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Sample records for earth launch mass

  1. Zero Launch Mass Three Dimensional Print Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Gelino, Nathan J.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Buckles, Brad C.; Lippitt, Thomas; Schuler, Jason M.; Nick, Andrew J.; Nugent, Matt W.; Townsend, Ivan I.

    2018-01-01

    NASA's strategic goal is to put humans on Mars in the 2030's. The NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) and NASA Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 has determined that in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) is an essential technology to accomplish this mission. Additive construction technology using in-situ materials from planetary surfaces will reduce launch mass, allow structures to be three dimensionally (3D) printed on demand, and will allow building designs to be transmitted digitally from Earth and printed in space. This will ultimately lead to elimination of reliance on structural materials launched from Earth (zero launch mass of construction consumables). The zero launch mass (ZLM) 3D print head project addressed this need by developing a system that 3D prints using a mixture of in-situ regolith and polymer as feedstock, determining the optimum mixture ratio and regolith particle size distribution, developing software to convert g-code into motion instructions for a FANUC robotic arm, printing test samples, performing materials testing, and printing a reduced scale habitable structure concept. This paper will focus on the ZLM 3D Print Head design, materials selection, software development, and lessons learned from operating the system in the NASA KSC Swamp Works Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) Laboratory.

  2. Zero Launch Mass 3D Printer

    2018-05-01

    Nathan Gelino, a research engineer, manually loads materials into the Zero Launch Mass 3-D Printer at Kennedy Space Center’s Swamp Works Tuesday. The 3-D printer heated the pellets to about 600 degrees F and extruded them to produce specimens for material strength properties testing. Automated pellet delivery system will be added to the printer soon.

  3. Zero Launch Mass 3D printer

    2018-05-01

    Packing light is the idea behind the Zero Launch Mass 3-D Printer. Instead of loading up on heavy building supplies, a large scale 3-D printer capable of using recycled plastic waste and dirt at the destination as construction material would save mass and money when launching robotic precursor missions to build infrastructure on the Moon or Mars in preparation for human habitation. To make this a reality, Nathan Gelino, a researcher engineer with NASA’s Swamp Works at Kennedy Space Center, measured the temperature of a test specimen from the 3-D printer Tuesday as an early step in characterizing printed material strength properties. Material temperature plays a large role in the strength of bonds between layers.

  4. Low Earth Orbit Raider (LER) winged air launch vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feaux, Karl; Jordan, William; Killough, Graham; Miller, Robert; Plunk, Vonn

    1989-01-01

    The need to launch small payloads into low earth orbit has increased dramatically during the past several years. The Low Earth orbit Raider (LER) is an answer to this need. The LER is an air-launched, winged vehicle designed to carry a 1500 pound payload into a 250 nautical mile orbit. The LER is launched from the back of a 747-100B at 35,000 feet and a Mach number of 0.8. Three staged solid propellant motors offer safe ground and flight handling, reliable operation, and decreased fabrication cost. The wing provides lift for 747 separation and during the first stage burn. Also, aerodynamic controls are provided to simplify first stage maneuvers. The air-launch concept offers many advantages to the consumer compared to conventional methods. Launching at 35,000 feet lowers atmospheric drag and other loads on the vehicle considerably. Since the 747 is a mobile launch pad, flexibility in orbit selection and launch time is unparalleled. Even polar orbits are accessible with a decreased payload. Most importantly, the LER launch service can come to the customer, satellites and experiments need not be transported to ground based launch facilities. The LER is designed to offer increased consumer freedom at a lower cost over existing launch systems. Simplistic design emphasizing reliability at low cost allows for the light payloads of the LER.

  5. Cargo launch vehicles to low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    There are two primary space transportation capabilities required to support both base programs and expanded mission requirements: earth-to-orbit (ETO) transportation systems and space transfer vehicle systems. Existing and new ETO vehicles required to support mission requirements, and planned robotic missions, along with currently planned ETO vehicles are provided. Lunar outposts, Mars' outposts, base and expanded model, ETO vehicles, advanced avionics technologies, expert systems, network architecture and operations systems, and technology transfer are discussed.

  6. Design of a Ram Accelerator mass launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Ram Accelerator, a chemically propelled, impulsive mass launch system, is presented as a viable concept for directly launching acceleration-insensitive payloads into low Earth orbit. The principles of propulsion are based on those of an airbreathing supersonic ramjet. The payload vehicle acts as the ramjet centerbody and travels through a fixed launch tube that acts as the ramjet outer cowling. The launch tube is filled with premixed gaseous fuel and oxidizer mixtures that combust at the base of the vehicle and produce thrust. Two modes of in-tube propulsion involving ramjet cycles are used in sequence to accelerate the vehicle from 0.7 km/sec to 9 km/sec. Requirements for placing a 2000 kg vehicle into a 500-km circular orbit, with a minimum amount of onboard rocket propellant for orbital maneuvers, are examined. It is shown that in-tube propulsion requirements dictate a launch tube length of 5.1 km to achieve an exit velocity of 9 km/sec, with peak accelerations not to exceed 1000 g's. Aerodynamic heating due to atmospheric transit requires minimal ablative protection and the vehicle retains a large percentage of its exit velocity. An indirect orbital insertion maneuver with aerobraking and two apogee burns is examined to minimize the required onboard propellant mass. An appropriate onboard propulsion system design to perform the required orbital maneuvers with minimum mass requirements is also determined. The structural designs of both the launch tube and the payload vehicle are examined using simple structural and finite element analysis for various materials.

  7. Low-Cost Propellant Launch to Earth Orbit from a Tethered Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2006-01-01

    Propellant will be more than 85% of the mass that needs to be lofted into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) in the planned program of Exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. This paper describes a possible means for launching thousands of tons of propellant per year into LEO at a cost 15 to 30 times less than the current launch cost per kilogram. The basic idea is to mass-produce very simple, small and relatively low-performance rockets at a cost per kilogram comparable to automobiles, instead of the 25X greater cost that is customary for current launch vehicles that are produced in small quantities and which are manufactured with performance near the limits of what is possible. These small, simple rockets can reach orbit because they are launched above 95% of the atmosphere, where the drag losses even on a small rocket are acceptable, and because they can be launched nearly horizontally with very simple guidance based primarily on spin-stabilization. Launching above most of the atmosphere is accomplished by winching the rocket up a tether to a balloon. A fuel depot in equatorial orbit passes over the launch site on every orbit (approximately every 90 minutes). One or more rockets can be launched each time the fuel depot passes overhead, so the launch rate can be any multiple of 6000 small rockets per year, a number that is sufficient to reap the benefits of mass production.

  8. Human Mars Mission: Launch Window from Earth Orbit. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The determination of orbital window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a DELTA V penalty. Usually, because of the DELTA V penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: (1) One impulsive maneuver from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) (2) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) (3) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) (4) Two impulsive maneuvers from LEO (5) Three impulsive maneuvers from LEO.

  9. Human Exploration Missions Study Launch Window from Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    2001-01-01

    The determination of orbital launch window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a Delta(V) penalty. Usually, because of the Delta(V) penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: (1) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Two impulsive maneuvers from LEO, (3) Three impulsive maneuvers from LEO, (4) One impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO), (5) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) The formulation of these five different launch window modes provides a rapid means of generating realistic parametric

  10. Human Mars Mission: Launch Window from Earth Orbit. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The determination of orbital window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to the earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a delta V penalty. Usually, because of the delta V penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: 1) One impulsive maneuver from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO); 2) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO); 3) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO); 4) Two impulsive maneuvers form LEO; and 5) Three impulsive maneuvers form LEO. The formulation of these five different launch window modes provides a rapid means of generating realistic parametric data

  11. Design of a ram accelerator mass launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aarnio, Michael; Armerding, Calvin; Berschauer, Andrew; Christofferson, Erik; Clement, Paul; Gohd, Robin; Neely, Bret; Reed, David; Rodriguez, Carlos; Swanstrom, Fredrick

    1988-01-01

    The ram accelerator mass launch system has been proposed to greatly reduce the costs of placing acceleration-insensitive payloads into low earth orbit. The ram accelerator is a chemically propelled, impulsive mass launch system capable of efficiently accelerating relatively large masses from velocities of 0.7 km/sec to 10 km/sec. The principles of propulsion are based on those of a conventional supersonic air-breathing ramjet; however the device operates in a somewhat different manner. The payload carrying vehicle resembles the center-body of the ramjet and accelerates through a stationary tube which acts as the outer cowling. The tube is filled with premixed gaseous fuel and oxidizer mixtures that burn in the vicinity of the vehicle's base, producing a thrust which accelerates the vehicle through the tube. This study examines the requirement for placing a 2000 kg vehicle into a 500 km circular orbit with a minimum amount of on-board rocket propellant for orbital maneuvers. The goal is to achieve a 50 pct payload mass fraction. The proposed design requirements have several self-imposed constraints that define the vehicle and tube configurations. Structural considerations on the vehicle and tube wall dictate an upper acceleration limit of 1000 g's and a tube inside diameter of 1.0 m. In-tube propulsive requirements and vehicle structural constraints result in a vehicle diameter of 0.76 m, a total length of 7.5 m and a nose-cone half angle of 7 degrees. An ablating nose-cone constructed from carbon-carbon composite serves as the thermal protection mechanism for atmospheric transit.

  12. JPL-20180522-GRACFOf-0001-Twin Spacecraft Launch to Track Earth's Water Movement

    2018-05-22

    A U.S./German space mission to track the continuous movement of water and other changes in Earth's mass on and beneath the planet's surface successfully launched at 12:47 p.m. PDT, May 22, 2018, from the California coast. The twin spacecraft of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO), a joint NASA/German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) mission, lifted off on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Space Launch Complex-4E at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, sharing their ride into space with five Iridium NEXT communications satellites.

  13. Propellant Mass Fraction Calculation Methodology for Launch Vehicles and Application to Ares Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James B.; Monk, Timothy S.

    2009-01-01

    Propellant Mass Fraction (pmf) calculation methods vary throughout the aerospace industry. While typically used as a means of comparison between candidate launch vehicle designs, the actual pmf calculation method varies slightly from one entity to another. It is the purpose of this paper to present various methods used to calculate the pmf of launch vehicles. This includes fundamental methods of pmf calculation that consider only the total propellant mass and the dry mass of the vehicle; more involved methods that consider the residuals, reserves and any other unusable propellant remaining in the vehicle; and calculations excluding large mass quantities such as the installed engine mass. Finally, a historical comparison is made between launch vehicles on the basis of the differing calculation methodologies, while the unique mission and design requirements of the Ares V Earth Departure Stage (EDS) are examined in terms of impact to pmf.

  14. Propellant Mass Fraction Calculation Methodology for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James B.; Monk, Timothy S.

    2009-01-01

    Propellant Mass Fraction (pmf) calculation methods vary throughout the aerospace industry. While typically used as a means of comparison between competing launch vehicle designs, the actual pmf calculation method varies slightly from one entity to another. It is the purpose of this paper to present various methods used to calculate the pmf of a generic launch vehicle. This includes fundamental methods of pmf calculation which consider only the loaded propellant and the inert mass of the vehicle, more involved methods which consider the residuals and any other unusable propellant remaining in the vehicle, and other calculations which exclude large mass quantities such as the installed engine mass. Finally, a historic comparison is made between launch vehicles on the basis of the differing calculation methodologies.

  15. Launch vehicles of the future - Earth to near-earth space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyworth, G. A., II

    Attention is given to criteria for launch vehicles of the future, namely, cost, flexibility of payload size, and routine access to space. The National Aerospace Plane (NASP), an airplane designed to achieve hypersonic speeds using a sophisticated air-breathing engine, is argued to meet these criteria. Little additional oxygen is needed to enter low-earth orbit, and it will return to an airport runway under powered flight. Cost estimates for a NASP-derived vehicle are two to five million dollars for a payload of 20,000 to 30,000 pounds to orbit. For the Shuttle, a comparable payload is nominally about 150 million dollars. NASP estimates for the new single-stage-to-orbit designs are substantially lower than existing launch costs. The NASP also offers fast turnaround and minimal logistics. Access to virtually all near-earth orbits will be provided as well.

  16. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory are joining with an international consortium of space agencies to support the launch of a Japanese satellite next week that will create the largest astronomical "instrument" ever built -- a radio telescope more than two-and-a-half times the diameter of the Earth that will give astronomers their sharpest view yet of the universe. The launch of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Program (VSOP) satellite by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is scheduled for Feb. 10 at 11:50 p.m. EST (1:50 p.m. Feb. 11, Japan time.) The satellite is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA; the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Socorro, NM; the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. Very long baseline interferometry is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. By taking this technique into space for the first time, astronomers will approximately triple the resolving power previously available with only ground-based telescopes. The satellite system will have resolving power almost 1,000 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope at optical wavelengths. The satellite's resolving power is equivalent to being able to see a grain of rice in Tokyo from Los Angeles. "Using space VLBI, we can probe the cores of quasars and active galaxies, believed to be powered by super massive black holes," said Dr. Robert Preston, project scientist for the U.S. Space Very Long

  17. Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) Launch and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    We request continued NASA support for the on-going Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) project. The balloon-borne CREAM instrument was flown for 161 days in six flights over Antarctica, the longest known exposure for a single balloon project. Building on the success of those balloon missions, one of the two balloon payloads was successfully transformed for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS) Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF). Following completion of its systemlevel qualification and verification, this ISS-CREAM payload was delivered to the NASA Kennedy Space Center in August 2015 to await its launch to the ISS. The ISS-CREAM mission would achieve the primary science objectives of the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS), which was given high priority in the 2001 NRC Decadal Study Report. Its nuclei composition data between 10^12 and 10^15 eV would enable detailed study of the spectral hardening first reported by the CREAM balloon project and recently confirmed for protons and helium by the PAMELA and AMS-02 space missions using permanent magnet spectrometers. In addition, multiTeV energy electron data allow searches for local sources and the signature of darkmatter, etc. The ISS-CREAM instrument is configured with redundant and complementary particle detectors capable of precise measurements of elemental spectra for Z = 1 - 26 nuclei, as well as electrons. The four layers of its finely segmented Silicon Charge Detector provide charge measurements, and its ionization calorimeter provides energy measurements. Its segmented scintillator-based Top and Bottom Counting Detectors separate electrons from nuclei using shower profile differences. Its Boronated Scintillator Detector distinguishes electrons from nuclei by detecting thermal neutrons that are dominant in nuclei induced showers. An order of magnitude increase in data collecting power is possible by utilizing the ISS to reach the highest

  18. NASA to launch NOAA's GOES-C earth monitoring satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA's launch of the GOES-C geostationary satellite from Kennedy Space Center, Florida is planned for June 16, 1978. The launch vehicle is a three stage Delta 2914. As its contribution, GOES-C will contribute information from a data sparse area of the world centered in the Indian Ocean. GOES-C will replace GOES-1 and will become GOES-3 once it has successfully orbited at 35,750 kilometers (22,300 miles). NASA's Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) will provide support for the mission. Included in the article are: (1) Delta launch vehicle statistics, first, second and third stages; (2) Delta/GOES-C major launch events; (3) Launch operations; (4) Delta/GOES-C personnel.

  19. "From Earth to the Universe" Project Launches Around Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    A worldwide exhibition of large-scale astronomical images has launched in the United States under the banner of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009). The "From Earth to the Universe" (FETTU) project is designed to bring the undeniable beauty of astronomy to the general public in a series of free showings across the country, which have begun with a traveling image exhibit now open at Tucson International Airport in Arizona. FETTU (www.fromearthtotheuniverse.org) is a major project of both the US and global efforts for IYA2009. With images taken from both ground- and space-based telescopes, FETTU showcases the incredible variety of astronomical objects that are known to exist - planets, comets, stars, nebulae, galaxies, clusters, and more. The exhibit also shows how some of these objects look different when viewed across the electromagnetic spectrum, from the ultraviolet and visible light to infrared, X-rays and gamma rays. FETTU is being shown in non-traditional public venues such as parks and gardens, shopping malls, metro stations and airports in major cities across the world. The FETTU images have been selected for their stunning beauty to engage members of the general public who might normally ignore or avoid astronomy. With short, but informative captions on each panel, the goal is introduce some basics of the science involved once an individual has been drawn to the image. In the US, FETTU is being sponsored by NASA and will appear in semi- permanent installations in Atlanta and Chicago later this spring. The traveling version of FETTU, with its first stop in Tucson, will then move to Memphis in April. More FETTU locations are being planned across the US and an enhanced schedule is being developed. People Who Read This Also Read... Galaxies Coming of Age in Cosmic Blobs Searching for Primordial Antimatter Action Replay of Powerful Stellar Explosion Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Several editions of FETTU will

  20. Earth-to-orbit reusable launch vehicles: A comparative assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A representative set of space systems, functions, and missions for NASA and DoD from which launch vehicle requirements and characteristics was established as well as a set of air-breathing launch vehicles based on graduated technology capabilities corresponding to increasingly higher staging Mach numbers. The utility of the air-breathing launch vehicle candidates based on lift-off weight, performance, technology needs, and risk was assessed and costs were compared to alternative concepts. The results indicate that a fully reusable launch vehicle, whether two stage or one stage, could potentially reduce the cost per flight 60-80% compared to that for a partially reusable vehicle but would require advances in thermal protection system technology. A two-stage-to-orbit, parallel-lift vehicle with an air-breathing booster would cost approximately the same as a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, but the former would have greater flexibility and a significantly reduced developmental risk. A twin-booster, subsonic-staged, parallel-lift vehicle represents the lowest system cost and developmental risk. However, if a large supersonic turbojet engine in the 350,000-N thrust class were available, supersonic staging would be preferred, and the investment in development would be returned in reduced program cost.

  1. Oil, Earth mass and gravitational force.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-04-01

    Fossil fuels are intensively extracted from around the world faster than they are renewed. Regardless of direct and indirect effects of such extractions on climate change and biosphere, another issue relating to Earth's internal structure and Earth mass should receive at least some interest. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 34 billion barrels of oil (~4.7 trillion metric tons) and 9 billion tons of coal have been extracted in 2014 worldwide. Converting the amounts of oil and coal extracted over the last 3 decades and their respective reserves, intended to be extracted in the future, into mass values suggests that about 355 trillion tons, or ~5.86∗10(-9) (~0.0000000058)% of the Earth mass, would be 'lost'. Although this is a tiny percentage, modeling the potential loss of Earth mass may help figuring out a critical threshold of mass loss that should not be exceeded. Here, I briefly discuss whether such loss would have any potential consequences on the Earth's internal structure and on its gravitational force based on the Newton's law of gravitation that links the attraction force between planets to their respective masses and the distance that separate them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Trends in satellite mass and heavy lift launch vehicles : Quarterly Launch Report : special report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    The size of commercial GEO satellites has steadily grown as a result of the telecommunications market demanding more satellites with higher power and more transponders. Many analysts within the satellite manufacturing and launch industries see this t...

  3. Orbit/launch vehicle tradeoff studies. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) design, performance, and cost factors which affect the choices of an orbit and a launch vehicle is presented. Primary emphasis is given to low altitude (300 to 900 nautical miles) land resources management applications for which payload design factors are defined. The subjects considered are: (1) a mission model, (2) orbit analysis and characterization, (3) characteristics and capabilities of candidate conventional launch vehicles, and space shuttle support. Recommendations are submitted for the EOS-A mission, the Single Multispectral Scanner payload, the Single Multispectral Scanner plus Thematic Mapper payload, the Dual Multispectral Scanner payload, and the Dual Multispectral Scanner plus Thematic Mapper payload.

  4. Application of superconducting technology to earth-to-orbit electromagnetic launch systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, J. R.; Carney, L. M.

    1988-01-01

    Benefits may occur by incorporating superconductors, both existing and those currently under development, in one or more parts of a large-scale electromagnetic launch (EML) system that is capable of delivering payloads from the surface of the Earth to space. The use of superconductors for many of the EML components results in lower system losses; consequently, reductions in the size and number of energy storage devices are possible. Applied high-temperature superconductivity may eventually enable novel design concepts for energy distribution and switching. All of these technical improvements have the potential to reduce system complexity and lower payload launch costs.

  5. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Launch and Early Mission Attitude Support Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tracewell, D.; Glickman, J.; Hashmall, J.; Natanson, G.; Sedlak, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite was successfully launched on May 4,2002. Aqua is the second in the series of EOS satellites. EOS is part of NASA s Earth Science Enterprise Program, whose goals are to advance the scientific understanding of the Earth system. Aqua is a three-axis stabilized, Earth-pointing spacecraft in a nearly circular, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics attitude team supported all phases of the launch and early mission. This paper presents the main results and lessons learned during this period, including: real-time attitude mode transition support, sensor calibration, onboard computer attitude validation, response to spacecraft emergencies, postlaunch attitude analyses, and anomaly resolution. In particular, Flight Dynamics support proved to be invaluable for successful Earth acquisition, fine-point mode transition, and recognition and correction of several anomalies, including support for the resolution of problems observed with the MODIS instrument.

  6. Antares Rocket Test Launch

    2013-04-21

    The Orbital Sciences Corporation Antares rocket is seen as it launches from Pad-0A of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, Sunday, April 21, 2013. The test launch marked the first flight of Antares and the first rocket launch from Pad-0A. The Antares rocket delivered the equivalent mass of a spacecraft, a so-called mass simulated payload, into Earth's orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. The Disposal of Spacecraft and Launch Vehicle Stages in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft and launch vehicle stages abandoned in Earth orbit have historically been a primary source of debris from accidental explosions. In the future, such satellites will become the principal cause of orbital debris via inadvertent collisions. To curtail both the near-term and far-term risks posed by derelict spacecraft and launch vehicle stages to operational space systems, numerous national and international orbital debris mitigation guidelines specifically recommend actions which could prevent or limit such future debris generation. Although considerable progress has been made in implementing these recommendations, some changes to existing vehicle designs can be difficult. Moreover, the nature of some missions also can present technological and budgetary challenges to be compliant with widely accepted orbital debris mitigation measures.

  8. Analytical Approach for Estimating Preliminary Mass of ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Structural Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Pravin

    2007-01-01

    In January 2004, President Bush gave the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) a vision for Space Exploration by setting our sight on a bold new path to go back to the Moon, then to Mars and beyond. In response to this vision, NASA started the Constellation Program, which is a new exploration launch vehicle program. The primary mission for the Constellation Program is to carry out a series of human expeditions ranging from Low Earth Orbit to the surface of Mars and beyond for the purposes of conducting human exploration of space, as specified by the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). The intent is that the information and technology developed by this program will provide the foundation for broader exploration activities as our operational experience grows. The ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) has been designated as the launch vehicle that will be developed as a "first step" to facilitate the aforementioned human expeditions. The CLV Project is broken into four major elements: First Stage, Upper Stage Engine, Upper Stage (US), and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for the design of the CLV and has the prime responsibility to design the upper stage of the vehicle. The US is the second propulsive stage of the CLV and provides CEV insertion into low Earth orbit (LEO) after separation from the First Stage of the Crew Launch Vehicle. The fully integrated Upper Stage is a mix of modified existing heritage hardware (J-2X Engine) and new development (primary structure, subsystems, and avionics). The Upper Stage assembly is a structurally stabilized cylindrical structure, which is powered by a single J-2X engine which is developed as a separate Element of the CLV. The primary structure includes the load bearing liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellant tanks, a Forward Skirt, the Intertank structure, the Aft Skirt and the Thrust Structure. A Systems Tunnel, which carries fluid and

  9. Basic coaxial mass driver reference design. [electromagnetic lunar launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolm, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    The reference design for a basic coaxial mass driver is developed to illustrate the principles and optimization procedures on the basis of numerical integration by programmable pocket calculators. The four inch caliber system uses a single-coil bucket and a single-phase propulsion track with discrete coils, separately energized by capacitors. An actual driver would use multiple-coil buckets and an oscillatory multi-phase drive system. Even the basic, table-top demonstration system should in principle be able to achieve accelerations in the 1,000 m/sq sec range. Current densities of the order of 25 ka/sq cm, continuously achievable only in superconductors, are carried by an ordinary aluminum bucket coil for a short period in order to demonstrate the calculated acceleration. Ultimately the system can be lengthened and provided with a magnetically levitated, superconducting bucket to study levitation dynamics under quasi-steady-state conditions, and to approach lunar escape velocity in an evacuated tube.

  10. NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. This fact drives the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. To arrive at the current SLS plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and arrived at the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. This paper will explore ways to fit this major development within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017. It will explain the SLS Program s long-range plan to keep the budget within bounds, yet evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through a competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface over 4 decades ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. NASA is refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. Space Policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap. Launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle s (MPCV s) first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. In addition, the SLS will accommodate

  11. NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. This fact drives the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. To arrive at the current SLS plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and arrived at the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. This paper will explore ways to fit this major development within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017. It will explain the SLS Program s long-range plan to keep the budget within bounds, yet evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through a competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface over 4 decades ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. NASA is refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. Space Policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap. Launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Cargo Vehicle s first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. In addition, the SLS will accommodate high

  12. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 1: Orbit/launch vehicle trade-off studies and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A summary of the constraints and requirements on the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS-A) orbit and launch vehicle analysis is presented. The propulsion system (hydrazine) and the launch vehicle (Delta 2910) selected for EOS-A are examined. The rationale for the selection of the recommended orbital altitude of 418 nautical miles is explained. The original analysis was based on the EOS-A mission with the Thematic Mapper and the High Resolution Pointable Imager. The impact of the revised mission model is analyzed to show how the new mission model affects the previously defined propulsion system, launch vehicle, and orbit. A table is provided to show all aspects of the EOS multiple mission concepts. The subjects considered include the following: (1) mission orbit analysis, (2) spacecraft parametric performance analysis, (3) launch system performance analysis, and (4) orbits/launch vehicle selection.

  13. Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) launch and operations, PSU Co-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutter, Scott

    This is the Northern Kentucky University Co-I proposal to request continued NASA support for the on-going Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) project. The balloon-borne CREAM instrument was flown for 161 days in six flights over Antarctica, the longest known exposure for a single balloon project. Building on the success of those balloon missions, one of the two balloon payloads was successfully transformed for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS) Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF). Following completion of its system-level qualification and verification, this ISS-CREAM payload was delivered to the NASA Kennedy Space Center in August 2015 to await its launch to the ISS. The ISS-CREAM mission would achieve the primary science objectives of the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS), which was given high priority in the 2001 NRC Decadal Study Report. Its nuclei composition data between 10^12 and 10^15 eV would enable detailed study of the spectral hardening first reported by the CREAM balloon project and recently confirmed for protons and helium by the PAMELA and AMS-02 space missions using permanent magnet spectrometers. In addition, multiTeV energy electron data allow searches for local sources and the signature of darkmatter, etc. The ISS-CREAM instrument is configured with redundant and complementary particle detectors capable of precise measurements of elemental spectra for Z = 1 - 26 nuclei, as well as electrons. The four layers of its finely segmented Silicon Charge Detector provide charge measurements, and its ionization calorimeter provides energy measurements. Its segmented scintillator-based Top and Bottom Counting Detectors separate electrons from nuclei using shower profile differences. Its Boronated Scintillator Detector distinguishes electrons from nuclei by detecting thermal neutrons that are dominant in nuclei induced showers. An order of magnitude increase in data collecting power is

  14. Earth-to-Orbit Laser Launch Simulation for a Lightcraft Technology Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, J. C.; Morales, C.; Smith, W. L.; Myrabo, L. N.

    2006-05-01

    Optimized laser launch trajectories have been developed for a 1.4 m diameter, 120 kg (empty mass) Lightcraft Technology Demonstrator (LTD). The lightcraft's combined-cycle airbreathing/rocket engine is designed for single-stage-to-orbit flights with a mass ratio of 2 propelled by a 100 MW class ground-based laser built on a 3 km mountain peak. Once in orbit, the vehicle becomes an autonomous micro-satellite. Two types of trajectories were simulated with the SORT (Simulation and Optimization of Rocket Trajectories) software package: a) direct GBL boost to orbit, and b) GBL boost aided by laser relay satellite. Several new subroutines were constructed for SORT to input engine performance (as a function of Mach number and altitude), vehicle aerodynamics, guidance algorithms, and mass history. A new guidance/steering option required the lightcraft to always point at the GBL or laser relay satellite. SORT iterates on trajectory parameters to optimize vehicle performance, achieve a desired criteria, or constrain the solution to avoid some specific limit. The predicted laser-boost performance for the LTD is undoubtedly revolutionary, and SORT simulations have helped to define this new frontier.

  15. Antares Rocket Test Launch

    2013-04-21

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver and other guests react after having watched the successful launch of the Orbital Sciences Corporation Antares rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, Sunday, April 21, 2013. The test launch marked the first flight of Antares and the first rocket launch from Pad-0A. The Antares rocket delivered the equivalent mass of a spacecraft, a so-called mass simulated payload, into Earth's orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Antares Rocket Test Launch

    2013-04-21

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver and other guests react after having watched the successful launch of the Orbital Sciences Corporation Antares rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, Sunday, April 21, 2013. The test launch marked the first flight of Antares and the first rocket launch from Pad-0A. The Antares rocket delivered the equivalent mass of a spacecraft, a so-called mass simulated payload, into Earth's orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making measurable progress toward delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration. To arrive at the current plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and selected the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. Slated for its maiden voyage in 2017, the SLS will provide a platform for further cooperation in space based on the International Space Station model. This briefing will focus on specific progress that has been made by the SLS team in its first year, as well as provide a framework for evolving the vehicle for far-reaching missions to destinations such as near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. As this briefing will show, the SLS will serve as an infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

  18. Ablation and deceleration of mass-driver launched projectiles for space disposal of nuclear wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.; Bowen, S. W.

    1981-01-01

    The energy cost of launching a projectile containing nuclear waste is two orders of magnitude lower with a mass driver than with a typical rocket system. A mass driver scheme will be feasible, however, only if ablation and deceleration are within certain tolerable limits. It is shown that if a hemisphere-cylinder-shaped projectile protected thermally with a graphite nose is launched vertically to attain a velocity of 17 km/sec at an altitude of 40 km, the mass loss from ablation during atmospheric flight will be less than 0.1 ton, provided the radius of the projectile is under 20 cm and the projectile's mass is of the order of 1 ton. The velocity loss from drag will vary from 0.4 to 30 km/sec, depending on the mass and radius of the projectile, the smaller velocity loss corresponding to large mass and small radius. Ablation is always within a tolerable range for schemes using a mass driver launcher to dispose of nuclear wastes outside the solar system. Deceleration can also be held in the tolerable range if the mass and diameter of the projectile are properly chosen.

  19. Reduction of Martian Sample Return Mission Launch Mass with Solar Sail Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Tiffany E.; Heaton, Andy F.; Young, Roy; Baysinger, Mike; Schnell, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Solar sails have the potential to provide mass and cost savings for spacecraft traveling within the innter solar system. Companies like L'Garde have demonstrated sail manufacturability and various i-space development methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a current Mars sample return architecture and to determine how cost and mass would be reduced by incorporating a solar sail propulsion system. The team validated the design proposed by L'Garde, and scaled the design based on a trajectory analysis. Using the solar sail design reduced the required mass, eliminating one of the three launches required in the original architecture.

  20. Reduction of Martian Sample Return Mission Launch Mass with Solar Sail Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Tiffany E.; Heaton, Andrew; Thomas, Scott; Thomas, Dan; Young, Roy; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; hide

    2013-01-01

    Solar sails have the potential to provide mass and cost savings for spacecraft traveling within the inner solar system. Companies like L'Garde have demonstrated sail manufacturability and various in-space deployment methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a current Mars sample return architecture and to determine how cost and mass would be reduced by incorporating a solar sail propulsion system. The team validated the design proposed by L'Garde, and scaled the design based on a trajectory analysis. Using the solar sail design reduced the required mass, eliminating one of the three launches required in the original architecture.

  1. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 1: Orbit/launch vehicle tradeoff studies and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the recommended orbit for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Land Resources Mission. It was determined that a promising sun synchronous orbit is 366 nautical miles when using an instrument with a 100 nautical mile swath width. The orbit has a 17 day repeat cycle and a 14 nautical mile swath overlap. Payloads were developed for each mission, EOS A through F. For each mission, the lowest cost booster that was capable of lifting the payload to the EOS orbit was selected. The launch vehicles selected for the missions are identified on the basis of tradeoff studies and recommendations. The reliability aspects of the launch vehicles are analyzed.

  2. High-End Concept Based on Hypersonic Two-Stage Rocket and Electro-Magnetic Railgun to Launch Micro-Satellites Into Low-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, O.; Longo, J. M.; Giese, P.; Behren, J.

    2005-02-01

    The electromagnetic railgun technology appears to be an interesting alternative to launch small payloads into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), as this may introduce lower launch costs. A high-end solution, based upon present state of the art technology, has been investigated to derive the technical boundary conditions for the application of such a new system. This paper presents the main concept and the design aspects of such propelled projectile with special emphasis on flight mechanics, aero-/thermodynamics, materials and propulsion characteristics. Launch angles and trajectory optimisation analyses are carried out by means of 3 degree of freedom simulations (3DOF). The aerodynamic form of the projectile is optimised to provoke minimum drag and low heat loads. The surface temperature distribution for critical zones is calculated with DLR developed Navier-Stokes codes TAU, HOTSOSE, whereas the engineering tool HF3T is used for time dependent calculations of heat loads and temperatures on project surface and inner structures. Furthermore, competing propulsions systems are considered for the rocket engines of both stages. The structural mass is analysed mostly on the basis of carbon fibre reinforced materials as well as classical aerospace metallic materials. Finally, this paper gives a critical overview of the technical feasibility and cost of small rockets for such missions. Key words: micro-satellite, two-stage-rocket, railgun, rocket-engines, aero/thermodynamic, mass optimization

  3. An Earth-mass planet orbiting α Centauri B.

    PubMed

    Dumusque, Xavier; Pepe, Francesco; Lovis, Christophe; Ségransan, Damien; Sahlmann, Johannes; Benz, Willy; Bouchy, François; Mayor, Michel; Queloz, Didier; Santos, Nuno; Udry, Stéphane

    2012-11-08

    Exoplanets down to the size of Earth have been found, but not in the habitable zone--that is, at a distance from the parent star at which water, if present, would be liquid. There are planets in the habitable zone of stars cooler than our Sun, but for reasons such as tidal locking and strong stellar activity, they are unlikely to harbour water-carbon life as we know it. The detection of a habitable Earth-mass planet orbiting a star similar to our Sun is extremely difficult, because such a signal is overwhelmed by stellar perturbations. Here we report the detection of an Earth-mass planet orbiting our neighbour star α Centauri B, a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun. The planet has an orbital period of 3.236 days and is about 0.04 astronomical units from the star (one astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance).

  4. Low launch-energy trajectories to the outer solar system via Venus and earth gravity-assist flybys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Roger; Belbruno, Edward; Bender, David; Myers, Mark; Stetson, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Recent cancellation of the program to develop a Centaur upper stage for use in the Space Transportation System (STS) has motivated considerable interest in trajectory modes with low launch-energy requirements to the outer solar system. Flyby encounters of the inner planets, especially Venus and earth, may be used to enable missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and a restricted class of comets. An examination of mission opportunities to these targets is presented through the end of this century using gravity-assist trajectories.

  5. The Space Launch System -The Biggest, Most Capable Rocket Ever Built, for Entirely New Human Exploration Missions Beyond Earth's Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, C. Herb

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System -- an advanced heavy-lift launch vehicle that will provide an entirely new capability for human exploration beyond Earth's orbit. The Space Launch System will provide a safe, affordable and sustainable means of reaching beyond our current limits and opening up new discoveries from the unique vantage point of space. The first developmental flight, or mission, is targeted for the end of 2017. The Space Launch System, or SLS, will be designed to carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, as well as important cargo, equipment and science experiments to Earth's orbit and destinations beyond. Additionally, the SLS will serve as a backup for commercial and international partner transportation services to the International Space Station. The SLS rocket will incorporate technological investments from the Space Shuttle Program and the Constellation Program in order to take advantage of proven hardware and cutting-edge tooling and manufacturing technology that will significantly reduce development and operations costs. The rocket will use a liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propulsion system, which will include the RS-25D/E from the Space Shuttle Program for the core stage and the J-2X engine for the upper stage. SLS will also use solid rocket boosters for the initial development flights, while follow-on boosters will be competed based on performance requirements and affordability considerations.

  6. Small Launch Vehicle Trade Space Definition: Development of a Zero Level Mass Estimation Tool with Trajectory Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent high level interest in the capability of small launch vehicles has placed significant demand on determining the trade space these vehicles occupy. This has led to the development of a zero level analysis tool that can quickly determine the minimum expected vehicle gross liftoff weight (GLOW) in terms of vehicle stage specific impulse (Isp) and propellant mass fraction (pmf) for any given payload value. Utilizing an extensive background in Earth to orbit trajectory experience a total necessary delta v the vehicle must achieve can be estimated including relevant loss terms. This foresight into expected losses allows for more specific assumptions relating to the initial estimates of thrust to weight values for each stage. This tool was further validated against a trajectory model, in this case the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), to determine if the initial sizing delta v was adequate to meet payload expectations. Presented here is a description of how the tool is setup and the approach the analyst must take when using the tool. Also, expected outputs which are dependent on the type of small launch vehicle being sized will be displayed. The method of validation will be discussed as well as where the sizing tool fits into the vehicle design process.

  7. Dniper duplicate of launch of the first artificial satellite of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, V. F.; Kavelin, S. S.; Platonov, V. P.

    2009-11-01

    The report opens little-known page of a history of the space technology, connected with launching of the first Soviet satellite. In the USSR practically ready and spare variant of launch by rocket R12 Kosmos of DB Pivdenne was. This development, became a push for a space direction in Dnipropetrovsk. The idea of creation of the satellite launcher on basis of combat missile was extremely fruitful. Terms and the cost of development were essentially reduced and operation of a space rocket complex became simpler. Paper is describing about the unknown events connected to development of rocket R-12 which on March, 16, 1962 has defined the beginning of the Ukrainian space age after launching of satellite "Kosmos" and about M.K. Tihonravov who has proved a reality of launching of the satellite in the USSR. Since October, 14, 1969 satellite launcher 63C1 started to place in orbit the international satellites of series Interkosmos. For 15 years of its operation, 165 launches have been made of them 143 was successful. Spacecraft under the name Kosmos1 placed in orbit became the founder of huge family of the diverse space vehicles of SDB 586 which number has come nearer to figure 400.

  8. Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution Earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Lyle C.; Bailey, M. C.; Harrington, Richard F.; Kendall, Bruce M.; Campbell, Thomas G.

    1994-01-01

    High-spatial-resolution microwave radiometer sensing from space with reasonable swath widths and revisit times favors large aperture systems. However, with traditional precision antenna design, the size and weight requirements for such systems are in conflict with the need to emphasize small launch vehicles. This paper describes tradeoffs between the science requirements, basic operational parameters, and expected sensor performance for selected satellite radiometer concepts utilizing novel lightweight compactly packaged real apertures. Antenna, feed, and radiometer subsystem design and calibration are presented. Preliminary results show that novel lightweight real aperture coupled with state-of-the-art radiometer designs are compatible with small launch systems, and hold promise for high-resolution earth science measurements of sea ice, precipitation, soil moisture, sea surface temperature, and ocean wind speeds.

  9. Mass driver retrievals of earth-approaching asteroids. [earth orbit capture for mining purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleary, B.

    1977-01-01

    Mass driver tugs can be designed to move Apollo and Amor asteroids at opportunities of low velocity increment to the vicinity of the earth. The cost of transferring asteroids through a velocity interval of 3 km/sec by mass driver is about 16 cents per kilogram amortized over 10 years, about ten times less than that required to retrieve lunar resources during the early phases of a program of space manufacturing. About 22 per cent of a 200-meter diameter asteroid could be transferred to high earth orbit by an automated 100 megawatt solar-powered mass driver in a period of five years for a cost of approximately $1 billion. Estimates of the total investment of a space manufacturing program could be reduced twofold by using asteroidal instead of lunar resources; such a program could begin several years sooner with minimal concurrent development if asteroidal search programs and mass driver development are immediately accelerated.

  10. Launching an EarthCube Interoperability Workbench for Constructing Workflows and Employing Service Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulker, D. W.; Pearlman, F.; Pearlman, J.; Arctur, D. K.; Signell, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    A major challenge for geoscientists—and a key motivation for the National Science Foundation's EarchCube initiative—is to integrate data across disciplines, as is necessary for complex Earth-system studies such as climate change. The attendant technical and social complexities have led EarthCube participants to devise a system-of-systems architectural concept. Its centerpiece is a (virtual) interoperability workbench, around which a learning community can coalesce, supported in their evolving quests to join data from diverse sources, to synthesize new forms of data depicting Earth phenomena, and to overcome immense obstacles that arise, for example, from mismatched nomenclatures, projections, mesh geometries and spatial-temporal scales. The full architectural concept will require significant time and resources to implement, but this presentation describes a (minimal) starter kit. With a keep-it-simple mantra this workbench starter kit can fulfill the following four objectives: 1) demonstrate the feasibility of an interoperability workbench by mid-2017; 2) showcase scientifically useful examples of cross-domain interoperability, drawn, e.g., from funded EarthCube projects; 3) highlight selected aspects of EarthCube's architectural concept, such as a system of systems (SoS) linked via service interfaces; 4) demonstrate how workflows can be designed and used in a manner that enables sharing, promotes collaboration and fosters learning. The outcome, despite its simplicity, will embody service interfaces sufficient to construct—from extant components—data-integration and data-synthesis workflows involving multiple geoscience domains. Tentatively, the starter kit will build on the Jupyter Notebook web application, augmented with libraries for interfacing current services (at data centers involved in EarthCube's Council of Data Facilities, e.g.) and services developed specifically for EarthCube and spanning most geoscience domains.

  11. Launch window analysis in a new perspective with examples of departures from Earth to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibodeau, J. R., III; Bond, V. R.

    1972-01-01

    Earth-departure windows are investigated for two round trip stopover missions to Mars. These are the 1981 inbound Venus swingby mission and the 1986 direct minimum-energy mission. The secular effects of planetary oblateness are used to predict the motion of the parking orbit. A procedure is developed for matching the motion of the parking orbit and the escape asymptote. Earth-departure velocity penalties, caused by orbital plane misalinement, are reduced by synchronizing the motion of the parking orbit and the escape trajectory.

  12. Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived?

    PubMed

    Barnosky, Anthony D; Matzke, Nicholas; Tomiya, Susumu; Wogan, Guinevere O U; Swartz, Brian; Quental, Tiago B; Marshall, Charles; McGuire, Jenny L; Lindsey, Emily L; Maguire, Kaitlin C; Mersey, Ben; Ferrer, Elizabeth A

    2011-03-03

    Palaeontologists characterize mass extinctions as times when the Earth loses more than three-quarters of its species in a geologically short interval, as has happened only five times in the past 540 million years or so. Biologists now suggest that a sixth mass extinction may be under way, given the known species losses over the past few centuries and millennia. Here we review how differences between fossil and modern data and the addition of recently available palaeontological information influence our understanding of the current extinction crisis. Our results confirm that current extinction rates are higher than would be expected from the fossil record, highlighting the need for effective conservation measures.

  13. Radio-Loud Coronal Mass Ejections Without Shocks Near Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; SaintCyr, O. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Kaiser, M. L.; Xie, H.; Makela, P.; Akiyama, S.

    2010-01-01

    Type II radio bursts are produced by low energy electrons accelerated in shocks driven by corona) mass ejections (CMEs). One can infer shocks near the Sun, in the Interplanetary medium, and near Earth depending on the wavelength range in which the type II bursts are produced. In fact, type II bursts are good indicators of CMEs that produce solar energetic particles. If the type 11 burst occurs from a source on the Earth-facing side of the solar disk, it is highly likely that a shock arrives at Earth in 2-3 days and hence can be used to predict shock arrival at Earth. However, a significant fraction of CMEs producing type II bursts were not associated shocks at Earth, even though the CMEs originated close to the disk center. There are several reasons for the lack of shock at 1 AU. CMEs originating at large central meridian distances (CMDs) may be driving a shock, but the shock may not be extended sufficiently to reach to the Sun-Earth line. Another possibility is CME cannibalism because of which shocks merge and one observes a single shock at Earth. Finally, the CME-driven shock may become weak and dissipate before reaching 1 AU. We examined a set of 30 type II bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES experiment that had the solar sources very close to the disk center (within a CMD of 15 degrees), but did not have shock at Earth. We find that the near-Sun speeds of the associated CMEs average to approx.600 km/s, only slightly higher than the average speed of CMEs associated with radio-quiet shocks. However, the fraction of halo CMEs is only approx.28%, compared to 40% for radio-quiet shocks and 72% for all radio-loud shocks. We conclude that the disk-center radio loud CMEs with no shocks at 1 AU are generally of lower energy and they drive shocks only close to the Sun.

