ising bond order parameters and one magnetic order parameter are simultaneous and first order in three dimensions, but lower dimensionality, or equivalently weaker interlayer coupling, and weaker magnetoelastic coupling can split the three transitions, and in some cases allows for two separate Ising phase transitions above the magnetic one.« less

  4. Emergent Ising degrees of freedom above a double-stripe magnetic ground state [Emergent Ising degrees of freedom above double-stripe magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guanghua; Flint, Rebecca

    Here, double-stripe magnetism [Q=(π/2,π/2)] has been proposed as the magnetic ground state for both the iron-telluride and BaTi 2Sb 2O families of superconductors. Double-stripe order is captured within a J 1–J 2–J 3 Heisenberg model in the regime J 3 >> J 2 >> J 1. Intriguingly, besides breaking spin-rotational symmetry, the ground-state manifold has three additional Ising degrees of freedom associated with bond ordering. Via their coupling to the lattice, they give rise to an orthorhombic distortion and to two nonuniform lattice distortions with wave vector (π,π). Because the ground state is fourfold degenerate, modulo rotations in spin space,more » only two of these Ising bond order parameters are independent. Here, we introduce an effective field theory to treat all Ising order parameters, as well as magnetic order, and solve it within a large-N limit. All three transitions, corresponding to the condensations of two Ising bond order parameters and one magnetic order parameter are simultaneous and first order in three dimensions, but lower dimensionality, or equivalently weaker interlayer coupling, and weaker magnetoelastic coupling can split the three transitions, and in some cases allows for two separate Ising phase transitions above the magnetic one.« less

  5. Plasma regimes in the deep geomagnetic tail - ISEE 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bame, S. J.; Anderson, R. C.; Asbridge, J. R.; Baker, D. N.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; McComas, D. J.; Zwickl, R. D.

    1983-09-01

    The spacecraft remained close to or within a previously unexplored part of the distant (60-220 earth radii) geomagnetic tail nearly continuously from January 1 to March 30, 1983. Analysis of the data reveals that all of the plasma regimes identified previously with near-earth measurements (plasma sheet, low-latitude boundary layer, plasma mantle, lobe, and magnetosheath) remain recognizable in the distant tail. These regimes, however, are found to be intermingled in a more chaotic fashion than near the earth. Within the plasma sheet at approximately 200 earth radii, typical flow velocities are about 500 km/s tailward, considerably higher than in the near-earth plasma sheet. Earthward flow within the plasma sheet is observed occasionally, indicating the temporary presence of a neutral line beyond 220 earth radii. Also found are strong bidirectional electron anisotropies throughout much of the distant plasma sheet, boundary layer, and magnetosheath.

  6. Herbal Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Subtle vegetation changes are visible in this year-long visualization. Large-scale patterns vary with seasons, but the local variations in green are also sensitive precipitation, drought and fire. High values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, represent dense green functioning vegetation and low NDVI values represent sparse green vegetation or vegetation under stress from limiting conditions, such as drought. The visualization was created from a year’s worth of data from April 2012 to April 2013. The information was sent back to Earth from the Visible-Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership or Suomi NPP satellite, a partnership between NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA. Credit: NASA/NOAA To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NPP/news/vegetation.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  7. Freezing in stripe states for kinetic Ising models: a comparative study of three dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godrèche, Claude; Pleimling, Michel

    2018-04-01

    We present a comparative study of the fate of an Ising ferromagnet on the square lattice with periodic boundary conditions evolving under three different zero-temperature dynamics. The first one is Glauber dynamics, the two other dynamics correspond to two limits of the directed Ising model, defined by rules that break the full symmetry of the former, yet sharing the same Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution at stationarity. In one of these limits the directed Ising model is reversible, in the other one it is irreversible. For the kinetic Ising-Glauber model, several recent studies have demonstrated the role of critical percolation to predict the probabilities for the system to reach the ground state or to fall in a metastable state. We investigate to what extent the predictions coming from critical percolation still apply to the two other dynamics.

  8. Quantum transverse-field Ising model on an infinite tree from matrix product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaj, Daniel; Farhi, Edward; Goldstone, Jeffrey; Shor, Peter; Sylvester, Igor

    2008-06-01

    We give a generalization to an infinite tree geometry of Vidal’s infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) algorithm [G. Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 070201 (2007)] for simulating an infinite line of quantum spins. We numerically investigate the quantum Ising model in a transverse field on the Bethe lattice using the matrix product state ansatz. We observe a second order phase transition, with certain key differences from the transverse field Ising model on an infinite spin chain. We also investigate a transverse field Ising model with a specific longitudinal field. When the transverse field is turned off, this model has a highly degenerate ground state as opposed to the pure Ising model whose ground state is only doubly degenerate.

  9. "Teaching What I Learned": Exploring Students' Earth and Space Science Learning Experiences in Secondary School with a Particular Focus on Their Comprehension of the Concept of "Geologic Time"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Sae Yeol; Peate, David W.

    2015-01-01

    According to the national survey of science education, science educators in the USA currently face many challenges such as lack of qualified secondary Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers. Less qualified teachers may have difficulty teaching ESS because of a lack of conceptual understanding, which leads to diminished confidence in content…

  10. Integral formulae of the canonical correlation functions for the one dimensional transverse Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Makoto

    2017-12-01

    Some new formulae of the canonical correlation functions for the one dimensional quantum transverse Ising model are found by the ST-transformation method using a Morita's sum rule and its extensions for the two dimensional classical Ising model. As a consequence we obtain a time-independent term of the dynamical correlation functions. Differences of quantum version and classical version of these formulae are also discussed.

  11. Highlighting the Structure-Function Relationship of the Brain with the Ising Model and Graph Theory

    PubMed Central

    Das, T. K.; Abeyasinghe, P. M.; Crone, J. S.; Sosnowski, A.; Laureys, S.; Owen, A. M.; Soddu, A.

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of neuroimaging techniques, it becomes feasible to explore the structure-function relationships in the brain. When the brain is not involved in any cognitive task or stimulated by any external output, it preserves important activities which follow well-defined spatial distribution patterns. Understanding the self-organization of the brain from its anatomical structure, it has been recently suggested to model the observed functional pattern from the structure of white matter fiber bundles. Different models which study synchronization (e.g., the Kuramoto model) or global dynamics (e.g., the Ising model) have shown success in capturing fundamental properties of the brain. In particular, these models can explain the competition between modularity and specialization and the need for integration in the brain. Graphing the functional and structural brain organization supports the model and can also highlight the strategy used to process and organize large amount of information traveling between the different modules. How the flow of information can be prevented or partially destroyed in pathological states, like in severe brain injured patients with disorders of consciousness or by pharmacological induction like in anaesthesia, will also help us to better understand how global or integrated behavior can emerge from local and modular interactions. PMID:25276772

  12. A 16-bit Coherent Ising Machine for One-Dimensional Ring and Cubic Graph Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Kenta; Marandi, Alireza; Hamerly, Ryan; Haribara, Yoshitaka; Maruo, Daiki; Tamate, Shuhei; Sakaguchi, Hiromasa; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-09-01

    Many tasks in our modern life, such as planning an efficient travel, image processing and optimizing integrated circuit design, are modeled as complex combinatorial optimization problems with binary variables. Such problems can be mapped to finding a ground state of the Ising Hamiltonian, thus various physical systems have been studied to emulate and solve this Ising problem. Recently, networks of mutually injected optical oscillators, called coherent Ising machines, have been developed as promising solvers for the problem, benefiting from programmability, scalability and room temperature operation. Here, we report a 16-bit coherent Ising machine based on a network of time-division-multiplexed femtosecond degenerate optical parametric oscillators. The system experimentally gives more than 99.6% of success rates for one-dimensional Ising ring and nondeterministic polynomial-time (NP) hard instances. The experimental and numerical results indicate that gradual pumping of the network combined with multiple spectral and temporal modes of the femtosecond pulses can improve the computational performance of the Ising machine, offering a new path for tackling larger and more complex instances.

