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Sample records for earth global reference

  1. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2007 (Earth-GRAM07)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Fred

    Engineering models of the atmosphere are used extensively by the aerospace community for design issues related to vehicle ascent and descent. The Earth Global Reference Atmosphere Model version 2007 (Earth-GRAM07) is the latest in this series and includes a number of new features. Like previous versions, Earth-GRAM07 provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthlyand geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0 km to 27 km, thermodynamics and winds are based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. For altitudes between 20 km and 120 km, the model uses data from the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP). Above 120 km, Earth-GRAM07 now provides users with a choice of three thermosphere models: the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET-2007) model; the Jacchia-Bowman 2006 thermosphere model (JB2006); and the Naval Research Labs Mass Spectrometer, Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended Model (NRL MSIS E-00) with the associated Harmonic Wind Model (HWM-93). In place of the GUACA and MAP datasets, Earth-GRAM07 has the option of using the new 2006 revised Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) data, the earlier (1983) RRA data, or the user may provide their own data as an auxiliary profile. Refinements of the perturbation model are also discussed which produce wind shears more similar to those observed at the Kennedy Space Center than the previous version Earth-GRAM99. In addition, the dispersions are more normally distributed, especially at the extremes.

  2. The NASA MSFC Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model-2007 Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, F.W.; Justus, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    Reference or standard atmospheric models have long been used for design and mission planning of various aerospace systems. The NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM) was developed in response to the need for a design reference atmosphere that provides complete global geographical variability, and complete altitude coverage (surface to orbital altitudes) as well as complete seasonal and monthly variability of the thermodynamic variables and wind components. A unique feature of GRAM is that, addition to providing the geographical, height, and monthly variation of the mean atmospheric state, it includes the ability to simulate spatial and temporal perturbations in these atmospheric parameters (e.g. fluctuations due to turbulence and other atmospheric perturbation phenomena). A summary comparing GRAM features to characteristics and features of other reference or standard atmospheric models, can be found Guide to Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models. The original GRAM has undergone a series of improvements over the years with recent additions and changes. The software program is called Earth-GRAM2007 to distinguish it from similar programs for other bodies (e.g. Mars, Venus, Neptune, and Titan). However, in order to make this Technical Memorandum (TM) more readable, the software will be referred to simply as GRAM07 or GRAM unless additional clarity is needed. Section 1 provides an overview of the basic features of GRAM07 including the newly added features. Section 2 provides a more detailed description of GRAM07 and how the model output generated. Section 3 presents sample results. Appendices A and B describe the Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) data and the Global Gridded Air Statistics (GGUAS) database. Appendix C provides instructions for compiling and running GRAM07. Appendix D gives a description of the required NAMELIST format input. Appendix E gives sample output. Appendix F provides a list of available

  3. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2007 (Earth-GRAM07) Applications for the NASA Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Fred W.; Justus, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering models of the atmosphere are used extensively by the aerospace community for design issues related to vehicle ascent and descent. The Earth Global Reference Atmosphere Model version 2007 (Earth-GRAM07) is the latest in this series and includes a number of new features. Like previous versions, Earth-GRAM07 provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0 km to 27 km, thermodynamics and winds are based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. For altitudes between 20 km and 120 km, the model uses data from the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP). Above 120 km, EarthGRAM07 now provides users with a choice of three thermosphere models: the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET-2007) model; the Jacchia-Bowman 2006 thermosphere model (JB2006); and the Naval Research Labs Mass Spectrometer, Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended Model (NRL MSIS E-OO) with the associated Harmonic Wind Model (HWM-93). In place of these datasets, Earth-GRAM07 has the option of using the new 2006 revised Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) data, the earlier (1983) RRA data, or the user may also provide their own data as an auxiliary profile. Refinements of the perturbation model are also discussed which include wind shears more similar to those observed at the Kennedy Space Center than the previous version Earth-GRAM99.

  4. Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM99): Short Course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Fred W.; Justus, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    Earth-GRAM is a FORTRAN software package that can run on a variety of platforms including PC's. For any time and location in the Earth's atmosphere, Earth-GRAM provides values of atmospheric quantities such as temperature, pressure, density, winds, constituents, etc.. Dispersions (perturbations) of these parameters are also provided and have realistic correlations, means, and variances - useful for Monte Carlo analysis. Earth-GRAM is driven by observations including a tropospheric database available from the National Climatic Data Center. Although Earth-GRAM can be run in a "stand-alone" mode, many users incorporate it into their trajectory codes. The source code is distributed free-of-charge to eligible recipients.

  5. Global Reference Atmospheric Models, Including Thermospheres, for Mars, Venus and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, C. G.; Keller, Vernon W.

    2006-01-01

    This document is the viewgraph slides of the presentation. Marshall Space Flight Center's Natural Environments Branch has developed Global Reference Atmospheric Models (GRAMs) for Mars, Venus, Earth, and other solar system destinations. Mars-GRAM has been widely used for engineering applications including systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry descent and landing, and aerocapture. Preliminary results are presented, comparing Mars-GRAM with measurements from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) during its aerobraking in Mars thermosphere. Venus-GRAM is based on the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA), and is suitable for similar engineering applications in the thermosphere or other altitude regions of the atmosphere of Venus. Until recently, the thermosphere in Earth-GRAM has been represented by the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. Earth-GRAM has recently been revised. In addition to including an updated version of MET, it now includes an option to use the Naval Research Laboratory Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter Radar Extended Model (NRLMSISE-00) as an alternate thermospheric model. Some characteristics and results from Venus-GRAM and Earth-GRAM thermospheres are also presented.

  6. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model-2010 Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, F. W.; Justus, C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Reference or standard atmospheric models have long been used for design and mission planning of various aerospace systems. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Global Reference Atmospheric Model was developed in response to the need for a design reference atmosphere that provides complete global geographical variability and complete altitude coverage (surface to orbital altitudes), as well as complete seasonal and monthly variability of the thermodynamic variables and wind components. In addition to providing the geographical, height, and monthly variation of the mean atmospheric state, it includes the ability to simulate spatial and temporal perturbations.

  7. Preliminary reference Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L.

    1981-06-01

    A large data set consisting of about 1000 normal mode periods, 500 summary travel time observations, 100 normal mode Q values, mass and moment of inertia have been inverted to obtain the radial distribution of elastic properties, Q values and density in the Earth's interior. The data set was supplemented with a special study of 12 years of ISC phase data which yielded an additional 1.75 × 10 6 travel time observations for P and S waves. In order to obtain satisfactory agreement with the entire data set we were required to take into account anelastic dispersion. The introduction of transverse isotropy into the outer 220 km of the mantle was required in order to satisfy the shorter period fundamental toroidal and spheroidal modes. This anisotropy also improved the fit of the larger data set. The horizontal and vertical velocities in the upper mantle differ by 2-4%, both for P and S waves. The mantle below 220 km is not required to be anisotropic. Mantle Rayleigh waves are surprisingly sensitive to compressional velocity in the upper mantle. High S n velocities, low P n velocities and a pronounced low-velocity zone are features of most global inversion models that are suppressed when anisotropy is allowed for in the inversion. The Preliminary Reference Earth Model, PREM, and auxiliary tables showing fits to the data are presented.

  8. Global Images of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Global images of Earth from Galileo. In each frame, the continent of Antarctica is visible at the bottom of the globe. South America may be seen in the first frame (top left), the great Pacific Ocean in the second (bottom left), India at the top and Australia to the right in the third (top right), and Africa in the fourth (bottom right). Taken at six-hour intervals on December 11, 1990, at a range of between 2 and 2.7 million kilometers (1.2 to 1.7 million miles). P-37630

    These images were taken during Galileo's first Earth flyby. This gravity assist increased Galileo's speed around the Sun by about 5.2 kilometers per second (or 11,600 miles per hour) and substantially redirected Galileo as required for its flybys of the asteroid Gaspra in October 1991 and Earth in 1992. Galileo's closest approach (960 kilometers, or 597 miles, above the Earth's surface) to the Earth was on December 8, 1990, 3 days before these pictures were taken.

    Each of these images is a color composite, made up using images taken through red, green, and violet filters. The four images are part of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 256-frame time-lapse motion picture that shows a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics. The movie gives scientists a unique overall view of global weather patterns, as opposed to the limited view of weather satellite images.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA'is Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  9. Resources and References for Earth Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Charles A.; Wall, Janet E.

    1976-01-01

    Listed are resources and references for earth science teachers including doctoral research, new textbooks, and professional literature in astronomy, space science, earth science, geology, meteorology, and oceanography. (SL)

  10. Resources and References for Earth Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Charles A.; Wall, Janet E.

    1976-01-01

    Listed are resources and references for earth science teachers including doctoral research, new textbooks, and professional literature in astronomy, space science, earth science, geology, meteorology, and oceanography. (SL)

  11. Approach for a Global Height Reference System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihde, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Hermann Drewes, Christoph Foerste, Thomas Gruber, Gunter Liebsch, Roland Pail, Laura Sanchez For Earth system monitoring the heights are main parameters for global changes. Physical heights are potential differences of the outer Earth gravity field at different positions. Long term monitoring of the vertical component of the Earth surface needs a standardized defined and realized global reference relating the geometry and the gravity field of the Earth. In the last two decades, in several working groups of the International Association of Geodesy were different concepts for definition and realization of global height reference system discussed. Furthermore, the satellite gravity missions have the Earth gravity field data basis general extended. So far, it is possible to develop the present local and regional height reference systems concepts to a global approach. The presented proposal has to be understood as a model that consider the present possibilities and actual needs for the realization of a global height reference system. It includes aspects for the combination of observations and products representing the geometry and the gravity field of the Earth.

  12. Earth observing system: 1989 reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA is studying a coordinated effort called the Mission to Planet Earth to understand global change. The goals are to understand the Earth as a system, and to determine those processes that contribute to the environmental balance, as well as those that may result in changes. The Earth Observing System (Eos) is the centerpiece of the program. Eos will create an integrated scientific observing system that will enable multidisciplinary study of the Earth including the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar regions, and solid Earth. Science goals, the Eos data and information system, experiments, measuring instruments, and interdisciplinary investigations are described.

  13. 1993 Earth Observing System reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asrar, Ghassem (Editor); Dokken, David Jon (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is a NASA-sponsored concept that uses space- and ground-based measurement systems to provide the scientific basis for understanding global change. The space-based components of MTPE will provide a constellation of satellites to monitor the Earth from space. Sustained observations will allow researchers to monitor climate variables overtime to determine trends; however, space-based monitoring alone is not sufficient. A comprehensive data and information system, a community of scientists performing research with the data acquired, and extensive ground campaigns are all important components. Brief descriptions of the various elements that comprise the overall mission are provided. The Earth Observing System (EOS) - a series of polar-orbiting and low-inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans - is the centerpiece of MTPE. The elements comprising the EOS mission are described in detail.

  14. Global Partnership in Global Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A.; Obersteiner, M.

    2007-12-01

    The emergence of a global partnership on earth observations will crucially drive the configuration of future observing systems and consequently shape how socio-economic benefits are generated. In this paper we take a game-theoretical approach to model cooperation on building global earth observation systems. We consider several societies whose economies are subject to shocks mimicking major natural disasters. Economies operate optimally and lead to the best possible expected value for the social welfares in the future. In order to increase its welfare even more society can make a decision to invest into a global alerting system which lowers the risk of disasters. We start our investigation from a single-society case and show conditions under which benefits of such investment can be reaped. The propensity to invest increases with economic affluence and degree of vulnerability to natural disasters. We find that for poor and/or less vulnerable countries it is better to forbear from investment. If to consider a situation of multiple societies a strategic gaming situation emerges motivated by the fact that every society will benefit from a global system regardless of whether they invested or not. Our analysis of possible equilibrium solutions shows that similar to the formation of trading blocks (e.g. EU, NAFTA) only in the case of similar societies we will observe cooperation behavior (when all invest) and otherwise we will observe free-riding. This insight, that we might face a prisoners dilemma problem in the formation of a GEOSS, has important implications for the GEO process.

  15. GLOBAL REFERENCE ATMOSPHERIC MODELS FOR AEROASSIST APPLICATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Aleta; Justus, C. G.; Keller, Vernon W.

    2005-01-01

    Aeroassist is a broad category of advanced transportation technology encompassing aerocapture, aerobraking, aeroentry, precision landing, hazard detection and avoidance, and aerogravity assist. The eight destinations in the Solar System with sufficient atmosphere to enable aeroassist technology are Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Saturn's moon Titan. Engineering-level atmospheric models for five of these targets - Earth, Mars, Titan, Neptune, and Venus - have been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. These models are useful as tools in mission planning and systems analysis studies associated with aeroassist applications. The series of models is collectively named the Global Reference Atmospheric Model or GRAM series. An important capability of all the models in the GRAM series is their ability to simulate quasi-random perturbations for Monte Carlo analysis in developing guidance, navigation and control algorithms, for aerothermal design, and for other applications sensitive to atmospheric variability. Recent example applications are discussed.

  16. The Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM)

    SciTech Connect

    Staudigel, H.; Albarede, F.; Shaw, H.; McDonough, B.; White, W.

    1996-12-01

    The Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM) initiative is a grass- roots effort with the goal of establishing a community consensus on a chemical characterization of the Earth, its major reservoirs, and the fluxes between them. Long term goal of GERM is a chemical reservoir characterization analogous to the geophysical effort of the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). Chemical fluxes between reservoirs are included into GERM to illuminate the long-term chemical evolution of the Earth and to characterize the Earth as a dynamic chemical system. In turn, these fluxes control geological processes and influence hydrosphere-atmosphere-climate dynamics. While these long-term goals are clearly the focus of GERM, the process of establishing GERM itself is just as important as its ultimate goal. The GERM initiative is developed in an open community discussion on the World Wide Web (GERM home page is at http://www-ep.es.llnl. gov/germ/germ-home.html) that is mediated by a series of editors with responsibilities for distinct reservoirs and fluxes. Beginning with the original workshop in Lyons (March 1996) GERM is continued to be developed on the Internet, punctuated by workshops and special sessions at professional meetings. It is planned to complete the first model by mid-1997, followed by a call for papers for a February 1998 GERM conference in La Jolla, California.

  17. Sentinel 2 global reference image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechoz, C.; Poulain, V.; Massera, S.; Languille, F.; Greslou, D.; de Lussy, F.; Gaudel, A.; L'Helguen, C.; Picard, C.; Trémas, T.

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel-2 is a multispectral, high-resolution, optical imaging mission, developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in the frame of the Copernicus program of the European Commission. In cooperation with ESA, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) is responsible for the image quality of the project, and will ensure the CAL/VAL commissioning phase. Sentinel-2 mission is devoted the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas, and will provide a continuity of SPOT- and Landsat-type data. Sentinel-2 will also deliver information for emergency services. Launched in 2015 and 2016, there will be a constellation of 2 satellites on a polar sun-synchronous orbit, imaging systematically terrestrial surfaces with a revisit time of 5 days, in 13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red. Therefore, multi-temporal series of images, taken under the same viewing conditions, will be available. So as to ensure for the multi-temporal registration of the products, specified to be better than 0.3 pixels at 2σ, a Global Reference Image (GRI) will be produced during the CAL/VAL period. This GRI is composed of a set of Sentinel-2 acquisitions, which geometry has been corrected by bundle block adjustment. During L1B processing, Ground Control Points will be taken between this reference image and the sentinel-2 acquisition processed and the geometric model of the image corrected, so as to ensure the good multi-temporal registration. This paper first details the production of the reference during the CALVAL period, and then details the qualification and geolocation performance assessment of the GRI. It finally presents its use in the Level-1 processing chain and gives a first assessment of the multi-temporal registration.

  18. The 1990 Reference Handbook: Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the Earth Observing System (EOS) including goals and requirements is given. Its role in the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the International--Biosphere Program is addressed. The EOS mission requirements, science, fellowship program, data and information systems architecture, data policy, space measurement, and mission elements are presented along with the management of EOS. Descriptions of the facility instruments, instrument investigations, and interdisciplinary investigations are also present. The role of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the mission is mentioned.

  19. Global daily reference evapotranspiration modeling and evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Lietzow, R.; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and reliable evapotranspiration (ET) datasets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located in selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2001, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing six-hourly climate parameter datasets that are used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1-degree spatial resolution. The U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science has been producing daily reference ET (ETo) since 2001, and it has been used on a variety of operational hydrological models for drought and streamflow monitoring all over the world. With the increasing availability of local station-based reference ET estimates, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CIMIS reference ET estimates from 85 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using five-year daily data from 2002 through 2006. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs. ∼100 km grid cell) between the two datasets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.97 on a daily basis to more than 0.99 on time scales of more than 10 days. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two datasets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter-based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world

  20. Global Positioning System Shipborne Reference System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    Office of Naval Research Space and Remote Sensing 1997 Annual Report 1 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM SHIPBORNE REFERENCE SYSTEM James R. Clynch...N00014-97-WR30044 LONG-TERM GOAL The long term goal is to improve the navigation capability of naval vessels using the Global Positioning System ...COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00-00-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Positioning System Shipborne Reference System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  1. Global Reference Atmospheric Model and Trace Constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C.; Johnson, D.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is an engineering-level model of the Earth's atmosphere. It provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0-27 km, thermodynamics and winds are based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. Above 120 km, GRAM is based on the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. In the intervening altitude region, GRAM is based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) climatology that also forms the basis of the 1986 COSPAR Intemationa1 Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). MAP data in GRAM are augmented by a specially-derived longitude variation climatology. Atmospheric composition is represented in GRAM by concentrations of both major and minor species. Above 120 km, MET provides concentration values for N2, O2, Ar, O, He, and H. Below 120 km, species represented also include H2O, O3, N2O, CO, CH, and CO2. Water vapor in GRAM is based on a combination of GUACA, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL), and NASA Langley Research Center climatologies. Other constituents below 120 km are based on a combination of AFGL and h4AP/CIRA climatologies. This report presents results of comparisons between GRAM Constituent concentrations and those provided by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) climatology of Summers (NRL,/MR/7641-93-7416, 1993). GRAM and NRL concentrations were compared for seven species (CH4, CO, CO2, H2O, N2O, O2, and O3) for months January, April, July, and October, over height range 0-115 km, and latitudes -90deg to + 90deg at 10deg increments. Average GRAM-NRL correlations range from 0.878 (for CO) to 0.975 (for O3), with an average over all seven species of 0.936 (standard deviation 0.049).

  2. Global Reference Atmospheric Model and Trace Constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C.; Johnson, D.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is an engineering-level model of the Earth's atmosphere. It provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0-27 km, thermodynamics and winds are based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. Above 120 km, GRAM is based on the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. In the intervening altitude region, GRAM is based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) climatology that also forms the basis of the 1986 COSPAR Intemationa1 Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). MAP data in GRAM are augmented by a specially-derived longitude variation climatology. Atmospheric composition is represented in GRAM by concentrations of both major and minor species. Above 120 km, MET provides concentration values for N2, O2, Ar, O, He, and H. Below 120 km, species represented also include H2O, O3, N2O, CO, CH, and CO2. Water vapor in GRAM is based on a combination of GUACA, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL), and NASA Langley Research Center climatologies. Other constituents below 120 km are based on a combination of AFGL and h4AP/CIRA climatologies. This report presents results of comparisons between GRAM Constituent concentrations and those provided by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) climatology of Summers (NRL,/MR/7641-93-7416, 1993). GRAM and NRL concentrations were compared for seven species (CH4, CO, CO2, H2O, N2O, O2, and O3) for months January, April, July, and October, over height range 0-115 km, and latitudes -90deg to + 90deg at 10deg increments. Average GRAM-NRL correlations range from 0.878 (for CO) to 0.975 (for O3), with an average over all seven species of 0.936 (standard deviation 0.049).

  3. Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report, which represents the results of the workshop, is divided into two sections. Section I includes an executive summary, a chapter introducing the reader to GPS and its usefulness for Earth, oceanic, and atmospheric research, and four chapters summarizing the themes of the workshop presentations, poster papers, and working group discussions. Section II contains the proceedings of the workshop and is divided into five chapters corresponding to the five categories of invited papers written by workshop speakers and authors of poster papers. The appendices contain additional information about the workshop and the Steering Committee.

  4. Resources and References in Earth Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Charles; Wall, Janet

    1972-01-01

    Includes listings of the following materials: earth science color slides and films (with publisher, address, and price); earth science overhead transparencies; Geological Society Publications; museum publication and history slides; environmental education information, professional readings, and earth science library books (grades 6-12). (PR)

  5. The International Reference Sphere of the Earth: PRO and CONTRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafarend, E. W.

    2003-04-01

    In Gravitostatics, Electrostatics and Magnetostatics the scalar-valued potential external to the Earth Reference Body is expanded in scalar-valued external spherical harmonics. Such a harmonic space L^2(S^2_R) with respect to the International Reference Sphere S^2_R is analyzed. We review the physical theory of how to determine the Mean Sphere of the Earth. In particular, we discuss the PRO and CONTRA of such a reference sphere which thanks to Earth rotation is physically not admissible. A physical admissible reference figure is the International Reference Ellipsoid, an equipotential surface in the Somigliana-Pizzetti reference potential field.

  6. Future Earth - Research for Global Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Diana; Berkhout, Frans

    2014-05-01

    Future Earth is a 10-year international research programme that aims to provide the critical knowledge required for societies to understand and address challenges posed by global environmental change (GEC) and to seize opportunities for transitions to global sustainability. Future Earth research is organised around three broad and integrated research themes: Dynamic Planet; Global Development; and Transformations towards Sustainability. It builds upon and integrates the existing GEC Programmes: World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), DIVERSITAS (international programme of biodiversity science), the International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) and the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This presentation will outline the key principles of Future Earth, such as the integration of natural and social science, and will describe how the programme intends to address the challenges of global environmental change. Some of the major research questions addressed by Future Earth could include: further understanding of the dynamics of the Earth system (including socio-ecology); risks relating to tipping points; how to ensure sustainable access to food, water and energy; and whether the present economic system provides the necessary framework for low carbon transition.

  7. The Global Geodetic Infrastructure for Accurate Monitoring of Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Neil; Blackwell, Juliana; Wang, Yan; Willis, Zdenka

    2014-05-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), two Program Offices within the National Ocean Service, NOAA, routinely collect, analyze and disseminate observations and products from several of the 17 critical systems identified by the U.S. Group on Earth Observations. Gravity, sea level monitoring, coastal zone and ecosystem management, geo-hazards and deformation monitoring and ocean surface vector winds are the primary Earth systems that have active research and operational programs in NGS and IOOS. These Earth systems collect terrestrial data but most rely heavily on satellite-based sensors for analyzing impacts and monitoring global change. One fundamental component necessary for monitoring via satellites is having a stable, global geodetic infrastructure where an accurate reference frame is essential for consistent data collection and geo-referencing. This contribution will focus primarily on system monitoring, coastal zone management and global reference frames and how the scientific contributions from NGS and IOOS continue to advance our understanding of the Earth and the Global Geodetic Observing System.

  8. Global MHD model of the earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    A global MHD model of the earth's magnetosphere is defined. An introduction to numerical methods for solving the MHD equations is given with emphasis on the shock-capturing technique. Finally, results concerning the shape of the magnetosphere and the plasma flows inside the magnetosphere are presented.

  9. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Africa and Cape Town. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like Meteosat, TRMM, Landsat 7, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in the Middle East and Africa, and retreat of the glaciers on Mt. Kilimanjaro. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over Africa over 17 years. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of Africa and South America, showing land use and land cover change from Bolivian highlands. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, pant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nifia. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  10. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Africa and Cape Town. See the latest spectacular images from NASA & NOAA remote sensing missions like Meteosat, TRMM, Landsat 7, and Terra, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights, aerosols from biomass burning in the Middle East and Africa, and retreat of the glaciers on Mt. Kilimanjaro. See the dynamics of vegetation growth and decay over Africa over 17 years. New visualization tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global mosaic images including Landsat and Terra tours of Africa and South America, showing land use and land cover change from Bolivian highlands. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See massive dust storms sweeping across Africa and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. See ocean vortexes and currents that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny phytoplankton and draw the fish, pant whales and fisher- man. See how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nino/La Nifia. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  11. Global Change Master Directory enhances search for Earth science data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Lola

    The Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) offers an on-line search and retrieval system for those interested in identifying Earth science data sets for educational and research needs. At the heart of the directory is a database of 3400 Earth science entries.It includes references to data held at many federal agencies, universities, and foreign countries. Content is updated and software is upgraded continuously by the GCMD staff. Earth science data set descriptions in the GCMD are written in the Directory Interchange Format (DIF). The DIF has gained interagency and international acceptance in documenting directory-level information for the Earth sciences. New fields have recently been added to bring the DIF into compliance with the Federal Geographic Data Committee's Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata. These additional new fields allow more complete documentation for all data sets, including those held in Geographic Information Systems.

  12. On excitation of Earth's free wobble and reference frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.

    1983-01-01

    The excitation of the Earth's polar motion in connection with problems that are associated with the diversity of reference frames involved in observations and theoretical computations is studied. Following the dynamics of the Earth's polar motion, the kinematics that relates observations from different reference frames is developed. The conventional procedures of studying the seismic excitation of polar motion are re-examined, subject to the question: relative to what reference frame? It is concluded that an inconsistency in reference frames has prevailed in the literature. While this inconsistency is indeed far from trivial, the resultant discrepancy, however, is small for all practical purposes.

  13. Realizing a terrestrial reference frame using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Bruce J.; Bar-Sever, Yoaz E.; Bertiger, Willy I.; Desai, Shailen D.; Harvey, Nate; Sibois, Aurore E.; Weiss, Jan P.

    2015-08-01

    We describe a terrestrial reference frame (TRF) realization based on Global Positioning System (GPS) data alone. Our approach rests on a highly dynamic, long-arc (9 day) estimation strategy and on GPS satellite antenna calibrations derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and TOPEX/Poseidon low Earth orbit receiver GPS data. Based on nearly 17 years of data (1997-2013), our solution for scale rate agrees with International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF)2008 to 0.03 ppb yr-1, and our solution for 3-D origin rate agrees with ITRF2008 to 0.4 mm yr-1. Absolute scale differs by 1.1 ppb (7 mm at the Earth's surface) and 3-D origin by 8 mm. These differences lie within estimated error levels for the contemporary TRF.

  14. Reference samples for the earth sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, F.J.

    1974-01-01

    A revised list of reference samples of interest to geoscientists has been extended to include samples for the agronomist, the archaeologist and the environmentalist. In addition to the source from which standard samples may be obtained, references or pertinent notes for some samples are included. The number of rock reference samples is now almost adequate, and the variety of ore samples will soon be sufficient. There are very few samples for microprobe work. Oil shales will become more important because of the outlook for world petroleum resources. The dryland equivalent of a submarine basalt might be useful in studies of sea-floor spreading and of the geochemistry of basalts. The Na- and K-feldspars of BCS (British Chemical Standards-Bureau of Analysed Samples), NBS (National Bureau of Standards), and ANRT (Association Kationale de la Recherche Technique) could serve as trace-element standards if such data were available. Similarly, the present NBS flint and plastic clays, as well as their predecessors, might be useful for archaeological pottery studies. The International Decade for Ocean Exploration may stimulate the preparation of ocean-water standards for trace elements or pollutants and a standard for manganese nodules. ?? 1974.

  15. CO2, CO, and CH4 measurements from tall towers in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network: instrumentation, uncertainty analysis, and recommendations for future high-accuracy greenhouse gas monitoring efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, A. E.; Kofler, J. D.; Trudeau, M. E.; Williams, J. C.; Neff, D. H.; Masarie, K. A.; Chao, D. Y.; Kitzis, D. R.; Novelli, P. C.; Zhao, C. L.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Crotwell, M. J.; Fischer, M. L.; Parker, M. J.; Lee, J. T.; Baumann, D. D.; Desai, A. R.; Stanier, C. O.; De Wekker, S. F. J.; Wolfe, D. E.; Munger, J. W.; Tans, P. P.

    2014-02-01

    A reliable and precise in situ CO2 and CO analysis system has been developed and deployed at eight sites in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's (ESRL) Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network. The network uses very tall (> 300 m) television and radio transmitter towers that provide a convenient platform for mid-boundary-layer trace-gas sampling. Each analyzer has three sample inlets for profile sampling, and a complete vertical profile is obtained every 15 min. The instrument suite at one site has been augmented with a cavity ring-down spectrometer for measuring CO2 and CH4. The long-term stability of the systems in the field is typically better than 0.1 ppm for CO2, 6 ppb for CO, and 0.5 ppb for CH4, as determined from repeated standard gas measurements. The instrumentation is fully automated and includes sensors for measuring a variety of status parameters, such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates, that are inputs for automated alerts and quality control algorithms. Detailed and time-dependent uncertainty estimates have been constructed for all of the gases, and the uncertainty framework could be readily adapted to other species or analysis systems. The design emphasizes use of off-the-shelf parts and modularity to facilitate network operations and ease of maintenance. The systems report high-quality data with > 93% uptime. Recurrent problems and limitations of the current system are discussed along with general recommendations for high-accuracy trace-gas monitoring. The network is a key component of the North American Carbon Program and a useful model for future research-grade operational greenhouse gas monitoring efforts.

  16. Accurate Realization of GPS Vertical Global Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elosegui, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    The few millimeter per year level accuracy of radial global velocity estimates with the Global Positioning System (GPS) is at least an order of magnitude poorer than the accuracy of horizontal global motions. An improvement in the accuracy of radial global velocities would have a very positive impact on a number of geophysical studies of current general interest such as global sea-level and climate change, coastal hazards, glacial isostatic adjustment, atmospheric and oceanic loading, glaciology and ice mass variability, tectonic deformation and volcanic inflation, and geoid variability. The goal of this project is to improve our current understanding of GPS error sources associated with estimates of radial velocities at global scales. GPS error sources relevant to this project can be classified in two broad categories: (1) those related to the analysis of the GPS phase observable, and (2) those related to the combination of the positions and velocities of a set of globally distributed stations as determined from the analysis of GPS data important aspect in the first category include the effect on vertical rate estimates due to standard analysis choices, such as orbit modeling, network geometry, ambiguity resolution, as well as errors in models (or simply the lack of models) for clocks, multipath, phase-center variations, atmosphere, and solid-Earth tides. The second category includes the possible methods of combining and defining terrestrial reference flames for determining vertical velocities in a global scale. The latter has been the subject of our research activities during this reporting period.

  17. Generating Ground Reference Data for a Global Impervious Surface Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; De Colstoun, Eric Brown; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin; Huang, Chengquan

    2012-01-01

    We are developing an approach for generating ground reference data in support of a project to produce a 30m impervious cover data set of the entire Earth for the years 2000 and 2010 based on the Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS) data set. Since sufficient ground reference data for training and validation is not available from ground surveys, we are developing an interactive tool, called HSegLearn, to facilitate the photo-interpretation of 1 to 2 m spatial resolution imagery data, which we will use to generate the needed ground reference data at 30m. Through the submission of selected region objects and positive or negative examples of impervious surfaces, HSegLearn enables an analyst to automatically select groups of spectrally similar objects from a hierarchical set of image segmentations produced by the HSeg image segmentation program at an appropriate level of segmentation detail, and label these region objects as either impervious or nonimpervious.

  18. Reference frame-induced errors in VLBI Earth rotation determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinkelmann, Robert; Karbon, Maria; Liu, Li; Lu, Cuixian; Mora-Diaz, Julian A.; Nilsson, Tobias J.; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Soja, Benedikt; Xu, Minghui; Schuh, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Earth Rotation is defined as the transformation between the Geocentric Celestial Reference System (GCRS) and the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS). It is a three-dimensional rotation which is described by the precession/nutation Q, the Earth rotation R, and the polar motion W matrices (IERS Coventions 2010): xGCRS = QRWxITRS. The actual determination of Earth Rotation by Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is based on the reference frames involved in the VLBI analysis. VLBI is the only space-geodetic technique used for the realization of the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS), which is the geocentric celestial reference system (GCRS) practically realized to evaluate the above equation. Since the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) are obtained as 'session-wise parameters', they can suffer from any inconsistencies between session-wise TRF and CRF realizations. In this paper we assess the session-wise TRF and CRF differences by determining the respective transformation parameters of the adjusted terrestrial and celestial positions on a session basis to the catalogue coordinates, given by the International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2008 (ITRF2008) and the Second International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2).

  19. Planning for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christian, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Group on Earth Observations was established to promote comprehensive, coordinated, and sustained Earth observations. Its mandate is to implement the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) in accord with the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan and Reference Document. During the months over which the GEOSS Implementation Plan was developed, many issues surfaced and were addressed. This article discusses several of the more interesting or challenging of those issues-e.g. fitting in with existing organizations and securing stable funding - some of which have yet to be resolved fully as of this writing. Despite the relatively short period over which the Implementation Plan had to be developed, there is a good chance that the work undertaken will be influential for decades to come. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The global Earth observation system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, José

    2010-05-01

    Recognizing the growing need for improved Earth observations, 140 governments and leading international organizations have established the Group on Earth Observations, or GEO, to collaborate and implement a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) by the year 2015. Countries and organizations are contributing their respective Earth monitoring systems, from satellites in space and in situ instruments on land, in the oceans and in the atmosphere. They are interlinking these systems so that, together, they provide a more complete picture of Earth's systems dynamics. GEO is developing common technical standards to pool observations and ensure their cross calibration and validation. It is building a web-based infrastructure to ensure easy access to the wealth of data and services contributed to, or generated by, GEOSS. GEO has been promoting the free and open sharing and dissemination of Earth observation data which has already driven significant changes in data distribution policies of several key Earth observing satellites: Landsat, Cbers and the future Sentinels of GMES. GEO is also reflecting on solutions to transition research systems into operational observing systems and ensure their long-term sustainability. First, the current status of GEOSS implementation and these core activities of GEO will be presented. Then, examples of global data sets and information systems or services developed through GEOSS will be presented: - a high-resolution global digital elevation model (DEM) based on Aster data was released by Japan and the USA. In situ measurements are now being used to improve the model as well as the stacking procedure used to develop it; - the Supersites initiative ensures coordinated access to data and information on natural hazards in geologically active regions. In light of the recent tragedy in Haiti, this project created a dedicated web site regularly updated with maps of seismicity, tectonics, Coulomb stress changes, topography, real and

  1. Global ENA Imaging of Earth's Dynamic Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pontus

    2015-04-01

    The interaction between singly charged ions of Earth's magnetosphere and its neutral exosphere and upper atmosphere gives rise to Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs). This has enabled several missions to remotely image the global injection dynamics of the ring current and plasma sheet, the outflow of ions from Earth's polar regions, and the location of the sub-solar magnetopause. In this presentation we review ENA observations by the Astrid, IMAGE, TWINS and IBEX missions. We focus on results from the IMAGE/HENA Camera including observations of proton and oxygen ion injections in to the ring current and their impact on the force-balance and ionospheric coupling in the inner magnetosphere. We report also on the status of inversion techniques for retrieving the ion spatial and pitch-angle distributions from ENA images. The presentation concludes with a discussion of future next steps in ENA instrumentation and analysis capabilities required to deliver the science as recommended by the Heliophysics Decadal Survey.

  2. Geodetic reference systems for long period studies in earth physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    A simple system of reference axes is defined for possible use in high precision geodetic studies over long periods of time for programs in earth physics. The proposed system is based on the gravitational and dynamic characteristics of the axis of rotation and the earth's center of mass as defined instantaneously at a given epoch. Techniques are outlined for its continuous representation over time intervals of significance for studies in earth physics. The relationship between the proposed system and the representation of extra-terrestrial objects using the celestial sphere concept is also discussed.

  3. Earth orbiting technologies for understanding global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Leonard A.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Couch, Lana M.

    We are all becoming more aware of concerns such as the ozone hole and ozone layer depletion, the build-up of greenhouse gasses and the potential for global climate change, the damage to our lakes and forests from acid rain, and the loss of species and genetic diversity. These are not only of scientific interest, but are of growing public media, federal governmental, and international concern, with the potential for major impacts on the international economy, potential for future development, and global standard of living. Yet our current understanding of how our global environment behaves is embryonic, and does not allow us to predict with confidence the consequences or long term significance of these phenomena. NASA has a significant national responsibility in Global Change research, which will require a major agency investment over the next few decades in obtaining the science data associated with understanding the Earth as a total system. Technology research and development is a natural complement to this national scientific program. In her report to the NASA Administrator, Dr. Sally K. Ride states that Mission to Planet Earth "requires advances in technology to enhance observations, to handle and deliver the enormous quantities of data, and to ensure a long operating life." These three themes (1) space-based observation technologies, (2) data/information technologies, and (3) spacecraft/operations technologies form the basis for NASA's efforts to identify the technologies needed to support the Mission to Planet Earth. In the observation area, developments in spacecraft and space-based instrument technologies are required to enable the accurate measurement of key parameters crucial to the understanding of global change. In the data/information area, developments in technologies are required to enable the long-term documentation of these parameters and the timely understanding of the data. And in the spacecraft/operations area, developments in spacecraft

  4. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environmental Studies, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books and articles dealing with the earth and environmental studies. Specific categories are geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy. Items are indexed only by title but information about author, source, and date of publication is also noted. (BL)

  5. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environmental Studies, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books and articles dealing with the earth and environmental studies. Specific categories are geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy. Items are indexed only by title but information about author, source, and date of publication is also noted. (BL)

  6. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environment Studies, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books, articles, films, and organizations dealing with the earth and environmental studies. In addition to the above topics of a general nature, specific categories include food, natural resources, origin of life, recycling, and wastes. Items are indexed only by title but information…

  7. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environment Studies, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books, articles, films, and organizations dealing with the earth and environmental studies. In addition to the above topics of a general nature, specific categories include food, natural resources, origin of life, recycling, and wastes. Items are indexed only by title but information…

  8. Global GPS reference frame solutions of unlimited size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boomkamp, H.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports on the Dancer project, which is one of three related projects initiated by working group 1 of the International Association of Geodesy. The Dancer project develops JAVA parameter estimation software that runs in the form of a distributed process on the internet, in such a way that each processing node handles the data of a single geodetic instrument. By exchanging a minimum amount of information among all processing nodes, the same global normal equation solution is found by all instruments. The result is a fully scalable least squares solution that has no practical limit to the number of GPS receivers or other tracking devices that may be included in a single reference frame realization. High-end GPS users will also be able to run a Dancer process for their own data, without contributing to the reference frame solution but taking full advantage of its global consistency. This offers direct access to precise International Terrestrial Reference Frame and UTC realizations, anywhere on Earth where there is an internet connection. Mission control centres of low satellites with GPS receivers can run a Dancer process on the incoming data from the orbiting receiver, to introduce strong ties with other techniques such as Satellite Laser Ranging.

  9. Strategy for earth explorers in global earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the current NASA Earth System Science initiative is to obtain a comprehensive scientific understanding of the Earth as an integrated, dynamic system. The centerpiece of the Earth System Science initiative will be a set of instruments carried on polar orbiting platforms under the Earth Observing System program. An Earth Explorer program can open new vistas in the earth sciences, encourage innovation, and solve critical scientific problems. Specific missions must be rigorously shaped by the demands and opportunities of high quality science and must complement the Earth Observing System and the Mission to Planet Earth. The committee believes that the proposed Earth Explorer program provides a substantial opportunity for progress in the earth sciences, both through independent missions and through missions designed to complement the large scale platforms and international research programs that represent important national commitments. The strategy presented is intended to help ensure the success of the Earth Explorer program as a vital stimulant to the study of the planet.

  10. Reference Data Layers for Earth and Environmental Science: History, Frameworks, Science Needs, Approaches, and New Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhardt, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Global Mapping Project, Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD), International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP), hydrology, solid earth dynamics, sedimentary geology, climate modeling, integrated assessments and so on all have needs for or have worked to develop consistently integrated data layers for Earth and environmental science. This paper will present an overview of an abstract notion of data layers of this types, what we are referring to as reference data layers for Earth and environmental science, highlight some historical examples, and delve into new approaches. The concept of reference data layers in this context combines data availability, cyberinfrastructure and data science, as well as domain science drivers. We argue that current advances in cyberinfrastructure such as iPython notebooks and integrated science processing environments such as iPlant's Discovery Environment coupled with vast arrays of new data sources warrant another look at the how to create, maintain, and provide reference data layers. The goal is to provide a context for understanding science needs for reference data layers to conduct their research. In addition, to the topics described above this presentation will also outline some of the challenges to and present some ideas for new approaches to addressing these needs. Promoting the idea of reference data layers is relevant to a number of existing related activities such as EarthCube, RDA, ESIP, the nascent NSF Regional Big Data Innovation Hubs and others.

  11. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Poverty is not properly described solely in terms of economics. Certainly the billion people living on less than a dollar a day are the extreme poor and the two billion people who are living today on two dollars a day or less are poor also. One third of all humans live in poverty today. But poverty concerns deprivation - of good health, adequate nutrition, adequate education, properly paid employment, clean water, adequate housing and good sanitation. It is a fundamental denial of opportunity and a violation of basic human rights. Despite its prevalence and persistence of poverty and the attention given it by many scholars, the causes of poverty are not well understood and hence interventions to bring poor societies out of their condition often fail. One commonly missed component in the search for solutions to poverty is the fundamental co-dependence between the state of the Earth and the state of human well-being. These relationships, are compelling but often indirect and non-linear and sometimes deeply nuanced. They are also largely empirical in nature, lacking theory or models that describe the nature of the relationships. So while it is quite apparent that the poorest people are much more vulnerable than the rich to the Earths excesses and even to relatively small natural variations in places where the base conditions are poor, we do not presently know whether the recognized vulnerability is both an outcome of poverty and a contributing cause. Are societies poor, or held from development out of poverty because of their particular relationship to Earth's natural systems? Does how we live depend on where we live? Providing answers to these questions is one of the most fundamental research challenges of our time. That research lies in a domain squarely at the boundary between the natural and social sciences and cannot be answered by studies in either domain alone. What is clear even now, is that an understanding of the Earth gained from the natural sciences is

  12. International Terrestrial Reference Frame for Global Change Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Altamimi, Zuheir; Chin, T. Mike; Gross, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Most geodetic and many geophysical quantities measured and used depend on the definition, realization and stability of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). These include geocentric site coordinates and motions, satellite orbits, geocenter motion, Earth orientation and its variations, mean sea level rise, and polar ice mass changes. In some cases, the dependences may be implicit and not obvious. As we are approaching the stage of millimeter-precision geodesy and near real time global change monitoring with a multitude of space and time scales, it is critical to have a modern and stable infrastructure for the maintenance and improvement of the ITRF. It is also essential to improve the concepts, understanding, methodology, and products of ITRF to be consistent with the higher precision and ever-changing nature of the Earth. With these in mind and from the viewpoint of users interested in studying surface mass load, we will review and discuss certain limitations and difficulties of the current ITRF status and approach, including the sparseness of data, linear motion model, and multi-yearly updates. New perspectives on reference frame research and progress on our new experimental approach to a weekly ITRF realization will also be reported.

  13. European grid services for global earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, S.; Sipos, G.

    2012-04-01

    Force is already providing a cloud infrastructure through a few committed NGIs. This is being made available to research communities participating in the Task Force and the long-term aim is to integrate these national clouds into a pan-European infrastructure for scientific communities. • The MPI group provides support for application developers to port and scale up parallel applications to the global European Grid Infrastructure. • A lively portal developer and provider community that is able to setup and operate custom, application and/or community specific portals for members of the Earth Science community to interact with EGI. • A project to assess the possibilities for federated identity management in EGI and the readiness of EGI member states for federated authentication and authorisation mechanisms. • Operating resources and user support services to process data with new types of services and infrastructures, such as desktop grids, map-reduce frameworks, GPU clusters.

  14. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  15. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  16. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  17. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  18. Using large meteoroids as global infrasound reference events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, C.; Ceranna, L.; LE Pichon, A.; Brown, P.

    2015-12-01

    The explosive fragmentation of large meteoroids entering the Earth's atmosphere is one of the strongest sources of infrasonic waves and can be detected by infrasound arrays all over the world. Pressure perturbations of the strongest bolide events were detected at distances of thousands of kilometers, while for the 2013 Chelyabinsk superbolide, arrivals at long orthodrome distances (above 20000 km) and after complete circumnavigations of the globe (up to 87000 km) were recorded. Influence parameters on the detection capability of a single infrasound station on the one hand and of the complete global infrasound network of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) are investigated within this study and applied to a number of strong bolide events of the past 15 years. Potential influences on infrasound detection capability are due to the directivity of the acoustic source energy emission, the long-range ducting via stratosphere and thermosphere and the diurnal change of meteorological parameters and noise conditions at the stations during the signal arrivals. Since infrasound of large bolides has probably the most similar characteristics to an atmospheric nuclear explosion, it can be utilized as reference event for studies on the global performance of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO. Detections and non-detections of bolide infrasound at the more than 40 operational IMS infrasound stations are studied for the estimation of station and network performance and thus verification of nuclear test ban.

  19. Earth system science: A program for global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Earth System Sciences Committee (ESSC) was appointed to consider directions for the NASA Earth-sciences program, with the following charge: review the science of the Earth as a system of interacting components; recommend an implementation strategy for Earth studies; and define the role of NASA in such a program. The challenge to the Earth system science is to develop the capability to predict those changes that will occur in the next decade to century, both naturally and in response to human activity. Sustained, long-term measurements of global variables; fundamental descriptions of the Earth and its history; research foci and process studies; development of Earth system models; an information system for Earth system science; coordination of Federal agencies; and international cooperation are examined.

  20. NASA's Earth Day #GlobalSelfie

    NASA Image and Video Library

    For the first time in more than a decade, five NASA Earth-observing missions will be launched into space in a single year. To celebrate this milestone, NASA is inviting people all around the world ...

  1. A global dataset of crowdsourced land cover and land use reference data.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; Perger, Christoph; McCallum, Ian; Schill, Christian; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Duerauer, Martina; Karner, Mathias; Dresel, Christopher; Laso-Bayas, Juan-Carlos; Lesiv, Myroslava; Moorthy, Inian; Salk, Carl F; Danylo, Olha; Sturn, Tobias; Albrecht, Franziska; You, Liangzhi; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-06-13

    Global land cover is an essential climate variable and a key biophysical driver for earth system models. While remote sensing technology, particularly satellites, have played a key role in providing land cover datasets, large discrepancies have been noted among the available products. Global land use is typically more difficult to map and in many cases cannot be remotely sensed. In-situ or ground-based data and high resolution imagery are thus an important requirement for producing accurate land cover and land use datasets and this is precisely what is lacking. Here we describe the global land cover and land use reference data derived from the Geo-Wiki crowdsourcing platform via four campaigns. These global datasets provide information on human impact, land cover disagreement, wilderness and land cover and land use. Hence, they are relevant for the scientific community that requires reference data for global satellite-derived products, as well as those interested in monitoring global terrestrial ecosystems in general.

  2. Global Issues in an Introductory Earth Science Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, James P.

    Information is provided explaining the incorporation of global issues units into an introductory earth science course at Skagit Valley Community College (Mount Vernon, Washington). First, a short description is provided of the original format of the earth science course, which was designed as an introductory level survey course covering topics in…

  3. Standard reference water samples for rare earth element determinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Antweiler, R.C.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Taylor, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    Standard reference water samples (SRWS) were collected from two mine sites, one near Ophir, CO, USA and the other near Redding, CA, USA. The samples were filtered, preserved, and analyzed for rare earth element (REE) concentrations (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). These two samples were acid mine waters with elevated concentrations of REEs (0.45-161 ??g/1). Seventeen international laboratories participated in a 'round-robin' chemical analysis program, which made it possible to evaluate the data by robust statistical procedures that are insensitive to outliers. The resulting most probable values are reported. Ten to 15 of the participants also reported values for Ba, Y, and Sc. Field parameters, major ion, and other trace element concentrations, not subject to statistical evaluation, are provided.

  4. Response of Earth's Ecosystem to Global Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, David L.

    1996-01-01

    The Earth is in the midst of rapid and unprecedented change, much of it caused by the enormous reproductive and resource acquisition success of the human population. For the first time in Earth's history, the actions of one species-humans-are altering the atmospheric, climatic, biospheric, and edaphic processes on a scale that rivals natural processes. How will ecosystems, involving those manipulated and managed by humans largely for human use, respond to these changes? Clearly ecosystems have been adjusting to change throughout Earth's history and evolving in ways to adapt and to maintain self-organizing behavior. And in this process, the metabolic activity of the biosphere has altered the environmental conditions it experiences. I am going to confine this presentation to a few thoughts on the present state of terrestrial ecosystems and the urgency that changes in it is bringing to all of us.

  5. A global reference for human genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Auton, Adam; Brooks, Lisa D; Durbin, Richard M; Garrison, Erik P; Kang, Hyun Min; Korbel, Jan O; Marchini, Jonathan L; McCarthy, Shane; McVean, Gil A; Abecasis, Gonçalo R

    2015-10-01

    The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping. We characterized a broad spectrum of genetic variation, in total over 88 million variants (84.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3.6 million short insertions/deletions (indels), and 60,000 structural variants), all phased onto high-quality haplotypes. This resource includes >99% of SNP variants with a frequency of >1% for a variety of ancestries. We describe the distribution of genetic variation across the global sample, and discuss the implications for common disease studies.

  6. A global reference for human genetic variation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping. We characterized a broad spectrum of genetic variation, in total over 88 million variants (84.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3.6 million short insertions/deletions (indels), and 60,000 structural variants), all phased onto high-quality haplotypes. This resource includes >99% of SNP variants with a frequency of >1% for a variety of ancestries. We describe the distribution of genetic variation across the global sample, and discuss the implications for common disease studies. PMID:26432245

  7. About the geometry of the Earth geodetic reference surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husár, Ladislav; Švaral, Peter; Janák, Juraj

    2017-10-01

    The paper focuses on the comparison of metrics of three most common reference surfaces of the Earth used in geodesy (excluding the plane which also belongs to reference surfaces used in geodesy when dealing with small areas): a sphere, an ellipsoid of revolution and a triaxial ellipsoid. The two latter surfaces are treated in a more detailed way. First, the mathematical form of the metric tensors using three types of coordinates is derived and the lengths of meridian and parallel arcs between the two types of ellipsoids are compared. Three kinds of parallels, according to the type of latitude, can be defined on a triaxial ellipsoid. We show that two types of parallels are spatial curves and one is represented by ellipses. The differences of curvature of both kinds of ellipsoid are analysed using the normal curvature radii. Priority of the chosen triaxial ellipsoid is documented by its better fit with respect to the high-degree geoid model EIGEN6c4 computed up to degree and order 2160.

  8. Venus Global Reference Atmospheric Model Status and Planned Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justh, H. L.; Dwyer Cianciolo, A. M.

    2017-05-01

    Details the current status of Venus Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Venus-GRAM). Provides new sources of data and upgrades that need to be incorporated to maintain credibility and identifies options and features that could increase capability.

  9. One earth, one future. Our changing global environment

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, C.S.; Defries, R.S.

    1990-12-31

    This book reports on deforestation, ozone depletion, global warming, and other matters concerning the global environment. From the perspective that humankind is an increasingly powerful agent changing the planet, the volume describes the Earth as a unified system - exploring the interactions between the atmosphere, land, and water and the snowballing impact that human activity is having on the system - and points out the seemingly paradoxical need for economic growth to alleviate such global environmental problems.

  10. A new birthweight reference in Guangzhou, southern China, and its comparison with the global reference.

    PubMed

    He, Jian-Rong; Xia, Hui-Min; Liu, Yu; Xia, Xiao-Yan; Mo, Wei-Jian; Wang, Ping; Cheng, Kar Keung; Leung, Gabriel M; Feng, Qiong; Schooling, C Mary; Qiu, Xiu

    2014-12-01

    To formulate a new birthweight reference for different gestational ages in Guangzhou, southern China, and compare it with the currently used reference in China and the global reference. All singleton live births of more than 26 weeks' gestational age recorded in the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 (n=510 837) were retrospectively included in the study. In addition, the study sample was supplemented by all singleton live births (n=3538) at gestational ages 26-33 weeks from 2007 and 2008. We used Gaussian mixture models and robust regression to exclude outliers of birth weight and then applied Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape (GAMLSS) to generate smoothed percentile curves separately for gender and parity. Of infants defined as small for gestational age (SGA) in the new reference, 15.3-47.7% (depending on gestational age) were considered appropriate for gestational age (AGA) by the currently used reference of China. Of the infants defined as SGA by the new reference, 9.2% with gestational ages 34-36 weeks and 14.3% with 37-41 weeks were considered AGA by the global reference. At the 50th centile line, the new reference curve was similar to that of the global reference for gestational ages 26-33 weeks and above the global reference for 34-40 weeks. The new birthweight reference based on birthweight data for neonates in Guangzhou, China, differs from the reference currently used in China and the global reference, and appears to be more relevant to the local population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Earth Matters: Studies for Our Global Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Pamela; Doyle, Andrea

    Through 12 readings and 32 activities this curriculum material introduces high school students to issues of the global environment and society, while both challenging them to critically evaluate the issues and motivating them to develop solutions. The materials are cited as being applicable to social studies, science, math, language arts, and…

  12. Global Science Literacy: An Earth System View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Victor J.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that the time is right for science educators to assume leadership and assist science as a discipline and the public-at-large in turning science from an instrument of national and global war to an instrument for establishing and preserving peace and a sustainable lifestyle for all citizens. (DDR)

  13. Relation Between the Celestial Reference System and the Terrestrial Reference System of a Rigid Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Shinko

    1987-03-01

    A relation between the Celestial Reference System (CRS) and the Terrestrial Reference System is established theoretically by solving the equations of motion of a rigid Earth under the influence of the Sun and the Moon up to the second order perturbation. The solutions include not only nutation including Oppolzer terms but also the right ascension of the dynamical departure point (DP), as well as the wobble matrix. We have found that the kinematical definition of the Non-Rotating Origin NRO (for which our term is DP) given by Capitaine, Guinot and Souchay (1987) is not entirely equivalent to that included in the solutions of the equations of motion but shows perturbation, in particular when this is taken on the instantaneous equator. Besides this serious fault, we feel little merit in taking the DP as reference: (1) Unnecessary spurious mixed secular terms appear which come from the geometrical configuration that the DP leaves far and far from the ecliptic. (2) the DP moves secularly as well as oscillating with respect to space; this literally contradicts the term ‘NRO’, or is at least misleading. (3) It does not free us from the precession uncertainty to adopt DP as reference, since we cannot avoid virtual proper motions in terms of the current CRS. (4) No terms ignored hitherto are introduced, even if we take the DP properly chosen, i.e., on the equator of the celestial ephemeris pole. The transformation is only mathematical. There is no sufficient reason to take it instead of the equinox, which is observable in principle, as reference at the cost of the labor of changing all the textbooks, ephemerides, data and computer software now existing.

  14. A Unified Global Reference Frame of Vertical Crustal Movements by Satellite Laser Ranging.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinhui; Wang, Ren; Sun, Fuping; Wang, Jinling

    2016-02-08

    Crustal movement is one of the main factors influencing the change of the Earth system, especially in its vertical direction, which affects people's daily life through the frequent occurrence of earthquakes, geological disasters, and so on. In order to get a better study and application of the vertical crustal movement,as well as its changes, the foundation and prerequisite areto devise and establish its reference frame; especially, a unified global reference frame is required. Since SLR (satellite laser ranging) is one of the most accurate space techniques for monitoring geocentric motion and can directly measure the ground station's geocentric coordinates and velocities relative to the centre of the Earth's mass, we proposed to take the vertical velocity of the SLR technique in the ITRF2008 framework as the reference frame of vertical crustal motion, which we defined as the SLR vertical reference frame (SVRF). The systematic bias between other velocity fields and the SVRF was resolved by using the GPS (Global Positioning System) and VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) velocity observations, and the unity of other velocity fields and SVRF was realized,as well. The results show that it is feasible and suitable to take the SVRF as a reference frame, which has both geophysical meanings and geodetic observations, so we recommend taking the SLR vertical velocity under ITRF2008 as the global reference frame of vertical crustal movement.

  15. Technologies for global change earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.

    1990-01-01

    Advances in the areas of space-based observations, data/information analysis, and spacecraft/operations for the studying of global changes are discussed. Research involving systems analysis, observation technologies, information technologies, and spacecraft technologies is examined. Consideration is given to cryogenic coolers, IR arrays, laser and submillimeter sensing, large array CCD, information visualization, design knowledge capture, optical communications, multiinstrument pointing, propulsion, space environmental effects, and platform thermal systems.

  16. Technologies for global change earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.

    1990-01-01

    Advances in the areas of space-based observations, data/information analysis, and spacecraft/operations for the studying of global changes are discussed. Research involving systems analysis, observation technologies, information technologies, and spacecraft technologies is examined. Consideration is given to cryogenic coolers, IR arrays, laser and submillimeter sensing, large array CCD, information visualization, design knowledge capture, optical communications, multiinstrument pointing, propulsion, space environmental effects, and platform thermal systems.

  17. A planet under siege: Are we changing earth`s climate?. Global Systems Science, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sneider, C.; Golden, R.

    1992-12-31

    Global Systems Science is an interdisciplinary course for high school students. It is divided into five volumes. Each volume contains laboratory experiments; home investigations; descriptions of recent scientific work; historical background; and consideration of the political, economic, and ethical issues associated with each problem area. Collectively, these volumes constitute a unique combination of studies in the natural and social sciences from which high school students may view the global environmental problems that they will confront within their lifetimes. The five volumes are: A Planet Under Siege: Are We Changing Earths Climate; A History of Fire and Ice: The Earth`s Climate System; Energy Paths: Use and Conservation of Energy; Ecological Systems: Evolution and Interdependence of Life; and, The Case of the Missing Ozone: Chemistry of the Earth`s Atmosphere.

  18. Earth Observations for Global Water Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawford, Richard; Strauch, Adrian; Toll, David; Fekete, Balazs; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of population growth, increasing demands for water to support agriculture, energy security, and industrial expansion, and the challenges of climate change give rise to an urgent need to carefully monitor and assess trends and variations in water resources. Doing so will ensure that sustainable access to adequate quantities of safe and useable water will serve as a foundation for water security. Both satellite and in situ observations combined with data assimilation and models are needed for effective, integrated monitoring of the water cycle's trends and variability in terms of both quantity and quality. On the basis of a review of existing observational systems, we argue that a new integrated monitoring capability for water security purposes is urgently needed. Furthermore, the components for this capability exist and could be integrated through the cooperation of national observational programmes. The Group on Earth Observations should play a central role in the design, implementation, management and analysis of this system and its products.