  14. Antares Rocket Test Launch

    2013-04-21

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver talks with CEO and President of Orbital Sciences Corporation David Thompson, left, Executive Vice President and Chief Technical Officer, Orbital Sciences Corporation Antonio Elias, second from left, and Executive Director, Va. Commercial Space Flight Authority Dale Nash, background, in the Range Control Center at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility after the successful launch of the Orbital Sciences Antares rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport (MARS) in Virginia, Sunday, April 21, 2013. The test launch marked the first flight of Antares and the first rocket launch from Pad-0A. The Antares rocket delivered the equivalent mass of a spacecraft, a so-called mass simulated payload, into Earth's orbit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Microlensing Discovery of an Earth-Mass Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    What do we know about planet formation around stars that are so light that they cant fuse hydrogen in their cores? The new discovery of an Earth-mass planet orbiting what is likely a brown dwarf may help us better understand this process.Planets Around Brown Dwarfs?Comparison of the sizes of the Sun, a low-mass star, a brown dwarf, Jupiter, and Earth. [NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCB]Planets are thought to form from the material inprotoplanetary disks around their stellar hosts. But the lowest-mass end of the stellar spectrum brown dwarfs, substellar objects so light that they straddle the boundary between planet and star will have correspondingly light disks. Do brown dwarfs disks typically have enough mass to form Earth-mass planets?To answer this question, scientists have searched for planets around brown dwarfs with marginal success. Thus far, only four such planets have been found and these systems may not be typical, since they were discovered via direct imaging. To build a more representative sample, wed like to discover exoplanets around brown dwarfs via a method that doesnt rely on imaging the faint light of the system.A diagram of how planets are detected via gravitational microlensing. The detectable planet is in orbit around the foreground lens star. [NASA]Lensed Light as a GiveawayConveniently, such a method exists and its recently been used to make a major discovery! The planet OGLE-2016-BLG-1195Lb was detected as a result of a gravitational microlensing event that was observed both from the ground and from space.The discovery of a planet via microlensing occurs when the light of a distant source star is magnified by a passing foreground star hosting a planet. The light curve of the source shows a distinctive magnification signature as a result of the gravitational lensing from the foreground star, and the gravitational field of the lensing stars planet can add its own detectable blip to the curve.OGLE-2016-BLG-1195LbThe magnification curve of OGLE-2016-BLG-1195

  16. Rho-Isp Revisited and Basic Stage Mass Estimating for Launch Vehicle Conceptual Sizing Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibbey, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    The ideal rocket equation is manipulated to demonstrate the essential link between propellant density and specific impulse as the two primary stage performance drivers for a launch vehicle. This is illustrated by examining volume-limited stages such as first stages and boosters. This proves to be a good approximation for first-order or Phase A vehicle design studies for solid rocket motors and for liquid stages, except when comparing to hydrogen-fueled stages. A next-order mass model is developed that is able to model the mass differences between hydrogen-fueled and other stages. Propellants considered range in density from liquid methane to inhibited red fuming nitric acid. Calculated comparisons are shown for solid rocket boosters, liquid first stages, liquid upper stages, and a balloon-deployed single-stage-to-orbit concept. The derived relationships are ripe for inclusion in a multi-stage design space exploration and optimization algorithm, as well as for single-parameter comparisons such as those shown herein.

  17. Comparative Earth history and Late Permian mass extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Bambach, R. K.; Canfield, D. E.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    The repeated association during the late Neoproterozoic Era of large carbon-isotopic excursions, continental glaciation, and stratigraphically anomalous carbonate precipitation provides a framework for interpreting the reprise of these conditions on the Late Permian Earth. A paleoceanographic model that was developed to explain these stratigraphically linked phenomena suggests that the overturn of anoxic deep oceans during the Late Permian introduced high concentrations of carbon dioxide into surficial environments. The predicted physiological and climatic consequences for marine and terrestrial organisms are in good accord with the observed timing and selectivity of Late Permian mass extinction.

  18. Earth Structure, Ice Mass Changes, and the Local Dynamic Geoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harig, C.; Simons, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Spherical Slepian localization functions are a useful method for studying regional mass changes observed by satellite gravimetry. By projecting data onto a sparse basis set, the local field can be estimated more easily than with the full spherical harmonic basis. We have used this method previously to estimate the ice mass change in Greenland from GRACE data, and it can also be applied to other planetary problems such as global magnetic fields. Earth's static geoid, in contrast to the time-variable field, is in large part related to the internal density and rheological structure of the Earth. Past studies have used dynamic geoid kernels to relate this density structure and the internal deformation it induces to the surface geopotential at large scales. These now classical studies of the eighties and nineties were able to estimate the mantle's radial rheological profile, placing constraints on the ratio between upper and lower mantle viscosity. By combining these two methods, spherical Slepian localization and dynamic geoid kernels, we have created local dynamic geoid kernels which are sensitive only to density variations within an area of interest. With these kernels we can estimate the approximate local radial rheological structure that best explains the locally observed geoid on a regional basis. First-order differences of the regional mantle viscosity structure are accessible to this technique. In this contribution we present our latest, as yet unpublished results on the geographical and temporal pattern of ice mass changes in Antarctica over the past decade, and we introduce a new approach to extract regional information about the internal structure of the Earth from the static global gravity field. Both sets of results are linked in terms of the relevant physics, but also in being developed from the marriage of Slepian functions and geoid kernels. We make predictions on the utility of our approach to derive fully three-dimensional rheological Earth models, to

  19. Planetary Protection Progress of Hayabusa2 and Its Piggyback PROCYON: Launch, Earth Swingby and Outbound Cruising Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Sarli, Bruno; Ozaki, Naoya; Funase, Ryu; Tsuda, Yuichi; Chujo, Toshihiro; Ariu, Kaito

    2016-07-01

    Hayabusa-2 is Japan's second asteroid sample return mission which was successfully launched into the planned Earth departure trajectory with the H-IIA rocket on December 3rd, 2014, together with a group of its interplanetary piggyback micro- spacecraft, including the PROCYON(Proximate Object Close flYby with Optical Navigation)spacecraft, the world's first 50 kg-class deep space micro-spacecraft developed by the University of Tokyo and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The Hayabusa-2 spacecraft will go to Rug, a C-type NEO, and attempt surface investigations with daughter rovers (MINERVA-II series and MASCOT), artificial impact cratering experiment (SCI) and both surface and sub-surface sampling (Sampler) in 2018-2019 and plans to return to the Earth in December 2020. The PROCYON mission objective was to demonstrate a micro-spacecraft bus technology for deep space exploration and proximity flyby to asteroids performing optical measurements. Both of the above missions were fully evaluated by the COSPAR Planetary Protection Panel at the dedicated COSPAR colloquium and scientific assembly in 2014 and the COSPAR PPP has endorsed the Category-2 for their outbound trajectories and the non-restricted Earth return for the inbound trajectory of Hayabusa-2. As a part of the fulfillments of the Category-2 classification, both spacecraft must be compliant with the COSPAR PPP requirements of non-impact probability to Mars since they would have enough energy to reach and beyond the orbit of Mars, due to the Earth swing-by and ion engine operations for their outbound cruising. As for the Hayabusa-2 spacecraft, it successfully performed its Earth gravity assist in December 2015, resulting on accurate orbit determination for the post-swing-by orbit to be ready to restart the ion engine operation. Thus the non-impact probability to Mars did not change from the estimate given by Chujo, et al. (2015). As for the PROCYON spacecraft after the completion of the bus system

  20. Orion Launch

    2014-12-05

    A Delta IV Heavy rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida carrying NASA's Orion spacecraft on an unpiloted flight test to Earth orbit. Liftoff was at 7:05 a.m. EST. During the two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, engineers will evaluate the systems critical to crew safety, the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system.

  1. Discovery and Mass Measurements of a Cold, 10-Earth Mass Planet and Its Host Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Richard K.; Muraki, Y.; Han, C.; Bennett, D. P.; Gaudi, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery and mass measurement of the cold, low-mass planet MOA-2009-BLG-266Lb, made with the gravitational microlensing method. This planet has a mass of mp = 10.4 +/- M(Earth) and orbits a star of Mstar = 0.56 +/- 0.09 M(Sun) at a semi-major axis of a = 3.2 + 1.9/-0.5 AU, and an orbital period of 7.6 +7.7/-1.5 yrs. The planet and host star mass measurements are due to the measurement of the microlensing parallax effect. This measurement was primarily due to the orbital motion of the Earth, but the analysis also demonstrates the capability measure micro lensing parallax with the Deep Impact (or EPOXI) spacecraft in a Heliocentric orbit. The planet mass and orbital distance are similar to predictions for the critical core mass needed to accrete a substantial gaseous envelope, and thus may indicate that this planet is a failed gas giant. This and future microlensing detections will test planet formation theory predictions regarding the prevalence and masses of such planets

  2. Launch Preparation and Rocket Launching

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-23

    which do not exceed several hundred kilometers. In the USA MBR and heavy rocket carriers to distant distances are transported predominantly on air or...Balloon for transportation of MBR "Minuteman" (drawing): - balloon; 2 - rocket. DOC = 91032701 PAGE 34 Page 20. Thus, for the protection from the axial g...launching is suitable for rockets, launched from surface of the earth (water), or from silo (submarine in submerged state). The selection of

  3. Earth System Data Records of Mass Transport from Time-Variable Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlotnicki, V.; Talpe, M.; Nerem, R. S.; Landerer, F. W.; Watkins, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite measurements of time variable gravity have revolutionized the study of Earth, by measuring the ice losses of Greenland, Antarctica and land glaciers, changes in groundwater including unsustainable losses due to extraction of groundwater, the mass and currents of the oceans and their redistribution during El Niño events, among other findings. Satellite measurements of gravity have been made primarily by four techniques: satellite tracking from land stations using either lasers or Doppler radio systems, satellite positioning by GNSS/GPS, satellite to satellite tracking over distances of a few hundred km using microwaves, and through a gravity gradiometer (radar altimeters also measure the gravity field, but over the oceans only). We discuss the challenges in the measurement of gravity by different instruments, especially time-variable gravity. A special concern is how to bridge a possible gap in time between the end of life of the current GRACE satellite pair, launched in 2002, and a future GRACE Follow-On pair to be launched in 2017. One challenge in combining data from different measurement systems consists of their different spatial and temporal resolutions and the different ways in which they alias short time scale signals. Typically satellite measurements of gravity are expressed in spherical harmonic coefficients (although expansions in terms of 'mascons', the masses of small spherical caps, has certain advantages). Taking advantage of correlations among spherical harmonic coefficients described by empirical orthogonal functions and derived from GRACE data it is possible to localize the otherwise coarse spatial resolution of the laser and Doppler derived gravity models. This presentation discusses the issues facing a climate data record of time variable mass flux using these different data sources, including its validation.

  4. Earth

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  5. Electromagnetic launch of lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, William R.; Kolm, Henry H.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar soil can become a source of relatively inexpensive oxygen propellant for vehicles going from low Earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and beyond. This lunar oxygen could replace the oxygen propellant that, in current plans for these missions, is launched from the Earth's surface and amounts to approximately 75 percent of the total mass. The reason for considering the use of oxygen produced on the Moon is that the cost for the energy needed to transport things from the lunar surface to LEO is approximately 5 percent the cost from the surface of the Earth to LEO. Electromagnetic launchers, in particular the superconducting quenchgun, provide a method of getting this lunar oxygen off the lunar surface at minimal cost. This cost savings comes from the fact that the superconducting quenchgun gets its launch energy from locally supplied, solar- or nuclear-generated electrical power. We present a preliminary design to show the main features and components of a lunar-based superconducting quenchgun for use in launching 1-ton containers of liquid oxygen, one every 2 hours. At this rate, nearly 4400 tons of liquid oxygen would be launched into low lunar orbit in a year.

  6. Launch Summary for 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Spacecraft launching for 1979 are identified and listed under the categories of (1) sounding rockets, and (2) artificial Earth satellites and space probes. The sounding rockets section includes a listing of the experiments, index of launch sites and tables of the meanings and codes used in the launch listing.

  7. A Method for Incorporating Changing Structural Characteristics Due to Propellant Mass Usage in a Launch Vehicle Ascent Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGhee, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    Launch vehicles consume large quantities of propellant quickly, causing the mass properties and structural dynamics of the vehicle to change dramatically. Currently, structural load assessments account for this change with a large collection of structural models representing various propellant fill levels. This creates a large database of models complicating the delivery of reduced models and requiring extensive work for model changes. Presented here is a method to account for these mass changes in a more efficient manner. The method allows for the subtraction of propellant mass as the propellant is used in the simulation. This subtraction is done in the modal domain of the vehicle generalized model. Additional computation required is primarily for constructing the used propellant mass matrix from an initial propellant model and further matrix multiplications and subtractions. An additional eigenvalue solution is required to uncouple the new equations of motion; however, this is a much simplier calculation starting from a system that is already substantially uncoupled. The method was successfully tested in a simulation of Saturn V loads. Results from the method are compared to results from separate structural models for several propellant levels, showing excellent agreement. Further development to encompass more complicated propellant models, including slosh dynamics, is possible.

  8. Observational Signatures of Mass-loading in Jets Launched by Rotating Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O’ Riordan, Michael; Pe’er, Asaf; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2018-01-01

    It is widely believed that relativistic jets in X-ray binaries (XRBs) and active-galactic nuclei are powered by the rotational energy of black holes. This idea is supported by general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of accreting black holes, which demonstrate efficient energy extraction via the Blandford–Znajek mechanism. However, due to uncertainties in the physics of mass loading, and the failure of GRMHD numerical schemes in the highly magnetized funnel region, the matter content of the jet remains poorly constrained. We investigate the observational signatures of mass loading in the funnel by performing general-relativistic radiative transfer calculations on a range of 3D GRMHD simulations of accreting black holes. We find significant observational differences between cases in which the funnel is empty and cases where the funnel is filled with plasma, particularly in the optical and X-ray bands. In the context of Sgr A*, current spectral data constrains the jet filling only if the black hole is rapidly rotating with a ≳ 0.9. In this case, the limits on the infrared flux disfavor a strong contribution from material in the funnel. We comment on the implications of our models for interpreting future Event Horizon Telescope observations. We also scale our models to stellar-mass black holes, and discuss their applicability to the low-luminosity state in XRBs.

  9. Solar Torque Management for the Near Earth Asteroid Scout CubeSat Using Center of Mass Position Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orphee, Juan; Heaton, Andrew; Diedrich, Ben; Stiltner, Brandon C.

    2018-01-01

    A novel mechanism, the Active Mass Translator (AMT), has been developed for the NASA Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission to autonomously manage the spacecraft momentum. The NEA Scout CubeSat will launch as a secondary payload onboard Exploration Mission 1 of the Space Launch System. To accomplish its mission, the CubeSat will be propelled by an 86 square-meter solar sail during its two-year journey to reach asteroid 1991VG. NEA Scout's primary attitude control system uses reaction wheels for holding attitude and performing slew maneuvers, while a cold gas reaction control system performs the initial detumble and early trajectory correction maneuvers. The AMT control system requirements, feedback architecture, and control performance will be presented. The AMT reduces the amount of reaction control propellant needed for momentum management and allows for smaller capacity reaction wheels suitable for the limited 6U spacecraft volume. The reduced spacecraft mass allows higher in-space solar sail acceleration, thus reducing time-of-flight. The reduced time-of-flight opens the range of possible missions, which is limited by the lifetime of typical non-radiation tolerant CubeSat avionics exposed to the deep-space environment.

  10. Who launched what, when and why; trends in global land-cover observation capacity from civilian earth observation satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belward, Alan S.; Skøien, Jon O.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a compendium of satellites under civilian and/or commercial control with the potential to gather global land-cover observations. From this we show that a growing number of sovereign states are acquiring capacity for space based land-cover observations and show how geopolitical patterns of ownership are changing. We discuss how the number of satellites flying at any time has progressed as a function of increased launch rates and mission longevity, and how the spatial resolutions of the data they collect has evolved. The first such satellite was launched by the USA in 1972. Since then government and/or private entities in 33 other sovereign states and geopolitical groups have chosen to finance such missions and 197 individual satellites with a global land-cover observing capacity have been successfully launched. Of these 98 were still operating at the end of 2013. Since the 1970s the number of such missions failing within 3 years of launch has dropped from around 60% to less than 20%, the average operational life of a mission has almost tripled, increasing from 3.3 years in the 1970s to 8.6 years (and still lengthening), the average number of satellites launched per-year/per-decade has increased from 2 to 12 and spatial resolution increased from around 80 m to less than 1 m multispectral and less than half a meter for panchromatic; synthetic aperture radar resolution has also fallen, from 25 m in the 1970s to 1 m post 2007. More people in more countries have access to data from global land-cover observing spaceborne missions at a greater range of spatial resolutions than ever before. We provide a compendium of such missions, analyze the changes and shows how innovation, the need for secure data-supply, national pride, falling costs and technological advances may underpin the trends we document.

  11. An algorithm on simultaneous optimization of performance and mass parameters of open-cycle liquid-propellant engine of launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari, M. A.; Mazraeshahi, H. K.; Ramesh, D.; Montazer, E.; Salami, E.; Romli, F. I.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new method for the determination of optimum parameters of open-cycle liquid-propellant engine of launch vehicles is introduced. The parameters affecting the objective function, which is the ratio of specific impulse to gross mass of the launch vehicle, are chosen to achieve maximum specific impulse as well as minimum mass for the structure of engine, tanks, etc. The proposed algorithm uses constant integration of thrust with respect to time for launch vehicle with specific diameter and length to calculate the optimum working condition. The results by this novel algorithm are compared to those obtained from using Genetic Algorithm method and they are also validated against the results of existing launch vehicle.

  12. HABITABILITY OF EARTH-MASS PLANETS AND MOONS IN THE KEPLER-16 SYSTEM

    SciT

    Quarles, B.; Musielak, Z. E.; Cuntz, M., E-mail: billyq@uta.edu, E-mail: zmusielak@uta.edu, E-mail: cuntz@uta.edu

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrate that habitable Earth-mass planets and moons can exist in the Kepler-16 system, known to host a Saturn-mass planet around a stellar binary, by investigating their orbital stability in the standard and extended habitable zone (HZ). We find that Earth-mass planets in satellite-like (S-type) orbits are possible within the standard HZ in direct vicinity of Kepler-16b, thus constituting habitable exomoons. However, Earth-mass planets cannot exist in planetary-like (P-type) orbits around the two stellar components within the standard HZ. Yet, P-type Earth-mass planets can exist superior to the Saturnian planet in the extended HZ pertaining to considerably enhanced back-warming inmore » the planetary atmosphere if facilitated. We briefly discuss the potential detectability of such habitable Earth-mass moons and planets positioned in satellite and planetary orbits, respectively. The range of inferior and superior P-type orbits in the HZ is between 0.657-0.71 AU and 0.95-1.02 AU, respectively.« less

  13. Launch summary for 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Sounding rockets, artificial Earth satellites, and space probes launched betweeen January 1 and December 31, 1980 are listed. Data tabulated for the rocket launchings show launching site, instruments carried, date of launch, agency rocket identification, sponsoring country, experiment discipline, peak altitude, and the experimenter or institution responsible. Tables for satellites and space probes show COSPAR designation, spacecraft name, country, launch date, epoch date, orbit type, apoapsis, periapsis and inclination period. The functions and responsibilities of the World Data Center and the areas of scientific interest at the seven subcenters are defined. An alphabetical listing of experimenters using the sounding rockets is also provided.

  14. Mass Redistribution in the Core and Time-varying Gravity at the Earth's Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Wei-Jia; Chao, Benjamin F.; Fang, Ming

    2003-01-01

    The Earth's liquid outer core is in convection, as suggested by the existence of the geomagnetic field in much of the Earth's history. One consequence of the convection is the redistribution of mass resulting from relative motion among fluid parcels with slightly different densities. This time dependent mass redistribution inside the core produces a small perturbation on the gravity field of the Earth. With our numerical dynamo solutions, we find that the mass redistribution (and the resultant gravity field) symmetric about the equator is much stronger than that anti-symmetric about the equator. In particular, J(sub 2) component is the strongest. In addition, the gravity field variation increases with the Rayleigh number that measures the driving force for the geodynamo in the core. With reasonable scaling from the current dynamo solutions, we could expect that at the surface of the Earth, the J(sub 2) variation from the core is on the order of l0(exp -16)/year relative to the mean (i.e. spherically symmetric) gravity field of the Earth. The possible shielding effect due to core-mantle boundary pressure variation loading is likely much smaller and is therefore negligible. Our results suggest that time-varying gravity field perturbation due to core mass redistribution may be measured with modem space geodetic observations, which will result a new means of detecting dynamical processes in the Earth's deep interior.

  15. Earth Science

    1992-07-18

    Workers at Launch Complex 17 Pad A, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) encapsulate the Geomagnetic Tail (GEOTAIL) spacecraft (upper) and attached payload Assist Module-D upper stage (lower) in the protective payload fairing. GEOTAIL project was designed to study the effects of Earth's magnetic field. The solar wind draws the Earth's magnetic field into a long tail on the night side of the Earth and stores energy in the stretched field lines of the magnetotail. During active periods, the tail couples with the near-Earth magnetosphere, sometimes releasing energy stored in the tail and activating auroras in the polar ionosphere. GEOTAIL measures the flow of energy and its transformation in the magnetotail and will help clarify the mechanisms that control the imput, transport, storage, release, and conversion of mass, momentum, and energy in the magnetotail.

  16. Estimating How Often Mass Extinctions Due to Impacts Occur on the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.

    2013-01-01

    This hands-on, inquiry based activity has been taught at JPL's summer workshop "Teachers Touch the Sky" for the past two decades. Students act as mini-investigators as they gather and analyze data to estimate how often an impact large enough to cause a mass extinction occurs on the Earth. Large craters are counted on the Moon, and this number is extrapolated to the size of the Earth. Given the age of the Solar System, the students can then estimate how often large impacts occur on the Earth. This activity is based on an idea by Dr. David Morrison, NASA Ames Research Center.

  17. RWPV bioreactor mass transport: earth-based and in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Begley, Cynthia M; Kleis, Stanley J

    2002-11-20

    Mass transport and mixing of perfused scalar quantities in the NASA Rotating Wall Perfused Vessel bioreactor are studied using numerical models of the flow field and scalar concentration field. Operating conditions typical of both microgravity and ground-based cell cultures are studied to determine the expected vessel performance for both flight and ground-based control experiments. Results are presented for the transport of oxygen with cell densities and consumption rates typical of colon cancer cells cultured in the RWPV. The transport and mixing characteristics are first investigated with a step change in the perfusion inlet concentration by computing the time histories of the time to exceed 10% inlet concentration. The effects of a uniform cell utilization rate are then investigated with time histories of the outlet concentration, volume average concentration, and volume fraction starved. It is found that the operating conditions used in microgravity produce results that are quite different then those for ground-based conditions. Mixing times for microgravity conditions are significantly shorter than those for ground-based operation. Increasing the differential rotation rates (microgravity) increases the mixing and transport, while increasing the mean rotation rate (ground-based) suppresses both. Increasing perfusion rates enhances mass transport for both microgravity and ground-based cases, however, for the present range of operating conditions, above 5-10 cc/min there are diminishing returns as much of the inlet fluid is transported directly to the perfusion exit. The results show that exit concentration is not a good indicator of the concentration distributions in the vessel. In microgravity conditions, the NASA RWPV bioreactor with the viscous pump has been shown to provide an environment that is well mixed. Even when operated near the theoretical minimum perfusion rates, only a small fraction of the volume provides less than the required oxygen levels

  18. RWPV bioreactor mass transport: earth-based and in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begley, Cynthia M.; Kleis, Stanley J.

    2002-01-01

    Mass transport and mixing of perfused scalar quantities in the NASA Rotating Wall Perfused Vessel bioreactor are studied using numerical models of the flow field and scalar concentration field. Operating conditions typical of both microgravity and ground-based cell cultures are studied to determine the expected vessel performance for both flight and ground-based control experiments. Results are presented for the transport of oxygen with cell densities and consumption rates typical of colon cancer cells cultured in the RWPV. The transport and mixing characteristics are first investigated with a step change in the perfusion inlet concentration by computing the time histories of the time to exceed 10% inlet concentration. The effects of a uniform cell utilization rate are then investigated with time histories of the outlet concentration, volume average concentration, and volume fraction starved. It is found that the operating conditions used in microgravity produce results that are quite different then those for ground-based conditions. Mixing times for microgravity conditions are significantly shorter than those for ground-based operation. Increasing the differential rotation rates (microgravity) increases the mixing and transport, while increasing the mean rotation rate (ground-based) suppresses both. Increasing perfusion rates enhances mass transport for both microgravity and ground-based cases, however, for the present range of operating conditions, above 5-10 cc/min there are diminishing returns as much of the inlet fluid is transported directly to the perfusion exit. The results show that exit concentration is not a good indicator of the concentration distributions in the vessel. In microgravity conditions, the NASA RWPV bioreactor with the viscous pump has been shown to provide an environment that is well mixed. Even when operated near the theoretical minimum perfusion rates, only a small fraction of the volume provides less than the required oxygen levels

  19. Minuteman 2 launched small satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Sunny; Hinders, Kriss; Martin, Trent; Mcmillian, Shandy; Sharp, Brad; Vajdos, Greg

    1994-01-01

    The goal of LEOSat Industries' Spring 1994 project was to design a small satellite that has a strong technology demonstration or scientific justification and incorporates a high level of student involvement. The satellite is to be launched into low earth orbit by the converted Minuteman 2 satellite launcher designed by Minotaur Designs, Inc. in 1993. The launch vehicle shroud was modified to a height of 90 inches, a diameter of 48 inches at the bottom and 35 inches at the top for a total volume of 85 cubic feet. The maximum allowable mass of the payload is about 1100 lb., depending on the launch site, orbit altitude, and inclination. The satellite designed by LEOSat Industries is TerraSat, a remote-sensing satellite that will provide information for use in space-based earth studies. It will consist of infrared and ultraviolet/visible sensors similar to the SDI-developed sensors being tested on Clementine. The sensors will be mounted on the Defense Systems, Inc. Standard Satellite-1 spacecraft bus. LEOSat has planned for two satellites orbiting the Earth with trajectories similar to that of LANDSAT 5. The semi-major axis is 7080 kilometers, the eccentricity is 0, and the inclination is 98.2 degrees. The estimated mass of TerraSat is 145 kilograms and the estimated volume is 1.8 cubic meters. The estimated cost of TerraSat is $13.7 million. The projected length of time from assembly of the sensors to launch of the spacecraft is 13 months.

  20. Conversion of time-varying Stokes coefficients into mass anomalies at the Earth's surface considering the Earth's oblateness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditmar, Pavel

    2018-02-01

    Time-varying Stokes coefficients estimated from GRACE satellite data are routinely converted into mass anomalies at the Earth's surface with the expression proposed for that purpose by Wahr et al. (J Geophys Res 103(B12):30,205-30,229, 1998). However, the results obtained with it represent mass transport at the spherical surface of 6378 km radius. We show that the accuracy of such conversion may be insufficient, especially if the target area is located in a polar region and the signal-to-noise ratio is high. For instance, the peak values of mean linear trends in 2003-2015 estimated over Greenland and Amundsen Sea embayment of West Antarctica may be underestimated in this way by about 15%. As a solution, we propose an updated expression for the conversion of Stokes coefficients into mass anomalies. This expression is based on the assumptions that: (i) mass transport takes place at the reference ellipsoid and (ii) at each point of interest, the ellipsoidal surface is approximated by the sphere with a radius equal to the current radial distance from the Earth's center ("locally spherical approximation"). The updated expression is nearly as simple as the traditionally used one but reduces the inaccuracies of the conversion procedure by an order of magnitude. In addition, we remind the reader that the conversion expressions are defined in spherical (geocentric) coordinates. We demonstrate that the difference between mass anomalies computed in spherical and ellipsoidal (geodetic) coordinates may not be negligible, so that a conversion of geodetic colatitudes into geocentric ones should not be omitted.

  1. Launching and Undergraduate Earth System Science Curriculum with a Focus on Global Sustainability: the Loma Linda University Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, R. E.; Dunbar, S. G.; Soret, S.; Wiafe, S.; Gonzalez, D.; Rossi, T.

    2004-12-01

    The vision of the School of Science and Technology (SST) at Loma Linda University (LLU) is to develop an interdisciplinary approach to doing science that bridges the social, biological, earth, and health sciences. It will provide opportunities for undergraduate, graduate, and professional students to apply new tools and concepts to the promotion of global service and citizenship while addressing issues of global poverty, health and disease, environmental degradation, poverty, and social inequality. A primary teaching strategy will be to involve students with faculty in applied field social and science policy research on "global sustainability" issues and problems in real places such as Fiji, Jamaica, Honduras, Bahamas, East Africa, and the US southwest (Great Basin, Salton Sea, coastal California, southern Utah). Recently we became a partner in the NASA/USRA ESSE21 Project (Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century). We bring to that consortium strengths and experience in areas such as social policy, sustainable development, medicine, environmental health, disaster mitigation, humanitarian relief, geoinformatics and bioinformatics. This can benefit ESSE21, the NASA Earth Enterprise Mission, and the wider geosciences education community by demonstrating the relevance of such tools, and methods outside the geosciences. Many of the graduate and undergraduate students who will participate in the new program come from around the world while many others represent underserved populations in the United States. The PI and Co-PIs have strong global as well as domestic experience serving underrepresented communities, e.g. Seth Wiafe from Ghana, Sam Soret from Spain, Stephen Dunbar from the South Pacific, and Robert Ford from Latin America and Africa. Our partnership in implementation will include other institutions such as: La Sierra University, the California State University, Pomona, Center for Geographic Information Science Research, ESRI, Inc., the University of

  2. Observing Coronal Mass Ejections from the Sun-Earth L5 Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Davila, J. M.; St Cyr, O. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomenon in the heliosphere and are known to be responsible for severe space weather. Most of the current knowledge on CMEs accumulated over the past few decades has been derived from observations made from the Sun-Earth line, which is not the ideal vantage point to observe Earth-affecting CMEs (Gopalswamy et al., 2011a,b). The STEREO mission viewed CMEs from points away from the Sun-Earth line and demonstrated the importance of such observations in understanding the three-dimensional structure of CMEs and their true kinematics. In this paper, we show that it is advantageous to observe CMEs from the Sun-Earth L5 point in studying CMEs that affect Earth. In particular, these observations are important in identifying that part of the CME that is likely to arrive at Earth. L5 observations are critical for several aspects of CME studies such as: (i) they can also provide near-Sun space speed of CMEs, which is an important input for modeling Earth-arriving CMEs, (ii) backside and frontside CMEs can be readily distinguished even without inner coronal imagers, and (iii) preceding CMEs in the path of Earth-affecting CMEs can be identified for a better estimate of the travel time, which may not be possible from the Sun-Earth line. We also discuss how the L5 vantage point compares with the Sun-Earth L4 point for observing Earth-affecting CMEs. References Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., St. Cyr, O. C., Sittler, E. C., Auchère, F., Duvall, T. L., Hoeksema, J. T., Maksimovic, M., MacDowall, R. J., Szabo, A., Collier, M. R. (2011a), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5 JASTP 73, 658-663, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013 Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., Auchère, F., Schou, J., Korendyke, C. M. Shih, A., Johnston, J. C., MacDowall, R. J., Maksimovic, M., Sittler, E., et al. (2011b), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): a mission at

  3. The mass of the super-Earth orbiting the brightest Kepler planet hosting star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; HARPS-N Team

    2016-01-01

    HD 179070, aka Kepler-21, is a V = 8.25 oscillating F6IV star and the brightest exoplanet host discovered by Kepler. An early analysis of the Q0 - Q5 Kepler light curves by Howell et al. (2012) revealed transits of a planetary companion, Kepler-21b, with a radius of 1.6 R_Earth and an orbital period of 2.7857 days. However, they could not determine the mass of the planet from the initial radial velocity observations with Keck-HIRES, and were only able to impose a 2s upper limit of about 10 M_Earth. Here we present 82 new radial velocity observations of this system obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph. We detect the Doppler shift signal of Kepler-21b at the 3.6s level, and measure a planetary mass of 5.9 ± 1.6 M_Earth. We also update the radius of the planet to 1.65 ± 0.08 R_Earth, using the now available Kepler Q0 - Q17 photometry for this target. The mass of Kepler-21b appears to fall on the apparent dividing line between super-Earths that have lost all the material in their outer layers and those that have retained a significant amount of volatiles. Based on our results Kepler-21b belongs to the first group. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by funding from the NASA XRP Program and the John Templeton Foundation.

  4. NanoLaunch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Harris, Lawanna

    2015-01-01

    NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both Earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low-Earth orbit for CubeSat-class payloads. The project will also serve as an early career personnel training opportunity with mentors to gain hands-on project experience.

  5. Ground-based Search of Earth-mass Exoplanets using Transit-Timing Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, J. M.

    2010-10-01

    This work presents recent results from a ground-based transit follow-up program of the extrasolar planet XO-2b in order to find Earth-mass companions. It also introduces the future use of the MONET 1m-class robotic telescopes as part of the effort to overcome the difficulties of this kind of project.

  6. EVOLUTIONARY MODELS OF SUPER-EARTHS AND MINI-NEPTUNES INCORPORATING COOLING AND MASS LOSS

    SciT

    Howe, Alex R.; Burrows, Adam, E-mail: arhowe@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu

    We construct models of the structural evolution of super-Earth- and mini-Neptune-type exoplanets with H{sub 2}–He envelopes, incorporating radiative cooling and XUV-driven mass loss. We conduct a parameter study of these models, focusing on initial mass, radius, and envelope mass fractions, as well as orbital distance, metallicity, and the specific prescription for mass loss. From these calculations, we investigate how the observed masses and radii of exoplanets today relate to the distribution of their initial conditions. Orbital distance and the initial envelope mass fraction are the most important factors determining planetary evolution, particularly radius evolution. Initial mass also becomes important belowmore » a “turnoff mass,” which varies with orbital distance, with mass–radius curves being approximately flat for higher masses. Initial radius is the least important parameter we study, with very little difference between the hot start and cold start limits after an age of 100 Myr. Model sets with no mass loss fail to produce results consistent with observations, but a plausible range of mass-loss scenarios is allowed. In addition, we present scenarios for the formation of the Kepler-11 planets. Our best fit to observations of Kepler-11b and Kepler-11c involves formation beyond the snow line, after which they moved inward, circularized, and underwent a reduced degree of mass loss.« less

  7. Earth's biggest 'whodunnit': unravelling the clues in the case of the end-Permian mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Rosalind V.

    2002-12-01

    The mass extinction that occurred at the end of the Permian period, 250 million years ago, was the most devastating loss of life that Earth has ever experienced. It is estimated that ca.96% of marine species were wiped out and land plants, reptiles, amphibians and insects also suffered. The causes of this catastrophic event are currently a topic of intense debate. The geological record points to significant environmental disturbances, for example, global warming and stagnation of ocean water. A key issue is whether the Earth's feedback mechanisms can become unstable on their own, or whether some forcing is required to precipitate a catastrophe of this magnitude. A prime suspect for pushing Earth's systems into a critical condition is massive end-Permian Siberian volcanism, which would have pumped large quantities of carbon dioxide and toxic gases into the atmosphere. Recently, it has been postulated that Earth was also the victim of a bolide impact at this time. If further research substantiates this claim, it raises some intriguing questions. The Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, 65 million years ago, was contemporaneous with both an impact and massive volcanism. Are both types of calamity necessary to drive Earth to the brink of faunal cataclysm? We do not presently have enough pieces of the jigsaw to solve the mystery of the end-Permian extinction, but the forensic work continues.

  8. Launch vehicle selection model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Alex J.

    1990-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, humans will be heading for the Moon and Mars to build scientific bases to gain further knowledge about the universe and to develop rewarding space activities. These large scale projects will last many years and will require large amounts of mass to be delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It will take a great deal of planning to complete these missions in an efficient manner. The planning of a future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will significantly impact the overall multi-year launching cost for the vehicle fleet depending upon when the HLLV will be ready for use. It is desirable to develop a model in which many trade studies can be performed. In one sample multi-year space program analysis, the total launch vehicle cost of implementing the program reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent. This indicates how critical it is to reduce space logistics costs. A linear programming model has been developed to answer such questions. The model is now in its second phase of development, and this paper will address the capabilities of the model and its intended uses. The main emphasis over the past year was to make the model user friendly and to incorporate additional realistic constraints that are difficult to represent mathematically. We have developed a methodology in which the user has to be knowledgeable about the mission model and the requirements of the payloads. We have found a representation that will cut down the solution space of the problem by inserting some preliminary tests to eliminate some infeasible vehicle solutions. The paper will address the handling of these additional constraints and the methodology for incorporating new costing information utilizing learning curve theory. The paper will review several test cases that will explore the preferred vehicle characteristics and the preferred period of construction, i.e., within the next decade, or in the first decade of the next century. Finally, the paper will explore the interaction

  9. Mass, Energy, Space And Time System Theory---MEST A way to help our earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2009-03-01

    There are two danger to our earth. The first, the sun will expand to devour our earth, for example, the ozonosphere of our earth is be broken; The second, the asteroid will impact near our earth. According to MEST, there is a interaction between Black hole (and Dark matter-energy) and Solar system. The orbit of Jupiter is a boundary of the interaction between Black hole (and Dark matter-energy) and Solar system. Because there are four terrestrial planets which is mass-energy center as solar system, and there are four or five Jovian planets which is gas (space-time) center as black hole system. According to MEST, dark matter-energy take the velocity of Jupiter gose up. So there are a lot of asteroids and dark matter-energy near the orbit of Jupiter-the boundary. Dark matter-energy can change the orbit of asteroid, and take it impacted near our earth. Because the Dark matter-energy will pressure the Solar system. It is a inverse process with sun's expandedness. So the ``two danger'' is from a new process of the balance system between Black hole (and Dark matter-energy) and Solar system. According to MEST, We need to find the right point for our earth in the ``new process of the balance system.''

  10. COSMOS Launch Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnins, Indulis

    2002-01-01

    COSMOS-3M is a two stage launcher with liquid propellant rocket engines. Since 1960's COSMOS has launched satellites of up to 1.500kg in both circular low Earth and elliptical orbits with high inclination. The direct SSO ascent is available from Plesetsk launch site. The very high number of 759 launches and the achieved success rate of 97,4% makes this space transportation system one of the most reliable and successful launchers in the world. The German small satellite company OHB System co-operates since 1994 with the COSMOS manufacturer POLYOT, Omsk, in Russia. They have created the joint venture COSMOS International and successfully launched five German and Italian satellites in 1999 and 2000. The next commercial launches are contracted for 2002 and 2003. In 2005 -2007 COSMOS will be also used for the new German reconnaissance satellite launches. This paper provides an overview of COSMOS-3M launcher: its heritage and performance, examples of scientific and commercial primary and piggyback payload launches, the launch service organization and international cooperation. The COSMOS launch service business strategy main points are depicted. The current and future position of COSMOS in the worldwide market of launch services is outlined.

  11. A super-Earth transiting a nearby low-mass star.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, David; Berta, Zachory K; Irwin, Jonathan; Burke, Christopher J; Nutzman, Philip; Buchhave, Lars A; Lovis, Christophe; Bonfils, Xavier; Latham, David W; Udry, Stéphane; Murray-Clay, Ruth A; Holman, Matthew J; Falco, Emilio E; Winn, Joshua N; Queloz, Didier; Pepe, Francesco; Mayor, Michel; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry

    2009-12-17

    A decade ago, the detection of the first transiting extrasolar planet provided a direct constraint on its composition and opened the door to spectroscopic investigations of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Because such characterization studies are feasible only for transiting systems that are both nearby and for which the planet-to-star radius ratio is relatively large, nearby small stars have been surveyed intensively. Doppler studies and microlensing have uncovered a population of planets with minimum masses of 1.9-10 times the Earth's mass (M[symbol:see text]), called super-Earths. The first constraint on the bulk composition of this novel class of planets was afforded by CoRoT-7b (refs 8, 9), but the distance and size of its star preclude atmospheric studies in the foreseeable future. Here we report observations of the transiting planet GJ 1214b, which has a mass of 6.55M[symbol:see text]), and a radius 2.68 times Earth's radius (R[symbol:see text]), indicating that it is intermediate in stature between Earth and the ice giants of the Solar System. We find that the planetary mass and radius are consistent with a composition of primarily water enshrouded by a hydrogen-helium envelope that is only 0.05% of the mass of the planet. The atmosphere is probably escaping hydrodynamically, indicating that it has undergone significant evolution during its history. The star is small and only 13 parsecs away, so the planetary atmosphere is amenable to study with current observatories.

  12. Star Masses and Star-Planet Distances for Earth-like Habitability.

    PubMed

    Waltham, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents statistical estimates for the location and duration of habitable zones (HZs) around stars of different mass. The approach is based upon the assumption that Earth's location, and the Sun's mass, should not be highly atypical of inhabited planets. The results support climate-model-based estimates for the location of the Sun's HZ except models giving a present-day outer-edge beyond 1.64 AU. The statistical approach also demonstrates that there is a habitability issue for stars smaller than 0.65 solar masses since, otherwise, Earth would be an extremely atypical inhabited world. It is difficult to remove this anomaly using the assumption that poor habitability of planets orbiting low-mass stars results from unfavorable radiation regimes either before, or after, their stars enter the main sequence. However, the anomaly is well explained if poor habitability results from tidal locking of planets in the HZs of small stars. The expected host-star mass for planets with intelligent life then has a 95% confidence range of 0.78 M ⊙ < M < 1.04 M ⊙ , and the range for planets with at least simple life is 0.57 M ⊙  < M < 1.64 M ⊙ . Key Words: Habitability-Habitable zone-Anthropic-Red dwarfs-Initial mass function. Astrobiology 17, 61-77.

  13. Star Masses and Star-Planet Distances for Earth-like Habitability

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents statistical estimates for the location and duration of habitable zones (HZs) around stars of different mass. The approach is based upon the assumption that Earth's location, and the Sun's mass, should not be highly atypical of inhabited planets. The results support climate-model-based estimates for the location of the Sun's HZ except models giving a present-day outer-edge beyond 1.64 AU. The statistical approach also demonstrates that there is a habitability issue for stars smaller than 0.65 solar masses since, otherwise, Earth would be an extremely atypical inhabited world. It is difficult to remove this anomaly using the assumption that poor habitability of planets orbiting low-mass stars results from unfavorable radiation regimes either before, or after, their stars enter the main sequence. However, the anomaly is well explained if poor habitability results from tidal locking of planets in the HZs of small stars. The expected host-star mass for planets with intelligent life then has a 95% confidence range of 0.78 M⊙ < M < 1.04 M⊙, and the range for planets with at least simple life is 0.57 M⊙ < M < 1.64 M⊙. Key Words: Habitability—Habitable zone—Anthropic—Red dwarfs—Initial mass function. Astrobiology 17, 61–77. PMID:28103107

  14. Mass Flux in the Ancient Earth-Moon System and Benign Implications for the Origin of Life on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    2002-01-01

    The origin of life on Earth is commonly considered to have been negatively affected by intense impacting in the Hadean, with the potential for the repeated evaporation and sterilization of any ocean. The impact flux is based on scaling from the lunar crater density record, but that record has no tie to any absolute age determination for any identified stratigraphic unit older than approx. 3.9 Ga (Nectaris basin). The flux can be described in terms of mass accretion, and various independent means can be used to estimate the mass flux in different intervals. The critical interval is that between the end of essential crustal formation (approx. 4.4 Ga) and the oldest mare times (approx. 3.8 Ga). The masses of the basin-forming projectiles during Nectarian and early Imbrian times, when the last 15 of the approx.45 identified impact basins formed, can be reasonably estimated as minima. These in sum provide a minimum of 2 x 10(exp 21)g for the mass flux to the Moon during those times. If the interval was 80 million years (Nectaris 3.90 Ga, Orientale 3.82 Ga), then the flux was approx. 2 x 10(exp 13) g/yr over this period. This is higher by more than an order of magnitude than a flux curve that declines continuously and uniformly from lunar accretion to the rate inferred for the older mare plains. This rate cannot be extrapolated back increasingly into pre-Nectarian times, because the Moon would have added masses far in excess of itself in post-crust-formation time. Thus this episode was a distinct and cataclysmic set of events. There are approx. 30 pre-Nectarian basins, and they were probably part of the same cataclysm (starting at approx. 4.0 Ga?) because the crust is fairly intact, the meteoritic contamination of the pre-Nectarian crust is very low, impact melt rocks older than 3.92 Ga are virtually unknown, and ancient volcanic and plutonic rocks have survived this interval. The accretionary flux from approx. 4.4 to approx. 4.0 Ga was comparatively benign. When scaled

  15. The effect of the earth's and stray magnetic fields on mobile mass spectrometer systems.

    PubMed

    Bell, Ryan J; Davey, Nicholas G; Martinsen, Morten; Short, R Timothy; Gill, Chris G; Krogh, Erik T

    2015-02-01

    Development of small, field-portable mass spectrometers has enabled a rapid growth of in-field measurements on mobile platforms. In such in-field measurements, unexpected signal variability has been observed by the authors in portable ion traps with internal electron ionization. The orientation of magnetic fields (such as the Earth's) relative to the ionization electron beam trajectory can significantly alter the electron flux into a quadrupole ion trap, resulting in significant changes in the instrumental sensitivity. Instrument simulations and experiments were performed relative to the earth's magnetic field to assess the importance of (1) nonpoint-source electron sources, (2) vertical versus horizontal electron beam orientation, and (3) secondary magnetic fields created by the instrument itself. Electron lens focus effects were explored by additional simulations, and were paralleled by experiments performed with a mass spectrometer mounted on a rotating platform. Additionally, magnetically permeable metals were used to shield (1) the entire instrument from the Earth's magnetic field, and (2) the electron beam from both the Earth's and instrument's magnetic fields. Both simulation and experimental results suggest the predominant influence on directionally dependent signal variability is the result of the summation of two magnetic vectors. As such, the most effective method for reducing this effect is the shielding of the electron beam from both magnetic vectors, thus improving electron beam alignment and removing any directional dependency. The improved ionizing electron beam alignment also allows for significant improvements in overall instrument sensitivity.

  16. STS-64 launch view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Passing through some of the trailer clouds of an overcast sky which temporarily postponed its launch, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its 19th Earth orbital flight. Several kilometers away, astronaut John H. Casper, Jr., who took this picture, was piloting the Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) from which the launch and landing area weather was being monitored. Onboard Discovery were astronauts Richard N. Richards, L. Blaine Hammond, Jr., Mark C. Lee, Carl J. Meade, Susan J. Helms, and Jerry M. Linenger.

  17. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor); Blasso, L. G. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disk and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990s.