  13. Modeling Dark Energy Through AN Ising Fluid with Network Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luongo, Orlando; Tommasini, Damiano

    2014-12-01

    We show that the dark energy (DE) effects can be modeled by using an Ising perfect fluid with network interactions, whose low redshift equation of state (EoS), i.e. ω0, becomes ω0 = -1 as in the ΛCDM model. In our picture, DE is characterized by a barotropic fluid on a lattice in the equilibrium configuration. Thus, mimicking the spin interaction by replacing the spin variable with an occupational number, the pressure naturally becomes negative. We find that the corresponding EoS mimics the effects of a variable DE term, whose limiting case reduces to the cosmological constant Λ. This permits us to avoid the introduction of a vacuum energy as DE source by hand, alleviating the coincidence and fine tuning problems. We find fairly good cosmological constraints, by performing three tests with supernovae Ia (SNeIa), baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements. Finally, we perform the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) selection criteria, showing that our model is statistically favored with respect to the Chevallier-Polarsky-Linder (CPL) parametrization.

  14. ISEE-3 measurements of solar energetic particle composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Reames, D. V.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary observations of energetic particles from solar flares beginning on September 23 and November 10, 1978 are reported. The measurements were made from the ISEE-3 spacecraft using very thin, large area solid-state detectors. Charge composition was measured for all elements from Z = 2 to Z = 26 above approximately 2 MeV/nucleon. More than 100,000 nuclei with Z greater than 2 were pulse-height analyzed during the course of the first event, while the second was substantially smaller. These good statistics enable the observation of variations in composition at low energies as a function of time. For example, the Fe/O ratio (2.0-3.1 MeV/n) was observed in the September event to decrease by a factor of approximately 5. By contrast, this same ratio increased by a factor of approximately 1.5 during the November 10 event. Similar variations have been reported earlier by Scholer et al. (1978). These authors, however were unable to observe the He/O ratio which has now been observed also to show significant variation.

  15. Two coupled, driven Ising spin systems working as an engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Debarshi; Nandi, Joydip; Jayannavar, A. M.; Marathe, Rahul

    2017-05-01

    Miniaturized heat engines constitute a fascinating field of current research. Many theoretical and experimental studies are being conducted that involve colloidal particles in harmonic traps as well as bacterial baths acting like thermal baths. These systems are micron-sized and are subjected to large thermal fluctuations. Hence, for these systems average thermodynamic quantities, such as work done, heat exchanged, and efficiency, lose meaning unless otherwise supported by their full probability distributions. Earlier studies on microengines are concerned with applying Carnot or Stirling engine protocols to miniaturized systems, where system undergoes typical two isothermal and two adiabatic changes. Unlike these models we study a prototype system of two classical Ising spins driven by time-dependent, phase-different, external magnetic fields. These spins are simultaneously in contact with two heat reservoirs at different temperatures for the full duration of the driving protocol. Performance of the model as an engine or a refrigerator depends only on a single parameter, namely the phase between two external drivings. We study this system in terms of fluctuations in efficiency and coefficient of performance (COP). We find full distributions of these quantities numerically and study the tails of these distributions. We also study reliability of the engine. We find the fluctuations dominate mean values of efficiency and COP, and their probability distributions are broad with power law tails.

  16. Two coupled, driven Ising spin systems working as an engine.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debarshi; Nandi, Joydip; Jayannavar, A M; Marathe, Rahul

    2017-05-01

    Miniaturized heat engines constitute a fascinating field of current research. Many theoretical and experimental studies are being conducted that involve colloidal particles in harmonic traps as well as bacterial baths acting like thermal baths. These systems are micron-sized and are subjected to large thermal fluctuations. Hence, for these systems average thermodynamic quantities, such as work done, heat exchanged, and efficiency, lose meaning unless otherwise supported by their full probability distributions. Earlier studies on microengines are concerned with applying Carnot or Stirling engine protocols to miniaturized systems, where system undergoes typical two isothermal and two adiabatic changes. Unlike these models we study a prototype system of two classical Ising spins driven by time-dependent, phase-different, external magnetic fields. These spins are simultaneously in contact with two heat reservoirs at different temperatures for the full duration of the driving protocol. Performance of the model as an engine or a refrigerator depends only on a single parameter, namely the phase between two external drivings. We study this system in terms of fluctuations in efficiency and coefficient of performance (COP). We find full distributions of these quantities numerically and study the tails of these distributions. We also study reliability of the engine. We find the fluctuations dominate mean values of efficiency and COP, and their probability distributions are broad with power law tails.

  17. The a-cycle problem for transverse Ising ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jian-Jun; Li, Peng; Chen, Qi-Hui

    2016-11-01

    Traditionally, the transverse Ising model is mapped to the fermionic c-cycle problem, which neglects the boundary effect due to thermodynamic limit. If persisting on a perfect periodic boundary condition, we can get a so-called a-cycle problem that has not been treated seriously so far (Lieb et al 1961 Ann. Phys. 16 407). In this work, we show a little surprising but exact result in this respect. We find the odevity of the number of lattice sites, N, in the a-cycle problem plays an unexpected role even in the thermodynamic limit, N\\to ∞ , due to the boundary constraint. We pay special attention to the system with N(\\in Odd)\\to ∞ , which is in contrast to the one with N(\\in Even)\\to ∞ , because the former suffers a ring frustration. As a new effect, we find the ring frustration induces a low-energy gapless spectrum above the ground state. By proving a theorem for a new type of Toeplitz determinant, we demonstrate that the ground state in the gapless region exhibits a peculiar longitudinal spin-spin correlation. The entangled nature of the ground state is also disclosed by the evaluation of its entanglement entropy. At low temperature, new behavior of specific heat is predicted. We also propose an experimental protocol for observing the new phenomenon due to the ring frustration.

  18. Stochastic bifurcations in the nonlinear parallel Ising model.

    PubMed

    Bagnoli, Franco; Rechtman, Raúl

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the phase transitions of a nonlinear, parallel version of the Ising model, characterized by an antiferromagnetic linear coupling and ferromagnetic nonlinear one. This model arises in problems of opinion formation. The mean-field approximation shows chaotic oscillations, by changing the couplings or the connectivity. The spatial model shows bifurcations in the average magnetization, similar to that seen in the mean-field approximation, induced by the change of the topology, after rewiring short-range to long-range connection, as predicted by the small-world effect. These coherent periodic and chaotic oscillations of the magnetization reflect a certain degree of synchronization of the spins, induced by long-range couplings. Similar bifurcations may be induced in the randomly connected model by changing the couplings or the connectivity and also the dilution (degree of asynchronism) of the updating. We also examined the effects of inhomogeneity, mixing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling, which induces an unexpected bifurcation diagram with a "bubbling" behavior, as also happens for dilution.

  19. Ising lattices with +/-J second-nearest-neighbor interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Pastor, A. J.; Nieto, F.; Vogel, E. E.

    1997-06-01

    Second-nearest-neighbor interactions are added to the usual nearest-neighbor Ising Hamiltonian for square lattices in different ways. The starting point is a square lattice where half the nearest-neighbor interactions are ferromagnetic and the other half of the bonds are antiferromagnetic. Then, second-nearest-neighbor interactions can also be assigned randomly or in a variety of causal manners determined by the nearest-neighbor interactions. In the present paper we consider three causal and three random ways of assigning second-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions. Several ground-state properties are then calculated for each of these lattices:energy per bond ɛg, site correlation parameter pg, maximal magnetization μg, and fraction of unfrustrated bonds hg. A set of 500 samples is considered for each size N (number of spins) and array (way of distributing the N spins). The properties of the original lattices with only nearest-neighbor interactions are already known, which allows realizing the effect of the additional interactions. We also include cubic lattices to discuss the distinction between coordination number and dimensionality. Comparison with results for triangular and honeycomb lattices is done at specific points.