  19. Determination of Earth orientation using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, A. P.

    1989-01-01

    Modern spacecraft tracking and navigation require highly accurate Earth-orientation parameters. For near-real-time applications, errors in these quantities and their extrapolated values are a significant error source. A globally distributed network of high-precision receivers observing the full Global Positioning System (GPS) configuration of 18 or more satellites may be an efficient and economical method for the rapid determination of short-term variations in Earth orientation. A covariance analysis using the JPL Orbit Analysis and Simulation Software (OASIS) was performed to evaluate the errors associated with GPS measurements of Earth orientation. These GPS measurements appear to be highly competitive with those from other techniques and can potentially yield frequent and reliable centimeter-level Earth-orientation information while simultaneously allowing the oversubscribed Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas to be used more for direct project support.

  20. International earth science information network for global change decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Autrey-Hunley, C.; Kuhn, W.R.; Kasischke, E.; Trichel, M.T.; Coppola, R.

    1991-01-01

    Effective environmental decision making depends upon the ability to predict physical changes in the environment, societal responses to these changes, and how both the physical changes and societal responses will be affected by changes in government regulations, public perceptions and the environment. Technological advances in remote sensing have provided a wealth of earth science data necessary to study global change problems; the Earth Observatory System will provide an unprecedented data source in the late 1990's. The Consortium for an International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) will combine earth science data (both satellite and ground-based) with data on the social sciences (e.g., economics, demographics, public health) to support informed policy decisions and to transfer knowledge on global change and its causes to the public.

  1. Modeling of the Earth's gravity field using the New Global Earth Model (NEWGEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Braswell, W. Danny

    1989-01-01

    Traditionally, the global gravity field was described by representations based on the spherical harmonics (SH) expansion of the geopotential. The SH expansion coefficients were determined by fitting the Earth's gravity data as measured by many different methods including the use of artificial satellites. As gravity data have accumulated with increasingly better accuracies, more of the higher order SH expansion coefficients were determined. The SH representation is useful for describing the gravity field exterior to the Earth but is theoretically invalid on the Earth's surface and in the Earth's interior. A new global Earth model (NEWGEM) (KIM, 1987 and 1988a) was recently proposed to provide a unified description of the Earth's gravity field inside, on, and outside the Earth's surface using the Earth's mass density profile as deduced from seismic studies, elevation and bathymetric information, and local and global gravity data. Using NEWGEM, it is possible to determine the constraints on the mass distribution of the Earth imposed by gravity, topography, and seismic data. NEWGEM is useful in investigating a variety of geophysical phenomena. It is currently being utilized to develop a geophysical interpretation of Kaula's rule. The zeroth order NEWGEM is being used to numerically integrate spherical harmonic expansion coefficients and simultaneously determine the contribution of each layer in the model to a given coefficient. The numerically determined SH expansion coefficients are also being used to test the validity of SH expansions at the surface of the Earth by comparing the resulting SH expansion gravity model with exact calculations of the gravity at the Earth's surface.

  2. Resourceful earth: a response to global 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.L.; Kahn, H.

    1984-01-01

    Dismayed by the negativism of the Carter Administration's report Global 2000 and suspicious of the political uses being made of it, Professor Simon of the University of Maryland and the late Herman Kahn, with support from the Heritage Foundation, put together these studies by experts to correct what they think are fundamental errors. They call their rather optimistic statements about the future of population, food, water, resources, climate and other things unconditional predictions in the absence of an unforeseeable catastrophe - their underlying assumption being that people will do the right things to adjust constructively to change.

  3. NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Phill

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Global Hawk, a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that NASA plans to use for Earth Sciences research. The Global Hawk is the world's first fully autonomous high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, and is capable of conducting long duration missions. Plans are being made for the use of the aircraft on missions in the Arctic, Pacific and Western Atlantic Oceans. There are slides showing the Global Hawk Operations Center (GHOC), Flight Control and Air Traffic Control Communications Architecture, and Payload Integration and Accommodations on the Global Hawk. The first science campaign, planned for a study of the Pacific Ocean, is reviewed.

  4. Improvements in the Global Reference Atmospheric Model and comparisons with a global 3-D numerical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Chimonas, George; Cunnold, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    The status of the Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM) and the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (MARS-GRAM) is reviewed. The wavelike perturbations observed in the Viking 1 and 2 surface pressure data, in the Mariner 9 IR spectroscopy data, and in the Viking 1 and 2 lander entry profiles were studied and the results interpreted.

  5. Report of the panel on earth rotation and reference frames, section 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.; Dickman, Steven R.; Eubanks, Marshall T.; Feissel, Martine; Herring, Thomas A.; Mueller, Ivan I.; Rosen, Richard D.; Schutz, Robert E.; Wahr, John M.; Wilson, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    Objectives and requirements for Earth rotation and reference frame studies in the 1990s are discussed. The objectives are to observe and understand interactions of air and water with the rotational dynamics of the Earth, the effects of the Earth's crust and mantle on the dynamics and excitation of Earth rotation variations over time scales of hours to centuries, and the effects of the Earth's core on the rotational dynamics and the excitation of Earth rotation variations over time scales of a year or longer. Another objective is to establish, refine and maintain terrestrial and celestrial reference frames. Requirements include improvements in observations and analysis, improvements in celestial and terrestrial reference frames and reference frame connections, and improved observations of crustal motion and mass redistribution on the Earth.

  6. Rare Earth Elements in Global Aqueous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, C.; Karamalidis, A.; Dzombak, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    We are examining the occurrence and abundance of rare earth elements (REE) associated with produced waters from shale gas development, and factors controlling aqueous REE concentrations in geochemical environments, to provide information for: (1) potential recovery of REE as a valuable byproduct, and (2) utilization of unique REE signatures as a risk assessment tool. REE include the lanthanide series of elements - excluding short-lived, radioactive promethium - and yttrium. These elements are critical to a wide variety of high-tech, energy efficient applications such as phosphors, magnets, and batteries. Escalating costs of REE resulting from divergent supply and demand patterns motivates the first goal. The second goal relates to the search for a reliable, naturally occurring tracer to improve understanding of fluid migration and water-rock interactions during hydraulic fracturing and natural gas recovery. We compiled data from 100 studies of REE occurrence and concentrations in groundwaters, ocean waters, river waters, and lake waters. In the groundwater systems documented, total dissolved REE concentrations ranged over eight orders of magnitude; however the average concentrations across the lanthanides varied by less than two orders of magnitude. This leads to exceptional inter-element correlations, with a median correlation coefficient greater than 0.98, implying potential usefulness of REE ratios for groundwater signatures. Reports describing reactions governing REE solubilization were also investigated. We assembled information about important solution chemistries and performed equilibrium modeling using PHREEQC to examine common hypotheses regarding the factors controlling REE compositions. In particular, effects of pH, Eh, and common complexing ligands were evaluated. Produced and connate waters of the Marcellus shale are well characterized for their major chemical elements. There is a dearth of knowledge, however, regarding the occurrence of REE in

  7. A Consistent Geodetic Reference System for GPS (Global Positioning System).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-27

    reliable and accurate Operational Control System (OCS) is a prerequisite for successful Global Positioning System ( GPS ) navigation performance. The OCS...DDOR Doubly differenced (between station pair and Navstar pair) phase data GPS Global Positioning System MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology...FWft SOTR4as-2 A Consistent Geodetic Reference System for GPS A. S. LIU Systems and Computer Engineering Division Engineering Group The Aerospace

  8. Generating Ground Reference Data for a Global Impervious Surface Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; deColstoun, Eric Brown; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin; Huang, Chengquan

    2012-01-01

    We are engaged in a project to produce a 30m impervious cover data set of the entire Earth for the years 2000 and 2010 based on the Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS) data set. The GLS data from Landsat provide an unprecedented opportunity to map global urbanization at this resolution for the first time, with unprecedented detail and accuracy. Moreover, the spatial resolution of Landsat is absolutely essential to accurately resolve urban targets such as buildings, roads and parking lots. Finally, with GLS data available for the 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2005 time periods, and soon for the 2010 period, the land cover/use changes due to urbanization can now be quantified at this spatial scale as well. Our approach works across spatial scales using very high spatial resolution commercial satellite data to both produce and evaluate continental scale products at the 30m spatial resolution of Landsat data. We are developing continental scale training data at 1m or so resolution and aggregating these to 30m for training a regression tree algorithm. Because the quality of the input training data are critical, we have developed an interactive software tool, called HSegLearn, to facilitate the photo-interpretation of high resolution imagery data, such as Quickbird or Ikonos data, into an impervious versus non-impervious map. Previous work has shown that photo-interpretation of high resolution data at 1 meter resolution will generate an accurate 30m resolution ground reference when coarsened to that resolution. Since this process can be very time consuming when using standard clustering classification algorithms, we are looking at image segmentation as a potential avenue to not only improve the training process but also provide a semi-automated approach for generating the ground reference data. HSegLearn takes as its input a hierarchical set of image segmentations produced by the HSeg image segmentation program [1, 2]. HSegLearn lets an analyst specify pixel locations as being

  9. Global reference frame: Intercomparison of results (SLR, VLBI and GPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo; Watkins, Michael M.; Heflin, M.

    1994-01-01

    The terrestrial reference frame (TRF) is realized by a set of positions and velocities derived from a combination of the three space geodetic techniques, SLR, VLBI and GPS. The standard International TRF is constructed by the International Earth Rotation Service in such a way that it is stable with time and the addition of new data. An adopted model for overall plate motion, NUVEL-1 NNR, defines the conceptual reference frame in which all the plates are moving. In addition to the measurements made between reference points within the space geodetic instruments, it is essential to have accurate, documented eccentricity measurements from the instrument reference points to ground monuments. Proper local surveys between the set of ground monuments at a site are also critical for the use of the space geodetic results. Eccentricities and local surveys are, in fact, the most common and vexing sources of error in the use of the TRF for such activities as collocation and intercomparison.

  10. Examination of global correlations in ground deformation for terrestrial reference frame estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, T. M.; Abbondanza, C.; Argus, D. F.; Gross, R. S.; Heflin, M. B.; Parker, J. W.; Wu, X.

    2016-12-01

    The KALman filter for REFerence frames (KALREF, Wu et al. 2015) has been developed to produce terrestrial reference frame (TRF) solutions. TRFs consist of precise position coordinates and velocity vectors of terrestrial reference sites (with the geocenter as the origin) along with the Earth orientation parameters, and they are produced by combining decades worth of space geodetic data using site tie data. To perform the combination, KALREF relies on stochastic models of the geophysical processes that are causing the Earth's surface to deform and reference sites to be displaced. We are investigating application of the GRACE data to improve the KALREF stochastic models by determining spatial statistics of the deformation of the Earth's surface caused by mass loading. A potential target of improvement is the non-uniform distribution of the geodetic observation sites, which can introduce bias in TRF estimates of the geocenter. The global and relatively uniform coverage of the GRACE measurements is expected to be free of such bias and allow us to improve physical realism of the stochastic model. For such a goal, we examine the spatial correlations in ground deformation derived from several GRACE data sets.[Wu et al. 2015: Journal of Geophysical Research (Solid Earth) 120:3775-3802

  11. Rare earths: Market disruption, innovation, and global supply chains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggert, Roderick; Wadia, Cyrus; Anderson, Corby; Bauer, Diana; Fields, Fletcher; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Taylor, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Rare earths, sometimes called the vitamins of modern materials, captured public attention when their prices increased more than ten-fold in 2010 and 2011. As prices fell between 2011 and 2016, rare earths receded from public view—but less visibly they became a major focus of innovative activity in companies, government laboratories and universities. Geoscientists worked to better understand the resource base and improve our knowledge about mineral deposits that will be mines in the future. Process engineers carried out research that is making primary production and recycling more efficient. Materials scientists and engineers searched for substitutes that will require fewer or no rare earths while providing properties comparable or superior to those of existing materials. As a result, even though global supply chains are not significantly different now than they were before the market disruption, the innovative activity motivated by the disruption likely will have far-reaching, if unpredictable, consequences for supply chains of rare earths in the future.

  12. On the Reference Pole for Earth Orientation and UT1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    precession-nutation and the geophysically induced rotation variations (such as the Chandler wobble ) as low frequency signals from VLBI data. Remember...directly from the kinematical relations connecting the Earth rotation parameters (spin rate variation, and wobble ) to the Earth orientation parameters. 2...r+1) in (9). In particular, one has a term ~Xr+1;e i(r+1) 0t corresponding to a wobble of frequency 0 and amplitude ~m(); ( = r+ ): ~Xr+1

  13. One technique for refining the global Earth gravity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koneshov, V. N.; Nepoklonov, V. B.; Polovnev, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    The results of the theoretical and experimental research on the technique for refining the global Earth geopotential models such as EGM2008 in the continental regions are presented. The discussed technique is based on the high-resolution satellite data for the Earth's surface topography which enables the allowance for the fine structure of the Earth's gravitational field without the additional gravimetry data. The experimental studies are conducted by the example of the new GGMplus global gravity model of the Earth with a resolution about 0.5 km, which is obtained by expanding the EGM2008 model to degree 2190 with the corrections for the topograohy calculated from the SRTM data. The GGMplus and EGM2008 models are compared with the regional geoid models in 21 regions of North America, Australia, Africa, and Europe. The obtained estimates largely support the possibility of refining the global geopotential models such as EGM2008 by the procedure implemented in GGMplus, particularly in the regions with relatively high elevation difference.

  14. Recent and Anticipated Changes to the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Conventions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    object, it must utilize the five Earth orientation parameters (EOPs): polar motion (2 angles), UT1-UTC, and nutation (2 angles) (see Seidelmann...Recent and Anticipated Changes to the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Conventions Brian Luzum, U.S. Naval...the Earth Orientation Parameters Combination and Prediction Division in the USNO Earth Orientation Department. He is also the co-director of the

  15. A Unified Global Reference Frame of Vertical Crustal Movements by Satellite Laser Ranging

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xinhui; Wang, Ren; Sun, Fuping; Wang, Jinling

    2016-01-01

    Crustal movement is one of the main factors influencing the change of the Earth system, especially in its vertical direction, which affects people’s daily life through the frequent occurrence of earthquakes, geological disasters, and so on. In order to get a better study and application of the vertical crustal movement, as well as its changes, the foundation and prerequisite areto devise and establish its reference frame; especially, a unified global reference frame is required. Since SLR (satellite laser ranging) is one of the most accurate space techniques for monitoring geocentric motion and can directly measure the ground station’s geocentric coordinates and velocities relative to the centre of the Earth’s mass, we proposed to take the vertical velocity of the SLR technique in the ITRF2008 framework as the reference frame of vertical crustal motion, which we defined as the SLR vertical reference frame (SVRF). The systematic bias between other velocity fields and the SVRF was resolved by using the GPS (Global Positioning System) and VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) velocity observations, and the unity of other velocity fields and SVRF was realized, as well. The results show that it is feasible and suitable to take the SVRF as a reference frame, which has both geophysical meanings and geodetic observations, so we recommend taking the SLR vertical velocity under ITRF2008 as the global reference frame of vertical crustal movement. PMID:26867197

  16. An Earth-Moon System Trajectory Design Reference Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Bosanac, Natasha; Guzzetti, Davide; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    As demonstrated by ongoing concept designs and the recent ARTEMIS mission, there is, currently, significant interest in exploiting three-body dynamics in the design of trajectories for both robotic and human missions within the Earth-Moon system. The concept of an interactive and 'dynamic' catalog of potential solutions in the Earth-Moon system is explored within this paper and analyzed as a framework to guide trajectory design. Characterizing and compiling periodic and quasi-periodic solutions that exist in the circular restricted three-body problem may offer faster and more efficient strategies for orbit design, while also delivering innovative mission design parameters for further examination.

  17. Assessing global land cover reference datasets for different user communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsendbazar, N. E.; de Bruin, S.; Herold, M.

    2015-05-01

    Global land cover (GLC) maps and assessments of their accuracy provide important information for different user communities. To date, there are several GLC reference datasets which are used for assessing the accuracy of specific maps. Despite significant efforts put into generating them, their availability and role in applications outside their intended use have been very limited. This study analyses metadata information from 12 existing and forthcoming GLC reference datasets and assesses their characteristics and potential uses in the context of 4 GLC user groups, i.e., climate modellers requiring data on Essential Climate Variables (ECV), global forest change analysts, the GEO Community of Practice for Global Agricultural Monitoring and GLC map producers. We assessed user requirements with respect to the sampling scheme, thematic coverage, spatial and temporal detail and quality control of the GLC reference datasets. Suitability of the datasets is highly dependent upon specific applications by the user communities considered. The LC-CCI, GOFC-GOLD, FAO-FRA and Geo-Wiki datasets had the broadest applicability for multiple uses. The re-usability of the GLC reference datasets would be greatly enhanced by making them publicly available in an expert framework that guides users on how to use them for specific applications.

  18. EOS Reference Handbook 1999: A Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.

  19. Accurate Realization of GPS Vertical Global Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elosegui, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to improve our current understanding of GPS error sources associated with estimates of radial velocities at global scales. An improvement in the accuracy of radial global velocities would have a very positive impact on a large number of geophysical studies of current general interest such as global sea-level and climate change, coastal hazards, glacial isostatic adjustment, atmospheric and oceanic loading, glaciology and ice mass variability, tectonic deformation and volcanic inflation, and geoid variability. A set of GPS error sources relevant to this project are those related to the combination of the positions and velocities of a set of globally distributed stations as determined &om the analysis of GPS data, including possible methods of combining and defining terrestrial reference frames. This is were our research activities during this reporting period have concentrated. During this reporting period, we have researched two topics: (1) The effect of errors on the GPS satellite antenna models (or lack thereof) on global GPS vertical position and velocity estimates; (2) The effect of reference W e definition and practice on estimates of the geocenter variations.

  20. Global change research and NASA's earth observing system. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The United States is spending billions of dollars in a multiyear Global Change Research Program (the USGCRP) to monitor, understand, and ultimately predict the nature of global changes and the mechanisms that cause them. The background report examines the direction and scope of USGCRP and its most expensive component, NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) of satellites. In particular, it examines how well USGCRP and EOS are fulfilling their scientific objectives, whether some program elements are missing or need to be strengthened, and whether the program is meeting the needs of policymakers. The background paper describes the number of suggestions to improve the value of the USGCRP to both scientists and policymakers. The background paper also explicates the continuing debate over whether the sensors and satellites planned by USGCRP: (1) will be able to acquire data in sufficient detail to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for global change; and (2) are appropriate for long-term monitoring of key indices of global change.

  1. Efficient global data model for the digital Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Lei; Gong, Jianya; He, Zhengwei; Cheng, Liang

    2007-11-01

    A global data model is presented for the digital earth that provides fast access. It is shown how the same global hierarchical structure can be used for a wide variety of geospatial data and how to organize the specific geospatial data. In order to maximize efficiency, particular caching and paging mechanism have been used. Some types of data can, at prescribed levels of detail, transition from the global model to type-specific data structures and detail management schemes will be introduced. This framework has been applied successfully to a variety of data including terrain elevations, imagery, maps, buildings, clouds, and other data. Further, the framework provides a visual navigation approach where one can navigate continuously from global overviews to high resolution local views. This paper presents results for several applications.

  2. Global Earth Response to Loading by Ocean Tide Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.; Strayer, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical and programming techniques to numerically calculate Earth response to global semidiurnal and diurnal ocean tide models were developed. Global vertical crustal deformations were evaluated for M sub 2, S sub 2, N sub 2, K sub 2, K sub 1, O sub 1, and P sub 1 ocean tide loading, while horizontal deformations were evaluated for the M sub 2 tidal load. Tidal gravity calculations were performed for M sub 2 tidal loads, and strain tensor elements were evaluated for M sub 2 loads. The M sub 2 solution used for the ocean tide included the effects of self-gravitation and crustal loading.

  3. Global change and carrying capacity: Implications for life on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Ehrlich, Anne H.; Matson, Pamela; Vitousek, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Determining the long-term number of people that the planet can support without irreversibly reducing its ability to support people in the future, i.e., the carrying capacity of the Earth, is an exceedingly complex problem. About all that is known for certain is that, with present and foreseeable technologies, the human population has already exceeded the capacity. The reduction in carrying capacity that can be expected to result from direct human impacts on resources and the environment and from our indirect impacts of the climate system is discussed. Global warming and modeling global change and food security are also discussed with respect to carrying capacity.

  4. Global change and carrying capacity: Implications for life on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Ehrlich, Anne H.; Matson, Pamela; Vitousek, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Determining the long-term number of people that the planet can support without irreversibly reducing its ability to support people in the future, i.e., the carrying capacity of the Earth, is an exceedingly complex problem. About all that is known for certain is that, with present and foreseeable technologies, the human population has already exceeded the capacity. The reduction in carrying capacity that can be expected to result from direct human impacts on resources and the environment and from our indirect impacts of the climate system is discussed. Global warming and modeling global change and food security are also discussed with respect to carrying capacity.

  5. Global Earth Observation System of Systems - GEOSS and USGEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withee, G. W.

    2008-05-01

    The vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is to enable a healthy public, economy, and planet through an integrated, comprehensive, and sustained Earth observation system of systems. GEOSS is a global effort to meet the need for timely, quality, long-term information as a basis for sound decision making and enhanced delivery of benefits to society. Benefits are foreseen in a broad range of important societal- economic issues, including understanding health and the environment, water management, ecosystems and biodiversity, weather forecasting, disaster preparation and recovery, ocean monitoring and prediction, climate change and sustainable growth, and agriculture sustainability. GEOSS is coordinated by an international Group on Earth Observations (GEO) established in 2005 and involving 72 countries, the European Commission, and 46 participating organizations. As a Ministerial-level organization, GEO represents a two-way dialog with policy makers on the importance of Earth observations to science and societal benefits. This talk will provide an update of recent GEOSS activities and progress.

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry

    1993-01-01

    During the past eight years, we have been engaged in a NASA-supported program of research aimed at establishing the connection between satellite signatures of the earth's environmental state and the nonlinear dynamics of the global weather and climate system. Thirty-five publications and four theses have resulted from this work, which included contributions in five main areas of study: (1) cloud and latent heat processes in finite-amplitude baroclinic waves; (2) application of satellite radiation data in global weather analysis; (3) studies of planetary waves and low-frequency weather variability; (4) GCM studies of the atmospheric response to variable boundary conditions measurable from satellites; and (5) dynamics of long-term earth system changes. Significant accomplishments from the three main lines of investigation pursued during the past year are presented and include the following: (1) planetary atmospheric waves and low frequency variability; (2) GCM studies of the atmospheric response to changed boundary conditions; and (3) dynamics of long-term changes in the global earth system.

  7. Contamination in the Rare-Earth Element Orthophosphate Reference Samples

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John J.; Hanchar, John M.; Picolli, Phillip M.; Schrier, Marc D.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Jarosewich, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    Several of the fourteen rare-earth element (plus Sc and Y) orthophosphate standards grown at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 1980s and widely distributed by the Smithsonian Institution’s Department of Mineral Sciences, are significantly contaminated by Pb. The origin of this impurity is the Pb2P2O7 flux that is derived from the thermal decomposition of PbHPO4. The lead pyrophosphate flux is used to dissolve the oxide starting materials at elevated temperatures (≈1360 °C) prior to the crystal synthesis. Because these rare-earth element standards are extremely stable under the electron beam and considered homogenous, they have been of enormous value to electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The monoclinic, monazite structure, orthophosphates show a higher degree of Pb incorporation than the tetragonal xenotime structure, orthophosphates. This paper will attempt to describe and rationalize the extent of the Pb contamination in these otherwise excellent materials. PMID:27446762

  8. ERS-1 SAR geocoding system as link between spaceborne and earth reference data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Gunter; Roth, Achim; Knöpfle, Walter

    1993-08-01

    The operational European ground segment of the European Remote Sensing Satellite ERS-1 supports geocoded SAR image data generated by the German Processing and Archiving Facility (D-PAF) of DLR in Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich. Geocoding of spaceborne satellite data means to establish an easy and user friendly link between the satellite measurements and Geo-Information Systems (GIS) as well as the possibility to intercompare SAR data with other geocoded satellite based information. Although the near to fully automatic geocoding system is based on precisely known satellite house-keeping data, it strongly depends on georeference information at least for the validation of the data and the verification of its results. Such reference information are large scale topographic maps, which are still the unique global source for earth based information and Digital Elevation Models. The later are necessary to correct SAR data for disturbing height induced geometric and radiometric defects. Additionally automatically generated Image Ground Control Chips aid the precision of the system. To accomplish the task of operational geocoding, several consistent data bases have been generated at DLR to store these types of reference data. Both, relational data base techniques as well as spatial binary reference systems are in use for the data storage. The article will present the architecture of these operational systems and will give a first review of the experience with these systems during the ERS-1 commissioning and early operations phase.

  9. Understanding earth system models: how Global Sensitivity Analysis can help

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Computer models are an essential element of earth system sciences, underpinning our understanding of systems functioning and influencing the planning and management of socio-economic-environmental systems. Even when these models represent a relatively low number of physical processes and variables, earth system models can exhibit a complicated behaviour because of the high level of interactions between their simulated variables. As the level of these interactions increases, we quickly lose the ability to anticipate and interpret the model's behaviour and hence the opportunity to check whether the model gives the right response for the right reasons. Moreover, even if internally consistent, an earth system model will always produce uncertain predictions because it is often forced by uncertain inputs (due to measurement errors, pre-processing uncertainties, scarcity of measurements, etc.). Lack of transparency about the scope of validity, limitations and the main sources of uncertainty of earth system models can be a strong limitation to their effective use for both scientific and decision-making purposes. Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is a set of statistical analysis techniques to investigate the complex behaviour of earth system models in a structured, transparent and comprehensive way. In this presentation, we will use a range of examples across earth system sciences (with a focus on hydrology) to demonstrate how GSA is a fundamental element in advancing the construction and use of earth system models, including: verifying the consistency of the model's behaviour with our conceptual understanding of the system functioning; identifying the main sources of output uncertainty so to focus efforts for uncertainty reduction; finding tipping points in forcing inputs that, if crossed, would bring the system to specific conditions we want to avoid.

  10. The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

  11. The Group on Earth Observations and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, J.

    2006-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is leading a worldwide effort to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) over the next 10 years. The GEOSS vision, articulated in its 10-Year Implementation Plan, represents the consolidation of a global scientific and political consensus: the assessment of the state of the Earth requires continuous and coordinated observation of our planet at all scales. GEOSS aims to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system in order to improve monitoring of the state of the Earth; increase understanding of Earth processes; and enhance prediction of the behaviour of the Earth system. After the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 highlighted the urgent need for coordinated observations relating to the state of the Earth, GEO was established at the Third Earth Observation Summit in February 2005 and the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan was endorsed. GEO currently involves 60 countries; the European Commission; and 43 international organizations and has begun implementation of the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan. GEO programme activities cover nine societal benefit areas (Disasters; Health; Energy; Climate; Water; Weather; Ecosystems; Agriculture; Biodiversity) and five transverse or crosscutting elements (User Engagement; Architecture; Data Management; Capacity Building; Outreach). All these activities have as their final goal the establishment of the "system of systems" which will yield a broad range of basic societal benefits, including the reduction of loss of life and property from tsunamis, hurricanes, and other natural disasters; improved water resource and energy management; and improved understanding of environmental factors significant to public health. As a "system of systems", GEOSS will work with and build upon existing national, regional, and international systems to provide comprehensive, coordinated Earth observations from thousands of instruments worldwide

  12. Earth's magnetic field anomalies that precede the M6+ global seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    In this work has been analyzed the Earth's magnetic field variations and the M6+ global seismic activity to verify if M6+ earthquakes are preceded by a change of the Earth's magnetic field. The data of Earth's magnetic field used to conduct the study of correlation are provided by the induction magnetometer of Radio Emissions Project's station (Lat: 41°41'4.27"N, Long: 12°38'33,60"E, Albano Laziale, Rome, Italy), equipped with a ELF receiver prototype (with a vertically aligned coil antenna) capable to detect the variations of the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field on Z magnetic component. The M6+ global seismic activity data are provided in real-time by USGS, INGV and CSEM. The sample of data used to conduct the study refers to the period between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2012. The Earth's magnetic field variations data set has been marked with the times (time markers) of M6+ earthquakes occurred on a global scale and has been verified the existence of disturbances of the Earth's geomagnetic field in the time interval that preceded the M6+ global seismic activity. The correlation study showed that all M6+ earthquakes recorded on 2012 were preceded by an increase of the Earth's magnetic field, detected in the Z magnetic component. The authors measured the time lag elapsed between the maximum increment of the Earth's magnetic field recorded before an earthquake M6+ and the date and time at which this occurred, and has been verified that the minimum time lag recorded between the Earth's magnetic field increase and the earthquake M6+ has been 1 minute (9 October 2012, Balleny Islands, M6,4); while, the maximum time lag recorded has been 3600 minutes (26 June 2012, China, M6,3). The average time lag has been 629.47 minutes. In addition, the average time lag is deflected in relation to the magnitude increase. Key words: Seismic Geomagnetic Precursor (SGP), Interplanetary Seismic Precursor (ISP), Earth's magnetic field variations, earthquakes, prevision.

  13. The global S1 tide and Earth's nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, M.; Böhm, J.; Salstein, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    Diurnal S1 tidal atmospheric oscillations induced by the cyclic heating of air masses through solar radiation elicit a small contribution to Earth's prograde annual nutation at a level of 100 μas (microarcseconds). Previously published estimates of this Sun-synchronous perturbation based on angular momentum series from global geophysical fluid models have however diverged, and within the present conventional nutation theory, the effect has been instead accounted for in an empirical manner based on analyzing residual spectra of observed celestial pole offsets. This study constitutes a first, tentative reassessment of the S1 signal in nutation by resorting to modern-day atmospheric reanalyses as well as available hydrodynamic solutions for diurnal oceanic angular momentum changes that are driven by daily air pressure variations at the water surface. We elucidate the global character of the S1 tide with particular regard to Earth rotation variations and investigate to which extent atmospheric and oceanic excitation terms from various sources can be superimposed. The combined influence of the principal diurnal tide on Earth's nutation, associated with both atmosphere and ocean dynamics, is found to yield a sound agreement with its observational evidence from geodetic VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) measurements.

  14. Common oscillations in Global Earth Temperature, Sea Level, and Earth rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, Leonid; Bizouard, Christian; Sidorenkov, Nikolay

    2014-05-01

    Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) of Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) and Global Average Earth Temperature (HadCRUT4) data after global warming trends subtraction revealed presence of quasi-periodic components with periods of 60, 20 and 10 years in both time series. 60-year component of sea level is anticorrelated with long-periodic changes in temperature, while 10 and 20-year components are correlated. Simultaneous presence of 60-year component in secular Earth rotation rate changes rises a question of interrelations between Earth rotation and Climate. Quasi-20-year changes in GMSL and HadCRUT4 have maxima and minima well corresponding to the amplitude changes of recently reconstructed Chandler wobble excitation, which could be caused by the 18.6-year cycle of the Moon orbital nodes regression. The cause of 10-year oscillations in climate characteristics is enigmatic. It could be related to El Nino variability, Volcanoes, or Solar activity, but correlation with each of those processes found to be small. Looks like it is correlated with 9.3 yr tidal wave.

  15. Reference earth orbital research and applications investigations (blue book). Volume 4: Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The earth observations capability of the space station and space shuttle program definition is discussed. The stress in the functional program element has been to update the sensor specifications and to shift some of the emphasis from sensors to experiments to be done aboard the facility. The earth observations facility will include provisions for data acquisition, sensor control and display, data analysis, and maintenance and repair. The facility is research and development in nature with a potential for operational applications.

  16. Global Analysis, Interpretation and Modelling: An Earth Systems Modelling Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Sahagian, Dork

    1997-01-01

    The Goal of the GAIM is: To advance the study of the coupled dynamics of the Earth system using as tools both data and models; to develop a strategy for the rapid development, evaluation, and application of comprehensive prognostic models of the Global Biogeochemical Subsystem which could eventually be linked with models of the Physical-Climate Subsystem; to propose, promote, and facilitate experiments with existing models or by linking subcomponent models, especially those associated with IGBP Core Projects and with WCRP efforts. Such experiments would be focused upon resolving interface issues and questions associated with developing an understanding of the prognostic behavior of key processes; to clarify key scientific issues facing the development of Global Biogeochemical Models and the coupling of these models to General Circulation Models; to assist the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process by conducting timely studies that focus upon elucidating important unresolved scientific issues associated with the changing biogeochemical cycles of the planet and upon the role of the biosphere in the physical-climate subsystem, particularly its role in the global hydrological cycle; and to advise the SC-IGBP on progress in developing comprehensive Global Biogeochemical Models and to maintain scientific liaison with the WCRP Steering Group on Global Climate Modelling.

  17. Non-linear VLBI station motions and their impact on the celestial reference frame and Earth orientation parameters.

    PubMed

    Krásná, Hana; Malkin, Zinovy; Böhm, Johannes

    The increasing accuracy and growing time span of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations allow the determination of seasonal signals in station positions which still remain unmodelled in conventional analysis approaches. In this study we focus on the impact of the neglected seasonal signals in the station displacement on the celestial reference frame and Earth orientation parameters. We estimate empirical harmonic models for selected stations within a global solution of all suitable VLBI sessions and create mean annual models by stacking yearly time series of station positions which are then entered a priori in the analysis of VLBI observations. Our results reveal that there is no systematic propagation of the seasonal signal into the orientation of celestial reference frame but position changes occur for radio sources observed non-evenly over the year. On the other hand, the omitted seasonal harmonic signal in horizontal station coordinates propagates directly into the Earth rotation parameters causing differences of several tens of microarcseconds.

  18. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 Version: Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) presents the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 (Mars-GRAM 2010) and its new features. Mars-GRAM is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Applications include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry, descent and landing, and aerocapture. Additionally, this TM includes instructions on obtaining the Mars-GRAM source code and data files as well as running Mars-GRAM. It also contains sample Mars-GRAM input and output files and an example of how to incorporate Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and earth system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Verbitsky, Mikhail; Saltzman, Barry; Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey; Lall, Upmanu

    1995-01-01

    During the grant period, the authors continued ongoing studies aimed at enhancing their understanding of the operation of the atmosphere as a complex nonlinear system interacting with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere in response to external radiative forcing. Five papers were completed with support from the grant, representing contributions in three main areas of study: (1) theoretical studies of the interactive atmospheric response to changed biospheric boundary conditions measurable from satellites; (2) statistical-observational studies of global-scale temperature variability on interannual to century time scales; and (3) dynamics of long-term earth system changes associated with ice sheet surges.

  20. Global-scale teleconnections in the Earth's middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, T. G.

    2009-05-01

    The global-scale circulation of the Earth's middle atmosphere is driven by angular momentum transfers effected by waves propagating up from the more turbulent, thermally-driven troposphere. The resulting effects on the middle atmosphere are largest in polar regions. This 'mechanical forcing' is an indirect response to the direct thermal forcing of the atmosphere by the Sun, and can act in a thermally-indirect manner, i.e. as a refrigerator. As it involves wave propagation, it can also act anti-diffusively, and non-locally. The basic physics of the process is described and examples given of how it can lead to global-scale teleconnections, both vertically and latitudinally. Parallels with the dynamics of the Sun will be mentioned.

  1. Vertical datum standardisation: a fundamental step towards a global vertical reference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, L.

    2013-05-01

    One of the most important problems of modern geodesy is the definition and realisation of a global vertical reference system, which unifies, with high accuracy (at least 1 cm-level), the existing classical height datums; i.e. all existing physical heights (or geopotential numbers) have to be referred to one and the same equipotential surface, defined and realised in a global frame. The basic approach proposed at present to achieve this so-called vertical datum unification is based on the combination of physical heights (orthometric or normal heights) derived from levelling (reduced by gravity effects) with those computed from gravimetric (quasi-) geoid models and ellipsoidal heights. However, the combination of these heights "as they are" reflects the inconsistencies included in the height determination; for instance: 1) different ellipsoid parameters in gravity and geometry; 2) different tide systems; 3) different hypotheses for the estimation of orthometric heights and gravimetric geoid models; 4) different reference epochs with unknown height changes in time; 5) systematic errors over long distances in levelling; 6) different reductions for Earth-, ocean-, atmospheric tides, ocean and atmospheric loading, post-glacial rebound, etc. These inconsistencies mislead the vertical datum unification and limit the reliability of the global vertical reference system realisation to the m-level. In order to advance in the homogenisation of the input data and procedures for the solution of the vertical datum problem with a high and reliable accuracy, the Working Group "Vertical Datum Standardisation" was established for the term 2011-2015 by the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), jointly with the IAG Commission 1 (Reference Frames), IAG Commission 2 (Gravity Field), and the International Gravity Field Service (IGFS). This contribution presents objectives, achievements, and coming challenges of this Working Group.

  2. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  3. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  4. Discrete Global Grid Systems - A Framework for the next Era in Big Earth Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, P. R.; Percivall, G.; Purss, M. B. J.; Samavati, F.; Gibb, R.

    2015-12-01

    Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGS) are spatial reference systems that use a hierarchical tessellation of cells to partition and address the entire globe. DGGS are designed to portray real-world phenomena by providing a digital framework on a common discrete geospatial data structure and they are commonly used to create virtual globes. DGGS differ from conventional geographic coordinate reference systems in that they are designed to be an information grid not a navigation grid. Conventional coordinate reference systems address the globe using tuples of "real" numbered coordinates. DGGS, however, address the entire planet by partitioning it into a hierarchical tessellation of integer-based nested cells thereby providing a truly discrete, rather than continuous, reference frame for repeating the location of measured Earth observations, feature interpretations, and extrapolated predictions. Formal development of DGGS began in the 1980s with the promising value of global analysis coinciding with the increased use of geographic information systems and the availability of global mapping data and positioning systems. However, following the initial excitement about DGGS as a technology the lack of availability of suitable cloud and High Performance Computing (HPC) environments has limited the uptake and application of DGGS - until now! The maturation of accessible cloud and HPC infrastructures has enabled DGGS to emerge from the 'trough of disillusionment' and to provide a path to realizing the vision of the Digital Earth, and the future of CyberGIS. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is developing an international standard for DGGS that will formally define the essential properties of a DGGS and specify protocols that will facilitate interoperability between multiple DGGS and traditional data infrastructures. The OGC DGGS Standards Working Group is finalizing its work based on inputs and review from experts around the world with experinence using multiple DGGSs. By

  5. A Global Moving Hotspot Reference Frame: How well it fits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubrovine, P. V.; Steinberger, B.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    Since the early 1970s, when Jason Morgan proposed that hotspot tracks record motion of lithosphere over deep-seated mantle plumes, the concept of fixed hotspots has dominated the way we think about absolute plate reconstructions. In the last decade, with compelling evidence for southward drift of the Hawaiian hotspot from paleomagnetic studies, and for the relative motion between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hotspots from refined plate circuit reconstructions, the perception changed and a global moving hotspot reference frame (GMHRF) was introduced, in which numerical models of mantle convection and advection of plume conduits in the mantle flow were used to estimate hotspot motion. This reference frame showed qualitatively better performance in fitting hotspot tracks globally, but the error analysis and formal estimates of the goodness of fitted rotations were lacking in this model. Here we present a new generation of the GMHRF, in which updated plate circuit reconstructions and radiometric age data from the hotspot tracks were combined with numerical models of plume motion, and uncertainties of absolute plate rotations were estimated through spherical regression analysis. The overall quality of fit was evaluated using a formal statistical test, by comparing misfits produced by the model with uncertainties assigned to the data. Alternative plate circuit models linking the Pacific plate to the plates of Indo-Atlantic hemisphere were tested and compared to the fixed hotspot models with identical error budgets. Our results show that, with an appropriate choice of the Pacific plate circuit, it is possible to reconcile relative plate motions and modeled motions of mantle plumes globally back to Late Cretaceous time (80 Ma). In contrast, all fixed hotspot models failed to produce acceptable fits for Paleogene to Late Cretaceous time (30-80 Ma), highlighting significance of relative motion between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hotspots during this interval. The

  6. The scientific implications of the re-reductions in Hipparcos reference frame for Earth rotation studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, N.

    After recalling the present knowledge in Earth rotation and the precision which is presently achieved on the Earth Rotation parameters (ERP) by the new techniques such as VLBI or satellite and lunar laser ranging, this paper investigates what will be the scientific implications of the re-reduction of the existing astrometric data which will be performed by the IAU Working Group "Earth Rotation in the Hipparcos Reference Frame". One of the main advantages of such a re-reduction over previous reductions is to refer to a much better realization of the optical Celestial Reference System as well as to an improved realization of the Terrestrial Reference System using corrections for the deviation of the vertical and for plate motions. An other advantage of the planned re-reduction is to use very long series of observations as compared to similar series obtained by the new techniques.

  7. Earth Under Siege: From Air Pollution to Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, James P.

    Lucky indeed are the students taking Richard Turco's course and using his book, Earth Under Siege: From Air Pollution to Global Change. They have an enthusiastic and communicative lecturer who is a true authority in his field and who passionately devotes his efforts to enlightening his students.The passion is evident in the text, but it never interferes with the rigor of the material presented.Earth Under Siege is based on lectures given by Turco in a popular course for undergraduate students of all stripes at the University of California at Los Angeles. Student knowledge that is provided by a high school college preparatory curriculum is assumed.The style is engagingly informal and the book is a delight to read. Sprinkled throughout are pithy comments, many humorous, that are designed to heighten student understanding and interest. They also reveal Turco's personal opinions about issues of air pollution. However, despite the title, it is clear that Turco is not an environmental zealot. He is scientifically accurate and thorough in presenting vital information about air pollution on all scales, local through global. He is also clear-eyed and nondoctrinaire in presenting social, political, and economic aspects of air pollution. His devotion is to the education of individuals who can become informed members of an environmentally aware society.

  8. The global impact distribution of Near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpf, Clemens; Lewis, Hugh G.; Atkinson, Peter M.

    2016-02-01

    Asteroids that could collide with the Earth are listed on the publicly available Near-Earth object (NEO) hazard web sites maintained by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). The impact probability distribution of 69 potentially threatening NEOs from these lists that produce 261 dynamically distinct impact instances, or Virtual Impactors (VIs), were calculated using the Asteroid Risk Mitigation and Optimization Research (ARMOR) tool in conjunction with OrbFit. ARMOR projected the impact probability of each VI onto the surface of the Earth as a spatial probability distribution. The projection considers orbit solution accuracy and the global impact probability. The method of ARMOR is introduced and the tool is validated against two asteroid-Earth collision cases with objects 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA. In the analysis, the natural distribution of impact corridors is contrasted against the impact probability distribution to evaluate the distributions' conformity with the uniform impact distribution assumption. The distribution of impact corridors is based on the NEO population and orbital mechanics. The analysis shows that the distribution of impact corridors matches the common assumption of uniform impact distribution and the result extends the evidence base for the uniform assumption from qualitative analysis of historic impact events into the future in a quantitative way. This finding is confirmed in a parallel analysis of impact points belonging to a synthetic population of 10,006 VIs. Taking into account the impact probabilities introduced significant variation into the results and the impact probability distribution, consequently, deviates markedly from uniformity. The concept of impact probabilities is a product of the asteroid observation and orbit determination technique and, thus, represents a man-made component that is largely disconnected from natural processes. It is important to consider impact

  9. The Global S_1 Tide in Earth's Nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Einšpigel, David; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    Diurnal S_1 tidal oscillations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system induce small perturbations of Earth's prograde annual nutation, but matching geophysical model estimates of this Sun-synchronous rotation signal with the observed effect in geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data has thus far been elusive. The present study assesses the problem from a geophysical model perspective, using four modern-day atmospheric assimilation systems and a consistently forced barotropic ocean model that dissipates its energy excess in the global abyssal ocean through a parameterized tidal conversion scheme. The use of contemporary meteorological data does, however, not guarantee accurate nutation estimates per se; two of the probed datasets produce atmosphere-ocean-driven S_1 terms that deviate by more than 30 μ as (microarcseconds) from the VLBI-observed harmonic of -16.2+i113.4 μ as. Partial deficiencies of these models in the diurnal band are also borne out by a validation of the air pressure tide against barometric in situ estimates as well as comparisons of simulated sea surface elevations with a global network of S_1 tide gauge determinations. Credence is lent to the global S_1 tide derived from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the operational model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). When averaged over a temporal range of 2004 to 2013, their nutation contributions are estimated to be -8.0+i106.0 μ as (MERRA) and -9.4+i121.8 μ as (ECMWF operational), thus being virtually equivalent with the VLBI estimate. This remarkably close agreement will likely aid forthcoming nutation theories in their unambiguous a priori account of Earth's prograde annual celestial motion.

  10. Precise determination of earth's center of mass using measurements from the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Yvonne; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.; Malla, Rajendra P.

    1992-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) data from a worldwide geodetic experiment were collected during a 3-week period early in 1991. Geocentric station coordinates were estimated using the GPS data, thus defining a dynamically determined reference frame origin which should coincide with the earth center of mass, or geocenter. The 3-week GPS average geocenter estimates agree to 7-13 cm with geocenter estimates determined from satellite laser ranging, a well-established technique. The RMS of daily GPS geocenter estimates were 4 cm for x and y, and 30 cm for z.

  11. Global Solar Magnetology and Reference Points of the Solar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obridko, V. N.; Shelting, B. D.

    2003-11-01

    The solar cycle can be described as a complex interaction of large-scale/global and local magnetic fields. In general, this approach agrees with the traditional dynamo scheme, although there are numerous discrepancies in the details. Integrated magnetic indices introduced earlier are studied over long time intervals, and the epochs of the main reference points of the solar cycles are refined. A hypothesis proposed earlier concerning global magnetometry and the natural scale of the cycles is verified. Variations of the heliospheric magnetic field are determined by both the integrated photospheric i(B r )ph and source surface i(B r )ss indices, however, their roles are different. Local fields contribute significantly to the photospheric index determining the total increase in the heliospheric magnetic field. The i(B r )ss index (especially the partial index ZO, which is related to the quasi-dipolar field) determines narrow extrema. These integrated indices supply us with a “passport” for reference points, making it possible to identify them precisely. A prominent dip in the integrated indices is clearly visible at the cycle maximum, resulting in the typical double-peak form (the Gnevyshev dip), with the succeeding maximum always being higher than the preceding maximum. At the source surface, this secondary maximum significantly exceeds the primary maximum. Using these index data, we can estimate the progression expected for the 23rd cycle and predict the dates of the ends of the 23rd and 24th cycles (the middle of 2007 and December 2018, respectively).

  12. Mission requirements for a manned earth observatory. Task 2: Reference mission definition and analyiss, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The mission requirements and conceptual design of manned earth observatory payloads for the 1980 time period are discussed. Projections of 1980 sensor technology and user data requirements were used to formulate typical basic criteria pertaining to experiments, sensor complements, and reference missions. The subjects discussed are: (1) mission selection and prioritization, (2) baseline mission analysis, (3) earth observation data handling and contingency plans, and (4) analysis of low cost mission definition and rationale.

  13. Additions to Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.

    1991-01-01

    Three major additions or modifications were made to the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM): (1) in addition to the interactive version, a new batch version is available, which uses NAMELIST input, and is completely modular, so that the main driver program can easily be replaced by any calling program, such as a trajectory simulation program; (2) both the interactive and batch versions now have an option for treating local-scale dust storm effects, rather than just the global-scale dust storms in the original Mars-GRAM; and (3) the Zurek wave perturbation model was added, to simulate the effects of tidal perturbations, in addition to the random (mountain wave) perturbation model of the original Mars-GRAM. A minor modification has also been made which allows heights to go below local terrain height and return realistic pressure, density, and temperature (not the surface values) as returned by the original Mars-GRAM. This feature will allow simulations of Mars rover paths which might go into local valley areas which lie below the average height of the present, rather coarse-resolution, terrain height data used by Mars-GRAM. Sample input and output of both the interactive and batch version of Mars-GRAM are presented.

  14. Additions to Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (MARS-GRAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, Bonnie

    1992-01-01

    Three major additions or modifications were made to the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM): (1) in addition to the interactive version, a new batch version is available, which uses NAMELIST input, and is completely modular, so that the main driver program can easily be replaced by any calling program, such as a trajectory simulation program; (2) both the interactive and batch versions now have an option for treating local-scale dust storm effects, rather than just the global-scale dust storms in the original Mars-GRAM; and (3) the Zurek wave perturbation model was added, to simulate the effects of tidal perturbations, in addition to the random (mountain wave) perturbation model of the original Mars-GRAM. A minor modification was also made which allows heights to go 'below' local terrain height and return 'realistic' pressure, density, and temperature, and not the surface values, as returned by the original Mars-GRAM. This feature will allow simulations of Mars rover paths which might go into local 'valley' areas which lie below the average height of the present, rather coarse-resolution, terrain height data used by Mars-GRAM. Sample input and output of both the interactive and batch versions of Mars-GRAM are presented.

  15. Using The Global Positioning System For Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Haines, Bruce J.; Young, Lawrence E.; Dunn, Charles; Srinivasan, Jeff; Sweeney, Dennis; Nandi, Sumita; Spitzmesser, Don

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking.

  16. On the Assessment of Global Terrestrial Reference Frame Temporal Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampatzidis, Dimitrios; Koenig, Rolf; Zhu, Shengyuan

    2015-04-01

    Global Terrestrial Reference Frames (GTRFs) as the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) provide reliable 4-D position information (3-D coordinates and their evolution through time). The given 3-D velocities play a significant role in precise position acquisition and are estimated from long term coordinate time series from the space-geodetic techniques DORIS, GNSS, SLR, and VLBI. GTRFs temporal evolution is directly connected with their internal stability: The more intense and inhomogeneous velocity field, the less stable TRF is derived. The assessment of the quality of the GTRF is mainly realized by comparing it to each individual technique's reference frame. E.g the comparison of GTRFs to SLR-only based TRF gives the sense of the ITRF stability with respect to the Geocenter and scale and their associated rates respectively. In addition, the comparison of ITRF to the VLBI-only based TRF can be used for the scale validation. However, till now there is not any specified methodology for the total assessment (in terms of origin, orientation and scale respectively) of the temporal evolution and GTRFs associated accuracy. We present a new alternative diagnostic tool for the assessment of GTRFs temporal evolution based on the well-known time-dependent Helmert type transformation formula (three shifts, three rotations and scale rates respectively). The advantage of the new methodology relies on the fact that it uses the full velocity field of the TRF and therefore all points not just the ones common to different techniques. It also examines simultaneously rates of origin, orientation and scale. The methodology is presented and implemented to the two existing GTRFs on the market (ITRF and DTRF which is computed from DGFI) , the results are discussed. The results also allow to compare directly each GTRF dynamic behavior. Furthermore, the correlations of the estimated parameters can also provide useful information to the proposed GTRFs assessment scheme.

  17. Space Age Geodesy: Global Earth Observations of Ever Improving resolution and Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, W. E.

    2007-12-01

    The launch of Sputnik-I by the USSR in 1957, and the resulting competitive US-USSR space exploration and weapons programs, led to the need for global geodetic measurements of unprecedented accuracy, and the means to develop new observing techniques to meet those needs. By the 1970s the geodetic community developed very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), lunar laser ranging (LLR), and satellite laser ranging (SLR), and launched international tests that led to the establishment of the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS). Today the IERS provides a stable International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF), and accurate earth orientation parameters (EOP) values, using a combination of VLBI, LLR, SLR, and the Global Positioning System (GPS). There are hundreds of continuously operating GPS stations around the world, providing centimeter station locations and millimeter per year station velocities, in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The location of any point on earth can be determined relative to the ITRF to within a few centimeters from a few days of GPS observations, and using kinematic GPS, the positions of moving objects can be tracked to a few centimeters at distances of tens of kilometers from the nearest GPS ground stations. This geodetic infrastructure and space age technology has led to the development of new airborne topographic mapping techniques, most significantly, airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM). With ALSM, it is now possible to map thousands of square kilometers of terrain with sub-decimeter vertical accuracy in hours. For example, the entire length of the San Andreas fault, in California, was mapped in a few hundred hours of flying time. Within the next few decades, global ALSM observations will make it possible for scientists to immediately access (by the internet) data bases containing the locations (cm accuracy) and rates of motion (mm per year accuracy) of points on the surface of earth, with sub-meter spatial resolution

  18. Pacific Array of, by and for Global Deep Earth Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, H.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in ocean bottom geophysical observations, together with advances in the analysis methodology, have now enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere- asthenosphere system (LAS), from the surface to a depth of ˜200km, including seismic anisotropy (azimuthal), with deployments of ˜10-15 BBOBSs & OBEMs each for a year or so (Takeo et al, 2013, 2016; Baba et al., 2013; Lin et al. 2016). Thus the in-situ characterization of the physical properties of the entire oceanic LAS without a priori assumption for the shallow-most structure, the assumption often made for global studies, has become possible. We are now entering a new stage that a large scale array experiment in the ocean (e.g., Pacific Array: http://gachon.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ hitosi/PArray/) has become approachable: having 10-15 BBOBSs as an array unit for a 1-2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way or concurrently (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such array observations not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure (including seismic anisotropy), but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography (e.g., Fichtner et al. 2010; French et al. 2013; Zhu & Tromp 2013), would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works beneath oceanic basins, as well as of the large scale picture of the interior of the Earth. For such an array of arrays to be realized, international collaboration seems essential. If three or four countries collaborate together, it may be achieved within a 10-year time frame that makes this concept attractive. It is also essential that global seismology, geodynamics, and deep earth (GSGD) communities work closely with the ocean science community for Pacific Array to be realized, as they would get most benefit from it. While unit array deployments may have their own scientific goals, it is important that they

  19. NPOESS: Delivering the Next Generation of Global, Operational Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, D.; Haas, J. M.; Hoffman, C.; Nelson, C.

    2008-12-01

    In the next decade, weather forecasters, climate researchers, and global decision-makers will rely on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) to meet many of their needs for remotely-sensed, Earth science data and information. The first flight of several new instruments will occur in 2010 with the launch of the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). NPP will provide on-orbit testing and validation of sensors, algorithms, ground-based operations, and data processing systems and "bridge" between NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) research missions and the operational NPOESS mission. Beginning in 2013, NPOESS spacecraft will be launched into afternoon and early morning orbits to provide significantly improved operational capabilities and benefits to satisfy critical civil and national security requirements for space-based, remotely sensed environmental data. The last satellite in the two-orbit NPOESS constellation is expected to continue operations until about 2023-2026. A mid-morning orbit will be occupied by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) Meteorological Operational (MetOp) spacecraft. The joint constellation of NPOESS and MetOp satellites will provide the international community global coverage from advanced atmospheric imaging and sounding instruments with a data refresh rate of approximately four to six hours. Several instruments on NPOESS will improve capabilities for climate monitoring and provide measurements of more than half of 26 essential climate variables. Flight units for the NPP instruments are nearing completion and undergoing final characterization and calibration prior to integration onto the spacecraft. Key components of the NPOESS command, control, and communications system have already been installed and have passed preliminary tests. A key feature of the NPOESS architecture is SafetyNetTM - a system of 15 globally distributed, unmanned ground stations that

  20. Climate Variability and Wildfires: Insights from Global Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Shevliakova, E.; Malyshev, S.; Lamarque, J. F.; Wittenberg, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    Better understanding of the relationship between variability in global climate and emissions from wildfires is needed for predictions of fire activity on interannual to multi-decadal timescales. Here we investigate this relationship using the long, preindustrial control simulations and historical ensembles of two Earth System models; CESM1 and the NOAA/GFDL ESM2Mb. There is smaller interannual variability of global fires in both models than in present day inventories, especially in boreal regions where observed fires vary substantially from year to year. Patterns of fire response to climate oscillation indices, including the El Niño / Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Atlantic Meridional Oscillation (AMO) are explored with the model results and compared to the response derived from satellite measurements and proxy observations. Increases in fire emissions in southeast Asia and boreal North America are associated with positive ENSO and PDO, while United States fires and Sahel fires decrease for the same climate conditions. Boreal fire emissions decrease in CESM1 for the warm phase of the AMO, while ESM2Mb did not produce a reliable AMO. CESM1 produces a weak negative trend in global fire emissions for the period 1920 to 2005, while ESM2Mb produces a positive trend over the same period. Both trends are statistically significant at a confidence level of 95% or greater given the variability derived from the respective preindustrial controls. In addition to climate variability impacts on fires, we also explore the impacts of fire emissions on climate variability and atmospheric chemistry. We analyze three long, free-evolving ESM2Mb simulations; one without fire emissions, one with constant year-over-year fire emissions based on a present day inventory, and one with interannually varying fire emissions coupled between the terrestrial and atmospheric components of the model, to gain a better understanding of the role of fire emissions in

  1. Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; hide

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  2. Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; Gochis, David; van de Giesen, Nick; Houser, Paul; Jaffe, Peter R.; Kollet, Stefan; Lehner, Bernhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Sivpalan, Murugesu; Sheffield, Justin; Wade, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  3. Defining Top-of-Atmosphere Flux Reference Level for Earth Radiation Budget Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    To estimate the earth's radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from satellite-measured radiances, it is necessary to account for the finite geometry of the earth and recognize that the earth is a solid body surrounded by a translucent atmosphere of finite thickness that attenuates solar radiation differently at different heights. As a result, in order to account for all of the reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the planet by direct integration of satellite-measured radiances, the measurement viewing geometry must be defined at a reference level well above the earth s surface (e.g., 100 km). This ensures that all radiation contributions, including radiation escaping the planet along slant paths above the earth s tangent point, are accounted for. By using a field-of- view (FOV) reference level that is too low (such as the surface reference level), TOA fluxes for most scene types are systematically underestimated by 1-2 W/sq m. In addition, since TOA flux represents a flow of radiant energy per unit area, and varies with distance from the earth according to the inverse-square law, a reference level is also needed to define satellite-based TOA fluxes. From theoretical radiative transfer calculations using a model that accounts for spherical geometry, the optimal reference level for defining TOA fluxes in radiation budget studies for the earth is estimated to be approximately 20 km. At this reference level, there is no need to explicitly account for horizontal transmission of solar radiation through the atmosphere in the earth radiation budget calculation. In this context, therefore, the 20-km reference level corresponds to the effective radiative top of atmosphere for the planet. Although the optimal flux reference level depends slightly on scene type due to differences in effective transmission of solar radiation with cloud height, the difference in flux caused by neglecting the scene-type dependence is less than 0.1%. If an inappropriate

  4. Defining Top-of-Atmosphere Flux Reference Level for Earth Radiation Budget Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    To estimate the earth's radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from satellite-measured radiances, it is necessary to account for the finite geometry of the earth and recognize that the earth is a solid body surrounded by a translucent atmosphere of finite thickness that attenuates solar radiation differently at different heights. As a result, in order to account for all of the reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the planet by direct integration of satellite-measured radiances, the measurement viewing geometry must be defined at a reference level well above the earth s surface (e.g., 100 km). This ensures that all radiation contributions, including radiation escaping the planet along slant paths above the earth s tangent point, are accounted for. By using a field-of- view (FOV) reference level that is too low (such as the surface reference level), TOA fluxes for most scene types are systematically underestimated by 1-2 W/sq m. In addition, since TOA flux represents a flow of radiant energy per unit area, and varies with distance from the earth according to the inverse-square law, a reference level is also needed to define satellite-based TOA fluxes. From theoretical radiative transfer calculations using a model that accounts for spherical geometry, the optimal reference level for defining TOA fluxes in radiation budget studies for the earth is estimated to be approximately 20 km. At this reference level, there is no need to explicitly account for horizontal transmission of solar radiation through the atmosphere in the earth radiation budget calculation. In this context, therefore, the 20-km reference level corresponds to the effective radiative top of atmosphere for the planet. Although the optimal flux reference level depends slightly on scene type due to differences in effective transmission of solar radiation with cloud height, the difference in flux caused by neglecting the scene-type dependence is less than 0.1%. If an inappropriate

  5. Venus Global Reference Atmospheric Model Status and Planned Updates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.; Dwyer Cianciolo, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Venus Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Venus-GRAM) was originally developed in 2004 under funding from NASA's In Space Propulsion (ISP) Aerocapture Project to support mission studies at the planet. Many proposals, including NASA New Frontiers and Discovery, as well as other studies have used Venus-GRAM to design missions and assess system robustness. After Venus-GRAM's release in 2005, several missions to Venus have generated a wealth of additional atmospheric data, yet few model updates have been made to Venus-GRAM. This paper serves to address three areas: (1) to present the current status of Venus-GRAM, (2) to identify new sources of data and other upgrades that need to be incorporated to maintain Venus-GRAM credibility and (3) to identify additional Venus-GRAM options and features that could be included to increase its capability. This effort will de-pend on understanding the needs of the user community, obtaining new modeling data and establishing a dedicated funding source to support continual up-grades. This paper is intended to initiate discussion that can result in an upgraded and validated Venus-GRAM being available to future studies and NASA proposals.