  18. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor); Blasso, L. G. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Application. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include the following: magnetic disk and tape technologies; optical disk and tape; software storage and file management systems; and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

  19. Possible Lack of Low-Mass Meteoroids in the Earth's Meteoroid Flux Due to Space Erosion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2017-01-01

    The Earth's cumulative meteoroid flux, as found by Halliday et al. (1996), may have a shallower slope for meteoroid masses in the range 0.1-2.5 kg compared to those with masses greater than 2.5 kg when plotted on a log flux vs. log mass graph. This would indicate a lack of low-mass objects. While others such as Ceplecha (1992) find no shallow slope, there may be a reason for a lack of 0.1-2.5 kg meteoroids which supports Halliday et al.'s finding. Simple models show that a few centimeters of space erosion in stony meteoroids can reproduce the bend in Halliday et al.'s curve at approximately 2.5 kg and give the shallower slope.

  20. A Method of Implementing Cutoff Conditions for Saturn V Lunar Missions Out of Earth Parking Orbit Assuming a Continuous Ground Launch Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, F. D.

    1965-01-01

    A method of implementing Saturn V lunar missions from an earth parking orbit is presented. The ground launch window is assumed continuous over a four and one-half hour period. The iterative guidance scheme combined with a set of auxiliary equations that define suitable S-IVB cutoff conditions, is the approach taken. The four inputs to the equations that define cutoff conditions are represented as simple third-degree polynomials as a function of ignition time. Errors at lunar arrival caused by the separate and combined effects of the guidance equations, cutoff conditions, hypersurface errors, and input representations are shown. Vehicle performance variations and parking orbit injection errors are included as perturbations. Appendix I explains how aim vectors were computed for the cutoff equations. Appendix II presents all guidance equations and related implementation procedures. Appendix III gives the derivation of the auxiliary cutoff equations. No error at lunar arrival was large enough to require a midcourse correction greater than one meter per second assuming a transfer time of three days and the midcourse correction occurs five hours after injection. Since this result is insignificant when compared to expected hardware errors, the implementation procedures presented are adequate to define cutoff conditions for Saturn V lunar missions.

  1. Launch Vehicles

    1990-06-01

    The Delta II expendable launch vehicle with the ROSAT (Roentgen Satellite), cooperative space X-ray astronomy mission between NASA, Germany and United Kingdom, was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on June 1, 1990.

  2. Exoplanet dynamics. Asynchronous rotation of Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone of lower-mass stars.

    PubMed

    Leconte, Jérémy; Wu, Hanbo; Menou, Kristen; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-06

    Planets in the habitable zone of lower-mass stars are often assumed to be in a state of tidally synchronized rotation, which would considerably affect their putative habitability. Although thermal tides cause Venus to rotate retrogradely, simple scaling arguments tend to attribute this peculiarity to the massive Venusian atmosphere. Using a global climate model, we show that even a relatively thin atmosphere can drive terrestrial planets' rotation away from synchronicity. We derive a more realistic atmospheric tide model that predicts four asynchronous equilibrium spin states, two being stable, when the amplitude of the thermal tide exceeds a threshold that is met for habitable Earth-like planets with a 1-bar atmosphere around stars more massive than ~0.5 to 0.7 solar mass. Thus, many recently discovered terrestrial planets could exhibit asynchronous spin-orbit rotation, even with a thin atmosphere. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. THE NASA-UC ETA-EARTH PROGRAM. II. A PLANET ORBITING HD 156668 WITH A MINIMUM MASS OF FOUR EARTH MASSES

    SciT

    Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard

    2011-01-10

    We report the discovery of HD 156668 b, an extrasolar planet with a minimum mass of M{sub P} sin i = 4.15 M{sub +}. This planet was discovered through Keplerian modeling of precise radial velocities from Keck-HIRES and is the second super-Earth to emerge from the NASA-UC Eta-Earth Survey. The best-fit orbit is consistent with circular and has a period of P = 4.6455 days. The Doppler semi-amplitude of this planet, K = 1.89 m s{sup -1}, is among the lowest ever detected, on par with the detection of GJ 581 e using HARPS. A longer period (P {approx} 2.3more » years), low-amplitude signal of unknown origin was also detected in the radial velocities and was filtered out of the data while fitting the short-period planet. Additional data are required to determine if the long-period signal is due to a second planet, stellar activity, or another source. Photometric observations using the Automated Photometric Telescopes at Fairborn Observatory show that HD 156668 (an old, quiet K3 dwarf) is photometrically constant over the radial velocity period to 0.1 mmag, supporting the existence of the planet. No transits were detected down to a photometric limit of {approx}3 mmag, ruling out transiting planets dominated by extremely bloated atmospheres, but not precluding a transiting solid/liquid planet with a modest atmosphere.« less

  4. STS-64 launch view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With a crew of six NASA astronauts aboard, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its nineteenth Earth-orbital mission. Launch was delayed because of weather, but all systems were 'go,' and the spacecraft left the launch pad at 6:23 p.m. (EDT) on September 9, 1994. Onboard were astronauts Richard N. Richards, L. Blaine Hammond, Carl J. Meade, Mark C. Lee, Susan J. Helms, and Jerry M. Linenger (051-2); Making a bright reflection in nearby marsh waters, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its 19th mission in earth orbit (053).

  5. Apollo 4 launch

    1967-09-11

    S67-50903 (9 Nov. 1967) --- The Apollo 4 (Spacecraft 017/Saturn 501) space mission was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The liftoff of the huge 363-feet tall Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle was at 7:00:01 a.m. (EST), Nov. 9, 1967. The successful objectives of the Apollo 4 Earth-orbital unmanned space mission obtained included (1) flight information on launch vehicle and spacecraft structural integrity and compatibility, flight loads, stage separation, subsystem operation, emergency detection subsystem, and (2) evaluation of the Apollo Command Module heat shield under conditions encountered on return from a moon mission.

  6. Co-Seismic Mass Dislocation and its Effect on Earth's Rotation and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.; Gross, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    Mantle processes often involve large-scale mass transport, ranging from mantle convection, tectonic motions, glacial isostatic adjustment, to tides, atmospheric and oceanic loadings, volcanism and seismicity. On very short time scale of less than an hour, co-seismic event, apart from the shaking that is the earthquake, leaves behind permanent (step-function-like) dislocations in the crust and mantle. This redistribution of mass changes the Earth's inertia tensor (and hence Earth's rotation in both length-of-day and polar motion), and the gravity field (in terms of spherical harmonic Stokes coefficients). The question is whether these effects are large enough to be of any significance. In this paper we report updated calculation results based on Chao & Gross (1987). The calculation uses the normal mode summation scheme, applied to nearly twenty thousand major earthquakes that occurred during 1976-2002, according to source mechanism solutions given by the Harvard Central Moment Tensor catalog. Compared to the truly large ones earlier in the century, the earthquakes we study are individually all too small to have left any discernible signature in geodetic records of Earth rotation or global gravity field. However, their collective effects continue to exhibit an extremely strong statistical tendencies. For example, earthquakes conspire to decrease J2 and J22 while shortening LOD, resulting in a rounder and more compact Earth. Strong tendency is also seen in the earthquakes trying to nudge the Earth rotation pole towards approximately 140 degrees E, roughly opposite to the observed polar drift direction. The geophysical significance and implications will be further studied.

  7. Co-Seismic Mass Dislocation and Its Effect on Earth's Rotation and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    1999-01-01

    Mantle processes often involve large-scale mass transport, ranging from mantle convection, tectonic motions, glacial isostatic adjustment, to tides, atmospheric and oceanic loadings, volcanism and seismicity. On very short time scale of less than an hour, co-seismic event, apart from the "shaking" that is the earthquake, leaves behind permanent (step-function-like) dislocations in the crust and mantle. This redistribution of mass changes the Earth's inertia tensor (and hence Earth's rotation in both length-of-day and polar motion), and the gravity field (in terms of spherical harmonic Stokes coefficients). The question is whether these effects are large enough to be of any significance. In this paper we report updated calculation results. The calculation uses the normal mode summation scheme, applied to 15,814 major earthquakes that occurred during 1976-1998, according to source mechanism solutions given by the Harvard Central Moment Tensor catalog. Compared to the truly large ones earlier in the century, the earthquakes we study are individually all too small to have left any discernible signature in geodetic records of Earth rotation or global gravity field. However, their collective effects continue to exhibit an extremely strong statistical tendencies. For example, earthquakes conspire to decrease J(sub 2) and J(sub 22) while shortening LOD, resulting in a rounder and more compact Earth. Strong tendency is also seen in the earthquakes trying to "nudge" the Earth rotation pole towards about 140 degree E, roughly opposite to the observed polar drift direction. The geophysical significance and implications will be further studied.

  8. Co-Seismic Mass Displacement and its Effect on Earth's Rotation and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.; Gross, R. S.

    2004-01-01

    Mantle processes often involve large-scale mass transport, ranging from mantle convection, tectonic motions, glacial isostatic adjustment, to tides, atmospheric and oceanic loadings, volcanism and seismicity. On very short time scale of less than an hour, co-seismic event, apart from the "shaking" that is the earthquake, leaves behind permanent (step-function-like) displacements in the crust and mantle. This redistribution of mass changes the Earth's inertia tensor (and hence Earth's rotation in both length-of-day and polar motion), and the gravity field. The question is whether these effects are large enough to be of any significance. In this paper we report updated calculation results based on Chao & Gross. The calculation uses the normal mode summation scheme, applied to over twenty thousand major earthquakes that occurred during 1976-2002, according to source mechanism solutions given by the Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor catalog. Compared to the truly large ones earlier in the century, the earthquakes we study are individually all too small to have left any discernible signature in geodetic records of Earth rotation or global gravity field. However, their collective effects continue to exhibit an extremely strong statistical tendencies, conspiring to decrease J2 and J22 while shortening LOD, resulting in a rounder and more compact Earth. Strong tendency is also seen in the earthquakes trying to "nudge" the Earth rotation pole towards approx. 140 deg.E, roughly opposite to the observed polar drift direction. Currently, the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) is measuring the time-variable gravity to high degree and order with unprecedented accuracy. Our results show that great earthquakes such as the 1960 Chilean or 1964 Alaskan events cause gravitational field changes that are large enough to be detected by GRACE.

  9. Launch Vehicle Production and Operations Cost Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Neeley, James R.; Blackburn, Ruby F.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, launch vehicle cost has been evaluated based on $/Kg to orbit. This metric is calculated based on assumptions not typically met by a specific mission. These assumptions include the specified orbit whether Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), or both. The metric also assumes the payload utilizes the full lift mass of the launch vehicle, which is rarely true even with secondary payloads.1,2,3 Other approaches for cost metrics have been evaluated including unit cost of the launch vehicle and an approach to consider the full program production and operations costs.4 Unit cost considers the variable cost of the vehicle and the definition of variable costs are discussed. The full program production and operation costs include both the variable costs and the manufacturing base. This metric also distinguishes operations costs from production costs, including pre-flight operational testing. Operations costs also consider the costs of flight operations, including control center operation and maintenance. Each of these 3 cost metrics show different sensitivities to various aspects of launch vehicle cost drivers. The comparison of these metrics provides the strengths and weaknesses of each yielding an assessment useful for cost metric selection for launch vehicle programs.

  10. Geomagnetic response of interplanetary coronal mass ejections in the Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badruddin; Mustajab, F.; Derouich, M.

    2018-05-01

    A coronal mass ejections (CME) is the huge mass of plasma with embedded magnetic field ejected abruptly from the Sun. These CMEs propagate into interplanetary space with different speed. Some of them hit the Earth's magnetosphere and create many types of disturbances; one of them is the disturbance in the geomagnetic field. Individual geomagnetic disturbances differ not only in their magnitudes, but the nature of disturbance is also different. It is, therefore, desirable to understand these differences not only to understand the physics of geomagnetic disturbances but also to understand the properties of solar/interplanetary structures producing these disturbances of different magnitude and nature. In this work, we use the spacecraft measurements of CMEs with distinct magnetic properties propagating in the interplanetary space and generating disturbances of different levels and nature. We utilize their distinct plasma and field properties to search for the interplanetary parameter(s) playing important role in influencing the geomagnetic response of different coronal mass ejections.

  11. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    SciT

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives,more » as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.« less

  12. Mass loading of the Earth's magnetosphere by micron size lunar ejecta. 2: Ejecta dynamics and enhanced lifetimes in the Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, W. M.; Tanner, W. G.; Anz, P. D.; Chen, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    Extensive studies were conducted concerning the indivdual mass, temporal and positional distribution of micron and submicron lunar ejecta existing in the Earth-Moon gravitational sphere of influence. Initial results show a direct correlation between the position of the Moon, relative to the Earth, and the percentage of lunar ejecta leaving the Moon and intercepting the magnetosphere of the Earth at the magnetopause surface. It is seen that the Lorentz Force dominates all other forces, thus suggesting that submicron dust particles might possibly be magnetically trapped in the well known radiation zones.

  13. Launch Collision Probability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, Gary; Guptill, James D.

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes the probability of a launch vehicle colliding with one of the nearly 10,000 tracked objects orbiting the Earth, given that an object on a near-collision course with the launch vehicle has been identified. Knowledge of the probability of collision throughout the launch window can be used to avoid launching at times when the probability of collision is unacceptably high. The analysis in this report assumes that the positions of the orbiting objects and the launch vehicle can be predicted as a function of time and therefore that any tracked object which comes close to the launch vehicle can be identified. The analysis further assumes that the position uncertainty of the launch vehicle and the approaching space object can be described with position covariance matrices. With these and some additional simplifying assumptions, a closed-form solution is developed using two approaches. The solution shows that the probability of collision is a function of position uncertainties, the size of the two potentially colliding objects, and the nominal separation distance at the point of closest approach. ne impact of the simplifying assumptions on the accuracy of the final result is assessed and the application of the results to the Cassini mission, launched in October 1997, is described. Other factors that affect the probability of collision are also discussed. Finally, the report offers alternative approaches that can be used to evaluate the probability of collision.

  14. 3D laser scanning in civil engineering - measurements of volume of earth masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawłowicz, J. A.; Szafranko, E.; Harasymiuk, J.

    2018-03-01

    Considering the constant drive to improve and accelerate building processes as well as possible applications of the latest technological achievements in civil engineering practice, the author has proposed to use 3D laser scanning in the construction industry. For example, data achieved through a 3D laser scanning process will facilitate making inventories of parameters of buildings in a very short time, will enable one to check irregularly shaped masses of earth, heavy and practically impossible to calculate precisely using traditional techniques. The other part of the research, performed in the laboratory, consisted of measurements of a model mound of earth. All the measurements were made with a 3D SkanStation C10 laser scanner manufactured by Leica. The data were analyzed. The results suggest that there are great opportunities for using the laser scanning technology in civil engineering

  15. Mass estimate and close approaches of near-Earth asteroid 2015 TC25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnocchia, Davide; Tholen, David J.; Micheli, Marco; Ryan, William; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Giorgini, Jon D.

    2017-10-01

    Near-Earth asteroid 2015 TC25 was discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey in October 2015, just two days before an Earth flyby at 0.3 lunar distances. By using ground-based optical, near-infrared, and radar assets during the flyby, Reddy et al. (2016) successfully characterized 2015 TC25. They suggested that the object has a high albedo and a diameter of 2 m, which makes 2015 TC25 one of the smallest asteroids ever detected. Moreover, the orbital information available at the end of the 2015 apparition indicated that 2015 TC25 had a probability of an Earth impact of more than 1 in 10000 from 2070 to 2115. To rule out possible impacts we recovered 2015 TC25 at the end of March 2017 and continued tracking the object through the end of April, when it became too faint to be observable. The recent 2017 astrometry clearly shows the action of solar radiation pressure on the orbit of 2015 TC25 with a 7.6-sigma detection. This solar radiation pressure estimate allows us to put constraints on the density and mass of 2015 TC25 and further suggests that the object is only a couple of meters in size. In particular, the area-to-mass ratio is between 0.6 m^2/t and 0.7 m^2/t and, for a diameter of 2 m, the density is about 1.1 g/cm^3. By accounting for the contribution of non-gravitational perturbations, we analyze the future trajectory of 2015 TC25. Based on the extended data arc, ephemeris predictions are now deterministic until the Earth close approach in 2089 and a Monte Carlo search rules out impacts for the next 100 years.

  16. Development of FIAT-Based Parametric Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships for NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepka, S. A.; Samareh, J. A.

    2014-06-01

    Mass estimating relationships have been formulated to determine a vehicle's Thermal Protection System material and required thickness for safe Earth entry. We focus on developing MERs, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy.

  17. The Crossbow Air Launch Trade Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonometti, Joseph A.; Sorensen, Kirk F.

    2006-01-01

    Effective air launching of a rocket is approached from a broad systems engineering viewpoint. The elementary reasons for why and how a rocket might be launched from a carrier aircraft are examined. From this, a carefully crafted set of guiding principles is presented. Rules are generated from a fundamental foundation, derived from NASA systems study analyses and from an academic vantage point. The Appendix includes the derivation of a revised Mass Multiplier Equation, useful in understanding the rocket equation as it applies to real vehicles, without the need of complicated weight and sizing programs. The rationale for air launching, being an enormously advantageous Earth-To-Orbit (ETO) methodology, is presented along with the realization that the appropriate air launch solution may lie in a very large class of carrier aircraft; the pod-hauler. Finally, a unique area of the system trade space is defined and branded Crossbow. Crossbow is not a specific hardware design for air launch, but represents a comprehensive vision for commercial, military and space transportation. This document serves as a starting point for future technical papers that evaluate the air launch hypotheses and assertions produced during the past several years of study on the subject.

  18. Space Launch System for Exploration and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, K.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Space Launch System (SLS) is the most powerful rocket ever built and provides a critical heavy-lift launch capability enabling diverse deep space missions. The exploration class vehicle launches larger payloads farther in our solar system and faster than ever before. The vehicle's 5 m to 10 m fairing allows utilization of existing systems which reduces development risks, size limitations and cost. SLS lift capacity and superior performance shortens mission travel time. Enhanced capabilities enable a myriad of missions including human exploration, planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary defense and commercial space exploration endeavors. Human Exploration: SLS is the first heavy-lift launch vehicle capable of transporting crews beyond low Earth orbit in over four decades. Its design maximizes use of common elements and heritage hardware to provide a low-risk, affordable system that meets Orion mission requirements. SLS provides a safe and sustainable deep space pathway to Mars in support of NASA's human spaceflight mission objectives. The SLS enables the launch of large gateway elements beyond the moon. Leveraging a low-energy transfer that reduces required propellant mass, components are then brought back to a desired cislunar destination. SLS provides a significant mass margin that can be used for additional consumables or a secondary payloads. SLS lowers risks for the Asteroid Retrieval Mission by reducing mission time and improving mass margin. SLS lift capacity allows for additional propellant enabling a shorter return or the delivery of a secondary payload, such as gateway component to cislunar space. SLS enables human return to the moon. The intermediate SLS capability allows both crew and cargo to fly to translunar orbit at the same time which will simplify mission design and reduce launch costs. Science Missions: A single SLS launch to Mars will enable sample collection at multiple, geographically dispersed locations and a

  19. Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

  20. Space Launch System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than three years after formal program approval. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of Core Stage test panels; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for testing the RS-25 Core Stage engine; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Objectives of this Earth-orbit flight include validating the performance of Orion's heat shield and the MSA design, which will be manufactured again for SLS missions to deep space. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven

  1. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    Designed to meet the stringent requirements of human exploration missions into deep space and to Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a unique new launch capability opening new opportunities for mission design. NASA is working to identify new ways to use SLS to enable new missions or mission profiles. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of not only propelling the Orion crew vehicle into cislunar space, but also delivering small satellites to deep space destinations. The evolved configurations of SLS, including both the 105 t Block 1B and the 130 t Block 2, offer opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads and a new class of secondary payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle, delivering unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3.

  2. Launch - STS-6 - KSC

    1983-04-12

    S83-30222 (4 April 1983) --- The second reusable spacecraft in history successfully launches from Launch Pad 39A at 1:30:00:88 p.m. (EST) on April 4, 1983, and heads for its history making five-day mission in Earth orbit. The space shuttle Challenger, its two solid rocket boosters (SRB), and a new lightweight?external fuel tank were captured on film by an automatically-tripped camera in a protected station nearer to the launch pad than human beings are able to be at launch time. Onboard the spacecraft are astronauts Paul J. Wietz, Karol J. Bobko, Dr. Story Musgrave and Donald H. Peterson. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Confirmation of Earth-Mass Planets Orbiting the Millisecond Pulsar PSR B1257 + 12.

    PubMed

    Wolszczan, A

    1994-04-22

    The discovery of two Earth-mass planets orbiting an old ( approximately 10(9) years), rapidly spinning neutron star, the 6.2-millisecond radio pulsar PSR B1257+12, was announced in early 1992. It was soon pointed out that the approximately 3:2 ratio of the planets' orbital periods should lead to accurately predictable and possibly measurable gravitational perturbations of their orbits. The unambiguous detection of this effect, after 3 years of systematic timing observations of PSR B1257+12 with the 305-meter Arecibo radiotelescope, as well as the discovery of another, moon-mass object in orbit around the pulsar, constitutes irrefutable evidence that the first planetary system around a star other than the sun has been identified.

  4. Mass driver reaction engine characteristics and performance in earth orbital transfer missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, W. R.; Dunbar, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Configurations of a typical mass driver reaction engine (MDRE) are presented and its use for delivery of payloads to geosynchronous orbit (GEO) from low earth orbit (LEO) is discussed. Basic rocket equations are developed for LEO to GEO round-trip missions using a single exhaust velocity. It is shown that exhaust velocities in the 5-10 km/sec range (specific impulse of 500-1000 sec) are well suited for mass drivers, minimizing the overall cost of missions. Payload delivery rate fractions show that there is little to be gained by stretching out LEO to GEO transfer times from 90 to 180 days. It therefore pays to use the shorter trip time, approximately doubling the amount of delivered payload during any fixed time of use of the MDRE.

  5. Mass estimating techniques for earth-to-orbit transports with various configuration factors and technologies applied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, P. J.; Macconochie, I. O.

    1979-01-01

    A study of an array of advanced earth-to-orbit space transportation systems with a focus on mass properties and technology requirements is presented. Methods of estimating weights of these vehicles differ from those used for commercial and military aircraft; the new techniques emphasizing winged horizontal and vertical takeoff advanced systems are described utilizing the space shuttle subsystem data base for the weight estimating equations. The weight equations require information on mission profile, the structural materials, the thermal protection system, and the ascent propulsion system, allowing for the type of construction and various propellant tank shapes. The overall system weights are calculated using this information and incorporated into the Systems Engineering Mass Properties Computer Program.

  6. A Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction? Were most of Earth's species killed off?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    For the past decade, the scientific and popular press have carried frequent articles about a catastrophic mass extinction that supposedly destroyed the majority of the earth's species, including the dinosaurs, approximately 65 million years ago. Since 1980, more than 2000 papers and books have dealt with some aspect of a mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. One authoritative estimate of the severity of the extinctions is that 60-80% of all the living species became extinct at this boundary (Raup 1988). There appears to be a general acceptance of the fact that such a great catastrophe did occur. Most of the argument among scientists now is devoted to the determination of the cause. In this article, I argue that the species changes at the K/T boundary were neither sudden nor catastrophic. They were most likely caused by a regression of sea level that led to a decrease in primary production.

  7. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections in the Near-Earth Solar Wind During 1996-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    We summarize the occurrence of interplanetary coronal mass injections (ICMEs) in the near-Earth solar wind during 1996-2002, corresponding to the increasing and maximum phases of solar cycle 23. In particular, we give a detailed list of such events. This list, based on in-situ observations, is not confined to subsets of ICMEs, such as magnetic clouds or those preceded by halo CMEs observed by the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph, and provides an overview of 214 ICMEs in the near-Earth solar wind during this period. The ICME rate increases by about an order of magnitude from solar minimum to solar maximum (when the rate is approximately 3 ICMEs/solar rotation period). The rate also shows a temporary reduction during 1999, and another brief, deeper reduction in late 2000-early 2001, which only approximately track variations in the solar 10 cm flux. In addition, there are occasional periods of several rotations duration when the ICME rate is enhanced in association with high solar activity levels. We find an indication of a periodic variation in the ICME rate, with a prominent period of approximately 165 days similar to that previously reported in various solar phenomena. It is found that the fraction of ICMEs that are magnetic clouds has a solar cycle variation, the fraction being larger near solar minimum. For the subset of events that we could associate with a CME at the Sun, the transit speeds from the Sun to the Earth were highest after solar maximum.

  8. A STEREO Survey of Magnetic Cloud Coronal Mass Ejections Observed at Earth in 2008–2012

    SciT

    Wood, Brian E.; Wu, Chin-Chun; Howard, Russell A.

    We identify coronal mass ejections (CMEs) associated with magnetic clouds (MCs) observed near Earth by the Wind spacecraft from 2008 to mid-2012, a time period when the two STEREO spacecraft were well positioned to study Earth-directed CMEs. We find 31 out of 48 Wind MCs during this period can be clearly connected with a CME that is trackable in STEREO imagery all the way from the Sun to near 1 au. For these events, we perform full 3D reconstructions of the CME structure and kinematics, assuming a flux rope (FR) morphology for the CME shape, considering the full complement ofmore » STEREO and SOHO imaging constraints. We find that the FR orientations and sizes inferred from imaging are not well correlated with MC orientations and sizes inferred from the Wind data. However, velocities within the MC region are reproduced reasonably well by the image-based reconstruction. Our kinematic measurements are used to provide simple prescriptions for predicting CME arrival times at Earth, provided for a range of distances from the Sun where CME velocity measurements might be made. Finally, we discuss the differences in the morphology and kinematics of CME FRs associated with different surface phenomena (flares, filament eruptions, or no surface activity).« less

  9. Stellar orbits in the Galaxy and mass extinctions on the Earth: a connection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porto de Mello, G. F.; Dias, W. S.; Lepine, J.; Lorenzo-Oliveira, D.; Kazu, R. S.

    2014-03-01

    The orbits of the stars in the disk of the Galaxy, and their passages through the Galactic spiral arms, are a rarely mentioned factor of biosphere stability which might be important for long-term planetary climate evolution, with a possible bearing on mass extinctions. The Sun lies very near the co-rotation radius, where stars revolve around the Galaxy in the same period as the density wave perturbations of the spiral arms (Dias & Lepine 2005). Conventional wisdom generally considers that this status makes for few passages through the spiral arms. Controversy still surrounds whether time spent inside or around spiral arms is dangerous to biospheres and conducive to mass extinctions (Bailer-Jones 2009). Possible threats include giant molecular clouds disturbing the Oort comet cloud and provoking heavy bombardment (Clube & Napier 1982); a higher exposure to cosmic rays near star forming regions triggering increased cloudiness in Earth's atmosphere and ice ages (Gies & Helsel 2005); and the destruction of Earth's ozone layer posed by supernova explosions (Gehrels et al 2003). We present detailed calculations of the history of spiral arm passages for all 212 solartype stars nearer than 20 parsecs, including the total time spent inside the spiral arms in the last 500 million years, when the spiral arm position can be traced with good accuracy. There is a very large diversity of stellar orbits amongst solar neighborhood solar-type stars, and the time fraction spent inside spiral arms can vary from a few percent to nearly half the time. The Sun, despite its proximity to the galactic co-rotation radius, has exceptionally low eccentricity and a low vertical velocity component, and therefore spends 40% of its lifetime crossing the spiral arms, more than nearly all nearby stars. We discuss the possible implications of this fact to the long-term habitability of the Earth, and possible correlations of the Sun's passage through the spiral arms with the five great mass

  10. Predicting the magnetic vectors within coronal mass ejections arriving at Earth: 1. Initial architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savani, N. P.; Vourlidas, A.; Szabo, A.; Mays, M. L.; Richardson, I. G.; Thompson, B. J.; Pulkkinen, A.; Evans, R.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.

    2015-06-01

    The process by which the Sun affects the terrestrial environment on short timescales is predominately driven by the amount of magnetic reconnection between the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere. Reconnection occurs most efficiently when the solar wind magnetic field has a southward component. The most severe impacts are during the arrival of a coronal mass ejection (CME) when the magnetosphere is both compressed and magnetically connected to the heliospheric environment. Unfortunately, forecasting magnetic vectors within coronal mass ejections remain elusive. Here we report how, by combining a statistically robust helicity rule for a CME's solar origin with a simplified flux rope topology, the magnetic vectors within the Earth-directed segment of a CME can be predicted. In order to test the validity of this proof-of-concept architecture for estimating the magnetic vectors within CMEs, a total of eight CME events (between 2010 and 2014) have been investigated. With a focus on the large false alarm of January 2014, this work highlights the importance of including the early evolutionary effects of a CME for forecasting purposes. The angular rotation in the predicted magnetic field closely follows the broad rotational structure seen within the in situ data. This time-varying field estimate is implemented into a process to quantitatively predict a time-varying Kp index that is described in detail in paper II. Future statistical work, quantifying the uncertainties in this process, may improve the more heuristic approach used by early forecasting systems.

  11. Mass spectrometry in Earth sciences: the precise and accurate measurement of time.

    PubMed

    Schaltegger, Urs; Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; Ovtcharova, Maria; Chiaradia, Massimo; Spikings, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Precise determinations of the isotopic compositions of a variety of elements is a widely applied tool in Earth sciences. Isotope ratios are used to quantify rates of geological processes that occurred during the previous 4.5 billion years, and also at the present time. An outstanding application is geochronology, which utilizes the production of radiogenic daughter isotopes by the radioactive decay of parent isotopes. Geochronological tools, involving isotopic analysis of selected elements from smallest volumes of minerals by thermal ionization mass spectrometry, provide precise and accurate measurements of time throughout the geological history of our planet over nine orders of magnitude, from the accretion of the proto-planetary disk, to the timing of the last glaciation. This article summarizes the recent efforts of the Isotope Geochemistry, Geochronology and Thermochronology research group at the University of Geneva to advance the U-Pb geochronological tool to achieve unprecedented precision and accuracy, and presents two examples of its application to two significant open questions in Earth sciences: what are the triggers and timescales of volcanic supereruptions, and what were the causes of mass extinctions in the geological past, driven by global climatic and environmental deterioration?

  12. The LEO Archipelago: A system of earth-rings for communications, mass-transport to space, solar power, and control of global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenberg, Andrew; Karthik Balaji, P. S.

    2011-06-01

    Man's quest to get into space is hindered by major problems (e.g., system-development and capital costs, expense of putting mass into orbit, trapped-radiation belts, and environmental impact of a large increase in rocket launches). A multi-purpose low-earth-orbit system of rings circling the earth - the "LEO ARCHIPELAGO TM" - is proposed as a means of solving or bypassing many of them. A fiber-optic ring about the earth would be an initial testing and developmental stage for the Ring Systems, while providing cash-flow through a LEO-based, high-band-width, world-wide communication system. A low-earth-orbit-based space-elevator system, "Sling-on-a-Ring TM", is proposed as the crucial developmental stage of the LEO Archipelago. Being a LEO-based heavy-mass lifter, rather than earth- or GEO-based, it is much less massive and therefore less costly than other proposed space-elevators. With the advent of lower-cost, higher-mass transport to orbit, the options for further space development (e.g., space solar power, radiation, and space-debris dampers, sun shades, and permanent LEO habitation) are greatly expanded. This paper provides an update of the Sling-on-a-Ring concept in terms of new materials, potential applications, and trade-offs associated with an earlier model. The impact of Colossal Carbon Tubes, CCT, a new material with high tensile strength, extremely-low density, and other favorable properties, and other new technologies (e.g., solar-powered lasers, power beaming to near-space and earth, and thermal-control systems) on the development of associated LEO-Ring systems is also explored. The material's effect on the timeline for the system development indicates the feasibility of near-term implementation of the system (possibly within the decade). The Sling-on-a-Ring can provide a less-expensive, environment-friendly mode of access to space. This would pave the way (via eventual operation at >1000 t per day by 2050) for large scale development of space

  13. TravelingGeologist: an online platform for dissemination of earth science to the masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, C. J.; Hoiland, C. W.; Gunderson, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    To more effectively inspire the next generation of scientists, the earth science community's public outreach efforts must adapt to the changing technological and informational ecosystems in which young people interact online (e.g. blogs, social media, viral marketing, web-based education, etc.). Although there are currently a number of successful individual and institutional efforts to reach potential students through web-based outlets, many of these efforts fail to connect primary researchers directly to a lay audience, relying instead on intermediaries that tend to dilute the recruiting impact of "producer-to-consumer" interactions. Few, if any of these efforts appear to have reached a critical mass of contributing authors and subscribed followers; and there are few available detailed metrics on growth trajectories, impact, or lay reach. We offer data from the TravelingGeologist as a case study in successful direct-to-consumer science outreach and recruitment. The TravelingGeologist is a non-profit, web-based platform on which earth scientists share their experiences in the field with the expressed purpose of attracting and inspiring a new generation of scientists. The TravelingGeologist website is supplemented by various social media platforms that market the content on the main site. Because TravelingGeologist accepts contributions from a variety of earth scientists, it also provides an arena whereon research summaries and vignettes can be shared with the large lay- and expert audience. This gives contributing authors an additional opportunity to demonstrate to government institutions that fund their research projects that they are engaging in efforts to communicate their results to the wider public. Beyond the ability to inspire new students and communicate science to the general public, it is our intent that TravelingGeologist will foster communication and promote collaboration within the earth science community. We have demonstrated that through well

  14. Determination of rare earth elements in tomato plants by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques.

    PubMed

    Spalla, S; Baffi, C; Barbante, C; Turetta, C; Turretta, C; Cozzi, G; Beone, G M; Bettinelli, M

    2009-10-30

    In recent years identification of the geographical origin of food has grown more important as consumers have become interested in knowing the provenance of the food that they purchase and eat. Certification schemes and labels have thus been developed to protect consumers and genuine producers from the improper use of popular brand names or renowned geographical origins. As the tomato is one of the major components of what is considered to be the healthy Mediterranean diet, it is important to be able to determine the geographical origin of tomatoes and tomato-based products such as tomato sauce. The aim of this work is to develop an analytical method to determine rare earth elements (RRE) for the control of the geographic origin of tomatoes. The content of REE in tomato plant samples collected from an agricultural area in Piacenza, Italy, was determined, using four different digestion procedures with and without HF. Microwave dissolution with HNO3 + H2O2 proved to be the most suitable digestion procedure. Inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICPQMS) and inductively coupled plasma sector field plasma mass spectrometry (ICPSFMS) instruments, both coupled with a desolvation system, were used to determine the REE in tomato plants in two different laboratories. A matched calibration curve method was used for the quantification of the analytes. The detection limits (MDLs) of the method ranged from 0.03 ng g(-1) for Ho, Tm, and Lu to 2 ng g(-1) for La and Ce. The precision, in terms of relative standard deviation on six replicates, was good, with values ranging, on average, from 6.0% for LREE (light rare earth elements) to 16.5% for HREE (heavy rare earth elements). These detection limits allowed the determination of the very low concentrations of REE present in tomato berries. For the concentrations of REE in tomato plants, the following trend was observed: roots > leaves > stems > berries. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Estimates of the magnitudes of major marine mass extinctions in earth history.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Steven M

    2016-10-18

    Procedures introduced here make it possible, first, to show that background (piecemeal) extinction is recorded throughout geologic stages and substages (not all extinction has occurred suddenly at the ends of such intervals); second, to separate out background extinction from mass extinction for a major crisis in earth history; and third, to correct for clustering of extinctions when using the rarefaction method to estimate the percentage of species lost in a mass extinction. Also presented here is a method for estimating the magnitude of the Signor-Lipps effect, which is the incorrect assignment of extinctions that occurred during a crisis to an interval preceding the crisis because of the incompleteness of the fossil record. Estimates for the magnitudes of mass extinctions presented here are in most cases lower than those previously published. They indicate that only ∼81% of marine species died out in the great terminal Permian crisis, whereas levels of 90-96% have frequently been quoted in the literature. Calculations of the latter numbers were incorrectly based on combined data for the Middle and Late Permian mass extinctions. About 90 orders and more than 220 families of marine animals survived the terminal Permian crisis, and they embodied an enormous amount of morphological, physiological, and ecological diversity. Life did not nearly disappear at the end of the Permian, as has often been claimed.

  16. Estimates of the magnitudes of major marine mass extinctions in earth history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Steven M.

    2016-10-01

    Procedures introduced here make it possible, first, to show that background (piecemeal) extinction is recorded throughout geologic stages and substages (not all extinction has occurred suddenly at the ends of such intervals); second, to separate out background extinction from mass extinction for a major crisis in earth history; and third, to correct for clustering of extinctions when using the rarefaction method to estimate the percentage of species lost in a mass extinction. Also presented here is a method for estimating the magnitude of the Signor-Lipps effect, which is the incorrect assignment of extinctions that occurred during a crisis to an interval preceding the crisis because of the incompleteness of the fossil record. Estimates for the magnitudes of mass extinctions presented here are in most cases lower than those previously published. They indicate that only ˜81% of marine species died out in the great terminal Permian crisis, whereas levels of 90-96% have frequently been quoted in the literature. Calculations of the latter numbers were incorrectly based on combined data for the Middle and Late Permian mass extinctions. About 90 orders and more than 220 families of marine animals survived the terminal Permian crisis, and they embodied an enormous amount of morphological, physiological, and ecological diversity. Life did not nearly disappear at the end of the Permian, as has often been claimed.

  17. Estimates of the magnitudes of major marine mass extinctions in earth history

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Procedures introduced here make it possible, first, to show that background (piecemeal) extinction is recorded throughout geologic stages and substages (not all extinction has occurred suddenly at the ends of such intervals); second, to separate out background extinction from mass extinction for a major crisis in earth history; and third, to correct for clustering of extinctions when using the rarefaction method to estimate the percentage of species lost in a mass extinction. Also presented here is a method for estimating the magnitude of the Signor–Lipps effect, which is the incorrect assignment of extinctions that occurred during a crisis to an interval preceding the crisis because of the incompleteness of the fossil record. Estimates for the magnitudes of mass extinctions presented here are in most cases lower than those previously published. They indicate that only ∼81% of marine species died out in the great terminal Permian crisis, whereas levels of 90–96% have frequently been quoted in the literature. Calculations of the latter numbers were incorrectly based on combined data for the Middle and Late Permian mass extinctions. About 90 orders and more than 220 families of marine animals survived the terminal Permian crisis, and they embodied an enormous amount of morphological, physiological, and ecological diversity. Life did not nearly disappear at the end of the Permian, as has often been claimed. PMID:27698119

  18. Mass transport waves amplified by intense Greenland melt and detected in solid Earth deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E.

    2017-05-01

    The annual cycle and secular trend of Greenland mass loading are well recorded in measurements of solid Earth deformation. Horizontal crustal displacements can potentially track the spatiotemporal detail of mass changes with great fidelity. Our analysis of Greenland crustal motion data reveals that a significant excitation of horizontal amplitudes occurs during the intense melt years. We discover that solitary seasonal waves of substantial mass transport (1.67 ± 0.54 Gt/month) traveled at an average speed of 7.1 km/month through Rink Glacier in 2012. We deduce that intense surface melting enhanced either basal lubrication or softening of shear margins, or both, causing the glacier to thin dynamically in summer. The newly routed upstream subglacial water was likely to be both retarded and inefficient, thus providing a causal mechanism for the prolonged ice transport to continue well into the winter months. As the climate continues to produce increasingly warmer spring and summer, amplified seasonal waves of mass transport may become ever more present with important ramifications for the future sea level rise.

  19. Launch Vehicles

    2007-09-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. Launch Pad 39B of the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC), currently used for Space Shuttle launches, will be revised to host the Ares launch vehicles. The fixed and rotating service structures standing at the pad will be dismantled sometime after the Ares I-X test flight. A new launch tower for Ares I will be built onto a new mobile launch platform. The gantry for the shuttle doesn't reach much higher than the top of the four segments of the solid rocket booster. Pad access above the current shuttle launch pad structure will not be required for Ares I-X because the stages above the solid rocket booster are inert. For the test scheduled in 2012 or for the crewed flights, workers and astronauts will need access to the highest levels of the rocket and capsule. When the Ares I rocket rolls out to the launch pad on the back of the same crawler-transporters used now, its launch gantry will be with it. The mobile launchers will nestle under three lightning protection towers to be erected around the pad area. Ares time at the launch pad will be significantly less than the three weeks or more the shuttle requires. This “clean pad” approach minimizes equipment and servicing at the launch pad. It is the same plan NASA used with the Saturn V rockets and industry employs it with more modern launchers. The launch pad will also get a new emergency escape system for astronauts, one that looks very much like a roller coaster. Cars riding on a rail will replace the familiar baskets hanging from steel cables. This artist's concept illustrates the Ares I on launch pad 39B.

  20. Using the Earth as a guide to martian mass movement processes: From form to process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, N.; Newsom, H. E.; Osterloo, M. M.; Okubo, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of gully features on Mars has led to renewed interest in hillslope processes on that planet, in particular mass movement and the morphologies that it produces. Mass movement is a collection of gravity-driven processes that act to move materials down a hillslope. Here, we examine how mass movements on hillslopes may be expected to differ on Earth and Mars as the result of gravity differences between these planets. Downslope movement of unconsolidated materials is generally controlled by the bulk shear strength of these materials. Although the relationship between gravity and shear strength is largely dependent on variables that are independent of gravity, the lower gravity on Mars is expected to produce some systematic changes in mass movement behaviors that may in turn create morphological features that are observably different from their terrestrial counterparts. After scaling for gravity and modifying empirically derived relationships, we may expect the following differences on martian hillslopes when compared to their terrestrial counterparts: ==On Mars, hillslopes may have steeper angles of repose in fine grained (< ~2 mm) materials, even when dry. No change in angle of repose is expected for larger particles; ==An increase in soil moisture content (e.g., excess pore pressure) is expected to weaken unconsolidated slope materials more on Mars for a particular regolith type, which in turn may produce --An increase in creep rates for a given pore pressure, and --An increase in effectiveness of frost heave to transport materials downslope; ==Processes triggered by saturation may occur at lower pore pressures on Mars; --A smaller amount of fluid is needed to achieve failure; ==Shorter runout lengths are expected for rapid mass movements; ==On Mars, overland flow will exert a proportionally lower shear stress on slope materials; --In cohesive materials, the same volume of water will detach sediments of smaller sizes. On Earth, mass movement processes

  1. Two stage launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Space Design project for 1986-87 was the design of a two stage launch vehicle, representing a second generation space transportation system (STS) which will be needed to support the space station. The first stage is an unmanned winged booster which is fully reusable with a fly back capability. It has jet engines so that it can fly back to the landing site. This adds safety as well as the flexibility to choose alternate landing sites. There are two different second stages. One of the second stages is a manned advanced space shuttle called Space Shuttle II. Space Shuttle II has a payload capability of delivering 40,000 pounds to the space station in low Earth orbit (LEO), and returning 40,000 pounds to Earth. Servicing the space station makes the ability to return a heavy payload to Earth as important as being able to launch a heavy payload. The other second stage is an unmanned heavy lift cargo vehicle with ability to deliver 150,000 pounds of payload to LEO. This vehicle will not return to Earth; however, the engines and electronics can be removed and returned to Earth in the Space Shuttle II. The rest of the vehicle can then be used on orbit for storage or raw materials, supplies, and space manufactured items awaiting transport back to Earth.

  2. Electric Propulsion for Low Earth Orbit Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Sankovic, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Hall Effect electric propulsion was evaluated for orbit insertion, satellite repositioning, orbit maintenance and de-orbit applications for a sample low earth orbit satellite constellation. Since the low masses of these satellites enable multiple spacecraft per launch, the ability to add spacecraft to a given launch was used as a figure of merit. When compared to chemical propulsion, the Hall thruster system can add additional spacecraft per launch using planned payload power levels. One satellite can be added to the assumed four satellite baseline chemical launch without additional mission times. Two or three satellites may be added by providing part of the orbit insertion with the Hall system. In these cases orbit insertion times were found to be 35 and 62 days. Depending on the electric propulsion scenario, the resulting launch vehicle savings is nearly two, three or four Delta 7920 launch vehicles out of the chemical baseline scenarios eight Delta 7920 launch vehicles.

  3. Electric Propulsion for Low Earth Orbit Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Sankovic, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Hall effect electric propulsion was evaluated for orbit insertion, satellite repositioning, orbit maintenance and de-orbit applications for a sample low earth orbit satellite constellation. Since the low masses of these satellites enable multiple spacecraft per launch, the ability to add spacecraft to a given launch was used as a figure of merit. When compared to chemical propulsion, the Hall thruster system can add additional spacecraft per launch using planned payload power levels. One satellite can be added to the assumed four satellite baseline chemical launch without additional mission times. Two or three satellites may be added by providing part of the orbit insertion with the Hall system. In these cases orbit insertion times were found to be 35 and 62 days. Depending, on the electric propulsion scenario, the resulting launch vehicle savings is nearly two, three or four Delta 7920 launch vehicles out of the chemical baseline scenario's eight Delta 7920 launch vehicles.