  20. Nonequilibrium two-dimensional Ising model with stationary uphill diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, Matteo; Giardinà, Cristian; Giberti, Claudio; Vernia, Cecilia

    2018-03-01

    Usually, in a nonequilibrium setting, a current brings mass from the highest density regions to the lowest density ones. Although rare, the opposite phenomenon (known as "uphill diffusion") has also been observed in multicomponent systems, where it appears as an artificial effect of the interaction among components. We show here that uphill diffusion can be a substantial effect, i.e., it may occur even in single component systems as a consequence of some external work. To this aim we consider the two-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising model in contact with two reservoirs that fix, at the left and the right boundaries, magnetizations of the same magnitude but of opposite signs.We provide numerical evidence that a class of nonequilibrium steady states exists in which, by tuning the reservoir magnetizations, the current in the system changes from "downhill" to "uphill". Moreover, we also show that, in such nonequilibrium setup, the current vanishes when the reservoir magnetization attains a value approaching, in the large volume limit, the magnetization of the equilibrium dynamics, thus establishing a relation between equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties.

  1. Nonequilibrium two-dimensional Ising model with stationary uphill diffusion.

    PubMed

    Colangeli, Matteo; Giardinà, Cristian; Giberti, Claudio; Vernia, Cecilia

    2018-03-01

    Usually, in a nonequilibrium setting, a current brings mass from the highest density regions to the lowest density ones. Although rare, the opposite phenomenon (known as "uphill diffusion") has also been observed in multicomponent systems, where it appears as an artificial effect of the interaction among components. We show here that uphill diffusion can be a substantial effect, i.e., it may occur even in single component systems as a consequence of some external work. To this aim we consider the two-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising model in contact with two reservoirs that fix, at the left and the right boundaries, magnetizations of the same magnitude but of opposite signs.We provide numerical evidence that a class of nonequilibrium steady states exists in which, by tuning the reservoir magnetizations, the current in the system changes from "downhill" to "uphill". Moreover, we also show that, in such nonequilibrium setup, the current vanishes when the reservoir magnetization attains a value approaching, in the large volume limit, the magnetization of the equilibrium dynamics, thus establishing a relation between equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties.

  2. Exploring for early bombardments on Earth from pre-3.85 Fa thermal effects recorded in Hadean zircons - a status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojzsis, S. J.; Abramov, O.; Harrison, T. M.; Kring, D. A.; Levison, H. F.; Trail, D.; Watson, E. B.

    2008-12-01

    We report on our progress with high-resolution ion microprobe U-Th-Pb depth profiles and Ti+REEs spot analysis which show that subsequent to their crystallization in melts under typical crustal conditions on Earth, some Hadean (pre-3.85 Ga) zircons record common age domains with unusual chemical and isotopic characteristics consistent with a high-temperature (possibly impact) origin. We have found evidence for later overprints caused by intense thermal alteration between 3.94-3.97 Ga in six of eight studied grains but no evidence for older events. These findings alert us to two fundamental things we did not know before about the probiotic potential of the Earth in the earliest solar system: (i) that the bombardment epoch did not result in complete 'Doomsday' scale destruction of the Earth's crust since the Moon-forming event at ca. 4.5 Ga; and (ii) age constraints on both sides of the ther-mally altered 3.94-3.97 Ga zircon domains are very good and so far our data show that no detectable thermal events are recorded by the zircons before ~3.97 Ga up to about 4.3 Ga. This observation is consistent with the output of new classes of dynamical models that successfully re-create the decay of impactor populations in the early solar system as recorded on the Moon and in meteorites.

  3. Bi-directional streaming of solar wind electrons greater than 80 eV - ISEE evidence for a closed-field structure within the driver gas of an interplanetary shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bame, S. J.; Asbridge, J. R.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.; Zwickl, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    In near time coincidence with the arrival of helium enriched plasma driving the shock wave disturbance of November 12-13, 1978, strong bi-directional streaming of solar wind electrons greater than about 80 eV was observed with Los Alamos instrumentation on ISEE 3. The streaming persisted for many hours simultaneously parallel and anti-parallel to the interplanetary magnetic field which was directed roughly perpendicular to the sun-satellite line. This example of bidirectional streaming cannot be explained by field line connection to the earth's bow shock or the outward propagating interplanetary shock which passed ISEE 3 approximately 16 hours earlier. The event is explained if the local interplanetary field was a part of a magnetic bottle rooted at the sun or a disconnected loop propagating outward.

  4. Statistical Mechanics of Coherent Ising Machine — The Case of Ferromagnetic and Finite-Loading Hopfield Models —

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aonishi, Toru; Mimura, Kazushi; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Okada, Masato; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2017-10-01

    The coherent Ising machine (CIM) has attracted attention as one of the most effective Ising computing architectures for solving large scale optimization problems because of its scalability and high-speed computational ability. However, it is difficult to implement the Ising computation in the CIM because the theories and techniques of classical thermodynamic equilibrium Ising spin systems cannot be directly applied to the CIM. This means we have to adapt these theories and techniques to the CIM. Here we focus on a ferromagnetic model and a finite loading Hopfield model, which are canonical models sharing a common mathematical structure with almost all other Ising models. We derive macroscopic equations to capture nonequilibrium phase transitions in these models. The statistical mechanical methods developed here constitute a basis for constructing evaluation methods for other Ising computation models.

  5. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-01

    ISS040-E-006327 (1 June 2014) --- A portion of International Space Station solar array panels and Earth?s horizon are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the space station.

  6. Human Exploration Missions Study: Space Surveillance Telescope Transfer to and Station at a Halo Orbit at the Earth-Sun Libration Point L2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauro, Vincent A., Sr.

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine mission profile and delta velocity requirements to place a telescope at the Earth-Sun libration point L2. The program, Integrated Mission Program (IMP), was selected to be used in the investigation. A description of IMP and its capabilities may be found in the Addenda. The Addenda also contains the libration halo equations, constants and other parameters. Comments regarding the chaotic nature of numerical integration near the libration points are also attached in the Addenda. A basic two stage S/C with a simple mission profile was selected. This profile is shown.

  7. Censored Glauber Dynamics for the Mean Field Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jian; Lubetzky, Eyal; Peres, Yuval

    2009-11-01

    We study Glauber dynamics for the Ising model on the complete graph on n vertices, known as the Curie-Weiss Model. It is well known that at high temperature ( β<1) the mixing time is Θ( nlog n), whereas at low temperature ( β>1) it is exp ( Θ( n)). Recently, Levin, Luczak and Peres considered a censored version of this dynamics, which is restricted to non-negative magnetization. They proved that for fixed β>1, the mixing-time of this model is Θ( nlog n), analogous to the high-temperature regime of the original dynamics. Furthermore, they showed cutoff for the original dynamics for fixed β<1. The question whether the censored dynamics also exhibits cutoff remained unsettled. In a companion paper, we extended the results of Levin et al. into a complete characterization of the mixing-time for the Curie-Weiss model. Namely, we found a scaling window of order 1/sqrt{n} around the critical temperature β c =1, beyond which there is cutoff at high temperature. However, determining the behavior of the censored dynamics outside this critical window seemed significantly more challenging. In this work we answer the above question in the affirmative, and establish the cutoff point and its window for the censored dynamics beyond the critical window, thus completing its analogy to the original dynamics at high temperature. Namely, if β=1+ δ for some δ>0 with δ 2 n→∞, then the mixing-time has order ( n/ δ)log ( δ 2 n). The cutoff constant is (1/2+[2(ζ2 β/ δ-1)]-1), where ζ is the unique positive root of g( x)=tanh ( β x)- x, and the cutoff window has order n/ δ.