  6. Utilization of Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM) for shuttle entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joosten, Kent

    1987-01-01

    At high latitudes, dispersions in values of density for the middle atmosphere from the Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM) are observed to be large, particularly in the winter. Trajectories have been run from 28.5 deg to 98 deg. The critical part of the atmosphere for reentry is 250,000 to 270,000 ft. 250,000 ft is the altitude where the shuttle trajectory levels out. For ascending passes the critical region occurs near the equator. For descending entries the critical region is in northern latitudes. The computed trajectory is input to the GRAM, which computes means and deviations of atmospheric parameters at each point along the trajectory. There is little latitude dispersion for the ascending passes; the strongest source of deviations is seasonal; however, very wide seasonal and latitudinal deviations are exhibited for the descending passes at all orbital inclinations. For shuttle operations the problem is control to maintain the correct entry corridor and avoid either aerodynamic skipping or excessive heat loads.

  7. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite

    DOE Data Explorer

    This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

  8. Global X-ray Imaging of the Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.

    2012-04-01

    Plasma and magnetic field environments can be studied in situ, or by remote sensing. In situ measurements return precise information about plasma composition, instabilities and dynamics, but cannot provide the global view necessary to understand the overall behaviour and evolution of the plasma, which instead can be explored by remote imaging. We propose a new approach by remote global X-ray imaging, now possible thanks to the relatively recent discovery of solar wind charge-exchange X-ray emission; this has been found, by observatories such as XMM-Newton, to occur in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetosphere and to peak in the sub-solar magnetosheath, where both solar wind and neutral exospheric densities are high. We describe how an appropriately designed and located X-ray telescope, supported by simultaneous in situ measurements of the solar wind, can be used to image the Earth's dayside magnetosphere, magnetosheath and bow shock, with temporal and spatial resolutions sufficient to address key outstanding questions concerning how the solar wind interacts with planetary magnetospheres. This medium-size mission incorporates a wide-field soft X-ray telescope, using micropore optics and CCD detectors, for imaging and spectroscopy, a proton and alpha particle sensor designed to measure the bulk properties of the solar wind, an ion composition analyser which aims to characterise the populations of minor ions in the solar wind, and a magnetometer for accurate measurements of the strength and direction of the magnetic field. Details of the mission profile will be presented, as well as simulations of the expected performance for possible mission configurations. The AXIOM Team: G. Branduardi-Raymont(1), S. F. Sembay(2), J. P. Eastwood(3), D. G. Sibeck(4), A. Abbey(2), P. Brown(3), J. A. Carter(2), C. M. Carr(3), C. Forsyth(1), D. Kataria(1), S. Milan(2), C. J. Owen(1), A. M. Read(2), C. S. Arridge(1), A. J. Coates(1), M. R. Collier(4), S. W. H. Cowley(2), G. Fraser(2), G

  9. Impact of the VLBA on reference frames and earth orientation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, David

    2016-09-01

    The geodetic VLBI community began using VLBA antennas in 1989 for geodesy and astrometry. We examine how usage of the VLBA has improved the celestial reference frame, the terrestrial reference frame, and Earth orientation parameters. Without the VLBA, ICRF2 would have had only 1011 sources instead of 3414. ICRF3 will contain at least 4121 sources, with approximately 70 % or more coming exclusively from VLBA astrometry and geodesy sessions. The terrestrial reference frame is also more stable and precise due to VLBA geodesy sessions. Approximately two dozen geodesy stations that have participated in VLBA sessions show average position formal errors that are ˜ 13-14 % better in the horizontal components and ˜ 5 % better in the vertical component than would be expected solely from the increased number of observations. Also the Earth orientation parameters obtained from the RDV sessions represent the most accurate EOP series of any of the long-term VLBI session types.

  10. Impact of the VLBA on reference frames and earth orientation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, David

    2017-07-01

    The geodetic VLBI community began using VLBA antennas in 1989 for geodesy and astrometry. We examine how usage of the VLBA has improved the celestial reference frame, the terrestrial reference frame, and Earth orientation parameters. Without the VLBA, ICRF2 would have had only 1011 sources instead of 3414. ICRF3 will contain at least 4121 sources, with approximately 70 % or more coming exclusively from VLBA astrometry and geodesy sessions. The terrestrial reference frame is also more stable and precise due to VLBA geodesy sessions. Approximately two dozen geodesy stations that have participated in VLBA sessions show average position formal errors that are ˜ 13-14 % better in the horizontal components and ˜ 5 % better in the vertical component than would be expected solely from the increased number of observations. Also the Earth orientation parameters obtained from the RDV sessions represent the most accurate EOP series of any of the long-term VLBI session types.

  11. Evaluation of automated global mapping of Reference Soil Groups of WRB2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantel, Stephan; Caspari, Thomas; Kempen, Bas; Schad, Peter; Eberhardt, Einar; Ruiperez Gonzalez, Maria

    2017-04-01

    SoilGrids is an automated system that provides global predictions for standard numeric soil properties at seven standard depths down to 200 cm, currently at spatial resolutions of 1km and 250m. In addition, the system provides predictions of depth to bedrock and distribution of soil classes based on WRB and USDA Soil Taxonomy (ST). In SoilGrids250m(1), soil classes (WRB, version 2006) consist of the RSG and the first prefix qualifier, whereas in SoilGrids1km(2), the soil class was assessed at RSG level. Automated mapping of World Reference Base (WRB) Reference Soil Groups (RSGs) at a global level has great advantages. Maps can be updated in a short time span with relatively little effort when new data become available. To translate soil names of older versions of FAO/WRB and national classification systems of the source data into names according to WRB 2006, correlation tables are used in SoilGrids. Soil properties and classes are predicted independently from each other. This means that the combinations of soil properties for the same cells or soil property-soil class combinations do not necessarily yield logical combinations when the map layers are studied jointly. The model prediction procedure is robust and probably has a low source of error in the prediction of RSGs. It seems that the quality of the original soil classification in the data and the use of correlation tables are the largest sources of error in mapping the RSG distribution patterns. Predicted patterns of dominant RSGs were evaluated in selected areas and sources of error were identified. Suggestions are made for improvement of WRB2015 RSG distribution predictions in SoilGrids. Keywords: Automated global mapping; World Reference Base for Soil Resources; Data evaluation; Data quality assurance References 1 Hengl T, de Jesus JM, Heuvelink GBM, Ruiperez Gonzalez M, Kilibarda M, et al. (2016) SoilGrids250m: global gridded soil information based on Machine Learning. Earth System Science Data (ESSD), in

  12. The 3D Reference Earth Model (REM-3D): Update and Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekic, V.; Moulik, P.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Dziewonski, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Elastic properties of the Earth's interior (e.g. density, rigidity, compressibility, anisotropy) vary spatially due to changes in temperature, pressure, composition, and flow. In the 20th century, seismologists have constructed reference models of how these quantities vary with depth, notably the PREM model of Dziewonski and Anderson (1981). These 1D reference earth models have proven indispensable in earthquake location, imaging of interior structure, understanding material properties under extreme conditions, and as a reference in other fields, such as particle physics and astronomy. Over the past three decades, more sophisticated efforts by seismologists have yielded several generations of models of how properties vary not only with depth, but also laterally. Yet, though these three-dimensional (3D) models exhibit compelling similarities at large scales, differences in the methodology, representation of structure, and dataset upon which they are based, have prevented the creation of 3D community reference models. We propose to overcome these challenges by compiling, reconciling, and distributing a long period (>15 s) reference seismic dataset, from which we will construct a 3D seismic reference model (REM-3D) for the Earth's mantle, which will come in two flavors: a long wavelength smoothly parameterized model and a set of regional profiles. Here, we summarize progress made in the construction of the reference long period dataset, and present preliminary versions of the REM-3D in order to illustrate the two flavors of REM-3D and their relative advantages and disadvantages. As a community reference model and with fully quantified uncertainties and tradeoffs, REM-3D will facilitate Earth imaging studies, earthquake characterization, inferences on temperature and composition in the deep interior, and be of improved utility to emerging scientific endeavors, such as neutrino geoscience. In this presentation, we outline the outlook for setting up advisory community

  13. A Global Terrestrial Reference Frame from simulated VLBI and SLR data in view of GGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Susanne; König, Rolf; Ampatzidis, Dimitrios; Nilsson, Tobias; Heinkelmann, Robert; Flechtner, Frank; Schuh, Harald

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we assess the impact of two combination strategies, namely local ties (LT) and global ties (GT), on the datum realization of Global Terrestrial Reference Frames in view of the Global Geodetic Observing System requiring 1 mm-accuracy. Simulated Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data over a 7 year time span was used. The LT results show that the geodetic datum can be best transferred if the precision of the LT is at least 1 mm. Investigating different numbers of LT, the lack of co-located sites on the southern hemisphere is evidenced by differences of 9 mm in translation and rotation compared to the solution using all available LT. For the GT, the combination applying all Earth rotation parameters (ERP), such as pole coordinates and UT1-UTC, indicates that the rotation around the Z axis cannot be adequately transferred from VLBI to SLR within the combination. Applying exclusively the pole coordinates as GT, we show that the datum can be transferred with mm-accuracy within the combination. Furthermore, adding artificial stations in Tahiti and Nigeria to the current VLBI network results in an improvement in station positions by 13 and 12%, respectively, and in ERP by 17 and 11%, respectively. Extending to every day VLBI observations leads to 65% better ERP estimates compared to usual twice-weekly VLBI observations.

  14. Background Mole Fractions of Hydrocarbons in North America Determined from NOAA Global Reference Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke-Maday, I.

    2015-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) maintains a global reference network for over 50 trace gas species and analyzes discrete air samples collected by this network throughout the world at the Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. In particular, flask samples are analyzed for a number of hydrocarbons with policy and health relevance such as ozone precursors, greenhouse gases, and hazardous air pollutants. Because this global network's sites are remote and therefore minimally influenced by local anthropogenic emissions, these data yield information about background ambient mole fractions and can provide a context for observations collected in intensive field campaigns, such as the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE), the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study, and the DISCOVER-AQ deployments. Information about background mole fractions during field campaigns is critical for calculating hydrocarbon enhancements in the region of study and for assessing the extent to which a particular region's local emissions sources contribute to these enhancements. Understanding the geographic variability of the background and its contribution to regional ambient mole fractions is also crucial for the development of realistic regulations. We present background hydrocarbon mole fractions and their ratios in North America using data from air samples collected in the planetary boundary layer at tall towers and aboard aircraft from 2008 to 2014. We discuss the spatial and seasonal variability in these data. We present trends over the time period of measurements and propose possible explanations for these trends.

  15. Future Earth, Global Science and Regional Programs: Building regional integrated science capacities in a global science organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewksbury, J.

    2016-12-01

    Future Earth has emerged from the more than 30-year history of Global Change Research Programs, including IGBP, DIVERSITAS and IHDP. These programs supported interdisciplinary science in service of societies around the world. Now, their focus on building a greater understanding of changing Earth systems and their couplings with society has passed to Future Earth - with an important addition: Future Earth was also established to focus global change efforts around key societal challenges. The implications for the structure of Future Earth are large. Many challenges within topics, such as the water, energy, food nexus or the future of cities, are manifested within local, national, and regional contexts. How should we organize globally to most effectively confront these multi-scale challenges? The solution proposed in the framing of Future Earth was the formation of regional as well as national committees, as well as the formation of regional centers and offices. Regional Committees serve to both advocate for Future Earth in their regions and to advocate for regional interests in the global Future Earth platform, while regional Centers and offices are built into the Future Earth secretariat to perform a parallel regional implementation function. Implementation has not been easy, and the process has placed regionally-focused projects in an awkward place. Programs such as the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS), the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and the South/Southeast Asia Research Initiative (SARI) represent some of the best global change communities in the world, but by design, their focus is regional. The effective integration of these communities into the Future Earth architecture will be critical, and this integration will require the formation of strong regional committees and regional centers.

  16. GRAM 88 - 4D GLOBAL REFERENCE ATMOSPHERE MODEL-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Four-D Global Reference Atmosphere program was developed from an empirical atmospheric model which generates values for pressure, density, temperature, and winds from surface level to orbital altitudes. This program can generate altitude profiles of atmospheric parameters along any simulated trajectory through the atmosphere. The program was developed for design applications in the Space Shuttle program, such as the simulation of external tank re-entry trajectories. Other potential applications are global circulation and diffusion studies; also the generation of profiles for comparison with other atmospheric measurement techniques such as satellite measured temperature profiles and infrasonic measurement of wind profiles. GRAM-88 is the latest version of the software GRAM. The software GRAM-88 contains a number of changes that have improved the model statistics, in particular, the small scale density perturbation statistics. It also corrected a low latitude grid problem as well as the SCIDAT data base. Furthermore, GRAM-88 now uses the U.S. Standard Atmosphere 1976 as a comparison standard rather than the US62 used in other versions. The program is an amalgamation of two empirical atmospheric models for the low (25km) and the high (90km) atmosphere, with a newly developed latitude-longitude dependent model for the middle atmosphere. The Jacchia (1970) model simulates the high atmospheric region above 115km. The Jacchia program sections are in separate subroutines so that other thermosphericexospheric models could easily be adapted if required for special applications. The improved code eliminated the calculation of geostrophic winds above 125 km altitude from the model. The atmospheric region between 30km and 90km is simulated by a latitude-longitude dependent empirical model modification of the latitude dependent empirical model of Groves (1971). A fairing technique between 90km and 115km accomplished a smooth transition between the modified Groves values and

  17. Global GPS Solution for Station Velocities Without Conventional Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, M. G.; Steblov, G. M.

    2005-12-01

    Meaningful GPS station velocities should not depend on the choice of a specific reference frame since the origin translation rate (OTR) can be estimated from velocities in stable plate interiors, and an appropriate correction can be applied (R.W. King, private communication). A conventional approach is to translate and rotate the initial, loosely constrained geodetic solution in order to best fit the velocities of official ITRF2000. A very different approach used in this study consists of following steps: (1) Assume that tectonic plates do not move with respect to each other and that they are perfectly rigid. This assumption is equivalent to setting all a priori velocities to zero. (2) Translate and rotate the loose geodetic solution to best fit the zero velocities at stations uniformly distributed over the whole network. (3) Evaluate OTR from station velocities in stable plate interiors, obtained in step 2. (4) Correct the velocities for OTR and estimate plate rotation vectors. (5) Repeat steps 1-4 as many times as required, typically four iterations is adequate. Such approach was realized in recent versions of the GAMIT/GLOBK software which we used. We tested at step 1 various starting reference frames with nonzero a priori velocities, such as ITRF2000 and NUVEL1-A, with no change in the final solution at step 5. Our database included: all daily GAMIT solutions for positions of the IGS network performed at SOPAC in interval 1995.0 - 2005.5; our daily GAMIT solutions from observations of several tens of continuous and survey mode stations on the Eurasian, North American, and Pacific plates. We then combined by GLOBK (Kalman filter) all daily solutions in the database and produced a multiyear loose solution for positions and velocities. By iteratively applying procedure 1-5, we came to the constrained solution in terms of plate-residual velocities for all stations and a set of rotation vectors for eight major plates. 76 sites with zero velocity chosen for initial

  18. Dynamics of global vegetation biomass simulated by the integrated Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Thornton, P. E.; Piao, S.; Yang, X.; Truesdale, J. E.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Chini, L. P.; Thomson, A. M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Collins, W.; Edmonds, J.

    2014-12-01

    The global vegetation biomass stores huge amounts of carbon and is thus important to the global carbon budget (Pan et al., 2010). For the past few decades, different observation-based estimates and modeling of biomass in the above- and below-ground vegetation compartments have been comprehensively conducted (Saatchi et al., 2011; Baccini et al., 2012). However, uncertainties still exist, in particular for the simulation of biomass magnitude, tendency, and the response of biomass to climatic conditions and natural and human disturbances. The recently successful coupling of the integrated Earth System Model (iESM) (Di Vittorio et al., 2014; Bond-Lamberty et al., 2014), which links the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), Global Land-use Model (GLM), and Community Earth System Model (CESM), offers a great opportunity to understand the biomass-related dynamics in a fully-coupled natural and human modeling system. In this study, we focus on the systematic analysis and evaluation of the iESM simulated historical (1850-2005) and future (2006-2100) biomass changes and the response of the biomass dynamics to various impact factors, in particular the human-induced Land Use/Land Cover Change (LULCC). By analyzing the iESM simulations with and without the interactive LULCC feedbacks, we further study how and where the climate feedbacks affect socioeconomic decisions and LULCC, such as to alter vegetation carbon storage. References Pan Y et. al: A large and persistent carbon sink in the World's forests. Science 2011, 333:988-993. Saatchi SS et al: Benchmark map of forest carbon stocks in tropical regions across three continents. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2011, 108:9899-9904. Baccini A et al: Estimated carbon dioxide emissions from tropical deforestation improved by carbon-density maps. Nature Clim Change 2012, 2:182-185. Di Vittorio AV et al: From land use to land cover: restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment-earth system model and the implications for

  19. Displacements and rotations of a body moving about an arbitrary axis in a global reference frame

    SciTech Connect

    Hollerbach, K.; Hollister, A.

    1995-11-01

    Measurement of human joint motion frequently involves the use of markers to describe joint motion in a global reference frame. Results may be quite arbitrary if the reference frame is not properly chosen with respect to the joint`s rotational axis(es). In nature joint axes can exist at any orientation and location relative to an arbitrarily chosen global reference frame. An arbitrary axis is any axis that is not coincident with a reference coordinate. Calculations are made of the errors that result when joint motion occurs about an arbitrary axis in a global reference frame.

  20. Earth's magnetosphere - Global problems in magnetospheric plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roederer, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetospheric physics is presently in a transition from the exploratory stage to one in which satellite missions and ground-based observations are planned with the specific object of achieving a global understanding and self-consistent quantitative description of the cause-and-effect relationship among the principal dynamic processes involved. Measurements turn to lower and lower energies and to higher ion mass species, in order to encompass the entire particle population, and to a broader range of the frequency spectrum of magnetic and electric field variations. In the present paper, the current status of our knowledge on magnetospheric plasma physics is reviewed, with particular reference of such fundamental advances as the discovery of layers of streaming plasma in the magnetosphere beneath its boundary surface, the identification of the terrestrial magnetosphere as a celestial source of kilometric radiation and relativistic particles, the identification of parallel electric field regions within the magnetosphere and their role in auroral particle acceleration, and the discovery of large fluxes of energetic heavy ions trapped in the magnetosphere.

  1. Reference networks (Control surveys). [Geodetic systems for earth crustal movement monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Strange, W.E.; Zilkoski, D.B. )

    1991-01-01

    Control surveying activities of the National Geodetic Survey are reported for the 1987-1990 time period. The report is divided into two parts: horizontal control and vertical control. Particular attention is given to the North American Datum of 1983, high accuracy reference networks, the Global Positioning System and vertical control, vertical field surveys, and special survey projects. 44 refs.

  2. Global Change in Earth's Atmosphere: Natural and Anthropogenic Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lean, J.

    2013-12-01

    To what extent is human activity, such as the emission of carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse' gases, influencing Earth's atmosphere, compared with natural variations driven by, for example, the Sun or volcanoes? Why has Earth's surface warmed barely, if at all, in the last decade? Why is the atmosphere at just 20 km above the surface cooling instead of warming? When - and will - the ozone layer recover from its two-decade decline due to chlorofluorocarbon depletion? Natural and anthropogenic factors are changing Earth's atmosphere, each with distinct temporal, geographical and altitudinal signatures. Increasing greenhouse gases, for example, warm the surface but cool the stratosphere and upper atmosphere. Aerosols injected into the stratosphere during a volcanic eruption warm the stratosphere but cool the surface. Increases in the Sun's brightness warm Earth's atmosphere, throughout. This talk will quantify and compare a variety of natural and human influences on the Earth's atmosphere, extracted statistically from multiple datasets with the goal of understanding how and why Earth's atmosphere is changing. The extent to which responses to natural influences are presently masking or exacerbating ongoing responses to human activity is examined. Scenarios for future levels of anthropogenic gases and solar activity are then used to speculate how Earth's atmosphere might evolve in future decades, according to both statistical models of the databases and physical general circulation models.

  3. 3D phase unwrapping using global expected phase as a reference: application to MRI global shimming.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wentao; Tang, Xin; Ma, Yajun; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2013-07-01

    MRI phase data often suffers from phase wrapping (i.e., phase may be discontinuous by 2π jumps). Numerous MRI phase unwrapping strategies were developed in the past using a criterion based on phase information of local or neighboring voxels. In this study, an alternative and novel three dimensional phase unwrapping strategy is introduced. This method considers the global character of the phase distribution and utilizes continuous trigonometric functions to construct an expected phase map as an unwrapping reference, which is then used to guide the phase correction of every individual voxel. The original phase is estimated by analyzing the derivative of the wrapped phase image. Simulations of various phase wrapped situations were performed and this new method was also used for an in vivo application (i.e., MRI automatic global shimming). Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method is more reliable and robust than traditional algorithms at obtaining correct phase maps, especially in regions of low-signal and air cavities, such as the abdomen and pelvis.

  4. Global distribution of microbursts in the earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crew, Alexander Bennett

    The dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts are governed by the interplay between the various source and loss terms. Electron microbursts represent a particular form of electron loss through precipitation to the atmosphere. Moreover, assessing the total significance of microburst loss to radiation belt dynamics is an important and still unresolved question. This thesis seeks to qualify and quantify the scale and properties of microburst precipitation. Accordingly, the thesis has 4 main guiding goals: (1) to understand the similarities and differences in characteristics among the microburst event population; (2) to create constraints for models and theories of microburst generation; (3) to detail how past observations inform and direct the development of the next set of microburst observations; and (4) to assess the global scale of microburst loss. To accomplish these goals 1 draw on existing observations of microburst from the SAMPEX and Freja missions, as well as operational planning and design for the upcoming FIREBIRD CubeSat. In particular, the nearly 15 years and -685,000 individual microburst events from SAMPEX provide a comprehensive description of the microburst population, showing that microbursts are generally seen on the dawnside from L of approximately 4 to 8, with event frequencies that typically follow power-law like distributions and typical event du rations ~100 ms. Utilizing measurements of keV level microbursts from Freja 1 show how we can map the source locations of individual microbursts. Using a time-of-flight analysis 1 show that microbursts observed by Freja, typically originate from equatorial source locations along the dawnside in a similar set of locations to the MeV energy events observed by SAMPEX and correlate well with measurements of chorus waves. The upcoming FIREBIRD CubeSat mission utilizes these observations to drive instrument requirements as well as a science operations plan to address the goals of understanding the spatial

  5. The International GPS Network for Charting the Evolving Global Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumberge, J. F.; Heflin, M. B.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Neilan, R. E.; Watkins, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Telecommunications and Engineering Division of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to play a variety of roles in applying the Global Positioning System (GPS) to geodesy and geodynamics. Among these are the operation of dozens of globally-distributed, permanently-operating Earth fixed GPS stations. This, and other applications are described.

  6. NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, J. Chris

    2009-01-01

    Scientists have eagerly anticipated the performance capability of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Hawk for over a decade. In 2009 this capability becomes operational. One of the most desired performance capabilities of the Global Hawk aircraft is very long endurance. The Global Hawk aircraft can remain airborne longer than almost all other jet-powered aircraft currently flying, and longer than all other aircraft available for airborne science use. This paper describes the NASA Global Hawk system, payload accommodations, concept of operations, and the first scientific data-gathering mission: Global Hawk Pacific 2009.

  7. Earth's earliest biosphere-a proposal to develop a collection of curated archean geologic reference materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, John F.; McKay, David S.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of evidence indicative of life in a Martian meteorite has led to an increase in interest in astrobiology. As a result of this discovery, and the ensuing controversy, it has become apparent that our knowledge of the early development of life on Earth is limited. Archean stratigraphic successions containing evidence of Earth's early biosphere are well preserved in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The craton includes part of a protocontinent consisting of granitoid complexes that were emplaced into, and overlain by, a 3.51-2.94 Ga volcanigenic carapace - the Pilbara Supergroup. The craton is overlain by younger supracrustal basins that form a time series recording Earth history from approximately 2.8 Ga to approximately 1.9 Ga. It is proposed that a well-documented suite of these ancient rocks be collected as reference material for Archean and astrobiological research. All samples would be collected in a well-defined geological context in order to build a framework to test models for the early evolution of life on Earth and to develop protocols for the search for life on other planets.

  8. Earth's earliest biosphere-a proposal to develop a collection of curated archean geologic reference materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, John F.; McKay, David S.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of evidence indicative of life in a Martian meteorite has led to an increase in interest in astrobiology. As a result of this discovery, and the ensuing controversy, it has become apparent that our knowledge of the early development of life on Earth is limited. Archean stratigraphic successions containing evidence of Earth's early biosphere are well preserved in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The craton includes part of a protocontinent consisting of granitoid complexes that were emplaced into, and overlain by, a 3.51-2.94 Ga volcanigenic carapace - the Pilbara Supergroup. The craton is overlain by younger supracrustal basins that form a time series recording Earth history from approximately 2.8 Ga to approximately 1.9 Ga. It is proposed that a well-documented suite of these ancient rocks be collected as reference material for Archean and astrobiological research. All samples would be collected in a well-defined geological context in order to build a framework to test models for the early evolution of life on Earth and to develop protocols for the search for life on other planets.

  9. Earth's earliest biosphere-a proposal to develop a collection of curated archean geologic reference materials.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John F; McKay, David S; Allen, Carlton C

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of evidence indicative of life in a Martian meteorite has led to an increase in interest in astrobiology. As a result of this discovery, and the ensuing controversy, it has become apparent that our knowledge of the early development of life on Earth is limited. Archean stratigraphic successions containing evidence of Earth's early biosphere are well preserved in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The craton includes part of a protocontinent consisting of granitoid complexes that were emplaced into, and overlain by, a 3.51-2.94 Ga volcanigenic carapace - the Pilbara Supergroup. The craton is overlain by younger supracrustal basins that form a time series recording Earth history from approximately 2.8 Ga to approximately 1.9 Ga. It is proposed that a well-documented suite of these ancient rocks be collected as reference material for Archean and astrobiological research. All samples would be collected in a well-defined geological context in order to build a framework to test models for the early evolution of life on Earth and to develop protocols for the search for life on other planets.

  10. Deep mantle structure as a reference frame for movements in and on the Earth.

    PubMed

    Torsvik, Trond H; van der Voo, Rob; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Burke, Kevin; Steinberger, Bernhard; Ashwal, Lewis D; Trønnes, Reidar G; Webb, Susan J; Bull, Abigail L

    2014-06-17

    Earth's residual geoid is dominated by a degree-2 mode, with elevated regions above large low shear-wave velocity provinces on the core-mantle boundary beneath Africa and the Pacific. The edges of these deep mantle bodies, when projected radially to the Earth's surface, correlate with the reconstructed positions of large igneous provinces and kimberlites since Pangea formed about 320 million years ago. Using this surface-to-core-mantle boundary correlation to locate continents in longitude and a novel iterative approach for defining a paleomagnetic reference frame corrected for true polar wander, we have developed a model for absolute plate motion back to earliest Paleozoic time (540 Ma). For the Paleozoic, we have identified six phases of slow, oscillatory true polar wander during which the Earth's axis of minimum moment of inertia was similar to that of Mesozoic times. The rates of Paleozoic true polar wander (<1°/My) are compatible with those in the Mesozoic, but absolute plate velocities are, on average, twice as high. Our reconstructions generate geologically plausible scenarios, with large igneous provinces and kimberlites sourced from the margins of the large low shear-wave velocity provinces, as in Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. This absolute kinematic model suggests that a degree-2 convection mode within the Earth's mantle may have operated throughout the entire Phanerozoic.

  11. A Noachian "Greenhouse": Earth Models for a Global Hydrologic Budget of the Mars Northern Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. A.; Parker, T. J.; Jewell, P. W.; Komatsu, G.; Ormö, J.

    2012-05-01

    Prominent eustatic highs in Earth history provide models for comparisons to a Mars ocean. A Noachian "greenhouse" assisted by a high global water budget could preserve an extensive stratigraphic record in combination with shoreline evidence.

  12. Distribution Characteristics of Global Significant Earthquakes and Possible Connection Between Earthquakes and Earth's Variable Rotation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Li-Hua; Han, Yan-Ben; Yin, Zhi-Qiang

    2007-12-01

    Based on global earthquake catalog released from Paula K. Dunbar et al., the authors investigate distribution characteristics of global significant earthquakes (Ms >=7.5) during 1832-1994, and discuss possible connection between global earthquakes and Earth's variable rotation rate. It is shown that spatial distribution characteristics of earthquakes in this catalog are similar to modern observations, mainly locating in circum-Pacific and Mediterranean-Himalayan seismic belt, and Earth variable rotation rate is highly related to the number of global great earthquakes.

  13. Monitoring of Global Climate Change in the Earth from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozhenko, O. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Nevedovskiy, P. V.; Choliy, V. Ya.

    2017-08-01

    The most important experimental data that should be obtained for the monitoring of global climate change of Earth are: investigations of the stratospheric aerosol layer, which affects the stratospheric ozone layer, effective and real equilibrium temperature of Earth, content of greenhouse gases. Scientific equipment should be installed on an automatic (better habitable) base on the surface of the Moon, on the polar, constantly visible from the Earth artificial satellite of the Moon or on a satellite located at the lunar point of Lagrange.

  14. Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, Philip E.; Kyle, H. L.; Hoyt, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, solar constant, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature are analyzed using data obtained by the Nimbus-7 spacecraft. It was found that these parameters were interrelated on interannual time scales, demonstrating that the interannual variability in the earth's climate (i.e., radiation budget) is detectable and observable by current spaceborne instruments. The degree of global interannual variation is on the order of tenths of percent.

  15. Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ardanuy, P.E.; Kyle, H.L.; Hoyt, D. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD )

    1992-10-01

    Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, solar constant, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature are analyzed using data obtained by the Nimbus-7 spacecraft. It was found that these parameters were interrelated on interannual time scales, demonstrating that the interannual variability in the earth's climate (i.e., radiation budget) is detectable and observable by current spaceborne instruments. The degree of global interannual variation is on the order of tenths of percent. 41 refs.

  16. Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, Philip E.; Kyle, H. L.; Hoyt, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, solar constant, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature are analyzed using data obtained by the Nimbus-7 spacecraft. It was found that these parameters were interrelated on interannual time scales, demonstrating that the interannual variability in the earth's climate (i.e., radiation budget) is detectable and observable by current spaceborne instruments. The degree of global interannual variation is on the order of tenths of percent.

  17. Using the Global Positioning System for Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-Earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking. This paper summarizes recent results demonstrating these unique and far-ranging applications of GPS.

  18. Measuring the Earth System in a Time of Global Environmental Change with Image Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the Earth system in a time of global environmental change. Imaging Spectroscopy enables remote measurement. Remote Measurement determination of the properties of the Earth's surface and atmosphere through the physics, chemistry and biology of the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter.

  19. Measuring the Earth System in a Time of Global Environmental Change with Image Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the Earth system in a time of global environmental change. Imaging Spectroscopy enables remote measurement. Remote Measurement determination of the properties of the Earth's surface and atmosphere through the physics, chemistry and biology of the interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter.

  20. Emergence of global scaling behaviour in the coupled Earth-atmosphere interaction

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Bijan; Saberi, Abbas Ali; Sodoudi, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Scale invariance property in the global geometry of Earth may lead to a coupled interactive behaviour between various components of the climate system. One of the most interesting correlations exists between spatial statistics of the global topography and the temperature on Earth. Here we show that the power-law behaviour observed in the Earth topography via different approaches, resembles a scaling law in the global spatial distribution of independent atmospheric parameters. We report on observation of scaling behaviour of such variables characterized by distinct universal exponents. More specifically, we find that the spatial power-law behaviour in the fluctuations of the near surface temperature over the lands on Earth, shares the same universal exponent as of the global Earth topography, indicative of the global persistent role of the static geometry of Earth to control the steady state of a dynamical atmospheric field. Such a universal feature can pave the way to the theoretical understanding of the chaotic nature of the atmosphere coupled to the Earth’s global topography. PMID:27666675

  1. Emergence of global scaling behaviour in the coupled Earth-atmosphere interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah, Bijan; Saberi, Abbas Ali; Sodoudi, Sahar

    2016-09-01

    Scale invariance property in the global geometry of Earth may lead to a coupled interactive behaviour between various components of the climate system. One of the most interesting correlations exists between spatial statistics of the global topography and the temperature on Earth. Here we show that the power-law behaviour observed in the Earth topography via different approaches, resembles a scaling law in the global spatial distribution of independent atmospheric parameters. We report on observation of scaling behaviour of such variables characterized by distinct universal exponents. More specifically, we find that the spatial power-law behaviour in the fluctuations of the near surface temperature over the lands on Earth, shares the same universal exponent as of the global Earth topography, indicative of the global persistent role of the static geometry of Earth to control the steady state of a dynamical atmospheric field. Such a universal feature can pave the way to the theoretical understanding of the chaotic nature of the atmosphere coupled to the Earth’s global topography.

  2. Global View of Earth in the Near-Infrared

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-08

    This near-infrared photograph of the Earth was taken by the Galileo spacecraft at 6:07 a.m. PST on Dec. 11, 1990, at a range of about 1.32 million miles. South America is prominent near the center. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00226

  3. The artifact of nature: 'Spaceship Earth' and the dawn of global environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Deese, R S

    2009-06-01

    The metaphor of 'Spaceship Earth' employed by a diverse array of scientists, economists and politicians during the 1960s and 1970s points to the Cold War origins of the first global environmentalist movement. With the advent of Spaceship Earth, nature itself became at once technological artifact and a vital object of Cold War gamesmanship. The evolution of this metaphor uncovers the connections between Cold War technologies such as nuclear weapons, space travel and cybernetics, and the birth of the first global environmentalist movement. Revisiting Spaceship Earth may help us to better understand the implicit assumptions that have both empowered and limited that movement.

  4. Scientific Contributions to GEO Global Earth Observation Priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, L.; Ledrew, E.

    2009-12-01

    Numerous counties and non-governmental organizations have produced documents, held workshops, and published reports in the past decade that identify Earth observation needs to meet their particular objectives. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) has conducted a review of these documents, workshops, and reports to identify the priority observations common to many societal benefit areas. GEO has made a concerted effort to include materials from a broad range of user types, including scientific researchers, resource managers, and policy makers. GEO has also sought an international breadth in the materials reviewed, including observation priorities from developing countries. The activity will help GEO optimize the observations in GEOSS that are most likely to provide societal benefits, and GEO members will use the results of this meta-analysis to support investment decisions. The Earth observations in GEOSS serve scientific research and applications endeavors. As a primary user of ground-based, airborne, in situ, and space-based observations of the Earth, the scientific community has a significant voice and vested interest in the observations offered through GEOSS. Furthermore, the science and technology community will have opportunities to identify critical scientific/technological advances needed to produce any observations that are needed yet not currently available. In this paper, we will discuss this GEO effort to identify Earth observations priorities. We will present initial findings for some societal benefit areas and the overall meta-analysis. We will also discuss possible roles for the science and technology community to contribute to those priorities, such as scientific advances needed to achieve the observations or to realize societal benefits from the observations.

  5. Development of a New Research Data Infrastructure for Collaboration in Earth Observation and Global Change Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Briese, Christian

    2017-04-01

    With the global population having surpassed 7 billion people in 2012, the impacts of human activities on the environment have started to be noticeable almost everywhere on our planet. Yet, while pressing social problems such as mass migration may be at least be partly a consequence of these impacts, many are still elusive, particularly when trying to quantify them on larger scales. Therefore, it is essential to collect verifiable observations that allow tracing environmental changes from a local to global scale over several decades. Complementing in situ networks, this task is increasingly fulfilled by earth observation satellites which have been acquiring measurements of the land, atmosphere and oceans since the beginning of the 1970s. While many multi-decadal data sets are already available, the major limitation hindering their effective exploitation in global change studies is the lack of dedicated data centres offering the high performance processing capabilities needed to process multi-year global data sets at a fine spatial resolution (Wagner, 2015). Essentially the only platform which currently offers these capabilities is Google's Earth Engine. From a scientific perspective there is undoubtedly a high need to build up independent science-driven platforms that are transparent for their users and offer a higher diversity and flexibility in terms of the data sets and algorithms used. Recognizing this need, TU Wien founded the EODC Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring together with other Austrian partners in May 2014 as a public-private partnership (Wagner et al. 2014). Thanks to its integrative governance approach, EODC has succeeded of quickly developing an international cooperation consisting of scientific institutions, public organisations and several private partners. Making best use of their existing infrastructures, the EODC partners have already created the first elements of a federated IT infrastructure capable of storing and

  6. Four-D global reference atmosphere technical description, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Woodrum, A. W.; Roper, R. G.; Smith, O. E.

    1974-01-01

    An empirical atmospheric model was developed which generates values for pressure, density, temperature, and winds from surface levels to orbital altitudes. The output parameters consist of components for: (1) latitude, longitude, and altitude dependent monthly and annual means; (2) quasi-biennial oscillations; and (3) random perturbations to simulate partially the variability due to synoptic, diurnal, planetary wave, and gravity wave variations. Quasi-biennial and random variation perturbations are computed from parameters determined from various empirical studies and are added to the monthly mean values. This model has been developed as a computer program called PROFILE which can be used to generate altitude profiles of atmospheric parameters along any simulated trajectory through the atmosphere. The PROFILE program was developed for design applications in the space shuttle program. Other applications of the model are discussed, such as for global circulation and diffusion studies, and for generating profiles for comparison with other atmospheric measurement techniques, (e.g. satellite measured temperature profiles).

  7. Ethics in a Global World: The Earth Charter and Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrady, Andrew G.; Regan, Ethna

    2008-01-01

    The authors consider the potential and promise of the 2000 UNESCO "Earth Charter" for the work of the religious educator in situating a "common" ethical core in a global world. It is argued that the Charter represents a courageous attempt to negotiate a global ethic of universal and multi-faceted responsibility based on the foundation of…

  8. The Emergence of Land Use as a Global Force in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Human societies have emerged as a global force capable of transforming the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and climate. As a result, the long-term dynamics of the Earth system can no longer be understood or predicted without understanding their coupling with human societal dynamics. Here, a general causal theory is presented to explain why behaviorally modern humans, unlike any prior multicellular species, gained this unprecedented capacity to reshape the Earth system and how this societal capacity has changed from the Pleistocene to the present and future. Sociocultural niche construction theory, building on existing theories of ecosystem engineering, niche construction, the extended evolutionary synthesis, cultural evolution, ultrasociality and social change, can explain both the long-term upscaling of human societies and their unprecedented capacity to transform the Earth system. Regime shifts in human sociocultural niche construction, from the clearing of land using fire, to shifting cultivation, to intensive agriculture, to global food systems dependent on fossil fuel combustion, have enabled human societies to scale up while gaining the capacity to reshape the global patterns and processes of biogeography, ecosystems, landscapes, biomes, the biosphere, and ultimately the functioning of the Earth system. Just as Earth's geophysical climate system shapes the long-term dynamics of energy and material flow across the "spheres" of the Earth system, human societies, interacting at global scale to form "human systems", are increasingly shaping the global dynamics of energy, material, biotic and information flow across the spheres of the Earth system, including a newly emerged anthroposphere comprised of human societies and their material cultures. Human systems and the anthroposphere are strongly coupled with climate and other Earth systems and are dynamic in response to evolutionary changes in human social organization, cooperative ecosystem

  9. The solid earth: An introduction to global geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, C.M.R.

    1990-01-01

    This book addresses major topics to be presented in a modern overview course. These topics include terrestrial seismology, gravity, earth's magnetic field and paleomagnetism, radiometric age dating, and heat flow. All are related throughout to the structure and dynamics of the interior of the earth, plate tectonics (including the geometry of tectonics on a sphere), and the nature of the continental and into such aspects as reflection coefficients and Zoeppritz equations, velocity analysis, migration, and Fresnel zone limitation on resolution. Appendices treat the elastic wave equations, inversion of earthquake time-distance curves, and a glossary of geological and geophysical terms. After noting that the book is intended for both geologists and physicists, as well as those marrying the disciplines into geophysics, the author adds that most geophysicists look for oil.

  10. Google Earth Engine: a new cloud-computing platform for global-scale earth observation data and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. T.; Hansen, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Google Earth Engine is a new technology platform that enables monitoring and measurement of changes in the earth's environment, at planetary scale, on a large catalog of earth observation data. The platform offers intrinsically-parallel computational access to thousands of computers in Google's data centers. Initial efforts have focused primarily on global forest monitoring and measurement, in support of REDD+ activities in the developing world. The intent is to put this platform into the hands of scientists and developing world nations, in order to advance the broader operational deployment of existing scientific methods, and strengthen the ability for public institutions and civil society to better understand, manage and report on the state of their natural resources. Earth Engine currently hosts online nearly the complete historical Landsat archive of L5 and L7 data collected over more than twenty-five years. Newly-collected Landsat imagery is downloaded from USGS EROS Center into Earth Engine on a daily basis. Earth Engine also includes a set of historical and current MODIS data products. The platform supports generation, on-demand, of spatial and temporal mosaics, "best-pixel" composites (for example to remove clouds and gaps in satellite imagery), as well as a variety of spectral indices. Supervised learning methods are available over the Landsat data catalog. The platform also includes a new application programming framework, or "API", that allows scientists access to these computational and data resources, to scale their current algorithms or develop new ones. Under the covers of the Google Earth Engine API is an intrinsically-parallel image-processing system. Several forest monitoring applications powered by this API are currently in development and expected to be operational in 2011. Combining science with massive data and technology resources in a cloud-computing framework can offer advantages of computational speed, ease-of-use and collaboration, as

  11. A global change data base using Thematic Mapper data - Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Antoni, Hector L.; Peterson, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the main directions in creating an education program in earth system science aimed at combining top science and technology with high academic performance are presented. The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES) integrated with the research interests of the NASA Ames Research Center and one or more universities is proposed. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, EMES would promote degrees at all levels in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extracurricular courses for multilevel audiences. EMES objectives are to: train specialists; establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool; and transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project.

  12. A global change data base using Thematic Mapper data - Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Antoni, Hector L.; Peterson, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the main directions in creating an education program in earth system science aimed at combining top science and technology with high academic performance are presented. The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES) integrated with the research interests of the NASA Ames Research Center and one or more universities is proposed. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, EMES would promote degrees at all levels in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extracurricular courses for multilevel audiences. EMES objectives are to: train specialists; establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool; and transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project.

  13. USGS Reference Materials Program: Serving the Needs of the Global Analytical Community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Wilson, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of measurements are made on the chemical composition of items that affect us on a daily basis. The accuracy of these measurements is routinely determined by the analysis of appropriate reference materials. In the field of earth science, reference materials are particularly important because they help us develop a better understanding of the processes that have shaped, and continue to shape the world around us. USGS reference materials are distributed internationally to organizations involved in geochemical and environmental analysis, instrumentation and methods development, and industrial research and quality assurance. Reference materials are widely used in the development and validation of geochemical models used by the USGS.

  14. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX): Earth science collaborative for global change science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemani, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Global change research is conducted in a highly collaborative manner by teams of researchers including climate scientists, hydrologists, biologists, economists, social scientists and resource managers distributed around the world. Their work is characterized by use of community-developed models and analysis codes and by a need to access a broad range of large datasets found in geographically distributed research and data centers. Stovepipes and segmentation currently limit collaboration and often lead to duplication of efforts. As we move forward, we can be more effective and efficient, both scientifically and fiscally. For example, as the length and diversity of the hydrologic observations grow, modeling and analyses of hydrospheric conditions increasingly requires multiple terabytes of data from a diversity of models and sensors. With network bandwidth beginning to flatten, transmission of these data from centralized data archives presents an increasing challenge, and costs associated with local storage and management of data and compute resources are often significant for individual research and application development efforts. Sharing community valued intermediary data sets, results and codes from individual efforts with others that are not in direct funded collaboration can also be a challenge with respect to time, cost and expertise. Over the past two years, we have been working on the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX), a data, modeling and knowledge center that houses NASA satellite data, climate data and ancillary data where a focused community may come together to share modeling and analysis codes, scientific results, knowledge and expertise on a centralized platform. NEX tries to accomplish this by providing scientists with four key capabilities: 1) A web-based collaborative environment that includes, among others, social networking and publication tools. 2) A data management environment providing streamlined discovery and access to key datasets, both

  15. Geocenter location and variations in earth orientation using global positioning system measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, R. P.; Wu, S. C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the use of GPS ground and flight tracking data to measure short-period earth orientation variations and changes in geocenter location. Comparisons between GPS-estimated earth rotation variations and those calculated from ocean tide models suggest that observed subdaily variations in earth rotation are dominated by oceanic tidal effects. Our preliminary GPS estimates for geocenter location agree with an independent satellite laser ranging estimates to 10-15 cm. Covariance analysis predicts that temporal resolution of GPS estimates for earth orientation and geocenter improves significantly when data collected from low earth-orbiting satellites as well as from ground sites are combined. The low-earth GPS tracking data enhance the accuracy and resolution for measuring high-frequency global geodynamical signals over time scales less than 1 day.

  16. High-Precision Global Geodetic Systems: Revolution And Revelation In Fluid And 'Solid' Earth Tracking (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minster, J. H.; Altamimi, Z.; Blewitt, G.; Carter, W. E.; Cazenave, A. A.; Davis, J. L.; Dragert, H.; Feary, D. A.; Herring, T.; Larson, K. M.; Ries, J. C.; Sandwell, D. T.; Wahr, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Over the past half-century, space geodetic technologies have changed profoundly the way we look at the planet, not only in the matter of details and accuracy, but also in the matter of how the entire planet changes with time, even on “human” time scales. The advent of space geodesy has provided exquisite images of the ever-changing land and ocean topography and global gravity field of the planet. We now enjoy an International Terrestrial Reference System with a time-dependent geocenter position accurate to a few millimeters. We can image small and large tectonic deformations of the surface before, during, and after earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. We measure both the past subtle changes as well as the recent dramatic changes in the ice sheets, and track global and regional sea-level change to a precision of a millimeter per year or better. The remarkable achievements of Earth observing missions over the past two decades, and the success of future international missions described in the Decadal Survey depend both implicitly and explicitly on the continued availability and enhancement of a reliable and resilient global infrastructure for precise geodesy, and on ongoing advances in geodetic science that are linked to it. This allows us to deal with global scientific, technological and social issues such as climate change and natural hazards, but the impact of the global precise geodetic infrastructure also permeates our everyday lives. Nowadays drivers, aviators, and sailors can determine their positions inexpensively to meter precision in real time, anywhere on the planet. In the foreseeable future, not only will we be able to know a vehicle’s position to centimeter accuracy in real time, but also to control that position, and thus introduce autonomous navigation systems for many tasks which are beyond the reach of “manual” navigation capabilities. This vision will only be realized with sustained international support of the precise global geodetic

  17. Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future

  18. Earth Matters: Studies for Our Global Future. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Pamela, Ed.

    This teacher's guide helps students explore the connection between human population growth and the well-being of the planet. Twelve readings and 34 activities introduce high school students to global society and environmental issues such as climate change, biodiversity loss, gender equality, economics, poverty, energy, wildlife endangerment, waste…

  19. Adventures on Earth: Exploring Our Global Links. A Classroom Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durbin, Stefanie, Ed.

    This classroom guide uses a series of interactive lessons to provide middle and high school students with the foundation to address complex issues of how people use the environment, the factors (demographic, socioeconomic, political, and cultural) that affect human use of resources, and the local and global environmental impact of people's actions…

  20. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  1. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  2. Characterizing the Purple Earth: Modeling the globally integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; López, R.; Montañés-Rodríguez, P.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutiérrez-Navarro, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. However, the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3.0 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet was purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and purple bacteria concentration/distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  3. Characterizing the Purple Earth: Modeling the Globally Integrated Spectral Variability of the Archean Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kiang, N. Y.; Gutiérrez-Navarro, A. M.; López, R.; Montañés-Rodríguez, P.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing searches for exoplanetary systems have revealed a wealth of planets with diverse physical properties. Planets even smaller than the Earth have already been detected and the efforts of future missions are aimed at the discovery, and perhaps characterization, of small rocky exoplanets within the habitable zone of their stars. Clearly, what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of such planets. However, the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 Gyr and its appearance has changed with time. Here, we have studied the Earth during the Archean eon, 3.0 Gyr ago. At that time, one of the more widespread life forms on the planet was purple bacteria. These bacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms and can inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Here, we use a radiative transfer model to simulate the visible and near-infrared radiation reflected by our planet, taking into account several scenarios regarding the possible distribution of purple bacteria over continents and oceans. We find that purple bacteria have a reflectance spectrum that has a strong reflectivity increase, similar to the red edge of leafy plants, although shifted redward. This feature produces a detectable signal in the disk-averaged spectra of our planet, depending on cloud amount and purple bacteria concentration/distribution. We conclude that by using multi-color photometric observations, it is possible to distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation, or microbial mats.

  4. Design of zero reference codes by means of a global optimization method.

    PubMed

    Saez-Landete, José; Alonso, José; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2005-01-10

    The grating measurement systems can be used for displacement and angle measurements. They require of zero reference codes to obtain zero reference signals and absolute measures. The zero reference signals are obtained from the autocorrelation of two identical zero reference codes. The design of codes which generate optimum signals is rather complex, especially for larges codes. In this paper we present a global optimization method, a DIRECT algorithm for the design of zero reference codes. This method proves to be a powerful tool for solving this inverse problem.

  5. Design of zero reference codes by means of a global optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saez Landete, José; Alonso, José; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2005-01-01

    The grating measurement systems can be used for displacement and angle measurements. They require of zero reference codes to obtain zero reference signals and absolute measures. The zero reference signals are obtained from the autocorrelation of two identical zero reference codes. The design of codes which generate optimum signals is rather complex, especially for larges codes. In this paper we present a global optimization method, a DIRECT algorithm for the design of zero reference codes. This method proves to be a powerful tool for solving this inverse problem.

  6. Use of global positioning system measurements to determine geocentric coordinates and variations in Earth orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, R. P.; Wu, S.-C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Geocentric tracking station coordinates and short-period Earth-orientation variations can be measured with Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. Unless calibrated, geocentric coordinate errors and changes in Earth orientation can lead to significant deep-space tracking errors. Ground-based GPS estimates of daily and subdaily changes in Earth orientation presently show centimeter-level precision. Comparison between GPS-estimated Earth-rotation variations, which are the differences between Universal Time 1 and Universal Coordinated Time (UT1-UTC), and those calculated from ocean tide models suggests that observed subdaily variations in Earth rotation are dominated by oceanic tidal effects. Preliminary GPS estimates for the geocenter location (from a 3-week experiment) agree with independent satellite laser-ranging estimates to better than 10 cm. Covariance analysis predicts that temporal resolution of GPS estimates for Earth orientation and geocenter improves significantly when data collected from low Earth-orbiting satellites as well as from ground sites are combined. The low Earth GPS tracking data enhance the accuracy and resolution for measuring high-frequency global geodynamical signals over time scales of less than 1 day.

  7. Global calibration of terrestrial reference cells and errors involved in using different irradiance monitoring techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of global calibration of terrestrial reference cells is discussed. A simple, accurate 'secondary' calibration technique based on ratios of test to reference cell currents measured in natural sunlight is described. Different techniques for monitoring incident irradiance during solar cell performance measurements are also examined and assessed, including the techniques of black-body detectors, calibrated reference cells, and the convolution of spectral response with solar irradiance.

  8. a Near-Global Bare-Earth dem from Srtm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, J. C.; Read, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    The near-global elevation product from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) has been widely used since its release in 2005 at 3 arcsecond resolution and the release of the 1 arcsecond version in late 2014 means that the full potential of the SRTM DEM can now be realised. However the routine use of SRTM for analytical purposes such as catchment hydrology, flood inundation, habitat mapping and soil mapping is still seriously impeded by the presence of artefacts in the data, primarily the offsets due to tree cover and the random noise. This paper describes the algorithms being developed to remove those offsets, based on the methods developed to produce the Australian national elevation model from SRTM data. The offsets due to trees are estimated using the GlobeLand30 (National Geomatics Center of China) and Global Forest Change (University of Maryland) products derived from Landsat, along with the ALOS PALSAR radar image data (JAXA) and the global forest canopy height map (NASA). The offsets are estimated using several processes and combined to produce a single continuous tree offset layer that is subtracted from the SRTM data. The DEM products will be made freely available on completion of the first draft product, and the assessment of that product is expected to drive further improvements to the methods.

  9. Free Global Dsm Assessment on Large Scale Areas Exploiting the Potentialities of the Innovative Google Earth Engine Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascetti, A.; Di Rita, M.; Ravanelli, R.; Amicuzi, M.; Esposito, S.; Crespi, M.

    2017-05-01

    The high-performance cloud-computing platform Google Earth Engine has been developed for global-scale analysis based on the Earth observation data. In particular, in this work, the geometric accuracy of the two most used nearly-global free DSMs (SRTM and ASTER) has been evaluated on the territories of four American States (Colorado, Michigan, Nevada, Utah) and one Italian Region (Trentino Alto- Adige, Northern Italy) exploiting the potentiality of this platform. These are large areas characterized by different terrain morphology, land covers and slopes. The assessment has been performed using two different reference DSMs: the USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) and a LiDAR acquisition. The DSMs accuracy has been evaluated through computation of standard statistic parameters, both at global scale (considering the whole State/Region) and in function of the terrain morphology using several slope classes. The geometric accuracy in terms of Standard deviation and NMAD, for SRTM range from 2-3 meters in the first slope class to about 45 meters in the last one, whereas for ASTER, the values range from 5-6 to 30 meters. In general, the performed analysis shows a better accuracy for the SRTM in the flat areas whereas the ASTER GDEM is more reliable in the steep areas, where the slopes increase. These preliminary results highlight the GEE potentialities to perform DSM assessment on a global scale.

  10. How to protect the Earth from Global warming by means of Sunlight Shield Equipments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, H.

    2010-09-01

    The Earth is getting warmer because excess carbon dioxide of the Earth's atmosphere. Many studies are proceeding in the world in order to prevent global warming. Three methods are studied: (1) How to reduce carbon dioxide of the Earth's atmosphere. For example, more trees will be planted and carbon dioxide is changed to oxygen and carbon. (2) How to reduce carbon dioxide emission that human activity makes. (3) How to protect the Earth from global warming. The first or the second method has been studied, and they do not immediately protect the Earth from global warming. On the other hand the third method has an immediate effect. Sunlight shield effects of a cloud or tiny sulfur in the air have been studied. The author has proposed a sunlight shield equipment which is composed of a flat balloon. Balloon's surface has a mirror function. The sunlight shield equipment is set at the stratosphere and its surface reflects sunlight to the space. It is different temperature between daytime and night time, because the earth is heated by the sun during only daytime. Temperature of the Earth could be controlled by controlling an amount of a sunlight power which the earth receives from the sun. In other word, when many sunlight shield equipments are set and operated at the stratosphere, and an amount of sunlight, which the earth receives from the sun, could be controlled. For example, when an amount of the sunlight power, which the earth receives, decreases one percent, a mean value of the earth temperature deceases about one centigrade. In order to decrease one percent of a sunlight power which the earth receives, it is required that many sunlight shield equipments are distributively set and operated, and the gross area of many sunlight shield equipments is equal to 5,060,000 km squares. When a size of a sunlight shield equipment is equal to 5 km squares, about one million of sunlight shield equipments are necessary, and a large scale of cost is required. Therefore, an

  11. Uncovering the Global Life Cycles of the Rare Earth Elements

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T. E.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements. PMID:22355662

  12. Uncovering the global life cycles of the rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T E

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements.

  13. Uncovering the Global Life Cycles of the Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T. E.

    2011-11-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements.

  14. Trace constituent updates in the Marshall engineering thermosphere and global reference atmospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.