  4. NPP Satellite Launch

    2011-10-28

    The Satellite Operations Facility of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is seen here minutes before the launch of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) on Friday, Oct. 28, 2011 in Suitland, Md. NPP is a joint venture between NASA and NOAA, and is the nation's newest Earth-observing satellite, which will provide data on climate change science, allow for accurate weather forecasts and advance warning for severe weather. NPP was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. NPP Satellite Launch

    2011-10-28

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, left, watches the launch of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite Operations Center on Friday, Oct. 28, 2011 in Suitland, Md. U.S Congresswoman Donna Edwards, D-Md., is seen next to Garver. NPP is a joint venture between NASA and NOAA, and is the nation's newest Earth-observing satellite, which will provide data on climate change science, allow for accurate weather forecasts and advance warning for severe weather. NPP was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. NPP Satellite Launch

    2011-10-28

    Dr. Kathy Sullivan, center, Deputy Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and former NASA astronaut is interviewed by a local television network at NOAA's Satellite Operations Facility in Suitland, Md. after the successful launch of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) on Friday, Oct. 28, 2011. NPP is a joint venture between NASA and NOAA, and is the nation's newest Earth-observing satellite, which will provide data on climate change science, allow for accurate weather forecasts and advance warning for severe weather. NPP was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov, bottom, Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, top, wave farewell from the steps of the Soyuz launch pad prior to their launch in the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The three crew members are scheduled to dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. LAUNCH - APOLLO 9 - CAPE

    1969-03-03

    S69-25861 (3 March 1969) --- The Apollo 9 (Spacecraft 104/Lunar Module 3/ Saturn 504) space vehicle is launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) at 11 a.m. (EST), March 3, 1969. Aboard the spacecraft are astronauts James A. McDivitt, commander; David R. Scott, command module pilot; and Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot. The Apollo 9 mission will evaluate spacecraft lunar module systems performance during manned Earth-orbital flight. Apollo 9 is the second manned Saturn V mission.

  9. LAUNCH - APOLLO 9 - CAPE

    1969-03-03

    S69-25862 (3 March 1969) --- Framed by palm trees in the foreground, the Apollo 9 (Spacecraft 104/Lunar Module 3/ Saturn 504) space vehicle is launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) at 11 a.m. (EST), March 3, 1969. Aboard the spacecraft are astronauts James A. McDivitt, commander; David R. Scott, command module pilot; and Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot. The Apollo 9 mission will evaluate spacecraft lunar module systems performance during manned Earth-orbital flight. Apollo 9 is the second manned Saturn V mission.

  10. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The first stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is ready to be lifted up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-15

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The first stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is ready to be lifted up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  11. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - Viewed from inside, the second stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is lifted up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-18

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - Viewed from inside, the second stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is lifted up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  12. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The interstage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is moved into the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., where it will be mated with the second stage. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-16

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The interstage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is moved into the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., where it will be mated with the second stage. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  13. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The first stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment arrives at Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-15

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The first stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment arrives at Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  14. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The first stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is lifted up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-15

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The first stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is lifted up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  15. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The second stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is lifted up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-18

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The second stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is lifted up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  16. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The second stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is moved into the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. Behind it can be seen the first stage of the Delta II. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-18

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The second stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is moved into the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. Behind it can be seen the first stage of the Delta II. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  17. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - Workers on the mobile service tower at Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., check the Delta II rocket’s second stage as it is mated with the first stage. The Delta II is the launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment, developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-18

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - Workers on the mobile service tower at Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., check the Delta II rocket’s second stage as it is mated with the first stage. The Delta II is the launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment, developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  18. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The interstage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is prepared for lifting up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. It will enclose the second stage. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-16

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The interstage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is prepared for lifting up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. It will enclose the second stage. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  19. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The second stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment arrives at the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-12

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The second stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment arrives at the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  20. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The first stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is raised to a vertical position at Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-15

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The first stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is raised to a vertical position at Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  1. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The interstage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is moved into the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., where it will be mated with the second stage. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-12

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The interstage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is moved into the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., where it will be mated with the second stage. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  2. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - Viewed from inside, the second stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is lifted up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. Behind it is the first stage of the Delta II. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-18

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - Viewed from inside, the second stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is lifted up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. Behind it is the first stage of the Delta II. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  3. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The interstage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is lifted up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. It will enclose the second stage. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-16

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The interstage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is lifted up the mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. It will enclose the second stage. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  4. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., rolls back from the Delta II rocket that will launch the Gravity Probe B experiment. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-12

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The mobile service tower on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., rolls back from the Delta II rocket that will launch the Gravity Probe B experiment. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  5. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The second stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is lifted off the transporter after its arrival on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-18

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - The second stage of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Gravity Probe B experiment is lifted off the transporter after its arrival on Space Launch Complex 2, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The experiment was developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  6. No Launch Before Its Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Bill

    2004-01-01

    Aura is an Earth-observing satellite developed to help us study the quality of the air we breathe. It will look at the state of the ozone and the atmospheric composition in regards to the Earth's changing climate. I headed to California on July 5, 2004. The plan was that the satellite would launch on the tenth, but we had a few problems getting it off. This was the fifty-ninth launch of my career, and it was also a little different than most of my previous launches. Most of the time it's weather that postpones a launch; there aren't usually that many technical issues this late in the game. This time. however, we had several problems, equally split between the launch vehicle and the spacecraft. I remember a member of the crew asking me, 'Is this normal?' And in my experience, it wasn't.

  7. Revisiting ρ1 Cancri e: A New Mass Determination of the Transiting Super-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endl, Michael; Robertson, Paul; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Brugamyer, Erik J.; Caldwell, Caroline; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Barnes, Stuart I.; Gullikson, Kevin

    2012-11-01

    We present a mass determination for the transiting super-Earth ρ1 Cancri e based on nearly 700 precise radial velocity (RV) measurements. This extensive RV data set consists of data collected by the McDonald Observatory planet search and published data from Lick and Keck observatories. We obtained 212 RV measurements with the Tull Coudé Spectrograph at the Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m Telescope and combined them with a new Doppler reduction of the 131 spectra that we have taken in 2003-2004 with the High-Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope for the original discovery of ρ1 Cancri e. Using this large data set we obtain a five-planet Keplerian orbital solution for the system and measure an RV semi-amplitude of K = 6.29 ± 0.21 m s-1 for ρ1 Cnc e and determine a mass of 8.37 ± 0.38 M ⊕. The uncertainty in mass is thus less than 5%. This planet was previously found to transit its parent star, which allowed them to estimate its radius. Combined with the latest radius estimate from Gillon et al., we obtain a mean density of ρ = 4.50 ± 0.20 g cm-3. The location of ρ1 Cnc e in the mass-radius diagram suggests that the planet contains a significant amount of volatiles, possibly a water-rich envelope surrounding a rocky core. Based partly on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  8. STS-83 launch view.

    2016-08-11

    STS083-S-007 (4 April 1997)--- The Space Shuttle Columbia heads toward Earth-orbit from Launch Pad 39A at 2:20:32 p.m. (EST), April 4, 1997, at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Onboard the spacecraft to support the Microgravity Science Laboratory 1 (MSL-1) mission were astronauts James D. Halsell, commander; Susan L. Still, pilot; Janice E. Voss, payload commander; Michael L. Gernhardt and Donald A. Thomas, both mission specialists; along with payload specialists Roger K. Crouch and Gregory T. Linteris. A problem with a fuel cell caused the crew to cut the mission short and return to Earth on April 8, 1997.

  9. WIND Spacecraft Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An international effort to learn more about the complex interaction between the Earth and Sun took another step forward with the launch of WIND spacecraft from Kennedy Space Center (KSC). WIND spacecraft is studded with eight scientific instruments - six US, one French, and one - the first Russian instrument to fly on a US spacecraft - that collected data about the influence of the solar wind on the Earth and its atmosphere. WIND is part of the Global Geospace Science (GGS) initiative, the US contribution to NASA's International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program.

  10. LAUNCH - STS-1 - KSC

    1981-04-12

    S81-30498 (12 April 1981) --- After six years of silence, the thunder of manned spaceflight is heard again, as the successful launch of the first space shuttle ushers in a new concept in utilization of space. The April 12, 1981 launch, at Pad 39A, just seconds past 7 a.m., carries astronaut John Young and Robert Crippen into an Earth-orbital mission scheduled to last for 54 hours, ending with unpowered landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California. STS-1, the first in a series of shuttle vehicles planned for the Space Transportation System, utilizes reusable launch and return components. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  11. Getting Ready for Launch

    2018-04-06

    NASA's InSight to Mars undergoes final preparations at Vandenberg Air Force Base in Central California, ahead of its launch, expected as early as May 5, 2018. InSight, short for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport, is the first mission dedicated to studying the deep interior of Mars. Its findings will advance understanding of the early history of all rocky planets, including Earth. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22254

  12. On the nature of gravity and possible change of Earth mass during geological time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunov, Valentin

    2015-04-01

    A number of circumstances can't be explained based on view of the constant force of gravity on the Earth: 1. Dimensions of fossil animals and plants. According to the laws of biomechanics of the giant dinosaurs could not move and fly. 2. The movement of continents, reliably described by A.Vegener, can only be explained on the basis of the model increasing the Earth. Gravity is only one of the fields that define the existence of the world. Field and matter are forms that can be converted into each other. Transition is described, in particular, by Poincare, perhaps not quite accurate: E = (K) mc2. There are indications of the existence of the time field (Kozyrev, 1978), which generates energy, and then the following conditional equation: T, where T is a time. Through this relationship generated energy glow of stars and planets, the mass increases. In particular, there is an increase in the mass of the Earth. This confirms the divergence of the continents and reducing the size of the animals and plants in the Earth's history. According to presented model, the size of Earth increased during 100 millions years two times in linear scale and 8 times in volume and mass scales. Understanding of general principle of space development needs collaboration of different specialists and branches of geosciences. The basis of possible scheme is: 1. The nature of gravity is not explained by science, although some of its properties are described with high accuracy, and these descriptions have predictive power. Indeed, what attracted threads of the body without physical contact? 2. The velocity of propagation of gravitational forces in the universe is many times the speed of light. Perhaps it is infinite, although it is not proven. 3. The universe is infinite, as is clear from logical calculations thinkers more ancient period. However, our universe, i.e. of the universe, available to our senses and instruments, is finite. The volume of our universe is 1070 cubic kilometers. The total

  13. Launch Vehicles

    1961-01-01

    This is a comparison illustration of the Redstone, Jupiter-C, and Mercury Redstone launch vehicles. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile. Originally developed as a nose cone re-entry test vehicle for the Jupiter intermediate range ballistic missile, the Jupiter-C was a modification of the Redstone missile and successfully launched the first American Satellite, Explorer-1, in orbit on January 31, 1958. The Mercury Redstone lifted off carrying the first American, astronaut Alan Shepard, in his Mercury spacecraft Freedom 7, on May 5, 1961.

  14. Ares V Launch Capability Enables Future Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Ares V cargo launch vehicle offers the potential to completely change the paradigm of future space science mission architectures. A major finding of the NASA Advanced Telescope and Observatory Capability Roadmap Study was that current launch vehicle mass and volume constraints severely limit future space science missions. And thus, that significant technology development is required to package increasingly larger collecting apertures into existing launch shrouds. The Ares V greatly relaxes these constraints. For example, while a Delta IV has the ability to launch approximate a 4.5 meter diameter payload with a mass of 13,000 kg to L2, the Ares V is projected to have the ability to launch an 8 to 12 meter diameter payload with a mass of 60,000 kg to L2 and 130,000 kg to Low Earth Orbit. This paper summarizes the Ares V payload launch capability and introduces how it might enable new classes of future space telescopes such as 6 to 8 meter class monolithic primary mirror observatories, 15 meter class segmented telescopes, 6 to 8 meter class x-ray telescopes or high-energy particle calorimeters.

  15. eLaunch Hypersonics: An Advanced Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes a new space launch system that NASA can and should develop. This approach can significantly reduce ground processing and launch costs, improve reliability, and broaden the scope of what we do in near earth orbit. The concept (not new) is to launch a re-usable air-breathing hypersonic vehicle from a ground based electric track. This vehicle launches a final rocket stage at high altitude/velocity for the final leg to orbit. The proposal here differs from past studies in that we will launch above Mach 1.5 (above transonic pinch point) which further improves the efficiency of air breathing, horizontal take-off launch systems. The approach described here significantly reduces cost per kilogram to orbit, increases safety and reliability of the boost systems, and reduces ground costs due to horizontal-processing. Finally, this approach provides significant technology transfer benefits for our national infrastructure.

  16. Magnetic Launch Assist System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie demonstrates the Magnetic Launch Assist system, previously referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, for space launch using a 5 foot model of a reusable Bantam Class launch vehicle on a 50 foot track that provided 6-g acceleration and 6-g de-acceleration. Overcoming the grip of Earth's gravity is a supreme challenge for engineers who design rockets that leave the planet. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the takeoff, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  17. The Water Content of Exo-earths in the Habitable Zone around Low-mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, Gijs Dirk; Ciesla, Fred; Pascucci, Ilaria; apai, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of low-mass M dwarf stars have become the focus of many astronomical studies: they are more easily accessible to detection and characterization than their counterparts around sunlike stars. The habitability of these planets, however, faces a number of challenges, including inefficient or negligible water delivery during accretion. To understand the water content of planets in and around the habitable zone, simulations of the final stages of planet formation are necessary.We present detailed accretion simulations of wet and dry planetary embryos around a range of stellar masses. We focus on different pathways of delivering water from beyond the snow line to terrestrial planets in the habitable zone. We explore the impact of using either asteroid-like or comet-like bodies, and the effects of a dispersion in snow line locations. We derive the probability distribution of water abundances for terrestrial sized planets in the habitable zone.While these models predict that the bulk of terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of M stars will be dry, a small fraction receives earth-like amounts of water. Given their larger numbers and higher planet occurrence rates, this population of water-enriched worlds in the habitable zone of M stars may equal that around sun-like stars in numbers.References:Ciesla, Mulders et al. 2015Mulders et al. ApJ subm.

  18. A Dual Launch Robotic and Human Lunar Mission Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David L.; Mulqueen, Jack; Percy, Tom; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David

    2010-01-01

    paper describes a complete transportation architecture including the analysis of transportation element options and sensitivities including: transportation element mass to surface landed mass; lander propellant options; and mission crew size. Based on this analysis, initial design concepts for the launch vehicle, crew module and lunar lander are presented. The paper also describes how the dual launch lunar mission architecture would fit into a more general overarching human space exploration philosophy that would allow expanded application of mission transportation elements for missions beyond the Earth-moon realm.

  19. Launch Vehicles

    1992-09-25

    Titan III vehicle launched the Mars Observer spacecraft and the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 25, 1992. Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), TOS will fire to send the Observer on an 11-month interplanetary journey to the Mars. The Observer failed to reach the Mars orbit in August 1993.

  20. GRYPHON: Air launched space booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-06-01

    The project chosen for the winter semester Aero 483 class was the design of a next generation Air Launched Space Booster. Based on Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus concept, the goal of Aero 483 was to design a 500,000 pound air launched space booster capable of delivering 17,000 pounds of payload to Low Earth Orbit and 8,000 pounds of payload to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit. The resulting launch vehicle was named the Gryphon. The class of forty senior aerospace engineering students was broken down into eight interdependent groups. Each group was assigned a subsystem or responsibility which then became their field of specialization. Spacecraft Integration was responsible for ensuring compatibility between subsystems. This group kept up to date on subsystem redesigns and informed those parties affected by the changes, monitored the vehicle's overall weight and dimensions, and calculated the mass properties of the booster. This group also performed the cost/profitability analysis of the Gryphon and obtained cost data for competing launch systems. The Mission Analysis Group was assigned the task of determining proper orbits, calculating the vehicle's flight trajectory for those orbits, and determining the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The Propulsion Group chose the engines that were best suited to the mission. This group also set the staging configurations for those engines and designed the tanks and fuel feed system. The commercial satellite market, dimensions and weights of typical satellites, and method of deploying satellites was determined by the Payloads Group. In addition, Payloads identified possible resupply packages for Space Station Freedom and identified those packages that were compatible with the Gryphon. The guidance, navigation, and control subsystems were designed by the Mission Control Group. This group identified required tracking hardware, communications hardware telemetry systems, and ground sites for the location of the Gryphon

  1. GRYPHON: Air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The project chosen for the winter semester Aero 483 class was the design of a next generation Air Launched Space Booster. Based on Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus concept, the goal of Aero 483 was to design a 500,000 pound air launched space booster capable of delivering 17,000 pounds of payload to Low Earth Orbit and 8,000 pounds of payload to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit. The resulting launch vehicle was named the Gryphon. The class of forty senior aerospace engineering students was broken down into eight interdependent groups. Each group was assigned a subsystem or responsibility which then became their field of specialization. Spacecraft Integration was responsible for ensuring compatibility between subsystems. This group kept up to date on subsystem redesigns and informed those parties affected by the changes, monitored the vehicle's overall weight and dimensions, and calculated the mass properties of the booster. This group also performed the cost/profitability analysis of the Gryphon and obtained cost data for competing launch systems. The Mission Analysis Group was assigned the task of determining proper orbits, calculating the vehicle's flight trajectory for those orbits, and determining the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The Propulsion Group chose the engines that were best suited to the mission. This group also set the staging configurations for those engines and designed the tanks and fuel feed system. The commercial satellite market, dimensions and weights of typical satellites, and method of deploying satellites was determined by the Payloads Group. In addition, Payloads identified possible resupply packages for Space Station Freedom and identified those packages that were compatible with the Gryphon. The guidance, navigation, and control subsystems were designed by the Mission Control Group. This group identified required tracking hardware, communications hardware telemetry systems, and ground sites for the location of the Gryphon

  2. NASA's Space Launch System: A Cornerstone Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Under construction today, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS), managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, will provide a robust new capability for human and robotic exploration beyond Earth orbit. The vehicle's initial configuration, scheduled for first launch in 2017, will enable human missions into lunar space and beyond, as well as provide game-changing benefits for space science missions, including offering substantially reduced transit times for conventionally designed spacecraft. From there, the vehicle will undergo a series of block upgrades via an evolutionary development process designed to expedite mission capture as capability increases. The Space Launch System offers multiple benefits for a variety of utilization areas. From a mass-lift perspective, the initial configuration of the vehicle, capable of delivering 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), will be the world's most powerful launch vehicle. Optimized for missions beyond Earth orbit, it will also be the world's only exploration-class launch vehicle capable of delivering 25 t to lunar orbit. The evolved configuration, with a capability of 130 t to LEO, will be the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown. From a volume perspective, SLS will be compatible with the payload envelopes of contemporary launch vehicles, but will also offer options for larger fairings with unprecedented volume-lift capability. The vehicle's mass-lift capability also means that it offers extremely high characteristic energy for missions into deep space. This paper will discuss the impacts that these factors - mass-lift, volume, and characteristic energy - have on a variety of mission classes, particularly human exploration and space science. It will address the vehicle's capability to enable existing architectures for deep-space exploration, such as those documented in the Global Exploration Roadmap, a capabilities-driven outline for future deep-space voyages created

  3. Launching rockets and small satellites from the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, K. A.; Dougherty, W. M.; Pankow, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Scientific payloads and their propulsion systems optimized for launch from the lunar surface differ considerably from their counterparts for use on earth. For spin-stabilized payloads, the preferred shape is a large diameter-to-length ratio to provide stability during the thrust phase. The rocket motor required for a 50-kg payload to reach an altitude of one lunar radius would have a mass of about 41 kg. To place spin-stabilized vehicles into low altitude circular orbits, they are first launched into an elliptical orbit with altitude about 840 km at aposelene. When the spacecraft crosses the desired circular orbit, small retro-rockets are fired to attain the appropriate direction and speed. Values of the launch angle, velocity increments, and other parameters for circular orbits of several altitudes are tabulated. To boost a 50-kg payload into a 100-km altitude circular orbit requires a total rocket motor mass of about 90 kg.

  4. Launching rockets and small satellites from the lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. A.; Dougherty, W. M.; Pankow, D. H.

    Scientific payloads and their propulsion systems optimized for launch from the lunar surface differ considerably from their counterparts for use on earth. For spin-stabilized payloads, the preferred shape is a large diameter-to-length ratio to provide stability during the thrust phase. The rocket motor required for a 50-kg payload to reach an altitude of one lunar radius would have a mass of about 41 kg. To place spin-stabilized vehicles into low altitude circular orbits, they are first launched into an elliptical orbit with altitude about 840 km at aposelene. When the spacecraft crosses the desired circular orbit, small retro-rockets are fired to attain the appropriate direction and speed. Values of the launch angle, velocity increments, and other parameters for circular orbits of several altitudes are tabulated. To boost a 50-kg payload into a 100-km altitude circular orbit requires a total rocket motor mass of about 90 kg.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Delta II Heavy rocket waits the arrival of the mobile service tower with three additional solid rocket boosters (SRBs). Nine 46-inch-diameter, stretched SRBs will help launch the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-07-22

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the Delta II Heavy rocket waits the arrival of the mobile service tower with three additional solid rocket boosters (SRBs). Nine 46-inch-diameter, stretched SRBs will help launch the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A solid rocket booster (SRB) for the Delta II Heavy rocket that will launch the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) arrives at Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The Delta II Heavy features nine 46-inch-diameter, stretched SRBs. Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-07-22

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A solid rocket booster (SRB) for the Delta II Heavy rocket that will launch the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) arrives at Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The Delta II Heavy features nine 46-inch-diameter, stretched SRBs. Consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the upper canister is lowered toward the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) below. After encapsulation is complete, the spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-08-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the upper canister is lowered toward the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) below. After encapsulation is complete, the spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers on Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, prepare the first stage of a Delta II rocket for its lift up the mobile service tower. The rocket is being erected to launch the Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-07-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers on Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, prepare the first stage of a Delta II rocket for its lift up the mobile service tower. The rocket is being erected to launch the Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first stage of a Delta II rocket arrives at the pad. The rocket is being erected to launch the Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-07-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first stage of a Delta II rocket arrives at the pad. The rocket is being erected to launch the Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Working from a stand, technicians fasten the upper portion of the canister to the middle panels around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-08-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Working from a stand, technicians fasten the upper portion of the canister to the middle panels around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A worker at Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, tightens the canister around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-08-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A worker at Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, tightens the canister around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first stage of a Delta II rocket is moved into the mobile service tower. The rocket is being erected to launch the Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-07-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first stage of a Delta II rocket is moved into the mobile service tower. The rocket is being erected to launch the Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, encapsulation of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is complete. The spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-08-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, encapsulation of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is complete. The spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first stage of a Delta II rocket is raised off the transporter before lifting and moving it into the mobile service tower. The rocket is being erected to launch the Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-07-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first stage of a Delta II rocket is raised off the transporter before lifting and moving it into the mobile service tower. The rocket is being erected to launch the Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers at Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, place the middle row of panels to encapsulate the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-08-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers at Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, place the middle row of panels to encapsulate the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first stage of a Delta II rocket waits to be lifted up and moved into the mobile service tower. The rocket is being erected to launch the Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-07-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first stage of a Delta II rocket waits to be lifted up and moved into the mobile service tower. The rocket is being erected to launch the Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first stage of a Delta II rocket is lifted up the mobile service tower. In the background is pad 17-A. The rocket is being erected to launch the Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-07-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first stage of a Delta II rocket is lifted up the mobile service tower. In the background is pad 17-A. The rocket is being erected to launch the Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first stage of a Delta II rocket is nearly erect for its move into the mobile service tower. The rocket is being erected to launch the Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-07-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first stage of a Delta II rocket is nearly erect for its move into the mobile service tower. The rocket is being erected to launch the Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A worker at Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, place the lower panels of the canister around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-08-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A worker at Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, place the lower panels of the canister around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first stage of a Delta II rocket waits to be lifted up into the mobile service tower. The rocket is being erected to launch the Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-07-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the first stage of a Delta II rocket waits to be lifted up into the mobile service tower. The rocket is being erected to launch the Space InfraRed Telescope Facility (SIRTF). Consisting of an 0.85-meter telescope and three cryogenically cooled science instruments, SIRTF is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the upper canister is mated to the middle panels around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-08-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the upper canister is mated to the middle panels around the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers at Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, lower the upper canister toward the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) below. After encapsulation is complete, the spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-08-07

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers at Hangar A&E, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, lower the upper canister toward the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) below. After encapsulation is complete, the spacecraft will be transported to Launch Complex 17-B for mating with its launch vehicle, the Delta II rocket. SIRTF consists of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, and is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  3. Space Logistics: Launch Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furnas, Randall B.

    1989-01-01

    The current maximum launch capability for the United States are shown. The predicted Earth-to-orbit requirements for the United States are presented. Contrasting the two indicates the strong National need for a major increase in Earth-to-orbit lift capability. Approximate weights for planned payloads are shown. NASA is studying the following options to meet the need for a new heavy-lift capability by mid to late 1990's: (1) Shuttle-C for near term (include growth versions); and (2) the Advanced Lauching System (ALS) for the long term. The current baseline two-engine Shuttle-C has a 15 x 82 ft payload bay and an expected lift capability of 82,000 lb to Low Earth Orbit. Several options are being considered which have expanded diameter payload bays. A three-engine Shuttle-C with an expected lift of 145,000 lb to LEO is being evaluated as well. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a potential joint development between the Air Force and NASA. This program is focused toward long-term launch requirements, specifically beyond the year 2000. The basic approach is to develop a family of vehicles with the same high reliability as the Shuttle system, yet offering a much greater lift capability at a greatly reduced cost (per pound of payload). The ALS unmanned family of vehicles will provide a low end lift capability equivalent to Titan IV, and a high end lift capability greater than the Soviet Energia if requirements for such a high-end vehicle are defined.In conclusion, the planning of the next generation space telescope should not be constrained to the current launch vehicles. New vehicle designs will be driven by the needs of anticipated heavy users.

  4. Launch Vehicles

    2004-04-15

    The Titan II liftoff. The Titan II launch vehicle was used for carrying astronauts on the Gemini mission. The Gemini Program was an intermediate step between the Project Mercury and the Apollo Program. The major objectives were to subject are two men and supporting equipment to long duration flights, to effect rendezvous and docking with other orbiting vehicle, and to perfect methods of reentry, and landing the spacecraft.

  5. Launch Vehicles

    2007-09-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The launch vehicle's first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor that burns a specially formulated and shaped solid propellant called polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN). The second or upper stage will be propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This HD video image depicts a test firing of a 40k subscale J2X injector at MSFC's test stand 115. (Highest resolution available)

  6. Launch Vehicles

    2007-09-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry 1/2% model is undergoing pressure measurements inside the wind tunnel testing facility at MSFC. (Highest resolution available)

  7. Launch Vehicles

    2007-07-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, an Ares I x-test involves the upper stage separating from the first stage. This particular test was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in July 2007. (Highest resolution available)

  8. Earth-mass haloes and the emergence of NFW density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, Raul E.; Hahn, Oliver; Ludlow, Aaron D.; Bonoli, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    We simulate neutralino dark matter (χDM) haloes from their initial collapse, at ˜ earth mass, up to a few percent solar. Our results confirm that the density profiles of the first haloes are described by a ˜r-1.5 power law. As haloes grow in mass, their density profiles evolve significantly. In the central regions, they become shallower and reach on average ˜r-1, the asymptotic form of an NFW profile. Using non-cosmological controlled simulations, we observe that temporal variations in the gravitational potential caused by major mergers lead to a shallowing of the inner profile. This transformation is more significant for shallower initial profiles and for a higher number of merging systems. Depending on the merger details, the resulting profiles can be shallower or steeper than NFW in their inner regions. Interestingly, mergers have a much weaker effect when the profile is given by a broken power law with an inner slope of -1 (such as NFW or Hernquist profiles). This offers an explanation for the emergence of NFW-like profiles: after their initial collapse, r-1.5 χDM haloes suffer copious major mergers, which progressively shallows the profile. Once an NFW-like profile is established, subsequent merging does not change the profile anymore. This suggests that halo profiles are not universal but rather a combination of (1) the physics of the formation of the microhaloes and (2) their early merger history - both set by the properties of the dark matter particle - as well as (3) the resilience of NFW-like profiles to perturbations.

  9. Launch Vehicle Selection and the Implementation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Sarah; Waydo, Peter; Eremenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) is a NASA-developed Earth science satellite currently mapping the soil moisture content and freeze/thaw state of Earth's land mass from a 685km, near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. It was launched on January 31, 2015 from Vandenberg AFB upon a Delta II 7320 launch vehicle. Due to external considerations, SMAP's launch vehicle selection remained an open item until Project Critical Design Review (CDR). Thus, certain key aspects of the spacecraft design had to accommodate a diverse range of candidate launch vehicle environments, performance envelopes, interfaces and operational scenarios. Engineering challenges stemmed from two distinct scenarios: decisions that had to be made prior to launch vehicle selection to accommodate all possible outcomes, and post-selection changes constrained by schedule and the existing spacecraft configuration. The effects of the timing of launch vehicle selection reached virtually every aspect of the Observatory's design and development. Physical environments, mass allocations, material selections, propulsion system performance, dynamic response, launch phase and mission planning, overall size and configuration, and of course all interfaces to the launch vehicle were heavily dependent on this outcome. This paper will discuss the resolution of these technical challenges.

  10. Determination of the rare-earth elements in geological materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Lichte, F.E.; Meier, A.L.; Crock, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    A method of analysis of geological materials for the determination of the rare-earth elements using the Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric technique (ICP-MS) has been developed. Instrumental parameters and factors affecting analytical results have been first studied and then optimized. Samples are analyzed directly following an acid digestion, without the need for separation or preconcentration with limits of detection of 2-11 ng/g, precision of ?? 2.5% relative standard deviation, and accuracy comparable to inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. A commercially available ICP-MS instrument is used with modifications to the sample introduction system, torch, and sampler orifice to reduce the effects of high salt content of sample solutions prepared from geologic materials. Corrections for isobaric interferences from oxide ions and other diatomic and triatomic ions are made mathematically. Special internal standard procedures are used to compensate for drift in metahmetal oxide ratios and sensitivity. Reference standard values are used to verify the accuracy and utility of the method.

  11. Earth-mass dark-matter haloes as the first structures in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Diemand, J; Moore, B; Stadel, J

    2005-01-27

    The Universe was nearly smooth and homogeneous before a redshift of z = 100, about 20 million years after the Big Bang. After this epoch, the tiny fluctuations imprinted upon the matter distribution during the initial expansion began to collapse because of gravity. The properties of these fluctuations depend on the unknown nature of dark matter, the determination of which is one of the biggest challenges in present-day science. Here we report supercomputer simulations of the concordance cosmological model, which assumes neutralino dark matter (at present the preferred candidate), and find that the first objects to form are numerous Earth-mass dark-matter haloes about as large as the Solar System. They are stable against gravitational disruption, even within the central regions of the Milky Way. We expect over 10(15) to survive within the Galactic halo, with one passing through the Solar System every few thousand years. The nearest structures should be among the brightest sources of gamma-rays (from particle-particle annihilation).

  12. GIANO and HARPS-N together: towards an Earth-mass detection instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozzi, A.; Oliva, E.; Iuzzolino, M.; Fini, L.; Puglisi, A.; Sozzi, M.; Falcini, G.; Carbonaro, L.; Ghedina, A.; Mercatelli, L.; Seemann, U.; Claudi, R.

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the works we are doing for modifying the interface between the high resolution infrared spectrograph GIANO (0.97-2.4 micron) and the TNG telescope, passing from a fiber feed configuration to the original design of a direct light-feeding from the telescope to the spectrograph. So doing the IR spectrograph, GIANO, will work in parallel to HARPS-N spectrometer (0.38-0.70 micron), the visible high resolution spectrograph, thanks to a new telescope interface based on a dichroic window that simultaneously feeds the two instrumentes: this is GIARPS (GIAno and haRPS). The scientific aims of this project are to improve the radial velocity accuracy achievable with GIANO, down to a goal of 1 m/s, the value necessary to detect Earth-mass planets on habitable orbits around late-M stars, to implement simultaneous observations with Harps-N and GIANO optimizing the study of planets around cool stars. The very broad wavelengths range is particularly important to discriminate false radial velocity signals caused by stellar activity. We therefore include several absorption cells with different mixtures of gases and a stabilized Fabry Perot cavity, necessary to have absorption lines over the 0.97-2.4 microns range covered by GIANO. The commissioning of GIARPS is scheduled by the end of 2016.

  13. Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships for Blunt-Body, Earth Entry Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven A.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2015-01-01

    System analysis and design of any entry system must balance the level fidelity for each discipline against the project timeline. One way to inject high fidelity analysis earlier in the design effort is to develop surrogate models for the high-fidelity disciplines. Surrogate models for the Thermal Protection System (TPS) are formulated as Mass Estimating Relationships (MERs). The TPS MERs are presented that predict the amount of TPS necessary for safe Earth entry for blunt-body spacecraft using simple correlations that closely match estimates from NASA's high-fidelity ablation modeling tool, the Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Analysis Program (FIAT). These MERs provide a first order estimate for rapid feasibility studies. There are 840 different trajectories considered in this study, and each TPS MER has a peak heating limit. MERs for the vehicle forebody include the ablators Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon. For the aftbody, the materials are Silicone Impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablator (SIRCA), Acusil II, SLA-561V, and LI-900. The MERs are accurate to within 14% (at one standard deviation) of FIAT prediction, and the most any MER under predicts FIAT TPS thickness is 18.7%. This work focuses on the development of these MERs, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy.

  14. Modulation of red cell mass by neocytolysis in space and on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, L.; Alfrey, C. P.

    2000-01-01

    Astronauts predictably experience anemia after return from space. Upon entering microgravity, the blood volume in the extremities pools centrally and plasma volume decreases, causing plethora and erythropoietin suppression. There ensues neocytolysis, selective hemolysis of the youngest circulating red cells, allowing rapid adaptation to the space environment but becoming maladaptive on re-entry to a gravitational field. The existence of this physiologic control process was confirmed in polycythemic high-altitude dwellers transported to sea level. Pathologic neocytolysis contributes to the anemia of renal failure. Understanding the process has implications for optimizing erythropoietin-dosing schedules and the therapy of other human disorders. Human and rodent models of neocytolysis are being created to help find out how interactions between endothelial cells, reticuloendothelial phagocytes and young erythrocytes are altered, and to shed light on the expression of surface adhesion molecules underlying this process. Thus, unraveling a problem for space travelers has uncovered a physiologic process controlling the red cell mass that can be applied to human disorders on Earth.

  15. Gap opening after merger events of 3-Earth-mass protoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broz, Miroslav; Chrenko, Ondrej

    2017-10-01

    While several-Earth-mass protoplanets can gain non-negligible eccentricities due to their interactions with the gaseous disk and ongoing pebble accretion (so called hot trail effect; see the contribution of Chrenko et al. 2017 for details), there is a opened pathway for giant-planet core formation by means of close encounters and eventual merging. As soon as a massive (~13 M_E) merger is formed, it seems necessary to account for one additional term in the set of hydrodynamic equations, namely the gas accretion, which may affect subsequent orbital evolution, and eventually change Type-I migration to Type-II. Using similar approximations as Crida and Bitsch (2017), we prolong our previous simulations towards the onset of gap opening.At the same time, we try to address the observability of these events, e.g. by ALMA in its full configuration. Because the disk is still mostly optically thick in the vertical direction (tau =~ 100), it is necessary to properly model the disk atmosphere. In the midplane, the mean-free path of gas molecules is small enough to assure a sufficient thermal contact and equilibrium between the gas and dust. This is no more true far from the midplane and one has to use a non-equilibrium model (e.g. Radmc-3d code) for the description of dust grain temperatures, resulting synthetic image, or emergent spectrum.

  16. Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships For Blunt-Body, Earth Entry Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven A.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2015-01-01

    Mass estimating relationships (MERs) are developed to predict the amount of thermal protection system (TPS) necessary for safe Earth entry for blunt-body spacecraft using simple correlations that are non-ITAR and closely match estimates from NASA's highfidelity ablation modeling tool, the Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Analysis Program (FIAT). These MERs provide a first order estimate for rapid feasibility studies. There are 840 different trajectories considered in this study, and each TPS MER has a peak heating limit. MERs for the vehicle forebody include the ablators Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon. For the aftbody, the materials are Silicone Impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablator (SIRCA), Acusil II, SLA- 561V, and LI-900. The MERs are accurate to within 14% (at one standard deviation) of FIAT prediction, and the most any MER can under predict FIAT TPS thickness is 18.7%. This work focuses on the development of these MERs, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy.

  17. Pebble-isolation mass: Scaling law and implications for the formation of super-Earths and gas giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsch, Bertram; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Johansen, Anders; Lega, Elena; Lambrechts, Michiel; Crida, Aurélien

    2018-04-01

    The growth of a planetary core by pebble accretion stops at the so-called pebble isolation mass, when the core generates a pressure bump that traps drifting pebbles outside its orbit. The value of the pebble isolation mass is crucial in determining the final planet mass. If the isolation mass is very low, gas accretion is protracted and the planet remains at a few Earth masses with a mainly solid composition. For higher values of the pebble isolation mass, the planet might be able to accrete gas from the protoplanetary disc and grow into a gas giant. Previous works have determined a scaling of the pebble isolation mass with cube of the disc aspect ratio. Here, we expand on previous measurements and explore the dependency of the pebble isolation mass on all relevant parameters of the protoplanetary disc. We use 3D hydrodynamical simulations to measure the pebble isolation mass and derive a simple scaling law that captures the dependence on the local disc structure and the turbulent viscosity parameter α. We find that small pebbles, coupled to the gas, with Stokes number τf < 0.005 can drift through the partial gap at pebble isolation mass. However, as the planetary mass increases, particles must be decreasingly smaller to penetrate the pressure bump. Turbulent diffusion of particles, however, can lead to an increase of the pebble isolation mass by a factor of two, depending on the strength of the background viscosity and on the pebble size. We finally explore the implications of the new scaling law of the pebble isolation mass on the formation of planetary systems by numerically integrating the growth and migration pathways of planets in evolving protoplanetary discs. Compared to models neglecting the dependence of the pebble isolation mass on the α-viscosity, our models including this effect result in higher core masses for giant planets. These higher core masses are more similar to the core masses of the giant planets in the solar system.

  18. Much Lower Launch Costs Make Resupply Cheaper than Recycling for Space Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    The development of commercial launch vehicles by SpaceX has greatly reduced the cost of launching mass to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Reusable launch vehicles may further reduce the launch cost per kilogram. The new low launch cost makes open loop life support much cheaper than before. Open loop systems resupply water and oxygen in tanks for crew use and provide disposable lithium hydroxide (LiOH) in canisters to remove carbon dioxide. Short human space missions such as Apollo and shuttle have used open loop life support, but the long duration International Space Station (ISS) recycles water and oxygen and removes carbon dioxide with a regenerative molecular sieve. These ISS regenerative and recycling life support systems have significantly reduced the total launch mass needed for life support. But, since the development cost of recycling systems is much higher than the cost of tanks and canisters, the relative cost savings have been much less than the launch mass savings. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) includes development, launch, and operations. If another space station was built in LEO, resupply life support would be much cheaper than the current recycling systems. The mission most favorable to recycling would be a long term lunar base, since the resupply mass would be large, the proximity to Earth would reduce the need for recycling reliability and spares, and the launch cost would be much higher than for LEO due to the need for lunar transit and descent propulsion systems. For a ten-year lunar base, the new low launch costs make resupply cheaper than recycling systems similar to ISS life support.

  19. Earth Science

    1976-01-01

    The LAGEOS I (Laser Geodynamics Satellite) was developed and launched by the Marshall Space Flight Center on May 4, 1976 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California . The two-foot diameter satellite orbited the Earth from pole to pole and measured the movements of the Earth's surface.

  20. A general theory of impacts and mass extinctions, and the consequences of large-body impact on the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    The theory that large-body impacts are the primary cause of mass extinctions of life on the Earth now has a sound theoretical and observational foundation. A convergence of evidence suggests that the biosphere may be a sensitive detector of large impact events, which result in the recorded global mass extinction pulses. The astronomically observed flux of asteroids and comets in the neighborhood of the Earth, and the threshold impact size calculated to produce a global environment catastrophe, can be used to predict a time history of large impact events and related mass extinctions of life that agrees well with the record of approx. 24 extinction events in the last 540 m.y.

  1. Continental Subduction: Mass Fluxes and Interactions with the Wider Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbert, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Substantial parts of ultra-high pressure (UHP) terrains probably represent subducted passive continental margins (PCM). This contribution reviews and synthesises research on processes operating in such systems and their implication for the wider Earth system. PCM sediments are large repositories of volatiles including hydrates, nitrogen species, carbonates and hydrocarbons. Sediments and upper/ mid-crustal basement are rich in incompatible elements and are fertile for melting. Lower crust may be more mafic and refractory. Juvenile rift-related mafic rocks also have the potential to generate substantial volumes of granitoid melts, especially if they have been hydrated. Exposed UHP terrains demonstrate the return of continental crust from mantle depths, show evidence for substantial fluxes of aqueous fluid, anatexis and, in entrained orogenic peridotites, metasomatism of mantle rocks by crust- derived C-O-H fluids. However, substantial bodies of continental material may never return to the surface as coherent masses of rock, but remain sequestered in the mantle where they melt or become entrained in the deeper mantle circulation. Hence during subduction, PCM's become partitioned by a range of mechanisms. Mechanical partitioning strips away weaker sediment and middle/upper crust, which circulate back up the subduction channel, while denser, stronger transitional pro-crust and lower crust may "stall" near the base of the lithosphere or be irreversibly subducted to join the global mantle circulation. Under certain conditions sediment and upper crustal basement may reach depths for UHPM. Further partitioning takes place by anatexis, which either aids stripping and exhumation of the more melt-prone rock-masses through mechanical softening, or separates melt from residuum so that melt escapes and is accreted to the upper plate leading to "undercrusting", late-orogenic magmatism and further refinement of the crust. Melt that traverses sections of mantle will interact with

  2. Orion Launch from UCS-3

    2014-12-05

    A Delta IV Heavy rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida carrying NASA's Orion spacecraft on an unpiloted flight test to Earth orbit. Liftoff was at 7:05 a.m. EST. During the two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, engineers will evaluate the systems critical to crew safety, the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system.

  3. Orion Launch from UCS-3

    2014-12-05

    A Delta IV Heavy rocket soars after liftoff from Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida carrying NASA's Orion spacecraft on an unpiloted flight test to Earth orbit. Liftoff was at 7:05 a.m. EST. During the two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, engineers will evaluate the systems critical to crew safety, the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system.

  4. NASA Space Launch System: A Cornerstone Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    Under construction today, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS), managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, will provide a robust new capability for human and robotic exploration beyond Earth orbit. The vehicle's initial configuration, sched will enable human missions into lunar space and beyond, as well as provide game-changing benefits for space science missions, including offering substantially reduced transit times for conventionally designed spacecraft. From there, the vehicle will undergo a series of block upgrades via an evolutionary development process designed to expedite mission capture as capability increases. The Space Launch System offers multiple benefits for a variety of utilization areas. From a mass-lift perspective, the initial configuration of the vehicle, capable of delivering 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), will be the world's most powerful launch vehicle. Optimized for missions beyond Earth orbit, it will also be the world's only exploration-class launch vehicle capable of delivering 25 t to lunar orbit. The evolved configuration, with a capability of 130 t to LEO, will be the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown. From a volume perspective, SLS will be compatible with the payload envelopes of contemporary launch vehicles, but will also offer options for larger fairings with unprecedented volume-lift capability. The vehicle's mass-lift capability also means that it offers extremely high characteristic energy for missions into deep space. This paper will discuss the impacts that these factors - mass-lift, volume, and characteristic energy - have on a variety of mission classes, particularly human exploration and space science. It will address the vehicle's capability to enable existing architectures for deep-space exploration, such as those documented in the Global Exploration Roadmap, a capabilities-driven outline for future deep-space voyages created by the International Space

  5. Launch Vehicles

    2007-08-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The panels are subjected to confidence tests in which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  6. Launch Vehicles

    2007-08-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image, depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  7. Launch Vehicles

    2007-08-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the preparation and placement of a confidence ring for friction stir welding used in manufacturing aluminum panels that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. The aluminum panels are manufactured and subjected to confidence tests during which the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  8. Launch Vehicles

    2007-08-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  9. Launch Vehicles

    2007-08-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts confidence testing of a manufactured aluminum panel that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  10. Launch Vehicles

    2006-08-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  11. Launch Vehicles

    2006-08-08

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  12. Launch Vehicles

    2007-09-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

  13. Launch Vehicles

    2007-08-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. Aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Largest resolution available)

  14. Launch Vehicles

    2006-09-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, the first stage reentry parachute drop test is conducted at the Yuma, Arizona proving ground. The parachute tests demonstrated a three-stage deployment sequence that included the use of an Orbiter drag chute to properly stage the unfurling of the main chute. The parachute recovery system for Orion will be similar to the system used for Apollo command module landings and include two drogue, three pilot, and three main parachutes. (Highest resolution available)

  15. Launch Vehicles

    2007-08-09

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the manufacturing of aluminum panels that will be used to form the Ares I barrel. The panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  16. A Closer Earth and the Faint Young Sun Paradox: Modification of the Laws of Gravitation or Sun/Earth Mass Losses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2013-10-01

    Given a solar luminosity LAr = 0:75L0 at the beginning of the Archean 3:8 Ga ago, where L0 is the present-day one, if the heliocentric distance, r, of the Earth was rAr = 0:956r0, the solar irradiance would have been as large as IAr = 0:82I0. It would have allowed for a liquid ocean on the terrestrial surface, which, otherwise, would have been frozen, contrary to the empirical evidence. By further assuming that some physical mechanism subsequently displaced the Earth towards its current distance in such a way that the irradiance stayed substantially constant over the entire Archean from 3:8 to 2:5 Ga ago, a relative recession per year as large as r_=r e3:4 × 10^11 a-1 would have been required. Although such a figure is roughly of the same order of magnitude of the value of the Hubble parameter 3:8 Ga ago HAr = 1:192H0 = 8:2 × 10^11 a-1, standard general relativity rules out cosmological explanations for the hypothesized Earth's recession rate. Instead, a class of modified theories of gravitation with nonminimal coupling between the matter and the metric naturally predicts a secular variation of the relative distance of a localized two-body system, thus yielding a potentially viable candidate to explain the putative recession of the Earth's orbit. Another competing mechanism of classical origin that could, in principle, allow for the desired effect is the mass loss, which either the Sun or the Earth itself may have experienced during the Archean. On the one hand, this implies that our planet should have lost 2% of its present mass in the form of eroded/evaporated hydrosphere. On the other hand, it is widely believed that the Sun could have lost mass at an enhanced rate, due to a stronger solar wind in the past for not more than v 0:2-0:3 Ga.