  8. Light induced kickoff of magnetic domain walls in Ising chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogani, Lapo

    2012-02-01

    Controlling the speed at which systems evolve is a challenge shared by all disciplines, and otherwise unrelated areas use common theoretical frameworks towards this goal. A particularly widespread model is Glauber dynamics, which describes the time evolution of the Ising model and can be applied to any binary system. Here we show, using molecular nanowires under irradiation, that Glauber dynamics can be controlled by a novel domain-wall kickoff mechanism. Contrary to known processes, the kickoff has unambiguous fingerprints, slowing down the spin-flip attempt rate by several orders of magnitude, and following a scaling law. The required irradiation power is very low, a substantial improvement over present methods of magnetooptical switching: in our experimental demonstration we switched molecular nanowires with light, using powers thousands of times lower than in previous optical switching methods. This manipulation of stochastic dynamic processes is extremely clean, leading to fingerprint signatures and scaling laws. These observations can be used, in material science, to better study domain-wall displacements and solitons in discrete lattices. These results provide a new way to control and study stochastic dynamic processes. Being general for Glauber dynamics, they can be extended to different kinds of magnetic nanowires and to a myriad of fields, ranging from social evolution to neural networks and chemical reactivity. For nanoelectronics and molecular spintronics the kickoff affords external control of molecular spin-valves and a magnetic fingerprint in single molecule measurements. It can also be applied to the dynamics of mechanical switches and the related study of phasons and order-disorder transitions.

  9. Microbial ecology of the closed artificial ecosystem MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative): reinventing and compartmentalizing the Earth's food and oxygen regeneration system for long-haul space exploration missions.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Larissa; De Wever, Heleen; Hermans, Veronik; Mastroleo, Felice; Morin, Nicolas; Wilmotte, Annick; Janssen, Paul; Mergeay, Max

    2006-01-01

    MELiSSA is a bioregenerative life support system designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the complete recycling of gas, liquid and solid wastes during long distance space exploration. The system uses the combined activity of different living organisms: microbial cultures in bioreactors, a plant compartment and a human crew. In this minireview, the development of a short-cut ecological system for the biotransformation of organic waste is discussed from a microorganism's perspective. The artificial ecological model--still in full development--that is inspired by Earth's own geomicrobiological ecosystem serves as an ideal study object on microbial ecology and will become an indispensable travel companion in manned space exploration.

  10. On the p, q-binomial distribution and the Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundow, P. H.; Rosengren, A.

    2010-08-01

    We employ p, q-binomial coefficients, a generalisation of the binomial coefficients, to describe the magnetisation distributions of the Ising model. For the complete graph this distribution corresponds exactly to the limit case p = q. We apply our investigation to the simple d-dimensional lattices for d = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and fit p, q-binomial distributions to our data, some of which are exact but most are sampled. For d = 1 and d = 5, the magnetisation distributions are remarkably well-fitted by p,q-binomial distributions. For d = 4 we are only slightly less successful, while for d = 2, 3 we see some deviations (with exceptions!) between the p, q-binomial and the Ising distribution. However, at certain temperatures near T c the statistical moments of the fitted distribution agree with the moments of the sampled data within the precision of sampling. We begin the paper by giving results of the behaviour of the p, q-distribution and its moment growth exponents given a certain parameterisation of p, q. Since the moment exponents are known for the Ising model (or at least approximately for d = 3) we can predict how p, q should behave and compare this to our measured p, q. The results speak in favour of the p, q-binomial distribution's correctness regarding its general behaviour in comparison to the Ising model. The full extent to which they correctly model the Ising distribution, however, is not settled.

  11. Emergent Ising degrees of freedom above a double-stripe magnetic ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guanghua; Flint, Rebecca

    2017-12-01

    Double-stripe magnetism [Q =(π /2 ,π /2 )] has been proposed as the magnetic ground state for both the iron-telluride and BaTi2Sb2O families of superconductors. Double-stripe order is captured within a J1-J2-J3 Heisenberg model in the regime J3≫J2≫J1 . Intriguingly, besides breaking spin-rotational symmetry, the ground-state manifold has three additional Ising degrees of freedom associated with bond ordering. Via their coupling to the lattice, they give rise to an orthorhombic distortion and to two nonuniform lattice distortions with wave vector (π ,π ) . Because the ground state is fourfold degenerate, modulo rotations in spin space, only two of these Ising bond order parameters are independent. Here, we introduce an effective field theory to treat all Ising order parameters, as well as magnetic order, and solve it within a large-N limit. All three transitions, corresponding to the condensations of two Ising bond order parameters and one magnetic order parameter are simultaneous and first order in three dimensions, but lower dimensionality, or equivalently weaker interlayer coupling, and weaker magnetoelastic coupling can split the three transitions, and in some cases allows for two separate Ising phase transitions above the magnetic one.

  12. Exploring an Earth-sized neighbor: ground-based transmission spectroscopy of GJ1132b, a rocky planet transiting a small nearby M-dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Dittmann, Jason

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial planets of the Solar System are rocky worlds that did not accrete envelopes of hydrogen and helium, but instead possess thin secondary atmospheres, or no atmosphere at all. Until recently, most exoplanet atmospheric studies have centered around hot Jupiters, for which high planet-to-star radius ratios and short orbital periods allowed for observable transmission spectra. Now we have the opportunity to probe the atmosphere of a small, rocky exoplanet. GJ1132b has a radius of 1.2 Earth radii and a mass of 1.6 Earth masses, and orbits an M-dwarf 12 parsecs away. Determining the composition of GJ1132b's atmosphere is essential to understanding the nature of atmospheric evolution on terrestrial planets. We observed five transits of GJ1132b using the Magellan Clay telescope with the LDSS3C multi-object spectrograph. We compare the transit depth of GJ1132b in wavelength bins ranging from 0.65 -- 1.04 microns to infer whether or not GJ1132b has maintained its primordial hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. Should we find evidence of a hydrogen-dominated atmosphere, this would imply that a terrestrial planet is able to accrete and retain a low mean-molecular weight atmosphere from the planetary nebula. Coupled with recent UV spectra of the host star, our results can clarify the process of atmospheric escape on terrestrial worlds, with implications for formation histories of M-dwarf planets and the potential for habitability in these systems. If instead GJ1132b possesses a low mean-molecular weight atmosphere, we look to future observations with JWST and the ground-based extremely large telescopes to characterize its atmosphere.This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program. This work was made possible by a grant from the John Templeton Foundation.

  13. A study of the coherence length of ULF waves in the earth's foreshock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Russell, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    High-time-resolution magnetic-field data for different separations of ISEE 1 and 2 in the earth's ion foreshock region are examined to study the coherence length of upstream ULF waves. Examining the correlation coefficients of the low-frequency waves as a function of separation distance shows that the correlation coefficient depends mainly on the separation distance of ISEE 1 and 2 transverse to the solar-wind flow. It drops to about 0.5 when the transverse separation is about 1 earth radius, a distance much larger than the proton thermal gyroradius in the solar wind. Thus the coherence length of the low-frequency waves is about one earth radius, which is of the order of the wavelength, and is consistent with that estimated from the bandwidth of the waves.