    2006-01-01

    Global reference atmospheric model (GRAM-99) is an engineering-level model of Earth's atmosphere. It provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly and geographically varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0 to 27 km, GRAM thermodynamics and winds are based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. Above 120 km, GRAM is based on the NASA Marshall engineering thermosphere (MET) model. In the intervening altitude region, GRAM is based on middle atmosphere program (MAP) climatology that also forms the basis of the 1986 COSPAR International reference atmosphere (CIRA). Atmospheric composition is represented in GRAM by concentrations of both major and minor species. Above 120 km, MET provides concentration values for N 2, O 2, Ar, O, He, and H. Below 120 km, represented species also include H 2O, O 3, N 2O, CO, CH 4, and CO 2. At 34th COSPAR a comparison was made between GRAM constituents below 120 km and those provided by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) climatology. No current need to update GRAM constituent climatology in that height range was identified. This report examines GRAM/MET constituents between 100 and 1000 km altitudes. Internal discrepancies are noted between GRAM/MET constituent number densities and mass density or molecular weight. Near 110 km altitude, there is up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mass density (with mass density being valid and number densities requiring adjustment). Near 700 km altitude there is also up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mean molecular weight (with molecular weight requiring adjustment). In neither case are MET mass density estimates invalidated. The discrepancies have been traced to MET subroutines SLV (which affects 90-170 km height range) and SLVH (which affects helium above 440 km altitude). With these discrepancies corrected, results are

  15. Global variations in azimuthal anisotropy of the Earth's upper mantle and crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation within the Earth's crust and mantle often results in crystallographic preferred orientations that produce measurable seismic anisotropy. Shear wave splitting measurements have the benefit of excellent lateral resolution and are an unambiguous indicator of the presence of seismic anisotropy; however, they suffer from poor depth resolution (integrated measurement from CMB to surface), in addition to being geographically limited (measurements only made at seismometer locations). The analysis of surface wave propagation also provides insight into the azimuthal variations in wave-speed, but with significantly better depth resolution. Thanks to the rapid increase in the number of seismic stations around the world, increasingly accurate, high-resolution 3D models of azimuthal anisotropy can be calculated using surface-wave tomography. We present our new global, azimuthally anisotropic model of the upper mantle and the crust. Compared to its recent predecessor, SL2013sv (Schaeffer and Lebedev, 2013), it is constrained by an even larger waveform fit dataset (>900,000 versus 712,000 vertical-component seismograms, respectively) and was computed using a more precise regularization of anisotropy, tuned to honour the amplitude and orientation of the anisotropic terms uniformly, including near the poles. Automated, multimode waveform inversion was used to extract structural information from surface and S wave forms, yielding resolving power from the crust down to the transition zone. Our unprecedentedly large waveform dataset, with complementary high-resolution regional arrays (including USArray) and global network sub-sets within it, produces improved resolution of global azimuthal anisotropy patterns. The model also reveals smaller scale patterns of 3D anisotropy variations related to regional lithospheric deformation and mantle flow, in particular in densely sampled regions. In oceanic regions, we examine the strength of azimuthal anisotropy, as a function of

  16. Impact of global dimming on reference evapotranspiration in Hai River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, N.; Zeng, X.; Sun, H.

    2015-05-01

    Global radiation can impact the surface energy balance and hydrological cycle. This study analysed changes in global radiation in Hai River basin, China during 1960 to 2012. Global radiation decreased significantly from 1960 to 1989 and increased from 1990 to 2012, which has been described as "from dimming to brightening". Sunshine duration was used as a proxy index where radiation records were unavailable. Results showed that sunshine duration (for 45 stations) show a significant decreasing trend from 1960 to 2012, which was a little different to global radiation (for 6 stations) during the brightening phase. Penman-Monteith model was used for estimating trends of reference evapotranspiration. The consistency of temporal and spatial variations in sunshine duration and reference evapotranspiration was examined during the periods 1960-1989 and 1990-2012. The results showed that the annual reference evapotranspiration trend was consistent with the sunshine duration trend (both were decreasing for 37 of the 45 stations) during 1960 to 1989, followed by an upward trend (for 26 of the 45 stations) from 1990, while the annual sunshine duration indicated a downward trend (for all 45 stations) during the whole period 1960-2012. Overall, global dimming could be the dominant factor for the decreased reference evapotranspiration from 1960 to 1989, while the increased reference evapotranspiration from 1990 to 2012 could be driven by other meteorological variables, especially global warming.

  17. War: The Global Battlefield. Our Only Earth. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae-Campbell, Linda; McKisson, Micki

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land, and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  18. Earth System Dynamics: The Determination and Interpretation of the Global Angular Momentum Budget using the Earth Observing System. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this investigation has been to examine the mass and momentum exchange between the atmosphere, oceans, solid Earth, hydrosphere, and cryosphere. The investigation has focused on changes in the Earth's gravity field, its rotation rate, atmospheric and oceanic circulation, global sea level change, ice sheet change, and global ground water circulation observed by contemporary sensors and models. The primary component of the mass exchange is water. The geodetic observables provided by these satellite sensors are used to study the transport of water mass in the hydrological cycle from one component of the Earth to another, and they are also used to evaluate the accuracy of models. As such, the investigation is concerned with the overall global water cycle. This report provides a description of scientific, educational and programmatic activities conducted during the period July 1, 1999 through June 30,2000. Research has continued into measurements of time-varying gravity and its relationship to Earth rotation. Variability of angular momentum and the related excitation of polar motion and Earth rotation have been examined for the atmosphere and oceans at time-scales of weeks to several years. To assess the performance of hydrologic models, we have compared geodetic signals derived from them with those observed by satellites. One key component is the interannual mass variability of the oceans obtained by direct observations from altimetry after removing steric signals. Further studies have been conducted on the steric model to quantify its accuracy at global and basin-scales. The results suggest a significant loss of water mass from the Oceans to the land on time-scales longer than 1-year. These signals are not reproduced in any of the models, which have poorly determined interannual fresh water fluxes. Output from a coupled atmosphere-ocean model testing long-term climate change hypotheses has been compared to simulated errors from the Gravity Recovery and

  19. A review of the US Global Change Research Program and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Anderson, James G.; Costanza, Robert; Gates, W. Lawrence; Grew, Priscilla C.; Leinen, Margaret S.; Mayewski, Paul A.; McCarthy, James J.; Sellers, Piers J.

    1995-01-01

    This report reflects the results of a ten-day workshop convened at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography July 19-28, 1995. The workshop was convened as the first phase of a two part review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). The workshop was organized to provide a review of the scientific foundations and progress to date in the USGCRP and an assessment of the implications of new scientific insights for future USGCRP and Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System (MTPE/EOS) activities; a review of the role of NASA's MTPE/EOS program in the USGCRP observational strategy; a review of the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) as a component of USGCRP data management activities; and an assessment of whether recent developments in the following areas lead to a need to readjust MTPE/EOS plans. Specific consideration was given to: proposed convergence of U.S. environmental satellite systems and programs, evolving international plans for Earth observation systems, advances in technology, and potential expansion of the role of the private sector. The present report summarizes the findings and recommendations developed by the Committee on Global Change Research on the basis of the presentations, background materials, working group deliberations, and plenary discussions of the workshop. In addition, the appendices include summaries prepared by the six working groups convened in the course of the workshop.

  20. Global single ion effects within the Earth's plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothwell, Paul L.; Yates, G. Kenneth

    Two global properties of single ion motion in the magnetotail are examined. The first effect is caused by the magnetic field in the plasma sheet directing boundary ions to the neutral sheet. Exact solutions to the Lorentz equation indicate that these ions can have sufficient energy to trigger the ion tearing mode if Bo/aBz > 6.0, where Bo is the tail lobe magnetic field, Bz is the magnetic field in the north-south direction and `a' is a parameter related to the growth of the ion tearing instability. It is found that this effect occurs at a lower energy for oxygen than for protons. The second global property is related to the thinning or expansion of the plasma sheet. The results indicate that in the absence of reconnection the plasma sheet adiabatically maintains equilibruim by allowing plasma and magnetic flux to cross the boundaries. The presence of reconnection modifies the flow across the boundaries as well as the spatial distribution of the induced electric field.

  1. Global single ion effects within the earth's plasma sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothwell, P. L.; Yates, G. K.

    Two global properties of single-ion motion in the magnetotail are examined. The first effect is caused by the magnetic field in the plasma sheet directing boundary ions to the neutral sheet. Exact solutions to the Lorentz equation indicate that these ions can have sufficient energy to trigger the ion tearing mode if B0/aBz is greater than 6.0, where B0 is the tail-lobe magnetic field, Bz is the magnetic field in the north-south direction, and a is a parameter related to the growth of the ion tearing instability. It is found that this effect occurs at a lower energy for oxygen than for protons. The second global property is related to the thinning or expansion of the plasma sheet. In the absence of reconnection, the plasma sheet adiabatically maintains equilibrium by allowing plasma and magnetic flux to cross the boundaries. The presence of reconnection modifies the flow across the boundaries as well as the spatial distribution of the induced electric field.

  2. Global Change Research Related in the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Linda R.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle is to enhance the scientific knowledge and educational benefits obtained from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the U.S. Global Change Research Program, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). This paper presents the final technical report on this collaborative effort. Various appendices include: A) Staff Travel Activities years one through three; B) Publications and Presentations years one through three; C) Education Activities; D) Students year one through three; E) Seminars year one through three; and F) Center for Applied Optics Projects.

  3. Global Cooperation in the Science of Sun-Earth Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Davila, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The international space science community had recognized the importance of space weather more than a decade ago, which resulted in a number of international collaborative activities such as the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI), the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by SCOSTEP and the International Living with a Star (ILWS) program. These programs have brought scientists together to tackle the scientific issues related to short and long term variability of the Sun and the consequences in the heliosphere. The ISWI program is a continuation of the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) 2007 program in focusing on science, observatory deployment, and outreach. The IHY/ISWI observatory deployment has not only filled voids in data coverage, but also inducted young scientists from developing countries into the scientific community. The ISWI schools and UN workshops are the primary venues for interaction and information exchange among scientists from developing and developed countries that lead to collaborative efforts in space weather. This paper presents a summary of ISWI activities that promote space weather science via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach.

  4. Solar turbulence in earth's global and regional temperature anomalies.

    PubMed

    Scafetta, Nicola; Grigolini, Paolo; Imholt, Timothy; Roberts, Jim; West, Bruce J

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents a study of the influence of solar activity on the earth's temperature. In particular, we focus on the repercussion of the fluctuations of the solar irradiance on the temperature of the Northern and Southern hemispheres as well as on land and ocean regions. While solar irradiance data are not directly analyzed, we make use of a published solar irradiance reconstruction for long-time-scale fluctuations, and for short-time-scale fluctuations we hypothesize that solar irradiance and solar flare intermittency are coupled in such a way that the solar flare frequency fluctuations are stochastically equivalent to those of the solar irradiance. The analysis is based upon wavelet multiresolution techniques and scaling analysis methods for processing time series. The limitations of the correlation analysis applied to the short-time-scale fluctuations are discussed. The scaling analysis uses both the standard deviation and the entropy of the diffusion generated by the temperature signals. The joint use of these two scaling methods yields evidence of a Lévy component in the temporal persistence of the temperature fluctuations within the temporal range from a few weeks to a few years. This apparent Lévy persistence of the temperature fluctuations is found, by using an appropriate model, to be equivalent to the Lévy scaling of the solar flare intermittency. The mean monthly temperature data sets cover the period from 1856 to 2002.

  5. Population Growth. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Judith E.

    The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module concentrates on interactions between population growth and human activities that produce global change. The materials are designed for undergraduate students…

  6. Population Growth. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Judith E.

    The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module concentrates on interactions between population growth and human activities that produce global change. The materials are designed for undergraduate students…

  7. Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Institute for Global Change Research and Education (IGCRE) is a joint initiative of the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) for coordinating and facilitating research and education relevant to global environmental change. Created in 1992 with primary support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), IGCRE fosters participation by university, private sector and government scientists who seek to develop long-term collaborative research in global change science, focusing on the role of water and energy in the Earth's atmosphere and physical climate system. IGCRE is also chartered to address educational needs of Earth system and global change science, including the preparation of future scientists and training of primary and secondary education teachers.

  8. A global multicenter study on reference values: 1. Assessment of methods for derivation and comparison of reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Ozarda, Yesim; Barth, Julian H; Klee, George; Qiu, Ling; Erasmus, Rajiv; Borai, Anwar; Evgina, Svetlana; Ashavaid, Tester; Khan, Dilshad; Schreier, Laura; Rolle, Reynan; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Kimura, Shogo; Kawano, Reo; Armbruster, David; Mori, Kazuo; Yadav, Binod K

    2017-04-01

    The IFCC Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits coordinated a global multicenter study on reference values (RVs) to explore rational and harmonizable procedures for derivation of reference intervals (RIs) and investigate the feasibility of sharing RIs through evaluation of sources of variation of RVs on a global scale. For the common protocol, rather lenient criteria for reference individuals were adopted to facilitate harmonized recruitment with planned use of the latent abnormal values exclusion (LAVE) method. As of July 2015, 12 countries had completed their study with total recruitment of 13,386 healthy adults. 25 analytes were measured chemically and 25 immunologically. A serum panel with assigned values was measured by all laboratories. RIs were derived by parametric and nonparametric methods. The effect of LAVE methods is prominent in analytes which reflect nutritional status, inflammation and muscular exertion, indicating that inappropriate results are frequent in any country. The validity of the parametric method was confirmed by the presence of analyte-specific distribution patterns and successful Gaussian transformation using the modified Box-Cox formula in all countries. After successful alignment of RVs based on the panel test results, nearly half the analytes showed variable degrees of between-country differences. This finding, however, requires confirmation after adjusting for BMI and other sources of variation. The results are reported in the second part of this paper. The collaborative study enabled us to evaluate rational methods for deriving RIs and comparing the RVs based on real-world datasets obtained in a harmonized manner. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Long-Wave Infrared Earth Image as a Pointing Reference for Deep-Space Optical Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, A.; Piazzolla, S.; Peterson, G.; Ortiz, G. G.; Hemmati, H.

    2006-11-01

    Optical communications from space require an absolute pointing reference. Whereas at near-Earth and even planetary distances out to Mars and Jupiter a laser beacon transmitted from Earth can serve as such a pointing reference, for farther distances extending to the outer reaches of the solar system, the means for meeting this requirement remains an open issue. We discuss in this article the prospects and consequences of utilizing the Earth image sensed in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral band as a beacon to satisfy the absolute pointing requirements. We have used data from satellite-based thermal measurements of Earth to synthesize images at various ranges and have shown the centroiding accuracies that can be achieved with prospective LWIR image sensing arrays. The nonuniform emissivity of Earth causes a mispointing bias error term that exceeds a provisional pointing budget allocation when using simple centroiding algorithms. Other issues related to implementing thermal imaging of Earth from deep space for the purposes of providing a pointing reference are also reported.

  10. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Observations of the Earth from space over the past 30 years has enabled an increasingly detailed view of our Earth's atmosphere, land, oceans, and cryosphere, and its many alterations over time. With the advent of improvements in technology, together with increased understanding of the physical principles of remote sensing, it is now possible to routinely observe the global distribution of atmospheric constituents, including both cloud and aerosol optical properties, land surface reflectance, sea ice and glaciers, and numerous properties of the world's oceans. This talk will review the current status of recent NASA Earth observing missions, and summarize key findings. These missions include EOS missions such as Landsat 7, QuikScat, Terra, Jason-1, Aqua, ICESat, SORCE, and Aura, as well as Earth probe missions such as TRMM and SeaWiFS. Recent findings from Cloud- Sat and CALIPSO from the Earth System Science Pathfinder program will also be summarized, if time permits. Due to its wide utilization by the Earth science community, both in the US and abroad, special emphasis will be placed on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft in 1999 and the Aqua spacecraft in 2002. As the quintessential instrument of the Earth Observing System, it is widely used for studies of the oceans, land, and atmosphere, and its lengthening time series of Earth observations is finding utilization in many communities for both climate, weather, and applications use.

  11. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Observations of the Earth from space over the past 30 years has enabled an increasingly detailed view of our Earth's atmosphere, land, oceans, and cryosphere, and its many alterations over time. With the advent of improvements in technology, together with increased understanding of the physical principles of remote sensing, it is now possible to routinely observe the global distribution of atmospheric constituents, including both cloud and aerosol optical properties, land surface reflectance, sea ice and glaciers, and numerous properties of the world's oceans. This talk will review the current status of recent NASA Earth observing missions, and summarize key findings. These missions include EOS missions such as Landsat 7, QuikScat, Terra, Jason-1, Aqua, ICESat, SORCE, and Aura, as well as Earth probe missions such as TRMM and SeaWiFS. Recent findings from Cloud- Sat and CALIPSO from the Earth System Science Pathfinder program will also be summarized, if time permits. Due to its wide utilization by the Earth science community, both in the US and abroad, special emphasis will be placed on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft in 1999 and the Aqua spacecraft in 2002. As the quintessential instrument of the Earth Observing System, it is widely used for studies of the oceans, land, and atmosphere, and its lengthening time series of Earth observations is finding utilization in many communities for both climate, weather, and applications use.

  12. Environmental Defects And Economic Impact On Global Market Of Rare Earth Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampides, G.; Vatalis, K.; Karayannis, V.; Baklavaridis, A.

    2016-11-01

    Rare earth elements include the 14 lanthanides as well as lanthanium and often yttrium. Actually, most of them are not very rare and occur widely dispersed in a variety of rocks. Rare earth metals are vital to some of the world's faster growing industries: catalysts, Nd-magnets, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, battery alloys, electronics and phosphors. Worldwide, the main countries for distribution of rare earths deposits include China, USA, Russia, Brasil, India, Australia, Greenland and Malaysia. The mining and processing of rare earth metals usually result in significant environmental defects. Many deposits are associated with high concentrations of radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium, which requires separate treatment and disposal. The accumulation of rare earth elements in soils has occurred due to pollution caused by the exploitation of rare earth resources and the wide use of rare earths as fertilizers in agriculture. This accumulation has a toxic effect on the soil microfauna community. However, there are large differences in market prices due to the degree of purity determined by the specifications in the applications. The main focus of this article is to overview Rare Earth Metals’ overall impact on global economy and their environmental defects on soils during processing techniques and as they are used as fertilizers.

  13. Sensing the Earth using Global Navigation Satellite System signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Rizos, Chris; Rius, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    International Workshop on GNSS Remote Sensing for Future Missions and Sciences; Shanghai, China, 7-9 August 2011 The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has been widely used in navigation, positioning, and geoscience applications. Recently, the versatility of GNSS as a new remote sensing tool has been demonstrated with the use of refracted, reflected, and scattered GNSS signals to sound the atmosphere and ionosphere, ocean, land surfaces (including soil moisture), and cryosphere. Existing GPS radio occultation (RO) missions—e.g., the U.S.-Argentina SAC-C, German Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP), U.S.-Germany Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), Taiwan-U.S. Formosa Satellite Mission-3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC) satellites, German TerraSAR-X satellite, and European MetOp—together with groundbased GNSS observations, have provided precise and high-resolution information on tropospheric water vapor, pressure, temperature, tropopause parameters, ionospheric total electron content, and electron density profiles. GNSS signals reflected from the ocean and land surface can determine the ocean height, ocean surface wind speed and wind direction, soil moisture, and ice and snow thickness. With improvement expected due to the next generation of multifrequency GNSS systems and receivers, and new space-based instruments tracking GNSS reflected and refracted signals, new scientific applications of GNSS are expected in the near future across a number of environmental remote sensing fields.

  14. Monitoring the Earth's Atmosphere with the Global IMS Infrasound Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachet, Nicolas; Brown, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Le Bras, Ronan; Coyne, John; Given, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is tasked with monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) which bans nuclear weapon explosions underground, in the oceans, and in the atmosphere. The verification regime includes a globally distributed network of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide stations which collect and transmit data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria shortly after the data are recorded at each station. The infrasound network defined in the Protocol of the CTBT comprises 60 infrasound array stations. Each array is built according to the same technical specifications, it is typically composed of 4 to 9 sensors, with 1 to 3 km aperture geometry. At the end of 2000 only one infrasound station was transmitting data to the IDC. Since then, 41 additional stations have been installed and 70% of the infrasound network is currently certified and contributing data to the IDC. This constitutes the first global infrasound network ever built with such a large and uniform distribution of stations. Infrasound data at the IDC are processed at the station level using the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) method for the detection and measurement of infrasound signals. The algorithm calculates the signal correlation between sensors at an infrasound array. If the signal is sufficiently correlated and consistent over an extended period of time and frequency range a detection is created. Groups of detections are then categorized according to their propagation and waveform features, and a phase name is assigned for infrasound, seismic or noise detections. The categorization complements the PMCC algorithm to avoid overwhelming the IDC automatic association algorithm with false alarm infrasound events. Currently, 80 to 90% of the detections are identified as noise by the system. Although the noise detections are not used to build events in the context of CTBT monitoring

  15. Managing Planet Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, William C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the human use of the planet earth. Describes the global patterns and the regional aspects of change. Four requirements for the cultivation of leadership and institutional competence are suggested. Lists five references for further reading. (YP)

  16. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, michael D.

    2005-01-01

    A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. See the latest spectacular images from NASA remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man s impact on our world s environment. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights. Shown in high resolution are visualizations of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique. See flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, as well as satellite imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001, and how new satellite tools can be used to help fight these disasters from spreading further. See where and when lightning occurs globally, and how dramatic urbanization has been in the desert southwest since 1910. Spectacular visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown. Learn when and where carbon is absorbed by vegetation on the land and ocean as the product of photosynthesis. See demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricanes and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites, and how hurricanes can modify the sea surface temperature in their wake. See massive dust storms in the Middle East as well as dust transport sweeping from north Africa across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. Learn where and how much the temperature of the Earth s surface has changed during the 20th century, as well as how sea ice has decreased over the Arctic region, how sea level has and is likely to continue to change, and how glaciers have

  17. Global demand for rare earth resources and strategies for green mining

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rare earths elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for the emerging green (low-carbon) energy technologies and ‘smart’ electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at a compound annual rate of 5% by 2020. Such high growth rate would require a steady supply base of REEs in the long ru...

  18. Utilizing Google Earth to Teach Students about Global Oil Spill Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guertin, Laura; Neville, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The United States is currently experiencing its worst man-made environmental disaster, the BP Deepwater Horizon oil leak. The Gulf of Mexico oil spill is severe in its impact, but it is only one of several global oil spill disasters in history. Students can utilize the technology of Google Earth to explore the spatial and temporal distribution of…

  19. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    The Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) was founded in 1989 as a non-profit corporation dedicated to facilitating access to, use and understanding of global change information worldwide. The Consortium was created to cooperate and coordinate with organizations and researchers throughout the global change community to further access the most advanced technology, the latest scientific research, and the best information available for critical environmental decision making. CIESIN study efforts are guided by Congressional mandates to 'convene key present and potential users to assess the need for investment in integration of earth science information,' to 'outline the desirable pattern of interaction with the scientific and policy community,' and to 'develop recommendations and draft plans to achieve the appropriate level of effort in the use of earth science data for research and public policy purposes.' In addition, CIESIN is tasked by NASA to develop a data center that would extend the benefits of Earth Observing System (EOS) to the users of global change information related to human dimensions issues. For FY 1991, CIESIN focused on two main objectives. The first addressed the identification of information needs of global change research and non-research user groups worldwide. The second focused on an evaluation of the most efficient mechanisms for making this information available in usable forms.

  20. NASA's Earth Observations of the Global Environment: Our Changing Planet and the View from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the latest spectacular images from NASA's remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man's impact on our world's environment. Visualizations of global data currently available from Earth orbiting satellites include the Earth at night with its city lights, high resolutions of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique as well as flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001. Visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown and demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricane and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites are are presented with other topics with a dynamic theater-style , along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.

  1. Utilizing Google Earth to Teach Students about Global Oil Spill Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guertin, Laura; Neville, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The United States is currently experiencing its worst man-made environmental disaster, the BP Deepwater Horizon oil leak. The Gulf of Mexico oil spill is severe in its impact, but it is only one of several global oil spill disasters in history. Students can utilize the technology of Google Earth to explore the spatial and temporal distribution of…

  2. GLOBAL EARTH OBSERVATION SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS (GEOSS) REMOTE SENSING INFORMATION GATEWAY DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    How do forest fires in a state or country impact the health of residents, living thousands of miles away? How do we better track the effects of heavy urban rain runoff into nearby lakes to provide unprecedented access to and use of global Earth observation information to track, ...

  3. GLOBAL EARTH OBSERVATION SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS (GEOSS) REMOTE SENSING INFORMATION GATEWAY DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    How do forest fires in a state or country impact the health of residents, living thousands of miles away? How do we better track the effects of heavy urban rain runoff into nearby lakes to provide unprecedented access to and use of global Earth observation information to track, ...

  4. Validation of Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) and planned new features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.

    2006-01-01

    For altitudes below 80 km, Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) is based on output climatology from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). At COSPAR 2002, results were presented of validation tests of Mars-GRAM versus data from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Radio Science (RS) experiment. Further validation tests are presented comparing Mars-GRAM densities with those from the European Mars Climate Database (MCD), and comparing densities from both Mars-GRAM and MCD against TES observations. Throughout most of the height and latitude range of TES data (0-40 km and 70S to 70N), good agreement is found between atmospheric densities from Mars-GRAM and MCD. However, at the season and latitude zone for Mars Phoenix arrival and landing ( Ls = 65°-80° and latitude 65N to 75N), Mars-GRAM densities are about 30%-45% higher than MCD densities near 40 km altitude. Further evaluation is warranted concerning potential impact of these model differences on planning for Phoenix entry and descent. Three planned features for Mars-GRAM update are also discussed: (1) new MGCM and Thermospheric General Circulation Model data sets to be used as a revised basis for Mars-GRAM mean atmosphere, (2) a new feature to represent planetary-scale traveling waves for upper altitude density variations (such as found during Mars Odyssey aerobraking), and (3) a new model for effects of high resolution topographic slope on winds near the surface (0-4.5 km above Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topography level). Mars-GRAM slope winds will be computed from a diagnostic (algebraic) relationship based on Ye et al. [Ye, Z.J., Segal, M., Pielke, R.A., A comparative study of daytime thermally induced upslope flow on Mars and Earth, J. Atmos. Sci. 47(5), 612-628, 1990]. This approach differs from mesoscale models (such as Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and Mars Mesoscale Model Version 5), which use prognostic, full-physics solutions of the

  5. Advancement of Global-scale River Hydrodynamics Modelling and Its Potential Applications to Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, D.

    2015-12-01

    Global river routine models have been developed for representing freshwater discharge from land to ocean in Earth System Models. At the beginning, global river models had simulated river discharge along a prescribed river network map by using a linear-reservoir assumption. Recently, in parallel with advancement of remote sensing and computational powers, many advanced global river models have started to represent floodplain inundation assuming sub-grid floodplain topography. Some of them further pursue physically-appropriate representation of river and floodplain dynamics, and succeeded to utilize "hydrodynamic flow equations" to realistically simulate channel/floodplain and upstream/downstream interactions. State-of-the-art global river hydrodynamic models can well reproduce flood stage (e.g. inundated areas and water levels) in addition to river discharge. Flood stage simulation by global river models can be potentially coupled with land surface processes in Earth System Models. For example, evaporation from inundated water area is not negligible for land-atmosphere interactions in arid areas (such as the Niger River). Surface water level and ground water level are correlated each other in flat topography, and this interaction could dominate wetting and drying of many small lakes in flatland and could also affect biogeochemical processes in these lakes. These land/surface water interactions had not been implemented in Earth System Models but they have potential impact on the global climate and carbon cycle. In the AGU presentation, recent advancements of global river hydrodynamic modelling, including super-high resolution river topography datasets, will be introduces. The potential applications of river and surface water modules within Earth System Models will be also discussed.

  6. Earth's global Ag, Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Jason N.; Pacyna, Jozef M.

    2009-06-01

    The stocks and flows of the global silver, aluminum, chromium, copper, iron, nickel, lead, and zinc cycles quantify over 98% of the total mass of metal mobilized by human activity at the turn of the 21st century. Iron and aluminum, representing >95% by mass of all metals mined, are for the first time assessed for global anthropogenic emissions to air, water, and land. Anthropogenic activity has significantly perturbed Earth's natural biogeochemical cycles, attested by the "grand nutrient" cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur and further revealed here by the "anthrobiogeochemical" cycles of metals. We demonstrate that humans today mobilize about half the metal mass of these global elemental metal cycles.

  7. Clouds and Climate Change. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module introduces the basic features and classifications of clouds and cloud cover, and explains how clouds form, what they are made of, what roles they play in…

  8. Clouds and Climate Change. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module introduces the basic features and classifications of clouds and cloud cover, and explains how clouds form, what they are made of, what roles they play in…

  9. Assessing global climate-terrestrial vegetation feedbacks on carbon and nitrogen cycling in the earth system model EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wårlind, David; Miller, Paul; Nieradzik, Lars; Söderberg, Fredrik; Anthoni, Peter; Arneth, Almut; Smith, Ben

    2017-04-01

    There has been great progress in developing an improved European Consortium Earth System Model (EC-Earth) in preparation for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) and the next Assessment Report of the IPCC. The new model version has been complemented with ocean biogeochemistry, atmospheric composition (aerosols and chemistry) and dynamic land vegetation components, and has been configured to use the recommended CMIP6 forcing data sets. These new components will give us fresh insights into climate change. This study focuses on the terrestrial biosphere component Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS) that simulates vegetation dynamics and compound exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere in EC-Earth. LPJ-GUESS allows for vegetation to dynamically evolve, depending on climate input, and in return provides the climate system and land surface scheme with vegetation-dependent fields such as vegetation types and leaf area index. We present the results of a study to examine the feedbacks between the dynamic terrestrial vegetation and the climate and their impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon and nitrogen cycles. Our results are based on a set of global, atmosphere-only historical simulations (1870 to 2014) with and without feedback between climate and vegetation and including or ignoring the effect of nitrogen limitation on plant productivity. These simulations show to what extent the addition degree of freedom in EC-Earth, introduced with the coupling of interactive dynamic vegetation to the atmosphere, has on terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycling, and represent contributions to CMIP6 (C4MIP and LUMIP) and the EU Horizon 2020 project CRESCENDO.

  10. A Direct Georeferencing Method for Terrestrial Laser Scanning Using GNSS Data and the Vertical Deflection from Global Earth Gravity Models

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Andrzej; Owczarek-Wesołowska, Magdalena; Gromczak, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning is an efficient technique in providing highly accurate point clouds for various geoscience applications. The point clouds have to be transformed to a well-defined reference frame, such as the global Geodetic Reference System 1980. The transformation to the geocentric coordinate frame is based on estimating seven Helmert parameters using several GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) referencing points. This paper proposes a method for direct point cloud georeferencing that provides coordinates in the geocentric frame. The proposed method employs the vertical deflection from an external global Earth gravity model and thus demands a minimum number of GNSS measurements. The proposed method can be helpful when the number of georeferencing GNSS points is limited, for instance in city corridors. It needs only two georeferencing points. The validation of the method in a field test reveals that the differences between the classical georefencing and the proposed method amount at maximum to 7 mm with the standard deviation of 8 mm for all of three coordinate components. The proposed method may serve as an alternative for the laser scanning data georeferencing, especially when the number of GNSS points is insufficient for classical methods. PMID:28672795

  11. Establishing the Antarctic Dome C community reference standard site towards consistent measurements from Earth observation satellites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cao, C.; Uprety, S.; Xiong, J.; Wu, A.; Jing, P.; Smith, D.; Chander, G.; Fox, N.; Ungar, S.

    2010-01-01

    of the framework for climate change detection and data quality assurance for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).

  12. Global Modeling and Projection of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants in an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Klimont, Z.; Kurokawa, J.; Akimoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    In predicting and mitigating future global warming, short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as tropospheric ozone (O3), black carbon (BC), and other related components including CH4/VOCs and aerosols play crucial roles as well as long-lived species like CO2 or N2O. Several recent studies suggests that reduction of heating SLCPs (i.e., O3 and black carbon) together with CH4 can decrease and delay the expected future warming, and can be an alternative to CO2 mitigation (Shindell et al., 2012). However it should be noted that there are still large uncertainties in simulating SLCPs and their climate impacts. For instance, present global models generally have a severe tendency to underestimate BC especially in remote areas like the polar regions as shown by the recent model intercomparison project under the IPCC (ACCMIP/AeroCOM). This problem in global BC modeling, basically coming from aging and removal processes of BC, causes still a large uncertainty in the estimate of BC's atmospheric heating and climate impacts (Bond et al., 2013; Kerr et al., 2013). This study attempted to improve global simulation of BC by developing a new scheme for simulating aging process of BC and re-evaluate radiative forcing of BC in the framework of a chemistry-aerosol coupled climate model (Earth system model) MIROC-ESM-CHEM. Our improved model with the new aging scheme appears to relatively well reproduce the observed BC concentrations and seasonality in the Arctic/Antarctic region. The new model estimates radiative forcing of BC to be 0.83 W m-2 which is about two times larger than the estimate by our original model with no aging scheme (0.41 W m-2), or the model ensemble mean in the IPCC report. Using this model, future projection of SLCPs and their climate impacts is conducted following the recent IIASA emission scenarios for the year 2030 (Klimont et al., 2006; Cofala et al., 2007). Our simulation suggests that heating SLCPs components (O3, BC, and CH4) are significantly reduced

  13. Iridium NEXT partnership for Earth observation: exploiting global satellite constellations for new remote sensing capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Om P.

    2008-08-01

    A unique opportunity exists to host up to 66 earth observation sensors on the Iridium NEXT LEO constellation in a manner that can revolutionize earth observation and weather predictions. A constellation approach to sensing, using the real-time communications backbone of Iridium, will enable unprecedented geospatial and temporal sampling for now-casting of weather on a global basis as well as global climate monitoring. The Iridium NEXT constellation, with 66 interconnected satellites in 6 near polar orbiting planes, provides a unique platform for hosting a variety of earth observation missions. The opportunity is proposed as a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) allowing for the sharing of infrastructure by government agencies. This has the potential to augment current and planned climate and weather observation programs in a very cost effective manner not achievable in any other way. Iridium, with the assistance of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), NASA, NOAA, and ESA, has evaluated a number of sensing missions that would be a good fit to the Iridium NEXT constellation. These include GPS radio occultation sensors, earth radiation budget measurements, radio altimetry, tropospheric and stratospheric winds measurements including polar winds measurements, and atmospheric chemistry. Iridium NEXT launches start in 2013 and constellation operational life will extend beyond 2030. Detailed feasibility studies on specific missions are planned to begin later this year.

  14. Data sharing: A critical foundation to advance global integrated Earth system science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, David; Doldirina, Catherine; Withee, Gregory

    A critical foundation for a successful Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is the exchange of observations recorded from in-situ, aircraft, and satellite networks in a full and open manner with minimum time delay and minimum cost, recognizing relevant international instruments and national policies and legislation. This is, in its simplest form, the GEOSS Data Sharing Principles, which initially were adopted at the First Earth Observation Summit on 31 July 2003 in Washington, United States. It was restated in the 2006-2015 GEOSS Implementation Plan, which is adopted by Group on Earth Observation (GEO) Members and Participating Organizations. Currently, there are 90 Members and 77 Participating Organizations. This paper will describe the evolution of data sharing within the GEO since announcing a principle, creating an action plan, establishing mechanisms, and witnessing progress. Topics include highlights from the 2009 Implementation Guidelines, 2010 GEOSS Data Sharing Action Plan, and GEO infrastructure activities such as the GEO Data Sharing Working Group, GEOSS Data-CORE, GEOSS Data Quality Guidelines, and others. The paper will conclude with audience suggestions on how to improve sharing of Earth observations to enhance understanding of the global integrated Earth system.

  15. A Provenance Visualization Tool for Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closa Santos, Guillem; Masó Pau, Joan

    2013-04-01

    The widespread use of the distributed environments in the Geographic Information Systems field had generated a broader access and a broader interchange of geographic information. This huge quantity of information, the heterogeneity of the origin of the data, and the complex functionalities involved in the creation of some geographical products can generate some problems in the reliability assessment process. Hence, this can affect to the quality of the results obtained from processing geographic information. In order to increase the trust of the data, the collection and the accessibility of detailed lineage information including responsibilities parties (part of the metadata that refers to the origin and the processes undertaken to obtain a specific geographic product, also known as provenance), is crucial to evaluate the quality of the resulting knowledge, to estimate the trustworthiness level offered by the Agents and the Processes, as well as to allow the reproducibility of the geographical information. Even there are several works related to this topic and some models have been created to integrate provenance information into the metadata standards, there are still some challenges in provenance-aware applications, like the interoperability of the provenance formats, automatic provenance registration and provenance visualization tools. The first goal of this communication is to analyze the state of the art in provenance visualization by comparing different approaches and methods. Secondly, we propose a tool for provenance visualization in Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) considering also the relation between provenance information and workflow processing in distributed environments e.g. Web Processing Services. This work is done in the context of the GeoViQua FP7 project.

  16. Determination of global Earth outgoing radiation at high temporal resolution using a theoretical constellation of satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gristey, Jake J.; Chiu, J. Christine; Gurney, Robert J.; Han, Shin-Chan; Morcrette, Cyril J.

    2017-01-01

    New, viable, and sustainable observation strategies from a constellation of satellites have attracted great attention across many scientific communities. Yet the potential for monitoring global Earth outgoing radiation using such a strategy has not been explored. To evaluate the potential of such a constellation concept and to investigate the configuration requirement for measuring radiation at a time resolution sufficient to resolve the diurnal cycle for weather and climate studies, we have developed a new recovery method and conducted a series of simulation experiments. Using idealized wide field-of-view broadband radiometers as an example, we find that a baseline constellation of 36 satellites can monitor global Earth outgoing radiation reliably to a spatial resolution of 1000 km at an hourly time scale. The error in recovered daily global mean irradiance is 0.16 W m-2 and -0.13 W m-2, and the estimated uncertainty in recovered hourly global mean irradiance from this day is 0.45 W m-2 and 0.15 W m-2, in the shortwave and longwave spectral regions, respectively. Sensitivity tests show that addressing instrument-related issues that lead to systematic measurement error remains of central importance to achieving similar accuracies in reality. The presented error statistics therefore likely represent the lower bounds of what could currently be achieved with the constellation approach, but this study demonstrates the promise of an unprecedented sampling capability for better observing the Earth's radiation budget.

  17. An update on Earth's energy balance in light of the latest global observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Li, Juilin; Wild, Martin; Clayson, Carol Anne; Loeb, Norman; Kato, Seiji; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Lebsock, Matthew; Andrews, Timothy

    2012-10-01

    Climate change is governed by changes to the global energy balance. At the top of the atmosphere, this balance is monitored globally by satellite sensors that provide measurements of energy flowing to and from Earth. By contrast, observations at the surface are limited mostly to land areas. As a result, the global balance of energy fluxes within the atmosphere or at Earth's surface cannot be derived directly from measured fluxes, and is therefore uncertain. This lack of precise knowledge of surface energy fluxes profoundly affects our ability to understand how Earth's climate responds to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. In light of compilations of up-to-date surface and satellite data, the surface energy balance needs to be revised. Specifically, the longwave radiation received at the surface is estimated to be significantly larger, by between 10 and 17 Wm-2, than earlier model-based estimates. Moreover, the latest satellite observations of global precipitation indicate that more precipitation is generated than previously thought. This additional precipitation is sustained by more energy leaving the surface by evaporation -- that is, in the form of latent heat flux -- and thereby offsets much of the increase in longwave flux to the surface.

  18. Selection of on-orbit references for Global Space Based Inter-Calibration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bali, M.; Flynn, L. E.; Weng, F.; Zou, C. Z.; Ferraro, R. R.; Pagano, T.

    2016-12-01

    On-orbit references play a vital role in the Global Space Based Inter-calibration System (GSICS ). GSICSmember agencies have used IASI-A, AIRS ( for IR monitoring) and MODIS ( for VIS Monitoring) as the on-orbitreferences to monitor their GEO ( SEVIRI, GOES, MTSAT) and LEO (AVHRR) instruments. The main idea is toselect a reference instrument that has a very stable and accurate global mean (temporal and geographical)measurements of the Top of Atmosphere radiance and inter-compare the monitored instrument with it. While this approach is able to select a reference instrument and empirically correct mean biases in themonitored instrument. This assumption is not enough if one were to re-calibrate the monitored instrumentin-order to permanently correct any biases. For a re-calibration one needs to know the cause of the biases forwhich it is important to select a reference instrument with minimal scan angle dependence of measurements,minimal temperature dependence bias and an extremely high stability so that its inter-comparison withmonitored instrument is able to reveal these biases in the monitored instrument and give more insights intoin-orbit calibration defects. Anomalies in the reference instrument also needs to be taken into account. The first goal of this presentation is to present a GSICS reference selection criterion( Weng 2016, Bali 2016)that uses stringent ( evaluates scan angle, spectral, temperature time dependent biases) conditions ofcandidate references to select reference instrument. We apply this on selection of IR and Microwaveinstruments and show that IASI -A, AIRS and CrIS fulfill our selection criterion. For the Microwave we show thatFundamental Climate Data Record ( FCDR, Zou 2016 ) fulfills the selection criterion and can act as a robustreference for monitoring the ATMS. We would also suggest a path forward to mitigate the impact of anomalies inreference instrument on inter-comparison results and suggest the use of `reference records' (Flynn and

  19. Earth is not flat: Global denudation occurs mostly in the mountains, not mainly on the plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, I. J.; Montgomery, D. R.; Greenberg, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    It has been thought for over a century that mountains influence global climate via links among rock uplift, erosion, chemical weathering, and the geological carbon cycle. The uplift-climate paradigm is vigorously debated and has been challenged; most recently on the basis of global denudation modeling by Willenbring et al. (2013) that concluded low-gradient topography, rather than steep mountains, dominates global sediment flux to oceans. Because erosion and weathering are linked, their findings imply that only a small fraction of Earth's chemical weathering occurs in mountains, and hence that mountain uplift does not contribute significantly to atmospheric CO2 drawdown. Because erosion (and hence weathering) rates increase non-linearly with increasing slope angles, appropriate representation of global topography is necessary to accurately model the flux of sediment and solutes to oceans. Here we quantify global denudation and chemical weathering rates and assess the proportion of the global denudation flux contributed by steep landscapes. In particular, we assess the role of digital elevation model (DEM) resolution in determining whether mountains or plains dominate material fluxes to oceans. We modeled global denudation using the denudation-slope relationship from Willenbring et al.'s (2013) compilation of catchment-scale 10Be measurements. The slope values used to calibrate the relationship are mean catchment slope values from the 3 arc-second SRTM DEM. Chemical weathering rates were modeled as a function of total denudation rate using relationships based on global soil and river data. We modeled global denudation and weathering rates both using a 30 arc-second DEM, as done by Willenbring et al. (2013), and a 3 arc-second DEM. We then determined the proportion of global denudation and chemical weathering occurring on areas with different slopes. For the 30 arc-second DEM only 1% of Earth's land area has slopes that exceed 15°, whereas 9% of the land area is

  20. Utilizing the Global Land Cover 2000 reference dataset for a comparative accuracy assessment of 1 km global land cover maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, M.; Tsendbazazr, N. E.; Herold, M.; Jung, M.; Mayaux, P.; Goehman, H.

    2015-04-01

    Many investigators use global land cover (GLC) maps for different purposes, such as an input for global climate models. The current GLC maps used for such purposes are based on different remote sensing data, methodologies and legends. Consequently, comparison of GLC maps is difficult and information about their relative utility is limited. The objective of this study is to analyse and compare the thematic accuracies of GLC maps (i.e., IGBP-DISCover, UMD, MODIS, GLC2000 and SYNMAP) at 1 km resolutions by (a) re-analysing the GLC2000 reference dataset, (b) applying a generalized GLC legend and (c) comparing their thematic accuracies at different homogeneity levels. The accuracy assessment was based on the GLC2000 reference dataset with 1253 samples that were visually interpreted. The legends of the GLC maps and the reference datasets were harmonized into 11 general land cover classes. There results show that the map accuracy estimates vary up to 10-16% depending on the homogeneity of the reference point (HRP) for all the GLC maps. An increase of the HRP resulted in higher overall accuracies but reduced accuracy confidence for the GLC maps due to less number of accountable samples. The overall accuracy of the SYNMAP was the highest at any HRP level followed by the GLC2000. The overall accuracies of the maps also varied by up to 10% depending on the definition of agreement between the reference and map categories in heterogeneous landscape. A careful consideration of heterogeneous landscape is therefore recommended for future accuracy assessments of land cover maps.

  1. Global space-based inter-calibration system reflective solar calibration reference: from Aqua MODIS to S-NPP VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Butler, James; Cao, Changyong; Doelling, David; Wu, Aisheng; Wu, Xiangqian

    2016-05-01

    The MODIS has successfully operated on-board the NASA's EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft for more than 16 and 14 years, respectively. MODIS instrument was designed with stringent calibration requirements and comprehensive on-board calibration capability. In the reflective solar spectral region, Aqua MODIS has performed better than Terra MODIS and, therefore, has been chosen by the Global Space-based Inter- Calibration System (GSICS) operational community as the calibration reference sensor in cross-sensor calibration and calibration inter-comparisons. For the same reason, it has also been used by a number of earth-observing sensors as their calibration reference. Considering that Aqua MODIS has already operated for nearly 14 years, it is essential to transfer its calibration to a follow-on reference sensor with a similar calibration capability and stable performance. The VIIRS is a follow-on instrument to MODIS and has many similar design features as MODIS, including their on-board calibrators (OBC). As a result, VIIRS is an ideal candidate to replace MODIS to serve as the future GSICS reference sensor. Since launch, the S-NPP VIIRS has already operated for more than 4 years and its overall performance has been extensively characterized and demonstrated to meet its overall design requirements. This paper provides an overview of Aqua MODIS and S-NPP VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) calibration methodologies and strategies, traceability, and their on-orbit performance. It describes and illustrates different methods and approaches that can be used to facilitate the calibration reference transfer, including the use of desert and Antarctic sites, deep convective clouds (DCC), and the lunar observations.

  2. Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yefeng; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Li, Gan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Xinyue; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The Lorenz energy cycle is widely used to investigate atmospheres and climates on planets. However, the long-term temporal variations of such an energy cycle have not yet been explored. Here we use three independent meteorological data sets from the modern satellite era, to examine the temporal characteristics of the Lorenz energy cycle of Earth's global atmosphere in response to climate change. The total mechanical energy of the global atmosphere basically remains constant with time, but the global-average eddy energies show significant positive trends. The spatial investigations suggest that these positive trends are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant positive trends are also found in the conversion, generation and dissipation rates of energies. The positive trends in the dissipation rates of kinetic energies suggest that the efficiency of the global atmosphere as a heat engine increased during the modern satellite era. PMID:28117324

  3. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    Activities and accomplishments of the first six months of the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN's) 1992 technical program have focused on four main missions: (1) the development and implementation of plans for initiation of the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) as part of the EOSDIS Program; (2) the pursuit and development of a broad-based global change information cooperative by providing systems analysis and integration between natural science and social science data bases held by numerous federal agencies and other sources; (3) the fostering of scientific research into the human dimensions of global change and providing integration between natural science and social science data and information; and (4) the serving of CIESIN as a gateway for global change data and information distribution through development of the Global Change Research Information Office and other comprehensive knowledge sharing systems.

  4. Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yefeng; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Li, Gan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Xinyue; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The Lorenz energy cycle is widely used to investigate atmospheres and climates on planets. However, the long-term temporal variations of such an energy cycle have not yet been explored. Here we use three independent meteorological data sets from the modern satellite era, to examine the temporal characteristics of the Lorenz energy cycle of Earth's global atmosphere in response to climate change. The total mechanical energy of the global atmosphere basically remains constant with time, but the global-average eddy energies show significant positive trends. The spatial investigations suggest that these positive trends are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant positive trends are also found in the conversion, generation and dissipation rates of energies. The positive trends in the dissipation rates of kinetic energies suggest that the efficiency of the global atmosphere as a heat engine increased during the modern satellite era.

  5. Earth's changing global atmospheric energy cycle in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yefeng; Li, Liming; Jiang, Xun; Li, Gan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Xinyue; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2017-01-24

    The Lorenz energy cycle is widely used to investigate atmospheres and climates on planets. However, the long-term temporal variations of such an energy cycle have not yet been explored. Here we use three independent meteorological data sets from the modern satellite era, to examine the temporal characteristics of the Lorenz energy cycle of Earth's global atmosphere in response to climate change. The total mechanical energy of the global atmosphere basically remains constant with time, but the global-average eddy energies show significant positive trends. The spatial investigations suggest that these positive trends are concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere. Significant positive trends are also found in the conversion, generation and dissipation rates of energies. The positive trends in the dissipation rates of kinetic energies suggest that the efficiency of the global atmosphere as a heat engine increased during the modern satellite era.

  6. Transformation from proper time on earth to coordinate time in solar system barycentric space-time frame of reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, T. D.

    1976-01-01

    An expression was derived for the time transformation t - tau, where t is coordinate time in the solar system barycentric space-time frame of reference and tau is proper time obtained from a fixed atomic clock on earth. This transformation is suitable for use in the computation of high-precision earth-based range and Doppler observables of a spacecraft or celestial body located anywhere in the solar system; it can also be used in obtaining computed values of very long baseline interferometry data types. The formulation for computing range and Doppler observables, which is an explicit function of the transformation t - tau, is described briefly.

  7. Towards a Seamless Global Long-Term Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Priestley, K.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Su, W.; Kratz, D. P.; Kato, S.; Doelling, D.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's climate is determined by the exchange of radiant energy between the Sun, Earth and space. The absorbed solar radiation (ASR) fuels the climate system, providing the energy required for atmospheric and oceanic motions, and energy released to space in the form of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) nearly balances ASR, ensuring a relatively stable climate. Owing to human activities, there is currently less emitted thermal radiation than absorbed solar radiation, leading to an accumulation of energy into the Earth's system, which is driving global warming. Achieving an understanding of Earth's energy flows requires an accurate description of how radiant energy at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), within the atmosphere, and at the surface is distributed spatially, and how this changes with time. A central objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project is the production of a long-term global climate data record of Earth's radiation budget from the TOA down to the surface along with the associated atmospheric and surface properties that influence this budget. The CERES team relies on a number of data sources, including broadband radiometers that measure incoming and reflected solar radiation and OLR, high-resolution spectral imagers, meteorological, aerosol and ozone assimilation data, and snow/sea-ice maps based on microwave radiometer data. While TOA radiation budget is determined from accurate broadband radiometer measurements, the surface radiation budget is derived indirectly through radiative transfer model calculations initialized using imager-based cloud and aerosol retrievals and meteorological assimilation data. In order to accurately capture changes in Earth's radiation budget from interannual to decadal timescales, satellite instruments used to produce these data records must be radiometrically stable and the input data stream must be free of artificial discontinuities. Otherwise, distinguishing real climate system changes from

  8. Earth's plate motion evolution and its link to global mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolf, Tobias; Capitanio, Fabio; Tackley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Present-day plate motions provide a global dataset that allows us to infer the present convective structure of the Earth's mantle. Moreover, present geological observations combined with the kinematic principles of plate tectonics enables us to reconstruct Earth's tectonic history back until Pangaean times, which improves our understanding of how Earth has evolved to its present state. However, several aspects are not yet sufficiently well understood, for instance, how surface motions are linked to deep mantle processes or how plate motion changes over time, including those timescales of several 100 Myr that are associated with supercontinent formation and dispersal. Here, we use global spherical models of mantle convection to investigate plate motion evolution in a general and dynamically fully consistent manner. These models include tectonic plates self-consistently evolving from mantle flow as well as Earth-like continental drift. We analyze the evolution of plate velocities over long timescales and observe fluctuations of globally averaged plate motions of a factor of 2-3, in agreement with kinematic reconstructions. The fluctuations are mainly driven by the onset of new subduction, highlighting the strong role of slab-related driving forces in the rates of plate motion. Average plate motions are increased with a stronger viscosity contrast between upper and lower mantle, partly due to an increased subduction flux into the lower mantle, which increases the driving forces of plate motion. The motion of individual plates shows much stronger fluctuation. Continental plate motions are modulated by continental assembly and dispersal. Continents usually move slower when strongly clustered and faster during dispersal and before collision. In a further step, we analyze changes in the direction of motion of these individual plates by calculating their Euler pole and its change with time. This allows us to characterize the variety of modeled plate reorganizations and to

  9. Global demand for rare earth resources and strategies for green mining.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Tanushree; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Uchimiya, Minori; Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Deep, Akash; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2016-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for emerging renewable energy resources and 'smart' electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at an annual rate of 5% by 2020. This high growth rate will require a steady supply base of REEs in the long run. At present, China is responsible for 85% of global rare earth oxide (REO) production. To overcome this monopolistic supply situation, new strategies and investments are necessary to satisfy domestic supply demands. Concurrently, environmental, economic, and social problems arising from REE mining must be addressed. There is an urgent need to develop efficient REE recycling techniques from end-of-life products, technologies to minimize the amount of REEs required per unit device, and methods to recover them from fly ash or fossil fuel-burning wastes.

  10. Building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Its Interoperability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launched in 2005 by industrialized nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) began building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Consisting of both a policy framework, and an information infrastructure, GEOSS, was intended to link and/or integrate the multitude of Earth observation systems, primarily operated by its Member Countries and Participating Organizations, so that users could more readily benefit from global information assets for a number of society's key environmental issues. It was recognized that having ready access to observations from multiple systems was a prerequisite for both environmental decision-making, as well as economic development. From the very start, it was also recognized that the shear complexity of the Earth's system cannot be captured by any single observation system, and that a federated, interoperable approach was necessary. While this international effort has met with much success, primarily in advancing broad, open data policies and practices, challenges remain. In 2014 (Geneva, Switzerland) and 2015 (Mexico City, Mexico), Ministers from GEO's Member Countries, including the European Commission, came together to assess progress made during the first decade (2005 to 2015), and approve implementation strategies and mechanisms for the second decade (2016 to 2025), respectively. The approved implementation strategies and mechanisms are intended to advance GEOSS development thereby facilitating the increased uptake of Earth observations for informed decision-making. Clearly there are interoperability challenges that are technological in nature, and several will be discussed in this presentation. There are, however, interoperability challenges that can be better characterized as economic, governmental and/or political in nature, and these will be discussed as well. With the emergence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and the United Nations

  11. A planet under siege: Are we changing earth`s climate?. Global Systems Science, Teacher`s guide to Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sneider, C.; Golden, R.

    1993-01-01

    Global Systems Science is an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand problems of global impact. The ``big ideas`` of science are stressed, such as the concept of an interacting system, co-evolution of the atmosphere and life, and the important role that individuals can play in both affecting and protecting our vulnerable global environment. The target audience for this course encompasses the entire range of high school students from s nine tough twelve. The course involves students actively in learning. Global Systems Science is divided into five volumes. Each volume contains laboratory experiments; home investigations; descriptions of recent scientific work; historical background; and consideration of the political, economic, and ethical issues associated with each problem area. Collectively, these volumes constitute a unique combination of studies in the natural and social sciences from which high school students may view the global environmental problems that they will confront within their lifetimes. Collectively, they constitute a unique combination of studies in the natural and social sciences through which high school students may view the global environmental problems that they will confront within their lifetimes. The five volumes are: A Planet Under Siege: Are We Changing Earths Climate; A History of Fire and Ice: The Earth`s Climate System; Energy Paths: Use and Conservation of Energy; Ecological Systems: Evolution and Interdependence of Life; and, The Case of the Missing Ozone: Chemistry of the Earth`s Atmosphere.

  12. NASA Global Hawk Project Update and Future Plans: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Science objectives include: First demonstration of the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) for NASA and NOAA Earth science research and applications; Validation of instruments on-board the Aura satellite; Exploration of trace gases, aerosols, and dynamics of remote upper Troposphere/lower Stratosphere regions; Sample polar vortex fragments and atmospheric rivers; Risk reduction for future missions that will study hurricanes and atmospheric rivers.

  13. Global water cycle and the coevolution of the Earth's interior and surface environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenaga, Jun; Planavsky, Noah J.; Evans, David A. D.

    2017-04-01

    The bulk Earth composition contains probably less than 0.3% of water, but this trace amount of water can affect the long-term evolution of the Earth in a number of different ways. The foremost issue is the occurrence of plate tectonics, which governs almost all aspects of the Earth system, and the presence of water could either promote or hinder the operation of plate tectonics, depending on where water resides. The global water cycle, which circulates surface water into the deep mantle and back to the surface again, could thus have played a critical role in the Earth's history. In this contribution, we first review the present-day water cycle and discuss its uncertainty as well as its secular variation. If the continental freeboard has been roughly constant since the Early Proterozoic, model results suggest long-term net water influx from the surface to the mantle, which is estimated to be 3-4.5×1014 g yr-1 on the billion years time scale. We survey geological and geochemical observations relevant to the emergence of continents above the sea level as well as the nature of Precambrian plate tectonics. The global water cycle is suggested to have been dominated by regassing, and its implications for geochemical cycles and atmospheric evolution are also discussed. This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'.

  14. Global water cycle and the coevolution of the Earth's interior and surface environment.

    PubMed

    Korenaga, Jun; Planavsky, Noah J; Evans, David A D

    2017-05-28

    The bulk Earth composition contains probably less than 0.3% of water, but this trace amount of water can affect the long-term evolution of the Earth in a number of different ways. The foremost issue is the occurrence of plate tectonics, which governs almost all aspects of the Earth system, and the presence of water could either promote or hinder the operation of plate tectonics, depending on where water resides. The global water cycle, which circulates surface water into the deep mantle and back to the surface again, could thus have played a critical role in the Earth's history. In this contribution, we first review the present-day water cycle and discuss its uncertainty as well as its secular variation. If the continental freeboard has been roughly constant since the Early Proterozoic, model results suggest long-term net water influx from the surface to the mantle, which is estimated to be 3-4.5×10(14) g yr(-1) on the billion years time scale. We survey geological and geochemical observations relevant to the emergence of continents above the sea level as well as the nature of Precambrian plate tectonics. The global water cycle is suggested to have been dominated by regassing, and its implications for geochemical cycles and atmospheric evolution are also discussed.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. A Multipurpose Method for Global Capacity Building in Using Earth Observations for Wetlands and Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bye, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring and surveying biodiversity and wetlands involves the collection of vast amounts of data, most of which are Earth observations. Observations on the ground or from space and everything in between, across all time and spatial scales, represent precious information for our understanding and management of both biodiversity and wetlands. Cross-disciplinary problem solving and development of new tools are the most efficient ways to enhance our capabilities to monitor biodiversity and wetlands. To accomplish that, experts from different communities need to refresh and upgrade their knowledge of other field(s). An event based method that consists of both live active participation and the production of capacity building material for re-use in other settings, will be presented. The method includes using the vast global networks of international organizations representing the application areas as well as the field of Earth observations. An example from a cooperation between the Group of Earth Observations and the Ramsar Convention of Wetlands will be used to illustrate the method. Within the global Earth observation community there is a great potential for efficient capacity building, targeting both experts, decision-makers and the general public. The method presented is demonstrating one way of tapping into that potential.