  17. Global deformation of the Earth, surface mass anomalies, and the geodetic infrastructure required to study these processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusche, J.; Rietbroek, R.; Gunter, B.; Mark-Willem, J.

    2008-12-01

    Global deformation of the Earth can be linked to loading caused by mass changes in the atmosphere, the ocean and the terrestrial hydrosphere. World-wide geodetic observation systems like GPS, e.g., the global IGS network, can be used to study the global deformation of the Earth directly and, when other effects are properly modeled, provide information regarding the surface loading mass (e.g., to derive geo-center motion estimates). Vice versa, other observing systems that monitor mass change, either through gravitational changes (GRACE) or through a combination of in-situ and modeled quantities (e.g., the atmosphere, ocean or hydrosphere), can provide indirect information on global deformation. In the framework of the German 'Mass transport and mass distribution' program, we estimate surface mass anomalies at spherical harmonic resolution up to degree and order 30 by linking three complementary data sets in a least squares approach. Our estimates include geo-center motion and the thickness of a spatially uniform layer on top of the ocean surface (that is otherwise estimated from surface fluxes, evaporation and precipitation, and river run-off) as a time-series. As with all current Earth observing systems, each dataset has its own limitations and do not realize homogeneous coverage over the globe. To assess the impact that these limitations might have on current and future deformation and loading mass solutions, a sensitivity study was conducted. Simulated real-case and idealized solutions were explored in which the spatial distribution and quality of GPS, GRACE and OBP data sets were varied. The results show that significant improvements, e.g., over the current GRACE monthly gravity fields, in particular at the low degrees, can be achieved when these solutions are combined with present day GPS and OBP products. Our idealized scenarios also provide quantitative implications on how much surface mass change estimates may improve in the future when improved observing

  18. Aquarius SAC-D Launch

    2011-06-10

    A Delta II rocket launches with the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft payload from Space Launch Complex 2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. on Friday, June 10, 2011. The joint U.S./Argentinian Aquarius/Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas (SAC)-D mission, set to launch June 10, will map the salinity at the ocean surface, information critical to improving our understanding of two major components of Earth's climate system: the water cycle and ocean circulation. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Expedition 11 Launch Day

    2005-04-15

    European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori, of Italy, left, Expedition 11 Commander Sergei Krikalev and Flight Engineer and NASA Science Officer John Phillips, right, pose for a photo with officials at the launch pad prior to launch aboard the Soyuz TMA-6 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Friday, April 15, 2005 for a two-day trip to the International Space Station. Krikalev and Phillips will spend six months on the Station, replacing Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao and Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov, while Vittori will spend eight days on the Station under a commerical contract between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency, returning to Earth with Chiao and Sharipov on April 25. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. STS-89 launch view

    1998-03-30

    STS089-S-006 (22 Jan. 1998) --- Silhouettes of Florida foliage frame the space shuttle Endeavour in this wide scene of its nocturnal launch. Endeavour lifted off from Launch Pad 39A at 9:48:15 p.m. (EST), Jan. 22, 1998. STS-89 represents the eighth docking mission with Mir (all previous such flights utilized the Atlantis). After the docking with Mir, Andrew S. W. Thomas, mission specialist, will transfer to the station, succeeding astronaut David A. Wolf as guest cosmonaut researcher. Wolf will return to Earth aboard Endeavour. Thomas is expected to live and work on Mir until June 1998. Other crew members onboard were Terrence W. Wilcutt, Joe F. Edwards Jr., Bonnie J. Dunbar, James F. Reilly, Michael P. Anderson and Salizhan S. Sharipov. Sharipov represents the Russian Space Agency (RSA). Photo credit: NASA

  1. Launch - Apollo 9 - KSC

    1969-03-03

    S69-25881 (3 March 1969) --- The Apollo 9 crew leaves the Kennedy Space Center's Manned Spacecraft Operations Building during the Apollo 9 prelaunch countdown. The crewman entered the special transfer van which transported them to their waiting spacecraft at Pad A, Launch Complex 39. Astronaut James A. McDivitt (back to camera) is the commander. McDivitt appears to be inviting astronaut David R. Scott, command module pilot, to step first into van. In background is astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot. Walking along almost behind Schweickart is astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., chief, Astronaut Office, Manned Spacecraft Center. Apollo 9 was launched at 11 a.m. (EST), March 3, 1969, on a 10-day Earth-orbital mission.

  2. Launch Order, Launch Separation, and Loiter in the Constellation 1 1/2-Launch Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromgren, Chel; Cates, Grant; Cirillo, William

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program (CxP) is developing a two-element Earth-to-Orbit launch system to enable human exploration of the Moon. The first element, Ares I, is a human-rated system that consists of a first stage based on the Space Shuttle Program's solid rocket booster (SRB) and an upper stage that consists of a four-crew Orion capsule, a service module, and a Launch Escape System. The second element, Ares V, is a Saturn V-plus category launch system that consists of the core stage with a cluster of six RS-68B engines and augmented with two 5.5-segment SRBs, a Saturn-derived J-2X engine powering an Earth Departure Stage (EDS), and the lunar-lander vehicle payload, Altair. Initial plans called for the Ares V to be launched first, followed the next day by the Ares I. After the EDS performs the final portion of ascent and subsequent orbit circularization, the Orion spacecraft then performs a rendezvous and docks with the EDS and its Altair payload. Following checkout, the integrated stack loiters in low Earth orbit (LEO) until the appropriate Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) window opportunity opens, at which time the EDS propels the integrated Orion Altair to the Moon. Successful completion of this 1 1/2-launch solution carries risks related to both the orbital lifetime of the assets and the probability of achieving the launch of the second vehicle within the orbital lifetime of the first. These risks, which are significant in terms of overall system design choices and probability of mission success, dictated a thorough reevaluation of the launch strategy, including the order of vehicle launch and the planned time period between launches. The goal of the effort described in this paper was to select a launch strategy that would result in the greatest possible expected system performance, while accounting for launch risks and the cost of increased orbital lifetime. Discrete Event Simulation (DES) model of the launch strategies was created to determine the probability

  3. Secular changes in Earth's shape and surface mass loading derived from combinations of reprocessed global GPS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booker, David; Clarke, Peter J.; Lavallée, David A.

    2014-09-01

    The changing distribution of surface mass (oceans, atmospheric pressure, continental water storage, groundwater, lakes, snow and ice) causes detectable changes in the shape of the solid Earth, on time scales ranging from hours to millennia. Transient changes in the Earth's shape can, regardless of cause, be readily separated from steady secular variation in surface mass loading, but other secular changes due to plate tectonics and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) cannot. We estimate secular station velocities from almost 11 years of high quality combined GPS position solutions (GPS weeks 1,000-1,570) submitted as part of the first international global navigation satellite system service reprocessing campaign. Individual station velocities are estimated as a linear fit, paying careful attention to outliers and offsets. We remove a suite of a priori GIA models, each with an associated set of plate tectonic Euler vectors estimated by us; the latter are shown to be insensitive to the a priori GIA model. From the coordinate time series residuals after removing the GIA models and corresponding plate tectonic velocities, we use mass-conserving continental basis functions to estimate surface mass loading including the secular term. The different GIA models lead to significant differences in the estimates of loading in selected regions. Although our loading estimates are broadly comparable with independent estimates from other satellite missions, their range highlights the need for better, more robust GIA models that incorporate 3D Earth structure and accurately represent 3D surface displacements.

  4. Deflection and fragmentation of near-earth asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Harris, Alan W.

    1992-01-01

    The collision with earth of near-earth asteroids or comet nuclei poses a potential threat to mankind. Objects about 100 m in diameter could be diverted from an earth-crossing trajectory by the impact of a rocket-launched mass, but for larger bodies nuclear explosions seem to be the only practical means of deflection. Fragmentation of the body by nuclear charges is less efficient or secure.

  5. The potential of sedimentary foraminiferal rare earth element patterns to trace water masses in the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Anne H.; Hathorne, Ed C.; Schijf, Johan; Plancherel, Yves; Böning, Philipp; Frank, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Dissolved rare earth element (REE) concentration data from intermediate and deep seawater form an array characterized by higher middle-REE enrichments (MREE/MREE*) in the North Atlantic and a progressive increase in heavy-to-light REE ratios (HREE/LREE) as water masses age. The REEs in foraminifera are fractionated toward higher MREE/MREE* and lower HREE/LREE relative to seawater. Calculations based on a scavenging model show that the REE patterns in uncleaned core-top foraminifera resemble those adsorbed onto calcite, particulate organic material, and hydrous ferric oxides but the full extent of the REE fractionation measured in foraminifera was not reproduced by the model. However, differences in the HREE/LREE and MREE/MREE* ratios and the cerium anomaly between ocean basins are preserved and are in agreement with the seawater REE distribution. Under oxic conditions, the HREE/LREE and MREE/MREE* compositions of uncleaned foraminifera at the sediment/seawater boundary are preserved during burial but the cerium anomaly is sensitive to burial depth. In suboxic sedimentary environments, all uncleaned foraminiferal REE concentrations are elevated relative to core-top values indicating addition of REEs from pore waters. The HREE/LREE ratio is highest when sedimentation rates were greatest and when high Fe/Ca ratios in the uncleaned foraminifera indicate that Fe was mobile. In sediments that have not experienced suboxic conditions during burial, uncleaned foraminifera preserve the seawater signal taken up at the sediment/seawater interface and are therefore suggested to be a suitable archive of changes in the REE signal of past bottom waters.

  6. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke waves goodbye to family and friends from the bus that will take him and fellow crew members Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott to the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft for launch, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The three crew members are scheduled to dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)

  7. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov walks from the crew bus to the Soyuz rocket with Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, not pictured, and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, background left, prior to their launch in the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The three crew members are scheduled to dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov, bottom, Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, top, board the Soyuz rocket prior to their launch in the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The three crew members are scheduled to dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    2008-10-11

    American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, left, Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, right, depart building 254 where the crew donned their spacesuits prior to launch in the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Sunday Oct. 12, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The crew is scheduled to dock to the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crewmembers currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)

  10. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    2008-10-11

    Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke waves farewell from the crew bus as he and Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott depart the Cosmonaut Hotel to building 254 were they will don their flight suits prior to their launch, Sunday, Oct. 12, 2008, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The three crew members are scheduled to dock with the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crew members currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 18 Launch Day

    2008-10-11

    American spaceflight participant Richard Garriott, left, Expedition 18 Flight Engineer Yuri V. Lonchakov and Expedition 18 Commander Michael Fincke, right, prepare to salute officials prior to launch in the Soyuz TMA-13 spacecraft, Sunday Oct. 12, 2008 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The crew is scheduled to dock to the International Space Station on Oct. 14. Fincke and Lonchakov will spend six months on the station, while Garriott will return to Earth Oct. 24 with two of the Expedition 17 crewmembers currently on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)

  12. STS-83 launch view.

    2016-08-11

    STS083-S-003 (4 April 1997)--- With the Atlantic Ocean in the background, the Space Shuttle Columbia heads toward Earth-orbit from Launch Pad 39A at 2:20:32 p.m. (EST), April 4, 1997, from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Onboard the spacecraft to support the Microgravity Science Laboratory 1 (MSL-1) mission were astronauts James D. Halsell, commander; Susan L. Still, pilot; Janice E. Voss, payload commander; Michael L. Gernhardt and Donald A. Thomas, both mission specialists; along with payload specialists Roger K. Crouch and Gregory T. Linteris. A problem with a fuel cell caused the crew to cut the mission short and return to Earth on April 8, 1997.

  13. STS-89 launch view

    1998-04-22

    STS089-S-010 (22 Jan. 1998) --- The space shuttle Endeavour heads toward its Earth-orbital destination to the Russian Mir Space Station. Endeavour lifted off from Launch Pad 39A at 9:48:15 p.m. (EST), Jan. 22, 1998. STS-89 represents the eighth docking mission with Mir (all previous such flights utilized the Atlantis). After the docking with Mir, Andrew S. W. Thomas, mission specialist, will transfer to the station, succeeding astronaut David A. Wolf as guest cosmonaut researcher. Wolf will return to Earth aboard Endeavour. Thomas is expected to live and work on Mir until June 1998. Other astronauts onboard were Terrence W. Wilcutt, Joe F. Edwards Jr., Bonnie J. Dunbar, James F. Reilly, Michael P. Anderson and Salizhan S. Sharipov. Sharipov represents the Russian Space Agency (RSA). Photo credit: NASA

  14. Studying Geoeffective Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Between the Sun and Earth: Space Weather Implications of Solar Mass Ejection Imager Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-14

    courtesy of I. Richardson. itoring, and adequate data latency would constitute a reliable tool for early warning of storms. Is] The first Earth...some ICMEs appear to undergo little change as they propagate outward from their low coronal origins, in this case out to 45° elongation. Such...and that, given much better data latency , a future SMEI-type heliospheric im- ager could be used to forecast the onset and maybe even the

  15. Development Of FIAT-Based Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships For NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven; Trumble, Kerry A.; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid

    2012-01-01

    Mass Estimating Relationships (MERs) have been developed for use in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) as part of NASA's multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) concept. MERs have been developed for the thermal protection systems of PICA and of Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon on the forebody and for SIRCA and Acusil II on the backshell. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed herein.

  16. Development of FIAT-based Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships for NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven Andrew; Zarchi, Kerry Agnes; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2011-01-01

    Mass Estimating Relationships (MERs) have been developed for use in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) as part of NASA's multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) concept. MERs have been developed for the thermal protection systems of PICA and of Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon on the forebody and for SIRCA and Acusil II on the backshell. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed herein.

  17. ON SUN-TO-EARTH PROPAGATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS: II. SLOW EVENTS AND COMPARISON WITH OTHERS

    SciT

    Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Chi

    As a follow-up study on Sun-to-Earth propagation of fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs), we examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of slow CMEs combining heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. Three events of particular interest, the 2010 June 16, 2011 March 25, and 2012 September 25 CMEs, are selected for this study. We compare slow CMEs with fast and intermediate-speed events, and obtain key results complementing the attempt of Liu et al. to create a general picture of CME Sun-to-Earth propagation: (1) the Sun-to-Earth propagation of a typical slow CME can be approximately described by two phases, a gradual acceleration out tomore » about 20–30 solar radii, followed by a nearly invariant speed around the average solar wind level; (2) comparison between different types of CMEs indicates that faster CMEs tend to accelerate and decelerate more rapidly and have shorter cessation distances for the acceleration and deceleration; (3) both intermediate-speed and slow CMEs would have speeds comparable to the average solar wind level before reaching 1 au; (4) slow CMEs have a high potential to interact with other solar wind structures in the Sun–Earth space due to their slow motion, providing critical ingredients to enhance space weather; and (5) the slow CMEs studied here lack strong magnetic fields at the Earth but tend to preserve a flux-rope structure with an axis generally perpendicular to the radial direction from the Sun. We also suggest a “best” strategy for the application of a triangulation concept in determining CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics, which helps to clarify confusions about CME geometry assumptions in the triangulation and to improve CME analysis and observations.« less

  18. Spacecraft Charging Issues for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhler, Janessa L.; Minow, Joseph I.; Trout, Dawn H.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft charging is well known threat to successful long term spacecraft operations and instrument reliability in orbits that spend significant time in hot electron environments. In recent years, spacecraft charging has increasingly been recognized as a potentially significant engineering issue for launch vehicles used to deploy spacecraft using (a) low Earth orbit (LEO), high inclination flight trajectories that pass through the auroral zone, (b) geostationary transfer orbits that require exposures to the hot electron environments in the Earths outer radiation belts, and (c) LEO escape trajectories using multiple phasing orbits through the Earths radiation belts while raising apogee towards a final Earth escape geometry. Charging becomes an issue when significant areas of exposed insulating materials or ungrounded conductors are used in the launch vehicle design or the payload is designed for use in a benign charging region beyond the Earths magnetosphere but must survive passage through the strong charging regimes of the Earths radiation belts. This presentation will first outline the charging risks encountered on typical launch trajectories used to deploy spacecraft into Earth orbit and Earth escape trajectories. We then describe the process used by NASAs Launch Services Program to evaluate when surface and internal charging is a potential risk to a NASA mission. Finally, we describe the options for mitigating charging risks including modification of the launch vehicle andor payload design and controlling the risk through operational launch constraints to avoid significant charging environments.

  19. Proceedings of the NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, Kim; Blasso, Len (Editor); Lipscomb, Ann (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the National Space Science Data Center Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications held July 23 through 25, 1991 at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. The program includes a keynote address, invited technical papers, and selected technical presentations to provide a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disk and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

  20. NASA Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    SLS provides capability for human exploration missions. 70 t configuration enables EM-1 and EM-2 flight tests. Evolved configurations enable missions including humans to Mars. u? SLS offers unrivaled benefits for a variety of missions. 70 t provides greater mass lift than any contemporary launch vehicle; 130 t offers greater lift than any launch vehicle ever. With 8.4m and 10m fairings, SLS will over greater volume lift capability than any other vehicle. center dot Initial ICPS configuration and future evolution will offer high C3 for beyond- Earth missions. SLS is currently on schedule for first launch in December 2017. Preliminary design completed in July 2013; SLS is now in implementation. Manufacture and testing are currently underway. Hardware now exists representing all SLS elements.

  1. Improving the detection of tectonic transients in Japan by accounting for Earth's deformation response to surface mass loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, H. R.; Simons, M.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Rivera, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    We explore the contributions of oceanic, atmospheric, and hydrologic mass loading to Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-inferred observations of surface displacements in Japan. Surface mass loading (SML) generates mm- to cm-level deformation of the solid Earth on time scales of hours to years, which exceeds the measurement uncertainties of most GNSS position estimates. By improving the efficiency and accuracy of the prediction and empirical estimation of SML response, we aim to reduce the variance of GNSS time series and therefore enhance the ability to resolve subtle tectonic signals, such as aseismic transients associated with subduction zone processes. Using the GIPSY software in precise point positioning mode, we estimate time series of sub-daily receiver positions for the GNSS Earth Observation Network System (GEONET) in Japan. We also model the Earth's elastic deformation response to a variety of surface mass loads, including loads of atmospheric (e.g., ECMWF) and oceanic (e.g., TPXO8-Atlas, ECCO2) origin. We extract periodic signals, such as the ocean tides and seasonal variations in hydrological loading, using harmonic analysis. Deformation caused by non-periodic loads, such as non-tidal oceanic and atmospheric loads, can be predicted and removed to further reduce the variance. We seek to streamline the workflow for estimating SML-induced surface displacements from a variety of sources in order to account for loading signals in routine GNSS data processing, thereby improving the ability to assess the mechanics of plate boundaries.

  2. History society launches journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A fledgling international organization plans to launch, in the next few months, a journal devoted to the study of the history of the earth sciences. The journal, to be published by the History of Earth Sciences Society (HESS), will be edited by Gerald M. Friedman ot the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.HESS will promote interest and scholarship in the history of the earth sciences by publishing the semiannual journal, by organizing meetings about the history of earth sciences, and by supporting the efforts of other associations displaying similar interests, according to the society's draft constitution. An organizational meeting to ratify the constitution and to elect officers will be held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in October. The interim officers and the proposed slate for 1983 include David B. Kitts (University of Oklahoma, Norman), president; Albert V. Carrozi (University of Illinois, Urbana), president-elect; and Ellis L. Yochelson (U.S. Geological Survey, National Museum of Natural History), secretary.

  3. SLI Artist `s Launch Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Space Launch Initiative (SLI), NASA's priority developmental program focused on empowering America's leadership in space. SLI includes commercial, higher education and defense partnerships and contracts to offer widespread participation in both the risk and success of developing our nation's next-generation reusable launch vehicle. This photo depicts an artist's concept of a future second-generation launch vehicle during launch. For SLI, architecture definition includes all components of the next-generation reusable launch system: Earth-to-orbit vehicles (the Space Shuttle is the first generation earth-to-orbit vehicle), crew transfer vehicles, transfer stages, ground processing systems, flight operations systems, and development of business case strategies. Three contractor teams have each been funded to develop potential second generation reusable launch system architectures: The Boeing Company of Seal Beach, California; Lockheed Martin Corporation of Denver, Colorado along with a team including Northrop Grumman of El Segundo, California; and Orbital Sciences Corporation of Dulles, Virginia.

  4. Evaluation of Dual-Launch Lunar Architectures Using the Mission Assessment Post Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Shaun M.; Senent, Juan; Williams, Jacob; Condon, Gerald L.; Lee, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Constellation Program is currently designing a new transportation system to replace the Space Shuttle, support human missions to both the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon, and enable the eventual establishment of an outpost on the lunar surface. The present Constellation architecture is designed to meet nominal capability requirements and provide flexibility sufficient for handling a host of contingency scenarios including (but not limited to) launch delays at the Earth. This report summarizes a body of work performed in support of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Committee. It analyzes three lunar orbit rendezvous dual-launch architecture options which incorporate differing methodologies for mitigating the effects of launch delays at the Earth. NASA employed the recently-developed Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP) tool to quickly evaluate vehicle performance requirements for several candidate approaches for conducting human missions to the Moon. The MAPP tool enabled analysis of Earth perturbation effects and Earth-Moon geometry effects on the integrated vehicle performance as it varies over the 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle. Results are provided summarizing best-case and worst-case vehicle propellant requirements for each architecture option. Additionally, the associated vehicle payload mass requirements at launch are compared between each architecture and against those of the Constellation Program. The current Constellation Program architecture assumes that the Altair lunar lander and Earth Departure Stage (EDS) vehicles are launched on a heavy lift launch vehicle. The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is separately launched on a smaller man-rated vehicle. This strategy relaxes man-rating requirements for the heavy lift launch vehicle and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of the overall architecture over the operational lifetime of the program. The crew launch

  5. MOA-2012-BLG-505Lb: A Super-Earth-mass Planet That Probably Resides in the Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagakane, M.; Sumi, T.; Koshimoto, N.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Rattenbury, N.; Suzuki, D.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Barry, R.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Itow, Y.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Matsuo, T.; Muraki, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Ranc, C.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Shibai, H.; Sullivan, D. J.; Tristram, P. J.; Yamada, T.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    We report the discovery of a super-Earth-mass planet in the microlensing event MOA-2012-BLG-505. This event has the second shortest event timescale of t E = 10 ± 1 days where the observed data show evidence of a planetary companion. Our 15 minute high cadence survey observation schedule revealed the short subtle planetary signature. The system shows the well known close/wide degeneracy. The planet/host-star mass ratio is q = 2.1 × 10-4 and the projected separation normalized by the Einstein radius is s = 1.1 or 0.9 for the wide and close solutions, respectively. We estimate the physical parameters of the system by using a Bayesian analysis and find that the lens consists of a super-Earth with a mass of {6.7}-3.6+10.7 {M}\\oplus orbiting around a brown dwarf or late-M-dwarf host with a mass of {0.10}-0.05+0.16 {M}⊙ with a projected star-planet separation of {0.9}-0.2+0.3 {au}. The system is at a distance of 7.2 ± 1.1 kpc, I.e., it is likely to be in the Galactic bulge. The small angular Einstein radius (θ E = 0.12 ± 0.02 mas) and short event timescale are typical for a low-mass lens in the Galactic bulge. Such low-mass planetary systems in the Bulge are rare because the detection efficiency of planets in short microlensing events is relatively low. This discovery may suggest that such low-mass planetary systems are abundant in the Bulge and currently on-going high cadence survey programs will detect more such events and may reveal an abundance of such planetary systems.

  6. Launch system development in the Pacific Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Page, John R.

    1993-01-01

    Several Western Pacific Rim nations are beginning to challenge the domination of the United States, Europe, and the former Soviet Union in the international market for commercial launch sevices. This paper examines the current development of launch systems in China, Japan, and Australia. China began commercial launch services with their Long March-3 in April 1990, and is making enhancements to vehicles in this family. Japan is developing the H-2 rocket which will be marketed on a commercial basis. In Australia, British Aerospace Ltd. is leading a team conducting a project definition study for an Australian Launch Vehicle, aimed at launching the new generation of satellites into low Earth orbit.

  7. Earth Science

    1991-01-01

    In July 1990, the Marshall Space Flight Center, in a joint project with the Department of Defense/Air Force Space Test Program, launched the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) using an Atlas I launch vehicle. The mission was designed to study the effects of artificial ion clouds produced by chemical releases on the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere, and to monitor the effects of space radiation environment on sophisticated electronics.

  8. Near-Earth Asteroid Returned Sample (NEARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Cheng, Andrew F.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of the Near-Earth Asteroid Returned Sample (NEARS) mission is to return to Earth 10-100 g from each of four to six sites on a near-Earth asteroid and to perform global characterization of the asteroid and measure mass, volume, and density to ten percent. The target asteroid for the mission is 4660 Nereus, probably a primitive C-type asteroid, with the alternate target being 1989ML, an extremely accessible asteroid of unknown type. Launch dates will be 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2004 on the Delta II-7925 launch vehicle. The mission objectives are three-fold. (1) Provide first direct and detailed petrological, chemical, age, and isotopic characterization of a near-Earth asteroid and relate it to terrestrial, lunar, and meteoritic materials. (2) Sample the asteroid regolith and characterize any exotic fragments. (3) Identify heterogeneity in the asteroid's isotopic properties, age, and elemental chemistry.

  9. Development of FIAT-Based Parametric Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships for NASA's Multi-Mission Earth Entry Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven A.; Zarchi, Kerry; Maddock, Robert W.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2013-01-01

    Part of NASAs In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program is the development of the tradespace to support the design of a family of multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV) to meet a wide range of mission requirements. An integrated tool called the Multi Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry Descent and Landing or M-SAPE tool is being developed as part of Entry Vehicle Technology project under In-Space Technology program. The analysis and design of an Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) is multidisciplinary in nature, requiring the application many disciplines. Part of M-SAPE's application required the development of parametric mass estimating relationships (MERs) to determine the vehicle's required Thermal Protection System (TPS) for safe Earth entry. For this analysis, the heat shield was assumed to be made of a constant thickness TPS. This resulting MERs will then e used to determine the pre-flight mass of the TPS. Two Mers have been developed for the vehicle forebaody. One MER was developed for PICA and the other consisting of Carbon Phenolic atop an Advanced Carbon-Carbon composition. For the the backshell, MERs have been developed for SIRCA, Acusil II, and LI-900. How these MERs were developed, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy are discussed in this poster.

  10. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  11. Earth Science

    1992-07-24

    A Delta II rocket carrying the Geomagnetic Tail Lab (GEOTAIL) spacecraft lifts off at Launch Complex 17, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) into a cloud-dappled sky. This liftoff marks the first Delta launch under the medium expendable launch vehicle services contract between NASA and McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Co. The GEOTAIL mission, a joint US/Japanese project, is the first in a series of five satellites to study the interactions between the Sun, the Earth's magnetic field, and the Van Allen radiation belts.

  12. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks to students who attended the NASA sponsored Earth Day event April 22, 2014 at Union Station in Washington, DC. NASA sponsored the Earth Day event as part of its "Earth Right Now" campaign, celebrating the launch of five Earth-observing missions in 2014. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  13. Small Space Launch: Origins & Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T.; Delarosa, J.

    2010-09-01

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft, and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by an old, unresponsive and relatively expensive set of launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV) platforms; Delta IV and Atlas V. The United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. On 1 Aug 06, Air Force Space Command activated the Space Development & Test Wing (SDTW) to perform development, test and evaluation of Air Force space systems and to execute advanced space deployment and demonstration projects to exploit new concepts and technologies, and rapidly migrate capabilities to the warfighter. The SDTW charged the Launch Test Squadron (LTS) with the mission to develop the capability of small space launch, supporting government research and development space launches and missile defense target missions, with operationally responsive spacelift for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets as a future mission. This new mission created new challenges for LTS. The LTS mission tenets of developing space launches and missile defense target vehicles were an evolution from the squadrons previous mission of providing sounding rockets under the Rocket

  14. Design optimization of space launch vehicles using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayley, Douglas James

    The United States Air Force (USAF) continues to have a need for assured access to space. In addition to flexible and responsive spacelift, a reduction in the cost per launch of space launch vehicles is also desirable. For this purpose, an investigation of the design optimization of space launch vehicles has been conducted. Using a suite of custom codes, the performance aspects of an entire space launch vehicle were analyzed. A genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to optimize the design of the space launch vehicle. A cost model was incorporated into the optimization process with the goal of minimizing the overall vehicle cost. The other goals of the design optimization included obtaining the proper altitude and velocity to achieve a low-Earth orbit. Specific mission parameters that are particular to USAF space endeavors were specified at the start of the design optimization process. Solid propellant motors, liquid fueled rockets, and air-launched systems in various configurations provided the propulsion systems for two, three and four-stage launch vehicles. Mass properties models, an aerodynamics model, and a six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) flight dynamics simulator were all used to model the system. The results show the feasibility of this method in designing launch vehicles that meet mission requirements. Comparisons to existing real world systems provide the validation for the physical system models. However, the ability to obtain a truly minimized cost was elusive. The cost model uses an industry standard approach, however, validation of this portion of the model was challenging due to the proprietary nature of cost figures and due to the dependence of many existing systems on surplus hardware.

  15. The NASA-UC-UH Eta-Earth program. IV. A low-mass planet orbiting an M dwarf 3.6 PC from Earth

    SciT

    Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard

    We report the discovery of a low-mass planet orbiting Gl 15 A based on radial velocities from the Eta-Earth Survey using HIRES at Keck Observatory. Gl 15 Ab is a planet with minimum mass Msin i = 5.35 ± 0.75 M {sub ⊕}, orbital period P = 11.4433 ± 0.0016 days, and an orbit that is consistent with circular. We characterize the host star using a variety of techniques. Photometric observations at Fairborn Observatory show no evidence for rotational modulation of spots at the orbital period to a limit of ∼0.1 mmag, thus supporting the existence of the planet. Wemore » detect a second RV signal with a period of 44 days that we attribute to rotational modulation of stellar surface features, as confirmed by optical photometry and the Ca II H and K activity indicator. Using infrared spectroscopy from Palomar-TripleSpec, we measure an M2 V spectral type and a sub-solar metallicity ([M/H] = –0.22, [Fe/H] = –0.32). We measure a stellar radius of 0.3863 ± 0.0021 R {sub ☉} based on interferometry from CHARA.« less

  16. FORMATION OF CLOSE IN SUPER-EARTHS AND MINI-NEPTUNES: REQUIRED DISK MASSES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    SciT

    Schlichting, Hilke E., E-mail: hilke@mit.edu

    Recent observations by the Kepler space telescope have led to the discovery of more than 4000 exoplanet candidates consisting of many systems with Earth- to Neptune-sized objects that reside well inside the orbit of Mercury around their respective host stars. How and where these close-in planets formed is one of the major unanswered questions in planet formation. Here, we calculate the required disk masses for in situ formation of the Kepler planets. We find that if close-in planets formed as isolation masses, then standard gas-to-dust ratios yield corresponding gas disks that are gravitationally unstable for a significant fraction of systems,more » ruling out such a scenario. We show that the maximum width of a planet's accretion region in the absence of any migration is 2v {sub esc}/Ω, where v {sub esc} is the escape velocity of the planet and Ω is the Keplerian frequency, and we use it to calculate the required disk masses for in situ formation with giant impacts. Even with giant impacts, formation without migration requires disk surface densities in solids at semi-major axes of less than 0.1 AU of 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} g cm{sup –2}, implying typical enhancements above the minimum-mass solar nebular (MMSN) by at least a factor of 20. Corresponding gas disks are below but not far from the gravitational stability limit. In contrast, formation beyond a few AU is consistent with MMSN disk masses. This suggests that the migration of either solids or fully assembled planets is likely to have played a major role in the formation of close-in super-Earths and mini-Neptunes.« less

  17. Formation of Close in Super-Earths and Mini-Neptunes: Required Disk Masses and their Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.

    2014-11-01

    Recent observations by the Kepler space telescope have led to the discovery of more than 4000 exoplanet candidates consisting of many systems with Earth- to Neptune-sized objects that reside well inside the orbit of Mercury around their respective host stars. How and where these close-in planets formed is one of the major unanswered questions in planet formation. Here, we calculate the required disk masses for in situ formation of the Kepler planets. We find that if close-in planets formed as isolation masses, then standard gas-to-dust ratios yield corresponding gas disks that are gravitationally unstable for a significant fraction of systems, ruling out such a scenario. We show that the maximum width of a planet's accretion region in the absence of any migration is 2v esc/Ω, where v esc is the escape velocity of the planet and Ω is the Keplerian frequency, and we use it to calculate the required disk masses for in situ formation with giant impacts. Even with giant impacts, formation without migration requires disk surface densities in solids at semi-major axes of less than 0.1 AU of 103-105 g cm-2, implying typical enhancements above the minimum-mass solar nebular (MMSN) by at least a factor of 20. Corresponding gas disks are below but not far from the gravitational stability limit. In contrast, formation beyond a few AU is consistent with MMSN disk masses. This suggests that the migration of either solids or fully assembled planets is likely to have played a major role in the formation of close-in super-Earths and mini-Neptunes.

  18. NASA'S Space Launch System: Opening Opportunities for Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Hefner, Keith; Hitt, David

    2015-01-01

    Designed to meet the stringent requirements of human exploration missions into deep space and to Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a unique new launch capability opening new opportunities for mission design. While SLS's super-heavy launch vehicle predecessor, the Saturn V, was used for only two types of missions - launching Apollo spacecraft to the moon and lofting the Skylab space station into Earth orbit - NASA is working to identify new ways to use SLS to enable new missions or mission profiles. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of not only propelling the Orion crew vehicle into cislunar space, but also delivering small satellites to deep space destinations. With a 5-meter (m) fairing consistent with contemporary Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs), the Block 1 configuration can also deliver science payloads to high-characteristic-energy (C3) trajectories to the outer solar system. With the addition of an upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a new class of secondary payloads, larger than today's cubesats. The evolved configurations of SLS, including both Block 1B and the 130 t Block 2, also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk and operational costs associated with shorter transit time to destination and reduced risk and complexity associated with launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. As this paper will

  19. Techniques for the determination of mass properties of earth-to-orbit transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, I. O.; Klich, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    One estimating technique involves trending whereby projections of overall mass properties of vehicles are determined with few inputs. The second technique involves trending of individual subsystems using equations of the form KXN to the nth power or KX. Some constants and exponentials are provided for sample subsystems. Mass properties are reported in a format recommended by mil spec - 38310.

  20. The symmetry and mass of halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) as quantitative predictors for severe space weather at Earth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuselier, S.; Allegrini, F.; Bzowski, M.; Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M. I.; Funsten, H. O.; Galli, A.; Heirtzler, D.; Janzen, P. H.; Kubiak, M. A.; Kucharek, H.; Lewis, W. S.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Petrinec, S. M.; Quinn, M. S.; Schwadron, N.; Sokol, J. M.; Trattner, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Bureau of Meteorology's Space Weather Service operates an alert service for severe space weather events. The service relies on a statistical model which ingests observations of M and X class solar flares at or shortly after the time of the flare to predict the occurrence and severity of terrestrial impacts with a lead time of 1 to 4 days. This model has been operational since 2012 and caters to the needs of critical infrastructure groups in the Australian region. This paper reports on improvements to the forecast model by including SOHO LASCO coronagraph observations of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). The coronagraphs are analysed to determine the Earthward direction parameter and the integrated intensity as a measure of the CME mass. Both of these parameters can help to predict whether a CME will be geo-effective. This work aims to increase the accuracy of the model predictions and lower the rate of false positives, as well as providing an estimate of the expected level of geomagnetic storm intensity.

  1. The symmetry and mass of halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) as quantitative predictors for severe space weather at Earth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, L. E.; Terkildsen, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Bureau of Meteorology's Space Weather Service operates an alert service for severe space weather events. The service relies on a statistical model which ingests observations of M and X class solar flares at or shortly after the time of the flare to predict the occurrence and severity of terrestrial impacts with a lead time of 1 to 4 days. This model has been operational since 2012 and caters to the needs of critical infrastructure groups in the Australian region. This paper reports on improvements to the forecast model by including SOHO LASCO coronagraph observations of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). The coronagraphs are analysed to determine the Earthward direction parameter and the integrated intensity as a measure of the CME mass. Both of these parameters can help to predict whether a CME will be geo-effective. This work aims to increase the accuracy of the model predictions and lower the rate of false positives, as well as providing an estimate of the expected level of geomagnetic storm intensity.

  2. Aquarius SAC-D Launch

    2011-06-09

    A Delta II rocket launches with the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft payload from Space Launch Complex 2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. on Friday, June 10, 2011. The joint U.S./Argentinian Aquarius/Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas (SAC)-D mission will map the salinity at the ocean surface, information critical to improving our understanding of two major components of Earth's climate system: the water cycle and ocean circulation. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor); Blasso, L. G. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Papers and viewgraphs from the conference are presented. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disks and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

  4. The Aquila launch service for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittinghill, George R.; McKinney, Bevin C.

    1992-07-01

    The Aquila launch vehicle is described emphasizing its use in the deployment of small satellites for the commercial sector. The Aquila is designed to use a guidance, navigation, and control system, and the rocket is based on hybrid propulsion incorporating a liquid oxidizer with a solid polybutadiene fuel. The launch vehicle for the system is a ground-launched four-stage vehicle that can deliver 3,200 lbs of payload into a 185-km circular orbit at 90-deg inclination. Aquila avionics include inertial navigation, radar transponder, and an S-band telemetry transmitter. The payload environment minimizes in-flight acoustic levels, and the launch-ascent profile is characterized by low acceleration. The launch vehicle uses low-cost rocket motors, a high-performance LO(x) feed system, and erector launch capability which contribute to efficient launches for commercial payloads for low polar earth orbits.

  5. STS-120 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-120 crew headed toward Earth-orbit and a scheduled linkup with the International Space Station (ISS). Liftoff from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A occurred at 11:38:19 a.m. (EDT) on October 23, 2007. Onboard were astronauts Pam Melroy, commander; George Zamka, pilot; Scott Parazynski, Stephanie Wilson, Doug Wheelock, European Space Agency's (ESA) Paolo Nespoli and Daniel Tani, all mission specialists. Discovery linked up with the station for a joint mission of continued construction. The mission delivered the Italian-built U.S. Node 2, named Harmony. During the 14-day mission, the crew installed Harmony, moved and deployed the P6 solar arrays to their permanent position.

  6. STS-120 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-120 crew headed toward Earth-orbit and a scheduled linkup with the International Space Station (ISS). Liftoff from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A occurred at 11:38:19 a.m. (EDT) on October 23, 2007. Onboard were astronauts Pam Melroy, commander; George Zamka, pilot; Scott Parazynski, Stephanie Wilson, Doug Wheelock, European Space Agency's (ESA) Paolo Nespoli, and Daniel Tani, all mission specialists. Discovery linked up with the station for a joint mission of continued construction. The mission delivered the Italian-built U.S. Node 2, named Harmony. During the 14-day mission, the crew installed Harmony, and moved and deployed the P6 solar arrays to their permanent position.

  7. STS-120 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-120 crew headed toward Earth-orbit and a scheduled linkup with the International Space Station (ISS). Liftoff from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A occurred at 11:38:19 a.m. (EDT) on October 23, 2007. Onboard were astronauts Pam Melroy, commander; George Zamka, pilot; Scott Parazynski, Stephanie Wilson, Doug Wheelock, European Space Agency's (ESA) Paolo Nespoli and Daniel Tani, all mission specialists. Discovery linked up with the station for a joint mission of continued construction, The mission delivered the Italian-built U.S. Node 2, named Harmony. During the 14-day mission, the crew installed Harmony, and moved and deployed the P6 solar arrays to their permanent position.

  8. Expedition 11 Launch Day

    2005-04-15

    European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori, right, is outfitted in his Russian Sokol suit, Friday, April 15, 2005, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Vittori, along with Expedition 11 Commander Sergei Krikalev and Flight Engineer and NASA Science Officer John Phillips were preparing for launch aboard the Soyuz TMA-6 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at daybreak on April 15 for a two-day trip to the International Space Station. Krikalev and Phillips will spend six months on the station, replacing Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao and Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov, while Vittori will spend eight days on the Station under a commerical contract between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency, returning to Earth with Chiao and Sharipov on April 25. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 11 Launch Day

    2005-04-15

    Expedition 11 Commander Sergei Krikalev, seated, is outfitted in his Russian Sokol suit, Friday, April 15, 2005, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Krikalev, along with Flight Engineer and NASA Science Officer John Phillips and European Space Agency Astronaut Roberto Vittori, of Italy, were preparing for launch aboard the Soyuz TMA-6 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at daybreak on April 15 for a two-day trip to the International Space Station. Krikalev and Phillips will spend six months on the station, replacing Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao and Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov, while Vittori will spend eight days on the Station under a commerical contract between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency, returning to Earth with Chiao and Sharipov on April 25. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 11 Launch Day

    2005-04-15

    Expedition 11 Commander Sergei Krikalev, left, is outfitted in his Russian Sokol suit, Friday, April 15, 2005, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Krikalev, along with Flight Engineer and NASA Science Officer John Phillips and European Space Agency Astronaut Roberto Vittori, of Italy, were preparing for launch aboard the Soyuz TMA-6 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at daybreak on April 15 for a two-day trip to the International Space Station. Krikalev and Phillips will spend six months on the station, replacing Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao and Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov, while Vittori will spend eight days on the Station under a commerical contract between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency, returning to Earth with Chiao and Sharipov on April 25. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 11 Launch Day

    2005-04-15

    Expedition 11 Commander Sergei Krikalev, right, is outfitted in his Russian Sokol suit, Friday, April 15, 2005, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Krikalev, along with Flight Engineer and NASA Science Officer John Phillips and European Space Agency Astronaut Roberto Vittori of Italy were preparing for launch aboard the Soyuz TMA-6 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at daybreak on April 15 for a two-day trip to the International Space Station. Krikalev and Phillips will spend six months on the station, replacing Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao and Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov, while Vittori will spend eight days on the Station under a commerical contract between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency, returning to Earth with Chiao and Sharipov on April 25. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 11 Launch Day

    2005-04-15

    European Space Agency astronaut Roberto Vittori, of Italy, is outfitted in his Russian Sokol suit, Friday, April 15, 2005, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Vittori, along with Expedition 11 Commander Sergei Krikalev and Flight Engineer and NASA Science Officer John Phillips were preparing for launch aboard the Soyuz TMA-6 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at daybreak on April 15 for a two-day trip to the International Space Station. Krikalev and Phillips will spend six months on the station, replacing Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao and Flight Engineer Salizhan Sharipov, while Vittori will spend eight days on the Station under a commerical contract between ESA and the Russian Federal Space Agency, returning to Earth with Chiao and Sharipov on April 25. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-023 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  14. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-020 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  15. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-028 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  16. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-038 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  17. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-033 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  18. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-035 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  19. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-018 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  20. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-032 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  1. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-037 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  2. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-019 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  3. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-034 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  4. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-009 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  5. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-022 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  6. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-029 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  7. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-027 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  8. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-030 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  9. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-036 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  10. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-024 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  11. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-039 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  12. STS-119 Launch

    2009-03-15

    STS119-S-021 (15 March 2009) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member STS-119 crew head toward Earth orbit and a scheduled link-up with the International Space Station. Liftoff was on time at 7:43 p.m. (EDT) on March 15, 2009 from launch pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Onboard are astronauts Lee Archambault, commander; Tony Antonelli, pilot; Joseph Acaba, Steve Swanson, Richard Arnold, John Phillips and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Koichi Wakata, all mission specialists. Wakata will join Expedition 18 in progress to serve as a flight engineer aboard the space station. Discovery will deliver the final pair of power-generating solar array wings and the S6 truss segment. Installation of S6 will signal the station's readiness to house a six-member crew for conducting increased science.

  13. STS-51 Discovery launch

    1993-09-12

    STS051-S-108 (12 Sept. 1993) --- The Space Shuttle Discovery soars toward a nine-day stay in Earth-orbit to support the mission. Launch occurred at 7:45 a.m. (EDT) September 12, 1993. Note the diamond shock effect coming from the thrust of the three main engines. Onboard the shuttle were astronauts Frank L. Culbertson, Jr., William F. Readdy, Daniel W. Bursch, James H. Newman and Carl E. Walz, along with a number of payloads. The payloads included the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) with its Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS), the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (ORFEUS) and its Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) carrier. This photograph was taken with a 35mm camera.

  14. Global Catastrophes in Earth History: An Interdisciplinary Conference on Impacts, Volcanism, and Mass Mortality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Topics addressed include: Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinctions; geologial indicators for meteorite collisions; carbon dioxide catastrophes; volcanism; climatic changes; geochemistry; mineralogy; fossil records; biospheric traumas; stratigraphy; mathematical models; and ocean dynamics.

  15. Near-Optimal Operation of Dual-Fuel Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Chou, H. C.; Bowles, J. V.

    1996-01-01

    A near-optimal guidance law for the ascent trajectory from earth surface to earth orbit of a fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit pure rocket launch vehicle is derived. Of interest are both the optimal operation of the propulsion system and the optimal flight path. A methodology is developed to investigate the optimal throttle switching of dual-fuel engines. The method is based on selecting propulsion system modes and parameters that maximize a certain performance function. This function is derived from consideration of the energy-state model of the aircraft equations of motion. Because the density of liquid hydrogen is relatively low, the sensitivity of perturbations in volume need to be taken into consideration as well as weight sensitivity. The cost functional is a weighted sum of fuel mass and volume; the weighting factor is chosen to minimize vehicle empty weight for a given payload mass and volume in orbit.