  14. Plasma and magnetic field variations in the distant magnetotail associated with near-earth substorm effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.; Mccomas, D. J.; Zwickl, R. D.; Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Examination of many individual event periods in the ISEE 3 deep-tail data set has suggested that magnetospheric substorms produce a characteristic pattern of effects in the distant magnetotail. During the growth, or tail-energy-storage phase of substorms, the magnetotail appears to grow diametrically in size, often by many earth radii. Subsequently, after the substorm expansive phase onset at earth, the distant tail undergoes a sequence of plasma, field, and energetic-particle variations as large-scale plasmoids move rapidly down the tail following their disconnection from the near-earth plasma sheet. ISEE 3 data are appropriate for the study of these effects since the spacecraft remained fixed within the nominal tail location for long periods. Using newly available auroral electrojet indices (AE and AL) and Geo particle data to time substorm onsets at earth, superposed epoch analyses of ISEE 3 and near-earth data prior to, and following, substorm expansive phase onsets have been performed. These analyses quantify and extend substantially the understanding of the deep-tail pattern of response to global substorm-induced dynamical effects.

  15. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  16. On the Ising character of the quantum-phase transition in LiHoF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomski, R.

    2016-05-01

    It is investigated how a transverse magnetic field affects the quantum-mechanical character of LiHoF4, a system generally considered as a textbook example for an Ising-like quantum-phase transition. In small magnetic fields, the low-temperature behavior of the ions is Ising-like, involving the nearly degenerate low-lying Jz = ± 8 doublet. However, as the transverse field increases, there is a substantial admixture of states having |Jz| < 8. Near the quantum-phase-transition field, the system is distinctively non-Ising like, and all Jz eigenstates yield ground-state contributions of comparable magnitude. A classical analog to this mechanism is the micromagnetic single point in magnets with uniaxial anisotropy. Since Ho3+ has J = 8, the ion's behavior is reminiscent of the classical limit (J = ∞), but quantum corrections remain clearly visible.

  17. Volatility behavior of visibility graph EMD financial time series from Ising interacting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jun; Fang, Wen

    2015-08-01

    A financial market dynamics model is developed and investigated by stochastic Ising system, where the Ising model is the most popular ferromagnetic model in statistical physics systems. Applying two graph based analysis and multiscale entropy method, we investigate and compare the statistical volatility behavior of return time series and the corresponding IMF series derived from the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method. And the real stock market indices are considered to be comparatively studied with the simulation data of the proposed model. Further, we find that the degree distribution of visibility graph for the simulation series has the power law tails, and the assortative network exhibits the mixing pattern property. All these features are in agreement with the real market data, the research confirms that the financial model established by the Ising system is reasonable.

  18. The Critical Z-Invariant Ising Model via Dimers: Locality Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutillier, Cédric; de Tilière, Béatrice

    2011-01-01

    We study a large class of critical two-dimensional Ising models, namely critical Z-invariant Ising models. Fisher (J Math Phys 7:1776-1781, 1966) introduced a correspondence between the Ising model and the dimer model on a decorated graph, thus setting dimer techniques as a powerful tool for understanding the Ising model. In this paper, we give a full description of the dimer model corresponding to the critical Z-invariant Ising model, consisting of explicit expressions which only depend on the local geometry of the underlying isoradial graph. Our main result is an explicit local formula for the inverse Kasteleyn matrix, in the spirit of Kenyon (Invent Math 150(2):409-439, 2002), as a contour integral of the discrete exponential function of Mercat (Discrete period matrices and related topics, 2002) and Kenyon (Invent Math 150(2):409-439, 2002) multiplied by a local function. Using results of Boutillier and de Tilière (Prob Theor Rel Fields 147(3-4):379-413, 2010) and techniques of de Tilière (Prob Th Rel Fields 137(3-4):487-518, 2007) and Kenyon (Invent Math 150(2):409-439, 2002), this yields an explicit local formula for a natural Gibbs measure, and a local formula for the free energy. As a corollary, we recover Baxter's formula for the free energy of the critical Z-invariant Ising model (Baxter, in Exactly solved models in statistical mechanics, Academic Press, London, 1982), and thus a new proof of it. The latter is equal, up to a constant, to the logarithm of the normalized determinant of the Laplacian obtained in Kenyon (Invent Math 150(2):409-439, 2002).

  19. Trapped particle and solar proton radiation prediction for ISEE (IME): Mother-daughter mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    The charged particle fluxes incident on spacecrafts in very eccentric orbits were investigated in support of the International Sun-Earth Explorer (International Magnetospheric Explorer) For this purpose, two flightpaths were considered having identical inclinations but different perigee altitudes (240 and 1364 kilometers, respectively). Apogee altitude was approximately the same for both cases (about 22 earth radii). For each of the two perigee altitudes investigated, two nominal trajectories were generated, having identical orbital configurations but with their major axes rotated by 180 deg in the plane of orbit, which resulted in placing the initial apogee into into opposite hemispheres. This was done in order to determine the corresponding variation in the vehicle-encountered particle intensities. Estimates of average energetic solar proton fluxes are given for a one year mission duration at selected integranlenergies ranging from E 10 to E 100 MeV. Results are summarized and discussed.

  20. A Meloidogyne incognita effector MiISE5 suppresses programmed cell death to promote parasitism in host plant.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qianqian; Mao, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Wang, Yunsheng; Ling, Jian; Lin, Runmao; Li, Denghui; Kang, Xincong; Sun, Wenxian; Xie, Bingyan

    2018-05-08

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are highly specialized parasites that interact with their host plants using a range of strategies. The esophageal glands are the main places where nematodes synthesize effector proteins, which play central roles in successful invasion. The Meloidogyne incognita effector MiISE5 is exclusively expressed within the subventral esophageal cells and is upregulated during early parasitic stages. In this study, we show that MiISE5 can be secreted to barley cells through infectious hyphae of Magnaporthe oryzae. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing MiISE5 became significantly more susceptible to M. incognita. Inversely, the tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated silence of MiISE5 decreased nematode parasitism. Moreover, transient expression of MiISE5 suppressed cell death caused by Burkholderia glumae in Nicotiana benthamiana. Based on transcriptome analysis of MiISE5 transgenic sample and the wild-type (WT) sample, we obtained 261 DEGs, and the results of GO and KEGG enrichment analysis indicate that MiISE5 can interfere with various metabolic and signaling pathways, especially the JA signaling pathway, to facilitate nematode parasitism. Results from the present study suggest that MiISE5 plays an important role during the early stages of parasitism and provides evidence to decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying the manipulation of host immune defense responses by M. incognita.

  1. Ising order in a magnetized Heisenberg chain subject to a uniform Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    DOE PAGES

    Chan, Yang-Hao; Jin, Wen; Jiang, Hong-Chen; ...

    2017-12-29

    We report a combined analytical and density matrix renormalized group study of the antiferromagnetic XXZ spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain subject to a uniform Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction and a transverse magnetic eld. The numerically determined phase diagram of this model, which features two ordered Ising phases and a critical Luttinger liquid one with fully broken spin-rotational symmetry, agrees well with the predictions of Garate and Affleck [Phys. Rev. B 81, 144419 (2010)]. We also con rm the prevalence of the Nz Neel Ising order in the regime of comparable DM and magnetic field magnitudes.

  2. The ISEE-3 ULEWAT: Flux tape description and heavy ion fluxes 1978-1984. [plasma diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Klecker, B.

    1985-01-01

    The ISEE ULEWAT FLUX tapes contain ULEWAT and ISEE pool tape data summarized over relatively long time intervals (1hr) in order to compact the data set into an easily usable size. (Roughly 3 years of data fit onto one 1600 BPI 9-track magnetic tape). In making the tapes, corrections were made to the ULEWAT basic data tapes in order to, remove rate spikes and account for changes in instrument response so that to a large extent instrument fluxes can be calculated easily from the FLUX tapes without further consideration of instrument performance.