  16. Laboratory test simulation for non-flat response calibration of global Earth albedo monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Sehyun; Kim, Sug-Whan; Ryu, Dongok; Hong, Jinsuk; Lockwood, Mike

    2012-09-01

    In this report, we present laboratory test simulation for directional responsivity of a global Earth albedo monitoring instrument. The sensor is to observe the Sun and the Earth, alternately, and measure their shortwave (<4μm) radiations around the L1 halo orbit to obtain global Earth albedo. The instrument consists of a broadband scanning radiometer (energy channel instrument) and an imager (visible channel instrument) with ±2° field-of-view. In the case of the energy channel instrument, radiations arriving at the viewing ports from the Sun and the Earth are directed toward the pyroelectric detector via two spherical folding mirrors and a 3D compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The instrument responsivity is defined by the ratio of the incident radiation input to the instrument output signal. The radiometer's relative directional responsivity needs to be characterized across the field-of-view to assist output signal calibration. For the laboratory test, the distant small source configuration consists of an off-axis collimator and the instrument with adjustable mounts. Using reconstructed 3D CPC surface, the laboratory test simulation for predicting the instrument directional responsivity was conducted by a radiative transfer computation with ray tracing technique. The technical details of the laboratory test simulation are presented together with future plan.

  17. Global analysis of river systems: from Earth system controls to Anthropocene syndromes.

    PubMed

    Meybeck, Michel

    2003-12-29

    Continental aquatic systems from rivers to the coastal zone are considered within two perspectives: (i) as a major link between the atmosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and oceans within the Earth system with its Holocene dynamics, and (ii) as water and aquatic biota resources progressively used and transformed by humans. Human pressures have now reached a state where the continental aquatic systems can no longer be considered as being controlled by only Earth system processes, thus defining a new era, the Anthropocene. Riverine changes, now observed at the global scale, are described through a first set of syndromes (flood regulation, fragmentation, sediment imbalance, neo-arheism, salinization, chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication and microbial contamination) with their related causes and symptoms. These syndromes have direct influences on water uses, either positive or negative. They also modify some Earth system key functions such as sediment, water, nutrient and carbon balances, greenhouse gas emissions and aquatic biodiversity. Evolution of river syndromes over the past 2000 years is complex: it depends upon the stages of regional human development and on natural conditions, as illustrated here for the chemical contamination syndrome. River damming, eutrophication and generalized decrease of river flow due to irrigation are some of the other global features of river changes. Future management of river systems should also consider these long-term impacts on the Earth system.

  18. Global analysis of river systems: from Earth system controls to Anthropocene syndromes.

    PubMed Central

    Meybeck, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Continental aquatic systems from rivers to the coastal zone are considered within two perspectives: (i) as a major link between the atmosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and oceans within the Earth system with its Holocene dynamics, and (ii) as water and aquatic biota resources progressively used and transformed by humans. Human pressures have now reached a state where the continental aquatic systems can no longer be considered as being controlled by only Earth system processes, thus defining a new era, the Anthropocene. Riverine changes, now observed at the global scale, are described through a first set of syndromes (flood regulation, fragmentation, sediment imbalance, neo-arheism, salinization, chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication and microbial contamination) with their related causes and symptoms. These syndromes have direct influences on water uses, either positive or negative. They also modify some Earth system key functions such as sediment, water, nutrient and carbon balances, greenhouse gas emissions and aquatic biodiversity. Evolution of river syndromes over the past 2000 years is complex: it depends upon the stages of regional human development and on natural conditions, as illustrated here for the chemical contamination syndrome. River damming, eutrophication and generalized decrease of river flow due to irrigation are some of the other global features of river changes. Future management of river systems should also consider these long-term impacts on the Earth system. PMID:14728790

  19. Galactic cosmic rays - atmosphere clouds effect and bifurcation model of the Earth global climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, Alexander

    The possible physical linkage between the cosmic rays, atmosphere cloud and indirect aerosol effects is discussed using analysis of first indirect aerosol effect (Twomey effect) and its experimental representation as the dependence of mean cloud droplet effective radius versus aerosol index defining the column aerosol number. It is shown that the main kinetic equation of Earth climate energy-balance model [1] is described by the bifurcation equation (relative to the Earth surface temperature) in the form of fold catastrophe with two controlling parameters defining the variations of insolation and Earth magnetic field (or cosmic rays intensity in the atmosphere) respectively. The results of comparative analysis on the time-dependent solution (time series of global paleotemperature ) of Earth climate energy-balance model taking into account nontrivial role of galactic cosmic rays and the known experimental data on the palaeotemperature from the EPICA Dome C and Vostok ice core are pre-sented. It is discussed the sin-earth mechanism of arising the abnormal temperature breaks which are observed in the EPICA Dome C and Vostok experiments. It has been found its link with the ‘order-chaos' transitions in evolution of the convection in the Earth liquid core which are responsible for mechanism of arising inversions of the magnetic field of the Earth. It should be noted a stabilization role of the slow nuclear burning [1] georeactor with power 30 TW) on the boundary of the liquid and solid phases of the Earth's core in evolution of convection in the Earth liquid core and magnetic field. In the bifurcation model (i) the possibility of abrupt glacial climate changes analogous to the Dansgaard-Oeschger events due to stochastic resonance is theoretically argued, (ii) the concept of the climatic sensitivity of water (vapour and liquid) in the atmosphere is introduced. This concept reveals the property of temperature instability in a form of so-called hysteresis loop. It is

  20. Paleoproterozoic snowball earth: extreme climatic and geochemical global change and its biological consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Gaidos, E. J.; Bertani, L. E.; Beukes, N. J.; Gutzmer, J.; Maepa, L. N.; Steinberger, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, and geochemical data support a theory that Earth experienced several intervals of intense, global glaciation ("snowball Earth" conditions) during Precambrian time. This snowball model predicts that postglacial, greenhouse-induced warming would lead to the deposition of banded iron formations and cap carbonates. Although global glaciation would have drastically curtailed biological productivity, melting of the oceanic ice would also have induced a cyanobacterial bloom, leading to an oxygen spike in the euphotic zone and to the oxidative precipitation of iron and manganese. A Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth at 2.4 Giga-annum before present (Ga) immediately precedes the Kalahari Manganese Field in southern Africa, suggesting that this rapid and massive change in global climate was responsible for its deposition. As large quantities of O(2) are needed to precipitate this Mn, photosystem II and oxygen radical protection mechanisms must have evolved before 2.4 Ga. This geochemical event may have triggered a compensatory evolutionary branching in the Fe/Mn superoxide dismutase enzyme, providing a Paleoproterozoic calibration point for studies of molecular evolution.

  1. Paleoproterozoic snowball earth: extreme climatic and geochemical global change and its biological consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Gaidos, E. J.; Bertani, L. E.; Beukes, N. J.; Gutzmer, J.; Maepa, L. N.; Steinberger, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, and geochemical data support a theory that Earth experienced several intervals of intense, global glaciation ("snowball Earth" conditions) during Precambrian time. This snowball model predicts that postglacial, greenhouse-induced warming would lead to the deposition of banded iron formations and cap carbonates. Although global glaciation would have drastically curtailed biological productivity, melting of the oceanic ice would also have induced a cyanobacterial bloom, leading to an oxygen spike in the euphotic zone and to the oxidative precipitation of iron and manganese. A Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth at 2.4 Giga-annum before present (Ga) immediately precedes the Kalahari Manganese Field in southern Africa, suggesting that this rapid and massive change in global climate was responsible for its deposition. As large quantities of O(2) are needed to precipitate this Mn, photosystem II and oxygen radical protection mechanisms must have evolved before 2.4 Ga. This geochemical event may have triggered a compensatory evolutionary branching in the Fe/Mn superoxide dismutase enzyme, providing a Paleoproterozoic calibration point for studies of molecular evolution.

  2. Paleoproterozoic snowball earth: extreme climatic and geochemical global change and its biological consequences.

    PubMed

    Kirschvink, J L; Gaidos, E J; Bertani, L E; Beukes, N J; Gutzmer, J; Maepa, L N; Steinberger, R E

    2000-02-15

    Geological, geophysical, and geochemical data support a theory that Earth experienced several intervals of intense, global glaciation ("snowball Earth" conditions) during Precambrian time. This snowball model predicts that postglacial, greenhouse-induced warming would lead to the deposition of banded iron formations and cap carbonates. Although global glaciation would have drastically curtailed biological productivity, melting of the oceanic ice would also have induced a cyanobacterial bloom, leading to an oxygen spike in the euphotic zone and to the oxidative precipitation of iron and manganese. A Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth at 2.4 Giga-annum before present (Ga) immediately precedes the Kalahari Manganese Field in southern Africa, suggesting that this rapid and massive change in global climate was responsible for its deposition. As large quantities of O(2) are needed to precipitate this Mn, photosystem II and oxygen radical protection mechanisms must have evolved before 2.4 Ga. This geochemical event may have triggered a compensatory evolutionary branching in the Fe/Mn superoxide dismutase enzyme, providing a Paleoproterozoic calibration point for studies of molecular evolution.

  3. Earth's energy imbalance and the global warming `hiatus': insights from climate models and ocean reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, M. D.; Roberts, C. D.; McNeall, D. J.

    2016-02-01

    Earth's energy imbalance is the most fundamental metric defining the rate of global climate change. Using CMIP5 climate model simulations, we show that trends in surface temperature are only weakly indicative of the net energy imbalance on decadal timescales, due to the ocean's ability to re-arrange large quantities of heat on these timescales. Therefore, the apparent `hiatus' in global surface temperature rise may tell us nothing about the rate of global climate change over the recent past. CMIP5 models suggest that the ocean becomes dominant term in Earth's energy budget at timescales longer than about 1 year, illustrating the need to improve estimates of the rate-of-change of ocean heat content (OHC) in order to better monitor ongoing anthropogenic climate change. An intercomparison of OHC changes in an ensemble of ocean reanalyses shows some robust signals in the upper few hundred metres but little agreement for deeper layers. This work highlights the need to maintain the Argo observations of the upper 2000m and extend the ocean observing array into the deep and abyssal ocean in order to better monitor and understand variability and long-term changes in Earth's energy imbalance.

  4. The role of the global ocean in changes of the Earth's climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schuckmann, Karina

    2017-04-01

    The current Earth's energy imbalance (EEI) is mostly caused by human activity, and is driving global warming. The absolute value of EEI represents the most fundamental metric defining the status of global climate change, and will be more useful than using global surface temperature. EEI can best be estimated from changes in ocean heat content, complemented by radiation measurements from space. However, improving the accuracy of estimates of Earth's climate state and variability is critical for advancing our understanding and prediction of the evolution of Earth's climate. Consistency checks through physical budget constraints with the combined use of climate observations (in situ, remote sensing) and tools (reanalysis, models) have a large potential to deliver a robust uncertainty assessment and to shed new light on unresolved climate science issues - the principal objective of the CLIVAR research focus CONCEPT-HEAT. This talk will give an overview on the development of ocean climate indicators such as EEI, and their use for physical budget constraints. Specific examples will be introduced, main outcomes and challenges are discussed and an overview on CONCEPT-HEAT activities is given.

  5. Biogeochemistry of the rare-earth elements with particular reference to hickory trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, W.O.; Bastron, H.; Murata, K.J.

    1958-01-01

    Hickory trees concentrate the rare-earth elements in their leaves to a phenomenal degree and may contain as much as 2300 p.p.m. of total rare earths based on the dry weight of the leaves. The average proportions of the individual elements (atomic percent of the total rare-earth elements) in the leaves are: Y 36, La 16, Ce 14, Pr 2, Nd 20, Sm 1, Eu 0.7, Gd 3, Tb 0.6, Dy 3, Ho 0.7, Er 2, Tm 0.2, Yb 1, and Lu 0.2. The similarity in the proportions of the rare-earth elements in the leaves and in the exchange complex of the soil on which the hickory trees grow indicates that the trees do not fractionate the rare earths appreciably. The variation of the rare-earth elements in the leaves and soils can be explained generally in terms of the relative abundance of the cerium group and the yttrium group, except for the element cerium. The large fluctuations in the proportion of cerium [Ce/(La + Nd) atomic ratios of 0.16 to 0.86] correlate with oxidation-reduction conditions in the soil profile. The substitution of dilute H2SO3 for dilute HC1 in the determination of available rare-earth elements brings about a large increase in the proportion of cerium that is extracted from an oxygenated subsoil. These relationships strongly suggest that quadrivalent cerium is present in oxygenated subsoil and is less available to plants than the other rare-earth elements that do not undergo such a change in valence. A few parts per billion of rare-earth elements have been detected in two samples of ground water. ?? 1958.

  6. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of

  7. Role of the Earth degassing (the core emission) for the global tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenkova, Ninel

    2014-05-01

    The main aim of any new concept in the global tectonics is to explain the origin of the observed regularities in the Earth structure and the sources of their formation. The first problem is to explain the continents and oceans formation and the differences in the structure of the Pacific and of other oceans. The edges of the continents around the Pacific Ocean form a proper arc along which a ring of the earthquake epicenters, the Benioff zones, are observed. The Pacific Ring intersects at the right angle another global ring of the earthquake epicenters - the Mediterranean-Asian belt. The Atlantic and Indian oceans are characterized by the mid oceanic rifts. The rifts and distraction zones form a regular symmetrical with respect to the South Pole system: the rifts drift apart along the meridians with about the same distance between them, 90°. The fracture zone from the western shelf of the Australian continent to the Sakhalin Island belongs to this system. The asymmetric Antarctica and Arctic ocean also reflect the regular structure of the Earth surface which contradicts the movements of the continents proposed by the plate tectonic for explanation of the paleomagnetic data on the magnetic pole mobility. The fluids-rotation model of the global tectonics, proposed by the author, gave the following explanation to these features of the Earth structure. According to the petrology data, the continental crust was formed from the mantle matter saturated with fluids. The long process of the silica, alkalis, fluids and incompatible elements removal in the crust should lead to the depletion of mantle rocks, their crystallization and formation of the thick continental lithosphere. It is proposed that the formation of the thick continental crust and the continental "roots" in the upper mantle took place in the areas of the stronger fluid advection. In the modern oceans the fluid flows were weak and only some separate spots of the intermediate type crust appeared. The main

  8. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) Version 3.8: Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, B. F.

    1999-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) Version 3.8 is presented and its new features are discussed. Mars-GRAM uses new values of planetary reference ellipsoid radii, gravity term, and rotation rate (consistent with current JPL values) and includes centrifugal effects on gravity. The model now uses NASA Ames Global Circulation Model low resolution topography. Curvature corrections are applied to winds and limits based on speed of sound are applied. Altitude of the F1 ionization peak and density scale height, including effects of change of molecular weight with altitude are computed. A check is performed to disallow temperatures below CO2 sublimination. This memorandum includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAM source code and data files and running the program. Sample input and output are provided. An example of incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code is also given.

  9. The ERESE Project: Interfacing with the ERDA Digital Archive and ERR Reference Database in EarthRef.org

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppers, A. A.; Staudigel, H.; Mills, H.; Keller, M.; Wallace, A.; Bachman, N.; Helly, J.; Helly, M.; Miller, S. P.; Massell Symons, C.

    2004-12-01

    To bridge the gap between Earth science teachers, librarians, scientists and data archive managers, we have started the ERESE project that will create, archive and make available "Enduring Resources in Earth Science Education" through information technology (IT) portals. In the first phase of this National Science Digital Library (NSDL) project, we are focusing on the development of these ERESE resources for middle and high school teachers to be used in lesson plans with "plate tectonics" and "magnetics" as their main theme. In this presentation, we will show how these new ERESE resources are being generated, how they can be uploaded via online web wizards, how they are archived, how we make them available via the EarthRef.org Digital Archive (ERDA) and Reference Database (ERR), and how they relate to the SIOExplorer database containing data objects for all seagoing cruises carried out by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The EarthRef.org web resource uses the vision of a "general description" of the Earth as a geological system to provide an IT infrastructure for the Earth sciences. This emphasizes the marriage of the "scientific process" (and its results) with an educational cyber-infrastructure for teaching Earth sciences, on any level, from middle school to college and graduate levels. Eight different databases reside under EarthRef.org from which ERDA holds any digital object that has been uploaded by other scientists, teachers and students for free, while the ERR holds more than 80,000 publications. For more than 1,500 of these publications, this latter database makes available for downloading JPG/PDF images of the abstracts, data tables, methods and appendices, together with their digitized contents in Microsoft Word and Excel format. Both holdings are being used to store the ERESE objects that are being generated by a group of undergraduate students majoring in Environmental Systems (ESYS) program at the UCSD with an emphasis on the Earth Sciences

  10. A Conceptual Framework for Assessment of the Benefits of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; Scholes, R. J.; Obersteiner, M.; Bouma, J.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is to contribute to human wellbeing though improving the information available to decision-makers at all levels relating to human health and safety, protection of the global environment, the reduction of losses from natural disasters, and achieving sustainable development. Specifically, GEOSS proposes that better international co-operation in the collection, interpretation and sharing of Earth Observation information is an important and cost-effective mechanism for achieving this aim. While there is a widespread intuition that this proposition is correct, at some point the following question needs to be answered: how much additional investment in Earth Observation (and specifically, in its international integration) is enough? This leads directly to some challenging subsidiary questions, such as how can the benefits of Earth Observation be assessed? What are the incremental costs of GEOSS? Are there societal benefit areas where the return on investment is higher than in others? The Geo-Bene project has developed a `benefit chain' concept as a framework for addressing these questions. The basic idea is that an incremental improvement in the observing system (including its data collection, interpretation and information-sharing aspects) will result in an improvement in the quality of decisions based on that information. This will in turn lead to better societal outcomes, which have a value. This incremental value must be judged against the incremental cost of the improved observation system. Since in many cases there will be large uncertainties in the estimation of both the costs and the benefits, and it may not be possible to express one or both of them in monetary terms, we show how order-of-magnitude approaches and a qualitative understanding of the shape of the cost-benefit curves can help guide rational investment decision in Earth Observation systems.

  11. NASA Global Hawk: A Unique Capability for the Pursuit of Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naftel, J. Chris

    2007-01-01

    For more than 2 years, the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has been preparing for the receipt of two Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration Global Hawk air vehicles from the United States Air Force. NASA Dryden intends to establish a Global Hawk Project Office, which will be responsible for developing the infrastructure required to operate this unmanned aerial system and establishing a trained maintenance and operations team. The first flight of a NASA Global Hawk air vehicle is expected to occur in 2008. The NASA Global Hawk system can be used by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. Initially, the main focus of the research activities is expected to be Earth science related. A combination of the vehicle s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume, and payload weight capabilities separates the Global Hawk unmanned aerial system from all other platforms available to the science community. This report describes the NASA Global Hawk system and current plans for the NASA air vehicle concept of operations, and provides examples of potential missions with an emphasis on science missions.

  12. EDITORIAL: The Earth radiation balance as driver of the global hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Liepert, Beate

    2010-06-01

    National Laboratory is supported by the Office of Science, US Department of Energy. References Allan R P 2007 Improved simulation of water vapour and clear-sky radiation using 24-hour forecasts from ERA40 Tellus A 59 336-43 Allan R P and Soden B J 2007 Large discrepancy between observed and simulated precipitation trends Geophys. Res. Lett. 34 L18705 Allan R P and Soden B J 2008 Precipitation extremes and the amplification of atmospheric warming Science 321 1481-4 Allen M R and Ingram W 2002 Constraints on future changes in climate and the hydrologic cycle Nature 419 224-32 Andrews T, Forster P M and Gregory J M 2009 A surface energy perspective on climate change J. Climate 22 2557-70 Baumgartner A and Reichel E 1975 The World Water Balance: Mean Annual Global, Continental and Maritime Precipitation, Evaporation and Runoff (Amsterdam: Elsevier) 179 pp Bodas-Salcedo A, Ringer M A and Jones A 2008 Evaluation of the surface radiation budget in the atmospheric component of the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM1) J. Climate 21 4723-48 Gilgen H, Wild M and Ohmura A 1998 Means and trends of shortwave irradiance at the surface estimated from GEBA J. Climate 11 2042-61 Hansen J et al 2005 Earth's energy imbalance: confirmation and implications Science 308 1431-5 IPCC 2007 Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ed S Solomon, D Qin, M Manning, Z Chen, M Marquis, K B Averyt, M Tignor and H L Miller (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) 996 pp Jonkman S N 2005 Global perspectives on loss of human life caused by floods Natural Hazards 34 151-75 Lambert F H and Webb M J 2008 Dependency of global mean precipitation on surface temperature Geophys. Res. Lett. 35 L16706 Liepert B G 2002 Observed reductions of surface solar radiation at sites in the United States and worldwide from 1961 to 1990 Geophy. Res. Lett. 29 1421 Liepert B G 2010 The physical

  13. Globalization and Mobilization of Earth Science Education with GeoBrain Geospatial Web Service Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, M.; di, L.

    2005-12-01

    The needs for Earth science education to prepare students as globally-trained geoscience workforce increase tremendously with globalization of the economy. However, current academic programs often have difficulties in providing students world-view training or experiences with global context due to lack of resources and suitable teaching technology. This paper presents a NASA funded project with insights and solutions to this problem. The project aims to establish a geospatial data-rich learning and research environment that enable the students, faculty and researchers from institutes all over the world easily accessing, analyzing and modeling with the huge amount of NASA EOS data just like they possess those vast resources locally at their desktops. With the environment, classroom demonstration and training for students to deal with global climate and environment issues for any part of the world are possible in any classroom with Internet connection. Globalization and mobilization of Earth science education can be truly realized through the environment. This project, named as NASA EOS Higher Education Alliance: Mobilization of NASA EOS Data and Information through Web Services and Knowledge Management Technologies for Higher Education Teaching and Research, is built on profound technology and infrastructure foundations including web service technology, NASA EOS data resources, and open interoperability standards. An open, distributed, standard compliant, interoperable web-based system, called GeoBrain, is being developed by this project to provide a data-rich on-line learning and research environment. The system allows users to dynamically and collaboratively develop interoperable, web-executable geospatial process and analysis modules and models, and run them on-line against any part of the peta-byte archives for getting back the customized information products rather than raw data. The system makes a data-rich globally-capable Earth science learning and research

  14. Global maps of the magnetic thickness and magnetization of the Earth's lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervelidou, Foteini; Thébault, Erwan

    2015-10-01

    We have constructed global maps of the large-scale magnetic thickness and magnetization of Earth's lithosphere. Deriving such large-scale maps based on lithospheric magnetic field measurements faces the challenge of the masking effect of the core field. In this study, the maps were obtained through analyses in the spectral domain by means of a new regional spatial power spectrum based on the Revised Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis (R-SCHA) formalism. A series of regional spectral analyses were conducted covering the entire Earth. The R-SCHA surface power spectrum for each region was estimated using the NGDC-720 spherical harmonic (SH) model of the lithospheric magnetic field, which is based on satellite, aeromagnetic, and marine measurements. These observational regional spectra were fitted to a recently proposed statistical expression of the power spectrum of Earth's lithospheric magnetic field, whose free parameters include the thickness and magnetization of the magnetic sources. The resulting global magnetic thickness map is compared to other crustal and magnetic thickness maps based upon different geophysical data. We conclude that the large-scale magnetic thickness of the lithosphere is on average confined to a layer that does not exceed the Moho.

  15. Visualizing global change: earth and biodiversity sciences for museum settings using HDTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duba, A.; Gardiner, N.; Kinzler, R.; Trakinski, V.

    2006-12-01

    Science Bulletins, a production group at the American Museum of Natural History (New York, USA), brings biological and Earth system science data and concepts to over 10 million visitors per year at 27 institutions around the U.S.A. Our target audience is diverse, from novice to expert. News stories and visualizations use the capabilities of satellite imagery to focus public attention on four general themes: human influences on species and ecosystems across all observable spatial extents; biotic feedbacks with the Earth's physical system; characterizing species and ecosystems; and recent events such as natural changes to ecosystems, major findings and publications, or recent syntheses. For Earth science, we use recent natural events to explain the broad scientific concepts of tectonic activity and the processes that underlie climate and weather events. Visualizations show the global, dynamic distribution of atmospheric constituents, ocean temperature and temperature anomaly, and sea ice. Long-term changes are set in contrast to seasonal and longer-term cycles so that viewers appreciate the variety of forces that affect Earth's physical system. We illustrate concepts at a level appropriate for a broad audience to learn more about the dynamic nature of Earth's biota and physical processes. Programming also includes feature stories that explain global change phenomena from the perspectives of eminent scientists and managers charged with implementing public policy based on the best available science. Over the past two and one-half years, biological science stories have highlighted applied research addressing lemur conservation in Madagascar, marine protected areas in the Bahamas, effects of urban sprawl on wood turtles in New England, and taxonomic surveys of marine jellies in Monterey Bay. Earth science stories have addressed the volcanic history of present-day Yellowstone National Park, tsunamis, the disappearance of tropical mountain glaciers, the North Atlantic

  16. Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive (60)Fe.

    PubMed

    Wallner, A; Feige, J; Kinoshita, N; Paul, M; Fifield, L K; Golser, R; Honda, M; Linnemann, U; Matsuzaki, H; Merchel, S; Rugel, G; Tims, S G; Steier, P; Yamagata, T; Winkler, S R

    2016-04-07

    The rate of supernovae in our local Galactic neighbourhood within a distance of about 100 parsecs from Earth is estimated to be one every 2-4 million years, based on the total rate in the Milky Way (2.0 ± 0.7 per century). Recent massive-star and supernova activity in Earth's vicinity may be traced by radionuclides with half-lives of up to 100 million years, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System. One such radionuclide is (60)Fe (with a half-life of 2.6 million years), which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars. Here we report that the (60)Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. We analysed deep-sea archives from all major oceans for (60)Fe deposition via the accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results reveal (60)Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth at 1.5-3.2 million years ago and at 6.5-8.7 million years ago. The signal measured implies that a few per cent of fresh (60)Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ten million years at distances of up to 100 parsecs.

  17. Semantics-enabled knowledge management for global Earth observation system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Roger L.; Durbha, Surya S.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is a distributed system of systems built on current international cooperation efforts among existing Earth observing and processing systems. The goal is to formulate an end-to-end process that enables the collection and distribution of accurate, reliable Earth Observation data, information, products, and services to both suppliers and consumers worldwide. One of the critical components in the development of such systems is the ability to obtain seamless access of data across geopolitical boundaries. In order to gain support and willingness to participate by countries around the world in such an endeavor, it is necessary to devise mechanisms whereby the data and the intellectual capital is protected through procedures that implement the policies specific to a country. Earth Observations (EO) are obtained from a multitude of sources and requires coordination among different agencies and user groups to come to a shared understanding on a set of concepts involved in a domain. It is envisaged that the data and information in a GEOSS context will be unprecedented and the current data archiving and delivery methods need to be transformed into one that allows realization of seamless interoperability. Thus, EO data integration is dependent on the resolution of conflicts arising from a variety of areas. Modularization is inevitable in distributed environments to facilitate flexible and efficient reuse of existing ontologies. Therefore, we propose a framework for modular ontologies based knowledge management approach for GEOSS and present methods to enable efficient reasoning in such systems.

  18. Digital Earth, a new approach for geoconservation: case study of Hexigten Global Geopark, Inner Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siwen; Tian, Mingzhong; Shi, Wenqiang

    2009-09-01

    Though Digital Earth (DE) has been adopted in the nature conservation, its application in geoheritage conservation is still rather limited. Geoheritage are usually distributed over extensive areas, posing great problems to actual conservation. The Digital Earth is a useful tool for systematic spatial accounts and data management. The aim of this article is attempting to apply DE in geoconservation. The Hexigten Global Geopark (HGG) in Inner Mongolia of China, which covers an area of 1783.58km2, was chosen as the study area. This paper was composed of five sections. The first section, we briefly reviewed the origin of geoheritage and developments of world geoconservation, and present the justifications of adopting DE for it. In the second and third section, DE is a comprehensive, massively distributed geographic information and knowledge organization system, so we developed a theoretic frame based on it, which can be applied in geoheritage survey, resources appraisal, geoconservation planning, research and public. The fourth section, DE platforms - Google Earth and Skyline Globe Pro were as tools for geoheritage surveying and zoning of HGG. Finally, we draw conclusions that DE can be applied in geoheritage conservation limitedly today; however, excellent characteristics such VR earth, geo-library and digital atlas has huge potential for geoconservation.

  19. Digital Earth, a new approach for geoconservation: case study of Hexigten Global Geopark, Inner Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siwen; Tian, Mingzhong; Shi, Wenqiang

    2010-11-01

    Though Digital Earth (DE) has been adopted in the nature conservation, its application in geoheritage conservation is still rather limited. Geoheritage are usually distributed over extensive areas, posing great problems to actual conservation. The Digital Earth is a useful tool for systematic spatial accounts and data management. The aim of this article is attempting to apply DE in geoconservation. The Hexigten Global Geopark (HGG) in Inner Mongolia of China, which covers an area of 1783.58km2, was chosen as the study area. This paper was composed of five sections. The first section, we briefly reviewed the origin of geoheritage and developments of world geoconservation, and present the justifications of adopting DE for it. In the second and third section, DE is a comprehensive, massively distributed geographic information and knowledge organization system, so we developed a theoretic frame based on it, which can be applied in geoheritage survey, resources appraisal, geoconservation planning, research and public. The fourth section, DE platforms - Google Earth and Skyline Globe Pro were as tools for geoheritage surveying and zoning of HGG. Finally, we draw conclusions that DE can be applied in geoheritage conservation limitedly today; however, excellent characteristics such VR earth, geo-library and digital atlas has huge potential for geoconservation.

  20. An Inquiry-Based Approach to Teaching the Spherical Earth Model to Preservice Teachers Using the Global Positioning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Youngjin; Schwenz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an inquiry-based lesson to deepen preservice teachers' understanding of the spherical Earth model using the Global Positioning System. The lesson was designed with four learning goals: (1) to increase preservice teachers' conceptual knowledge of the spherical Earth model; (2) to develop preservice teachers'…

  1. An Inquiry-Based Approach to Teaching the Spherical Earth Model to Preservice Teachers Using the Global Positioning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Youngjin; Schwenz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an inquiry-based lesson to deepen preservice teachers' understanding of the spherical Earth model using the Global Positioning System. The lesson was designed with four learning goals: (1) to increase preservice teachers' conceptual knowledge of the spherical Earth model; (2) to develop preservice teachers'…

  2. Case study of visualizing global user download patterns using Google Earth and NASA World Wind

    SciTech Connect

    Zong, Ziliang; Job, Joshua; Zhang, Xuesong; Nijim, Mais; Qin, Xiao

    2012-10-09

    Geo-visualization is significantly changing the way we view spatial data and discover information. On the one hand, a large number of spatial data are generated every day. On the other hand, these data are not well utilized due to the lack of free and easily used data-visualization tools. This becomes even worse when most of the spatial data remains in the form of plain text such as log files. This paper describes a way of visualizing massive plain-text spatial data at no cost by utilizing Google Earth and NASAWorld Wind. We illustrate our methods by visualizing over 170,000 global download requests for satellite images maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Our visualization results identify the most popular satellite images around the world and discover the global user download patterns. The benefits of this research are: 1. assisting in improving the satellite image downloading services provided by USGS, and 2. providing a proxy for analyzing the hot spot areas of research. Most importantly, our methods demonstrate an easy way to geovisualize massive textual spatial data, which is highly applicable to mining spatially referenced data and information on a wide variety of research domains (e.g., hydrology, agriculture, atmospheric science, natural hazard, and global climate change).

  3. Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth: Extreme climatic and geochemical global change and its biological consequences

    PubMed Central

    Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Gaidos, Eric J.; Bertani, L. Elizabeth; Beukes, Nicholas J.; Gutzmer, Jens; Maepa, Linda N.; Steinberger, Rachel E.

    2000-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, and geochemical data support a theory that Earth experienced several intervals of intense, global glaciation (“snowball Earth” conditions) during Precambrian time. This snowball model predicts that postglacial, greenhouse-induced warming would lead to the deposition of banded iron formations and cap carbonates. Although global glaciation would have drastically curtailed biological productivity, melting of the oceanic ice would also have induced a cyanobacterial bloom, leading to an oxygen spike in the euphotic zone and to the oxidative precipitation of iron and manganese. A Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth at 2.4 Giga-annum before present (Ga) immediately precedes the Kalahari Manganese Field in southern Africa, suggesting that this rapid and massive change in global climate was responsible for its deposition. As large quantities of O2 are needed to precipitate this Mn, photosystem II and oxygen radical protection mechanisms must have evolved before 2.4 Ga. This geochemical event may have triggered a compensatory evolutionary branching in the Fe/Mn superoxide dismutase enzyme, providing a Paleoproterozoic calibration point for studies of molecular evolution. PMID:10677473

  4. Case study of visualizing global user download patterns using Google Earth and NASA World Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Ziliang; Job, Joshua; Zhang, Xuesong; Nijim, Mais; Qin, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Geo-visualization is significantly changing the way we view spatial data and discover information. On the one hand, a large number of spatial data are generated every day. On the other hand, these data are not well utilized due to the lack of free and easily used data-visualization tools. This becomes even worse when most of the spatial data remains in the form of plain text such as log files. This paper describes a way of visualizing massive plain-text spatial data at no cost by utilizing Google Earth and NASA World Wind. We illustrate our methods by visualizing over 170,000 global download requests for satellite images maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Our visualization results identify the most popular satellite images around the world and discover the global user download patterns. The benefits of this research are: 1. assisting in improving the satellite image downloading services provided by USGS, and 2. providing a proxy for analyzing the "hot spot" areas of research. Most importantly, our methods demonstrate an easy way to geo-visualize massive textual spatial data, which is highly applicable to mining spatially referenced data and information on a wide variety of research domains (e.g., hydrology, agriculture, atmospheric science, natural hazard, and global climate change).

  5. Scaling in global tidal dissipation of the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.

    2017-07-01

    The Moon migrated to $r_{\\leftmoon}\\simeq3.8\\times10^{10}$ cm over a characteristic time $r/v=10^{10}$ Gyr by tidal interaction with the Earth's oceans at a present velocity of $v=3.8$ cm yr$^{-1}$. We derive scaling of global dissipation that covers the entire history over the past 4.52 Gyr. Off-resonance tidal interactions at relatively short tidal periods in the past reveal the need for scaling {with amplitude}. The global properties of the complex spatio-temporal dynamics and dissipation in broad spectrum ocean waves is modeled by damping $\\epsilon = h F/(2Q_0)$, where $h$ is the tidal wave amplitude, $F$ is the tidal frequency, and $Q_0$ is the $Q$-factor at the present time. It satisfies $Q_0\\simeq 14$ for consistency of migration time and age of the Moon consistent with observations for a near-resonance state today. It shows a startingly fast eviction of the Moon from an unstable near-synchronous orbit close to the Roche limit, probably in a protolunar disk. Rapid spin down of the Earth from an intial $\\sim30\\%$ of break-up by the Moon favored early formation of a clement global climate. Our theory suggests moons may be similarly advantageous to potentially habitable exoplanets.

  6. Global Gridded Data from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-DAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-DAS) timeseries is a globally gridded atmospheric data set for use in climate research. This near real-time data set is produced by the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in direct support of the operational EOS instrument product generation from the Terra (12/1999 launch), Aqua (05/2002 launch) and Aura (01/2004 launch) spacecrafts. The data is archived in the EOS Core System (ECS) at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center/Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DISC DAAC). The data is only a selection of the products available from the GEOS-DAS. The data is organized chronologically in timeseries format to facilitate the computation of statistics. GEOS-DAS data will be available for the time period January 1, 2000, through present.

  7. The global carbon cycle: a test of our knowledge of earth as a system.

    PubMed

    Falkowski, P; Scholes, R J; Boyle, E; Canadell, J; Canfield, D; Elser, J; Gruber, N; Hibbard, K; Högberg, P; Linder, S; Mackenzie, F T; Moore, B; Pedersen, T; Rosenthal, Y; Seitzinger, S; Smetacek, V; Steffen, W

    2000-10-13

    Motivated by the rapid increase in atmospheric CO2 due to human activities since the Industrial Revolution, several international scientific research programs have analyzed the role of individual components of the Earth system in the global carbon cycle. Our knowledge of the carbon cycle within the oceans, terrestrial ecosystems, and the atmosphere is sufficiently extensive to permit us to conclude that although natural processes can potentially slow the rate of increase in atmospheric CO2, there is no natural "savior" waiting to assimilate all the anthropogenically produced CO2 in the coming century. Our knowledge is insufficient to describe the interactions between the components of the Earth system and the relationship between the carbon cycle and other biogeochemical and climatological processes. Overcoming this limitation requires a systems approach.

  8. Precise orbit determination for NASA's earth observing system using GPS (Global Positioning System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. G.

    1988-01-01

    An application of a precision orbit determination technique for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. This technique allows the geometric information from measurements of GPS carrier phase and P-code pseudo-range to be exploited while minimizing requirements for precision dynamical modeling. The method combines geometric and dynamic information to determine the spacecraft trajectory; the weight on the dynamic information is controlled by adjusting fictitious spacecraft accelerations in three dimensions which are treated as first order exponentially time correlated stochastic processes. By varying the time correlation and uncertainty of the stochastic accelerations, the technique can range from purely geometric to purely dynamic. Performance estimates for this technique as applied to the orbit geometry planned for the EOS platforms indicate that decimeter accuracies for EOS orbit position may be obtainable. The sensitivity of the predicted orbit uncertainties to model errors for station locations, nongravitational platform accelerations, and Earth gravity is also presented.

  9. The NASA/MSFC Global Reference Atmospheric Model: 1999 Version (GRAM-99)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    The latest version of Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is presented and discussed. GRAM-99 uses either (binary) Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) or (ASCII) Global Gridded Upper Air Statistics (GGUAS) CD-ROM data sets, for 0-27 km altitudes. As with earlier versions, GRAM-99 provides complete geographical and altitude coverage for each month of the year. GRAM-99 uses a specially-developed data set, based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) data, for 20-120 km altitudes, and NASA's 1999 version Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET-99) model for heights above 90 km. Fairing techniques assure smooth transition in overlap height ranges (20-27 km and 90-120 km). GRAM-99 includes water vapor and 11 other atmospheric constituents (O3, N2O, CO, CH4, CO2, N2, O2, O, A, He and H). A variable-scale perturbation model provides both large-scale (wave) and small-scale (stochastic) deviations from mean values for thermodynamic variables and horizontal and vertical wind components. The small-scale perturbation model includes improvements in representing intermittency ("patchiness"). A major new feature is an option to substitute Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) data for conventional GRAM climatology when a trajectory passes sufficiently near any RRA site. A complete user's guide for running the program, plus sample input and output, is provided. An example is provided for how to incorporate GRAM-99 as subroutines in other programs (e.g., trajectory codes).

  10. Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensors - A comparative performance evaluation for global measurement applications from earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison is made of four prominent Doppler lidar systems, ranging in wavelength from the near UV to the middle IR, which are presently being studied for their potential in an earth-orbiting global tropospheric wind field measurement application. The comparison is restricted to relative photon efficiencies, i.e., the required number of transmitted photons per pulse is calculated for each system for midtropospheric velocity estimate uncertainties ranging from + or - 1 to + or - 4 m/s. The results are converted to laser transmitter pulse energy and power requirements. The analysis indicates that a coherent CO2 Doppler lidar operating at 9.11-micron wavelength is the most efficient.

  11. An Inundated Wetlands Earth System Data Record: Global Monitoring of Wetland Extent and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K.; Chapman, B.; Hess, L.; Moghaddam, M.; Kimball, J. S.; Matthews, E.; Prigent, C.

    2008-12-01

    Wetlands exert major impacts on global biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biological diversity. The extent and seasonal, interannual, and decadal variation of inundated wetlands play key roles in ecosystem dynamics. Despite the importance of these environments in the global cycling of carbon and water and to current and future climate, the extent and dynamics of global wetlands remain poorly characterized and modeled. This is primarily because of the scarcity of suitable regional-to-global remote-sensing data for characterizing wetland distribution and dynamics. As part of a NASA MEaSUREs project, we are constructing a global-scale Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of inundated wetlands to facilitate investigations on their role in climate, biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biodiversity. The ESDR is being generated using legacy algorithms developed from spaceborne remote sensing data sets and is comprised of two complementary components. The first are fine resolution (100 m) maps of wetland extent, vegetation type, and seasonal inundation dynamics, derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), for continental-scale areas covering crucial wetland regions. The second are global monthly maps of inundation extent at ~25 km resolution for the period 1992- 2009, derived from multiple satellite observations. We present details of the ESDR construction including remote sensing algorithm applications, cross-product harmonization, and planned data set distribution. The status of current efforts to assemble this ESDR, including data processing, wetland classifications, and open water change mappings derived from L-band data for the state of Alaska and select basins in Eurasia are presented. This ESDR will provide the first accurate, consistent and comprehensive global-scale data set of wetland inundation and vegetation, including continental-scale multitemporal and multi-year monthly inundation dynamics at multiple scales. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion

  12. Reference Earth Orbital Research and Applications Investigations (Blue Book). Volume 2: Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Representative astronomy objectives, experiments, facilities, and instruments for use in the space station are discussed. The specific program elements describe a coordinated multiwavelength, multisensor approach needed to locate, observe, and interpret radiation from extragalactic, galactic, solar, and planetary sources in the different parts of the spectrum with spectral, angular, and temporal resolution not achievable from earth sites. Items of astronomy equipment are identified for the experiments to be conducted.

  13. The novel 2016 WHO Neisseria gonorrhoeae reference strains for global quality assurance of laboratory investigations: phenotypic, genetic and reference genome characterization.

    PubMed

    Unemo, Magnus; Golparian, Daniel; Sánchez-Busó, Leonor; Grad, Yonatan; Jacobsson, Susanne; Ohnishi, Makoto; Lahra, Monica M; Limnios, Athena; Sikora, Aleksandra E; Wi, Teodora; Harris, Simon R

    2016-11-01

    Gonorrhoea and MDR Neisseria gonorrhoeae remain public health concerns globally. Enhanced, quality-assured, gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance is essential worldwide. The WHO global Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (GASP) was relaunched in 2009. We describe the phenotypic, genetic and reference genome characteristics of the 2016 WHO gonococcal reference strains intended for quality assurance in the WHO global GASP, other GASPs, diagnostics and research worldwide. The 2016 WHO reference strains (n = 14) constitute the eight 2008 WHO reference strains and six novel strains. The novel strains represent low-level to high-level cephalosporin resistance, high-level azithromycin resistance and a porA mutant. All strains were comprehensively characterized for antibiogram (n = 23), serovar, prolyliminopeptidase, plasmid types, molecular AMR determinants, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing STs and MLST STs. Complete reference genomes were produced using single-molecule PacBio sequencing. The reference strains represented all available phenotypes, susceptible and resistant, to antimicrobials previously and currently used or considered for future use in gonorrhoea treatment. All corresponding resistance genotypes and molecular epidemiological types were described. Fully characterized, annotated and finished references genomes (n = 14) were presented. The 2016 WHO gonococcal reference strains are intended for internal and external quality assurance and quality control in laboratory investigations, particularly in the WHO global GASP and other GASPs, but also in phenotypic (e.g. culture, species determination) and molecular diagnostics, molecular AMR detection, molecular epidemiology and as fully characterized, annotated and finished reference genomes in WGS analysis, transcriptomics, proteomics and other molecular technologies and data analysis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  14. modern global models of the earth's gravity field: analysis of their accuracy and resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganagina, Irina; Karpik, Alexander; Kanushin, Vadim; Goldobin, Denis; Kosareva, Alexandra; Kosarev, Nikolay; Mazurova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Accurate knowledge of the fine structure of the Earth's gravity field extends opportunities in geodynamic problem-solving and high-precision navigation. In the course of our investigations have been analyzed the resolution and accuracy of 33 modern global models of the Earth's gravity field and among them 23 combined models and 10 satellite models obtained by the results of GOCE, GRACE, and CHAMP satellite gravity mission. The Earth's geopotential model data in terms of normalized spherical harmonic coefficients were taken from the web-site of the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM) in Potsdam. Theory: Accuracy and resolution estimation of global Earth's gravity field models is based on the analysis of degree variances of geopotential coefficients and their errors. During investigations for analyzing models were obtained dependences of approximation errors for gravity anomalies on the spherical harmonic expansion of the geopotential, relative errors of geopotential's spherical harmonic coefficients, degree variances for geopotential coefficients, and error variances of potential coefficients obtained from gravity anomalies. Delphi 7-based software developed by authors was used for the analysis of global Earth's gravity field models. Experience: The results of investigations show that spherical harmonic coefficients of all matched. Diagrams of degree variances for spherical harmonic coefficients and their errors bring us to the conclusion that the degree variances of most models equal to their error variances for a degree less than that declared by developers. The accuracy of normalized spherical harmonic coefficients of geopotential models is estimated as 10-9. This value characterizes both inherent errors of models, and the difference of coefficients in various models, as well as a scale poor predicted instability of the geopotential, and resolution. Furthermore, we compared the gravity anomalies computed by models with those

  15. Global MHD test particle simulations of solar energetic electron trapping in the Earth's radiation belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, B. T.; Hudson, M. K.; Looper, M. D.; Lyon, J. G.; Goodrich, C. C.

    2008-11-01

    Test-particle trajectories are computed in fields from a global MHD magnetospheric model simulation of the 29 October 2003 Storm Commencement to investigate trapping and transport of solar energetic electrons (SEEs) in the magnetosphere during severe storms. SEEs are found to provide a source population for a newly formed belt of electrons in the Earth's inner zone radiation belts, which was observed following the 29 October 2003 storm. Energy and pitch angle distributions of the new belt are compared with results previously obtained [Kress, B.T., Hudson, M.K., Looper, M.D., Albert, J., Lyon, J.G., Goodrich, C.C., 2007. Global MHD test particle simulations of >10 MeV radiation belt electrons during storm sudden commencement. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, A09215, doi:10.1029/2006JA012218], where outer belt electrons were used as a source for the new belt.

  16. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperna Weiland, F. C.; Tisseuil, C.; Dürr, H. H.; Vrac, M.; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2011-07-01

    Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET time series from CFSR reanalysis data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and modified versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2) tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95 % significance level) between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for the cell specific modified Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this modified form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation did not outperform the other methods. In arid regions (e.g., Sahara, central Australia, US deserts), the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g., Orange, Murray and Zambezi). Furthermore, the Penman-Monteith equation has a high data demand and the equation is sensitive to input data inaccuracy. Therefore, we preferred the modified form of the Hargreaves equation, which globally gave reference PET values comparable to CRU derived values. Although it is a relative efficient empirical equation, like Blaney-Criddle, the equation considers multiple spatial varying meteorological variables and consequently performs well for different climate conditions. In the modified form of the Hargreaves equation the multiplication factor is uniformly increased from 0.0023 to 0.0031 to overcome the global underestimation

  17. Comparative Accuracy Assessment of Global Land Cover Datasets Using Existing Reference Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsendbazar, N. E.; de Bruin, S.; Mora, B.; Herold, M.

    2014-12-01

    Land cover is a key variable to monitor the impact of human and natural processes on the biosphere. As one of the Essential Climate Variables, land cover observations are used for climate models and several other applications. Remote sensing technologies have enabled the generation of several global land cover (GLC) products that are based on different data sources and methods (e.g. legends). Moreover, the reported map accuracies result from varying validation strategies. Such differences make the comparison of the GLC products challenging and create confusion on selecting suitable datasets for different applications. This study aims to conduct comparative accuracy assessment of GLC datasets (LC-CCI 2005, MODIS 2005, and Globcover 2005) using the Globcover 2005 reference data which can represent the thematic differences of these GLC maps. This GLC reference dataset provides LCCS classifier information for 3 main land cover types for each sample plot. The LCCS classifier information was translated according to the legends of the GLC maps analysed. The preliminary analysis showed some challenges in LCCS classifier translation arising from missing important classifier information, differences in class definition between the legends and absence of class proportion of main land cover types. To overcome these issues, we consolidated the entire reference data (i.e. 3857 samples distributed at global scale). Then the GLC maps and the reference dataset were harmonized into 13 general classes to perform the comparative accuracy assessments. To help users on selecting suitable GLC dataset(s) for their application, we conducted the map accuracy assessments considering different users' perspectives: climate modelling, bio-diversity assessments, agriculture monitoring, and map producers. This communication will present the method and the results of this study and provide a set of recommendations to the GLC map producers and users with the aim to facilitate the use of GLC maps.

  18. An improved retrieval of tropospheric NO2 from space over polluted regions using an Earth radiance reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, J. S.; Monks, P. S.; Leigh, R. J.

    2015-03-01

    A novel tropospheric NO2 DOAS retrieval algorithm optimised for a nadir-viewing satellite instrument imaging polluted areas is proposed in this work. Current satellite DOAS retrievals have relied on using a solar reference spectrum to derive a total slant column, then using either model assimilation or spatial filtering to derive the tropospheric component. In the ERrs-DOAS (Earth radiance reference sector DOAS) algorithm, tropospheric NO2 slant columns are derived using spectra averaged from measurements over unpolluted regions, thus removing the need for post-hoc separation techniques, though some residual stratospheric biases may still remain. To validate the ERrs-DOAS algorithm, DOAS retrievals were performed on modelled spectra created by the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN, as well as L1B Earth radiance data measured by the NASA/KNMI Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). It was found that retrievals using an Earth radiance reference produce spatial distributions of tropospheric NO2 over eastern China during June 2005 that highly correlate with those derived using existing retrieval algorithms. Comparisons with slant columns retrieved by the operational NO2 retrieval algorithm for OMI (OMNO2A) show that the ERrs-DOAS algorithm greatly reduces the presence of artificial across-track biases (stripes) caused by calibration errors, as well as the removal of path length enhancement in off-nadir pixels. Analysis of Pacific SCDs suggests that the algorithm also produces a 27% reduction in retrieval uncertainty, though this may be partially due to biases introduced by differences in the retrieval algorithm settings. The ERrs-DOAS technique also reveals absorption features over the Sahara and similar regions characteristic of sand and liquid H2O absorption, as first discovered in the analysis of GOME-2 NO2 retrievals.

  19. Earth applications of closed ecological systems: relevance to the development of sustainability in our global biosphere.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Allen, J; Alling, A; Dempster, W F; Silverstone, S

    2003-01-01

    The parallels between the challenges facing bioregenerative life support in artificial closed ecological systems and those in our global biosphere are striking. At the scale of the current global technosphere and expanding human population, it is increasingly obvious that the biosphere can no longer safely buffer and absorb technogenic and anthropogenic pollutants. The loss of biodiversity, reliance on non-renewable natural resources, and conversion of once wild ecosystems for human use with attendant desertification/soil erosion, has led to a shift of consciousness and the widespread call for sustainability of human activities. For researchers working on bioregenerative life support in closed systems, the small volumes and faster cycling times than in the Earth's biosphere make it starkly clear that systems must be designed to ensure renewal of water and atmosphere, nutrient recycling, production of healthy food, and safe environmental methods of maintaining technical systems. The development of technical systems that can be fully integrated and supportive of living systems is a harbinger of new perspectives as well as technologies in the global environment. In addition, closed system bioregenerative life support offers opportunities for public education and consciousness changing of how to live with our global biosphere.

  20. Earth applications of closed ecological systems: Relevance to the development of sustainability in our global biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Allen, J.; Ailing, A.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.

    The parallels between the challenges facing bioregenerative life support in artificial closed ecological systems and those in our global biosphere are striking. At the scale of the current global technosphere and expanding human population, it is increasingly obvious that the biosphere can no longer safely buffer and absorb technogenic and anthropogenic pollutants. The loss of biodiversity, reliance on non-renewable natural resources, and conversion of once wild ecosystems for human use with attendant desertification/soil erosion, has led to a shift of consciousness and the widespread call for sustainability of human activities. For researchers working on bioregenerative life support in closed systems, the small volumes and faster cycling times than in the Earth's biosphere make it starkly clear that systems must be designed to ensure renewal of water and atmosphere, nutrient recycling, production of healthy food, and safe environmental methods of maintaining technical systems. The development of technical systems that can be fully integrated and supportive of living systems is a harbinger of new perspectives as well as technologies in the global environment. In addition, closed system bioregenerative life support offers opportunities for public education and consciousness changing of how to live with our global biosphere.

  1. Global land cover mapping using Earth observation satellite data: Recent progresses and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yifang; Gong, Peng; Giri, Chandra

    2015-05-01

    Land cover is an important variable for many studies involving the Earth surface, such as climate, food security, hydrology, soil erosion, atmospheric quality, conservation biology, and plant functioning. Land cover not only changes with human caused land use changes, but also changes with nature. Therefore, the state of land cover is highly dynamic. In winter snow shields underneath various other land cover types in higher latitudes. Floods may persist for a long period in a year over low land areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. Forest maybe burnt or clear cut in a few days and changes to bare land. Within several months, the coverage of crops may vary from bare land to nearly 100% crops and then back to bare land following harvest. The highly dynamic nature of land cover creates a challenge in mapping and monitoring which remains to be adequately addressed. As economic globalization continues to intensify, there is an increasing trend of land cover/land use change, environmental pollution, land degradation, biodiversity loss at the global scale, timely and reliable information on global land cover and its changes is urgently needed to mitigate the negative impact of global environment change.

  2. Global land ice measurements from space (GLIMS): remote sensing and GIS investigations of the Earth's cryosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michael P.; Olsenholler, Jeffrey A.; Shroder, John F.; Barry, Roger G.; Rasup, Bruce H.; Bush, Andrew B. G.; Copland, Luke; Dwyer, John L.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Haeberli, Wilfried; Kaab, Andreas; Paul, Frank; Hall, Dorothy K.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Molnia, Bruce F.; Trabant, Dennis C.; Wessels, Rick L.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns over greenhouse‐gas forcing and global temperatures have initiated research into understanding climate forcing and associated Earth‐system responses. A significant component is the Earth's cryosphere, as glacier‐related, feedback mechanisms govern atmospheric, hydrospheric and lithospheric response. Predicting the human and natural dimensions of climate‐induced environmental change requires global, regional and local information about ice‐mass distribution, volumes, and fluctuations. The Global Land‐Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) project is specifically designed to produce and augment baseline information to facilitate glacier‐change studies. This requires addressing numerous issues, including the generation of topographic information, anisotropic‐reflectance correction of satellite imagery, data fusion and spatial analysis, and GIS‐based modeling. Field and satellite investigations indicate that many small glaciers and glaciers in temperate regions are downwasting and retreating, although detailed mapping and assessment are still required to ascertain regional and global patterns of ice‐mass variations. Such remote sensing/GIS studies, coupled with field investigations, are vital for producing baseline information on glacier changes, and improving our understanding of the complex linkages between atmospheric, lithospheric, and glaciological processes.

  3. To a Question About Orientation of Search Technological Disasters at Global Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, V.; Prisniakova, L.

    Technological activity of the human being unreasonable consumption to the detriment of the nature have brought mankind to a point of bifurcation from which any evolution is possible even to become extinct as biological species in connection with obvious loss of stability of biosphere and with an opportunity of its transition in a new condition which can appear unsuitable for a life Global Earth Observation supposes passive recording a condition of the Earth s atmosphere ocean and land surface with a view to improving the well-being of mankind Active supervision are demanding the scientific substantiated knowledge of dangerous places on the Earth not only from point of view technological of pollution but also in view of the humanistic relation of people living in these places to the Nature The mathematical model which allows predict evolution of universum with consideration of intellectual world and an spiritual world of mankind is offered in the report It threeunity has something in common with unity of three worlds -- physical mental and Plato s world of ideas which has presented Roger Penrose Developing ideas of Roger Penrose E Popper I Ostrezov we have constructed model of the relation between the parameters describing these worlds - rational R-- the empirical information on the physical world irrational I - the information received by the intellectual world from input medium - transcendental mental spiritual T including creativity

  4. Finite-frequency global mantle tomography in the Cubed Earth from Rayleigh wave dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikesell, T. D.; Nolet, G.; Charlety, J.; Ritsema, J. E.; van Heijst, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, shear wave velocity models of the mantle have been created using combinations of long period surface wave dispersion data, teleseismic body waveforms and travel times, and normal modes (e.g., S40RTS, S362ANI, TX2008). These models use different measurement techniques, and furthermore, such models are usually derived from ray theoretical methods if only to render the very large combined data sets solvable with present day computational resources. We present the first finite frequency interpretation of the updated van Heijst and Woodhouse (1999) Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion data set. Taking PREM as the background Earth model, we compute finite frequency kernels in the isotropic Cubed Earth for global Rayleigh wave phases (fundamental mode up to the fourth overtone). The Cubed Earth parametrization allows us to easily project the solution on different bases. In particular, wavelet bases allow for localization in both the spatial and spectral domains and are suitable to study the large variability of scales in the tomographic solutions and their resolvability geographically. In addition, we allow for Love-Rayleigh interaction. This is particularly important for the higher modes and allows us to study the effects of mode conversion due to scattering. Finally, we compare our preferred model with existing models of shear wave velocity for the upper mantle.

  5. The effect of cloud type on Earth's energy balance - Global analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dennis L.; Ockert-Bell, Maureen E.; Michelsen, Marc L.

    1992-01-01

    The role of fractional area coverage by cloud types in the energy balance of the earth is investigated through joint use of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) C1 cloud data and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) broadband energy flux data for the one-year period March 1985 through February 1986. Multiple linear regression is used to relate the radiation budget data to the cloud data. Comparing cloud forcing estimates obtained from the ISCCP-ERBE regression with those derived from the ERBE scene identification shows generally good agreement except over snow, in tropical convective regions, and in regions that are either nearly cloudless or always overcast. It is suggested that a substantial fraction of the disagreement in longwave cloud forcing in tropical convective regions is associated with the fact that the ERBE scene identification does not take into account variations in upper-tropospheric water vapor. On a global average basis, low clouds make the largest contribution to the net energy balance of the Earth, because they cover such a large area and because their albedo effect dominates their effect on emitted thermal radiation. High, optically thick clouds can also very effectively reduce the energy balance, however, because their very high albedos overcome their low emission temperatures.

  6. Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive 60Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallner, A.; Feige, J.; Kinoshita, N.; Paul, M.; Fifield, L. K.; Golser, R.; Honda, M.; Linnemann, U.; Matsuzaki, H.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Tims, S. G.; Steier, P.; Yamagata, T.; Winkler, S. R.