  16. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    2016-09-07

    A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket is reflected in the water as it rolls out of the Vertical Integration Facility on its way to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  17. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    2016-09-07

    The United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket arrives at Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  18. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    2016-09-07

    A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket begins to roll out of the Vertical Integration Facility to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  19. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    2016-09-07

    After leaving the Vertical Integration Facility, a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket is on its way to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  20. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    2016-09-07

    In a view from ground level looking up, a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket begins to roll out of the Vertical Integration Facility to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  1. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    2016-09-07

    After leaving the Vertical Integration Facility, a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket arrives at Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  2. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    2016-09-07

    The United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket arrives at Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  3. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    2016-09-07

    In a view from above, a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket begins to roll out of the Vertical Integration Facility to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  4. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    2016-09-07

    A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket rolls out of the Vertical Integration Facility on its way to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  5. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    2016-09-07

    A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket has left the Vertical Integration Facility and is on its way to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  6. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    2016-09-07

    The United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket has made the trek from the Vertical Integration Facility to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  7. OSIRIS-REx Rollout for Launch

    2016-09-07

    A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket rolled out of the Vertical Integration Facility and is on its way to Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The launch vehicle will boost NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer, or OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid, retrieve at least two ounces of surface material and return it to Earth for study. The asteroid, Bennu, may hold clues to the origin of the solar system and the source of water and organic molecules found on Earth.

  8. VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - Logos identify the mission of this Delta II rocket that will launch the Gravity Probe B experiment, developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

    2003-09-12

    VANDENBERG AFB, CALIF. - Logos identify the mission of this Delta II rocket that will launch the Gravity Probe B experiment, developed by Stanford University, Lockheed Martin and NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. The Gravity Probe B will launch a payload of four gyroscopes into low-Earth polar orbit to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: the geodetic effect (how space and time are warped by the presence of the Earth) and frame dragging (how Earth’s rotation drags space and time around with it). Once in orbit, for 18 months each gyroscope’s spin axis will be monitored as it travels through local spacetime, observing and measuring these effects. The targeted launch date is Dec. 6, 2003.

  9. Morpheus Launch Pad Move

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A flatbed truck carries the launch pad for the Project Morpheus prototype lander to a new location at the north end of the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The launch pad is being moved to a different location to support the next phase of flight testing. Morpheus completed its seventh free flight test on March 11. The 83-second test began at 3:41 p.m. EDT with the Morpheus lander launching from the ground over a flame trench and ascending to 580 feet. Morpheus then flew its fastest downrange trek at 30 mph, travelling farther than before, 837 feet. The lander performed a 42-foot divert to emulate a hazard avoidance maneuver before descending and touching down on Landing Site 2, at the northern landing pad inside the automated landing and hazard avoidance technology ALHAT hazard field. Morpheus landed within one foot of its intended target. Project Morpheus tests NASA’s ALHAT and an engine that runs on liquid oxygen and methane, or green propellants, into a fully-operational lander that could deliver cargo to other planetary surfaces. The landing facility provides the lander with the kind of field necessary for realistic testing, complete with rocks, craters and hazards to avoid. Morpheus’ ALHAT payload allows it to navigate to clear landing sites amidst rocks, craters and other hazards during its descent. Project Morpheus is being managed under the Advanced Exploration Systems, or AES, Division in NASA’s Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The efforts in AES pioneer new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit. For more information on Project Morpheus, visit http://morpheuslander.jsc.nasa.gov/. Photo credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis

  10. Morpheus Launch Pad Move

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Construction workers assist as a crane lowers a portion of the launch pad for the Project Morpheus prototype lander onto a transporter at the north end of the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The launch pad is being moved to a different location at the landing facility to support the next phase of flight testing. Morpheus completed its seventh free flight test on March 11. The 83-second test began at 3:41 p.m. EDT with the Morpheus lander launching from the ground over a flame trench and ascending to 580 feet. Morpheus then flew its fastest downrange trek at 30 mph, travelling farther than before, 837 feet. The lander performed a 42-foot divert to emulate a hazard avoidance maneuver before descending and touching down on Landing Site 2, at the northern landing pad inside the automated landing and hazard avoidance technology ALHAT hazard field. Morpheus landed within one foot of its intended target. Project Morpheus tests NASA’s ALHAT and an engine that runs on liquid oxygen and methane, or green propellants, into a fully-operational lander that could deliver cargo to other planetary surfaces. The landing facility provides the lander with the kind of field necessary for realistic testing, complete with rocks, craters and hazards to avoid. Morpheus’ ALHAT payload allows it to navigate to clear landing sites amidst rocks, craters and other hazards during its descent. Project Morpheus is being managed under the Advanced Exploration Systems, or AES, Division in NASA’s Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The efforts in AES pioneer new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit. For more information on Project Morpheus, visit http://morpheuslander.jsc.nasa.gov/. Photo credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis

  11. Morpheus Launch Pad Move

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Construction workers assist as a crane lowers a large portion of the launch pad for the Project Morpheus prototype lander onto a transporter at the north end of the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The launch pad is being moved to a different location at the landing facility to support the next phase of flight testing. Morpheus completed its seventh free flight test on March 11. The 83-second test began at 3:41 p.m. EDT with the Morpheus lander launching from the ground over a flame trench and ascending to 580 feet. Morpheus then flew its fastest downrange trek at 30 mph, travelling farther than before, 837 feet. The lander performed a 42-foot divert to emulate a hazard avoidance maneuver before descending and touching down on Landing Site 2, at the northern landing pad inside the automated landing and hazard avoidance technology ALHAT hazard field. Morpheus landed within one foot of its intended target. Project Morpheus tests NASA’s ALHAT and an engine that runs on liquid oxygen and methane, or green propellants, into a fully-operational lander that could deliver cargo to other planetary surfaces. The landing facility provides the lander with the kind of field necessary for realistic testing, complete with rocks, craters and hazards to avoid. Morpheus’ ALHAT payload allows it to navigate to clear landing sites amidst rocks, craters and other hazards during its descent. Project Morpheus is being managed under the Advanced Exploration Systems, or AES, Division in NASA’s Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The efforts in AES pioneer new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit. For more information on Project Morpheus, visit http://morpheuslander.jsc.nasa.gov/. Photo credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis

  12. Morpheus Launch Pad Move

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Construction workers assist as a crane is used to lift a large portion of the launch pad for the Project Morpheus prototype lander onto a transporter at the north end of the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The launch pad is being moved to a different location at the landing facility to support the next phase of flight testing. Morpheus completed its seventh free flight test on March 11. The 83-second test began at 3:41 p.m. EDT with the Morpheus lander launching from the ground over a flame trench and ascending to 580 feet. Morpheus then flew its fastest downrange trek at 30 mph, travelling farther than before, 837 feet. The lander performed a 42-foot divert to emulate a hazard avoidance maneuver before descending and touching down on Landing Site 2, at the northern landing pad inside the automated landing and hazard avoidance technology ALHAT hazard field. Morpheus landed within one foot of its intended target. Project Morpheus tests NASA’s ALHAT and an engine that runs on liquid oxygen and methane, or green propellants, into a fully-operational lander that could deliver cargo to other planetary surfaces. The landing facility provides the lander with the kind of field necessary for realistic testing, complete with rocks, craters and hazards to avoid. Morpheus’ ALHAT payload allows it to navigate to clear landing sites amidst rocks, craters and other hazards during its descent. Project Morpheus is being managed under the Advanced Exploration Systems, or AES, Division in NASA’s Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The efforts in AES pioneer new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit. For more information on Project Morpheus, visit http://morpheuslander.jsc.nasa.gov/. Photo credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis

  13. Morpheus Launch Pad Move

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A crane is used to lower the launch pad for the Project Morpheus prototype lander onto a new location at the north end of the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The launch pad was moved to a different location to support the next phase of flight testing. Morpheus completed its seventh free flight test on March 11. The 83-second test began at 3:41 p.m. EDT with the Morpheus lander launching from the ground over a flame trench and ascending to 580 feet. Morpheus then flew its fastest downrange trek at 30 mph, travelling farther than before, 837 feet. The lander performed a 42-foot divert to emulate a hazard avoidance maneuver before descending and touching down on Landing Site 2, at the northern landing pad inside the automated landing and hazard avoidance technology ALHAT hazard field. Morpheus landed within one foot of its intended target. Project Morpheus tests NASA’s ALHAT and an engine that runs on liquid oxygen and methane, or green propellants, into a fully-operational lander that could deliver cargo to other planetary surfaces. The landing facility provides the lander with the kind of field necessary for realistic testing, complete with rocks, craters and hazards to avoid. Morpheus’ ALHAT payload allows it to navigate to clear landing sites amidst rocks, craters and other hazards during its descent. Project Morpheus is being managed under the Advanced Exploration Systems, or AES, Division in NASA’s Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The efforts in AES pioneer new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit. For more information on Project Morpheus, visit http://morpheuslander.jsc.nasa.gov/. Photo credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis

  14. Morpheus Launch Pad Move

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Construction workers begin to reassemble the launch pad for the Project Morpheus prototype lander at a new location at the north end of the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The launch pad was moved to a different location to support the next phase of flight testing. Morpheus completed its seventh free flight test on March 11. The 83-second test began at 3:41 p.m. EDT with the Morpheus lander launching from the ground over a flame trench and ascending to 580 feet. Morpheus then flew its fastest downrange trek at 30 mph, travelling farther than before, 837 feet. The lander performed a 42-foot divert to emulate a hazard avoidance maneuver before descending and touching down on Landing Site 2, at the northern landing pad inside the automated landing and hazard avoidance technology ALHAT hazard field. Morpheus landed within one foot of its intended target. Project Morpheus tests NASA’s ALHAT and an engine that runs on liquid oxygen and methane, or green propellants, into a fully-operational lander that could deliver cargo to other planetary surfaces. The landing facility provides the lander with the kind of field necessary for realistic testing, complete with rocks, craters and hazards to avoid. Morpheus’ ALHAT payload allows it to navigate to clear landing sites amidst rocks, craters and other hazards during its descent. Project Morpheus is being managed under the Advanced Exploration Systems, or AES, Division in NASA’s Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The efforts in AES pioneer new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit. For more information on Project Morpheus, visit http://morpheuslander.jsc.nasa.gov/. Photo credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis

  15. Morpheus Launch Pad Move

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Construction workers attach a crane to part of the launch pad for the Project Morpheus prototype lander at the north end of the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The launch pad will be moved to a different location at the landing facility to support the next phase of flight testing. The seventh free flight test of Morpheus occurred on March 11. The 83-second test began at 3:41 p.m. EDT with the Morpheus lander launching from the ground over a flame trench and ascending to 580 feet. Morpheus then flew its fastest downrange trek at 30 mph, travelling farther than before, 837 feet. The lander performed a 42-foot divert to emulate a hazard avoidance maneuver before descending and touching down on Landing Site 2, at the northern landing pad inside the automated landing and hazard avoidance technology ALHAT hazard field. Morpheus landed within one foot of its intended target. Project Morpheus tests NASA’s ALHAT and an engine that runs on liquid oxygen and methane, or green propellants, into a fully-operational lander that could deliver cargo to other planetary surfaces. The landing facility provides the lander with the kind of field necessary for realistic testing, complete with rocks, craters and hazards to avoid. Morpheus’ ALHAT payload allows it to navigate to clear landing sites amidst rocks, craters and other hazards during its descent. Project Morpheus is being managed under the Advanced Exploration Systems, or AES, Division in NASA’s Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The efforts in AES pioneer new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit. For more information on Project Morpheus, visit http://morpheuslander.jsc.nasa.gov/. Photo credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis

  16. Morpheus Launch Pad Move

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Construction workers monitor the progress as a crane is used to lift a portion of the launch pad for the Project Morpheus prototype lander at the north end of the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The launch pad will be moved to a different location at the landing facility to support the next phase of flight testing. The seventh free flight test of Morpheus occurred on March 11. The 83-second test began at 3:41 p.m. EDT with the Morpheus lander launching from the ground over a flame trench and ascending to 580 feet. Morpheus then flew its fastest downrange trek at 30 mph, travelling farther than before, 837 feet. The lander performed a 42-foot divert to emulate a hazard avoidance maneuver before descending and touching down on Landing Site 2, at the northern landing pad inside the automated landing and hazard avoidance technology ALHAT hazard field. Morpheus landed within one foot of its intended target. Project Morpheus tests NASA’s ALHAT and an engine that runs on liquid oxygen and methane, or green propellants, into a fully-operational lander that could deliver cargo to other planetary surfaces . The landing facility provides the lander with the kind of field necessary for realistic testing, complete with rocks, craters and hazards to avoid. Morpheus’ ALHAT payload allows it to navigate to clear landing sites amidst rocks, craters and other hazards during its descent. Project Morpheus is being managed under the Advanced Exploration Systems, or AES, Division in NASA’s Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The efforts in AES pioneer new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit. For more information on Project Morpheus, visit http://morpheuslander.jsc.nasa.gov/. Photo credit: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis

  17. Earth Science

    1993-03-29

    Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) is a tethered date collecting satellite and is intended to demonstrate a versatile and economical way of delivering smaller payloads to higher orbits or downward toward Earth's atmosphere. 19th Navstar Global Positioning System Satellite mission joined with previously launched satellites used for navigational purposes and geodite studies. These satellites are used commercially as well as by the military.

  18. STS-116 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Against a black night sky, the Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member crew head toward Earth-orbit and a scheduled linkup with the International Space Station (ISS). Liftoff from the Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39B occurred at 8:47 p.m. (EST) on Dec. 9, 2006 in what was the first evening shuttle launch since 2002. The primary mission objective was to deliver and install the P5 truss element. The P5 installation was conducted during the first of three space walks, and involved use of both the shuttle and station's robotic arms. The remainder of the mission included a major reconfiguration and activation of the ISS electrical and thermal control systems, as well as delivery of Zvezda Service Module debris panels, which will increase ISS protection from potential impacts of micro-meteorites and orbital debris. Two major payloads developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) were also delivered to the Station. The Lab-On-A Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS) and the Water Delivery System, a vital component of the Station's Oxygen Generation System.

  19. Game Changing: NASA's Space Launch System and Science Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  20. Venture Class Launch Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Provide an introduction to the Launch Services Program, and specifically the strategic initiative that drove the Venture Class Launch Services contracts. Provide information from the VCLS request for proposals, as well as the Agency's CubeSat Launch Initiative.

  1. Launch summary for 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Sounding rocket, satellite, and space probe launchings are presented. Time, date, and location of the launches are provided. The sponsoring countries and the institutions responsible for the launch are listed.

  2. A space weather information service based upon remote and in-situ measurements of coronal mass ejections heading for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartkorn, O. A.; Ritter, B.; Meskers, A. J. H.; Miles, O.; Russwurm, M.; Scully, S.; Roldan, A.; Juestel, P.; Reville, V.; Lupu, S.; Ruffenach, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere is formed as a consequence of the interaction between the planet's magnetic field and the solar wind, a continuous plasma stream from the Sun. A number of different solar wind phenomena have been studied over the past forty years with the intention of understandingand forcasting solar behavior and space weather. In particular, Earth-bound interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can significantly disturb the Earth's magnetosphere for a short time and cause geomagnetic storms. We present a mission concept consisting of six spacecraft that are equally spaced in a heliocentric orbit at 0.72 AU. These spacecraft will monitor the plasma properties, the magnetic field's orientation and magnitude, and the 3D-propagation trajectory of CMEs heading for Earth. The primary objective of this mission is to increase space weather forecasting time by means of a near real-time information service, that is based upon in-situ and remote measurements of the CME properties. The mission secondary objective is the improvement of scientific space weather models. In-situ measurements are performed using a Solar Wind Analyzer instrumentation package and flux gate magnetometers. For remote measurements, coronagraphs are employed. The proposed instruments originate from other space missions with the intention to reduce mission costs and to streamline the mission design process. Communication with the six identical spacecraft is realized via a deep space network consisting of six ground stations. This network provides an information service that is in uninterrupted contact with the spacecraft, allowing for continuos space weather monitoring. A dedicated data processing center will handle all the data, and forward the processed data to the SSA Space Weather Coordination Center. This organization will inform the general public through a space weather forecast. The data processing center will additionally archive the data for the scientific community. This concept

  3. NASA's Space Launch System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than 3 years after formal program establishment. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of core stage test barrels and domes; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for RS- 25 core stage engine testing; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and will complete Key Decision Point C in 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven technology, infrastructure, and workforce from the Saturn and Space Shuttle programs, a streamlined management

  4. Expendable launch vehicle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Reiss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrate on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed and linearized. The information from LeRC about the grids, masses, and modes is incorporated into the model. The eigenvalues of the plant are analyzed for several modeling factors: utilizing diagonal mass matrix, uniform beam assumption, inclusion of aerodynamics, and the interaction between the aerodynamics and the flexible bending motion. Preliminary PID, LQR, and LQG control designs with sensor and actuator dynamics for this system and simulations are also conducted. The initial analysis for comparison of PD (proportional-derivative) and full state feedback LQR Linear quadratic regulator) shows that the split weighted LQR controller has better performance than that of the PD. In order to meet both the performance and robustness requirements, the H(sub infinity) robust controller for the expendable launch vehicle is developed. The simulation indicates that both the performance and robustness of the H(sub infinity) controller are better than that for the PID and LQG controllers. The modelling and analysis support studies team has continued development of methodology, using eigensensitivity analysis, to solve three classes of discrete eigenvalue equations. In the first class, the matrix elements are non-linear functions of the eigenvector. All non-linear periodic motion can be cast in this form. Here the eigenvector is comprised of the coefficients of complete basis functions spanning the response space and the eigenvalue is the frequency. The second class of eigenvalue problems studied is the quadratic eigenvalue problem. Solutions for linear viscously damped structures or viscoelastic structures can be reduced to this form. Particular attention is paid to

  5. OGLE-2017-BLG-0482Lb: A Microlensing Super-Earth Orbiting a Low-mass Host Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, C.; Hirao, Y.; Udalski, A.; Lee, C.-U.; Bozza, V.; Gould, A.; and; Abe, F.; Barry, R.; Bond, I. A.; Bennett, D. P.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Evans, P.; Fukui, A.; Itow, Y.; Kawasaki, K.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Matsubara, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Munakata, H.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Ranc, C.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, T.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Yamada, T.; Yonehara, A.; The MOA Collaboration; Mróz, P.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Szymański, M. K.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; Rybicki, K.; Iwanek, P.; The OGLE Collaboration; Albrow, M. D.; Chung, S.-J.; Hwang, K.-H.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D.; Kim, W.-T.; Kim, H.-W.; Ryu, Y.-H.; Shin, I.-G.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Yee, J. C.; Zhu, W.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, S.-L.; Kim, D.-J.; Lee, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; Park, B.-G.; Pogge, R. W.; The KMTNet Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    We report the discovery of a planetary system in which a super-Earth orbits a late M-dwarf host. The planetary system was found from the analysis of the microlensing event OGLE-2017-BLG-0482, wherein the planet signal appears as a short-term anomaly to the smooth lensing light curve produced by the host. Despite its weak signal and short duration, the planetary signal was firmly detected from the dense and continuous coverage by three microlensing surveys. We find a planet/host mass ratio of q ∼ 1.4 × 10‑4. We measure the microlens parallax {π }{{E}} from the long-term deviation in the observed lensing light curve, but the angular Einstein radius {θ }{{E}} cannot be measured because the source trajectory did not cross the planet-induced caustic. Using the measured event timescale and the microlens parallax, we find that the masses of the planet and the host are {M}{{p}}={9.0}-4.5+9.0 {M}\\oplus and {M}host}={0.20}-0.10+0.20 {M}ȯ , respectively, and the projected separation between them is {a}\\perp ={1.8}-0.7+0.6 au. The estimated distance to the lens is {D}{{L}}={5.8}-2.1+1.8 kpc. The discovery of the planetary system demonstrates that microlensing provides an important method to detect low-mass planets orbiting low-mass stars.

  6. Rotational-oscillational motions of the nonrigid Earth about the center of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, V. V.; Perepelkin, V. V.

    2009-10-01

    We use the model of a nearly axisymmetric viscoelastic rigid body to study perturbed rotational-oscillational motions of the Earth's pole. We point out that the Chandler component of oscillations is of celestial-mechanics nature and is caused by the gravitational-tidal actions of the Sun and the Moon. We analyze the pole oscillation excitation mechanism at a frequency close to the Chandler frequency and show that the undamped pole oscillations are caused by the resonance harmonic of the external perturbation at a frequency close to the free nutation frequency. We discuss whether it is possible to solve the problem of constructing a short-term forecast of the pole motion on the basis of a polynomial filter obtained by the least-squares method without taking into account small-scale oscillations caused by wide-band random factors of arbitrary physical nature. In the present paper, we perform numerical simulation of tidal inhomogeneities in the Earth's axial rotation. Attention is mainly paid to the analysis of day length variations on short time intervals with periods less than or equal to one year (interannual oscillations) and to their forecast.

  7. Evolution of a Coronal Mass Ejection from the Sun to Mercury, Venus, Earth and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Shen, C.; Liu, J.; Mengjiao, X.; Guo, J.

    2017-12-01

    A clear magnetic cloud was observed by Messenger at Mercury. By using coronagraph images from SOHO/LASCO and STEREO/COR and the in-situ data from Wind near the Earth, we estimated its propgation velocity and identified the possible CME candidate in the corona and its counterpart recorded by Venus Express near Venus. By applying the CME's DIPS (Deflection in InterPlanetary Space) model, we show that the CME's arrivals at the three different heliocentric distance can be well reproduced. By extending the trajectory of the CME to the orbitor of Mars, we predict the arrival of the CME at Mars, which is in agreement with a significant Forbush decrease observed by MSL. We use uniformly-twisted force-free flux rope model to fit the in-situ measurements at Mercury, Venus and the Earth to study the evolution of the magnetic flux rope, and find that both axial magnetic flux and twist significantly decreased, suggesting that a significant erosion process was on-going and might change the averaged twist of the magnetic flux rope.

  8. NASA's Space Launch System: Momentum Builds Towards First Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd; Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is gaining momentum programmatically and technically toward the first launch of a new exploration-class heavy lift launch vehicle for international exploration and science initiatives. The SLS comprises an architecture that begins with a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. Its first mission will be the launch of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back. SLS will also launch the first Orion crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a 130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation with the successful completion of the rigorous Key Decision Point C review in 2014. At KDP-C, the Agency Planning Management Council determines the readiness of a program to go to the next life-cycle phase and makes technical, cost, and schedule commitments to its external stakeholders. As a result, the Agency authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015, and a launch readiness date of November 2018. Every SLS element is currently in testing or test preparations. The Program shipped its first flight hardware in 2014 in preparation for Orion's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) launch on a Delta IV Heavy rocket in December, a significant first step toward human journeys into deep space. Accomplishments during 2014 included manufacture of Core Stage test articles and preparations for qualification testing the Solid Rocket Boosters and the RS-25 Core Stage engines. SLS was conceived with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability, while also providing unprecedented capability for human exploration and scientific discovery beyond Earth orbit. In an environment

  9. SKYLAB (SL)-2 - LAUNCH - KSC

    1973-05-31

    S73-27095 (25 May 1973) --- The Skylab 2 crew, consisting of astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., Joseph P. Kerwin and Paul J. Weitz, inside the command module atop a Saturn IB launch vehicle, heads toward the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The command module was inserted into Earth orbit approximately 10 minutes after liftoff. The three represent the first of three crews who will spend record-setting durations for human beings in space, while performing a variety of experiments. Photo credit: NASA

  10. SKYLAB (SL)-2 - LAUNCH - KSC

    1973-05-31

    S73-27096 (25 May 1973) --- The Skylab 2 crew, consisting of astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., Joseph P. Kerwin and Paul J. Weitz, inside the command module atop a Saturn IB launch vehicle, heads toward the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The command module was inserted into Earth orbit approximately 10 minutes after liftoff. The three represent the first of three crews who will spend record-setting durations for human beings in space, while performing a variety of experiments. Photo credit: NASA

  11. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson,Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    Designed to meet the stringent requirements of human exploration missions into deep space and to Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a unique new launch capability opening new opportunities for mission design. While SLS's super-heavy launch vehicle predecessor, the Saturn V, was used for only two types of missions - launching Apollo spacecraft to the moon and lofting the Skylab space station into Earth orbit - NASA is working to identify new ways to use SLS to enable new missions or mission profiles. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of not only propelling the Orion crew vehicle into cislunar space, but also delivering small satellites to deep space destinations. With a 5-meter (m) fairing consistent with contemporary Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs), the Block 1 configuration can also deliver science payloads to high-characteristic-energy (C3) trajectories to the outer solar system. With the addition of an upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a new class of secondary payloads, larger than today's cubesats. The evolved configurations of SLS, including both Block 1B and the 130 t Block 2, also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk and operational costs associated with shorter transit time to destination and reduced risk and complexity associated with launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. As this paper will

  12. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Hefner, Keith; Hitt, David

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventually landings on Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the "proving ground" of lunar-vicinity space to enabling high-energy transits through the outer solar system. Substantial progress has been made toward the first launch of the initial configuration of SLS, which will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO). Preparations are also underway to evolve the vehicle into more powerful configurations, culminating with the capability to deliver more than 130 metric tons to LEO. Even the initial configuration of SLS will be able to deliver greater mass to orbit than any contemporary launch vehicle, and the evolved configuration will have greater performance than the Saturn V rocket that enabled human landings on the moon. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads. Because of its substantial mass-lift capability, SLS will also offer unrivaled departure energy, enabling mission profiles currently not possible. The basic capabilities of SLS have been driven by studies on the requirements of human deep-space exploration missions, and continue to be validated by maturing analysis of Mars mission options, including the Global Exploration Roadmap. Early collaboration with science teams planning future decadal-class missions have contributed to a greater understanding of the vehicle's potential range of utilization. As SLS draws closer to its first launch, the Program is maturing concepts for future capability upgrades, which could begin being available within a decade. These upgrades, from multiple unique payload accommodations to an upper stage providing more power for inspace propulsion, have ramifications for a variety of

  13. NASA's Space Launch System: Building a New Capability for Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventually landings on Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the lunar vicinity to high-energy transits through the outer solar system. Substantial progress has been made toward the first launch of the initial configuration of SLS, which will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO). The vehicle will then be evolved into more powerful configurations, culminating with the capability to deliver more than 130 metric tons to LEO. The initial configuration will be able to deliver greater mass to orbit than any contemporary launch vehicle, and the evolved configuration will have greater performance than the Saturn V rocket that enabled human landings on the moon. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads. Because of its substantial mass-lift capability, SLS will also offer unrivaled departure energy, enabling mission profiles currently not possible. The basic capabilities of SLS have been driven by studies on the requirements of human deep-space exploration missions, and continue to be validated by maturing analysis of Mars mission options. Early collaboration with science teams planning future decadal-class missions have contributed to a greater understanding of the vehicle's potential range of utilization. As this paper will explain, SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by providing the robust space launch capability to deliver sustainable solutions for exploration.

  14. NASA'S Space Launch System Mission Capabilities for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventual landings on Mars, NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the lunar vicinity to high-energy transits through the outer solar system. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability and sustainability in mind, SLS is a foundational capability for NASA’s future plans for exploration, along with the Orion crew vehicle and upgraded ground systems at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center. Substantial progress has been made toward the first launch of the initial configuration of SLS, which will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO), greater mass-to-orbit capability than any contemporary launch vehicle. The vehicle will then be evolved into more powerful configurations, culminating with the capability to deliver more than 130 metric tons to LEO, greater even than the Saturn V rocket that enabled human landings on the moon. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads. Because of its substantial mass-lift capability, SLS will also offer unrivaled departure energy, enabling mission profiles currently not possible. Early collaboration with science teams planning future decadal-class missions have contributed to a greater understanding of the vehicle’s potential range of utilization. This presentation will discuss the potential opportunities this vehicle poses for the planetary sciences community, relating the vehicle’s evolution to practical implications for mission capture. As this paper will explain, SLS will be a global launch infrastructure asset, employing sustainable solutions and technological innovations to deliver capabilities for space exploration to power human and robotic systems beyond our Moon and in to

  15. NASA's Space Launch System Mission Capabilities for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2015-01-01

    Designed to enable human space exploration missions, including eventual landings on Mars, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) represents a unique launch capability with a wide range of utilization opportunities, from delivering habitation systems into the lunar vicinity to high-energy transits through the outer solar system. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability and sustainability in mind, SLS is a foundational capability for NASA's future plans for exploration, along with the Orion crew vehicle and upgraded ground systems at the agency's Kennedy Space Center. Substantial progress has been made toward the first launch of the initial configuration of SLS, which will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO), greater mass-to-orbit capability than any contemporary launch vehicle. The vehicle will then be evolved into more powerful configurations, culminating with the capability to deliver more than 130 metric tons to LEO, greater even than the Saturn V rocket that enabled human landings on the moon. SLS will also be able to carry larger payload fairings than any contemporary launch vehicle, and will offer opportunities for co-manifested and secondary payloads. Because of its substantial mass-lift capability, SLS will also offer unrivaled departure energy, enabling mission profiles currently not possible. Early collaboration with science teams planning future decadal-class missions have contributed to a greater understanding of the vehicle's potential range of utilization. This presentation will discuss the potential opportunities this vehicle poses for the planetary sciences community, relating the vehicle's evolution to practical implications for mission capture. As this paper will explain, SLS will be a global launch infrastructure asset, employing sustainable solutions and technological innovations to deliver capabilities for space exploration to power human and robotic systems beyond our Moon and in to deep space.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A solid rocket booster (SRB) for the Delta II Heavy rocket that will launch the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is lifted off its transporter on Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The SRB will be added to the launch vehicle in the background. The Delta II Heavy features nine 46-inch-diameter, stretched SRBs. SIRTF, consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

    2003-07-22

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A solid rocket booster (SRB) for the Delta II Heavy rocket that will launch the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is lifted off its transporter on Launch Complex 17-B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The SRB will be added to the launch vehicle in the background. The Delta II Heavy features nine 46-inch-diameter, stretched SRBs. SIRTF, consisting of three cryogenically cooled science instruments and an 0.85-meter telescope, is one of NASA's largest infrared telescopes to be launched. SIRTF will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space. Most of this infrared radiation is blocked by the Earth's atmosphere and cannot be observed from the ground.

  17. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    A foundational capability for international human deep-space exploration, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, creating opportunities for mission profiles and space systems that cannot currently be executed. While the primary purpose of SLS, which is making rapid progress towards initial launch readiness in two years, will be to support NASA's Journey to Mars, discussions are already well underway regarding other potential utilization of the vehicle's unique capabilities. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS will propel the Orion crew vehicle to cislunar space, while also delivering small CubeSat-class spacecraft to deep-space destinations. With the addition of a more powerful upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a class of secondary payloads, larger than today's CubeSats. Further upgrades to the vehicle, including advanced boosters, will evolve its performance to 130 t in its Block 2 configuration. Both Block 1B and Block 2 also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk, operational costs and/or complexity, shorter transit time to destination or launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. This paper will discuss both the performance and capabilities of Space Launch System as it evolves, and the current state of SLS utilization planning.

  18. A Survey Course: The Energy and Mass Budget at the Surface of the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Geographers, Washington, DC. Commission on College Geography.

    The objectives of this geography course for liberal arts students include the following: 1) to demonstrate cooperative action among sciences, by showing that physical and chemical phenomena occur at biological surfaces that usually exist in economic and cultural frameworks; 2) to show that laboratory principles of mass and energy exchange and…

  19. Atmosphere Explorer set for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Atmosphere Explorer-D (Explorer-54) is described which will explore in detail an area of the earth's outer atmosphere where important energy transfer, atomic and molecular processes, and chemical reactions occur that are critical to the heat balance of the atmosphere. Data are presented on the mission facts, launch vehicle operations, AE-D/Delta flight events, spacecraft description, scientific instruments, tracking, and data acquisition.

  20. One possible source of mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes in the Archean atmosphere of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babikov, Dmitri; Semenov, Alexander; Teplukhin, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    Energy transfer mechanism for recombination of two sulfur atoms into a diatomic molecule, S2, is studied theoretically and computationally to determine whether the rate coefficient of this process can be significantly affected by isotopic substitutions, and whether the resultant isotope effect is expected to be mass-dependent or mass-independent. This is one of sulfur polymerization processes thought to be important in the anoxic atmosphere of the Archean Earth and, potentially, relevant to mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes. A simplified theoretical approach is employed, in which all properties of S2 molecule are characterized rather accurately, whereas the process of stabilization of metastable S2∗ by bath gas collisions is described approximately. Properties of individual scattering resonances in S2 are studied in detail, and it is found that most important contributions to the recombination process come from ro-vibrational states formed near the top of centrifugal barrier, and that the number of such states is about 50 (in 32S32S). Absolute value of recombination rate coefficient is computed to be 1.22 × 10-33 cm6/s (for 32S32S at room temperature and atmospheric pressure), close to experimental result. Two distinct isotope effects are identified. One is a classical mass-dependent effect due to translational partition function, which leads to a weak, smooth, and negative mass-dependence of rate coefficient (4% decrease when the mass is raised from 32S32S to 34S34S). Second effect, due to quantized resonances, is two orders of magnitude stronger, but is local. In practice, due to presence of multiple individual resonances, this phenomenon leads to irregular mass-independent variations of rate coefficients in the ranges ±5%. It is also demonstrated that in real molecules this irregular behavior is expected to be somewhat smoother, and the isotope effect is somewhat smaller, due to dependence of stabilization cross section on properties of

  1. Penning Trap Experiments with the Most Exotic Nuclei on Earth: Precision Mass Measurements of Halo Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Ettenauer, S.; Lapierre, A.; Ringle, R.; Delheij, P.; Dilling, J.

    2009-05-01

    Exotic nuclei are characterized with an extremely unbalanced protons-neutrons ratio (p/n) where for instance, the halo isotopes of He and Li have up to 3X more n than p (compared to p/n = 1 in ^12C). The properties of these exotic halo nuclei have long been recognized as the most stringent tests of our understanding of the strong force. ^11Li belongs to a special category of halos called Borromean, bound as a three-body family, while the two-body siblings, ^10Li and 2 n, are unbound as separate entities. Last year, a first mass measurement of the radioisotope ^11Li using a Penning trap spectrometer was carried out at the TITAN (Triumf's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science) facility at TRIUMF-ISAC. Penning traps are proven to be the most precise device to make mass measurements, yet until now they were unable to reach these nuclei. At TRIUMF we managed to measure the mass of ^11Li to an unprecedented precision of dm/m = 60 ppb, which is remarkable since it has a half-life of only 8.8 ms which it the shortest-lived nuclide to be measured with this technique. Furthermore, new and improved masses for the 2 and 4 n halo ^6,8He, as well has the 1 n halo ^11Be have been performed. An overview of the TITAN mass measurement program and its impact in understanding the most exotic nuclei will be given.

  2. Reconciling Long-Wavelength Dynamic Topography, Geoid Anomalies and Mass Distribution on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggard, M.; Richards, F. D.; Ghelichkhan, S.; Austermann, J.; White, N.

    2017-12-01

    Since the first satellite observations in the late 1950s, we have known that that the Earth's non-hydrostatic geoid is dominated by spherical harmonic degree 2 (wavelengths of 16,000 km). Peak amplitudes are approximately ± 100 m, with highs centred on the Pacific Ocean and Africa, encircled by lows in the vicinity of the Pacific Ring of Fire and at the poles. Initial seismic tomography models revealed that the shear-wave velocity, and therefore presumably the density structure, of the lower mantle is also dominated by degree 2. Anti-correlation of slow, probably low density regions beneath geoid highs indicates that the mantle is affected by large-scale flow. Thus, buoyant features are rising and exert viscous normal stresses that act to deflect the surface and core-mantle boundary (CMB). Pioneering studies in the 1980s showed that a viscosity jump between the upper and lower mantle is required to reconcile these geoid and tomographically inferred density anomalies. These studies also predict 1-2 km of dynamic topography at the surface, dominated by degree 2. In contrast to this prediction, a global observational database of oceanic residual depth measurements indicates that degree 2 dynamic topography has peak amplitudes of only 500 m. Here, we attempt to reconcile observations of dynamic topography, geoid, gravity anomalies and CMB topography using instantaneous flow kernels. We exploit a density structure constructed from blended seismic tomography models, combining deep mantle imaging with higher resolution upper mantle features. Radial viscosity structure is discretised, and we invert for the best-fitting viscosity profile using a conjugate gradient search algorithm, subject to damping. Our results suggest that, due to strong sensitivity to radial viscosity structure, the Earth's geoid seems to be compatible with only ± 500 m of degree 2 dynamic topography.

  3. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  4. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2(TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 1; Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurry, J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 1, provides a summary description of the technical activities that were performed over the entire contract duration, covering three distinct launch vehicle definition activities: heavy-lift (300,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), medium-lift (50,000-80,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles, and single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles (25,000 pounds injected mass to a Space Station orbit).

  5. Dynamics of a Probable Earth-mass Planet in the GJ 832 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyal, S.; Griffith, J.; Musielak, Z. E.

    2017-08-01

    The stability of planetary orbits around the GJ 832 star system, which contains inner (GJ 832c) and outer (GJ 832b) planets, is investigated numerically and a detailed phase-space analysis is performed. Special attention is given to the existence of stable orbits for a planet less than 15 M ⊕ that is injected between the inner and outer planets. Thus, numerical simulations are performed for three and four bodies in elliptical orbits (or circular for special cases) by using a large number of initial conditions that cover the selected phase-spaces of the planet’s orbital parameters. The results presented in the phase-space maps for GJ 832c indicate the least deviation of eccentricity from its nominal value, which is then used to determine its inclination regime relative to the star-outer planet plane. Also, the injected planet is found to display stable orbital configurations for at least one billion years. Then, the radial velocity curves based on the signature from the Keplerian motion are generated for the injected planets with masses 1 M ⊕ to 15 M ⊕ in order to estimate their semimajor axes and mass limits. The synthetic RV signal suggests that an additional planet of mass ≤15 M ⊕ with a dynamically stable configuration may be residing between 0.25 and 2.0 au from the star. We have provided an estimated number of RV observations for the additional planet that is required for further observational verification.

  6. Breeding Young as a Survival Strategy during Earth's Greatest Mass Extinction.

    PubMed

    Botha-Brink, Jennifer; Codron, Daryl; Huttenlocker, Adam K; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Ruta, Marcello

    2016-04-05

    Studies of the effects of mass extinctions on ancient ecosystems have focused on changes in taxic diversity, morphological disparity, abundance, behaviour and resource availability as key determinants of group survival. Crucially, the contribution of life history traits to survival during terrestrial mass extinctions has not been investigated, despite the critical role of such traits for population viability. We use bone microstructure and body size data to investigate the palaeoecological implications of changes in life history strategies in the therapsid forerunners of mammals before and after the Permo-Triassic Mass Extinction (PTME), the most catastrophic crisis in Phanerozoic history. Our results are consistent with truncated development, shortened life expectancies, elevated mortality rates and higher extinction risks amongst post-extinction species. Various simulations of ecological dynamics indicate that an earlier onset of reproduction leading to shortened generation times could explain the persistence of therapsids in the unpredictable, resource-limited Early Triassic environments, and help explain observed body size distributions of some disaster taxa (e.g., Lystrosaurus). Our study accounts for differential survival in mammal ancestors after the PTME and provides a methodological framework for quantifying survival strategies in other vertebrates during major biotic crises.

  7. Some Rare Earth Elements Analysis by Microwave Plasma Torch Coupled with the Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xiaohong; Jiang, Tao; Qi, Wenhao; Zuo, Jun; Yang, Meiling; Fei, Qiang; Xiao, Saijin; Yu, Aimin; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive mass spectrometric analysis method based on the microwave plasma technique is developed for the fast detection of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in aqueous solution. The plasma was produced from a microwave plasma torch (MPT) under atmospheric pressure and was used as ambient ion source of a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ). Water samples were directly pneumatically nebulized to flow into the plasma through the central tube of MPT. For some REEs, the generated composite ions were detected in both positive and negative ion modes and further characterized in tandem mass spectrometry. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) was at the level 0.1 ng/mL using MS2 procedure in negative mode. A single REE analysis can be completed within 2~3 minutes with the relative standard deviation ranging between 2.4% and 21.2% (six repeated measurements) for the 5 experimental runs. Moreover, the recovery rates of these REEs are between the range of 97.6%–122.1%. Two real samples have also been analyzed, including well and orange juice. These experimental data demonstrated that this method is a useful tool for the field analysis of REEs in water and can be used as an alternative supplement of ICP-MS. PMID:26421013

  8. STS-120 launch

    2007-10-23

    STS120-S-026 (23 Oct. 2007) --- In the firing room of the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, NASA Shuttle Launch Director Michael Leinbach (second right) and launch managers watch the 11:38 a.m. (EDT) launch of Space Shuttle Discovery. Discovery launched Oct. 23 on a 14-day construction mission to the International Space Station. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  9. NASA's Space Launch System: One Vehicle, Many Destinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will start its missions in 2017 with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. This paper will explore the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions. It will explain how the SLS Program is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and developing advanced technology based on heritage systems, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability. It will also detail the significant progress that has already been made toward its first launch in 2017. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they will need for extended trips to explore new frontiers. In addition, this paper will summarize the SLS rocket's capability to support science and robotic precursor missions to other worlds, or uniquely high-mass space facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global

  10. Space Launch System Upper Stage Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Hampton, Bryan; Monk, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy-lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) exploration missions. Previous studies have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS and the applicability of commercial off-the-shelf in-space stages for Earth departure. Currently NASA is analyzing the concept of a Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) that will provide LEO insertion and Earth departure burns. This paper will explore candidate in-space stages based on the DUUS design for a wide range of beyond LEO missions. Mission payloads will range from small robotic systems up to human systems with deep space habitats and landers. Mission destinations will include cislunar space, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Given these wide-ranging mission objectives, a vehicle-sizing tool has been developed to determine the size of an Earth departure stage based on the mission objectives. The tool calculates masses for all the major subsystems of the vehicle including propellant loads, avionics, power, engines, main propulsion system components, tanks, pressurization system and gases, primary structural elements, and secondary structural elements. The tool uses an iterative sizing algorithm to determine the resulting mass of the stage. Any input into one of the subsystem sizing routines or the mission parameters can be treated as a parametric sweep or as a distribution for use in Monte Carlo analysis. Taking these factors together allows for multi-variable, coupled analysis runs. To increase confidence in the tool, the results have been verified against two point-of-departure designs of the DUUS. The tool has also been verified against Apollo moon mission elements and other manned space systems. This paper will focus on trading key propulsion technologies including chemical, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). All of the key performance inputs and relationships will be presented and

  11. Implications of Gun Launch to Space for Nanosatellite Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Miles R.

    1995-01-01

    Engineering and economic scaling factors for gun launch to space (GLTS) systems are compared to conventional rocket launch systems. It is argued that GLTS might reduce the cost of small satellite development and launch in the mid to far term, thereby inducing a shift away from large centralized geosynchronous communications satellites to small proliferated low earth orbit systems.

  12. Innovative Manufacturing of Launch Vehicle Structures - Integrally Stiffened Cylinder Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, John; Domack, Marcia; Tayon, Wesley; Bird, Richard K.

    2017-01-01

    Reducing launch costs is essential to ensuring the success of NASA's visions for planetary exploration and earth science, economical support of the International Space Station, and competitiveness of the U.S. commercial launch industry. Reducing launch vehicle manufacturing cost supports NASA's budget and technology development priorities.

  13. Space Shuttle Discovery Launch

    2008-05-31

    NASA Shuttle Launch Director Michael Leinbach, left, STS-124 Assistant Launch Director Ed Mango, center, and Flow Director for Space Shuttle Discovery Stephanie Stilson clap in the the Launch Control Center after the main engine cut off and successful launch of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-124) Saturday, May 31, 2008, at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The Shuttle lifted off from launch pad 39A at 5:02 p.m. EDT. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Determination of trace rare earth elements in gadolinium aluminate by inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhijit; Deb, S. B.; Nagar, B. K.; Saxena, M. K.

    An analytical methodology was developed for the precise quantification of ten trace rare earth elements (REEs), namely, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Tm, in gadolinium aluminate (GdAlO3) employing an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN)-desolvating device based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A microwave digestion procedure was optimized for digesting 100 mg of the refractory oxide using a mixture of sulphuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and water (H2O) with 1400 W power, 10 min ramp and 60 min hold time. An USN-desolvating sample introduction system was employed to enhance analyte sensitivities by minimizing their oxide ion formation in the plasma. Studies on the effect of various matrix concentrations on the analyte intensities revealed that precise quantification of the analytes was possible with matrix level of 250 mg L- 1. The possibility of using indium as an internal standard was explored and applied to correct for matrix effect and variation in analyte sensitivity under plasma operating conditions. Individual oxide ion formation yields were determined in matrix matched solution and employed for correcting polyatomic interferences of light REE (LREE) oxide ions on the intensities of middle and heavy rare earth elements (MREEs and HREEs). Recoveries of ≥ 90% were achieved for the analytes employing standard addition technique. Three real samples were analyzed for traces of REEs by the proposed method and cross validated for Eu and Nd by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). The results show no significant difference in the values at 95% confidence level. The expanded uncertainty (coverage factor 1σ) in the determination of trace REEs in the samples were found to be between 3 and 8%. The instrument detection limits (IDLs) and the method detection limits (MDLs) for the ten REEs lie in the ranges 1-5 ng L- 1 and 7-64 μg kg- 1 respectively.

  15. Electric Propulsion Upper-Stage for Launch Vehicle Capability Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, Gregory E.; Dankanich, John W.; Woodcock, Gordon R.; Wingo, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Office initiated a preliminary study to evaluate the performance benefits of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) upper-stage with existing and near-term small launch vehicles. The analysis included circular and elliptical Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) transfers, and LEO to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) applications. SEP subsystem options included state-of-the-art and near-term solar arrays and electric thrusters. In-depth evaluations of the Aerojet BPT-4000 Hall thruster and NEXT gridded ion engine were conducted to compare performance, cost and revenue potential. Preliminary results indicate that Hall thruster technology is favored for low-cost, low power SEP stages, while gridded-ion engines are favored for higher power SEP systems unfettered by transfer time constraints. A low-cost point design is presented that details one possible stage configuration and outlines system limitations, in particular fairing volume constraints. The results demonstrate mission enhancements to large and medium class launch vehicles, and mission enabling performance when SEP system upper stages are mounted to low-cost launchers such as the Minotaur and Falcon 1. Study results indicate the potential use of SEP upper stages to double GEO payload mass capability and to possibly enable launch on demand capability for GEO assets. Transition from government to commercial applications, with associated cost/benefit analysis, has also been assessed. The sensitivity of system performance to specific impulse, array power, thruster size, and component costs are also discussed.