  3. Ground-state candidate for the classical dipolar kagome Ising antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chioar, I. A.; Rougemaille, N.; Canals, B.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the low-temperature thermodynamic properties of the classical dipolar kagome Ising antiferromagnet using Monte Carlo simulations, in the quest for the ground-state manifold. In spite of the limitations of a single-spin-flip approach, we managed to identify certain ordering patterns in the low-temperature regime and we propose a candidate for this unknown state. This configuration presents some intriguing features and is fully compatible with the extrapolations of the at-equilibrium thermodynamic behavior sampled so far, making it a very likely choice for the dipolar long-range ordered state of the classical kagome Ising antiferromagnet.

  4. Ising order in a magnetized Heisenberg chain subject to a uniform Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Yang-Hao; Jin, Wen; Jiang, Hong-Chen

    We report a combined analytical and density matrix renormalized group study of the antiferromagnetic XXZ spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain subject to a uniform Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction and a transverse magnetic eld. The numerically determined phase diagram of this model, which features two ordered Ising phases and a critical Luttinger liquid one with fully broken spin-rotational symmetry, agrees well with the predictions of Garate and Affleck [Phys. Rev. B 81, 144419 (2010)]. We also con rm the prevalence of the Nz Neel Ising order in the regime of comparable DM and magnetic field magnitudes.

  5. Transverse fields to tune an Ising-nematic quantum phase transition [Transverse fields to tune an Ising-nematic quantum critical transition

    SciTech Connect

    Maharaj, Akash V.; Rosenberg, Elliott W.; Hristov, Alexander T.

    Here, the paradigmatic example of a continuous quantum phase transition is the transverse field Ising ferromagnet. In contrast to classical critical systems, whose properties depend only on symmetry and the dimension of space, the nature of a quantum phase transition also depends on the dynamics. In the transverse field Ising model, the order parameter is not conserved, and increasing the transverse field enhances quantum fluctuations until they become strong enough to restore the symmetry of the ground state. Ising pseudospins can represent the order parameter of any system with a twofold degenerate broken-symmetry phase, including electronic nematic order associated withmore » spontaneous point-group symmetry breaking. Here, we show for the representative example of orbital-nematic ordering of a non-Kramers doublet that an orthogonal strain or a perpendicular magnetic field plays the role of the transverse field, thereby providing a practical route for tuning appropriate materials to a quantum critical point. While the transverse fields are conjugate to seemingly unrelated order parameters, their nontrivial commutation relations with the nematic order parameter, which can be represented by a Berry-phase term in an effective field theory, intrinsically intertwine the different order parameters.« less

  6. Transverse fields to tune an Ising-nematic quantum phase transition [Transverse fields to tune an Ising-nematic quantum critical transition

    DOE PAGES

    Maharaj, Akash V.; Rosenberg, Elliott W.; Hristov, Alexander T.; ...

    2017-12-05

    Here, the paradigmatic example of a continuous quantum phase transition is the transverse field Ising ferromagnet. In contrast to classical critical systems, whose properties depend only on symmetry and the dimension of space, the nature of a quantum phase transition also depends on the dynamics. In the transverse field Ising model, the order parameter is not conserved, and increasing the transverse field enhances quantum fluctuations until they become strong enough to restore the symmetry of the ground state. Ising pseudospins can represent the order parameter of any system with a twofold degenerate broken-symmetry phase, including electronic nematic order associated withmore » spontaneous point-group symmetry breaking. Here, we show for the representative example of orbital-nematic ordering of a non-Kramers doublet that an orthogonal strain or a perpendicular magnetic field plays the role of the transverse field, thereby providing a practical route for tuning appropriate materials to a quantum critical point. While the transverse fields are conjugate to seemingly unrelated order parameters, their nontrivial commutation relations with the nematic order parameter, which can be represented by a Berry-phase term in an effective field theory, intrinsically intertwine the different order parameters.« less

  7. Creative computing with Landlab: an open-source toolkit for building, coupling, and exploring two-dimensional numerical models of Earth-surface dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobley, Daniel E. J.; Adams, Jordan M.; Nudurupati, Sai Siddhartha; Hutton, Eric W. H.; Gasparini, Nicole M.; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Tucker, Gregory E.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to model surface processes and to couple them to both subsurface and atmospheric regimes has proven invaluable to research in the Earth and planetary sciences. However, creating a new model typically demands a very large investment of time, and modifying an existing model to address a new problem typically means the new work is constrained to its detriment by model adaptations for a different problem. Landlab is an open-source software framework explicitly designed to accelerate the development of new process models by providing (1) a set of tools and existing grid structures - including both regular and irregular grids - to make it faster and easier to develop new process components, or numerical implementations of physical processes; (2) a suite of stable, modular, and interoperable process components that can be combined to create an integrated model; and (3) a set of tools for data input, output, manipulation, and visualization. A set of example models built with these components is also provided. Landlab's structure makes it ideal not only for fully developed modelling applications but also for model prototyping and classroom use. Because of its modular nature, it can also act as a platform for model intercomparison and epistemic uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. Landlab exposes a standardized model interoperability interface, and is able to couple to third-party models and software. Landlab also offers tools to allow the creation of cellular automata, and allows native coupling of such models to more traditional continuous differential equation-based modules. We illustrate the principles of component coupling in Landlab using a model of landform evolution, a cellular ecohydrologic model, and a flood-wave routing model.

  8. Earth Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Steve

    1985-01-01

    In our human-centered ignorance and arrogance we are rapidly destroying the earth. We must start helping people understand the big picture of ecological concepts. What these concepts mean for our own lives and how we must begin to change our lifestyles in order to live more harmoniously with the earth. (JHZ)

  9. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1976-01-01

    The LAGEOS I (Laser Geodynamics Satellite) was developed and launched by the Marshall Space Flight Center on May 4, 1976 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California . The two-foot diameter satellite orbited the Earth from pole to pole and measured the movements of the Earth's surface.

  10. Ising-like spin anisotropy and competing antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic orders in GdBaCo2O5.5 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Taskin, A A; Lavrov, A N; Ando, Yoichi

    2003-06-06

    In RBaCo2O5+x compounds (R is rare earth), a ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic competition is accompanied by a giant magnetoresistance. We study the magnetization of detwinned GdBaCo2O5.5 single crystals and find a remarkable uniaxial anisotropy of Co3+ spins which is tightly linked with the chain oxygen ordering in GdO0.5 planes. Reflecting the underlying oxygen order, CoO2 planes also develop a spin-state order consisting of Co3+ ions in alternating rows of S=1 and S=0 states. The magnetic structure appears to be composed of weakly coupled ferromagnetic ladders with Ising-like moments, which gives a simple picture for magnetotransport phenomena.

  11. Three-dimensional analytical model for the spatial variation of the foreshock electron distribution function - Systematics and comparisons with ISEE observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Scudder, J. D.; Klimas, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    A model which is consistent with the solar wind and shock surface boundary conditions for the foreshock electron distribution in the absence of wave-particle effects is formulated for an arbitrary location behind the magnetic tangent to the earth's bow shock. Variations of the gyrophase-averaged velocity distribution are compared and contrasted with in situ ISEE observations. It is found that magnetic mirroring of solar wind electrons is the most important process by which nonmonotonic reduced electron distributions in the foreshock are produced. Leakage of particles from the magnetosheath is shown to be relatively unimportant in determining reduced distributions that are nonmonotonic. The two-dimensional distribution function off the magnetic field direction is the crucial contribution in producing reduced distributions which have beams. The time scale for modification of the electron velocity distribution in velocity space can be significantly influenced by steady state spatial gradients in the background imposed by the curved shock geometry.