    2016-04-01

    The rate of supernovae in our local Galactic neighbourhood within a distance of about 100 parsecs from Earth is estimated to be one every 2-4 million years, based on the total rate in the Milky Way (2.0 ± 0.7 per century). Recent massive-star and supernova activity in Earth’s vicinity may be traced by radionuclides with half-lives of up to 100 million years, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System. One such radionuclide is 60Fe (with a half-life of 2.6 million years), which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars. Here we report that the 60Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. We analysed deep-sea archives from all major oceans for 60Fe deposition via the accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results reveal 60Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth at 1.5-3.2 million years ago and at 6.5-8.7 million years ago. The signal measured implies that a few per cent of fresh 60Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ten million years at distances of up to 100 parsecs.

  7. GLOBAL MAPPING OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS FROM SCATTERED LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Hajime; Fujii, Yuka

    2010-09-10

    Scattered lights from terrestrial exoplanets provide valuable information about their planetary surface. Applying the surface reconstruction method proposed by Fujii et al. to both diurnal and annual variations of scattered light, we develop a reconstruction method of land distribution with both longitudinal and latitudinal resolutions. We find that one can recover a global map of an idealized Earth-like planet on the following assumptions: (1) cloudlessness, (2) a face-on circular orbit, (3) known surface types and their reflectance spectra, (4) lack of atmospheric absorption, (5) known rotation rate, (6) a static map, and (7) the absence of a moon. Using the dependence of light curves on planetary obliquity, we also show that the obliquity can be measured by adopting the {chi}{sup 2} minimization or the extended information criterion. We demonstrate the feasibility of our methodology by applying it to a multi-band photometry of a cloudless model Earth with future space missions such as the occulting ozone observatory (O3). We conclude that future space missions can estimate both the surface distribution and the obliquity at least for cloudless Earth-like planets within 5 pc.

  8. Knowledge-intensive global optimization of Earth observing system architectures: a climate-centric case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva, D.

    2014-10-01

    Requirements from the different disciplines of the Earth sciences on satellite missions have become considerably more stringent in the past decade, while budgets in space organizations have not increased to support the implementation of new systems meeting these requirements. At the same time, new technologies such as optical communications, electrical propulsion, nanosatellite technology, and new commercial agents and models such as hosted payloads are now available. The technical and programmatic environment is thus ideal to conduct architectural studies that look with renewed breadth and adequate depth to the myriad of new possible architectures for Earth Observing Systems. Such studies are challenging tasks, since they require formidable amounts of data and expert knowledge in order to be conducted. Indeed, trade-offs between hundreds or thousands of requirements from different disciplines need to be considered, and millions of combinations of instrument technologies and orbits are possible. This paper presents a framework and tool to support the exploration of such large architectural tradespaces. The framework can be seen as a model-based, executable science traceability matrix that can be used to compare the relative value of millions of different possible architectures. It is demonstrated with an operational climate-centric case study. Ultimately, this framework can be used to assess opportunities for international collaboration and look at architectures for a global Earth observing system, including space, air, and ground assets.

  9. Comparisons of global topographic/isostatic models to the Earth's observed gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, Reiner; Rapp, Richard H.; Suenkel, Hans; Tscherning, C. Christian

    1988-03-01

    The Earth's gravitational potential, as described by a spherical harmonic expansion to degree 180, was compared to the potential implied by the topography and its isostatic compensation using five different hypothesis. Initially, series expressions for the Airy/Heiskanen topographic isostatic model were developed to the third order in terms of (h/R), where h is equivalent rock topography and R is a mean Earth radius. Using actual topographic developments for the Earth, it was found that the second and third terms of the expansion contributed 30 and 3 percents, of the first of the expansion. With these new equations it is possible to compute depths (D) of compensation, by degree, using 3 different criteria. The results show that the average depth implied by criterion I is 60 km while it is about 33 km for criteria 2 and 3 with smaller compensation depths at the higher degrees. Another model examined was related to the Vening-Meinesz regional hypothesis implemented in the spectral domain. Finally, oceanic and continental response functions were derived for the global data sets and comparisons made to locally determined values.

  10. Comparisons of global topographic/isostatic models to the Earth's observed gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, Reiner; Rapp, Richard H.; Suenkel, Hans; Tscherning, C. Christian

    1988-01-01

    The Earth's gravitational potential, as described by a spherical harmonic expansion to degree 180, was compared to the potential implied by the topography and its isostatic compensation using five different hypothesis. Initially, series expressions for the Airy/Heiskanen topographic isostatic model were developed to the third order in terms of (h/R), where h is equivalent rock topography and R is a mean Earth radius. Using actual topographic developments for the Earth, it was found that the second and third terms of the expansion contributed 30 and 3 percents, of the first of the expansion. With these new equations it is possible to compute depths (D) of compensation, by degree, using 3 different criteria. The results show that the average depth implied by criterion I is 60 km while it is about 33 km for criteria 2 and 3 with smaller compensation depths at the higher degrees. Another model examined was related to the Vening-Meinesz regional hypothesis implemented in the spectral domain. Finally, oceanic and continental response functions were derived for the global data sets and comparisons made to locally determined values.

  11. The effect of cloud type on Earth's energy balance - Global analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dennis L.; Ockert-Bell, Maureen E.; Michelsen, Marc L.

    1992-01-01

    The role of fractional area coverage by cloud types in the energy balance of the earth is investigated through joint use of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) C1 cloud data and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) broadband energy flux data for the one-year period March 1985 through February 1986. Multiple linear regression is used to relate the radiation budget data to the cloud data. Comparing cloud forcing estimates obtained from the ISCCP-ERBE regression with those derived from the ERBE scene identification shows generally good agreement except over snow, in tropical convective regions, and in regions that are either nearly cloudless or always overcast. It is suggested that a substantial fraction of the disagreement in longwave cloud forcing in tropical convective regions is associated with the fact that the ERBE scene identification does not take into account variations in upper-tropospheric water vapor. On a global average basis, low clouds make the largest contribution to the net energy balance of the Earth, because they cover such a large area and because their albedo effect dominates their effect on emitted thermal radiation. High, optically thick clouds can also very effectively reduce the energy balance, however, because their very high albedos overcome their low emission temperatures.

  12. Power from space for use on earth: An emerging global option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of the Earth as a closed ecological system is addressed from the point of view of the availability and use of energy from space and its potential influence on the economies of both developed and developing countries. The results of past studies of the solar power satellite (SPS) are reviewed, and the current international activities exploring various aspects of an SPS are mentioned. The functions of an SPS, including collection of solar energy in orbit, conversion to an intermediate form of energy, transmission of energy from orbit to Earth, and conversion to useful energy in the most appropriate form are discussed. Directions for future developments are addressed including a suggested planning framework. Salient aspects of SPS technologies are presented, and the potential benefits of the uses of lunar materials for the SPS construction are outlined. Scenarios within the context of international participation in a global SPS system are presented. The conclusion is drawn that an SPS system is one of the few promising, globally applicable power generation options that has the potential to meet energy demands in the 21st Century and to achieve the inevitable transition to inexhaustible and renewable energy sources.

  13. Global radial anisotropy in the Earth's mantle: new constraints from seismology and geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Ana MG; Faccenda, Manuele; Chang, Sung-Joon; Sturgeon, William; Schardong, Lewis

    2017-04-01

    When combined with information from mineral physics and geodynamics, seismic anisotropy is one of the most direct ways to constrain mantle deformation and flow. However, it can be challenging to image it globally due to limited data's sensitivity and difficulties in separating shallow and deep Earth signals. In this presentation we review recent developments in the global seismic imaging and interpretation of radially anisotropic mantle structure. We show that it is highly beneficial to invert simultaneously for mantle and crustal structure using multiple datasets, notably: (i) short-period group velocity data with strong sensitivity to the crust; and, (ii) surface wave overtone measurements sensitive to the transition zone and uppermost lower mantle. Moreover, we show that comparisons between anisotropy tomography and combined micro- and macro-flow geodynamic simulations help constrain the Earth's mineralogy and the patterns of mantle convection. As a case study, we present new results highlighting the ubiquitous presence of anisotropy in the uppermost lower mantle beneath subduction zones. These observations are consistent with 3-D numerical models of deformation from subducting slabs and the associated lattice preferred orientation of bridgmanite produced by a combination of dislocation and diffusion creep mechanisms.

  14. Global Evolution of the Earth's Magnetosphere in Response to a Sudden Ring Current Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    No, Jincheol; Choe, Gwangson; Park, Geunseok

    2014-05-01

    The dynamical evolution of the Earth's magnetosphere loaded with a transiently enhanced ring current is investigated by global magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Two cases with different values of the primitive ring current are considered. In one case, the initial ring current is strong enough to create a magnetic island in the magnetosphere. The magnetic island readily reconnects with the earth-connected ambient field and is destroyed as the system approaches a steady equilibrium. In the other case, the initial ring current is not so strong, and the initial magnetic field configuration bears no magnetic island, but features a wake of bent field lines, which is smoothed out through the relaxing evolution of the magnetosphere. The relaxation time of the magnetosphere is found to be about five to six minutes, over which the ring current is reduced to about a quarter of its initial value. Before reaching a steady state, the magnetosphere is found to undergo an overshooting expansion and a subsequent contraction. Fast and slow magnetosonic waves are identified to play an important role in the relaxation toward equilibrium. Our study suggests that a sudden injection of the ring current can generate an appreciable global pulsation of the magnetosphere.

  15. Compilation of 3D global conductivity model of the Earth for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Dmitry; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Palshin, Nikolay

    2015-07-01

    We have compiled a global three-dimensional (3D) conductivity model of the Earth with an ultimate goal to be used for realistic simulation of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), posing a potential threat to man-made electric systems. Bearing in mind the intrinsic frequency range of the most intense disturbances (magnetospheric substorms) with typical periods ranging from a few minutes to a few hours, the compiled 3D model represents the structure in depth range of 0-100 km, including seawater, sediments, earth crust, and partly the lithosphere/asthenosphere. More explicitly, the model consists of a series of spherical layers, whose vertical and lateral boundaries are established based on available data. To compile a model, global maps of bathymetry, sediment thickness, and upper and lower crust thicknesses as well as lithosphere thickness are utilized. All maps are re-interpolated on a common grid of 0.25×0.25 degree lateral spacing. Once the geometry of different structures is specified, each element of the structure is assigned either a certain conductivity value or conductivity versus depth distribution, according to available laboratory data and conversion laws. A numerical formalism developed for compilation of the model, allows for its further refinement by incorporation of regional 3D conductivity distributions inferred from the real electromagnetic data. So far we included into our model four regional conductivity models, available from recent publications, namely, surface conductance model of Russia, and 3D conductivity models of Fennoscandia, Australia, and northwest of the United States.

  16. Data Mining for Global Change: A Vision for "Big Data" in the Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhaeuser, K.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past several decades, the Earth sciences have undergone a rapid transformation from a historically data-poor to a relatively data-rich environment. This development is largely due to significant improvements in observation technologies (notably satellites since the 1970s) on one hand, and advances in computational tools (both hardware and software) on the other. As a result the Earth sciences are primed to enter the Fourth Paradigm, a term coined by the late Jim Gray to describe a new realm of scientific discovery driven by data analysis - the other three being theory, experimentation, and computer simulation. In particular, observations from remote sensors on satellites and weather radars, in situ sensors and sensor networks, along with outputs of global climate or Earth system models from large-scale simulations as well as regional modeling studies, produce data approaching the Tera- and Petabyte scales. These massive and information-rich datasets offer a significant opportunity for advancing our understanding of the global climate system and in turn our ability to make better informed projections of future climate change, yet current data analysis techniques are not able to realize their full potential. We will outline a vision for the application of "Big Data" tools and technologies in the Earth sciences, which have the potential to make a transformative impact on the toolbox available to the scientist as well as the way science is conducted. For instance, data mining and machine learning could provide novel computational tools that empower scientists to perform analyses more efficiently and effectively than ever before: tedious routine tasks become automated, existing methods scale to significantly larger datasets, and innovative methods may provide new capabilities altogether. Most notably we are not interested in leveraging computation for simulations of increasing scale or resolution but rather in the analysis of datasets of increasing size and

  17. An assessment of African test sites in the context of a global network of quality-assured reference standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Infrared and Visible Optical Sensors (IVOS) subgroup members established a set of CEOS-endorsed globally distributed reference standard test sites for the postlaunch calibration of space-based optical imaging sensors. This paper discusses the top five African pseudo-invariant sites (Libya 4, Mauritania 1/2, Algeria 3, Libya 1, and Algeria 5) that were identified by the IVOS subgroup. This paper focuses on monitoring the long-term radiometric stability of the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors using near-simultaneous and cloud-free image pairs acquired from launch to December 2008 over the five African desert sites. Residual errors and coefficients of determination were also generated to support the quality assessment of the calibration differences between the two sensors. An effort was also made to evaluate the relative stability of these sites for long-term monitoring of the optical sensors. ??2009 IEEE.

  18. Sequential Imaging of Earth by Astronauts: 50 Years of Global Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, astronauts have collected sequential imagery of the Earth. In fact, the collection of astronaut photography comprises one of the earliest sets of data (1961 to present) available to scientists to study the regional context of the Earth s surface and how it changes. While today s availability of global high resolution satellite imagery enables anyone with an internet connection to examine specific features on the Earth s surface with a regional context, historical satellite imagery adds another dimension (time) that provides researchers and students insight about the features and processes of a region. For example, one of the geographic areas with the longest length of record contained within the astronaut photography database is the lower Nile River. The database contains images that document the flooding of Lake Nasser (an analog to today s flooding behind China s Three Gorges Dam), the changing levels of Lake Nasser s water with multiyear cycles of flood and drought, the recent flooding and drying of the Toshka Lakes, as well as urban growth, changes in agriculture and coastal subsidence. The imagery database allows investigations using different time scales (hours to decades) and spatial scales (resolutions and fields of view) as variables. To continue the imagery collection, the astronauts on the International Space Station are trained to understand basic the Earth Sciences and look for and photograph major events such as tropical storms, landslides, and volcanic eruptions, and document landscapes undergoing change (e.g., coastal systems, cities, changing forest cover). We present examples of selected sequences of astronaut imagery that illustrate the interdependence of geological processes, climate cycles, human geography and development, and prompt additional questions about the underlying elements of change.

  19. Sequential Imaging of Earth by Astronauts: 50 Years of Global Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, astronauts have collected sequential imagery of the Earth. In fact, the collection of astronaut photography comprises one of the earliest sets of data (1961 to present) available to scientists to study the regional context of the Earth s surface and how it changes. While today s availability of global high resolution satellite imagery enables anyone with an internet connection to examine specific features on the Earth s surface with a regional context, historical satellite imagery adds another dimension (time) that provides researchers and students insight about the features and processes of a region. For example, one of the geographic areas with the longest length of record contained within the astronaut photography database is the lower Nile River. The database contains images that document the flooding of Lake Nasser (an analog to today s flooding behind China s Three Gorges Dam), the changing levels of Lake Nasser s water with multiyear cycles of flood and drought, the recent flooding and drying of the Toshka Lakes, as well as urban growth, changes in agriculture and coastal subsidence. The imagery database allows investigations using different time scales (hours to decades) and spatial scales (resolutions and fields of view) as variables. To continue the imagery collection, the astronauts on the International Space Station are trained to understand basic the Earth Sciences and look for and photograph major events such as tropical storms, landslides, and volcanic eruptions, and document landscapes undergoing change (e.g., coastal systems, cities, changing forest cover). We present examples of selected sequences of astronaut imagery that illustrate the interdependence of geological processes, climate cycles, human geography and development, and prompt additional questions about the underlying elements of change.

  20. The cascading effects of absolute reference frames and geomagnetic polarity timescales on global plate motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahirovic, S.; Seton, M.; Müller, R. D.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    Global plate motion models use Africa and the Pacific as the base of plate rotation hierarchies, with many other plates moving relative to them. Relative plate motions in the Mesozoic are generally well resolved where seafloor spreading histories are preserved to the present-day. However, the choice of absolute reference frames, whether they are fixed-hotspot, moving-hotspot, true-polar wander-corrected or pure paleomagnetic, can have significant consequences for the absolute plate velocities of smaller plates that are at the mercy of the cascading effects of movement within a complex plate motion hierarchy. We use GPlates to sample plate velocities through time at equally spaced mesh nodes that are contained within continuously closing plate polygons. We calculate root-mean square plate velocities to isolate the effects of different absolute reference frames on absolute plate velocity trends. Apart from being a quality-control tool for the creation of global plate motion models, this approach allows us to track the source of plate velocity spikes, some of which may be indicative of plate reorganisation events. We use a similar approach to test whether alternative geomagnetic polarity time-scales introduce or help reduce anomalous plate velocity fluctuations in global plate motion models. The choice of timescales can affect the seafloor spreading rates partitioned across stage rotations and models of sea level change. Such a workflow may help test alternative timescales, in order to study the model-dependence and controversies that have recently surfaced regarding proposed plate reorganisation events and the mid-Cretaceous seafloor spreading pulse.

  1. The Global S[Formula: see text] Tide in Earth's Nutation.

    PubMed

    Schindelegger, Michael; Einšpigel, David; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    Diurnal S[Formula: see text] tidal oscillations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system induce small perturbations of Earth's prograde annual nutation, but matching geophysical model estimates of this Sun-synchronous rotation signal with the observed effect in geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data has thus far been elusive. The present study assesses the problem from a geophysical model perspective, using four modern-day atmospheric assimilation systems and a consistently forced barotropic ocean model that dissipates its energy excess in the global abyssal ocean through a parameterized tidal conversion scheme. The use of contemporary meteorological data does, however, not guarantee accurate nutation estimates per se; two of the probed datasets produce atmosphere-ocean-driven S[Formula: see text] terms that deviate by more than 30 [Formula: see text]as (microarcseconds) from the VLBI-observed harmonic of [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]as. Partial deficiencies of these models in the diurnal band are also borne out by a validation of the air pressure tide against barometric in situ estimates as well as comparisons of simulated sea surface elevations with a global network of S[Formula: see text] tide gauge determinations. Credence is lent to the global S[Formula: see text] tide derived from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the operational model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). When averaged over a temporal range of 2004 to 2013, their nutation contributions are estimated to be [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]as (MERRA) and [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]as (ECMWF operational), thus being virtually equivalent with the VLBI estimate. This remarkably close agreement will likely aid forthcoming nutation theories in their unambiguous a priori account of Earth's prograde annual celestial motion.

  2. Global electric field determination in the Earth's outer magnetosphere using energetic charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, Timothy E.; Sheldon, R.; Hamilton, D.

    1995-01-01

    Although many properties of the Earth's magnetosphere have been measured and quantified in the past 30 years since it was discovered, one fundamental measurement (for zeroth order MHD equilibrium) has been made infrequently and with poor spatial coverage - the global electric field. This oversight is due in part to the neglect of theorists. However, there is renewed interest in the convection electric field because it is now realized to be central to many magnetospheric processes, including the global MHD equilibrium, reconnection rates, Region 2 Birkeland currents, magnetosphere ionosphere coupling, ring current and radiation belt transport, substorm injections, and several acceleration mechanisms. Unfortunately the standard experimental methods have not been able to synthesize a global field (excepting the pioneering work of McIlwain's geostationary models) and we are left with an overly simplistic theoretical field, the Volland-Stern electric field model. Single point measurements of the plasmapause were used to infer the appropriate amplitudes of this model, parameterized by K(sub p). Although this result was never intended to be the definitive electric field model, it has gone nearly unchanged for 20 years. The analysis of current data sets requires a great deal more accuracy than can be provided by the Volland-Stern model. The variability of electric field shielding has not been properly addressed although effects of penetrating magnetospheric electric fields has been seen in mid-and low-latitude ionospheric data sets. The growing interest in substorm dynamics also requires a much better assessment of the electric fields responsible for particle injections. Thus we proposed and developed algorithms for extracting electric fields from particle data taken in the Earth's magnetosphere. As a test of the effectiveness of these new techniques, we analyzed data taken by the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft in equatorial orbit from 1984 to 1989.

  3. Towards 10(exp 9) GPS geodesy: Vector baselines, Earth rotation and reference frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.

    1994-01-01

    Effort during the period form January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993 were in the following areas: GPS orbit accuracy assessments and efforts to improve the accuracy; analysis and effects of GPS receiver antenna phase center variation; analysis of global GPS data being collected for the IGS campaign; and analysis of regional (south west Pacific) campaign data. A brief summary of each of the above activities is presented.

  4. Toward 10(exp 9) GPS geodesy: Vector baselines, Earth rotation and reference frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.

    1993-01-01

    The University of Texas Center for Space Research research efforts under NASA Grant No. NAG-1936 from 1 Jan. 1992 - 31 Dec. 1992 were in the following areas: GPS orbit accuracy assessments and efforts to improve the accuracy; analysis of global GPS data collected during the first three months of the IGS campaign, and analysis of regional data. A brief summary of each of the above activities is presented in the following.

  5. Advancing the Vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems: a European Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, A. W.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), a network of Earth observation and information systems, contributed on a voluntary basis by Members and Participating Organisations of the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO), is to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system, in order to improve monitoring of the state of the Earth, increase understanding of Earth processes, and enhance prediction of the behaviour of the Earth system. Such a global research effort requires an integrated multi-disciplinary effort that is underpinned by a cyber-infrastructure which is able to discover and access vast quantities of data across heterogeneous information systems and many disciplines. As GEO develops and the implementation of the GEOSS gathers pace, it is becoming common practice for groups to be organised at national, regional and international level to address critical issues. In many cases these groups evolve to become "communities", organising themselves to carry out tasks of interest to that community. In most cases, communities develop their own "community portal" to provide a focal point on the web for their activities. The data and information held by the members of a specific community can normally be discovered via their particular "community portal". There is now a clear recognition that the many thematic community initiatives, each with their own information system and portal, need to be fully connected into the overall GEOSS architecture. With the introduction of a brokering capability this becomes possible. The value of the brokering approach has been demonstrated within the European Union funded EuroGEOSS research project. The EuroGEOSS brokering capability has now been incorporated into the GEOSS information system, (known as the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, or GCI) and renamed the GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker. In a matter of a few months the GEOSS DAB has enabled the GEOSS to

  6. The Human Retrosplenial Cortex and Thalamus Code Head Direction in a Global Reference Frame

    PubMed Central

    Shine, Jonathan P.; Valdés-Herrera, José P.; Hegarty, Mary; Wolbers, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Spatial navigation is a multisensory process involving integration of visual and body-based cues. In rodents, head direction (HD) cells, which are most abundant in the thalamus, integrate these cues to code facing direction. Human fMRI studies examining HD coding in virtual environments (VE) have reported effects in retrosplenial complex and (pre-)subiculum, but not the thalamus. Furthermore, HD coding appeared insensitive to global landmarks. These tasks, however, provided only visual cues for orientation, and attending to global landmarks did not benefit task performance. In the present study, participants explored a VE comprising four separate locales, surrounded by four global landmarks. To provide body-based cues, participants wore a head-mounted display so that physical rotations changed facing direction in the VE. During subsequent MRI scanning, subjects saw stationary views of the environment and judged whether their orientation was the same as in the preceding trial. Parameter estimates extracted from retrosplenial cortex and the thalamus revealed significantly reduced BOLD responses when HD was repeated. Moreover, consistent with rodent findings, the signal did not continue to adapt over repetitions of the same HD. These results were supported by a whole-brain analysis showing additional repetition suppression in the precuneus. Together, our findings suggest that (i) consistent with the rodent literature, the human thalamus may integrate visual, and body-based, orientation cues, (ii) global reference frame cues can be used to integrate HD across separate individual locales, and (iii) immersive training procedures providing full body-based cues may help to elucidate the neural mechanisms supporting spatial navigation. PMID:27307227

  7. Global land surface albedo maps from MODIS using the Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitraka, Zina; Benas, Nikolaos; Gorelick, Noel; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios

    2016-04-01

    The land surface albedo (LSA) is a critical physical variable, which influences the Earth's climate by affecting the energy budget and distribution in the Earth-atmosphere system. Its role is highly significant in both global and local scales; hence, LSA measurements provide a quantitative means for better constraining global and regional scale climate modelling efforts. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua platforms, provides the parameters needed for the computation of LSA on an 8-day temporal scale and a variety of spatial scales (ranging between 0.5 - 5 km). This dataset was used here for the LSA estimation and its changes over the study area at 0.5 km spatial resolution. More specifically, the MODIS albedo product was used, which includes both the directional-hemispherical surface reflectance (black-sky albedo) and the bi-hemispherical surface reflectance (white-sky albedo). The LSA was estimated for the whole globe on an 8-day basis for the whole time period covered by MODIS acquisitions (i.e. 2000 until today). To estimate LSA from black-sky and white-sky albedos, the fraction of the diffused radiation is needed, a function of the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT). Required AOT information was acquired from the MODIS AOT product at 1̊ × 1̊ spatial resolution. Since LSA also depends on solar zenith angle (SZA), 8-day mean LSA values were computed as averages of corresponding LSA values for representative SZAs covering the 24-hour day. The estimated LSA was analysed in terms of both spatial and seasonal characteristics, while LSA changes during the period examined were assessed. All computation were performed using the Google Earth Engine (GEE). The GEE provided access to all the MODIS products needed for the analysis without the need of searching or downloading. Moreover, the combination of MODIS products in both temporal and spatial terms was fast and effecting using the GEE API (Application

  8. Sustaining a global magnetic field on Earth but not Venus with mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, J. G.; Korenaga, J.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Global magnetic fields strongly affect the atmospheric properties and surface habitability of terrestrial planets. Paleomagnetic evidence indicates that Earth's dynamo has survived for at least 3.5 billion years, whereas spacecraft have failed to detect an internally generated magnetic field at Venus today. Vigorous convection and thus a dynamo may exist if the heat flow across the core/mantle boundary exceeds a critical value that is determined by the available sources and sinks of entropy and whether the core is isentropic and compositionally uniform. Less heat flow is necessary, for example, while Earth's growing inner core provides gravitational energy from the exclusion of light elements. Giant impacts during Earth's violent birth probably homogenized the core and mixed in some lithophile elements like magnesium. Subsequent precipitation of magnesium-bearing minerals perhaps powered the dynamo for billions of years before the nucleation of the inner core. Finding direct evidence that Venus suffered or avoided similar giant impacts would provide a major constraint on the formation of our Solar System. Here we discuss whether mantle dynamics alone explain the lack of a magnetic field at Venus. First, we compute the minimum heat flow required to sustain a dynamo considering all plausible values for uncertain parameters: thermal conductivity of the core, radius of the inner core, and precipitation of lithophile elements. We use a fourth-order, analytic model that was developed for Earth, slightly modified for Venus. Next, we consider the actual cooling rate permitted by different scenarios for mantle dynamics such as catastrophic resurfacing versus continuous evolution in the stagnant-lid regime. We find that the stagnant lid usually suppresses convection even if the core initially contains some lithophile elements and is close to an adiabatic state. Given the large uncertainties, however, we might expect an Earth-like core to generate a magnetic field at Venus if

  9. Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  10. Does the Earth's Magnetic Field Serve as a Reference for Alignment of the Honeybee Waggle Dance?

    PubMed Central

    Lambinet, Veronika; Hayden, Michael E.; Bieri, Marco; Gries, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) waggle dance, which is performed inside the hive by forager bees, informs hive mates about a potent food source, and recruits them to its location. It consists of a repeated figure-8 pattern: two oppositely directed turns interspersed by a short straight segment, the “waggle run”. The waggle run consists of a single stride emphasized by lateral waggling motions of the abdomen. Directional information pointing to a food source relative to the sun's azimuth is encoded in the angle between the waggle run line and a reference line, which is generally thought to be established by gravity. Yet, there is tantalizing evidence that the local (ambient) geomagnetic field (LGMF) could play a role. We tested the effect of the LGMF on the recruitment success of forager bees by placing observation hives inside large Helmholtz coils, and then either reducing the LGMF to 2% or shifting its apparent declination. Neither of these treatments reduced the number of nest mates that waggle dancing forager bees recruited to a feeding station located 200 m north of the hive. These results indicate that the LGMF does not act as the reference for the alignment of waggle-dancing bees. PMID:25541731

  11. Does the Earth's magnetic field serve as a reference for alignment of the honeybee Waggle dance?

    PubMed

    Lambinet, Veronika; Hayden, Michael E; Bieri, Marco; Gries, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) waggle dance, which is performed inside the hive by forager bees, informs hive mates about a potent food source, and recruits them to its location. It consists of a repeated figure-8 pattern: two oppositely directed turns interspersed by a short straight segment, the "waggle run". The waggle run consists of a single stride emphasized by lateral waggling motions of the abdomen. Directional information pointing to a food source relative to the sun's azimuth is encoded in the angle between the waggle run line and a reference line, which is generally thought to be established by gravity. Yet, there is tantalizing evidence that the local (ambient) geomagnetic field (LGMF) could play a role. We tested the effect of the LGMF on the recruitment success of forager bees by placing observation hives inside large Helmholtz coils, and then either reducing the LGMF to 2% or shifting its apparent declination. Neither of these treatments reduced the number of nest mates that waggle dancing forager bees recruited to a feeding station located 200 m north of the hive. These results indicate that the LGMF does not act as the reference for the alignment of waggle-dancing bees.

  12. Contributions to global earth sciences integration. A special issue on the 3rd Young Earth Scientists Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cónsole-Gonella, Carlos; Yidana, Sandow Mark

    2016-10-01

    The Young Earth Scientists (YES) Network is an association of early-career geoscientists who are primarily under the age of 35 years from universities, geoscience organizations and companies from across the world (http://www.networkyes.org)

  13. The NASA/MSFC global reference atmospheric model: MOD 3 (with spherical harmonic wind model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Fletcher, G. R.; Gramling, F. E.; Pace, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Improvements to the global reference atmospheric model are described. The basic model includes monthly mean values of pressure, density, temperature, and geostrophic winds, as well as quasi-biennial and small and large scale random perturbations. A spherical harmonic wind model for the 25 to 90 km height range is included. Below 25 km and above 90 km, the GRAM program uses the geostrophic wind equations and pressure data to compute the mean wind. In the altitudes where the geostrophic wind relations are used, an interpolation scheme is employed for estimating winds at low latitudes where the geostrophic wind relations being to mesh down. Several sample wind profiles are given, as computed by the spherical harmonic model. User and programmer manuals are presented.

  14. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 3.34): Programmer's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, Bonnie F.; Johnson, Dale L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a programmer's guide for the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 3.34). Included are a brief history and review of the model since its origin in 1988 and a technical discussion of recent additions and modifications. Examples of how to run both the interactive and batch (subroutine) forms are presented. Instructions are provided on how to customize output of the model for various parameters of the Mars atmosphere. Detailed descriptions are given of the main driver programs, subroutines, and associated computational methods. Lists and descriptions include input, output, and local variables in the programs. These descriptions give a summary of program steps and 'map' of calling relationships among the subroutines. Definitions are provided for the variables passed between subroutines through common lists. Explanations are provided for all diagnostic and progress messages generated during execution of the program. A brief outline of future plans for Mars-GRAM is also presented.

  15. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM): Release No. 2 - Overview and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, B.; Johnson, D.; Tyree, L.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM), a science and engineering model for empirically parameterizing the temperature, pressure, density, and wind structure of the Martian atmosphere, is described with particular attention to the model's newest version, Mars-GRAM, Release No. 2 and to the improvements incorporated into the Release No. 2 model as compared with the Release No. 1 version. These improvements include (1) an addition of a new capability to simulate local-scale Martian dust storms and the growth and decay of these storms; (2) an addition of the Zurek and Haberle (1988) wave perturbation model, for simulating tidal perturbation effects; and (3) a new modular version of Mars-GRAM, for incorporation as a subroutine into other codes.

  16. The global reference atmospheric model, mod 2 (with two scale perturbation model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Hargraves, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Global Reference Atmospheric Model was improved to produce more realistic simulations of vertical profiles of atmospheric parameters. A revised two scale random perturbation model using perturbation magnitudes which are adjusted to conform to constraints imposed by the perfect gas law and the hydrostatic condition is described. The two scale perturbation model produces appropriately correlated (horizontally and vertically) small scale and large scale perturbations. These stochastically simulated perturbations are representative of the magnitudes and wavelengths of perturbations produced by tides and planetary scale waves (large scale) and turbulence and gravity waves (small scale). Other new features of the model are: (1) a second order geostrophic wind relation for use at low latitudes which does not "blow up" at low latitudes as the ordinary geostrophic relation does; and (2) revised quasi-biennial amplitudes and phases and revised stationary perturbations, based on data through 1972.

  17. Evaluation of recent Earth's global gravity field models with terrestrial gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpik, Alexander P.; Kanushin, Vadim F.; Ganagina, Irina G.; Goldobin, Denis N.; Kosarev, Nikolay S.; Kosareva, Alexandra M.

    2016-03-01

    In the context of the rapid development of environmental research technologies and techniques to solve scientific and practical problems in different fields of knowledge including geosciences, the study of Earth's gravity field models is still important today. The results of gravity anomaly modelling calculated by the current geopotential models data were compared with the independent terrestrial gravity data for the two territories located in West Siberia and Kazakhstan. Statistical characteristics of comparison results for the models under study were obtained. The results of investigations show that about 70% of the differences between the gravity anomaly values calculated by recent global geopotential models and those observed at the points in flat areas are within ±10 mGal, in mountainous areas are within ±20 mGal.

  18. Ion Acceleration at Earth, Saturn and Jupiter and its Global Impact on Magnetospheric Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pontus

    2016-07-01

    The ion plasma pressures at Earth, Saturn and Jupiter are significant players in the electrodynamic force-balance that governs the structure and dynamics of these magnetospheres. There are many similarities between the physical mechanisms that are thought to heat the ion plasma to temperatures that even exceed those of the solar corona. In this presentation we compare the ion acceleration mechanisms at the three planetary magnetospheres and discuss their global impacts on magnetopsheric structure. At Earth, bursty-bulk flows, or "bubbles", have been shown to accelerate protons and O+ to high energies by the earthward moving magnetic dipolarization fronts. O+ ions display a more non-adiabatic energization in response to these fronts than protons do as they are energized and transported in to the ring-current region where they reach energies of several 100's keV. We present both in-situ measurements from the NASA Van Allen Probes Mission and global Energetic Neutral (ENA) images from the High-Energy Neutral Atom (HENA) Camera on board the IMAGE Mission, that illustrate these processes. The global impact on the magnetospheric structure is explored by comparing the empirical magnetic field model TS07d for given driving conditions with global plasma pressure distributions derived from the HENA images. At Saturn, quasi-periodic energization events, or large-scale injections, occur beyond about 9 RS around the post-midnight sector, clearly shown by the Ion and Neutral Atom Camera (INCA) on board the Cassini mission. In contrast to Earth, the corotational drift dominates even the energetic ion distributions. The large-scale injections display similar dipolarization front features can be found and there are indications that like at Earth the O+ responds more non-adiabatically than protons do. However, at Saturn there are also differences in that there appears to be energization events deep in the inner magnetosphere (6-9 RS) preferentially occurring in the pre

  19. Global geologic applications of the Space Shuttle earth observations photography database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh; Helfert, Michael; Evans, Cynthia; Wilkinson, M. J.; Pitts, David; Amsbury, David

    1993-01-01

    The advantages of the astronaut photography during Space Shuttle missions are briefly examined, and the scope and applications of the Space Shuttle earth observations photography database are discussed. The global and multidisciplinary nature of the data base is illustrated by several examples of geologic applications. These include the eruption of Mount Pinatubo (Philippine Islands), heat flow and ice cover on Lake Baikal in Siberia (Russia), and windblown dust in South America. It is noted that hand-held photography from the U.S. Space Shuttle provides unique remotely-sensed data for geologic applications because of the combination of varying perspectives, look angles, and illumination, and changing resolution resulting from different lenses and altitudes.

  20. Global geologic applications of the Space Shuttle earth observations photography database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh; Helfert, Michael; Evans, Cynthia; Wilkinson, M. J.; Pitts, David; Amsbury, David

    1993-01-01

    The advantages of the astronaut photography during Space Shuttle missions are briefly examined, and the scope and applications of the Space Shuttle earth observations photography database are discussed. The global and multidisciplinary nature of the data base is illustrated by several examples of geologic applications. These include the eruption of Mount Pinatubo (Philippine Islands), heat flow and ice cover on Lake Baikal in Siberia (Russia), and windblown dust in South America. It is noted that hand-held photography from the U.S. Space Shuttle provides unique remotely-sensed data for geologic applications because of the combination of varying perspectives, look angles, and illumination, and changing resolution resulting from different lenses and altitudes.

  1. Sunsynchronous low Earth orbit spacecraft concepts and technology requirements for global change monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. Bernard; Butterfield, Ansel J.; Taback, Israel; Garn, Paul A.; Burrowbridge, Donald R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Change Technology Initiative listing of instruments for operation in low Earth, sunsynchronous orbits contain 21 entries, of which 20 are carried aboard multi-instrument spacecraft. This list identifies the temporal requirements for repetition of measurements and also includes groups of instruments that make complementing measurements. Definitions for individual spacecraft follows the temporal and grouping requirements to establish constellations which will provide the measurement data. The definitions of constellations for multi-instrument spacecraft show two alternatives: a constellation of 10 spacecraft, each compatible with launch by a Delta booster; a constellation of 4 spacecraft, each requiring a Titan booster. Operating subsystems for the individual spacecraft can use modular concepts that are adaptations based upon current plans for improving the performance of the NASA-Goddard Multimission Modular units. The descriptions of the spacecraft and constellations begins with a compilation of instrument related requirements that define the principal system performance parameters and operating capabilities.

  2. Project to Interface Climate Modeling on Global and Regional Scales with Earth Observing (EOS) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    This ten-year NASA IDS project began in 1990. Its initial work plan adopted the NASA provided timeline that data would become available for new Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms beginning in 1995. Over its first phase, it was based at NCAR, which had submitted the original proposal and involved activities of a substantial number of co-investigators at NCAR who engaged in research over several areas related to the observations expected to be received from the EOS platforms. Their focus was the theme of use of EOS data for improving climate models for projecting global change. From the climate system viewpoint, the IDS addressed land, clouds-hydrological cycle, radiative fluxes and especially aerosol impacts, ocean and sea-ice, and stratosphere. Other research addressed issues of data assimilation, diagnostic analyses, and data set development from current satellite systems, especially use of SAR data for climate models.

  3. An enhanced model of land water and energy for global hydrologic and earth-system studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, Paul C.D.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Shevliakova, Elena; Dunne, Krista A.; Findell, Kirsten L.; Gleeson, Tom; Liang, Zhi; Phillips, Peter; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Swenson, Sean

    2014-01-01

    LM3 is a new model of terrestrial water, energy, and carbon, intended for use in global hydrologic analyses and as a component of earth-system and physical-climate models. It is designed to improve upon the performance and to extend the scope of the predecessor Land Dynamics (LaD) and LM3V models by better quantifying the physical controls of climate and biogeochemistry and by relating more directly to components of the global water system that touch human concerns. LM3 includes multilayer representations of temperature, liquid water content, and ice content of both snowpack and macroporous soil–bedrock; topography-based description of saturated area and groundwater discharge; and transport of runoff to the ocean via a global river and lake network. Sensible heat transport by water mass is accounted throughout for a complete energy balance. Carbon and vegetation dynamics and biophysics are represented as in LM3V. In numerical experiments, LM3 avoids some of the limitations of the LaD model and provides qualitatively (though not always quantitatively) reasonable estimates, from a global perspective, of observed spatial and/or temporal variations of vegetation density, albedo, streamflow, water-table depth, permafrost, and lake levels. Amplitude and phase of annual cycle of total water storage are simulated well. Realism of modeled lake levels varies widely. The water table tends to be consistently too shallow in humid regions. Biophysical properties have an artificial stepwise spatial structure, and equilibrium vegetation is sensitive to initial conditions. Explicit resolution of thick (>100 m) unsaturated zones and permafrost is possible, but only at the cost of long (≫300 yr) model spinup times.

  4. An earth-gridded SSM/I data set for cryospheric studies and global change monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Brodzik, M. J.

    1995-08-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) has distributed DMSP Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperature grids for the Polar Regions on CD-ROM since 1987. In order to expand this product to include all potential snow covered regions, the area of coverage is now global. The format for the global SSM/I data set is the Equal Area SSM/I Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) developed at NSIDC. The EASE-Grid has been selected as the format for the NASA/NOAA Pathfinder Program Level 3 Products which include both SSM/I and SMMR (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer) data (1978-1987). Providing both data sets in the EASE-Grid will result in a 15 year time-series of satellite passive microwave data in a common format. The extent and variability of seasonal snow cover is recognized to be an important parameter in climate and hydrologic systems and trends in snow cover serve as an indicator of global climatic changes. Passive microwave data from satellites afford the possibility to monitor temporal and spatial variations in snow cover on the global scale, avoiding the problems of cloud cover and darkness. NSIDC is developing the capability to produce daily snow products from the DMSP-SSM/I satellite with a spatial resolution of 25 km. In order to provide a standard environment in which to validate SSM/I algorithm output, it is necessary to assemble baseline data sets using other, more direct, methods of measurement. NSIDC has compiled a validation data set of surface station measurements for the northern hemisphere with specific focus on the United States, Canada, and the former Soviet Union. Digital image subtraction is applied to compare the surface station and satellite measurements.

  5. NASADEM Global Elevation Model of Earth: Methods for the Refinement and Merger of SRTM and ASTER GDEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippen, R. E.; Buckley, S.; Agram, P. S.; Belz, J. E.; Gurrola, E. M.; Hensley, S.; Kobrick, M.; Lavalle, M.; Martin, J. M.; Neumann, M.; Nguyen, Q.; Rosen, P. A.; Shimada, J.; Simard, M.; Tung, W.

    2016-12-01

    NASADEM is a near-global elevation model that is being produced primarily by completely reprocessing the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) radar data and then merging it with refined ASTER GDEM elevations. The new and improved SRTM elevations in NASADEM result from better vertical control of each SRTM data swath via reference to ICESat elevations and from SRTM void reductions using advanced interferometric unwrapping algorithms. Errors in SRTM (due to incorrect interferometric unwrapping) are rare but can be found and removed via a detector that relies upon pattern analysis within synergistic comparisons of SRTM and GDEM. Remnant voids in SRTM are filled primarily by GDEM3, but with removal of GDEM glitches that are mostly related to clouds. GDEM glitch removal uses a measure of curvature and then spatial filtering to detect, isolate, and delete anomalous spikes and pits that are uncharacteristic of natural topography. Water masking uses the original SRTM Water Body Dataset (SWBD), but with errors corrected via a new ASTER Water Body Database. The improved SRTM, GDEM, and water body databases will be made available individually in addition to our merged product, which is particularly important for the SRTM dataset, which stands as a February 2000 baseline for many topographic change studies. New and forthcoming freely available elevation data (at reduced resolutions) from the ALOS PRISM World 3D and TanDEM-X projects will contribute to the critical but not yet reached goal of a complete, high-quality elevation model of Earth, and they are expected to provide additional validation for NASADEM. Indeed, cross validation among all of these datasets is a vital part of reaching that goal. The value of elevation data is difficult to overstate. These data are used in nearly all types of geophysical study conducted at or near Earth's surface.

  6. Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive 60Fe

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, A.; Feige, J.; Kinoshita, N.; Paul, M.; Fifield, L.K.; Golser, R.; Honda, M.; Linnemann, U.; Matsuzaki, H.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Tims, S.G.; Steier, P.; Yamagata, T.; Winkler, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    The rate of supernovae (SNe) in our local galactic neighborhood within a distance of ~100 parsec from Earth (1 parsec (pc)=3.26 light years) is estimated at 1 SN every 2-4 million years (Myr), based on the total SN-rate in the Milky Way (2.0±0.7 per century1,2). Recent massive-star and SN activity in Earth’s vicinity may be evidenced by traces of radionuclides with half-lives t1/2 ≤100 Myr3-6, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System (SS). One such radionuclide is 60Fe (t1/2=2.6 Myr)7,8 which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars1,2,9. Here we report that the 60Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts10,11, is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. Deep-sea archives from all major oceans were analyzed for 60Fe deposition via accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results, based on 60Fe atom-counting at state-of-the-art sensitivity8, reveal 60Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth 1.7–3.2 Myr and 6.5–8.7 Myr ago. The measured signal implies that a few percent of fresh 60Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ~10 Myr at nearby distances ≤100 pc. PMID:27078565

  7. Global patterns in Earth's dynamic topography since the Jurassic: the role of subducted slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubey, Michael; Brune, Sascha; Heine, Christian; Rhodri Davies, D.; Williams, Simon E.; Dietmar Müller, R.

    2017-09-01

    We evaluate the spatial and temporal evolution of Earth's long-wavelength surface dynamic topography since the Jurassic using a series of high-resolution global mantle convection models. These models are Earth-like in terms of convective vigour, thermal structure, surface heat-flux and the geographic distribution of heterogeneity. The models generate a degree-2-dominated spectrum of dynamic topography with negative amplitudes above subducted slabs (i.e. circum-Pacific regions and southern Eurasia) and positive amplitudes elsewhere (i.e. Africa, north-western Eurasia and the central Pacific). Model predictions are compared with published observations and subsidence patterns from well data, both globally and for the Australian and southern African regions. We find that our models reproduce the long-wavelength component of these observations, although observed smaller-scale variations are not reproduced. We subsequently define geodynamic rules for how different surface tectonic settings are affected by mantle processes: (i) locations in the vicinity of a subduction zone show large negative dynamic topography amplitudes; (ii) regions far away from convergent margins feature long-term positive dynamic topography; and (iii) rapid variations in dynamic support occur along the margins of overriding plates (e.g. the western US) and at points located on a plate that rapidly approaches a subduction zone (e.g. India and the Arabia Peninsula). Our models provide a predictive quantitative framework linking mantle convection with plate tectonics and sedimentary basin evolution, thus improving our understanding of how subduction and mantle convection affect the spatio-temporal evolution of basin architecture.

  8. Earth at 200 Ma: Global palaeogeography refined from CAMP palaeomagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Martínez, Vicente Carlos; Torsvik, Trond H.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Gaina, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province was formed approximately 200 Ma ago as a prelude to the breakup of Pangea, and may have been a cause of the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction. Based on a combination of (i) a new palaeomagnetic pole from the CAMP related Argana lavas (Moroccan Meseta Block), (ii) a global compilation of 190-210 Ma poles, and (iii) a re-evaluation of relative fits between NW Africa, the Moroccan Meseta Block and Iberia, we calculate a new global 200 Ma pole (latitude = 70.1° S, longitude = 56.7° E and A95 = 2.7°; N = 40 poles; NW Africa co-ordinates). We consider the palaeomagnetic database to be robust at 200 ± 10 Ma, which allows us to craft precise reconstructions near the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: at this very important time in Earth history, Pangea was near-equatorially centered, the western sector was dominated by plate convergence and subduction, while in the eastern sector, the Palaeotethys oceanic domain was almost consumed because of a widening Neothethys. We show that there has been negligible net displacement of the Moroccan Meseta relative to Africa since 200 Ma. We calculate a new fit between Iberia and NW Africa, showing that models inferring minor Cretaceous rotation and major Cretaceous sinistral translation of Iberia relative to Europe are inconsistent with palaeomagnetic Iberia-Africa fits at 200 Ma. During Pangea breakup (~ 195 Ma, opening of the Central Atlantic), and shortly after the CAMP outburst, Laurasia rotated clockwise relative to Gondwana around an Euler pole located in SE Iberia. The CAMP and its likely contribution to climate change, mass extinction and Pangea breakup profoundly changed planet Earth and we show that CAMP was sourced by a deep mantle plume that started its disturbing journey from the core-mantle boundary.

  9. Putting the Earth System in a numerical box? The evolution from climate modeling toward global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahan, Amy

    Since the 1980s, climate modeling has undergone major transformations. The most prominent of these are the proliferation of coupled models and the integration within models of a growing number of environments and feedbacks. Climate modelers now increasingly define their object in terms of an "Earth System" instead of a "climate system". In addition to this proliferation of coupled models, the carbon cycle and its feedback on various environments, from the atmosphere to the ocean and to vegetation cover, has become a prominent component of climate modeling. These transformations derive from the IPCC's overall methodology, and are closely bound up with both a heightened awareness of the risks of climate change, as well as an issue of crucial political importance: the question of socio-economic/climate integration. In this article I follow, from a roughly chronological point of view, the major steps of this evolution and its links with the evolution of the political agenda. What can we say about this seemingly irreversible tendency to incorporate everything into models and to take account of everything that influences the Earth's climate? Could we correlate it to the strong tendency toward globalization? How is the notion of climate itself affected? These are the main questions of the paper.

  10. Snowball Earth: Asynchronous coupling of sea-glacier flow with a global climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, D.; Kasting, J. F.; Zugger, M. E.

    2017-05-01

    During Snowball Earth episodes of the Neoproterozoic and Paleoproterozoic, limited amounts of tropical open ocean (Jormungand), or tropical ocean with thin ice cover, would help to explain (1) vigorous glacial activity in low latitudes, (2) survival of photosynthetic life, and (3) deglacial recovery without excessive buildup of atmospheric CO2. Some previous models have suggested that tropical open ocean or thin-ice cover is possible; however, its viability in the presence of kilometer-thick sea glaciers flowing from higher latitudes has not been demonstrated conclusively. Here we describe a new method of asynchronously coupling a zonal sea-glacier model with a 3-D global climate model and apply it to Snowball Earth. Equilibrium curves of ice line versus CO2 are mapped out, as well as their dependence on ocean heat transport efficiency, sea-glacier flow, and other model parameters. No climate states with limited tropical open ocean or thin ice are found in any of our model runs, including those with sea glaciers. If this result is correct, then other refugia such as cryoconite pans would have been required for life to survive. However, the reasons for the differences between our results and others should first be resolved. It is suggested that small-scale convective dynamics, affecting fractional snow cover in low latitudes, may be a critical factor accounting for these differences.

  11. Evidence of long term global decline in the Earth's thermospheric densities apparently related to anthropogenic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G. M.; Tolson, R. H.; Bradford, M. S.

    2000-05-01

    A study was performed of the long-term orbital decay of five Earth satellites with perigee altitudes averaging near 350km. To decouple long-term trend measurements from the effects of solar variability, measurements were evaluated during the years of solar minimum (1976, 1986 and 1996). Atmospheric densities derived from these essentially global measurements showed substantial evidence of a decline averaging 9.8 ± 2.5% in thermospheric density over 20 years pointing toward a long-term cooling of the upper atmosphere. Increases in greenhouse gases induced by human activity are hypothesized to warm the Earth's surface and lower atmosphere, but strongly cool the upper atmosphere. Assuming that the 10% increase in CO2 over these 20 years caused cooling resulting in the 10% decline in density, a doubling of CO2 could cause the thermospheric densities measured near 350km to decrease by a factor of 3. This decrease may shrink the altitude of a constant density surface by 40km before the end of the 21st century.

  12. Global nutrients data synthesis based on Reference Material of Nutrients of Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Michio; Murata, Akihiko; Nishino, Shigeto

    2013-04-01

    Realistic distributions of nitrate, phosphate and silicate and inventories of them in the world's ocean are basic issues of geochemical study of nitrogen, phosphorous and silicon cycles as well as tracer use of nutrients for deep ocean circulation. WOA09 and WGHC were global hydrographic datasets created by objective analysis and offset correction/objective analysis, respectively. However synthesis using mathematics methods and experience could get apparent global comparability but does not have a firm foundation, therefore accuracy is unknown for nutrients data in WOA05/09 and WGHC. Recently hydrographic dataset such as CARINA and PACIFICA were also created by synthesis. We did global synthesis work based on Reference Material of Nutrients in Seawater (RMNS) for WOCE/CLIVAR cruises datasets, WGHC datasets and some new hydrographic cruises which cover the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. Among 69982 profiles in 5174 cruises, we could put correction factors of nutrients concentration for 14491 profiles in 268 cruises for nitrate, 18378 profiles in 412 cruises for phosphate and 15825 profiles in 268 cruises for silicate. Global Nutrients Dataset 2010, GND10, is newly created as 0.5 deg. × 0.5 deg. and 50 m interval of 138 levels gridded dataset based on corrected nutrients profiles described above. One feature of GND10 is that nitrate vs. phosphate ratio in deep waters in WOA dataset showed a peak at 14.6 while nitrate vs. phosphate ratio in GND10 showed a peak at 14.3 and kurtosis of frequency distribution of nitrate vs. phosphate ratio is larger in GND10 dataset rather than that in WOA dataset. A reason of larger kurtosis of distribution of nitrate vs. phosphate ratio might be that comparability of nitrate and phosphate concentration data was improved. Newly created GND10 can provide more realistic distribution of nutrients in the world ocean because comparability of nutrients concentration in GND10 is

  13. The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements: A Reference Guide (by Robert E. Krebs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Reviewed By Jeffrey D.

    1999-04-01

    Greenwood Press: Westport, CT, 1998. 282 pp + 25 pp glossary + 37 pp index. 15.9 x 24.1 cm. ISBN 0-313-30123-9. $39.95. This book is an excellent resource for chemical educators at the high school and college levels. The format of the text is consistent and the writing style is clear and concise, making it ideally suited for student use also. The first three chapters serve to introduce the reader to a brief history of chemistry, early models of the atom, and the development of the periodic table. Names of the contributing scientists are mentioned whenever necessary, but the overall purpose of these introductory chapters is simply to lay a foundation for the subsequent seven chapters. A complete glossary of important scientific terms mentioned in the text should allow beginning students to use this book without feeling overwhelmed. Each entry for the 112 elements contains the following information: elemental symbol, atomic number, period, common valence, atomic weight, natural state, common isotopes, properties, characteristics, abundance, natural sources, history, common uses and compounds, and safety hazards. This information is well organized, with clear headings and separate sections making the book extremely user-friendly. Readers can easily obtain the information they desire without having to skim the full entry for a chosen element. One very nice feature of this book is that the elements entries are arranged by their locations in the periodic table. For example, chapter 4 contains the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. This organizational scheme allows one to quickly see the patterns and trends within groups of elements. This format is significantly better than arranging the elements in alphabetical order, which places the entry for sodium far removed from the entries for lithium and potassium. I would highly recommend this book to high school teachers and college chemistry professors. It is well written and is an excellent source of information for

  14. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2000 Version (Mars-GRAM 2000): Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; James, B. F.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2000 Version (Mars-GRAM 2000) and its new features. All parameterizations for temperature, pressure, density, and winds versus height, latitude, longitude, time of day, and L(sub s) have been replaced by input data tables from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) for the surface through 80-km altitude and the University of Arizona Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM) for 80 to 170 km. A modified Stewart thermospheric model is still used for higher altitudes and for dependence on solar activity. "Climate factors" to tune for agreement with GCM data are no longer needed. Adjustment of exospheric temperature is still an option. Consistent with observations from Mars Global Surveyor, a new longitude-dependent wave model is included with user input to specify waves having 1 to 3 wavelengths around the planet. A simplified perturbation model has been substituted for the earlier one. An input switch allows users to select either East or West longitude positive. This memorandum includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAM source code and data files and for running the program. It also provides sample input and output and an example for incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  15. Utilizing Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) to Evaluate Entry Probe Mission Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. An overview is presented of Mars-GRAM 2005 and its new features. The "auxiliary profile" option is one new feature of Mars-GRAM 2005. This option uses an input file of temperature and density versus altitude to replace the mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM's conventional (General Circulation Model) climatology. Any source of data or alternate model output can be used to generate an auxiliary profile. Auxiliary profiles for this study were produced from mesoscale model output (Southwest Research Institute's Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) model and Oregon State University's Mars mesoscale model (MMM5) model) and a global Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) database. The global TES database has been specifically generated for purposes of making Mars-GRAM auxiliary profiles. This data base contains averages and standard deviations of temperature, density, and thermal wind components, averaged over 5-by-5 degree latitude-longitude bins and 15 degree Ls bins, for each of three Mars years of TES nadir data. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sites are used as a sample of how Mars-GRAM' could be a valuable tool for planning of future Mars entry probe missions. Results are presented using auxiliary profiles produced from the mesoscale model output and TES observed data for candidate MSL landing sites. Input parameters rpscale (for density perturbations) and rwscale (for wind perturbations) can be used to "recalibrate" Mars-GRAM perturbation magnitudes to better replicate observed or mesoscale model variability.

  16. Utilizing Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) to Evaluate Entry Probe Mission Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. An overview is presented of Mars-GRAM 2005 and its new features. The "auxiliary profile" option is one new feature of Mars-GRAM 2005. This option uses an input file of temperature and density versus altitude to replace the mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM's conventional (General Circulation Model) climatology. Any source of data or alternate model output can be used to generate an auxiliary profile. Auxiliary profiles for this study were produced from mesoscale model output (Southwest Research Institute's Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) model and Oregon State University's Mars mesoscale model (MMM5) model) and a global Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) database. The global TES database has been specifically generated for purposes of making Mars-GRAM auxiliary profiles. This data base contains averages and standard deviations of temperature, density, and thermal wind components, averaged over 5-by-5 degree latitude-longitude bins and 15 degree Ls bins, for each of three Mars years of TES nadir data. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sites are used as a sample of how Mars-GRAM' could be a valuable tool for planning of future Mars entry probe missions. Results are presented using auxiliary profiles produced from the mesoscale model output and TES observed data for candidate MSL landing sites. Input parameters rpscale (for density perturbations) and rwscale (for wind perturbations) can be used to "recalibrate" Mars-GRAM perturbation magnitudes to better replicate observed or mesoscale model variability.

  17. Evaluating The Global Inventory of Planetary Analog Environments on Earth: An Ontological Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    fundamental attributes may no longer exist and have to be reconstructed. In the case of Earth analogs for Mars, there are important distinctions that cannot be duplicated in contemporary Earth environments—we cannot produce the same surface conditions with respect to thermal fluctuation, ionizing radiation and extremely oxidizing chemistry. Mars analogs on Earth: We have studied the habitability of several desert environments on Earth by measuring their chemical, physical and biological features. These locations, which include Battleship Promontory in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica; several sites in Svalbard, the arctic; the Imperial Dunes in southern California and Amboy Crater in the Mojave Desert, CA, form the basis for a trial ontology of analog environments which have varying degrees of analogy to potential environments of interest on Mars for exploration of its habitability potential. We present a trial taxonomy for Mars analog environments to which we can add the attributes of other environments advocated as Earth analogs for Mars. References: [1] Bunge,M.,Treatise on Basic Philosophy: Ontology I, The Furniture of the World, Reidel, 1977. [2] Gruber, T. R., (1993). Knowledge Acquisition, 5(2):199-220.

  18. New altimeter concept for next-generation global Earth topography microwave instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelli, Carlo; Sorge, S.; Croci, R.; Mavrocordatos, Constantin E.