  16. REVISITING {rho}{sup 1} CANCRI e: A NEW MASS DETERMINATION OF THE TRANSITING SUPER-EARTH

    SciT

    Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.

    2012-11-01

    We present a mass determination for the transiting super-Earth {rho}{sup 1} Cancri e based on nearly 700 precise radial velocity (RV) measurements. This extensive RV data set consists of data collected by the McDonald Observatory planet search and published data from Lick and Keck observatories. We obtained 212 RV measurements with the Tull Coude Spectrograph at the Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m Telescope and combined them with a new Doppler reduction of the 131 spectra that we have taken in 2003-2004 with the High-Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope for the original discovery of {rho}{sup 1} Cancri e. Usingmore » this large data set we obtain a five-planet Keplerian orbital solution for the system and measure an RV semi-amplitude of K = 6.29 {+-} 0.21 m s{sup -1} for {rho}{sup 1} Cnc e and determine a mass of 8.37 {+-} 0.38 M {sub Circled-Plus }. The uncertainty in mass is thus less than 5%. This planet was previously found to transit its parent star, which allowed them to estimate its radius. Combined with the latest radius estimate from Gillon et al., we obtain a mean density of {rho} = 4.50 {+-} 0.20 g cm{sup -3}. The location of {rho}{sup 1} Cnc e in the mass-radius diagram suggests that the planet contains a significant amount of volatiles, possibly a water-rich envelope surrounding a rocky core.« less

  17. Do Transient Electrodynamic Processes Support Enhanced Neutral Mass Densities in Earth's Cusp-Region Thermosphere via Divergent Upward Winds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, M.; Larsen, M. F.; Troyer, R.; Gillespie, D.; Kosch, M.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite accelerometer measurements show that Earth's thermosphere contains two substantial and permanent regions of enhanced mass density that are located at around 400 km altitude near the footprints of the north and south geomagnetic cusps. The additional mass in these regions must be supported against gravity, which requires that similarly localized perturbations must occur in one or more of the other fields (beyond mass density) that appear in the momentum conservation equation for the thermospheric neutral fluid. However more than a decade after the density enhancements were first discovered, there are still no observations of any other corresponding perturbations to terms appearing directly in this equation that would indicate what is supporting the extra mass. To date, most candidate mechanisms involve high-altitude transient electrodynamic heating (at 250 km and above) that drives upwelling and associated horizontal divergence. Indeed, there are very few viable mechanisms that don't ultimately cause substantial localized neutral wind perturbations to occur near the density anomalies. Thus, we report here on a study to search for signatures of these localized perturbations in winds, using several data sources. These are the WATS instrument that flew aboard the DE-2 spacecraft, the C-REX-1 rocket flight through the CUSP in 2014, and two ground-based Fabry-Perot instruments that are located in Antarctica at latitudes that pass under the geomagnetic cusps - i.e. at McMurdo and South Pole stations. Using these data, we will present both climatological averages and also individual case studies to illustrate what localized signatures occur (if any) in the neutral wind fields near the cusp-region density anomalies.

  18. Entrainment of bed material by Earth-surface mass flows: review and reformulation of depth-integrated theory

    Iverson, Richard M.; Chaojun Ouyang,

    2015-01-01

    Earth-surface mass flows such as debris flows, rock avalanches, and dam-break floods can grow greatly in size and destructive potential by entraining bed material they encounter. Increasing use of depth-integrated mass- and momentum-conservation equations to model these erosive flows motivates a review of the underlying theory. Our review indicates that many existing models apply depth-integrated conservation principles incorrectly, leading to spurious inferences about the role of mass and momentum exchanges at flow-bed boundaries. Model discrepancies can be rectified by analyzing conservation of mass and momentum in a two-layer system consisting of a moving upper layer and static lower layer. Our analysis shows that erosion or deposition rates at the interface between layers must in general satisfy three jump conditions. These conditions impose constraints on valid erosion formulas, and they help determine the correct forms of depth-integrated conservation equations. Two of the three jump conditions are closely analogous to Rankine-Hugoniot conditions that describe the behavior of shocks in compressible gasses, and the third jump condition describes shear traction discontinuities that necessarily exist across eroding boundaries. Grain-fluid mixtures commonly behave as compressible materials as they undergo entrainment, because changes in bulk density occur as the mixtures mobilize and merge with an overriding flow. If no bulk density change occurs, then only the shear-traction jump condition applies. Even for this special case, however, accurate formulation of depth-integrated momentum equations requires a clear distinction between boundary shear tractions that exist in the presence or absence of bed erosion.

  19. Magnetic Launch Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    With the ever-increasing cost of getting to space and the need for safe, reliable, and inexpensive ways to access space, NASA is taking a look at technologies that will get us there. One of these technologies is Magnetic Launch Assist (MagLev). This is the concept of using both magnetic levitation and magnetic propulsion to provide an initial velocity by using electrical power from ground sources. The use of ground based power can significantly reduce operational costs over the consumables necessary to attain the same velocity. The technologies to accomplish this are both old and new. The concept of MagLev has been around for a long time and several MagLev Trains have already been made. Where NASA's MagLev diverges from the traditional train is in the immense power required to propel this vehicle to 600 feet per second in less than 10 seconds. New technologies or the upgrade of existing technologies will need to be investigated in areas of energy storage and power switching. Plus the separation of a very large mass (the space vehicle) and the aerodynamics of that vehicle while on the carrier are also of great concern and require considerable study and testing. NASA's plan is to mature these technologies in the next 10 years to achieve our goal of launching a full sized space vehicle off a MagLev rail.

  20. NASA's Space Launch System: Development and Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honeycutt, John; Lyles, Garry

    2016-01-01

    NASA is embarked on a new era of space exploration that will lead to new capabilities, new destinations, and new discoveries by both human and robotic explorers. Today, the International Space Station (ISS), supported by NASA's commercial partners, and robotic probes, are yielding knowledge that will help make this exploration possible. NASA is developing both the Orion crew vehicle and the Space Launch System (SLS) that will carry out a series of increasingly challenging missions that will eventually lead to human exploration of Mars. This paper will discuss the development and progress on the SLS. The SLS architecture was designed to be safe, affordable, and sustainable. The current configuration is the result of literally thousands of trade studies involving cost, performance, mission requirements, and other metrics. The initial configuration of SLS, designated Block 1, will launch a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit - significantly greater capability than any current launch vehicle. It is designed to evolve to a capability of 130 t through the use of upgraded main engines, advanced boosters, and a new upper stage. With more payload mass and volume capability than any rocket in history, SLS offers mission planners larger payloads, faster trip times, simpler design, shorter design cycles, and greater opportunity for mission success. Since the program was officially created in fall 2011, it has made significant progress toward first launch readiness of the Block 1 vehicle in 2018. Every major element of SLS continued to make significant progress in 2015. The Boosters element fired Qualification Motor 1 (QM-1) in March 2015, to test the 5-segment motor, including new insulation, joint, and propellant grain designs. The Stages element marked the completion of more than 70 major components of test article and flight core stage tanks. The Liquid Engines element conducted seven test firings of an RS-25 engine under SLS conditions. The Spacecraft

  1. NASA's SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM: Development and Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honeycutt, John; Lyles, Garry

    2016-01-01

    NASA is embarked on a new era of space exploration that will lead to new capabilities, new destinations, and new discoveries by both human and robotic explorers. Today, the International Space Station (ISS) and robotic probes are yielding knowledge that will help make this exploration possible. NASA is developing both the Orion crew vehicle and the Space Launch System (SLS) (Figure 1), that will carry out a series of increasingly challenging missions leading to human exploration of Mars. This paper will discuss the development and progress on the SLS. The SLS architecture was designed to be safe, affordable, and sustainable. The current configuration is the result of literally thousands of trade studies involving cost, performance, mission requirements, and other metrics. The initial configuration of SLS, designated Block 1, will launch a minimum of 70 metric tons (mT) (154,324 pounds) into low Earth orbit - significantly greater capability than any current launch vehicle. It is designed to evolve to a capability of 130 mT (286,601 pounds) through the use of upgraded main engines, advanced boosters, and a new upper stage. With more payload mass and volume capability than any existing rocket, SLS offers mission planners larger payloads, faster trip times, simpler design, shorter design cycles, and greater opportunity for mission success. Since the program was officially created in fall 2011, it has made significant progress toward launch readiness in 2018. Every major element of SLS continued to make significant progress in 2015. Engineers fired Qualification Motor 1 (QM-1) in March 2015 to test the 5-segment motor, including new insulation, joint, and propellant grain designs. More than 70 major components of test article and flight hardware for the Core Stage have been manufactured. Seven test firings have been completed with an RS-25 engine under SLS operating conditions. The test article for the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS) has also been completed

  2. Structural Weight Estimation for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerro, Jeff; Martinovic, Zoran; Su, Philip; Eldred, Lloyd

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes some of the work in progress to develop automated structural weight estimation procedures within the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) of the NASA Langley Research Center. One task of the VAB is to perform system studies at the conceptual and early preliminary design stages on launch vehicles and in-space transportation systems. Some examples of these studies for Earth to Orbit (ETO) systems are the Future Space Transportation System [1], Orbit On Demand Vehicle [2], Venture Star [3], and the Personnel Rescue Vehicle[4]. Structural weight calculation for launch vehicle studies can exist on several levels of fidelity. Typically historically based weight equations are used in a vehicle sizing program. Many of the studies in the vehicle analysis branch have been enhanced in terms of structural weight fraction prediction by utilizing some level of off-line structural analysis to incorporate material property, load intensity, and configuration effects which may not be captured by the historical weight equations. Modification of Mass Estimating Relationships (MER's) to assess design and technology impacts on vehicle performance are necessary to prioritize design and technology development decisions. Modern CAD/CAE software, ever increasing computational power and platform independent computer programming languages such as JAVA provide new means to create greater depth of analysis tools which can be included into the conceptual design phase of launch vehicle development. Commercial framework computing environments provide easy to program techniques which coordinate and implement the flow of data in a distributed heterogeneous computing environment. It is the intent of this paper to present a process in development at NASA LaRC for enhanced structural weight estimation using this state of the art computational power.

  3. A space necklace about the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polyakov, G.

    1977-01-01

    A space elevator is forecasted for the first quarter of the 21st century, that will consist of a cable attached at the earth's equator, suspended in space by an artificial satellite in geosynchronous orbit. It is stated that such a transport system will supplement rockets as the railway supplements aircraft. Specific aspects of the system are examined, including provisions for artificial gravity, the development special composite construction materials exhibiting high strength and low mass, and spacecraft launching from the elevator.

  4. Insights into the Earth System mass variability from CSR-RL05 GRACE gravity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettadpur, S.

    2012-04-01

    The next-generation Release-05 GRACE gravity field data products are the result of extensive effort applied to the improvements to the GRACE Level-1 (tracking) data products, and to improvements in the background gravity models and processing methodology. As a result, the squared-error upper-bound in RL05 fields is half or less than the squared-error upper-bound in RL04 fields. The CSR-RL05 field release consists of unconstrained gravity fields as well as a regularized gravity field time-series that can be used for several applications without any post-processing error reduction. This paper will describe the background and the nature of these improvements in the data products, and provide an error characterization. We will describe the insights these new series offer in measuring the mass flux due to diverse Hydrologic, Oceanographic and Cryospheric processes.

  5. Magnetic Launch Assist System-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This illustration is an artist's concept of a Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, for space launch. Overcoming the grip of Earth's gravity is a supreme challenge for engineers who design rockets that leave the planet. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist System technologies that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, landing gear and the wing size, as well as the elimination of propellant weight resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  6. Managing the Earth's Biggest Mass Gathering Event and WASH Conditions: Maha Kumbh Mela (India).

    PubMed

    Baranwal, Annu; Anand, Ankit; Singh, Ravikant; Deka, Mridul; Paul, Abhishek; Borgohain, Sunny; Roy, Nobhojit

    2015-04-13

    Mass gatherings including a large number of people makes the planning and management of the event a difficult task. Kumbh Mela is one such, internationally famous religious mass gathering. It creates the substantial challenge of creating a temporary city in which millions of people can stay for a defined period of time. The arrangements need to allow this very large number of people to reside with proper human waste disposal, medical services, adequate supplies of food and clean water, transportation etc. We report a case study of Maha Kumbh, 2013 which focuses on the management and planning that went into the preparation of Kumbh Mela and understanding its water, sanitation and hygiene conditions. It was an observational cross-sectional study, the field work was done for 13 days, from 21 January to 2 February 2013. Our findings suggest that the Mela committee and all other agencies involved in Mela management proved to be successful in supervising the event and making it convenient, efficient and safe. Health care services and water sanitation and hygiene conditions were found to be satisfactory. BhuleBhatke Kendra (Center for helping people who got separated from their families) had the major task of finding missing people and helping them to meet their families. Some of the shortfalls identified were that drainage was a major problem and some fire incidents were reported. Therefore, improvement in drainage facilities and reduction in fire incidents are essential to making Mela cleaner and safer. The number of persons per toilet was high and there were no separate toilets for males and females. Special facilities and separate toilets for men and women will improve their stay in Mela. Inculcation of modern methods and technologies are likely to help in supporting crowd management and improving water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in the continuously expanding KumbhMela, in the coming years.

  7. Earth Sciences Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-06-01

    This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrogeology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. Much of the Division's research deals with the physical and chemical properties and processes in the earth's crust, from the partially saturated, low-temperature near-surface environment to the high-temperature environments characteristic of regions where magmatic-hydrothermal processes are active. Strengths in laboratory and field instrumentation, numerical modeling, and in situ measurement allow study of the transport of mass and heat through geologic media -- studies that now include the appropriate chemical reactions and the hydraulic-mechanical complexities of fractured rock systems. Of particular note are three major Division efforts addressing problems in the discovery and recovery of petroleum, the application of isotope geochemistry to the study of geodynamic processes and earth history, and the development of borehole methods for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface using seismic and electromagnetic waves. In 1989, a major DOE-wide effort was launched in the areas of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Many of the methods previously developed for and applied to deeper regions of the earth will, in the coming years, be turned toward process definition and characterization of the very shallow subsurface, where man-induced contaminants now intrude and where remedial action is required.

  8. High Altitude Launch for a Practical SSTO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Denis, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Existing engineering materials allow the construction of towers to heights of many kilometers. Orbital launch from a high altitude has significant advantages over sea-level launch due to the reduced atmospheric pressure, resulting in lower atmospheric drag on the vehicle and allowing higher rocket engine performance. High-altitude launch sites are particularly advantageous for single-stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles, where the payload is typically 2 percent of the initial launch mass. An earlier paper enumerated some of the advantages of high altitude launch of SSTO vehicles. In this paper, we calculate launch trajectories for a candidate SSTO vehicle, and calculate the advantage of launch at launch altitudes 5 to 25 kilometer altitudes above sea level. The performance increase can be directly translated into increased payload capability to orbit, ranging from 5 to 20 percent increase in the mass to orbit. For a candidate vehicle with an initial payload fraction of 2 percent of gross lift-off weight, this corresponds to 31 percent increase in payload (for 5-kilometer launch altitude) to 122 percent additional payload (for 25-kilometer launch altitude).

  9. High Altitude Launch for a Practical SSTO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Denis, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Existing engineering materials allow the construction of towers to heights of many kilometers. Orbital launch from a high altitude has significant advantages over sea-level launch due to the reduced atmospheric pressure, resulting in lower atmospheric drag on the vehicle and allowing higher rocket engine performance. high-altitude launch sites are particularly advantageous for single-stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles, where the payload is typically 2% of the initial launch mass. An earlier paper enumerated some of the advantages of high altitude launch of SSTO vehicles. In this paper, we calculate launch trajectories for a candidate SSTO vehicle, and calculate the advantage of launch at launch altitudes 5 to 25 kilometer altitudes above sea level. The performance increase can be directly translated in to increased payload capability to orbit, ranging from 5 to 20% increase in the mass to orbit. For a candidate vehicle with an initial payload fraction of 2% of gross lift-off weight, this corresponds to 31 % increase in payload (for 5-km launch altitude) to 122% additional payload (for 25-km launch altitude).

  10. High Altitude Launch for a Practical SSTO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Denis, Vincent; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Existing engineering materials allow the construction of towers to heights of many kilometers. Orbital launch from a high altitude has significant advantages over sea-level launch due to the reduced atmospheric pressure, resulting in lower atmospheric drag on the vehicle and allowing higher rocket engine performance. High-altitude launch sites are particularly advantageous for single-stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles, where the payload is typically 2% of the initial launch mass. An earlier paper enumerated some of the advantages of high altitude launch of SSTO vehicles. In this paper, we calculate launch trajectories for a candidate SSTO vehicle, and calculate the advantage of launch at launch altitudes 5 to 25 kilometer altitudes above sea level. The performance increase can be directly translated into increased payload capability to orbit, ranging from 5 to 20% increase in the mass to orbit. For a candidate vehicle with an initial payload fraction of 2% of gross lift-off weight, this corresponds to 31% increase in payload (for 5-km launch altitude) to 122% additional payload (for 25-km launch altitude).

  11. High Altitude Launch for a Practical SSTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Denis, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Existing engineering materials allow the constuction of towers to heights of many kilometers. Orbital launch from a high altitude has significant advantages over sea-level launch due to the reduced atmospheric pressure, resulting in lower atmospheric drag on the vehicle and allowing higher rocket engine performance. High-altitude launch sites are particularly advantageous for single-stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles, where the payload is typically 2% of the initial launch mass. An earlier paper enumerated some of the advantages of high altitude launch of SSTO vehicles. In this paper, we calculate launch trajectories for a candidate SSTO vehicle, and calculate the advantage of launch at launch altitudes 5 to 25 kilometer altitudes above sea level. The performance increase can be directly translated into increased payload capability to orbit, ranging from 5 to 20% increase in the mass to orbit. For a candidate vehicle with an initial payload fraction of 2% of gross lift-off weight, this corresponds to 31% increase in payload (for 5-km launch altitude) to 122% additional payload (for 25-km launch altitude).

  12. Towards a theory of tropical/midlatitude mass exchange from the earth's surface through the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Dana

    1995-01-01

    The main focus of this work is to understand the dynamics of mass exchange between the tropics and the midlatitudes and to determine any links between tropospheric exchange and that in the stratosphere. We have approached this problem from two different perspectives. The first is aimed towards understanding the troposphere's role in inducing lower stratospheric tropical/midlatitude exchange. For this project we focus on observational analysis of the lower stratosphere to assess the key regions of transport in/out of the tropics and to what extent this transport is driven by tropospheric processes. The second approach is to determine the extent to which stratospheric processes influence the troposphere. In this project we are performing potential vorticity (PV) inversions to assess the winds induced near the tropopause when the stratospheric polar vortex is displaced equatorward. These are each discussed in more detail in the subsections below. Also, we have organized a session on Tropical/Midlatitude Interaction and Transport at the Fall AGU where we will be showing our latest results.

  13. NASA Launches Rocket Into Active Auroras

    2017-12-08

    A test rocket is launched the night of Feb. 17 from the Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska. Test rockets are launched as part of the countdown to test out the radar tracking systems. NASA is launching five sounding rockets from the Poker Range into active auroras to explore the Earth's magnetic environment and its impact on Earth’s upper atmosphere and ionosphere. The launch window for the four remaining rockets runs through March 3. Credit: NASA/Terry Zaperach NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  14. Air Launch: Examining Performance Potential of Various Configurations and Growth Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a high-level analysis of various air launch vehicle configurations, objectively determining maximum launch vehicle payload while considering carrier aircraft capabilities and given dimensional constraints. With the renewed interest in aerial launch of low-earth orbit payloads, referenced by programs such as Stratolaunch and Spaceship2, there exists a need to qualify the boundaries of the trade space, identify performance envelopes, and understand advantages and limiting factors of designing for maximum payload capability. Using the NASA/DARPA Horizontal Launch Study (HLS) Point Design 2 (PD-2) as a pointof- departure configuration, two independent design actions were undertaken. Both designs utilized a Boeing 747-400F as the carrier aircraft, LOX/RP-1 first stage and LOX/LH2 second stage. Each design was sized to meet dimensional and mass constraints while optimizing propellant loads and stage delta V splits. All concepts, when fully loaded, exceeded the allowable Gross Takeoff Weight (GTOW) of the aircraft platform. This excess mass was evaluated as propellant/fuel offload available for a potential in-flight propellant loading scenario. Results indicate many advantages such as payload delivery of approximately 47,000 lbm and significant mission flexibility including variable launch site inclination and launch window. However, in-flight cryogenic fluid transfer and carrier aircraft platform integration are substantial technical hurdles to the realization of such a system configuration.

  15. Air Launch: Examining Performance Potential of Various Configurations and Growth Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a high-level analysis of various air launch vehicle configurations, objectively determining maximum launch vehicle payload while considering carrier aircraft capabilities and given dimensional constraints. With the renewed interest in aerial launch of low-earth orbit payloads, referenced by programs such as Stratolaunch and Spaceship2, there existed a need to qualify the boundaries of the trade space, identify performance envelopes, and understand advantages and limiting factors of designing for maximum payload capability. Using the NASA/DARPA Horizontal Launch Study (HLS) Point Design 2 (PD-2) as a point-of-departure configuration, two independent design actions were undertaken. Both configurations utilized a Boeing 747-400F as the carrier aircraft, LOX/RP-1 first stage and LOX/LH2 second stage. Each design was sized to meet dimensional and mass constraints while optimizing propellant loads and stage delta V (?V) splits. All concepts, when fully loaded, exceeded the allowable Gross Takeoff Weight (GTOW) of the aircraft platform. This excess mass was evaluated as propellant/fuel offload available for a potential in-flight refueling scenario. Results indicate many advantages such as large, relative payload delivery of approximately 47,000 lbm and significant mission flexibility, such as variable launch site inclination and launch window; however, in-flight cryogenic fluid transfer and carrier aircraft platform integration are substantial technical hurdles to the realization of such a system configuration.

  16. Equivalent Mass versus Life Cycle Cost for Life Support Technology Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The decision to develop a particular life support technology or to select it for flight usually depends on the cost to develop and fly it. Other criteria - performance, safety, reliability, crew time, and risk - are considered, but cost is always an important factor. Because launch cost accounts for most of the cost of planetary missions, and because launch cost is directly proportional to the mass launched, equivalent mass has been used instead of cost to select life support technology. The equivalent mass of a life support system includes the estimated masses of the hardware and of the pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system that the hardware requires. The equivalent mass is defined as the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support the system. An extension of equivalent mass, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), has been established for use in Advanced Life Support. A crew time mass-equivalent and sometimes other non-mass factors are added to equivalent mass to create ESM. Equivalent mass is an estimate of the launch cost only. For earth orbit rather than planetary missions, the launch cost is usually exceeded by the cost of Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E). Equivalent mass is used only in life support analysis. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is much more commonly used. LCC includes DDT&E, launch, and operations costs. Since LCC includes launch cost, it is always a more accurate cost estimator than equivalent mass. The relative costs of development, launch, and operations vary depending on the mission design, destination, and duration. Since DDT&E or operations may cost more than launch, LCC may give a more accurate cost ranking than equivalent mass. To be sure of identifying the lowest cost technology for a particular mission, we should use LCC rather than equivalent mass.

  17. Earth Science

    1994-09-02

    This image depicts a full view of the Earth, taken by the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES-8). The red and green charnels represent visible data, while the blue channel represents inverted 11 micron infrared data. The north and south poles were not actually observed by GOES-8. To produce this image, poles were taken from a GOES-7 image. Owned and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), GOES satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. They circle the Earth in a geosynchronous orbit, which means they orbit the equatorial plane of the Earth at a speed matching the Earth's rotation. This allows them to hover continuously over one position on the surface. The geosynchronous plane is about 35,800 km (22,300 miles) above the Earth, high enough to allow the satellites a full-disc view of the Earth. Because they stay above a fixed spot on the surface, they provide a constant vigil for the atmospheric triggers for severe weather conditions such as tornadoes, flash floods, hail storms, and hurricanes. When these conditions develop, the GOES satellites are able to monitor storm development and track their movements. NASA manages the design and launch of the spacecraft. NASA launched the first GOES for NOAA in 1975 and followed it with another in 1977. Currently, the United States is operating GOES-8, positioned at 75 west longitude and the equator, and GOES-10, which is positioned at 135 west longitude and the equator. (GOES-9, which malfunctioned in 1998, is being stored in orbit as an emergency backup should either GOES-8 or GOES-10 fail. GOES-11 was launched on May 3, 2000 and GOES-12 on July 23, 2001. Both are being stored in orbit as a fully functioning replacement for GOES-8 or GOES-10 on failure.

  18. Determination of rare earth elements in environmental matrices by sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Riondato, J; Vanhaecke, F; Moens, L; Dams, R

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of an international certification campaign, sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sector-field ICP-MS) was used for the accurate determination of the rare earth elements in five candidate reference materials: aquatic plant, calcareous soil, mussel tissue, river sediment, and tuna muscle. All samples were taken into solution by use of microwave-assisted or mixed microwave-assisted / open beaker acid digestion. Subsequently, the samples were appropriately diluted and subjected to ICP-MS analysis. Except for Sc, all the elements involved were determined at low mass resolution (R = 300). For Sc, application of a higher resolution setting (R = 3,000) was required to separate the analyte signal from those of several molecular ions which gave rise to spectral overlap at low mass resolution. Some of the heavier REE can also suffer from spectral overlap attributed to the occurrence of oxide ions (MO+) of the lighter REE and Ba. This spectral overlap could be successfully overcome by mathematical correction. Matrix effects were overcome by use of two carefully selected internal standards, such that external calibration could be used. On each occasion, a geological reference material was analyzed as a quality-control sample and the reliability of all results obtained was additionally checked by means of chondrite normalization. For tuna muscle the content of all REE was below the limit of detection. For calcareous soil and river sediment, low to sub microg g(-1) values were observed, whereas the REE content of aquatic plant and mussel tissue was considerably lower (low to sub ng g(-1)). Overall, the results obtained were in excellent agreement with the average values, calculated on the basis of all "accepted" values, obtained in different laboratories using different techniques.

  19. Predicting the magnetic vectors within coronal mass ejections arriving at Earth: 2. Geomagnetic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savani, N. P.; Vourlidas, A.; Richardson, I. G.; Szabo, A.; Thompson, B. J.; Pulkkinen, A.; Mays, M. L.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Bothmer, V.

    2017-02-01

    This is a companion to Savani et al. (2015) that discussed how a first-order prediction of the internal magnetic field of a coronal mass ejection (CME) may be made from observations of its initial state at the Sun for space weather forecasting purposes (Bothmer-Schwenn scheme (BSS) model). For eight CME events, we investigate how uncertainties in their predicted magnetic structure influence predictions of the geomagnetic activity. We use an empirical relationship between the solar wind plasma drivers and Kp index together with the inferred magnetic vectors, to make a prediction of the time variation of Kp (Kp(BSS)). We find a 2σ uncertainty range on the magnetic field magnitude (|B|) provides a practical and convenient solution for predicting the uncertainty in geomagnetic storm strength. We also find the estimated CME velocity is a major source of error in the predicted maximum Kp. The time variation of Kp(BSS) is important for predicting periods of enhanced and maximum geomagnetic activity, driven by southerly directed magnetic fields, and periods of lower activity driven by northerly directed magnetic field. We compare the skill score of our model to a number of other forecasting models, including the NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC)/SWRC estimates. The BSS model was the most unbiased prediction model, while the other models predominately tended to significantly overforecast. The True skill score of the BSS prediction model (TSS = 0.43 ± 0.06) exceeds the results of two baseline models and the NOAA/SWPC forecast. The BSS model prediction performed equally with CCMC/SWRC predictions while demonstrating a lower uncertainty.

  20. Direct launch using the electric rail gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The concept explored involves using a large single stage electric rail gun to achieve orbital velocities. Exit aerodynamics, launch package design and size, interior ballistics, system and component sizing and design concepts are treated. Technology development status and development requirements are identified and described. The expense of placing payloads in Earth orbit using conventional chemical rockets is considerable. Chemical rockets are very inefficient in converting chemical energy into payload kinetic energy. A rocket motor is relatively expensive and is usually expended on each launch. In addition specialized and expensive forms of fuel are required. Gun launching payloads directly to orbit from the Earth's surface is a possible alternative. Guns are much more energy efficient than rockets. The high capital cost of the gun installation can be recovered by reusing it over and over again. Finally, relatively inexpensive fuel and large quantities of energy are readily available to a fixed installation on the Earth's surface.

  1. Apollo 11 Launched Via Saturn V Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon for man's first lunar landing. The Saturn V was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard the spacecraft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  2. Apollo 11 Launched Via Saturn V Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon for man's first lunar landing. Aboard the spacecraft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  3. Apollo 11 Launched Via Saturn V Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon for man's first lunar landing. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  4. Designing astrophysics missions for NASA's Space Launch System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David Alan; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.

    2016-10-01

    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope was specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultrahigh-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and an LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8- or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45 mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper introduces the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, provides a simple mass allocation recipe for designing large space telescope missions to this capacity, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope, and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  5. Earth Rings for Planetary Environment Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Jerome; Oldson, John; Levin, Eugene; Carroll, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    For most of its past, large parts of the Earth have experienced subtropical climates, with high sea levels and no polar icecaps. This warmer environment was punctuated 570, 280, and 3 million years ago with periods of glaciation that covered temperate regions with thick ice for millions of years. At the end of the current ice age, a warmer climate could flood coastal cities, even without human-caused global warming. In addition, asteroids bombard the Earth periodically, with impacts large enough to destroy most life on Earth, and the sun is warming inexorably. This paper proposes a concept to solve these problems simultaneously, by creating an artificial planetary ring about the Earth to shade it. Past proposals for space climate control have depended on gigantic engineering structures launched from Earth and placed in Earth orbit or at the Earth-Sun L1 libration point, requiring fabrication, large launch masses and expense, constant control, and repair. Our solution is to begin by using lunar material, and then mine and remove Earth-orbit-crossing asteroids and discard the tailings into Earth orbit, to form a broad, flat ring like those of Saturn. This solution is evaluated and compared with other alternatives. Such ring systems can persist for thousands of years, and can be maintained by shepherding satellites or by continual replenishment from new asteroids to replace the edges of the ring lost by diffusion. An Earth ring at R = 1.3-1.83 RE would shade only the equatorial regions, moderating climate extremes, and could reverse a century of global warming. It could also absorb particles from the radiation belts, making trips to high Earth orbit and GEO safer for humans and for electronics. It would also light the night many times as bright as the full moon. A preliminary design of the ring is developed, including its location, mass, composition, stability, and timescale required. A one-dimensional climate model is used to evaluate the Earth ring performance

  6. Orion EFT-1 Launch from NASA Causeway

    2014-12-05

    A Delta IV Heavy rocket lifts off from Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida carrying NASA's Orion spacecraft on an unpiloted flight test to Earth orbit. Liftoff was at 7:05 a.m. EST. During the two-orbit, four-and-a-half hour mission, engineers will evaluate the systems critical to crew safety, the launch abort system, the heat shield and the parachute system.

  7. Fifth FLTSATCOM to be launched

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Launch of the FLTSATOOM-E, into an elliptical orbit by the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle is announced. The launch and relevant launch operations are described. A chart of the launch sequence for FLTSATCOM-E communication satellite is given.

  8. A Systematic Review of the Health Impacts of Mass Earth Movements (Landslides)

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Iain T R; Petley, Dave N.; Williams, Richard; Murray, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mass ground movements (commonly referred to as ‘landslides’) are common natural hazards that can have significant economic, social and health impacts. They occur as single events, or as clusters, and are often part of ‘disaster’ chains, occurring secondary to, or acting as the precursor of other disaster events. Whilst there is a large body of literature on the engineering and geological aspects of landslides, the mortality and morbidity caused by landslides is less well documented. As far as we are aware, this is the first systematic review to examine the health impacts of landslides. Methods. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS databases and the Cochrane library were systematically searched to identify articles which considered the health impacts of landslides. Case studies, case series, primary research and systematic reviews were included. News reports, editorials and non-systematic reviews were excluded. Only articles in English were considered. The references of retrieved papers were searched to identify additional articles. Findings. 913 abstracts were reviewed and 143 full text articles selected for review. A total of 27 papers reporting research studies were included in the review (25 from initial search, 1 from review of references and 1 from personal correspondence). We found a limited number of studies on the physical health consequences of landslides. Only one study provided detail of the causes of mortality and morbidity in relation a landslide event. Landslides cause significant mental health impacts, in particular the prevalence of PTSD may be higher after landslides than other types of disaster, though these studies tend to be older with only 3 papers published in the last 5 years, with 2 being published 20 years ago, and diagnostic criteria have changed since they were produced. Discussion. We were disappointed at the small number of relevant studies, and the generally poor documentation of the health impacts of landslides

  9. Towards a Theory of Tropical/Midlatitude Mass Exchange from the Earth's Surface through the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Dana

    1998-01-01

    The main findings of this research project have been the following: (1) there is a significant feedback from the stratosphere on tropospheric dynamics, and (2) a detailed analysis of the interaction between tropical and polar wave breaking in controlling stratospheric mixing. Two papers are were written and are included. The first paper is titled, "A New Perspective on the Dynamical Link Between the Stratosphere and Troposphere." Atmospheric processes of tropospheric origin can perturb the stratosphere, but direct feedback in the opposite direction is usually assumed to be negligible, despite the troposphere's sensitivity to changes in the release of wave activity into the stratosphere. Here, however, we present evidence that such a feedback exists and can be significant. We find that if the wintertime Arctic polar stratospheric vortex is distorted, either by waves propagating upward from the troposphere or by eastward-travelling stratospheric waves, then there is a concomitant redistribution of stratospheric potential vorticity that induces perturbations in key meteorological fields in the upper troposphere. The feedback is large despite the much greater mass of the troposphere: it can account for up to half of the geopotential height anomaly at the tropopause. Although the relative strength of the feedback is partly due to a cancellation between contributions to these anomalies from lower altitudes, our results imply that stratospheric dynamics and its feedback on the troposphere are more significant for climate modelling and data assimilation than was previously assumed. The second article is titled "Diagnosing the Polar Excitation of Subtropical Waves in the Stratosphere". The poleward migration of planetary scale tongues of subtropical air has often been associated with intense polar vortex disturbances in the stratosphere. This question of vortex influence is reexamined from a potential vorticity (PV) perspective. Anomalous geopotential height and wind fields

  10. A systematic review of the health impacts of mass Earth movements (landslides).

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Iain T R; Petley, Dave N; Williams, Richard; Murray, Virginia

    2015-04-30

    Background. Mass ground movements (commonly referred to as 'landslides') are common natural hazards that can have significant economic, social and health impacts. They occur as single events, or as clusters, and are often part of 'disaster' chains, occurring secondary to, or acting as the precursor of other disaster events. Whilst there is a large body of literature on the engineering and geological aspects of landslides, the mortality and morbidity caused by landslides is less well documented. As far as we are aware, this is the first systematic review to examine the health impacts of landslides. Methods. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS databases and the Cochrane library were systematically searched to identify articles which considered the health impacts of landslides. Case studies, case series, primary research and systematic reviews were included. News reports, editorials and non-systematic reviews were excluded. Only articles in English were considered. The references of retrieved papers were searched to identify additional articles. Findings. 913 abstracts were reviewed and 143 full text articles selected for review. A total of 27 papers reporting research studies were included in the review (25 from initial search, 1 from review of references and 1 from personal correspondence). We found a limited number of studies on the physical health consequences of landslides. Only one study provided detail of the causes of mortality and morbidity in relation a landslide event. Landslides cause significant mental health impacts, in particular the prevalence of PTSD may be higher after landslides than other types of disaster, though these studies tend to be older with only 3 papers published in the last 5 years, with 2 being published 20 years ago, and diagnostic criteria have changed since they were produced. Discussion. We were disappointed at the small number of relevant studies, and the generally poor documentation of the health impacts of landslides. Mental

  11. The 2011 October Draconids outburst - I. Orbital elements, meteoroid fluxes and 21P/Giacobini-Zinner delivered mass to Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.; Madiedo, José M.; Williams, I. P.; Dergham, Joan; Cortés, Jordi; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Ortiz, José L.; Zamorano, Jaime; Ocaña, Francisco; Izquierdo, Jaime; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Rodríguez, Diego; Tapia, Mar; Pujols, Pep; Lacruz, Juan; Pruneda, Francesc; Oliva, Armand; Pastor Erades, Juan; Francisco Marín, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    On 2011 October 8, the Earth crossed the dust trails left by comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner during its 19th and 20th century perihelion approaches with the comet being close to perihelion. The geometric circumstances of that encounter were thus favourable to produce a meteor storm, but the trails were much older than in the 1933 and 1946 historical encounters. As a consequence the 2011 October Draconid display exhibited several activity peaks with Zenithal Hourly Rates of about 400 meteors h-1. In fact, if the display had not been forecasted, it could have passed almost unnoticed as was strongly attenuated for visual observers due to the Moon. This suggests that most meteor storms of a similar nature could have passed historically unnoticed under unfavourable weather and Moon observing conditions. The possibility of obtaining information on the physical properties of cometary meteoroids penetrating the atmosphere under low geocentric velocity encounter circumstances motivated us to set up a special observing campaign. Added to the Spanish Fireball Network wide-field all-sky and CCD video monitoring, other high-sensitivity 1/2 arcsec black and white CCD video cameras were attached to the modified medium-field lenses for obtaining high-resolution orbital information. The trajectory, radiant and orbital data of October 16 Draconid meteors observed at multiple stations are presented. The results show that the meteors appeared from a geocentric radiant located at α = 263.0 ± 0.4° and δ = +55.3 ± 0.3° that is in close agreement with the radiant predicted for the 1873-1894 and the 1900 dust trails. The estimated mass of material from 21P/Giacobini-Zinner delivered to Earth during the 6 h outburst was around 950 ± 150 kg.

  12. VEGA, a small launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duret, François; Fabrizi, Antonio

    1999-09-01

    Several studies have been performed in Europe aiming to promote the full development of a small launch vehicle to put into orbit one ton class spacecrafts. But during the last ten years, the european workforce was mainly oriented towards the qualification of the heavy class ARIANE 5 launch vehicle.Then, due also to lack of visibility on this reduced segment of market, when comparing with the geosatcom market, no proposal was sufficiently attractive to get from the potentially interrested authorities a clear go-ahead, i.e. a financial committment. The situation is now rapidly evolving. Several european states, among them ITALY and FRANCE, are now convinced of the necessity of the availability of such a transportation system, an important argument to promote small missions, using small satellites. Application market will be mainly scientific experiments and earth observation; some telecommunications applications may be also envisaged such as placement of little LEO constellation satellites, or replacement after failure of big LEO constellation satellites. FIAT AVIO and AEROSPATIALE have proposed to their national agencies the development of such a small launch vehicle, named VEGA. The paper presents the story of the industrial proposal, and the present status of the project: Mission spectrum, technical definition, launch service and performance, target development plan and target recurring costs, as well as the industrial organisation for development, procurement, marketing and operations.

  13. Launch Vehicle Operations Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackledge, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Saturn Launch Vehicle Operations Simulator (LVOS) was developed for NASA at Kennedy Space Center. LVOS simulates the Saturn launch vehicle and its ground support equipment. The simulator was intended primarily to be used as a launch crew trainer but it is also being used for test procedure and software validation. A NASA/contractor team of engineers and programmers implemented the simulator after the Apollo XI lunar landing during the low activity periods between launches.

  14. STS-135 Atlantis Launch

    2011-07-07

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, right, participates in the post launch traditional beans and cornbread at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, Launch Control Center (LCC) shortly after the space shuttle Atlantis, STS-135, launched on Friday, July 8, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The launch of Atlantis is the final flight of the shuttle program, a 12-day mission to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. STS-135 Atlantis Launch

    2011-07-07

    NASA Photographer Kim Shiflett, left, and Videographer Glenn Benson capture a group photo of the launch team in Firing Room Four of the NASA Kennedy Space Center Launch Control Center (LCC) shortly after the space shuttle Atlantis, STS-135, launched on Friday, July 8, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The launch of Atlantis is the final flight of the shuttle program, a 12-day mission to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. NASA Earth Day 2014

    2014-04-22

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden poses for a quick selfie with students who attended the NASA sponsored Earth Day event April 22, 2014 at Union Station in Washington, DC. NASA announced the "Global Selfie" event as part of its "Earth Right Now" campaign, celebrating the launch of five Earth-observing missions in 2014. All selfies posted to social media with the hashtag "GlobalSelfie" will be included in a mosaic image of Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  17. LAUNCH Health Forum

    2010-10-30

    Tom Kalil, Deputy Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, opens the LAUNCH: Health forum at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida on Saturday, Oct. 30, 2010. LAUNCH: Health provides a forum to discuss accelerating innovation for a sustainable future. LAUNCH: Health partners include NASA, USAID and Nike. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Space Shuttle Discovery Launch

    2008-05-31

    NASA Administrator, Michael Griffin watches the launch of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-124) from the Launch Control Center Saturday, May 31, 2008, at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The Shuttle lifted off from launch pad 39A at 5:02 p.m. EDT. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Testing the equivalence principle in the field of the Earth: Particle physics at masses below 1 μeV\\?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelberger, E. G.; Stubbs, C. W.; Heckel, B. R.; Su, Y.; Swanson, H. E.; Smith, G.; Gundlach, J. H.; Rogers, W. F.

    1990-11-01

    A sensitive, systematic search for feeble, macroscopic forces arising from the exchange of hypothetical ultra-low-mass bosons was made by observing the differential acceleration of two different test body pairs toward two different sources. Our differential accelerometer-a highly symmetric, continuously rotating torsion balance-incorporated several innovations that effectively suppressed systematic errors. All known sources of systematic error were demonstrated to be negligible in comparison to our fluctuating errors which are roughly 7 times larger than the fundamental limit set by the fact that we observe an oscillator at room temperature with a given damping time. Our 1σ limits on the horizontal differential acceleration of Be/Al or Be/Cu test body pairs in the field of the Earth, Δa⊥=(2.1+/-2.1)×10-11 cm s-2 and Δa⊥=(0.8+/-1.7)×10-11 cm s-2, respectively, set improved bounds on Yukawa interactions mediated by bosons with masses ranging between mbc2~=3×10-18 and mbc2~=1×10-6 eV. For example, our constraints on infinite-range vector interactions with charges of B and of B-L are roughly 10 and 2 times more sensitive than those obtained by Roll, Krotkov, and Dicke using the field of the Sun. Furthermore we set stringent constraints down to λ=1 m, while those of solar experiments are weak for λ<1 AU. In terms of the weak equivalence principle in the field of the Earth, our 1σ result corresponds to mi/mg(Cu)-mi/mg(Be)=(0.2+/-1.0)×10-11. Our results also yield stringent constraints on the nonsymmetric gravitation theory of Moffat and on the anomalous acceleration of antimatter in proposed ``quantum gravity'' models, and have implications for lunar-ranging tests of the strong equivalence principle. Our 1σ limit on the differential acceleration of Be/Al test body pairs toward a 1.5 Mg Pb laboratory source, Δa=(-0.15+/-1.31)×10-10 cm s-2, provides constraints on Yukawa interactions with ranges down to 10 cm, and on interactions whose charge is B-2L.

  20. Aqua 10 Years After Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2013-01-01

    A little over ten years ago, in the early morning hours of May 4, 2002, crowds of spectators stood anxiously watching as the Delta II rocket carrying NASA's Aqua spacecraft lifted off from its launch pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 2:55 a.m. The rocket quickly went through a low-lying cloud cover, after which the main portion of the rocket fell to the waters below and the rockets second stage proceeded to carry Aqua south across the Pacific, onward over Antarctica, and north to Africa, where the spacecraft separated from the rocket 59.5 minutes after launch. Then, 12.5 minutes later, the solar array unfurled over Europe, and Aqua was on its way in the first of what by now have become over 50,000 successful orbits of the Earth.

  1. NASA's Space Launch System: Momentum Builds Toward First Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Lyles, Garry M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is gaining momentum toward the first launch of a new exploration-class heavy lift launch vehicle for international exploration and science initiatives. The SLS comprises an architecture that begins with a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. It will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017. Its first crewed flight follows in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. The SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation with the successful completion of the rigorous Key Decision Point C review in 2014. As a result, the Agency authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. In the NASA project life cycle process, SLS has completed 50 percent of its major milestones toward first flight. Every SLS element manufactured development hardware for testing over the past year. Accomplishments during 2013/2014 included manufacture of core stage test articles, preparations for qualification testing the solid rocket boosters and the RS-25 main engines, and shipment of the first flight hardware in preparation for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) in 2014. SLS was conceived with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability, while also providing unprecedented capability for human exploration and scientific discovery beyond Earth orbit. In an environment of economic challenges, the SLS team continues to meet ambitious budget and schedule targets through the studied use of hardware, infrastructure, and workforce investments the United States made in the last half century, while selectively using new technologies for design, manufacturing, and testing, as well as streamlined management approaches

  2. A Sun-to-Earth Analysis of Magnetic Helicity of the 2013 March 17–18 Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sanchita; Gopalswamy, Nat; Nandy, Dibyendu; Akiyama, Sachiko; Yashiro, Seiji; Makela, Pertti; Xie, Hong

    2017-12-01

    We compare the magnetic helicity in the 2013 March 17–18 interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) flux rope at 1 au and in its solar counterpart. The progenitor coronal mass ejection (CME) erupted on 2013 March 15 from NOAA active region 11692 and is associated with an M1.1 flare. We derive the source region reconnection flux using the post-eruption arcade (PEA) method that uses the photospheric magnetogram and the area under the PEA. The geometrical properties of the near-Sun flux rope is obtained by forward-modeling of white-light CME observations. Combining the geometrical properties and the reconnection flux, we extract the magnetic properties of the CME flux rope. We derive the magnetic helicity of the flux rope using its magnetic and geometric properties obtained near the Sun and at 1 au. We use a constant-α force-free cylindrical flux rope model fit to the in situ observations in order to derive the magnetic and geometric information of the 1 au ICME. We find a good correspondence in both amplitude and sign of the helicity between the ICME and the CME, assuming a semi-circular (half torus) ICME flux rope with a length of π au. We find that about 83% of the total flux rope helicity at 1 au is injected by the magnetic reconnection in the low corona. We discuss the effect of assuming flux rope length in the derived value of the magnetic helicity. This study connecting the helicity of magnetic flux ropes through the Sun–Earth system has important implications for the origin of helicity in the interplanetary medium and the topology of ICME flux ropes at 1 au and hence their space weather consequences.