  12. The Prototype Plume Busters Software: A New Tool for Exploring Issues Related to Environmental Policy in Undergraduate-level Earth and Environmental Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    Students seldom have an opportunity to explore the issues related to the environmental impact of contamination on water resources. With NSF support we have developed the prototype Plume Busters, in which students take on the role of an environmental consultant. The software consists of an interactive, Java application and accompanying HTML linked pages. Following a pipeline spill, the environmental consultant is hired by the pipeline owner to locate the resulting plume created by the spill and remediate the contaminated aquifer at minimum monetary and time cost. The contamination must be removed from the aquifer before it reaches the river and eventually a downstream public water supply. The application simulates movement of a plume from a pipeline break through a shallow alluvial aquifer towards the river upstream from a municipal water supply intake. To locate the plume, the student places observation wells on a gridded map of the study area and the simulation returns the contaminant concentrations at those locations on the appropriate sample dates. Once the plume is located, the student is able to site pumping and injection wells on the map for aquifer remediation using a simple pump-and-treat technique. The simulation then computes the movement of particles to the pumping wells and returns the cumulative mass removed by the production remediation well. Plume Busters also provides teachers with a means to initiate student exploration of a wide range of environmental issues, including (1) source-water assessment and ground-water and wellhead protection zones, (2) the impact of human activities and technology on the hydrosphere and the biosphere, (3) the role of technology in the resolution of environmental issues (4) legal, social, political, and economic implications of environmental issues, and (5) risk assessment resulting from human activities.

  13. NREL and Fraunhofer ISE to Collaborate on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research |

    Science.gov Websites

    (R&D) activities to accelerate progress in these fields. NREL's long-term research and accelerate progress toward shared R&D goals and to ensure sustainable use of hydrogen and fuel cell Fraunhofer ISE in the following areas: Electrolysis, including cell, stack, and system R&D and

  14. The Conversational Framework and the ISE "Basketball Shot" Video Analysis Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Vincent; Crotty, Yvonne; Farren, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Inspiring Science Education (ISE) (http://www.inspiringscience.eu/) is an EU funded initiative that seeks to further the use of inquiry-based science learning (IBSL) through the medium of ICT in the classroom. The Basketball Shot is a scenario (lesson plan) that involves the use of video capture to help the student investigate the concepts of…

  15. Increasing Student Performance on the Independent School Entrance Exam (ISEE) Using the Gap Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarshar, Shanon Etty

    2013-01-01

    Using the Gap Analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008), this study examined the performance gap experienced by 6th grade students on the math sections of the ISEE (Independent School Entrance Exam). The purpose of the study was to identify and validate the knowledge, motivation, and organization causes of the students' low…

  16. Ising antiferromagnet on a finite triangular lattice with free boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Yeon

    2015-11-01

    The exact integer values for the density of states of the Ising model on an equilateral triangular lattice with free boundary conditions are evaluated up to L = 24 spins on a side for the first time by using the microcanonical transfer matrix. The total number of states is 2 N s = 2300 ≈ 2.037 × 1090 for L = 24, where N s = L( L+1)/2 is the number of spins. Classifying all 2300 spin states according to their energy values is an enormous work. From the density of states, the exact partition function zeros in the complex temperature plane of the triangular-lattice Ising model are evaluated. Using the density of states and the partition function zeros, we investigate the properties of the triangularlattice Ising antiferromagnet. The scaling behavior of the ground-state entropy and the form of the correlation length at T = 0 are studied for the triangular-lattice Ising antiferromagnet with free boundary conditions. Also, the scaling behavior of the Fisher edge singularity is investigated.

  17. Physics and financial economics (1776-2014): puzzles, Ising and agent-based models.

    PubMed

    Sornette, Didier

    2014-06-01

    This short review presents a selected history of the mutual fertilization between physics and economics--from Isaac Newton and Adam Smith to the present. The fundamentally different perspectives embraced in theories developed in financial economics compared with physics are dissected with the examples of the volatility smile and of the excess volatility puzzle. The role of the Ising model of phase transitions to model social and financial systems is reviewed, with the concepts of random utilities and the logit model as the analog of the Boltzmann factor in statistical physics. Recent extensions in terms of quantum decision theory are also covered. A wealth of models are discussed briefly that build on the Ising model and generalize it to account for the many stylized facts of financial markets. A summary of the relevance of the Ising model and its extensions is provided to account for financial bubbles and crashes. The review would be incomplete if it did not cover the dynamical field of agent-based models (ABMs), also known as computational economic models, of which the Ising-type models are just special ABM implementations. We formulate the 'Emerging Intelligence Market Hypothesis' to reconcile the pervasive presence of 'noise traders' with the near efficiency of financial markets. Finally, we note that evolutionary biology, more than physics, is now playing a growing role to inspire models of financial markets.

  18. Emergent order in the kagome Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14

    PubMed Central

    Paddison, Joseph A. M.; Ong, Harapan S.; Hamp, James O.; Mukherjee, Paromita; Bai, Xiaojian; Tucker, Matthew G.; Butch, Nicholas P.; Castelnovo, Claudio; Mourigal, Martin; Dutton, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Ising model—in which degrees of freedom (spins) are binary valued (up/down)—is a cornerstone of statistical physics that shows rich behaviour when spins occupy a highly frustrated lattice such as kagome. Here we show that the layered Ising magnet Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 hosts an emergent order predicted theoretically for individual kagome layers of in-plane Ising spins. Neutron-scattering and bulk thermomagnetic measurements reveal a phase transition at ∼0.3 K from a disordered spin-ice-like regime to an emergent charge ordered state, in which emergent magnetic charge degrees of freedom exhibit three-dimensional order while spins remain partially disordered. Monte Carlo simulations show that an interplay of inter-layer interactions, spin canting and chemical disorder stabilizes this state. Our results establish Dy3Mg2Sb3O14 as a tuneable system to study interacting emergent charges arising from kagome Ising frustration. PMID:27996012

  19. The In Situ Enzymatic Screening (ISES) Approach to Reaction Discovery and Catalyst Identification.

    PubMed

    Swyka, Robert A; Berkowitz, David B

    2017-12-14

    The importance of discovering new chemical transformations and/or optimizing catalytic combinations has led to a flurry of activity in reaction screening. The in situ enzymatic screening (ISES) approach described here utilizes biological tools (enzymes/cofactors) to advance chemistry. The protocol interfaces an organic reaction layer with an adjacent aqueous layer containing reporting enzymes that act upon the organic reaction product, giving rise to a spectroscopic signal. ISES allows the experimentalist to rapidly glean information on the relative rates of a set of parallel organic/organometallic reactions under investigation, without the need to quench the reactions or draw aliquots. In certain cases, the real-time enzymatic readout also provides information on sense and magnitude of enantioselectivity and substrate specificity. This article contains protocols for single-well (relative rate) and double-well (relative rate/enantiomeric excess) ISES, in addition to a colorimetric ISES protocol and a miniaturized double-well procedure. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of Ising models by multispin coding on a vector computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wansleben, Stephan; Zabolitzky, John G.; Kalle, Claus

    1984-11-01

    Rebbi's efficient multispin coding algorithm for Ising models is combined with the use of the vector computer CDC Cyber 205. A speed of 21.2 million updates per second is reached. This is comparable to that obtained by special- purpose computers.