    1999-12-01

    Pulse limited radar altimeters (Geosat, ERS1/2, Topex/Poseidon) have demonstrated excellent ability in performing measurements of the ocean topography from space with a high degree of accuracy. Data continuity will be ensured through follow on missions like TOPEX-POSEIDON Follow- on and ENVISAT RA2 (developed by ALENIA AEROSPAZIO under ESA contract) in this case providing also the chance for a global Earth topography mapping not more limited to ocean but extended to land and ice regions thanks to innovative design features like resolution adaptivity and robust on board tracking. Earth sciences are now demanding for systems with extensive capability to get topographic measurements over non- ocean surfaces (ice and land regions) but with improved spatial resolution, in the order of 100 - 300 meters respect to the several hundreds of meters provided by nadir looking pulse limited systems. A real step forward in high resolution topography with microwave instrumentation is represented by the application of synthetic aperture and interferometric techniques to the conventional pulse limited altimeter concept, a solution proposed in the literature and extensively exploited by ALENIA AEROSPAZIO in the frame of the ESA studies TOS (Topography Observing Systems) and HSRRA (High Spatial Resolution Radar Altimeter) and proposed in late 1998 for the Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission CRYOSAT. In the high spatial resolution altimeter synthetic aperture processing applied along the direction of motion will allow to improve the resolution in the along track while dual antenna observation geometry will enable reconstruction of surface topography within each synthesized Doppler filter from the phase difference between the radar returns at the two antennas. Thanks to a proper baseline selection, a unique interference fringe can be generated within the observed swath thus avoiding the troubles of phase unwrapping otherwise required in conventional interferometric processing. Aim of

  19. Absolute plate motion changes around 50 Ma in a Global Moving Hotspot Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, B. M.; Doubrovine, P. V.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    To understand causes of plate motion changes around 50 Ma, it is important to know which plates also have changed their motion relative to the underlying mantle. Towards that end, we have developed a global reference frame that is based on fitting the age progression along five hotspot tracks: Hawaii, Louisville, Tristan, Reunion and New England. We use all available information on relative plate motions and two alternative plate chains - one through East and West Antarctica and one through Australia and Lord Howe Rise - to compute the motion of the Pacific relative to Africa. Our model also considers the predicted motion of these hotspots due to large-scale mantle flow: This flow is computed from mantle density anomalies inferred from seismic tomography. Hereby it is assumed that both seismic velocity and density anomalies in the mantle are due to temperature variations, except in parts of the uppermost mantle (tectosphere) and possibly parts of the lowermost mantle (Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces). We use a radial mantle viscosity structure that is consistent with mineral physics and the Haskell average inferred from postglacial rebound, and that also gives predictions for geoid and global mantle heat flux that agree well with observations. We compute the motion of mantle plume conduits, assuming they are initially vertical, and subsequently get advected with flow, but also rise buoyantly. Our resulting best-fit model yields acceptable fits to all hotspot tracks. It confirms that Pacific plate motion has changed at the time of the bend, but the Hawaiian hotspot has also moved southward by several hundred km. We also consider alternatively a paleomagnetic reference frame, which has been corrected for true polar wander (TPW) by interpreting the coherent rotation component of all continents around their common center of mass as TPW. Due to the TPW correction, both reference frames are rather similar. Bends in apparent polar wander (APW) paths are often

  20. Multi-reference evaluation of uncertainty in earth orientation parameter measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, T. M.; Gross, R. S.; Dickey, J. O.

    2005-01-01

    Uncertainties in polar motion and length-of-day measurements are evaluated empirically using several data series from the space-geodetic techniques of the global positioning system (GPS), satellite laser ranging (SLR), and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) during 1997-2002. In the evaluation procedure employed here, known as the three-corner hat (TCH) technique, the signal common to each series is eliminated by forming pair-wise differences between the series, thus requiring no assumed values for the 'truth' signal. From the variances of the differenced series, the uncertainty of each series can be recovered when reasonable assumptions are made about the correlations between the series. In order to form the pair-wise differences, the series data must be given at the same epoch. All measurement data sets studied here were sampled at noon (UTC); except for the VLBI series, whose data are interpolated to noon and whose UT1 values are also numerically differentiated to obtain LOD. The numerical error introduced to the VLBI values by the interpolation and differentiation is shown to be comparable in magnitude to the values determined by the TCH method for the uncertainties of the VLBI series. The TCH estimates for the VLBI series are corrupted by such numerical errors mostly as a result of the relatively large data intervals. Of the remaining data sets studied here, it is found that the IGS Final combined series has the smallest polar motion and length-of-day uncertainties.

  1. Global-scale water circulation in the Earth's mantle: Implications for the mantle water budget in the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Spiegelman, Marc W.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the influence of the mantle water content in the early Earth on that in the present mantle using numerical convection simulations that include three processes for redistribution of water: dehydration, partitioning of water into partially molten mantle, and regassing assuming an infinite water reservoir at the surface. These models suggest that the water content of the present mantle is insensitive to that of the early Earth. The initial water stored during planetary formation is regulated up to 1.2 OMs (OM = Ocean Mass; 1.4 ×1021 kg), which is reasonable for early Earth. However, the mantle water content is sensitive to the rheological dependence on the water content and can range from 1.2 to 3 OMs at the present day. To explain the evolution of mantle water content, we computed water fluxes due to subducting plates (regassing), degassing and dehydration. For weakly water dependent viscosity, the net water flux is almost balanced with those three fluxes but, for strongly water dependent viscosity, the regassing dominates the water cycle system because the surface plate activity is more vigorous. The increased convection is due to enhanced lubrication of the plates caused by a weak hydrous crust for strongly water dependent viscosity. The degassing history is insensitive to the initial water content of the early Earth as well as rheological strength. The degassing flux from Earth's surface is calculated to be approximately O (1013) kg /yr, consistent with a coupled model of climate evolution and mantle thermal evolution.

  2. Deep mantle structure as a reference frame for movements in and on the Earth

    PubMed Central

    Torsvik, Trond H.; van der Voo, Rob; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Burke, Kevin; Steinberger, Bernhard; Ashwal, Lewis D.; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Webb, Susan J.; Bull, Abigail L.

    2014-01-01

    Earth’s residual geoid is dominated by a degree-2 mode, with elevated regions above large low shear-wave velocity provinces on the core–mantle boundary beneath Africa and the Pacific. The edges of these deep mantle bodies, when projected radially to the Earth’s surface, correlate with the reconstructed positions of large igneous provinces and kimberlites since Pangea formed about 320 million years ago. Using this surface-to-core–mantle boundary correlation to locate continents in longitude and a novel iterative approach for defining a paleomagnetic reference frame corrected for true polar wander, we have developed a model for absolute plate motion back to earliest Paleozoic time (540 Ma). For the Paleozoic, we have identified six phases of slow, oscillatory true polar wander during which the Earth’s axis of minimum moment of inertia was similar to that of Mesozoic times. The rates of Paleozoic true polar wander (<1°/My) are compatible with those in the Mesozoic, but absolute plate velocities are, on average, twice as high. Our reconstructions generate geologically plausible scenarios, with large igneous provinces and kimberlites sourced from the margins of the large low shear-wave velocity provinces, as in Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. This absolute kinematic model suggests that a degree-2 convection mode within the Earth’s mantle may have operated throughout the entire Phanerozoic. PMID:24889632

  3. Medium Resolution Global Earth Observations with Landsat: Looking 35 Years Back and 50 Years Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. L.; Irons, J. R.; Goward, S. N.

    2007-12-01

    The modern era of global medium resolution satellite remote sensing was inaugurated 35 years ago, in July 1972, with the launch of the first Landsat satellite carrying the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) sensor. Ten years after that first launch, Landsat 4 carried a much-improved sensor aloft, the Thematic Mapper. The TM provided better spatial resolution (30 m versus 79 m) than the MSS, as well as additional spectral bands in the mid- infrared (IR) and thermal IR regions. Roughly another decade later, in April 1999, the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument was placed in orbit on Landsat 7. The ETM+ provided a new 15 m panchromatic band and a much-improved thermal band resolution (60 m versus 120 m). Through a combination of planning and good luck, the various Landsat missions have delivered a continuous set of calibrated, multispectral images of the Earth's surface spanning this entire 35-year time period. This imagery database has been used in agricultural evaluations, forest management inventories, geological surveys, water resource estimates, coastal zone appraisals, and a host of other applications to meet the needs of a very broad user community, including business, government, science, education, national security, and now -- even the casual observer -- as Landsat imagery provides the skeletal backbone of Google Earth. Landsat established the U.S. as the world leader in terrestrial remote sensing, contributed significantly to the understanding of the Earth's environment, spawned revolutionary uses of space-based data by the commercial value-added industry, and encouraged a new generation of commercial satellites that provide regional, high-resolution spatial images. In spite of the overall success of the Landsat series of satellites, the first 35 years of the Landsat legacy have been extremely challenging as the push to embrace new technologies was often questioned by those who simply wanted to maintain whatever the current capability was at that

  4. The Encyclopedia of Life v2: Providing Global Access to Knowledge About Life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Parr, Cynthia S; Wilson, Nathan; Leary, Patrick; Schulz, Katja S; Lans, Kristen; Walley, Lisa; Hammock, Jennifer A; Goddard, Anthony; Rice, Jeremy; Studer, Marie; Holmes, Jeffrey T G; Corrigan, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, http://eol.org) aims to provide unprecedented global access to a broad range of information about life on Earth. It currently contains 3.5 million distinct pages for taxa and provides content for 1.3 million of those pages. The content is primarily contributed by EOL content partners (providers) that have a more limited geographic, taxonomic or topical scope. EOL aggregates these data and automatically integrates them based on associated scientific names and other classification information. EOL also provides interfaces for curation and direct content addition. All materials in EOL are either in the public domain or licensed under a Creative Commons license. In addition to the web interface, EOL is also accessible through an Application Programming Interface. In this paper, we review recent developments added for Version 2 of the web site and subsequent releases through Version 2.2, which have made EOL more engaging, personal, accessible and internationalizable. We outline the core features and technical architecture of the system. We summarize milestones achieved so far by EOL to present results of the current system implementation and establish benchmarks upon which to judge future improvements. We have shown that it is possible to successfully integrate large amounts of descriptive biodiversity data from diverse sources into a robust, standards-based, dynamic, and scalable infrastructure. Increasing global participation and the emergence of EOL-powered applications demonstrate that EOL is becoming a significant resource for anyone interested in biological diversity.

  5. Rare earth elements in sedimentary phosphate deposits: Solution to the global REE crisis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emsbo, Poul; McLaughlin, Patrick I.; Breit, George N.; du Bray, Edward A.; Koenig, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    The critical role of rare earth elements (REEs), particularly heavy REEs (HREEs), in high-tech industries has created a surge in demand that is quickly outstripping known global supply and has triggered a worldwide scramble to discover new sources. The chemical analysis of 23 sedimentary phosphate deposits (phosphorites) in the United States demonstrates that they are significantly enriched in REEs. Leaching experiments using dilute H2SO4 and HCl, extracted nearly 100% of their total REE content and show that the extraction of REEs from phosphorites is not subject to the many technological and environmental challenges that vex the exploitation of many identified REE deposits. Our data suggest that phosphate rock currently mined in the United States has the potential to produce a significant proportion of the world's REE demand as a byproduct. Importantly, the size and concentration of HREEs in some unmined phosphorites dwarf the world's richest REE deposits. Secular variation in phosphate REE contents identifies geologic time periods favorable for the formation of currently unrecognized high-REE phosphates. The extraordinary endowment, combined with the ease of REE extraction, indicates that such phosphorites might be considered as a primary source of REEs with the potential to resolve the global REE (particularly for HREE) supply shortage.

  6. Hurricane Patricia in the US Navy Earth System Prediction Capability Global Coupled System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamudio, L.; Ridout, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Hurricane Patricia life cycle is used as a test case to examine the forecast skill of the US Navy Earth System Prediction Capability global coupled system. The ocean and atmosphere components of the system are an eddy-resolving (1/12.5° equatorial resolution) version of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and a T359L50 version of the NAVy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM), respectively. The environmental conditions associated with the formation of Hurricane Patricia in the Tropical Eastern Pacific were characterized by: 1) ocean warming, with a 2-year maximum in the average ocean heat content in the region 6 days before the formation of Patricia, and 2) the existence of a low atmospheric pressure region located on the east side of the axis of a coexisting Tehuantepec wind event. Due to the horizontal resolution ( .333°), the atmospheric component of the system is not expected to accurately simulate the high wind speed in Patricia. However, a comparison of the results of the coupled system and stand-alone NAVGEM shows improvements with the coupled system in the simulation of both the path and the strength of Patricia. The sensitivity of the system to different oceanic and atmospheric initial conditions is presented emphasizing the importance of the ocean heat content in the intensification of Hurricane Patricia.

  7. The Encyclopedia of Life v2: Providing Global Access to Knowledge About Life on Earth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, http://eol.org) aims to provide unprecedented global access to a broad range of information about life on Earth. It currently contains 3.5 million distinct pages for taxa and provides content for 1.3 million of those pages. The content is primarily contributed by EOL content partners (providers) that have a more limited geographic, taxonomic or topical scope. EOL aggregates these data and automatically integrates them based on associated scientific names and other classification information. EOL also provides interfaces for curation and direct content addition. All materials in EOL are either in the public domain or licensed under a Creative Commons license. In addition to the web interface, EOL is also accessible through an Application Programming Interface. In this paper, we review recent developments added for Version 2 of the web site and subsequent releases through Version 2.2, which have made EOL more engaging, personal, accessible and internationalizable. We outline the core features and technical architecture of the system. We summarize milestones achieved so far by EOL to present results of the current system implementation and establish benchmarks upon which to judge future improvements. We have shown that it is possible to successfully integrate large amounts of descriptive biodiversity data from diverse sources into a robust, standards-based, dynamic, and scalable infrastructure. Increasing global participation and the emergence of EOL-powered applications demonstrate that EOL is becoming a significant resource for anyone interested in biological diversity. PMID:24891832

  8. Land-cover observations as part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): Progress, activities, and prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.E.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Townshend, J.; Brady, M.; Steenmans, C.; Schmullius, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    The international land-cover community has been working with GEO since 2005 to build the foundations for land-cover observations as an integral part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) has provided the platform to elevate the societal relevance of land cover monitoring and helped to link a diverse set of global, regional, and national activities. A dedicated 2007-2009 GEO work plan task has resulted in achievements on the strategic and implementation levels. Integrated Global Observations of the Land (IGOL), the land theme of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy (IGOS), has been approved and is now in the process of transition into GEO implementation. New global land-cover maps at moderate spatial resolutions (i.e., GLOBCOVER) are being produced using guidelines and standards of the international community. The Middecadal Global Landsat Survey for 2005-2006 is extending previous 1990 and 2000 efforts for global, high-quality Landsat data. Despite this progress, essential challenges for building a sustained global land-cover-observing system remain, including: international cooperation on the continuity of global observations; ensuring consistency in land monitoring approaches; community engagement and country participation in mapping activities; commitment to ongoing quality assurance and validation; and regional networking and capacity building.

  9. Global electric field determination in the Earth's outer magnetosphere using charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, T.; Sheldon, R.; Hamilton, D.; Mcilwain, C.

    1992-01-01

    Although many properties of the Earth's magnetosphere have been measured and quantified in the past 30 years since it was discovered, one fundamental (for a zeroeth order magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium) measurement was made infrequently and with poor spatial coverage: the global electric field. This oversight is in part due to the difficulty of measuring a plasma electric field, and in part due to the difficulty of measuring a plasma electric field, and in part due to the neglect of theorists. However, there is renewed interest in the convection electric field, since it has been realized that it is vital for understanding many aspects of the magnetosphere: the global MHD equilibrium, reconnection rates, Region 2 Birkeland currents, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, ring current and radiation belt transport, substorm injections, acceleration mechanisms, etc. Unfortunately the standard experimental methods have not been able to synthesize a global field (excepting the pioneering work of McIlwain's geostationary models), and we are left with an overly simplistic theoretical field, the Volland-Stern electric field mode. Again, single point measurements of the plasma pause were used to infer the appropriate amplitudes of the model, parameterized by Kp (Maynard & Chen, JGR 1975). Although this result was never intended to be the definitive electric field model, it has gone nearly unchanged for 15 years. However, the data sets being taken today require a great deal more accuracy than can be provided by the Volland-Stern model. Nor has the variability of the electric field shielding been properly addressed, although effects of penetrating magnetospheric electric fields has been seen in mid- and low-latitude ionospheric data sets. The growing interests in substorm dynamics also requires a much better assessment of the electric fields responsible for particle injections. Thus, we proposed and developed algorithms for extracting electric fields from particle data

  10. Development of a system emulating the global carbon cycle in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachiiri, K.; Hargreaves, J. C.; Annan, J. D.; Oka, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Kawamiya, M.

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the uncertainty in the global carbon cycle may have a significant impact on the climate. Since state of the art models are too computationally expensive for it to be possible to explore their parametric uncertainty in anything approaching a comprehensive fashion, we have developed a simplified system for investigating this problem. By combining the strong points of general circulation models (GCMs), which contain detailed and complex processes, and Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs), which are quick and capable of large ensembles, we have developed a loosely coupled model (LCM) which can represent the outputs of a GCM-based Earth system model, using much smaller computational resources. We address the problem of relatively poor representation of precipitation within our EMIC, which prevents us from directly coupling it to a vegetation model, by coupling it to a precomputed transient simulation using a full GCM. The LCM consists of three components: an EMIC (MIROC-lite) which consists of a 2-D energy balance atmosphere coupled to a low resolution 3-D GCM ocean (COCO) including an ocean carbon cycle (an NPZD-type marine ecosystem model); a state of the art vegetation model (Sim-CYCLE); and a database of daily temperature, precipitation, and other necessary climatic fields to drive Sim-CYCLE from a precomputed transient simulation from a state of the art AOGCM. The transient warming of the climate system is calculated from MIROC-lite, with the global temperature anomaly used to select the most appropriate annual climatic field from the pre-computed AOGCM simulation which, in this case, is a 1% pa increasing CO2 concentration scenario. By adjusting the effective climate sensitivity (equivalent to the equilibrium climate sensitivity for an energy balance model) of MIROC-lite, the transient warming of the LCM could be adjusted to closely follow the low sensitivity (with an equilibrium climate sensitivity of 4.0 K

  11. EPOS Multi-Scale Laboratory platform: a long-term reference tool for experimental Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Tesei, Telemaco; Funiciello, Francesca; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Rosenau, Matthias; Elger, Kirsten; Ulbricht, Damian; Lange, Otto; Calignano, Elisa; Spiers, Chris; Drury, Martin; Willingshofer, Ernst; Winkler, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    With continuous progress on scientific research, a large amount of datasets has been and will be produced. The data access and sharing along with their storage and homogenization within a unique and coherent framework is a new challenge for the whole scientific community. This is particularly emphasized for geo-scientific laboratories, encompassing the most diverse Earth Science disciplines and typology of data. To this aim the "Multiscale Laboratories" Work Package (WP16), operating in the framework of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS), is developing a virtual platform of geo-scientific data and services for the worldwide community of laboratories. This long-term project aims at merging the top class multidisciplinary laboratories in Geoscience into a coherent and collaborative network, facilitating the standardization of virtual access to data, data products and software. This will help our community to evolve beyond the stage in which most of data produced by the different laboratories are available only within the related scholarly publications (often as print-version only) or they remain unpublished and inaccessible on local devices. The EPOS multi-scale laboratory platform will provide the possibility to easily share and discover data by means of open access, DOI-referenced, online data publication including long-term storage, managing and curation services and to set up a cohesive community of laboratories. The WP16 is starting with three pilot cases laboratories: (1) rock physics, (2) palaeomagnetic, and (3) analogue modelling. As a proof of concept, first analogue modelling datasets have been published via GFZ Data Services (http://doidb.wdc-terra.org/search/public/ui?&sort=updated+desc&q=epos). The datasets include rock analogue material properties (e.g. friction data, rheology data, SEM imagery), as well as supplementary figures, images and movies from experiments on tectonic processes. A metadata catalogue tailored to the specific communities

  12. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) and Database for Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Johnson, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2001) is an engineering-level Mars atmosphere model widely used for many Mars mission applications. From 0-80 km, it is based on NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model, while above 80 km it is based on Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model. Mars-GRAM 2001 and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter. Validation studies are described comparing Mars-GRAM with Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science and Thermal Emission Spectrometer data. RS data from 2480 profiles were used, covering latitudes 75 deg S to 72 deg N, surface to approximately 40 km, for seasons ranging from areocentric longitude of Sun (Ls) = 70-160 deg and 265-310 deg. RS data spanned a range of local times, mostly 0-9 hours and 18-24 hours. For interests in aerocapture and precision landing, comparisons concentrated on atmospheric density. At a fixed height of 20 km, RS density varied by about a factor of 2.5 over ranges of latitudes and Ls values observed. Evaluated at matching positions and times, these figures show average RSMars-GRAM density ratios were generally 1+/-)0.05, except at heights above approximately 25 km and latitudes above approximately 50 deg N. Average standard deviation of RSMars-GRAM density ratio was 6%. TES data were used covering surface to approximately 40 km, over more than a full Mars year (February, 1999 - June, 2001, just before start of a Mars global dust storm). Depending on season, TES data covered latitudes 85 deg S to 85 deg N. Most TES data were concentrated near local times 2 hours and 14 hours. Observed average TES/Mars-GRAM density ratios were generally 1+/-0.05, except at high altitudes (15-30 km, depending on season) and high latitudes (greater than 45 deg N), or at most altitudes in the southern hemisphere at Ls approximately 90 and 180 deg. Compared to TES averages for a given latitude and season, TES data had average density standard deviation about the mean of

  13. The global impacts of foreshock phenomena on Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, D. L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Hartinger, M.; Plaschke, F.; Kellerman, A.; Weygand, J.; Michell, R.

    2012-04-01

    Earth's ion foreshock is characterized by suprathermal ions backstreaming into the solar wind upstream of the bow shock. These ions interact with the incident solar wind plasma producing a variety of wave activity and other kinetic phenomena. Pressure variations resulting from transient foreshock events, such as foreshock cavities (FCs), hot flow anomalies (HFAs), and the recently discovered foreshock bubbles (FBs), can propagate through the magnetosheath and impact the magnetosphere. However, we don't yet have a good quantitative understanding of just how much these impacts drive global magnetospheric activity. Here, we present new, multipoint observations from THEMIS, GOES, Cluster, and SuperDARN during the THEMIS dayside season (July - October) of 2008. We first show examples of several types of transient kinetic events observed in the foreshock, including FCs, HFAs, and FBs. We discuss the characteristics of each with a particular emphasis on the similarities and differences between HFAs and FBs. We stress the importance of multipoint observations when classifying these two phenomena, which appear very similar from single spacecraft observations but are truly very different in a global sense. Next, using a fortuitous alignment of spacecraft and ground facilities on Bastille Day (14 July) 2008, we demonstrate the importance of transient foreshock phenomena for driving global magnetospheric activity. During this period of interest, THEMIS-B (TH-B) and TH-C are upstream of the bowshock and spend a considerable amount of time in the ion foreshock. TH-E and -D are near apogee along the dayside magnetopause, and they observe rapid magnetopause motion in response to HFAs and FBs observed upstream by TH-B and -C. GOES and Cluster spacecraft are used to examine the effects of these transient foreshock events on compressional and ULF wave activity, both of which reveal an increase in activity during active foreshock periods. The THEMIS ground magnetometer network, which

  14. Bioremediation at a global scale: from the test tube to planet Earth.

    PubMed

    de Lorenzo, Víctor; Marlière, Philippe; Solé, Ricard

    2016-09-01

    Planet Earth's biosphere has evolved over billions of years as a balanced bio-geological system ultimately sustained by sunpower and the large-scale cycling of elements largely run by the global environmental microbiome. Humans have been part of this picture for much of their existence. But the industrial revolution started in the XIX century and the subsequent advances in medicine, chemistry, agriculture and communications have impacted such balances to an unprecedented degree - and the problem has nothing but exacerbated in the last 20 years. Human overpopulation, industrial growth along with unsustainable use of natural resources have driven many sites and perhaps the planetary ecosystem as a whole, beyond recovery by spontaneous natural means, even if the immediate causes could be stopped. The most conspicuous indications of such a state of affairs include the massive change in land use, the accelerated increase in the levels of greenhouse gases, the frequent natural disasters associated to climate change and the growing non-recyclable waste (e.g. plastics and recalcitrant chemicals) that we release to the Environment. While the whole planet is afflicted at a global scale by chemical pollution and anthropogenic emissions, the ongoing development of systems and synthetic biology, metagenomics, modern chemistry and some key concepts from ecological theory allow us to tackle this phenomenal challenge and propose large-scale interventions aimed at reversing and even improving the situation. This involves (i) identification of key reactions or processes that need to be re-established (or altogether created) for ecosystem reinstallation, (ii) implementation of such reactions in natural or designer hosts able to self-replicate and deliver the corresponding activities when/where needed in a fashion guided by sound ecological modelling, (iii) dispersal of niche-creating agents at a global scale and (iv) containment, monitoring and risk assessment of the whole process.

  15. Integrating NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Data Into Global Agricultural Decision Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W.; Kempler, S.; Chiu, L.; Doraiswamy, P.; Liu, Z.; Milich, L.; Tetrault, R.

    2003-12-01

    Monitoring global agricultural crop conditions during the growing season and estimating potential seasonal production are critically important for market development of U.S. agricultural products and for global food security. Two major operational users of satellite remote sensing for global crop monitoring are the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) and the U.N. World Food Programme (WFP). The primary goal of FAS is to improve foreign market access for U.S. agricultural products. The WFP uses food to meet emergency needs and to support economic and social development. Both use global agricultural decision support systems that can integrate and synthesize a variety of data sources to provide accurate and timely information on global crop conditions. The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Center (GES DAAC) has begun a project to provide operational solutions to FAS and WFP, by fully leveraging results from previous work, as well as from existing capabilities of the users. The GES DAAC has effectively used its recently developed prototype TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS) to provide ESE data and information to the WFP for its agricultural drought monitoring efforts. This prototype system will be evolved into an Agricultural Information System (AIS), which will operationally provide ESE and other data products (e.g., rainfall, land productivity) and services, to be integrated into and thus enhance the existing GIS-based, decision support systems of FAS and WFP. Agriculture-oriented, ESE data products (e.g., MODIS-based, crop condition assessment product; TRMM derived, drought index product) will be input to a crop growth model in collaboration with the USDA Agricultural Research Service, to generate crop condition and yield prediction maps. The AIS will have the capability for remotely accessing distributed data, by being compliant with community-based interoperability standards, enabling easy access to

  16. Biologically induced initiation of snowball-Earth events, and the circulations of ice and ocean in a globally glaciated scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, M. J.; Finn, C.; McEntee, C.; Krause, F.; Harden, J. W.; Rosenbloom, N. A.; Pendall, E.; Alves Jesus Rydin, C.; Krasa, D.; Shrestha, G.; Cavallaro, N.; Kuperberg, J.; Løvholt, F.; Horspool, N.; Cavanaugh, M. A.; Hankin, E. R.; Davis, J. L.; Evans, J. E.; Gurwick, N. P.; Richardson, R. M.; Landau, E. A.; Uhlenbrock, K. M.; Albert, M. R.; Rack, F. R.; Van Wyk de Vries, B.; Giardino, M.; Wiggins, H. V.; Habib, M. A.; Horan, P.; Stover, D. B.; Kuperberg, J.; Koch, D. M.; Jacob, D. J.; Isern, A. R.; Borg, S. G.; Ryabinin, V.; Hik, D.; Winther, J.; McConnell, W. J.; Baerwald, T. J.; Liu, J.; Winter, J. M.; Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Jacobs, C. A.; Zanzerkia, E. E.; Cummins, P. R.; Harjadi, P.; Widiyantoro, S.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Netting, R.; Grunsfeld, J. M.; Freilich, M. H.; Green, J. L.; Giles, B. L.; Stammer, D.; Wefer, G.; Lefebvre, A.; Lucarini, V.; Kanzow, T.; Goddard, L.; McCreary, J. P.; Sprintall, J.; Patterson, M.; Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Egger, A. E.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Nave, L. E.; Harden, J. W.; Horan, P.; Koch, D. M.; Laviolette, R.; Frost, G. J.; Middleton, P.; Uhle, M. E.; Gurney, R. J.; Impey, A.; Carroll, M.; Brown, M. E.; Escobar, V. M.; Murphy, F.; Callaghan, S.; Graber, J. R.; Lawford, R. G.; Koike, T.; Cripe, D.; Gundersen, L. C.; Valette-Silver, N. J.; Bohan, M.; Kaye, J. A.; Freilich, M. H.; Volz, S. M.; Friedl, L.; Komar, G.; Jacobberger-Jellison, P. A.; Luce, P.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Agarwal, D.; Biraud, S. C.; Billesbach, D. P.; Humphrey, M.; Law, B. E.; Papale, D.; Wofsy, S. C.; Quadrelli, R.; Wilson, S.; Liverman, D. M.; Liss, P. S.; Killeen, T.; Watson, R.; Zebiak, S. E.; Tang, Q.; Hong, Y.; Chen, D.; Yang, D.; Rumburg, J.; Newmark, J. S.; Giles, B. L.; DeLuca, E.; Hagan, M. E.; Studinger, M.; Jezek, K. C.; Richter-Menge, J.; Lea, P.; Passalacqua, P.; Oskin, M. E.; Crosby, C.; Glennie, C. L.; Lechner, H. N.; Bowman, L. J.; Barton, T.; Uhle, M. E.; Anderson, G. J.; Fountain, D. M.; Hess, J. W.; Harper, H. E.; Gingerich, P. D.; Groffman, P. M.; Weathers, K. C.; Bernhardt, E. S.; SanClements, M.; Loescher, H. W.; Pitelka, L.; Sandgathe, S. A.; Eleuterio, D. P.; Cortinas, J. V.; McElroy, B. J.; Hsu, L.; Kim, W.; Martin, R. L.; Arrowsmith, R.; Hill, M. C.; Freymueller, J. T.; Marks, D. G.; Sztein, E.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Gordeev, E.; Myers, M.; Scholl, D. W.; Ackley, S. F.; Schofield, O.; Costa, D. P.; Marin, J. A.; Pilpipenko, V. A.; Vega, P.; Zesta, E.; Stepanova, M. V.; Uozumi, T.; Nolin, A. W.; Sturm, M.; Tziperman, E.; Abbot, D. S.; Ashkenazy, Y.; Gildor, H.; Halevy, I.; Johnston, D. T.; Knoll, A.; Losch, M. J.; Pollard, D.; Schoof, C.; Schrag, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Three different aspects of Neoproterozoic snowball events will be presented. First, the glaciations of the Neoproterozoic Era (1,000 to 542 Myr BP) were preceded by dramatically light 13C isotopic excursions preserved in pre-glacial deposits. Standard explanations of these excursions involve remineralization of isotopically light organic matter and imply strong enhancement of atmospheric CO2 greenhouse gas concentration, apparently inconsistent with the glaciations that followed. We propose a scenario in which the isotopic signal, as well as the global glaciation, result from changes to the ocean biology, possibly due to the evolution of microorganisms, specifically eukaryotes. These changes may have lead to enhanced export of organic matter from the upper ocean into anoxic sub-surface waters and sediments. The organic matter undergoes anoxic remineralization at depth via either sulfate- or iron-reducing bacteria. In both cases this can lead to changes in carbonate alkalinity and dissolved inorganic pool that efficiently lower the atmospheric CO2 concentration, possibly plunging Earth into an ice age. (With Itay Halevy, Andrew Knoll, David Johnston, Dan Schrag). Second, the problem of ice flow in two horizontal dimensions over a snowball ocean will be briefly discussed. The formulation of ice flow problem in two dimensions, following the well-known ice-shelf equations in glaciology, will be derived in spherical coordinates, and numerical solutions and scaling arguments developed. It will be shown how the existence of semi-enclosed seas or narrow passages between continents may lead to strong sea-ice thickness gradients, consistent with previous studies that demonstrated this in simpler geometry. (With Dorian Abbot, Yossi Ashkenazy, Hezi Gildor, David Pollard, Christian Schoof, Dan Schrag). Finally, the ocean circulation under a thick snowball cover based on GCM simulations and dynamical analysis will be described and its dynamics analyzed. (With Yossi Ashkenazy

  17. An investigation of climate patterns on Earth-like planets using the NASA GISS global climate model II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elowitz, Robert Mark

    To determine the capability of NASA's GISS GCM-II global climate model, the user-friendly EdGCM interface to the 3-D climate model code was evaluated by simulating global climate patterns that Earth-like planets may experience. The simulation scenarios involved different greenhouse gas emissions trends, planetary orbital parameters, and solar irradiance variations. It is found that the EdGCM interface to the GCM-II 3-D climate model is capable of studying climate patterns on hypothetical Earth-like planets, with some limitations involved. Studying extreme climate patterns on Earth-like planets as a function of planetary obliquity, orbital eccentricity, atmospheric composition, solar irradiance variations, and location with the host star's habitable zone is needed to determine whether such planets are habitable for life as we know it. Studying the behavior of climate on hypothetical Earth-like planet also provides insight into the future climate of our own planet. A database of climate models based on hypothetical Earth-like worlds will provide a valuable resource to the astrobiology community in support of future detections of exoplanets with masses, sizes, and composition similar to Earth. At present, most studies involved the use of 1-D, or 2-D climate models to explore planetary climate on Earth-like planets. This is due to the difficulty of using very complex 3-D climate model codes that typically have poor user interfaces or interfaces that are very difficult to use. EdGCM provides scientists with a user-friendly interface to a full 3-D climate model capable of simulating the climate on Earth-like planets. However, EdGCM is extremely limited in studying global climate on exo-Earth planets outside our solar system. The user is able to change the simulation initial conditions, including different greenhouse gas concentrations and their associated trends, solar irradiance and its trend over time, planetary obliquity and orbit eccentricity, and heliocentric

  18. The NASA/MSFC Global Reference Atmospheric Model-1995 version (GRAM-95)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Jeffries, W. R., III; Yung, S. P.; Johnson, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The latest version of the Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-95) is presented and discussed. GRAM-95 uses the new Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) CD-ROM data set, for 0- to 27-km altitudes. As with earlier versions, GRAM-95 provides complete geographical and altitude coverage for each month of the year. Individual years 1985 to 1991 and a period-of-record (1980 to 1991) can be simulated for the GUACA height range. GRAM-95 uses a specially developed data set, based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) data, for the 20- to 120-km height range, and the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model for heights above 90 km. Fairing techniques assure a smooth transition in the overlap height ranges (20 to 27 km and 90 to 120 km). In addition to the traditional GRAM variables of pressure, density, temperature and wind components, GRAM-95 now includes water vapor and 11 other atmospheric constituents (O3, N2O, CO, CH4, CO2, N2, O2, O, A, He, and H). A new, variable-scale perturbation model provides both large-scale and small-scale deviations from mean values for the thermodynamic variables and horizontal and vertical wind components. The perturbation model includes new features that simulate intermittency (patchiness) in turbulence and small-scale perturbation fields. The density perturbations and density gradients (density shears) computed by the new model compare favorably in their statistical characteristics with observed density perturbations and density shears from 32 space shuttle reentry profiles. GRAM-95 provides considerable improvement in wind estimates from the new GUACA data set, compared to winds calculated from the geostrophic wind relations previously used in the 0- to 25-km height range. The GRAM-95 code has been put into a more modular form, easier to incorporate as subroutines in other programs (e.g., trajectory codes). A complete user's guide for running the program, plus sample input and output, is provided.

  19. A REVISED SOLAR TRANSFORMITY FOR TIDAL ENERGY RECEIVED BY THE EARTH AND DISSIPATED GLOBALLY: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar transformities for the tidal energy received by the earth and the tidal energy dissipated globally can be calculated because both solar energy and the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon drive independent processes that produce an annual flux of geopotential energy...

  20. A REVISED SOLAR TRANSFORMITY FOR TIDAL ENERGY RECEIVED BY THE EARTH AND DISSIPATED GLOBALLY: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar transformities for the tidal energy received by the earth and the tidal energy dissipated globally can be calculated because both solar energy and the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon drive independent processes that produce an annual flux of geopotential energy...

  1. Characterizing Marine Habitat Space on a Snowball Earth with a 3D Global Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohl, L. E.; Chandler, M. A.; Lingo, F.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of long-term, severe cold conditions during the Neoproterozoic glacial events ( 715-635 Ma) on the origins and evolution of metazoans remains unclear, even as recent paleobiological analyses lend support to the notion that metazoans appeared and diversified long before their first definitive appearance in the Ediacaran fossil record (Cohen and MacDonald, Paleobiology 41:610, 2015; Spence et al., Sedimentology 63:253, 2016). Cumulative geologic evidence for active hydrologic cycling and the presence of open waters in near-shore environments suggests that a fully ice-covered ocean (a "hard" Snowball) at this time in Earth history is unlikely, opening up the possibility that life did more than just survive in a few localized refugia. Here we present results from 3D climate simulations of a Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth, using the NASA/GISS global climate model (GCM) ModelE2 to explore oceanographic conditions during the Sturtian glacial interval. The GCM was allowed to run to an equilibrium state, with forcings (reduced solar luminosity, CO2) that yielded a stable sea ice front at approximately 30 degrees latitude. Among the prognostic variables available for analysis are ocean temperature and salinity gradients in three dimensions, and rates and regions of vertical mixing that enhance the distribution of heat and nutrients in the oceans. Using information derived from physical limitations of certain modern organisms likely related to early complex life (e.g., demosponges) we review the geographic distribution of potential habitat space. Our preliminary analysis suggests that salinity rather than temperature could be a key constraint on the distribution of complex life, a contrast to the expectation of temperature as a key limiting factor.

  2. FDSN and EarthCube: Coordinating Global Infrastructures within Seismology and Across Other Geophysical Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, T. K.; Ekstrom, G.; Grobbelaer, M.; Trabant, C. M.; Van Fossen, M.; Stults, M.; Tsuboi, S.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Bondar, I.

    2016-12-01

    Seismology, by its very nature, requires sharing information across international boundaries and as such seismology evolved as a science that promotes free and open access to data. The International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) has commission status within IASPEI and as such is the international standards body in our community. In the late 1980s a domain standard for exchanging seismological information was created and the SEED format is still the dominant domain standard. More recently the FDSN standardized web-service interfaces for key services used in our community. The standardization of these services also enabled the development of a federation of data centers. These federated centers, can be accessed through standard FDSN service calls. Client software exists that currently allows seamless and transparent access to all data managed at 14 globally distributed data centers on three continents with plans to expand this more broadly. IRIS is also involved in the EarthCube project funded by the US National Science Foundation. The GEOphysical Web Services (GeoWS) project extended the style of web services endorsed by the FDSN to interdisciplinary domains. IRIS worked with five data centers in other domains (Caltech, UCSD, Columbia University, UNAVCO and Unidata) to develop `similar' service-based interfaces to their data systems that were drawn from the oceanographic, atmospheric, and solid earth divisions within the NSF's geosciences directorate. Additionally IRIS developed GeoWS style web services for six additional data collections that included magnetic observations, field gravity measurements, superconducting gravimetry data, volcano monitoring data, tidal data, and oceanographic observations including those from cabled arrays in the ocean. This presentation will highlight the success the FDSN and GeoWS services have demonstrated within and beyond seismology as well as identifying some next steps being considered.

  3. Vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems: a European Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollier, G.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The possibility of involving citizens in measuring and providing data is becoming a reality through the concept of "Citizen Observatories". This takes advantage of everybody's capacity to use mobile phone/tablet/laptop to monitor the environment and by trying to find cheap solutions to strengthen the in-situ network of observatories needed for a Global Earth Observation System. Further to the Citizen Observatories approach, the development of cheap sensors based on disposable technologies, nanotech and the piggy-back approach could also be applied to several Societal Challenges and contribute to the GEOSS. The involvement of citizens in the domain of Earth Observation implies dealing with many diverse communities that need to be fully connected into the overall GEOSS architecture. With the introduction of a brokering capability this becomesnow possible. The value of the brokering approach has been demonstrated within the European Union funded EuroGEOSS research project. The EuroGEOSS brokering capability has now been incorporated into the GEOSS information system, (known as the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, or GCI) and renamed the GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker. In a matter of a few months the GEOSS DAB has enabled the GEOSS to extend the data resources available from a few hundred to over 28 million The vison which is discussed here is that with a more active participation of the Citizens one could imagine a world with instant information flow about the state and future evolution of the environment available, similar to what has been achieved in weather forecasting but covering fields such as climate, agriculture, water etc. and covering larger forecast time spans from months to years. Failure on crops for instance could be forecasted and measures to mitigate potential upcoming problems could be put in place well in advance. Obviously, the societal and economic benefits would be manifold and large

  4. Near real-time qualitative monitoring of lake water chlorophyll globally using GoogleEarth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlinszky, András; Supan, Peter; Koma, Zsófia

    2017-04-01

    but also inland lake situations for MODIS and MERIS satellite sensor data. In addition to being relatively robust and less sensitive to atmospheric influence, this algorithm is also very simple, being based on the height of the 680 nm peak above the linear interpolation of the two neighbouring bands. However, not all satellite datasets suitable for FLH are catalogued for GoogleEarth Engine. In the current testing phase, Landsat 7, Landsat 8 (30 m resolution), and Sentinel 2 (20 m) are being tested. Landsat 7 has suitable band configuration, but has a strip error due to a sensor problem. Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 lack a single spectral optimal for FLH. Sentinel 3 would be an optimal data source and has shown good performace during small-scale initial tests, but is not distributed globally for GoogleEarth Engine. In addition to FLH data from these satellites, our system delivers cloud and ice masking, qualitative suspended sediment data (based on the band closest to 600 nm) and true colour images, all within an easy-to-use Google Maps background. This allows on-demand understanding and interpretation of water quality patterns and processes in near real time. While the system is still under development, we believe it could significantly contribute to lake water quality management and monitoring worldwide.

  5. Earth Systems Field Work: Service Learning at Local and Global Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, A.; Derry, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth & Environmental Systems (EES) Field Program engages students in hands-on exploration along the boundaries of the living earth, solid earth, ocean, and atmosphere. Based on Hawaíi Island, the semester-length program integrates scientific study with environmental stewardship and service learning. Each year EES students contribute 3000 hours of service to their host community. Throughout the semester students engage in different service activities. Most courses includes a service component - for example - study of the role of invasive species in native ecosystems includes an invasive species removal project. Each student completes a 4-week service internship with a local school, NGO, state or federal agency. Finally, the student group works to offset the carbon footprint of the program in collaboration with local conservation projects. This effort sequesters CO2 emissions while at the same time contributing to reforestation of degraded native ecosystems. Students learn that expertise is not confined to "the academy," and that wisdom and inspiration can be found in unexpected venues. Much of the service learning in the EES Program occurs in collaboration with local partners. Service internships require students to identify a partner and to design a tractable project. Students work daily with their sponsor and make a formal presentation of their project at the end of the internship period. This includes speaking to a non-technical community gathering as well as to a scientific audience. For many students the opportunity to work on a real problem, of interest in the real world, is a highlight of the semester. Beyond working in support of local community groups, the EES Prograḿs C-neutral project engages students with work in service to the global commons. Here the outcome is not measurable within the time frame of a semester, yet the intangible result makes the experience even more powerful. Students take responsibility for an important issue that is not

  6. The UNH Earth Systems Observatory: A Regional Application in Support of GEOSS Global-Scale Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Braswell, B.; Fekete, B.; Glidden, S.; Hartmann, H.; Magill, A.; Prusevich, A.; Wollheim, W.; Blaha, D.; Justice, D.; Hurtt, G.; Jacobs, J.; Ollinger, S.; McDowell, W.; Rock, B.; Rubin, F.; Schloss, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Northeast corridor of the US is emblematic of the many changes taking place across the nation's and indeed the world's watersheds. Because ecosystem and watershed change occurs over many scales and is so multifaceted, transferring scientific knowledge to applications as diverse as remediation of local ground water pollution, setting State-wide best practices for non-point source pollution control, enforcing regional carbon sequestration treaties, or creating public/private partnerships for protecting ecosystem services requires a new generation of integrative environmental surveillance systems, information technology, and information transfer to the user community. Geographically complex ecosystem interactions justify moving toward more integrative, regionally-based management strategies to deal with issues affecting land, inland waterways, and coastal waterways. A unified perspective that considers the full continuum of processes which link atmospheric forcings, terrestrial responses, watershed exports along drainage networks, and the final delivery to the coastal zone, nearshore, and off shore waters is required to adequately support the management challenge. A recent inventory of NOAA-supported environmental surveillance systems, IT resources, new sensor technologies, and management-relevant decision support systems shows the community poised to formulate an integrated and operational picture of the environment of New England. This paper presents the conceptual framework and early products of the newly-created UNH Earth Systems Observatory. The goal of the UNH Observatory is to serve as a regionally-focused yet nationally-prominent platform for observation-based, integrative science and management of the New England/Gulf of Maine's land, air, and ocean environmental systems. Development of the UNH Observatory is being guided by the principles set forth under the Global Earth Observation System of Systems and is cast as an end-to-end prototype for GEOSS

  7. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2001 Version (Mars-GRAM 2001): Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    This document presents Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2001 Version (Mars-GRAM 2001) and its new features. As with the previous version (mars-2000), all parameterizations fro temperature, pressure, density, and winds versus height, latitude, longitude, time of day, and season (Ls) use input data tables from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) for the surface through 80-km altitude and the University of Arizona Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM) for 80 to 70 km. Mars-GRAM 2001 is based on topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and includes new MGCM data at the topographic surface. A new auxiliary program allows Mars-GRAM output to be used to compute shortwave (solar) and longwave (thermal) radiation at the surface and top of atmosphere. This memorandum includes instructions on obtaining Mars-GRAN source code and data files and for running the program. It also provides sample input and output and an example for incorporating Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  8. A global reference database of crowdsourced cropland data collected using the Geo-Wiki platform

    PubMed Central

    Laso Bayas, Juan Carlos; Lesiv, Myroslava; Waldner, François; Schucknecht, Anne; Duerauer, Martina; See, Linda; Fritz, Steffen; Fraisl, Dilek; Moorthy, Inian; McCallum, Ian; Perger, Christoph; Danylo, Olha; Defourny, Pierre; Gallego, Javier; Gilliams, Sven; Akhtar, Ibrar ul Hassan; Baishya, Swarup Jyoti; Baruah, Mrinal; Bungnamei, Khangsembou; Campos, Alfredo; Changkakati, Trishna; Cipriani, Anna; Das, Krishna; Das, Keemee; Das, Inamani; Davis, Kyle Frankel; Hazarika, Purabi; Johnson, Brian Alan; Malek, Ziga; Molinari, Monia Elisa; Panging, Kripal; Pawe, Chandra Kant; Pérez-Hoyos, Ana; Sahariah, Parag Kumar; Sahariah, Dhrubajyoti; Saikia, Anup; Saikia, Meghna; Schlesinger, Peter; Seidacaru, Elena; Singha, Kuleswar; Wilson, John W

    2017-01-01

    A global reference data set on cropland was collected through a crowdsourcing campaign using the Geo-Wiki crowdsourcing tool. The campaign lasted three weeks, with over 80 participants from around the world reviewing almost 36,000 sample units, focussing on cropland identification. For quality assessment purposes, two additional data sets are provided. The first is a control set of 1,793 sample locations validated by students trained in satellite image interpretation. This data set was used to assess the quality of the crowd as the campaign progressed. The second data set contains 60 expert validations for additional evaluation of the quality of the contributions. All data sets are split into two parts: the first part shows all areas classified as cropland and the second part shows cropland average per location and user. After further processing, the data presented here might be suitable to validate and compare medium and high resolution cropland maps generated using remote sensing. These could also be used to train classification algorithms for developing new maps of land cover and cropland extent. PMID:28949323

  9. Historical change in fish species distribution: shifting reference conditions and global warming effects.

    PubMed

    Pont, Didier; Logez, M; Carrel, G; Rogers, C; Haidvogl, G

    Species distributions models (SDM) that rely on estimated relationships between present environmental conditions and species presence-absence are widely used to forecast changes of species distributions caused by global warming but far less to reconstruct historical assemblages. By compiling historical fish data from the turn to the middle of the twentieth century in a similar way for several European catchments (Rhône, Danube), and using already published SDMs based on current observations, we: (1) tested the predictive accuracy of such models for past climatic conditions, (2) compared observed and expected cumulated historical species occurrences at sub-catchment level, and (3) compared the annual variability in the predictions within one sub-catchment (Salzach) under a future climate scenario to the long-term variability of occurrences reconstructed during an extended historical period (1800-2000). We finally discuss the potential of these SDMs to define a "reference condition", the possibility of a shift in baseline condition in relation with anthropogenic pressures, and past and future climate variability. The results of this study clearly highlight the potential of SDM to reconstruct the past composition of European fish assemblages and to analyze the historical ecological status of European rivers. Assessing the uncertainty associated with species distribution projections is of primary importance before evaluating and comparing the past and future distribution of species within a given catchment.

  10. The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Contributions to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundersen, L.

    2006-05-01

    As the lead Federal agency responsible for terrestrial observations of the Earth's natural systems, the USGS is uniquely poised to contribute critical data and observing systems, scientific interpretation, data archiving, standards, interoperability support, and education resources to GEOSS. In addition, USGS manages the current Landsat satellites and is working with NASA on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission, to launch the next generation of a Landsat-type Earth surface observing satellite. One of the largest imagery archives in the world is also served through the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. USGS contributions to GEOSS include improvement of the global seismographic networks and 24/7 monitoring through the USGS National Earthquake Information Center. Additions to our seismic network are being installed in the Caribbean, telemetry and earthquake analysis being improved globally, and new products like the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) are being developed. We are partnering with numerous agencies and institutions to provide a global tsunami warning system, as well as a more extensive warning system in the United States The USGS and its partners are developing, harmonizing, and analyzing a wide range of data that provide diverse social benefits including base maps, land use, land cover change, and terrestrial observations of ecologic, geologic, and hydrologic conditions to understand global issues such as water availability and quality, ecosystem health, the effects of drought, vulnerability to famine, and the spread of zoonotic and other diseases. USGS is a member of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites working with the earth satellite community to provide accessibility and coordination of Landsat data and other satellite assets.

  11. Assessment of the global energy budget of Mars and comparison to the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madeleine, J.; Head, J. W.; Forget, F.; Wolff, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The energy balance of a planet depends on its radiative environment and internal energy production. In the case of present-day Mars, the whole climate system is by far controlled by solar radiation rather than internal heat. Over the last hundreds of millions of years, changes in the orbital parameters and insolation pattern have induced various climatic excursions, during which the energy transfers within the atmosphere were different from today. On the longer term, i.e. over the last billions of years, the energy budget was even more different, as a result of the larger geothermal flux and heat provided by volcanic eruptions and impacts. Seeing the climate of Mars from an energy budget perspective provides a framework for understanding the key processes, as well as constraining climate models. The goal of this research is thus to characterize and analyze the energy budget of Mars. The first step, which is described in this communication, consists of quantifying the different components of the Mars radiation budget using the LMD (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique) GCM (Global Climate Model). The LMD/GCM has been developed for more than 20 years and has now reached a level of detail that allows us to quantify the different contributions of CO2 gas, dust and clouds to the radiation budget. The general picture of the radiation budget as simulated by the GCM can be summarized as follows. First of all, the global-mean shortwave (SW) flux incident on the top of the Martian atmosphere is 148.5 W m-2. Whereas most of the incoming solar radiation is absorbed by atmospheric gases on Earth, on Mars most of the sunlight is absorbed by dust particles. Our simulations show that around 15% of the incoming solar radiation is absorbed by dust particles whereas 2.5% is reflected by them. Water-ice clouds also reflect around 1.5% of the solar radiation, which is much smaller than the amount of radiation reflected by clouds on Earth (around 20%). The Martian atmosphere is even

  12. Global Assessment of Dryland Degradation Using Long-Term Earth Observation Data Sets of Precipitation and Vegetation Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horion, S.; Fensholt, R.; Verbesselt, J.; Tagesson, T.; Rasmussen, K.

    2013-12-01

    and discussed. We hypothesized that abrupt changes in RUE might reveal areas of degradation/recovery that are not related to climate and therefore could be attributed to human activities. The growing season integral derived from the GIMMS3g Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) archive (spanning 1981 to the present) was used as proxy for vegetation productivity; while we used the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly products (from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) as precipitation dataset. Detailed results will be presented and discussed at the AGU meeting. References: Fensholt R., Rasmussen K., Kaspersen P., Huber S., Horion S. and Swinnen E. Assessing Land Degradation/Recovery in the African Sahel from Long-Term Earth Observation Based Primary Productivity and Precipitation Relationships. Remote Sensing 2013, 5(2), 664-686. Prince S.D., Wessels K.J., Tucker C.J., Nicholson S.E. Desertification in the Sahel: A reinterpretation of a reinterpretation. Global Change Biol. 2007, 13, 1308-1313.

  13. Cratons formation by global plume-lid tectonics in the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerya, Taras; Fischer, Ria; Sizova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Modern geodynamics and continental growth are critically driven by subduction and plate tectonics, however how this tectonic regime started and what geodynamic regime was before remains controversial. Based on 2D and 3D magmatic-thermo-mechanical numerical experiments we suggest that a distinct Venus-like plume-lid tectonics regime operated on Earth before plate tectonics, which was associated with widespread tectono-magmatic heat and mass exchange between the crust and the mantle. This regime was characterized by the presence of weak internally deformable highly heterogeneous lithosphere with low topography, massive juvenile crust production from mantle derived melts, mantle-flows-driven crustal deformation, magma-assisted crustal convection and widespread development of lithospheric delamination and eclogitic drips. Both proto-continental and proto-oceanic domains were formed in this regime by a combination of eclogitic drips and ultra-slow spreading. Plume-lid tectonics also resulted in growth of hot internally convecting moderately-depleted chemically buoyant eclogite-rich proto-continental mantle layer. Later, this layer could be rapidly cooled by internal convection and consolidated to form eclogite-rich sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) domains. Numerical models also show feasibility of short-lived deep subduction of ultra-depleted eclogite-poor proto-oceanic lithosphere formed by ultra-slow spreading. Subsequent rising and accretion of this highly buoyant lithosphere to the bottom of unrelated heterogeneous crustal terrains may offer another way of Archean cratonization associated with eclogite-poor SCLM formation. Numerical models also suggest that plume-induced subduction may likely played a crucial role for making transition from global plume-lid tectonics to global plate tectonics.

  14. Global Land Ice Measurements from Space: Documenting the Demise of Earth's Glaciers Using ASTER.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, R. L.; Kargel, J. S.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2001-05-01

    GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) is a global consortium whose purpose is to determine the extent of the world's glaciers and the rate at which they are changing. GLIMS has requested more than 2000 ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and reflection Radiometer) images over the Earth's glaciers and ice sheets where the instrument gain is set to compliment the requested latitude and time of year. We've recently received hundreds of cloud-free, stereo images with 15-meter spatial resolution in visible-near infrared (VNIR) that can resolve ogives, crevasses, and small bodies of water on the surface of glaciers. The first ASTER GLIMS images specially acquired to enhance details of snow and ice of glaciers have also been received and given preliminary analysis. The variable gain has provided a wider dynamic range over snow and ice compared to Landsat data. The relatively high spatial resolution of ASTER VNIR produces a glacier classification that effectively separates water and snow from glacier ice and medial moraines. We are currently assessing the effects of including the 30-meter short wave infrared (SWIR) and 90-meter thermal infrared (TIR) in our analysis. We will highlight our study that uses ASTER images to detect and monitor supraglacial lakes on glaciers in the Mount Everest region (Tibet and Nepal). We have found that ASTER offers powerful capabilities to monitor supraglacial lakes in terms of (1) surface area, growth, and disappearance (spatial resolution = 15 m), (2) net translation on the glacier with respect to immobile points, (3) inorganic turbidity (15-m resolution), and (4) temperature (90-m resolution). Still lacking is a suite of field observations tied in time and space to ASTER observations to help validate/verify and fine-tune the algorithms used for terrain classification and other analysis. Thus, we consider our new results as a demonstration of capability rather than as definitive new results.

  15. The assessment of the transformation of global tectonic plate models and the global terrestrial reference frames using the Velocity Decomposition Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampatzidis, Dimitrios; König, Rolf; Glaser, Susanne; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald; Flechtner, Frank; Nilsson, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    The aim of our study is to assess the classical Helmert similarity transformation using the Velocity Decomposition Analysis (VEDA). The VEDA is a new methodology, developed by GFZ for the assessment of the reference frames' temporal variation and it is based on the separation of the velocities into two specified parts: The first is related to the reference system choice (the so called datum effect) and the latter one which refers to the real deformation of the terrestrial points. The advantage of the VEDA is its ability to detect the relative biases and reference system effects between two different frames or two different realizations of the same frame, respectively. We apply the VEDA for the assessment between several modern tectonic plate models and the recent global terrestrial reference frames.

  16. Heating up the science classroom through global warming: An investigation of argument in earth system science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Diane Mary

    This research investigated how the use of argument within an earth system science perspective offers potential opportunities for students to develop skills of scientific reasoning. Earth system science views Earth as a synergistic system governed by complex interdependencies between physical and biological spheres. Earth system science presents familiar and compelling societal problems about Earth's environment thereby providing a highly motivational vehicle for engaging students in science. Using global warming as an application of earth system science, my research investigated how middle school and undergraduate students use scientific evidence when constructing and assessing arguments. This dissertation includes three related research studies. The first study took in place in three seventh grade science classrooms and investigated student engagement in a global warming debate. This study illustrated students used evidence to support their central argument; to negate the central argument of the opposing side; to present challenges to the opposing side; and to raise new questions. The second research study is a comparative study and investigated how other students under different instructional settings constructed their arguments on the cause of global warming from the same evidence. This study took place in two seventh grade science classrooms. This study demonstrated that when constructing personal arguments on global warming, students developed an earth system perspective as they considered and integrated different pieces of evidence. Students participating in debate where given a particular view to defend and focused on evidence matching this view, thereby displaying singular views of the cause of global warming. The third research study investigated students abilities to scientifically assess arguments. By analyzing students' written evaluations of arguments on the global climate presented during oral debates, this study demonstrated that undergraduates focus

  17. Leaf respiration (GlobResp) - global trait database supports Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; Warren, Jeffrey; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-03-20

    Here we detail how Atkin and his colleagues compiled a global database (GlobResp) that details rates of leaf dark respiration and associated traits from sites that span Arctic tundra to tropical forests. This compilation builds upon earlier research (Reich et al., 1998; Wright et al., 2006) and was supplemented by recent field campaigns and unpublished data.In keeping with other trait databases, GlobResp provides insights on how physiological traits, especially rates of dark respiration, vary as a function of environment and how that variation can be used to inform terrestrial biosphere models and land surface components of Earth System Models. Although an important component of plant and ecosystem carbon (C) budgets (Wythers et al., 2013), respiration has only limited representation in models. Seen through the eyes of a plant scientist, Atkin et al. (2015) give readers a unique perspective on the climatic controls on respiration, thermal acclimation and evolutionary adaptation of dark respiration, and insights into the covariation of respiration with other leaf traits. We find there is ample evidence that once large databases are compiled, like GlobResp, they can reveal new knowledge of plant function and provide a valuable resource for hypothesis testing and model development.