  3. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.; Savage, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  4. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, C.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1992-03-17

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors. 5 figs.

  5. The formation and evolution of earth-mass dark matter microhalos and their impact on indirect probes of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2013-07-01

    Earth-mass dark matter microhalos with a size of ~100 AU are the first structures formed in the universe, if the dark matter of the universe is made of neutralinos. We report the results of ultra-high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations of the formation and evolution of these microhalos. We found that microhalos have the central density cusps of the form ρ ∝ r-1.5, much steeper than the cusps of larger dark halos. The central regions of these microhalos survive the encounters with stars except in the very inner region of the galaxy down to the radius of a few hundreds parsecs from the galactic center. The annihilation signals from the nearest microhalos are observed as gamma-ray point sources (radius less than 1'), with unusually large proper motions of ~0.2 deg per year. Their surface brightnesses are ~10% of that of the galactic center. Their signal-to-noise ratios might be better if they are far from the galactic plane.

  6. Present-day and future Antarctic ice sheet climate and surface mass balance in the Community Earth System Model

    DOE PAGES

    Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Vizcaino, Miren; Fyke, Jeremy Garmeson; ...

    2016-02-01

    Here, we present climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) as simulated by the global, coupled ocean–atmosphere–land Community Earth System Model (CESM) with a horizontal resolution of ~1° in the past, present and future (1850–2100). CESM correctly simulates present-day Antarctic sea ice extent, large-scale atmospheric circulation and near-surface climate, but fails to simulate the recent expansion of Antarctic sea ice. The present-day Antarctic ice sheet SMB equals 2280 ± 131Gtyear –1, which concurs with existing independent estimates of AIS SMB. When forced by two CMIP5 climate change scenarios (high mitigation scenario RCP2.6 and high-emission scenariomore » RCP8.5), CESM projects an increase of Antarctic ice sheet SMB of about 70 Gtyear –1 per degree warming. This increase is driven by enhanced snowfall, which is partially counteracted by more surface melt and runoff along the ice sheet’s edges. This intensifying hydrological cycle is predominantly driven by atmospheric warming, which increases (1) the moisture-carrying capacity of the atmosphere, (2) oceanic source region evaporation, and (3) summer AIS cloud liquid water content.« less

  7. Aquarius SAC-D Launch

    2011-06-08

    The Delta II rocket with it's Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft payload is seen shortly after the service structure is rolled back on Thursday, June 9, 2011, at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The joint U.S./Argentinian Aquarius/Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas (SAC)-D mission, set to launch June 10, will map the salinity at the ocean surface, information critical to improving our understanding of two major components of Earth's climate system: the water cycle and ocean circulation. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Aquarius SAC-D Launch

    2011-06-08

    The Delta II rocket with it's Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft payload is seen as the service structure is rolled back on Thursday, June 9, 2011, at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. The joint U.S./Argentinian Aquarius/Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas (SAC)-D mission, set to launch June 10, will map the salinity at the ocean surface, information critical to improving our understanding of two major components of Earth's climate system: the water cycle and ocean circulation. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Identifying Accessible Near-Earth Objects For Crewed Missions With Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smet, Stijn De; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Herman, Jonathan F. C.; Aziz, Jonathan; Barbee, Brent W.; Englander, Jacob A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the expansion of the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) with Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). The research investigates the existence of new launch seasons that would have been impossible to achieve using only chemical propulsion. Furthermore, this paper shows that SEP can be used to significantly reduce the launch mass and in some cases the flight time of potential missions as compared to the current, purely chemical trajectories identified by the NHATS project.

  10. Launch Pad in a Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Tamasy, G. J.; Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Sampson, J. W.; Lane, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    . The thermal energy from the Morpheus rocket exhaust plume was only found to be sufficient to cause appreciable ablation of one of the four ablatives that were tested. The rocket exhaust plume did cause spalling of concrete during each descent and landing on a landing pad in the hazard field. The Extended Abstract ASE Earth and Space Conference April, 2016 - Orlando, FL concrete surface was laser scanned following each Morpheus landing, and the total volume of spalled concrete that eroded between the first and final landings of the Morpheus Project's test campaign was estimated. This paper will also describe a new deployable launch system (DLS) capability that is being developed at KSC and was publicly announced in May 2015 (KSC Partnerships, 2015). The DLS is a set of multi-user Ground Support Equipment that will be used to test and launch small class launch vehicles. The system is comprised of four main elements: the Launch Stand, the Flame Deflector, the Pad Apron and the KAMAG transporter. The system elements are designed to be deployed at launch or test sites within the KSC/CCAFS boundaries. The DLS is intended to be used together with the Fluid and Electrical System of the Universal Propellant Servicing Systems and Mobile Power Data and Communications Unit.

  11. Launch Pad in a Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, James; Tamasy, Gabor; Mueller, Rob; Townsend, Van; Sampson, Jeff; Lane, Mike

    2016-01-01

    . The thermal energy from the Morpheus rocket exhaust plume was only found to be sufficient to cause appreciable ablation of one of the four ablatives that were tested. The rocket exhaust plume did cause spalling of concrete during each descent and landing on a landing pad in the hazard field. The Extended Abstract ASE Earth and Space Conference April, 2016 - Orlando, FL concrete surface was laser scanned following each Morpheus landing, and the total volume of spalled concrete that eroded between the first and final landings of the Morpheus Project's test campaign was estimated. This paper will also describe a new deployable launch system (DLS) capability that is being developed at KSC and was publicly announced in May 2015 (KSC Partnerships, 2015). The DLS is a set of multi-user Ground Support Equipment that will be used to test and launch small class launch vehicles. The system is comprised of four main elements: the Launch Stand, the Flame Deflector, the Pad Apron and the KAMAG transporter. The system elements are designed to be deployed at launch or test sites within the KSC/CCAFS boundaries. The DLS is intended to be used together with the Fluid and Electrical System of the Universal Propellant Servicing Systems and Mobile Power Data and Communications Unit

  12. Combining near-term technologies to achieve a two-launch manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David A.; Zubrin, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper introduces a mission architecture called 'Mars Direct' which brings together several technologies and existing hardware into a novel mission strategy to achieve a highly capable and affordable approach to the Mars and Lunar exploratory objective of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Three innovations working in concept cut the initial mass by a factor of three, greatly expand out ability to explore Mars, and eliminate the need to assemble vehicles in Earth orbit. The first innovation, a hybrid Earth/Mars propellant production process works as follows. An Earth Return Vehicle (ERV), tanks loaded with liquid hydrogen, is sent to Mars. After landing, a 100 kWe nuclear reactor is deployed which powers a propellant processor that combines onboard hydrogen with Mars' atmospheric CO2 to produce methane and water. The water is then electrolized to create oxygen and, in the process, liberates the hydrogen for further processing. Additional oxygen is gained directly by decomposition of Mars' CO2 atmosphere. This second innovation, a hybrid crew transport/habitation method, uses the same habitat for transfer to Mars as well as for the 18 month stay on the surface. The crew return via the previously launched ERV in a modest, lightweight return capsule. This reduces mission mass for two reasons. One, it eliminates the unnecessary mass of two large habitats, one in orbit and one on the surface. And two, it eliminates the need for a trans-Earth injection stage. The third innovation is a launch vehicle optimized for Earth escape. The launch vehicle is a Shuttle Derived Vehicle (SDV) consisting of two solid rocket boosters, a modified external tank, four space shuttle main engines and a large cryogenic upper stage mounted atop the external tank. This vehicle can throw 40 tonnes (40,000 kg) onto a trans-Mars trajectory, which is about the same capability as Saturn-5. Using two such launches, a four person mission can be carried out every twenty-six months with

  13. NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human spaceflight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Making its first uncrewed test flight in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, capable of supporting human missions into deep space and to Mars. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS Program has made in the years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, and the path the program is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130 t lift capability. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware and recordbreaking engine testing, to life-cycle milestones such as the vehicle's Preliminary Design Review in the summer of 2013. The paper will also discuss the remaining challenges in both delivering the 70 t vehicle and in evolving its capabilities to the 130 t vehicle, and how the program plans to accomplish these goals. In addition, this paper will demonstrate how the Space Launch System is being designed to enable or enhance not only human exploration missions, but robotic scientific missions as well. Because of its unique launch capabilities, SLS will support simplifying spacecraft complexity, provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduce mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious science missions by reducing

  14. Potential Large Decadal Missions Enabled by Nasas Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David Alan; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and a LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-Ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8 or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45-mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper reviews the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, discusses potential implications of these capacities for designing large space telescope missions, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  15. Potential large missions enabled by NASA's space launch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David A.; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.

    2016-07-01

    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and a LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-Ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8 or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45-mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper reviews the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, discusses potential implications of these capacities for designing large space telescope missions, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  16. NASA's Space Launch System: One Vehicle, Many Destinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Developed with the goals of safety, affordability and sustainability in mind, SLS will start with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has worked together to create the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths towards a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. This paper will explore the requirements needed for missions to BEO destinations, and the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions. It will explain how NASA will execute this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for extended trips to asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. In addition, this paper will detail SLS's capability to support missions beyond the human exploration roadmap, including robotic precursor missions to other worlds or uniquely high-mass space operation facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS provides game-changing mass and volume lift capability that makes it enhancing or enabling for a variety of

  17. Launch Period Development for the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalkowski, Theresa D.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Lam, Try

    2008-01-01

    The Juno mission to Jupiter is targeted to launch in 2011 and would reach the giant planet about five years later. The interplanetary trajectory is planned to include two large deep space maneuvers and an Earth gravity assist a little more than two years after launch. In this paper, we describe the development of a 21-day launch period for Juno with the objective of keeping overall launch energy and delta-V low while meeting constraints imposed on Earth departure, the deep space maneuvers' timing and geometry, and Jupiter arrival.

  18. Area V: A National Launch Asset for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this presentation is to present an update on status and development of the Ares V launch vehicle. The Ares V is a heavy lift vehicle that is being designed to launch cargo into Low Earth Orbit and transfer Cargo and crews to the Moon. Slides show the commonalities between the Ares V, and the Ares I, and the Delta IV. The launch profile for a typical Lunar mission is reviewed. A timeline showing the progress from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) to the Lunar Capability Concept Review (LCCR) is presented. Other slides review the payload shroud, the payload vs altitude and inclination, the payload mass vs C3 Energy, projections of the performance for selected trajectories, and the planning calendar.

  19. Game changing: NASA's space launch system and science mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creech, S. D.

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher characteristic energy (C3) energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as “ monolithic” telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  20. MAVEN Atlas V Launch

    2013-11-18

    The United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket with NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft launches from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41, Monday, Nov. 18, 2013, Cape Canaveral, Florida. NASA’s Mars-bound spacecraft, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN, or MAVEN, is the first spacecraft devoted to exploring and understanding the Martian upper atmosphere. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. STS-135 Atlantis Launch

    2011-07-07

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks to visitors at the NASA Kennedy Space Center Banana Creek viewing site prior to going to the Launch Control Center (LCC) for the planned launch of the space shuttle Atlantis from pad 39A on Friday, July 8, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The launch of Atlantis, STS-135, is the final flight of the shuttle program, a 12-day mission to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Ares V: A National Launch Asset for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil; Creech, Steve

    2009-01-01

    NASA is designing the Ares V as the cargo launch vehicle to carry NASA's exploration plans into the 21st century. The Ares V is the heavy-lift component of NASA's dual-launch architecture that will replace the current space shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and establish a permanent human presence on the Moon as a stepping stone to destinations beyond. During extensive independent and internal architecture and vehicle trade studies as part of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V to support future exploration. The smaller Ares I will launch the Orion crew exploration vehicle with four to six astronauts into orbit. The Ares V is designed to carry the Altair lunar lander into orbit, rendezvous with Orion, and send the mated spacecraft toward lunar orbit. The Ares V will be the largest and most powerful launch vehicle in history, providing unprecedented payload mass and volume to establish a permanent lunar outpost and explore significantly more of the lunar surface than was done during the Apollo missions. The Ares V also represents a national asset offering opportunities for new science, national security, and commercial missions of unmatched size and scope. Using the dual-launch Earth Orbit Rendezvous approach, the Ares I and Ares V together will be able to inject roughly 57percent more mass to the Moon than the Apollo-era Saturn V. Ares V alone will be able to send nearly 414,000 pounds into low Earth orbit (LEO) or more than 138,000 pounds directly to the Moon, compared with 262,000 pounds and 99,000 pounds, respectively for the Saturn V. Significant progress has been made on the Ares V to support a planned fiscal 2011 authority-to-proceed (ATP) milestone. This paper discusses recent progress on the Ares V and planned future activities.

  3. Launch of the STS 51-F Challenger

    1985-07-29

    51F-S-157 (29 July 1985) --- Just moments following ignition, the Space Shuttle Challenger, mated to its two solid rocket boosters and an external fuel tank, soars toward a week-long mission in Earth orbit. Note the diamond shock effect in the vicinity of the three main engines. Launch occurred at 5:00 p.m. (EDT), July 29, 1985.

  4. Illustration of Launching Samples Home from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    One crucial step in a Mars sample return mission would be to launch the collected sample away from the surface of Mars. This artist's concept depicts a Mars ascent vehicle for starting a sample of Mars rocks on their trip to Earth.

  5. Mass

    SciT

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of darkmore » matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.« less

  6. 66. DETAIL OF LAUNCH CONDUCTOR AND ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONDUCTOR PANELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. DETAIL OF LAUNCH CONDUCTOR AND ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONDUCTOR PANELS IN CONSOLE LOCATED CENTRALLY IN SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT IN BACKGROUND: LAUNCH OPERATOR, LAUNCH ANALYST, AND FACILITIES PANELS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Launch Services Safety Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA/KSC Launch Services Division Safety (SA-D) services include: (1) Assessing the safety of the launch vehicle (2) Assessing the safety of NASA ELV spacecraft (S/C) / launch vehicle (LV) interfaces (3) Assessing the safety of spacecraft processing to ensure resource protection of: - KSC facilities - KSC VAFB facilities - KSC controlled property - Other NASA assets (4) NASA personnel safety (5) Interfacing with payload organizations to review spacecraft for adequate safety implementation and compliance for integrated activities (6) Assisting in the integration of safety activities between the payload, launch vehicle, and processing facilities

  8. APOLLO VIII - LAUNCH - KSC

    1968-12-21

    S68-56002 (21 Dec. 1968) --- The Apollo 8 (Spacecraft 103/Saturn 503) space vehicle is launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), at 7:51 a.m. (EST), Dec. 21, 1968. The crew of the Apollo 8 lunar orbit mission is astronauts Frank Borman, commander; James A. Lovell Jr., command module pilot; and William A. Anders, lunar module pilot. Apollo 8 was the first manned Saturn V launch. (F-ls 1/3 way from top of mobile launch tower.)

  9. NASA's Space Launch System: A Transformative Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Cook, Jerry; Hitt, David

    2016-01-01

    Currently making rapid progress toward first launch in 2018, NASA's exploration-class Space Launch System (SLS) represents a game-changing new spaceflight capability, enabling mission profiles that are currently impossible. Designed to launch human deep-space missions farther into space than ever before, the initial configuration of SLS will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), and will send NASA's new Orion crew vehicle into lunar orbit. Plans call for the rocket to evolve on its second flight, via a new upper stage, to a more powerful configuration capable of lofting 105 tons to LEO or co-manifesting additional systems with Orion on launches to the lunar vicinity. Ultimately, SLS will evolve to a configuration capable of delivering more than 130 tons to LEO. SLS is a foundational asset for NASA's Journey to Mars, and has been recognized by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group as a key element for cooperative missions beyond LEO. In order to enable human deep-space exploration, SLS provides unrivaled mass, volume, and departure energy for payloads, offering numerous benefits for a variety of other missions. For robotic science probes to the outer solar system, for example, SLS can cut transit times to less than half that of currently available vehicles, producing earlier data return, enhancing iterative exploration, and reducing mission cost and risk. In the field of astrophysics, SLS' high payload volume, in the form of payload fairings with a diameter of up to 10 meters, creates the opportunity for launch of large-aperture telescopes providing an unprecedented look at our universe, and offers the ability to conduct crewed servicing missions to observatories stationed at locations beyond low Earth orbit. At the other end of the spectrum, SLS opens access to deep space for low-cost missions in the form of smallsats. The first launch of SLS will deliver beyond LEO 13 6-unit smallsat payloads

  10. NASA's Space Launch System: A Transformative Capability for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Cook, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Currently making rapid progress toward first launch in 2018, NASA's exploration-class Space Launch System (SLS) represents a game-changing new spaceflight capability, enabling mission profiles that are currently impossible. Designed to launch human deep-space missions farther into space than ever before, the initial configuration of SLS will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), and will send NASA's new Orion crew vehicle into lunar orbit. Plans call for the rocket to evolve on its second flight, via a new upper stage, to a more powerful configuration capable of lofting 105 t to LEO or comanifesting additional systems with Orion on launches to the lunar vicinity. Ultimately, SLS will evolve to a configuration capable of delivering more than 130 t to LEO. SLS is a foundational asset for NASA's Journey to Mars, and has been recognized by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group as a key element for cooperative missions beyond LEO. In order to enable human deep-space exploration, SLS provides unrivaled mass, volume, and departure energy for payloads, offering numerous benefits for a variety of other missions. For robotic science probes to the outer solar system, for example, SLS can cut transit times to less than half that of currently available vehicles, producing earlier data return, enhancing iterative exploration, and reducing mission cost and risk. In the field of astrophysics, SLS' high payload volume, in the form of payload fairings with a diameter of up to 10 meters, creates the opportunity for launch of large-aperture telescopes providing an unprecedented look at our universe, and offers the ability to conduct crewed servicing missions to observatories stationed at locations beyond low Earth orbit. At the other end of the spectrum, SLS opens access to deep space for low-cost missions in the form of smallsats. The first launch of SLS will deliver beyond LEO 13 6U smallsat payloads, representing multiple

  11. SUN-TO-EARTH CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 2012 JULY 12 CORONAL MASS EJECTION AND ASSOCIATED GEO-EFFECTIVENESS

    SciT

    Hu, Huidong; Liu, Ying D.; Wang, Rui

    We analyze multi-spacecraft observations associated with the 2012 July 12 coronal mass ejection (CME), covering the source region on the Sun from the Solar Dynamics Observatory , stereoscopic imaging observations from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO ), magnetic field characteristics from Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging ( MESSENGER ), and type II radio burst and in situ measurements from Wind . A triangulation method based on STEREO stereoscopic observations is employed to determine the kinematics of the CME, and the outcome is compared with the results derived from the type II radio burst using a solarmore » wind electron density model. A Grad–Shafranov technique is applied to Wind in situ data to reconstruct the flux-rope structure and compare it with the observations of the solar source region, which helps in understanding the geo-effectiveness associated with the CME structure. Our conclusions are as follows: (1) the CME undergoes an impulsive acceleration, a rapid deceleration before reaching MESSENGER , and then a gradual deceleration out to 1 au, which should be considered in CME kinematics models; (2) the type II radio burst was probably produced from a high-density interaction region between the CME-driven shock and a nearby streamer or from the shock flank with lower heights, which implies uncertainties in the determination of CME kinematics using solely type II radio bursts; (3) the flux-rope orientation and chirality deduced from in situ reconstructions at Wind agree with those obtained from solar source observations; (4) the prolonged southward magnetic field near the Earth is mainly from the axial component of the largely southward inclined flux rope, which indicates the importance of predicting both the flux-rope orientation and magnetic field components in geomagnetic activity forecasting.« less

  12. Remote and In Situ Observations of an Unusual Earth-Directed Coronal Mass Ejection from Multiple Viewpoints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Colaninno, R.; Vourlidas, A.; Szabo, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Boardsen, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2012-01-01

    During June 16-21, 2010, an Earth-directed Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) event was observed by instruments onboard STEREO, SOHO, MESSENGER and Wind. This event was the first direct detection of a rotating CME in the middle and outer corona. Here, we carry out a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of the CME in the interplanetary medium comparing in-situ and remote observations, with analytical models and three-dimensional reconstructions. In particular, we investigate the parallel and perpendicular cross section expansion of the CME from the corona through the heliosphere up to 1 AU. We use height-time measurements and the Gradual Cylindrical Shell (GCS) technique to model the imaging observations, remove the projection effects, and derive the 3-dimensional extent of the event. Then, we compare the results with in-situ analytical Magnetic Cloud (MC) models, and with geometrical predictions from past works. We nd that the parallel (along the propagation plane) cross section expansion agrees well with the in-situ model and with the Bothmer & Schwenn [1998] empirical relationship based on in-situ observations between 0.3 and 1 AU. Our results effectively extend this empirical relationship to about 5 solar radii. The expansion of the perpendicular diameter agrees very well with the in-situ results at MESSENGER ( 0:5 AU) but not at 1 AU. We also find a slightly different, from Bothmer & Schwenn [1998], empirical relationship for the perpendicular expansion. More importantly, we find no evidence that the CME undergoes a significant latitudinal over-expansion as it is commonly assumed

  13. Rapid and highly reproducible analysis of rare earth elements by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Joel; Waight, Tod; Ulfbeck, David

    2002-10-01

    A method has been developed for the rapid chemical separation and highly reproducible analysis of the rare earth elements (REE) by isotope dilution analysis by means of a multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS). This technique is superior in terms of the analytical reproducibility or rapidity of analysis compared with quadrupole ICP-MS or with thermal ionization mass spectrometric isotope dilution techniques. Samples are digested by standard hydrofluoric-nitric acid-based techniques and spiked with two mixed spikes. The bulk REE are separated from the sample on a cation exchange column, collecting the middle-heavy and light REE as two groups, which provides a middle-heavy REE cut with sufficient separation of the light from the heavier REE to render oxide interferences trivial, and a Ba-free light REE cut. The heavy (Er-Lu), middle (Eu-Gd), and light REE (La-Eu) concentrations are determined by three short (1 to 2 min) analyses with a CETAC Aridus desolvating nebulizer introduction system. Replicate digestions of international rock standards demonstrate that concentrations can be reproduced to <1%, which reflects weighing errors during digestion and aliquotting as inter-REE ratios reproduce to ≤0.2% (2 SD). Eu and Ce anomalies reproduce to <0.15%. In addition to determining the concentrations of polyisotopic REE by isotope dilution analysis, the concentration of monoisotopic Pr can be measured during the light REE isotope dilution run, by reference to Pr/Ce and Pr/Nd ratios measured in a REE standard solution. Pr concentrations determined in this way reproduce to <1%, and Pr/REE ratios reproduce to <0.4%. Ce anomalies calculated with La and Pr also reproduce to <0.15% (2 SD). The precise Ce (and Eu) anomaly measurements should allow greater use of these features in studying the recycling of materials with these anomalies into the mantle, or redox-induced effects on the REE during recycling and dehydration of oceanic lithosphere

  14. GREECE Mission Launching Into Aurora

    2014-03-04

    Caption: A NASA-funded sounding rocket launches into an aurora in the early morning of March 3, 2014, over Venetie, Alaska. The GREECE mission studies how certain structures – classic curls like swirls of cream in coffee -- form in the aurora. Credit: NASA/Christopher Perry More info: On March 3, 2014, at 6:09 a.m. EST, a NASA-funded sounding rocket launched straight into an aurora over Venetie, Alaska. The Ground-to-Rocket Electrodynamics – Electron Correlative Experiment, or GREECE, sounding rocket mission, which launched from Poker Flat Research Range in Poker Flat, Alaska, will study classic curls in the aurora in the night sky. The GREECE instruments travel on a sounding rocket that launches for a ten-minute ride right through the heart of the aurora reaching its zenith over the native village of Venetie, Alaska. To study the curl structures, GREECE consists of two parts: ground-based imagers located in Venetie to track the aurora from the ground and the rocket to take measurements from the middle of the aurora itself. At their simplest, auroras are caused when particles from the sun funnel over to Earth's night side, generate electric currents, and trigger a shower of particles that strike oxygen and nitrogen some 60 to 200 miles up in Earth's atmosphere, releasing a flash of light. But the details are always more complicated, of course. Researchers wish to understand the aurora, and movement of plasma in general, at much smaller scales including such things as how different structures are formed there. This is a piece of information, which in turn, helps paint a picture of the sun-Earth connection and how energy and particles from the sun interact with Earth's own magnetic system, the magnetosphere. GREECE is a collaborative effort between SWRI, which developed particle instruments and the ground-based imaging, and the University of California, Berkeley, measuring the electric and magnetic fields. The launch is supported by a sounding rocket team from

  15. Explanation of observable secular variations of gravity and alternative methods of determination of drift of the center of mass of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    The summary. On the basis of geodynamic model of the forced relative displacement of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle of the Earth the secular variations of a gravity and heights of some gravimetry stations on a surface of the Earth have ben studied. At the account of secular drift of the center of mass of the Earth which on our geodynamic model is caused by the unidirectional drift of the core of the Earth relatively to the mantle, the full explanation is given to observable secular variations of a gravity at stations Ny-Alesund (Norway), Churchill (Canada), Medicine (Italy), Sayowa (Antarctica), Strastburg (France), Membach (Belgium), Wuhan (China) and Metsahovi (Finland). Two new methods of determination of secular drift of the center of mass of the Earth, alternative to classical method of a space geodesy are offered: 1) on the basis of gravimetry data about secular trends of a gravity at the stations located on all basic regions of the Earth; 2) on the basis of the comparative analysis of altimetry and coastal data about secular changes of sea level also in basic regions of ocean. 1. Secular drift of the center of mass of the core and the center of mass of the Earth. A secular drift of the center of mass of the Earth to the North relatively to special center O on an axis of rotation of the Earth for which the coefficient of third zonal harmonic J3' = 0, has been predicted in the author work [1]. A drift in a direction to a geographical point (pole P) 70°0 N and 104°3 E has been established for the first time theoretically - as a result of the analysis of the global directed redistribution of masses of the Earth, explaining the observed secular drift of the pole of an axis of rotation of the Earth and not tidal acceleration of its axial rotation [2]. In [1] velocity of drift it has been estimated in 1-2 cm/yr. For specified center O the figure of a planet is as though deprived of pure-shaped form (J3' = 0). And in this sense the point O can be

  16. SKYLAB (SL)-III - LAUNCH - KSC

    1973-08-17

    S73-32570 (28 July 1973) --- The Skylab 3/Saturn 1B space vehicle is launched from Pad B, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 7:11 a.m. (EDT), Saturday, July 28, 1973. Skylab 3 is the second of three scheduled Skylab manned missions. Aboard the Skylab 3 Command/Service Module were astronauts Alan L. Bean, Owen K. Garriott and Jack R. Lousma. The Skylab 3 CSM later docked with the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. In addition to the CSM and its launch escape system, the Skylab 3 space vehicle consisted of the Saturn 1B first (S-1B) stage and the Saturn 1B second (S-1VB) stage. (The Skylab 1/Saturn V space vehicle with the space station payload was launched from Pad A on May 14, 1973). Photo credit: NASA

  17. InSight Launch

    2018-05-05

    The NASA InSight spacecraft launches onboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas-V rocket, Saturday, May 5, 2018, from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. InSight, short for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport, is a Mars lander designed to study the "inner space" of Mars: its crust, mantle, and core. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Foreign launch competition growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, R. F.; Wolfe, M. G.; Pryke, I. W.

    1986-07-01

    A survey is given of progress made by other nations in providing or preparing to provide satellite launch services. The European Space Agency has four generations of Ariane vehicles, with a fifth recently approved; a second launch facility in French Guiana that has become operational has raised the possible Ariane launch rate to 10 per year, although a May failure of an Ariane 2 put launches on hold. The French Hermes spaceplane and the British HOTOL are discussed. Under the auspices of the Italian National Space Plane, the Iris orbital transfer vehicle is developed and China's Long March vehicles and the Soviet Protons and SL-4 vehicles are discussed; the Soviets moreover are apparently developing not only a Saturn V-class heavy lift vehicle with a 150,000-kg capacity (about five times the largest U.S. capacity) but also a space shuttle and a spaceplane. Four Japanese launch vehicles and some vehicles in an Indian program are also ready to provide launch services. In this new, tough market for launch services, the customers barely outnumber the suppliers. The competition develops just as the Challenger and Titan disasters place the U.S. at a disadvantage and underline the hard work ahead to recoup its heretofore leading position in launch services.

  19. Test launch of a Topol/SS-25 missile

    2013-10-10

    ISS037-E-009301 (10 Oct. 2013) --- This is one of a series of views that captured a missile launch from Earth as seen on Oct. 10, 2013 by the Expedition 37 crew aboard the International Space Station.

  20. Test launch of a Topol/SS-25 missile

    2013-10-10

    ISS037-E-009296 (10 Oct. 2013) --- This is one of a series of views that captured a missile launch from Earth as seen on Oct. 10, 2013 by the Expedition 37 crew aboard the International Space Station.

  1. Test launch of a Topol/SS-25 missile

    2013-10-10

    ISS037-E-009224 (10 Oct. 2013) --- This is one of a series of views that captured a missile launch from Earth as seen on Oct. 10, 2013 by the Expedition 37 crew aboard the International Space Station.

  2. Test launch of a Topol/SS-25 missile

    2013-10-10

    ISS037-E-009302 (10 Oct. 2013) --- This is one of a series of views that captured a missile launch from Earth as seen on Oct. 10, 2013 by the Expedition 37 crew aboard the International Space Station.

  3. Test launch of a Topol/SS-25 missile

    2013-10-10

    ISS037-E-009212 (10 Oct. 2013) --- This is one of a series of views that captured a missile launch from Earth as seen on Oct. 10, 2013 by the Expedition 37 crew aboard the International Space Station.

  4. Test launch of a Topol/SS-25 missile

    2013-10-10

    ISS037-E-009333 (10 Oct. 2013) --- This is one of a series of views that captured a missile launch from Earth as seen on Oct. 10, 2013 by the Expedition 37 crew aboard the International Space Station.

  5. Test launch of a Topol/SS-25 missile

    2013-10-10

    ISS037-E-009321 (10 Oct. 2013) --- This is one of a series of views that captured a missile launch from Earth as seen on Oct. 10, 2013 by the Expedition 37 crew aboard the International Space Station.

  6. Test launch of a Topol/SS-25 missile

    2013-10-10

    ISS037-E-009203 (10 Oct. 2013) --- This is one of a series of views that captured a missile launch from Earth as seen on Oct. 10, 2013 by the Expedition 37 crew aboard the International Space Station.

  7. Test launch of a Topol/SS-25 missile

    2013-10-10

    ISS037-E-009251 (10 Oct. 2013) --- This is one of a series of photos that captured a missile launch from Earth as seen on Oct. 10, 2013 by the Expedition 37 crew aboard the International Space Station.

  8. Space to Ground: Launches and Landings: 06/08/2018

    2018-06-08

    This week, one crew launched to the International Space Station, while another returned to Earth. NASA's Space to Ground is your weekly update on what's happening aboard the International Space Station.

  9. Public Watches IRIS Launch Broadcast at NASA Ames (Reporter Pkg)

    2013-06-27

    Crowds of space enthusiasts gathered at Ames Research Center to witness the broadcast of NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph or IRIS Mission as it launched from an aircraft out of Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Speakers shared insights about the IRIS Mission and attendees cheered as the Pegasus rocket successfully separated from the L-1011 launch aircraft and proceeded to fire its rockets and launch into a polar orbit around the Earth.

  10. NASA's Space Launch System: Moving Toward the Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Designed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. NASA is working to deliver this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact that has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS Program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, the path it is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after 2021. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen that combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new developments that will evolve the launch vehicle's capabilities. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved 130 t Block 2 vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware, to life

  11. NASA's Space Launch System: Moving Toward the Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. NASA is working to develop this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, and the path the program is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen which combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new development projects that will evolve the capabilities of the launch vehicle. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved version of the vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight

  12. Architectures for Human Exploration of Near Earth Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation explores human exploration of Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) key factors including challenges of supporting humans for long-durations in deep-space, incorporation of advanced technologies, mission design constraints, and how many launches are required to conduct a round trip human mission to a NEA. Topics include applied methodology, all chemical NEA mission operations, all nuclear thermal propulsion NEA mission operations, SEP only for deep space mission operations, and SEP/chemical hybrid mission operations. Examples of mass trends between datasets are provided as well as example sensitivity of delta-v and trip home, sensitivity of number of launches and trip home, and expected targets for various transportation architectures.

  13. Earth Science

    1996-01-31

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft embarks on a journey that will culminate in a close encounter with an asteroid. The launch of NEAR inaugurates NASA's irnovative Discovery program of small-scale planetary missions with rapid, lower-cost development cycles and focused science objectives. NEAR will rendezvous in 1999 with the asteroid 433 Eros to begin the first long-term, close-up look at an asteroid's surface composition and physical properties. NEAR's science payload includes an x-ray/gamma ray spectrometer, an near-infrared spectrograph, a laser rangefinder, a magnetometer, a radio science experiment and a multi-spectral imager.

  14. Launch Pad Activities

    1959-09-08

    Big Joe Capsule Launch Pad Activities: This film covers both the Big Joe and a Little Joe Project Mercury flight test with a research and development version of the Mercury capsule. Big Joe was an Atlas missile that successfully launched a boilerplate model of the Mercury capsule on September 9, 1959. The lower half of the capsule was created at NASA Lewis. The scenes include coverage of the assembly and erection of the boosters, delivery of the capsules, mating of the capsules to the boosters, prelaunch views of the capsule and boosters on launchers, mission control, the launches, and recovery.

  15. STS-135 Launch Day

    2011-07-07

    NASA Chief, Astronaut Office, Johnson Space Center Peggy Whitson deals cards during a traditional game that is played at the NASA Kennedy Space Center Operations and Checkout Building with the shuttle crew prior to them leaving for the launch pad, on Friday, July 8, 2011 in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The point of the game is that the commander must use up all his or her bad luck before launch, so the crew can only leave for the pad after the commander loses. The launch of Atlantis, STS-135, is the final flight of the shuttle program, a 12-day mission to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jerry Ross)

  16. 65. DETAIL OF ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONTROLLER AND LAUNCH CONTROLLER PANELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. DETAIL OF ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONTROLLER AND LAUNCH CONTROLLER PANELS LOCATED NEAR CENTER OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. NOTE 30-CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS PANELS. PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (LEFT) AND LAUNCH OPERATORS PANEL (RIGHT) IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. Canadian Space Launch: Exploiting Northern Latitudes For Efficient Space Launch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    9  Peoples’ Republic of China .........................................................................................11  USA Launch... taxation and legislation that make Canada an attractive destination for commercial space companies.3 General Definitions Highly Inclined Orbit...launches from sites north of the 35th parallel.33 USA Launch Facilities There are 3 US based launch facilities that conduct launch operations north

  18. STS-91 Launch of Discovery from Launch Pad 39-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Some of Florida's natural foliage stands silent sentinel to the lift off of the Space Shuttle Discovery from Launch Pad 39A at 6:06:24 p.m. EDT June 2. On board Discovery are Mission Commander Charles J. Precourt; Pilot Dominic L. Gorie; and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet Lynn Kavandi and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin. The nearly 10-day mission will feature the ninth and final Shuttle docking with the Russian space station Mir, the first Mir docking for the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery, the first on-orbit test of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and the first flight of the new Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank. Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas will be returning to Earth as an STS-91 crew member after living more than four months aboard Mir.

  19. STS-91 Launch of Discovery from Launch Pad 39-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Searing the early evening sky with its near sun-like rocket exhaust, the Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39A at 6:06:24 p.m. EDT June 2 on its way to the Mir space station. On board Discovery are Mission Commander Charles J. Precourt; Pilot Dominic L. Gorie; and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet Lynn Kavandi and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin. The nearly 10-day mission will feature the ninth and final Shuttle docking with the Russian space station Mir, the first Mir docking for the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery, the first on-orbit test of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and the first flight of the new Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank. Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas will be returning to Earth as a STS-91 crew member after living more than four months aboard Mir.

  20. Tabletop Experimental Track for Magnetic Launch Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Advanced Space Transportation Program has developed the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) technology that could give a space vehicle a running start to break free from Earth's gravity. A Magnetic Launch Assist system would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at speeds up to 600 mph. The vehicle would shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically propel a space vehicle along the track. The tabletop experimental track for the system shown in this photograph is 44-feet long, with 22-feet of powered acceleration and 22-feet of passive braking. A 10-pound carrier with permanent magnets on its sides swiftly glides by copper coils, producing a levitation force. The track uses a linear synchronous motor, which means the track is synchronized to turn the coils on just before the carrier comes in contact with them, and off once the carrier passes. Sensors are positioned on the side of the track to determine the carrier's position so the appropriate drive coils can be energized. MSFC engineers have conducted tests on the indoor track and a 50-foot outdoor track. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  1. Anchor Trial Launch

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  2. First Accessible Boat Launch

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a story about how the Northwest Indiana urban waters partnership location supported the process to create and open the first handicap accessible canoe and kayak launch in the state of Indiana.

  3. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  4. SKYLAB IV - LAUNCH

    1973-11-27

    S73-37285 (16 Nov. 1973) --- The Skylab 4/Saturn 1B space vehicle is launched from Pad B, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 9:01:23 a.m. (EST), Friday, Nov. 16, 1973. Skylab 4 is the third and last of three scheduled manned Skylab missions. Aboard the Skylab 4 Command/Service Module were astronauts Gerald P. Carr, Edward G. Gibson and William R. Pogue. In addition to the CSM and its launch escape system, the Skylab 4 space vehicle consisted of the Saturn 1B first (S-1B) stage and the Saturn 1B second (S-IVB) stage. (The Skylab 1/Saturn V unmanned space vehicle with the space station payload was launched from Pad A on May 14, 1973). Photo credit: NASA

  5. SKYLAB IV - LAUNCH

    1973-11-27

    S73-37286 (16 Nov. 1973) --- The Skylab 4/Saturn 1B space vehicle is launched from Pad B, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 9:01:23 a.m. (EST), Friday, Nov. 16, 1973. Skylab 4 is the third and last of three scheduled manned Skylab missions. Aboard the Skylab 4 Command/Service Module were astronauts Gerald P. Carr, Edward G. Gibson and William R. Pogue. In addition to the CSM and its launch escape system, the Skylab 4 space vehicle consisted of the Saturn 1B first (S-1B) stage and the Saturn 1B second (S-IVB) stage. (The Skylab 1/Saturn V unmanned space vehicle with the space station payload was launched from Pad A on May 14, 1973). Photo credit: NASA

  6. Strutjet-powered reusable launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebenhaar, A.; Bulman, M. J.; Sasso, S. E.; Schnackel, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Martin Marietta and Aerojet are co-investigating the feasibility and viability of reusable launch vehicle designs. We are assessing two vehicle concepts, each delivering 8000 lb to a geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO). Both accomplish this task as a two-state system. The major difference between the two concepts is staging. The first concept, the two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) system, stages at about 16 kft/sec, allowing immediate return of the first stage to the launch site using its airbreathing propulsion system for a powered cruise flight. The second concept, the single-stage-to-orit (SSTO) system, accomplishes stage separation in a stable low earth orbit (LEO).

  7. NASA’s Mars Lander Launches

    2018-05-05

    NASA’s Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) was launched May 5 on a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket, from Vandenberg Air Force Base in Central California. NASA also flew a technology demonstration called Mars Cube One (MarCO) on the Atlas V to separately go to Mars. NASA has a long and successful track record at Mars. InSight will drill into the Red Planet to study the crust, mantle and core of Mars. It will help scientists understand the formation and early evolution of all rocky planets, including Earth.

  8. Assembly vs. direct launch of transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Pritchard, E. Brian

    1990-01-01

    A top level assessment is performed of the relative impacts of on-orbit assembly of the lunar or Mars transfer vehicles versus direct launch. The objective is to identify the major option paths for the Earth-to-orbit, ETO, transportation systems. Heavy lift launch vehicles, if large enough, could reduce or eliminate on-orbit assembly. However, with every new approach, there are always counter-balancing considerations and it is the objective to begin the delineation of the necessary follow-on trade study issues.

  9. An integrated approach for estimating global glacio isostatic adjustment, land ice, hydrology and ocean mass trends within a complete coupled Earth system framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, M.; Bamber, J. L.; Martin, A.

    2016-12-01

    Future sea level rise (SLR) is one of the most serious consequences of climate change. Therefore, understanding the drivers of past sea level change is crucial for improving predictions. SLR integrates many Earth system components including oceans, land ice, terrestrial water storage, as well as solid Earth effects. Traditionally, each component have been tackled separately, which has often lead to inconsistencies between discipline-specific estimates of each part of the sea level budget. To address these issues, the European Research Council has funded a five year project aimed at producing a physically-based, data-driven solution for the complete coupled land-ocean-solid Earth system that is consistent with the full suite of observations, prior knowledge and fundamental geophysical constraints. The project is called "GlobalMass" and based at University of Bristol. Observed mass movement from the GRACE mission plus vertical land motion from a global network of permanent GPS stations will be utilized in a data-driven approach to estimate glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) without introducing any assumptions about the Earth structure or ice loading history. A Bayesian Hierarchical Model (BHM) will be used as the framework to combine the satellite and in-situ observations alongside prior information that incorporates the physics of the coupled system such as conservation of mass and characteristic length scales of different processes in both space and time. The BHM is used to implement a simultaneous solution at a global scale. It will produce a consistent partitioning of the integrated SLR signal into its steric (thermal) and barystatic (mass) component for the satellite era. The latter component is induced by hydrological mass trends and melting of land ice. The BHM was developed and tested on Antarctica, where it has been used to separate surface, ice dynamic and GIA signals simultaneously. We illustrate the approach and concepts with examples from this test case

  10. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson of the U.S. has her Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. Caldwell Dyson and fellow Expedition 23 crew members Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov and Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of Russia launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of the Russia has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. Kornienko and fellow Expedition 23 crewmembers Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov and NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson of the U.S. launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  12. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    2010-04-01

    Russian cosmonaut Expedition 23 Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko smiles as he awaits to have his Sokol suit pressure checked prior to launch, Friday, April 2, 2010, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Kornienko and fellow Expedition 23 crew members Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov and NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson, left, talks with Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov of Russia, while Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of Russia has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. The Expedition 23 crew members launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. (Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson, left, Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov or Russia, and Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of the Russia, right, have their Russian Sokol suits prepared for launch by a technicians at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. Caldwell Dyson, Skvortsov and Kornienko and launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  15. Expedition 23 Launch Day

    2010-04-01

    Expedition 23 Soyuz Commander Alexander Skvortsov has his Russian Sokol suit prepared for launch by a technician at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Friday, April 2, 2010. Skvortsov and fellow Expedition 23 crewmembers Flight Engineer Mikhail Kornienko of the Russia and NASA Flight Engineer Tracy Caldwell Dyson of the U.S. launched in their Soyuz TMA-18 rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Friday, April 2, 2010. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. STS-132 Launch Tweetup

    2010-05-12

    Ron Woods, an equipment specialist, who has been a space suit designer from Mercury to now speaks to participants at the two-day STS-132 Launch Tweetup at Kennedy Space Center, Thursday, May 13, 2010, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. NASA Twitter followers in attendance will have the opportunity to take a tour of NASA's Kennedy Space Center, view the space shuttle launch and speak with shuttle technicians, engineers, astronauts and managers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  17. Little Joe Launch

    1959-10-04

    Launching of the LJ6 Little Joe on Oct. 4, 1959 took place at Wallops Island, Va. This was the first attempt to launch an instrumented capsule with a Little Joe booster. Only the LJ1A and the LJ6 used the space metal chevron plates as heat reflector shields, as they kept shattering. Caption title ...and ascending skyward on a plume of exhaust. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, page 77, by James Schultz

  18. Launch Vehicle Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel

    2005-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) planning for updated launch vehicle operations progresses, there is a need to consider improved methods. This study considers the use of phased array antennas mounted on launch vehicles and transmitting data to either NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) satellites or to the commercial Iridium, Intelsat, or Inmarsat communications satellites. Different data rate requirements are analyzed to determine size and weight of resulting antennas.

  19. STS-135 Launch Day

    2011-07-07

    Warren Hinson, a NASA Emergency Response Team (ERT) member, keeps an eye out while flying near the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) prior to the launch of space shuttle Atlantis, STS-135, Friday, July 8, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The launch of Atlantis, is the final flight of the shuttle program, a 12-day mission to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. STS-1 - LAUNCH - KSC

    1981-04-15

    The Space Shuttle Columbia begins a new era of space transportation when it lifts off from NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The reusable Orbiter, its two (2) fuel tanks and two (2) Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) has just cleared the launch tower. Aboard the spacecraft are Astronauts John W. Young, Commander, and Robert L. Crippen, Pilot . 1. STS-I - LAUNCH KSC, FL KSC, FL Also available in 4x5 BW