  1. Integrated multi-ISE arrays with improved sensitivity, accuracy and precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunling; Yuan, Hongyan; Duan, Zhijuan; Xiao, Dan

    2017-03-01

    Increasing use of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) in the biological and environmental fields has generated demand for high-sensitivity ISEs. However, improving the sensitivities of ISEs remains a challenge because of the limit of the Nernstian slope (59.2/n mV). Here, we present a universal ion detection method using an electronic integrated multi-electrode system (EIMES) that bypasses the Nernstian slope limit of 59.2/n mV, thereby enabling substantial enhancement of the sensitivity of ISEs. The results reveal that the response slope is greatly increased from 57.2 to 1711.3 mV, 57.3 to 564.7 mV and 57.7 to 576.2 mV by electronic integrated 30 Cl- electrodes, 10 F- electrodes and 10 glass pH electrodes, respectively. Thus, a tiny change in the ion concentration can be monitored, and correspondingly, the accuracy and precision are substantially improved. The EIMES is suited for all types of potentiometric sensors and may pave the way for monitoring of various ions with high accuracy and precision because of its high sensitivity.

  2. Coherent Ising machines—optical neural networks operating at the quantum limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Leleu, Timothee; Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi; Kako, Satoshi; Fejer, Martin; Inoue, Kyo; Takesue, Hiroki

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we will introduce the basic concept and the quantum feature of a novel computing system, coherent Ising machines, and describe their theoretical and experimental performance. We start with the discussion how to construct such physical devices as the quantum analog of classical neuron and synapse, and end with the performance comparison against various classical neural networks implemented in CPU and supercomputers.

  3. Physics and financial economics (1776-2014): puzzles, Ising and agent-based models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, Didier

    2014-06-01

    This short review presents a selected history of the mutual fertilization between physics and economics—from Isaac Newton and Adam Smith to the present. The fundamentally different perspectives embraced in theories developed in financial economics compared with physics are dissected with the examples of the volatility smile and of the excess volatility puzzle. The role of the Ising model of phase transitions to model social and financial systems is reviewed, with the concepts of random utilities and the logit model as the analog of the Boltzmann factor in statistical physics. Recent extensions in terms of quantum decision theory are also covered. A wealth of models are discussed briefly that build on the Ising model and generalize it to account for the many stylized facts of financial markets. A summary of the relevance of the Ising model and its extensions is provided to account for financial bubbles and crashes. The review would be incomplete if it did not cover the dynamical field of agent-based models (ABMs), also known as computational economic models, of which the Ising-type models are just special ABM implementations. We formulate the ‘Emerging Intelligence Market Hypothesis’ to reconcile the pervasive presence of ‘noise traders’ with the near efficiency of financial markets. Finally, we note that evolutionary biology, more than physics, is now playing a growing role to inspire models of financial markets.

  4. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-20

    Panelists pose for a group photo at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  5. A Review of the Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer as a Tool for Field Geologic Investigations on Earth and in Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Kelsey E.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Hodges, Kip V.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Graff, Trevor G.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy is a well-established and commonly used technique in obtaining diagnostic compositional data on geological samples. Recently, developments in X-ray tube and detector technologies have resulted in miniaturized, field-portable instruments that enable new applications both in and out of standard laboratory settings. These applications, however, have not been extensively applied to geologic field campaigns. This study investigates the feasibility of using developing handheld XRF (hXRF) technology to enhance terrestrial field geology, with potential applications in planetary surface exploration missions. We demonstrate that the hXRF is quite stable, providing reliable and accurate data continuously over a several year period. Additionally, sample preparation is proved to have a marked effect on the strategy for collecting and assimilating hXRF data. While the hXRF is capable of obtaining data that are comparable to laboratory XRF analysis for several geologically-important elements (such as Si, Ca, Ti, and K), the instrument is unable to detect other elements (such as Mg and Na) reliably. While this limits the use of the hXRF, especially when compared to laboratory XRF techniques, the hXRF is still capable of providing the field user with significantly improved contextual awareness of a field site, and more work is needed to fully evaluate the potential of this instrument in more complex geologic environments.

  6. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-20

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Looking southwest over northern Africa. Libya, Algeria, Niger.

  7. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. On crewmember's Flickr page - Look straight down into an aurora.

  8. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-07

    ISS040-E-008174 (7 June 2014) --- Layers of Earth's atmosphere, brightly colored as the sun rises, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  9. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-02

    ISS040-E-006817 (2 June 2014) --- Intersecting the thin line of Earth's atmosphere, International Space Station solar array wings are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  10. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-18

    Workers at Launch Complex 17 Pad A, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) encapsulate the Geomagnetic Tail (GEOTAIL) spacecraft (upper) and attached payload Assist Module-D upper stage (lower) in the protective payload fairing. GEOTAIL project was designed to study the effects of Earth's magnetic field. The solar wind draws the Earth's magnetic field into a long tail on the night side of the Earth and stores energy in the stretched field lines of the magnetotail. During active periods, the tail couples with the near-Earth magnetosphere, sometimes releasing energy stored in the tail and activating auroras in the polar ionosphere. GEOTAIL measures the flow of energy and its transformation in the magnetotail and will help clarify the mechanisms that control the imput, transport, storage, release, and conversion of mass, momentum, and energy in the magnetotail.

  11. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  12. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-31

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: CEO - Arena de Sao Paolo. View used for Twitter message: Cloudy skies over São Paulo Brazil

  13. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-26

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Never tire of finding shapes in the clouds! These look very botanical to me. Simply perfect.

  14. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of a solar array is also visible.

  15. Earth Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-10-24

    Solar Vector Magnetograph is used to predict solar flares, and other activities associated with sun spots. This research provides new understanding about weather on the Earth, and solar-related conditions in orbit.

  16. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Perhaps a dandelion losing its seeds in the wind? Love clouds!

  17. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-27

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Part of Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is visible. Folder lists this as: the Middle East, Israel.

  18. Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-16

    ISS024-E-006136 (16 June 2010) --- Polar mesospheric clouds, illuminated by an orbital sunrise, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. Polar mesospheric, or noctilucent (?night shining?), clouds are observed from both Earth?s surface and in orbit by crew members aboard the space station. They are called night-shining clouds as they are usually seen at twilight. Following the setting of the sun below the horizon and darkening of Earth?s surface, these high clouds are still briefly illuminated by sunlight. Occasionally the ISS orbital track becomes nearly parallel to Earth?s day/night terminator for a time, allowing polar mesospheric clouds to be visible to the crew at times other than the usual twilight due to the space station altitude. This unusual photograph shows polar mesospheric clouds illuminated by the rising, rather than setting, sun at center right. Low clouds on the horizon appear yellow and orange, while higher clouds and aerosols are illuminated a brilliant white. Polar mesospheric clouds appear as light blue ribbons extending across the top of the image. These clouds typically occur at high latitudes of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and at fairly high altitudes of 76?85 kilometers (near the boundary between the mesosphere and thermosphere atmospheric layers). The ISS was located over the Greek island of Kos in the Aegean Sea (near the southwestern coastline of Turkey) when the image was taken at approximately midnight local time. The orbital complex was tracking northeastward, nearly parallel to the terminator, making it possible to observe an apparent ?sunrise? located almost due north. A similar unusual alignment of the ISS orbit track, terminator position, and seasonal position of Earth?s orbit around the sun allowed for striking imagery of polar mesospheric clouds over the Southern Hemisphere earlier this year.

  19. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  20. Central Africa Energy: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Explore Flared Gas as an Energy Source Alternative to Biomass in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Amber; White, Charles; Castillo, Christopher; Hitimana, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Kenny; Mishra, Shikher; Clark, Walt

    2014-01-01

    significant number rely on oil production as their primary source of revenue. Relative to its size and population density, the continent has a wealth of natural resources, including oil and natural gas deposits. The exploration of these resources is not a new endeavor, but rather one that spans decades, up to a century in some places. Their resources, if realized, could provide a great means of economic and social mobility for the people of Africa. Currently, Africa represents about 12 % of the energy market, yet at the same time, consumes only 3 % of the world's energy (Kasekende 2009). The higher