  18. Leaf respiration (GlobResp) - global trait database supports Earth System Models

    DOE PAGES

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; Warren, Jeffrey; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-03-20

    Here we detail how Atkin and his colleagues compiled a global database (GlobResp) that details rates of leaf dark respiration and associated traits from sites that span Arctic tundra to tropical forests. This compilation builds upon earlier research (Reich et al., 1998; Wright et al., 2006) and was supplemented by recent field campaigns and unpublished data.In keeping with other trait databases, GlobResp provides insights on how physiological traits, especially rates of dark respiration, vary as a function of environment and how that variation can be used to inform terrestrial biosphere models and land surface components of Earth System Models. Althoughmore » an important component of plant and ecosystem carbon (C) budgets (Wythers et al., 2013), respiration has only limited representation in models. Seen through the eyes of a plant scientist, Atkin et al. (2015) give readers a unique perspective on the climatic controls on respiration, thermal acclimation and evolutionary adaptation of dark respiration, and insights into the covariation of respiration with other leaf traits. We find there is ample evidence that once large databases are compiled, like GlobResp, they can reveal new knowledge of plant function and provide a valuable resource for hypothesis testing and model development.« less

  19. Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global Snow-Cover Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Scharfen, Greg R.

    2000-01-01

    Following the 1999 launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the capability exists to produce global snow-cover maps on a daily basis at 500-m resolution. Eight-day composite snow-cover maps will also be available. MODIS snow-cover products are produced at Goddard Space Flight Center and archived and distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in Boulder, Colorado. The products are available in both orbital and gridded formats. An online search and order tool and user-services staff will be available at NSIDC to assist users with the snow products. The snow maps are available at a spatial resolution of 500 m, and 1/4 degree x 1/4 degree spatial resolution, and provide information on sub-pixel (fractional) snow cover. Pre-launch validation work has shown that the MODIS snow-mapping algorithms perform best under conditions of continuous snow cover in low vegetation areas, but can also map snow cover in dense forests. Post-launch validation activities will be performed using field and aircraft measurements from a February 2000 validation mission, as well as from existing satellite-derived snow-cover maps from NOAA and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+).

  20. Large divergence of satellite and Earth system model estimates of global terrestrial CO2 fertilization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W. Kolby; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Ballantyne, Ashley P; Anderegg, William R. L.; Wieder, William R.; Liu, Yi Y; Running, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric mass balance analyses suggest that terrestrial carbon (C) storage is increasing, partially abating the atmospheric [CO2] growth rate, although the continued strength of this important ecosystem service remains uncertain. Some evidence suggests that these increases will persist owing to positive responses of vegetation growth (net primary productivity; NPP) to rising atmospheric [CO2] (that is, ‘CO2 fertilization’). Here, we present a new satellite-derived global terrestrial NPP data set, which shows a significant increase in NPP from 1982 to 2011. However, comparison against Earth system model (ESM) NPP estimates reveals a significant divergence, with satellite-derived increases (2.8 ± 1.50%) less than half of ESM-derived increases (7.6  ±  1.67%) over the 30-year period. By isolating the CO2 fertilization effect in each NPP time series and comparing it against a synthesis of available free-air CO2 enrichment data, we provide evidence that much of the discrepancy may be due to an over-sensitivity of ESMs to atmospheric [CO2], potentially reflecting an under-representation of climatic feedbacks and/or a lack of representation of nutrient constraints. Our understanding of CO2 fertilization effects on NPP needs rapid improvement to enable more accurate projections of future C cycle–climate feedbacks; we contend that better integration of modelling, satellite and experimental approaches offers a promising way forward.

  1. Soil polarization data collected for the global undisturbed/disturbed Earth (GUIDE) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Thomas E.; Lord, Elizabeth; Morgan, Cliff

    2016-05-01

    A key product of the global undisturbed/disturbed earth (GUIDE) program is the development of a soils database of broadband, hyperspectral, and polarized data. As a part of the GUIDE program, the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) conducted a testing series involving a large variety of instrumentation at several sites at the Yuma Test Center (YTC) in fiscal year 2015 under the auspices of the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (now the Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Agency), generating approximately 17 terabytes of data. Most of this data, available through the ERDC, comprises hyperspectral polarimetric scientific data in the visible, near-infrared, shortwave infrared, and longwave infrared bands. As part of this testing series the performance of six handheld devices was characterized. We discuss the process of this data collection at YTC focusing on the polarimetric data, including the two handheld devices that relied on polarization for detection. Although some other polarization states discriminate soils better in some other wavelengths, for certain visible and near-infrared bands the Stokes S2 parameter provided the best discrimination.

  2. Hoop column soil moisture spacecraft in low Earth orbit for global change monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, Melvin J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A subset of the total Global Change Technology Initiative instruments are required to be in low Earth, sunsynchronous orbits. There is one instrument, however, that requires its own specialized spacecraft; the Soil Moisture Microwave Radiometer (SMMR). The characteristic structure of the instrument is the 118 m hoop column support structure. The hoop is supported by an axially placed column. Tension cables support and shape an electromagnetically reflective mesh surface. The instrument is capable of detecting frequencies in the 1.4 GHz range (Soil Moisture and Sea Salinity). Three apertures are used to reduce the degree of paraboloid offset and improve the beam quality. The spacecraft configuration is determined by the instrument support requirements and the requirement that it can fit into the Titan IV cargo bay. The configuration is derived by cross referencing the instrument performance requirements with the performance of the spacecraft. The spacecraft design is similar with the Multi-mission Modular Spacecraft in terms of size and packaging. A description of the spacecraft's features will yield a summary of the technologies needed for the SMMR spacecraft.

  3. Assimilation of oceanic observations in a global coupled Earth system model with the SEIK filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Sebastian; Nerger, Lars; Baehr, Johanna

    2015-12-01

    We present results from the assimilation of observed oceanic 3-D temperature and salinity fields into the global coupled Max Planck Institute Earth system model with the SEIK filter from January 1996 to December 2010. Our study is part of an effort to perform and evaluate assimilation and prediction within the same coupled climate model without the use of re-analysis data. We use two assimilation setups, one where oceanic observations over the entire water column are assimilated, and one where only oceanic observations below 50 m depth are assimilated. We compare the results from both assimilations with an unconstrained control experiment. While we do not find significant improvements due to assimilation in terms of the root-mean-square error of simulated temperature, 0-700 m heat content, sea surface height (SSH), and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) against observations, we find the variability in terms of correlation with observations significantly improved due to assimilation, most prominently in the tropical oceans. Improvements over the control experiment are stronger in the sub-50 m assimilation experiment and in integrated quantities (SSH, AMOC).

  4. Earth as humans' habitat: global climate change and the health of populations.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Human-induced climate change, with such rapid and continuing global-scale warming, is historically unprecedented and signifies that human pressures on Earth's life-supporting natural systems now exceed the planet's bio-geo-capacity. The risks from climate change to health and survival in populations are diverse, as are the social and political ramifications. Although attributing observed health changes in a population to the recent climatic change is difficult, a coherent pattern of climate- and weather-associated changes is now evident in many regions of the world. The risks impinge unevenly, especially on poorer and vulnerable regions, and are amplified by pre-existing high rates of climate-sensitive diseases and conditions. If, as now appears likely, the world warms by 3-5oC by 2100, the health consequences, directly and via massive social and economic disruption, will be severe. The health sector has an important message to convey, comparing the health risks and benefits of enlightened action to avert climate change and to achieve sustainable ways of living versus the self-interested or complacent inaction.

  5. The global distribution of Earth's critical zone and its controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xianli; Liu, Wen

    2017-04-01

    The near-surface layer of Earth which provides essential elements for supporting life is now recognized as the critical zone (CZ). This study provides the first global assessment of the CZ thickness (CZT) and its controlling factors by combining data sets of climate, vegetation height (VH), water table depth (WTD), groundwater thickness (GWT), topography, and lithologic data. The analysis shows that CZT ranges from 0.7 to 223.5 m with an average value of 36.8 m across continental areas; CZT is thickest in midlatitudes (subtropical to temperate zones). The proportion of aboveground part (VH) to CZT is 19.9 ± 16.7% (mean ±one standard deviation), while it is 80.1 ± 16.7% for the underground part (WTD + GWT). A generalized linear model shows that compound topographic index (ln(a/tan(b)), where a is the upslope contributing area and b is the slope degree of the landscape) and potential evapotranspiration are the first two major controlling factors on the variations in CZT. This study opens opportunities for further advancing CZ science by providing one of its most important properties—its thickness.

  6. Elements of a new Global Water Strategy for the Group on Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, Richard; Koike, Toshio; Ochiai, Osamu; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    In order to address the need to review the scope and direction of GEO activities related to water and to provide guidance for the post-2015 GEO planning, the Integrated Global Water Cycle Observations (IGWCO) Community of Practice and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) are working together to develop a strategy for GEO water activities over the next decade. This presentation will review the elements of the strategy which include topics as comprehensive as user needs and engagement, water cycle observational systems, assessment of water quality, data issues, interoperability and integration of water information systems and capacity building. Impediments in the flow of information and technological capabilities from the providers of new technologies, innovations and data products to the end users will be explored in terms of the nature of these impediments and how they can be overcome. To be successful in GEO's framework of volunteerism, the water strategy should build on activities that are on-going in related programmes at the international and national levels. In addition, implementation of the strategy will need to be supported through new initiatives and policies that promote greater integration. Suggestions for achieving these goals will be outlined at the end of the talk.

  7. Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global Snow-Cover Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Scharfen, Greg R.

    2000-01-01

    Following the 1999 launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the capability exists to produce global snow-cover maps on a daily basis at 500-m resolution. Eight-day composite snow-cover maps will also be available. MODIS snow-cover products are produced at Goddard Space Flight Center and archived and distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in Boulder, Colorado. The products are available in both orbital and gridded formats. An online search and order tool and user-services staff will be available at NSIDC to assist users with the snow products. The snow maps are available at a spatial resolution of 500 m, and 1/4 degree x 1/4 degree spatial resolution, and provide information on sub-pixel (fractional) snow cover. Pre-launch validation work has shown that the MODIS snow-mapping algorithms perform best under conditions of continuous snow cover in low vegetation areas, but can also map snow cover in dense forests. Post-launch validation activities will be performed using field and aircraft measurements from a February 2000 validation mission, as well as from existing satellite-derived snow-cover maps from NOAA and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+).

  8. Global measurements of wind fields using the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.

    1988-01-01

    The technology for measuring global wind fields in space by the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) to be flown on the Earth Observing System (EOS) is discussed. Studies initiated by NASA to determine the feasibility of using Doppler lidar from a platform in space to measure the wind globally have shown the general feasibility of the technique and have identified the technological problems that need to be resolved. Among the lidar systems being evaluated, CO2 coherent detection lidar is given special consideration. A comprehensive research program, the Global Backscatter Experiment, has been established to study global distribution of naturally occurring atmospheric aerosols that provide signal return at the wavelengths used by the techniques under consideration. Wind profiles from space will provide essential information for advancing the skill of numerical weather prediction, furthering the present knowledge of the large-scale atmospheric circulation and climate dynamics, and of global biogeochemical and hydrologic cycles.

  9. The Influence of the Reference Values on the Interpretation of Lung Function in Children: Comparison of Global Lung Initiative 2012 and Polish 1998 Reference Values.

    PubMed

    Peradzyńska, Joanna; Krenke, Katarzyna; Szylling, Anna; Krenke, Rafał; Kulus, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of spirometry strongly depends on the applied predicted values. New Global Lung Initiative (GLI) reference values have recently been published but their influence on spirometry interpretation in children has not been widely evaluated. The aim of the study was to compare the interpretation of spirometry using GLI-2012 vs. Polish-1998 reference values. Spirometry results of 315 Caucasian children aged 4-18 were analyzed. Airway obstruction was defined as FEV1/FVCLLN. The findings were that FEV1 and FVC expressed as GLI-2012 or Polish-1998 z-scores differed significantly (p<0.05). The mean FEV1 z-score was -0.68±1.25 vs. -0.13±1.70 and the mean FVC was -0.34±1.08 vs. 0.30±1.15 for GLI-2012 and Polish-1998, respectively. There was no difference for FEV1/FVC z-scores. Obstructive and restrictive ventilatory patterns were diagnosed in 20.3% and 7.6% children using GLI-2012 values compared with 17.5% and 3.8% when using Polish-1998 reference values, respectively. In conclusion, the use of GLI-2012 reference values in the population of Polish children increases the number of detected lung function abnormalities compared with Polish-1998 reference values.

  10. Towards the Development and Validation of a Global Field Size and Irrigation Map using Crowdsourcing, Mobile Apps and Google Earth Engine in support of GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; Nordling, J.; See, L. M.; McCallum, I.; Perger, C.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Mucher, S.; Bydekerke, L.; Havlik, P.; Kraxner, F.; Obersteiner, M.

    2014-12-01

    The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) has developed a global cropland extent map, which supports the monitoring and assessment activities of GEOGLAM (Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring Initiative). Through the European-funded SIGMA (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture and its Impact on the Environment in support of GEOGLAM) project, IIASA is continuing to support GEOGLAM by providing cropland projections in the future and modelling environmental impacts on agriculture under various scenarios. In addition, IIASA is focusing on two specific elements within SIGMA: the development of a global field size and irrigation map; and mobile app development for in-situ data collection and validation of remotely-sensed products. Cropland field size is a very useful indicator for agricultural monitoring yet the information we have at a global scale is currently very limited. IIASA has already created a global map of field size at a 1 km resolution using crowdsourced data from Geo-Wiki as a first approximation. Using automatic classification of Landsat imagery and algorithms contained within Google Earth Engine, initial experimentation has shown that circular fields and landscape structures can easily be extracted. Not only will this contribute to improving the global map of field size, it can also be used to create a global map that contains a large proportion of the world's irrigated areas, which will be another useful contribution to GEOGLAM. The field size map will also be used to stratify and develop a global crop map in SIGMA. Mobile app development in support of in-situ data collection is another area where IIASA is currently working. An Android app has been built using the Open Data Toolkit (ODK) and extended further with spatial mapping capabilities called GeoODK. The app allows users to collect data on different crop types and delineate fields on the ground, which can be used to validate the

  11. Building a Global Data Network for Studies of Earth Processes at the World's Plate Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S.; Tsuboi, S.; Weinrebe, W.

    2007-12-01

    The international geoscience community is engaged in scientifically aligned goals to understand the fundamental processes of crustal formation, modification and destruction at the Earth's plate boundaries through broad multi- disciplinary initiatives such as the InterRidge and InterMARGINS programs. These programs involve the collection of unique data sets during oceanic and terrestrial expeditions and subsequent laboratory work conducted by research institutions around the globe. These international research efforts would benefit significantly if data collections maintained as national efforts could be better linked and broader access were initiated. At present there are no formal agreements within these programs for data sharing between foreign partners. A workshop was convened in May 2007, jointly sponsored and funded by MARGINS, InterMARGINS, InterRidge, Ridge2000, the US National Science Foundation, and the German project "The Future Ocean", to explore current opportunities and challenges for international data exchange to support marine geoscience research broadly. Participants from 14 countries discussed technological, organizational, and cultural issues for building a global data network and agreed on a set of recommendations regarding science user needs, data documentation, data publication, metadata interoperability, and opportunities and obstacles for international data sharing. They underscored that (1) open public access to data is fundamental to verifiable scientific progress; (2) uniform best practices and standards for data acquisition, data submission to data centers, and data publication need to be developed and used routinely within the international community, facilitated by tools that automate metadata acquisition in the field and in the lab; (3) the proliferation of metadata standards needs to be minimized to achieve a uniform approach for scientific metadata building upon the work of existing community-based projects; (4) data centers should

  12. Formation and evolution of periglacial landforms in context of global warming: Comparison Earth-Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séjourné, A.; Costard, F.; Gargani, J.; Marmo, C.

    2012-04-01

    potential ice-wedges and subsequent subsidence of the ground producing pits. The scalloped depressions are similar in shape and size to thermokarst lakes. They are thought to be due to degradation of ground-ice by melting or sublimation of ground-ice and subsidence of the ground. Our results show that the assemblage of landforms in Utopia Planitia indicates the presence of an ice-rich permafrost like on Earth. We suggest that this permafrost were formed during cold climatic periods and then were degraded during a relatively recent global warming. Our results show that the permafrost was degraded during a high obliquity periods of Mars. But the question is how major climate-changes could occur on Mars. Mars is thought to have undergone important variations in the orbital parameters during the last 10 Myr dramatically changing the climate. Therefore, Utopia Planitia is probably a marker of one of the last major climate change that occurred on Mars.

  13. Supercontinent Pangea, Mantle Dynamics, and Reference Frame of Global Plate Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S.; Rudolph, M. L.; Liu, X.

    2014-12-01

    Arguably the most important and challenging goal in geodynamics is to understand the two-way dynamics between tectonic plates and mantle convection. While it has long been recognized that the present-day degree-2 mantle structure as imaged seismically is closely related to the plate motions (Hager and O'Connell, 1981) and their history (<119 Ma) (Ricard et al., 1993; McNamara and Zhong, 2005), recent studies have expanded this concept, from two different perspectives, by seeking connections between Pangea assembly and breakup and mantle structure and dynamics. First, it has been proposed that the large igneous provinces (LIPs) and kimberlite volcanism erupted mainly along the edges of the two major seismically slow anomalies above the core-mantle boundary (often referred to as the Africa and Pacific LLSVPs) (Torsvik et al, 2010). This has led to the proposal that the present-day degree-2 mantle structure has existed for >500 Ma (Torsvik et al., 2014), although its statistical significance has been challenged (Austermann et al., 2013). The proposals of the spatially stable Africa and Pacific LLSVPs and of the LIP eruptions along their edges have also been exploited in attempts to build global plate motion models since the Pangea assembly by providing a plate motion reference frame or inferring true polar wander (TPW) corrections to the plate motions (Torsvik et al., 2014). Second, mantle dynamics studies indicate that degree-1 mantle convection, which is expected with realistic lithospheric and mantle viscosity, may be needed for assembly of a supercontinent (e.g., Pangea) (Zhong et al., 2007). This suggests that the present degree-2 mantle structure may have been formed only after the Pangea assembly from an initially degree-1 structure - a scenario that is consistent with convection calculations with a proxy plate motion model that considers Pangea process (Zhang et al., 2010). In this presentation, in addition to critically reviewing these arguments, we will

  14. Global Reach: A View of International Cooperation in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Improving life on Earth and understanding and protecting our home planet are foremost in the Vision and Mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA's Earth Science Enterprise end eavors to use the unique vantage point of space to study the Earth sy stem and improve the prediction of Earth system change. NASA and its international partners study Earth's land, atmosphere, ice, oceans, a nd biota and seek to provide objective scientific knowledge to decisi onmakers and scientists worldwide. This book describes NASA's extensi ve cooperation with its international partners.

  15. Globalization and Its Impact on Education with Specific Reference to Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloi, K. C.; Gravett, S. J.; Petersen, N. F.

    2009-01-01

    As globalization of the world economy continues unabated, a parallel growth of globalization of knowledge is also taking place. This latter trend is little affected by the boundaries between developed and less developed countries and is having a particular impact on trends in education. This article looks at the impact of globalization within the…

  16. Globalization and Its Impact on Education with Specific Reference to Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloi, K. C.; Gravett, S. J.; Petersen, N. F.

    2009-01-01

    As globalization of the world economy continues unabated, a parallel growth of globalization of knowledge is also taking place. This latter trend is little affected by the boundaries between developed and less developed countries and is having a particular impact on trends in education. This article looks at the impact of globalization within the…

  17. Improving global data infrastructures for more effective and scalable analysis of Earth and environmental data: the Australian NCI NERDIP Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ben; Wyborn, Lesley; Druken, Kelsey; Richards, Clare; Trenham, Claire; Wang, Jingbo; Rozas Larraondo, Pablo; Steer, Adam; Smillie, Jon

    2017-04-01

    different disciplines and research communities to invoke new forms of analysis and discovery in an increasingly complex data-rich environment. Driven by the heterogeneity of Earth and environmental datasets, NCI developed a Data Quality/Data Assurance Strategy to ensure consistency is maintained within and across all datasets, as well as functionality testing to ensure smooth interoperability between products, tools, and services. This is particularly so for collections that contain data generated from multiple data acquisition campaigns, often using instruments and models that have evolved over time. By implementing the NCI Data Quality Strategy we have seen progressive improvement in the integration and quality of the datasets across the different subject domains, and through this, the ease by which the users can access data from this major data infrastructure. By both adhering to international standards and also contributing to extensions of these standards, data from the NCI NERDIP platform can be federated with data from other globally distributed data repositories and infrastructures. The NCI approach builds on our experience working with the astronomy and climate science communities, which have been internationally coordinating such interoperability standards within their disciplines for some years. The results of our work so far demonstrate more could be done in the Earth science, solid earth and environmental communities, particularly through establishing better linkages between international/national community efforts such as EPOS, ENVRIplus, EarthCube, AuScope and the Research Data Alliance.

  18. Vulnerability Assessment of Shelters in the Eastern Caribbean: Retrofitting Terms of Reference for Consultants, Standards, [and] Global Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Tony

    Dozens of natural disaster shelters (mostly schools) in five Caribbean islands were assessed as to their vulnerability and the needed retrofitting to upgrade them. This report provides retrofit consultants with terms of reference and building design criteria for withstanding various natural disasters, as well as estimated global costs of various…

  19. Variations of the earth's magnetic field and rapid climatic cooling: A possible link through changes in global ice volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    A possible relationship between large scale changes in global ice volume, variations in the earth's magnetic field, and short term climatic cooling is investigated through a study of the geomagnetic and climatic records of the past 300,000 years. The calculations suggest that redistribution of the Earth's water mass can cause rotational instabilities which lead to geomagnetic excursions; these magnetic variations in turn may lead to short-term coolings through upper atmosphere effects. Such double coincidences of magnetic excursions and sudden coolings at times of ice volume changes have occurred at 13,500, 30,000, 110,000, and 135,000 YBP.

  20. The response of the Earth-ocean system to zonal tidal forcing estimated within a VLBI global solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Sigrid

    2013-04-01

    The reaction of the Earth-ocean system to zonal tidal forcing is characterized by the so-called zonal response coefficient κ defined by Agnew & Farrell (1978). The frequency dependent zonal response coefficient is an extension to the concept of the Love number k2 which allows for a response of the Earth to tidal forcing, deviating from purely elastic behavior and thus taking into account effects of ocean tides, a fluid core and mantle anelasticity. A change of the rotation rate of the Earth and consequently of UT1 induced by zonal body and ocean tides is proportional to the tide-generating potential through the zonal response coefficient κ. Variations of UT1 can be obtained directly from VLBI observations. If atmospheric and oceanic variations of UT1 are considered accordingly, the proportionality factor κ can be estimated within a VLBI global solution. A global solution is a common adjustment of the observations of several sessions with a simultaneous estimation of global parameters, such as station positions and velocities. The global solution of the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) was employed to simultaneously adjust the observations of selected sessions spanning 1984-2012 and derive the zonal response coefficients for periods up to 35 days. The directly estimated fortnightly and monthly zonal response coefficients are discussed in comparison with theoretical values and the corresponding results of a straight time series approach.

  1. Global Analysis of River Planform Change using the Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryk, A.; Dietrich, W. E.; Gorelick, N.; Sargent, R.; Braudrick, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Geomorphologists have historically tracked river dynamics using a combination of maps, aerial photographs, and the stratigraphic record. Although stratigraphic records can extend into deep time, maps and aerial photographs often confine our record of change to sparse measurements over the last ~80 years and in some cases much less time. For the first time Google's Earth Engine (GEE) cloud based platform allows researchers the means to analyze quantitatively the pattern and pace of river channel change over the last 30 years with high temporal resolution across the entire planet. The GEE provides an application programing interface (API) that enables quantitative analysis of various data sets including the entire Landsat L1T archive. This allows change detection for channels wider than about 150 m over 30 years of successive, georeferenced imagery. Qualitatively, it becomes immediately evident that the pace of channel morphodynamics for similar planforms varies by orders of magnitude across the planet and downstream along individual rivers. To quantify these rates of change and to explore their controls we have developed methods for differentiating channels from floodplain along large alluvial rivers. We introduce a new metric of morphodynamics: the ratio of eroded area to channel area per unit time, referred to as "M". We also keep track of depositional areas resulting from channel shifting. To date our quantitative analysis has focused on rivers in the Andean foreland. Our analysis shows channel bank erosion rates, M, varies by orders of magnitude for these rivers, from 0 to ~0.25 yr-1, yet these rivers have essentially identical curvature and sinuosity and are visually indistinguishable. By tracking both bank paths in time, we find that, for some meandering rivers, a significant fraction of new floodplain is produced through outer-bank accretion rather than point bar deposition. This process is perhaps more important in generating floodplain stratigraphy than

  2. Dagik Earth: An affordable three-dimensional presentation of global geoscience data in classrooms and science museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, A.; Takahashi, M.; Tsugawa, T.; Nishi, N.; Odagi, Y.; Yoshida, D.

    2009-12-01

    Three-dimensional display of the Earth is a most effective way to impress audiences how the Earth looks and make them understand the Earth is one system. There are several projects to display global data on 3D globes, such as Science on a Sphere by NOAA and Geo Cosmos by Miraikan, Japan. They have made great successes to provide audiences opportunities to learn the geoscience outputs through feeling that they are standing in front of the "real" Earth. However, those systems are too large, complicated, and expensive to be used in classrooms and local science museums. We developed an easy method to display global geoscience data in three dimensions without any complex and expensive systems. The method uses a normal PC projector, a PC and a hemispheric screen. To display the geoscience data, virtual globe software, such as Google Earth and NASA World Wind, are used. The virtual globe software makes geometry conversion. That is, the fringe areas are shrunken as it is looked from the space. Thus, when the image made by the virtual globe is projected on the hemispheric screen, it is reversely converted to its original shape on the Earth. This method does not require any specific software, projectors and polarizing glasses to make 3D presentation of the Earth. Only a hemispheric screen that can be purchased with $50 for 60cm diameter is necessary. Dagik Earth is the project that develops and demonstrates the educational programs of geoscience in classrooms and science museums using this 3D Earth presentation method. We have developed a few programs on aurora and weather system, and demonstrated them in under-graduate level classes and science museums, such as National Museum of Nature and Science,Tokyo, Shizuoka Science Center and Kyoto University Museum, since 2007. Package of hardware, geoscience data plot, and textbook have been developed to be used as short-term rental to schools and science museums. Portability, low cost and easiness of development new contents are

  3. High-frequency variations in Earth rotation from Global Positioning System data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothacher, M.; Beutler, G.; Weber, R.; Hefty, J.

    2001-01-01

    Using the data of the global, dense Global Positioning System (GPS) network established by the International GPS Service a continuous, uninterrupted series of subdaily Earth rotation parameters (ERPs) with a time resolution of 2 hours has been generated at the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe. The series starts in January 1995 and has a length of more than 3 years. Starting from the 2-hour ERP values of this, to our knowledge, unique time series, the high-frequency variations in Universal Time (UT1) and polar motion (PM) due to ocean tides are studied and a set of sine and cosine coefficients is estimated for all the major tidal terms at nearly diurnal and semidiurnal frequencies. The GPS series is not very homogeneous (various processing changes during the 3 years) and still short compared to the length of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and satellite laser ranging (SLR) data sets. However, the results derived from this series are already of the same quality as the results from VLBI and SLR. A comparison of the tidal coefficients stemming from all three space-geodetic techniques shows an agreement on the 1 μs level for UT1 and 10 microarc seconds (μas) for PM, respectively. The RMS difference between the ocean tide amplitudes estimated from GPS data and from TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data amounts to 0.7-0.9 μs in UT1 and 9-13 μas in PM. The residual spectrum that remains after the removal of all tidal terms has a noise level of ˜5-10 μas in PM and 0.5-1 μs in UT1 and contains nontidal signals (up to 55 μas in PM and 3 μs in UT1) that might be due to the impact of the satellite orbit modeling (12-hour revolution period of the satellites) or, alternatively, due to atmospheric or oceanic normal modes.

  4. Uncertainty Assessment of the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Climate Projections (NEX-GDDP) Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Weile; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Michaelis, Andrew; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Thrasher, Bridget L.; Dixon, Keith W.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset is comprised of downscaled climate projections that are derived from 21 General Circulation Model (GCM) runs conducted under the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and across two of the four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Each of the climate projections includes daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation for the periods from 1950 through 2100 and the spatial resolution is 0.25 degrees (approximately 25 km x 25 km). The GDDP dataset has received warm welcome from the science community in conducting studies of climate change impacts at local to regional scales, but a comprehensive evaluation of its uncertainties is still missing. In this study, we apply the Perfect Model Experiment framework (Dixon et al. 2016) to quantify the key sources of uncertainties from the observational baseline dataset, the downscaling algorithm, and some intrinsic assumptions (e.g., the stationary assumption) inherent to the statistical downscaling techniques. We developed a set of metrics to evaluate downscaling errors resulted from bias-correction ("quantile-mapping"), spatial disaggregation, as well as the temporal-spatial non-stationarity of climate variability. Our results highlight the spatial disaggregation (or interpolation) errors, which dominate the overall uncertainties of the GDDP dataset, especially over heterogeneous and complex terrains (e.g., mountains and coastal area). In comparison, the temporal errors in the GDDP dataset tend to be more constrained. Our results also indicate that the downscaled daily precipitation also has relatively larger uncertainties than the temperature fields, reflecting the rather stochastic nature of precipitation in space. Therefore, our results provide insights in improving statistical downscaling algorithms and products in the future.

  5. Using Global Sensitivity Analysis to Understand the Implications of Epistemic Uncertainty in Earth Systems Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, T.; Pianosi, F.; Almeida, S.; Holcombe, E.

    2016-12-01

    We can define epistemic uncertainty as those uncertainties that are not well determined by historical observations. This lack of determination can be because the future is not like the past, because the historical data is unreliable (imperfectly recorded from proxies or missing), or because it is scarce (either because measurements are not available at the right scale or there is simply no observation or network available). This kind of uncertainty is typical for earth system modelling, but our approaches to address it are poorly developed. Because epistemic uncertainties cannot easily be characterised by probability distributions, traditional uncertainty analysis techniques based on Monte Carlo simulation and forward propagation of uncertainty are not adequate. Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) can provide an alternative approach where, rather than quantifying the impact of poorly defined or even unknown uncertainties on model predictions, one can investigate at what level such uncertainties would start to matter and whether this level is likely to be reached within the relevant time period analysed. The underlying objective of GSA in this case lies in mapping the uncertain input factors onto critical regions of the model output, e.g. when the output exceeds a certain thresholds. Methods to implement this mapping step have so far received less attention and significant improvement is needed. We will present an example from landslide modelling - a field where observations are scarce, sub-surface characteristics are poorly constrained, and potential future rainfall triggers can be highly uncertain due to climate change. We demonstrate an approach that combines GSA and advanced Classification and Regression Tress (CART) to understand the risk of slope failure for an application in the Caribbean. We close with a discussion of opportunities for further methodological advancement.

  6. Global Simulation of EMIC waves at Earth: Generation and Application of Linearly Polarized EMIC waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. H.; Valeo, E. J.; Johnson, J.; Kim, H.; Lee, D. H.; Phillips, C.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a two-dimensional, finite element code that solves the electromagnetic full wave equations in global magnetospheric geometry. The code produces the three-dimensional wave structure, including mode conversion effects, for plasma waves launched in a two-dimensional axisymmetric background plasma with general magnetic field topology. Using this code, we have examined how EMIC waves are generated and propagated along the magnetic field line. While left-handed polarized EMIC waves are known to be excited by the cyclotron instability associated with hot and anisotropic ion distributions in the equatorial region of the magnetosphere, the generation mechanism of linear and right-handed polarized EMIC waves, which are often observed near the magnetic equator, remains as one of the unsolved scientific questions. In this presentation, we show the linear polarization of the EMIC waves can be explained by mode conversion at the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance (an analogue of the field-line resonance when the resonance frequency is on the order of the heavy ion cyclotron frequency) when externally driven compressional waves propagate into an increasing/decreasing heavy ion concentration or inhomogeneous magnetic field. Since these mode-converted waves depend sensitively on the heavy ion concentration, it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio from the wave propagation characteristics. We also evaluated the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and wave frequencies and have found that the resonance only occurs for a limited range of wave frequencies, defined such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and observed EMIC waves from the GOES-12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate that the He+ concentration is around 4% near L = 6.6.

  7. Anisotropic shear-wave velocity structure of the Earth's mantle: A global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustowski, B.; EkströM, G.; DziewońSki, A. M.

    2008-06-01

    We combine a new, large data set of surface wave phase anomalies, long-period waveforms, and body wave travel times to construct a three-dimensional model of the anisotropic shear wave velocity in the Earth's mantle. Our modeling approach is improved and more comprehensive compared to our earlier studies and involves the development and implementation of a new spherically symmetric reference model, simultaneous inversion for velocity and anisotropy, as well as discontinuity topographies, and implementation of nonlinear crustal corrections for waveforms. A comparison of our new three-dimensional model, S362ANI, with two other models derived from comparable data sets but using different techniques reveals persistent features: (1) strong, ˜200-km-thick, high-velocity anomalies beneath cratons, likely representing the continental lithosphere, underlain by weaker, fast anomalies extending below 250 km, which may represent continental roots, (2) weak velocity heterogeneity between 250 and 400 km depths, (3) fast anomalies extending horizontally up to 2000-3000 km in the mantle transition zone beneath subduction zones, (4) lack of strong long-wavelength heterogeneity below 650 km suggesting inhibiting character of the upper mantle-lower mantle boundary, and (5) slow-velocity superplumes beneath the Pacific and Africa. The shear wave radial anisotropy is strongest at 120 km depth, in particular beneath the central Pacific. Lateral anisotropic variations appreciably improve the fit to data that are predominantly sensitive to the uppermost and lowermost mantle but not to the waveforms that control the transition zone and midmantle depths. Tradeoffs between lateral variations in velocity and anisotropy are negligible in the uppermost mantle but noticeable at the bottom of the mantle.

  8. Modeling the Global Solar Radiation on the Earth's Surface Using Atmospheric Deterministic and Intelligent Data-Driven Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamouris, M.; Mihalakakou, G.; Psiloglou, B.; Eftaxias, G.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.

    1999-10-01

    Three methods for analyzing and modeling the global shortwave radiation reaching the earth's surface are presented in this study. Solar radiation is a very important input for many aspects of climatology, hydrology, atmospheric sciences, and energy applications. The estimation methods consist of an atmospheric deterministic model and two data-driven intelligent methods.The deterministic method is a broadband atmospheric model, developed for predicting the global and diffuse solar radiation incident on the earth's surface. The intelligent data-driven methods are a new neural network approach in which the hourly values of global radiation for several years are calculated and a new fuzzy logic method based on fuzzy sets theory. The two data-driven models, calculating the global solar radiation on a horizontal surface, are based on measured data of several meteorological parameters such as the air temperature, the relative humidity, and the sunshine duration.The three methods are tested and compared using various sets of solar radiation measurements. The comparison of the three methods showed that the proposed intelligent techniques can be successfully used for the estimation of global solar radiation during the warm period of the year, while during the cold period the atmospheric deterministic model gives better estimations.

  9. Techniques of the environmental observer: India's earth remote sensing program in the age of global information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denicola, Lane A.

    This research examines the emergence in India of earth remote sensing (ERS), a principal medium for environmental analysis, communication, and policy-making. ERS---the science and "craft" of analyzing images of terrestrial phenomena collected by aircraft or satellite---constitutes an information technology whose predominance in environmental discourse has grown continuously since first proposed for such applications by American researchers in 1962. Raising many thorny issues in information access and control, the use and popularization of ERS has intensified dramatically since the mid-1980s. In Westernized discourse (both popular and expert), space research and industry are often depicted at a double-remove from the so-called "developing world," where exotic technologies and esoteric goals are overshadowed by patent human needs and a lack of basic infrastructure. Yet advocates hail the utility of ERS in socially relevant applications, and India has amassed upwards of five decades of experience in space, with systems and products rivaled today only by those of the United States and China. A multi-sited ethnography of a nascent visual medium, the dissertation triangulates on its topic by tracing three analytical threads: (1) a diachronic analysis of Indian ERS satellites as an allegory of statehood and participation in the global present, (2) a synchronic analysis of ERS imagery as a discursive artifact and global information commodity, and (3) an analysis of interpretive practice as observed through a single class of Indian and foreign students at the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), considered here as an "interpretive community" of environmental experts. The dissertation is the result of four years of research with ERS students, faculty, researchers, users and administrators in the U.S., the U.K., Turkey and India. In particular, I conducted nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in India in 2002 and 2005, the latter half of which was spent in participant

  10. Effects of adopting the new global lung function initiative 2012 reference equations on the interpretation of spirometry.

    PubMed

    Brazzale, Danny J; Hall, Graham L; Pretto, Jeffrey J

    2013-01-01

    The recently generated spirometry reference equations from the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) provide a long-awaited opportunity for the adoption of a globally applicable set of normal reference values. The aim of this study was to document the likely interpretative effects of changing from commonly used current spirometry reference equations to the GLI2012 equations on interpretation of test results in a clinical spirometry dataset. Spirometry results from 2,400 patients equally distributed over the age range of 5-85 years were obtained from clinical pulmonary function laboratories at three public hospitals. The frequency of obstruction [FEV1/FVC below the lower limits of normal (LLN)] and spirometric restriction (FVC below the LLN) was assessed using the GLI2012, the National Health and Nutrition Assessment Survey (NHANES III), the European Community of Steel and Coal (ECSC) and the Stanojevic all-ages reference equations. The rates of obstruction (range 20.0-28.5%) and spirometric restriction (range 14.2-25.8%) were similar across the four sets of reference equations. The highest level of agreement with the new GLI2012 equations was seen with the NHANES III equations (97.6% for obstruction and 93.6% for spirometric restriction) and the lowest with those from the ECSC (96.0 for obstruction and 92.0% for restriction). These data can be used to estimate likely diagnostic spirometry interpretation effects in the clinical setting when switching to GLI2012 spirometry reference data. We have found the effects on interpretation of changing to GLI2012 reference data to be minimal when changing from NHANES III and most significant when changing from ECSC reference data. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The Future of Our Tropical Rainforests. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKisson, Micki; MacRae-Campbell, Linda

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social…

  12. Earth Systems Education: Origins and Opportunities. Science Education for Global Understanding. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley.

    This publication introduces and provides a framework for Earth Systems Education (ESE), an effort to establish within U.S. schools more effective programs designed to increase the public's understanding of the Earth system. The publication presents seven "understandings" around which curriculum can be organized and materials selected in…

  13. Our Divided World: Poverty, Hunger & Overpopulation. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKisson, Micki; MacRae-Campbell, Linda

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  14. Endangered Species: Their Struggle To Survive. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKisson, Micki; MacRae-Campbell, Linda

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  15. The Ocean Crisis. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae-Campbell, Linda; And Others

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  16. Our Troubled Skies. Our Only Earth. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae-Campbell, Linda; McKisson, Micki

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  17. Reconciling past changes in Earth's rotation with 20th century global sea-level rise: Resolving Munk's enigma.

    PubMed

    Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Dumberry, Mathieu; Stanley, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    In 2002, Munk defined an important enigma of 20th century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise that has yet to be resolved. First, he listed three canonical observations related to Earth's rotation [(i) the slowing of Earth's rotation rate over the last three millennia inferred from ancient eclipse observations, and changes in the (ii) amplitude and (iii) orientation of Earth's rotation vector over the last century estimated from geodetic and astronomic measurements] and argued that they could all be fit by a model of ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) associated with the last ice age. Second, he demonstrated that prevailing estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (~1.5 to 2.0 mm/year), after correction for the maximum signal from ocean thermal expansion, implied mass flux from ice sheets and glaciers at a level that would grossly misfit the residual GIA-corrected observations of Earth's rotation. We demonstrate that the combination of lower estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (up to 1990) improved modeling of the GIA process and that the correction of the eclipse record for a signal due to angular momentum exchange between the fluid outer core and the mantle reconciles all three Earth rotation observations. This resolution adds confidence to recent estimates of individual contributions to 20th century sea-level change and to projections of GMSL rise to the end of the 21st century based on them.

  18. A Rapid Prototyping Look at NASA's Next Generation Earth-Observing Satellites; Opportunities for Global Change Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, L.; Young, D. F.; Parker, P. A.; Eckman, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program extends the results of Earth Science Division (ESD) research and knowledge beyond the scientific and research communities to contribute to national priority applications with societal benefits. The Applied Sciences Program focuses on, (1) assimilation of NASA Earth-science research results and their associated uncertainties to improve decision support systems and, (2) the transition of NASA research results to evolve improvements in future operational systems. The broad range of Earth- science research results that serve as inputs to the Applied Sciences Program are from NASA's Research and Analysis Program (R&A) within the ESD. The R&A Program has established six research focus areas to study the complex processes associated with Earth-system science; Atmospheric Composition, Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems, Climate Variability and Change, Earth Surface and Interior, Water and Energy Cycle, and Weather. Through observations-based Earth-science research results, NASA and its partners are establishing predictive capabilities for future projections of natural and human perturbations on the planet. The focus of this presentation is on the use of research results and their associated uncertainties from several of NASA's nine next generation missions for societal benefit. The newly launched missions are, (1) CloudSat, and (2) CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations), both launched April 28, 2006, and the planned next generation missions include, (3) the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), (4) the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), (5) the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), (6) Glory, for measuring the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols and total solar irradiance for long-term climate records, (7) Aquarius, for measuring global sea surface salinity, (8) the Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM), and (9) the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) for measuring long-term climate trends and global

  19. Understanding the Role of Biology in the Global Environment: NASA'S Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William F.

    1996-01-01

    NASA has long used the unique perspective of space as a means of expanding our understanding of how the Earth's environment functions. In particular, the linkages between land, air, water, and life-the elements of the Earth system-are a focus for NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This approach, called Earth system science, blends together fields like meteorology, biology, oceanography, and atmospheric science. Mission to Planet Earth uses observations from satellites, aircraft, balloons, and ground researchers as the basis for analysis of the elements of the Earth system, the interactions between those elements, and possible changes over the coming years and decades. This information is helping scientists improve our understanding of how natural processes affect us and how we might be affecting them. Such studies will yield improved weather forecasts, tools for managing agriculture and forests, information for fishermen and local planners, and, eventually, an enhanced ability to predict how the climate will change in the future. NASA has designed Mission to Planet Earth to focus on five primary themes: Land Cover and Land Use Change; Seasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction; Natural Hazards; Long-Term Climate Variability; and Atmosphere Ozone.

  20. Understanding the Role of Biology in the Global Environment: NASA'S Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William F.

    1996-01-01

    NASA has long used the unique perspective of space as a means of expanding our understanding of how the Earth's environment functions. In particular, the linkages between land, air, water, and life-the elements of the Earth system-are a focus for NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This approach, called Earth system science, blends together fields like meteorology, biology, oceanography, and atmospheric science. Mission to Planet Earth uses observations from satellites, aircraft, balloons, and ground researchers as the basis for analysis of the elements of the Earth system, the interactions between those elements, and possible changes over the coming years and decades. This information is helping scientists improve our understanding of how natural processes affect us and how we might be affecting them. Such studies will yield improved weather forecasts, tools for managing agriculture and forests, information for fishermen and local planners, and, eventually, an enhanced ability to predict how the climate will change in the future. NASA has designed Mission to Planet Earth to focus on five primary themes: Land Cover and Land Use Change; Seasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction; Natural Hazards; Long-Term Climate Variability; and Atmosphere Ozone.

  1. A New Framework for Effective and Efficient Global Sensitivity Analysis of Earth and Environmental Systems Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Saman; Gupta, Hoshin

    2015-04-01

    Earth and Environmental Systems (EES) models are essential components of research, development, and decision-making in science and engineering disciplines. With continuous advances in understanding and computing power, such models are becoming more complex with increasingly more factors to be specified (model parameters, forcings, boundary conditions, etc.). To facilitate better understanding of the role and importance of different factors in producing the model responses, the procedure known as 'Sensitivity Analysis' (SA) can be very helpful. Despite the availability of a large body of literature on the development and application of various SA approaches, two issues continue to pose major challenges: (1) Ambiguous Definition of Sensitivity - Different SA methods are based in different philosophies and theoretical definitions of sensitivity, and can result in different, even conflicting, assessments of the underlying sensitivities for a given problem, (2) Computational Cost - The cost of carrying out SA can be large, even excessive, for high-dimensional problems and/or computationally intensive models. In this presentation, we propose a new approach to sensitivity analysis that addresses the dual aspects of 'effectiveness' and 'efficiency'. By effective, we mean achieving an assessment that is both meaningful and clearly reflective of the objective of the analysis (the first challenge above), while by efficiency we mean achieving statistically robust results with minimal computational cost (the second challenge above). Based on this approach, we develop a 'global' sensitivity analysis framework that efficiently generates a newly-defined set of sensitivity indices that characterize a range of important properties of metric 'response surfaces' encountered when performing SA on EES models. Further, we show how this framework embraces, and is consistent with, a spectrum of different concepts regarding 'sensitivity', and that commonly-used SA approaches (e.g., Sobol

  2. An estimate of the global minimum DV needed for earth-moon transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.

    1991-01-01

    An estimate is found for a lower bound on the Delta V needed for any trajectory which starts at 167 km altitude circular earth orbit and ends in a 100 km altitude circular polar lunar orbit. The analysis used involves calculations of Jacobi's integral in a circular restricted three-body problem which approximates the earth-moon transfer problem. The result is an estimate that any such trajectory will require Delta Vs of at least 3099 km/s to leave the neighborhood of earth and at least 0.622 km/s to achieve the desired orbit around the moon, for a total of 3721 km/s.

  3. A basic strategy to manage global health with reference to livestock production in Asia.

    PubMed

    Hall, David C; Le, Quynh Ba

    2011-01-01

    Newly emerging infectious diseases (nEIDs) have increased rapidly presenting alarming challenges to global health. We argue that for effective management of global health a basic strategy should include at least three essential tactical forms: actions of a directly focused nature, institutional coordination, and disciplinary integration in approaches to health management. Each level of action is illustrated with examples from the livestock sector in Asia. No clear example of all three tactical forms in place can be found from developing countries where food security is a significant threat although Vietnam is developing a comprehensive strategy. Finally, an ecosystem health approach to global health management is advocated; such an approach moves away from the traditional single disciplinary approach. Stronger guidance is needed to direct ecohealth research and application in the management of global health.

  4. A Basic Strategy to Manage Global Health with Reference to Livestock Production in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Hall, David C.; Le, Quynh Ba

    2011-01-01

    Newly emerging infectious diseases (nEIDs) have increased rapidly presenting alarming challenges to global health. We argue that for effective management of global health a basic strategy should include at least three essential tactical forms: actions of a directly focused nature, institutional coordination, and disciplinary integration in approaches to health management. Each level of action is illustrated with examples from the livestock sector in Asia. No clear example of all three tactical forms in place can be found from developing countries where food security is a significant threat although Vietnam is developing a comprehensive strategy. Finally, an ecosystem health approach to global health management is advocated; such an approach moves away from the traditional single disciplinary approach. Stronger guidance is needed to direct ecohealth research and application in the management of global health. PMID:22135772

  5. References for scientific papers: why not standardise to one global style?

    PubMed

    Harries, A D; Kumar, A M V; Satyanarayana, S; Bissell, K; Hinderaker, S G; Edginton, M; Reid, A J; Zachariah, R

    2013-09-21

    The different reference styles demanded by journals, both for in-text citations and manuscript bibliographies, require that significant time and attention be paid to minute detail that constitute a tedious obstacle on the road to publication for all authors, but especially for those from resource-limited countries and/or writing in a second language. To illustrate this, we highlight different reference styles requested by five popular journals to which operational research papers are often submitted. We call for a simpler, standardised format for in-text and bibliography reference citations, so that researchers can concentrate on the science and its interpretation rather than fonts and punctuation.

  6. References for scientific papers: why not standardise to one global style?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A. M. V.; Satyanarayana, S.; Bissell, K.; Hinderaker, S. G.; Edginton, M.; Reid, A. J.; Zachariah, R.

    2013-01-01

    The different reference styles demanded by journals, both for in-text citations and manuscript bibliographies, require that significant time and attention be paid to minute detail that constitute a tedious obstacle on the road to publication for all authors, but especially for those from resource-limited countries and/or writing in a second language. To illustrate this, we highlight different reference styles requested by five popular journals to which operational research papers are often submitted. We call for a simpler, standardised format for in-text and bibliography reference citations, so that researchers can concentrate on the science and its interpretation rather than fonts and punctuation. PMID:26393041

  7. The Time Evolution of the Earth's Gravity Field Since 2002: Do we need to rethink geopotential-based reference systems in the GRACE era?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerem, R. S.; Hardy, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The gravity field of the Earth has changed dramatically over the last few decades as it responds to the melting of continental ice, depletion of groundwater, glacial isostatic adjustment, earthquakes, and other effects. The GRACE mission, launched in 2002, allows us to quantify these effects on gravity anomalies, geoid heights, deflections, and geopotential-based vertical reference systems at long wavelengths. We will examine these changes in different parts of the world and discuss the potential implications for different applications employing static (mean) gravity field models. We will furthermore show that GRACE and future satellite gravity missions can inform the changes in these vertical datums as the Earth's gravity field continues to evolve.

  8. Global Transition Zone Anisotropy and Consequences for Mantle Flow and Earth's Deep Water Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghein, C.; Yuan, K.

    2011-12-01

    The transition zone has long been at the center of the debate between multi- and single-layered convection models that directly relate to heat transport and chemical mixing throughout the mantle. It has also been suggested that the transition zone is a reservoir that collects water transported by subduction of the lithosphere into the mantle. Since water lowers mantle minerals density and viscosity, thereby modifying their rheology and melting behavior, it likely affects global mantle dynamics and the history of plate tectonics. Constraining mantle flow is therefore important for our understanding of Earth's thermochemical evolution and deep water cycle. Because it can result from deformation by dislocation creep during convection, seismic anisotropy can help us model mantle flow. It is relatively well constrained in the uppermost mantle, but its presence in the transition zone is still debated. Its detection below 250 km depth has been challenging to date because of the poor vertical resolution of commonly used datasets. In this study, we used global Love wave overtone phase velocity maps, which are sensitive to structure down to much larger depths than fundamental modes alone, and have greater depth resolution than shear wave-splitting data. This enabled us to obtain a first 3-D model of azimuthal anisotropy for the upper 800km of the mantle. We inverted the 2Ψ terms of anisotropic phase velocity maps [Visser, et al., 2008] for the first five Love wave overtones between 35s and 174s period. The resulting model shows that the average anisotropy amplitude for vertically polarized shear waves displays two main stable peaks: one in the uppermost mantle and, most remarkably, one in the lower transition zone. F-tests showed that the presence of 2Ψ anisotropy in the transition zone is required to improve the third, fourth, and fifth overtones fit. Because of parameter trade-offs, however, we cannot exclude that the anisotropy is located in the upper transition zone as

  9. The NASA/MSFC global reference atmospheric model: 1990 version (GRAM-90). Part 1: Technical/users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.; Jeffries, W. R., III; Johnson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    A technical description of the NASA/MSFC Global Reference Atmospheric Model 1990 version (GRAM-90) is presented with emphasis on the additions and new user's manual descriptions of the program operation aspects of the revised model. Some sample results for the new middle atmosphere section and comparisons with results from a three dimensional circulation model are provided. A programmer's manual with more details for those wishing to make their own GRAM program adaptations is also presented.

  10. Global drainage patterns and the origins of topographic relief on Earth, Mars, and Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Perron, J. Taylor; Hemingway, Douglas; Bailey, Elizabeth; Nimmo, Francis; Zebker, Howard

    2017-05-01

    Rivers have eroded the topography of Mars, Titan, and Earth, creating diverse landscapes. However, the dominant processes that generated topography on Titan (and to some extent on early Mars) are not well known. We analyzed drainage patterns on all three bodies and found that large drainages, which record interactions between deformation and erosional modification, conform much better to long-wavelength topography on Titan and Mars than on Earth. We use a numerical landscape evolution model to demonstrate that short-wavelength deformation causes drainage directions to diverge from long-wavelength topography, as observed on Earth. We attribute the observed differences to ancient long-wavelength topography on Mars, recent or ongoing generation of long-wavelength relief on Titan, and the creation of short-wavelength relief by plate tectonics on Earth.

  11. Global drainage patterns and the origins of topographic relief on Earth, Mars, and Titan.

    PubMed

    Black, Benjamin A; Perron, J Taylor; Hemingway, Douglas; Bailey, Elizabeth; Nimmo, Francis; Zebker, Howard

    2017-05-19

    Rivers have eroded the topography of Mars, Titan, and Earth, creating diverse landscapes. However, the dominant processes that generated topography on Titan (and to some extent on early Mars) are not well known. We analyzed drainage patterns on all three bodies and found that large drainages, which record interactions between deformation and erosional modification, conform much better to long-wavelength topography on Titan and Mars than on Earth. We use a numerical landscape evolution model to demonstrate that short-wavelength deformation causes drainage directions to diverge from long-wavelength topography, as observed on Earth. We attribute the observed differences to ancient long-wavelength topography on Mars, recent or ongoing generation of long-wavelength relief on Titan, and the creation of short-wavelength relief by plate tectonics on Earth. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return and Threat Mitigation Within a Comprehensive Global Defense System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardon, A. A.; Greenspon, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Near Earth Asteroidal (NEA) sample return and study missions should be directed towards the development of detection and analysis for the prevention of a major Earth impact such as the Tunguska impact, or even a larger one. Getting samples of an NEA back to Earth so that they can be better understood would help in the development of a comprehensive threat mitigation plan. The authors believe that threat mitigation can be divided into three parts. First is detection of Near Earth Objects by telescope; followed by sample recovery; and then a feasible deflection technology. Sample recovery should not be seen as an end in and of itself, but as an early sample of objects of similar nature that might need to be deflected from Earth impact at some near or future point in time. Greater resources should be devoted towards the detection and study of Earth orbit crossing objects than is currently in operation or effect. International cooperation, especially from the developed countries of the world, might spread the cost from just one government to a less costly multi-national spectrum. In addition, as with cometary research, amateurs might make a significant contribution in the early detection stages. The purpose of sample recovery should have as its goal the understanding of asteroid characteristics that would enable successful deflection from Earth impact. A nuclear weapon should be tested against a main belt asteroid to see the effect and be a staged performance for eventual operational deployment. The authors propose that a sphere of both nuclear and non-nuclear devices be deployed in a series of spheres, or ranges, at suitable distances around the Earth with state-of-the-art delivery systems so that they can cover a sector of space. This is because the farther away from the Earth that an impacting object is deflected, the lesser amount of force that will be necessary. Sample return missions would give the information on whether nuclear devices would

  13. Technology for monitoring global change. [NASA Technology Initiative for space based observations of Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    Multiinstrumented earth-science platforms currently being planned for both LEO and GEO positions will furnish data for the compilation of systematic and intercorrelated information that is suitable for the treatment of interdisciplinary questions concerning atmospheric, oceanic, hydrological, geological, and biological changes of an either natural or anthropogenic nature. Attention will be given in these observational campaigns to such essential earth variables as atmospheric pressure, rainfall/snowfall, vegetation cover, soil nutrient cycles, sea surface temperatures, ocean circulation, and ocean biological productivity.

  14. Competition between global warming and an abrupt collapse of the AMOC in Earth's energy imbalance.

    PubMed

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    2015-10-06

    A collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) leads to global cooling through fast feedbacks that selectively amplify the response in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). How such cooling competes with global warming has long been a topic for speculation, but was never addressed using a climate model. Here it is shown that global cooling due to a collapsing AMOC obliterates global warming for a period of 15-20 years. Thereafter, the global mean temperature trend is reversed and becomes similar to a simulation without an AMOC collapse. The resulting surface warming hiatus lasts for 40-50 years. Global warming and AMOC-induced NH cooling are governed by similar feedbacks, giving rise to a global net radiative imbalance of similar sign, although the former is associated with surface warming, the latter with cooling. Their footprints in outgoing longwave and absorbed shortwave radiation are very distinct, making attribution possible.

  15. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data Sets for Global Environment and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Carlson, Ann B.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    1997-01-01

    For a number of years there has been considerable interest in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, and entails making the best measurements possible of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation. ERB data are fundamental to the development of realistic climate models and studying natural and anthropogenic perturbations of the climate. Much of the interest and investigations in the earth's energy balance predated the age of earth-orbiting satellites (Hunt et al., 1986). Beginning in the mid 1960's earth-orbiting satellites began to play an important role in making measurements of the earth's radiation flux although much effort had gone into measuring ERB parameters prior to 1960 (House et al., 1986). Beginning in 1974 and extending until the present time, three different satellite experiments (not all operating at the same time) have been making radiation budget measurements almost continually in time. Two of the experiments were totally dedicated to making radiation budget measurements of the earth, and the other experiment flown on NOAA sun-synchronous AVHRR weather satellites produced radiation budget parameters as a by-product. The heat budget data from the AVHRR satellites began collecting data in June 1974 and have operated almost continuously for 23 years producing valuable data for long term climate monitoring.

  16. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data Sets for Global Environment and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Carlson, Ann B.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    1997-01-01

    For a number of years there has been considerable interest in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, and entails making the best measurements possible of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation. ERB data are fundamental to the development of realistic climate models and studying natural and anthropogenic perturbations of the climate. Much of the interest and investigations in the earth's energy balance predated the age of earth-orbiting satellites (Hunt et al., 1986). Beginning in the mid 1960's earth-orbiting satellites began to play an important role in making measurements of the earth's radiation flux although much effort had gone into measuring ERB parameters prior to 1960 (House et al., 1986). Beginning in 1974 and extending until the present time, three different satellite experiments (not all operating at the same time) have been making radiation budget measurements almost continually in time. Two of th