Science.gov

Sample records for earth matter effects

  1. Dark Matter Hairs Around Earth

    2015-11-23

    This illustration shows Earth surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs," which are proposed in a study in the Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particles of a dark matter stream pass through the core of Earth, they form a hair whose root has a particle density about a billion times greater than average. The hairs in this illustration are not to scale. Simulations show that the roots of such hairs can be 600,000 miles (1 million kilometers) from Earth, while Earth's radius is only about 4,000 miles (6,400 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20176

  2. Our contaminated atmosphere: The danger of climate change, phases 1 and 2. [effect of atmospheric particulate matter on surface temperature and earth's radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimorelli, A. J.; House, F. B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of increased concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter on average surface temperature and on the components of the earth's radiation budget are studied. An atmospheric model which couples particulate loading to surface temperature and to changes in the earth's radiation budget was used. A determination of the feasibility of using satellites to monitor the effect of increased atmospheric particulate concentrations is performed. It was found that: (1) a change in man-made particulate loading of a factor of 4 is sufficient to initiate an ice age; (2) variations in the global and hemispheric weighted averages of surface temperature, reflected radiant fluz and emitted radiant flux are nonlinear functions of particulate loading; and (3) a black satellite sphere meets the requirement of night time measurement sensitivity, but not the required day time sensitivity. A nonblack, spherical radiometer whose external optical properties are sensitive to either the reflected radiant fluz or the emitted radiant flux meets the observational sensitivity requirements.

  3. Dark Matter Hairs Around Earth -- Close-up

    2015-11-23

    This illustration shows Earth surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs," which are proposed in a study in the Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particles of a dark matter stream pass through the core of Earth, they form a hair whose root has a particle density about a billion times greater than average. The hairs in this illustration are not to scale. Simulations show that the roots of such hairs can be 600,000 miles (1 million kilometers) from Earth, while Earth's radius is only about 4,000 miles (6,400 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20177

  4. Cosmic acceleration of Earth and the Moon by dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordtvedt, Kenneth L.

    1994-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that the gravitational interaction between our Galaxy's dark matter and the ordinary matter in Earth and the Moon might not fulfill the equivalence principle (universality of free fall), we consider the pertinent perturbation of the lunar orbit -- a sidereal month period range oscillation resulting from a spatially fixed polarization of the orbit. Lunar laser ranging (LLR) data can measure this sidereal perturbation to an accuracy equal to or better than its existing measurement of the synodic month period range oscillation amplitude (+/- 3 cm) which has been used for testing whether Earth and the Moon accelerate at equal rates toward the Sun. Because of the slow precession rate of the Moon's perigree (8.9 yr period), the lunar orbit is particularly sensitive to a cosmic acceleration; the LLR fit of the orbit places an upper limit of 10(exp -13) cm/sq. s for any cosmic differential acceleration between Earth (Fe) and the Moon (silicates). This is 10(exp -5) of the total galactic acceleration of the solar system, of which, it has been suggested, a large portion is produced by dark matter.

  5. Assessing Teachers' Comprehension of What Matters in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penuel, W. R.; Kreikemeier, P.; Venezky, D.; Blank, J. G.; Davatzes, A.; Davatzes, N.

    2006-12-01

    Curricular standards developed for individual U.S. States tell teachers what they should teach. Most sets of standards are too numerous to be taught in a single year, forcing teachers to make decisions about what to emphasize in their curriculum. Ideally, such decisions would be based on what matters most in Earth science, namely, the big ideas that anchor scientific inquiry in the field. A measure of teachers' ability to associate curriculum standards with fundamental concepts in Earth science would help K-12 program and curriculum developers to bridge gaps in teachers' knowledge in order to help teachers make better decisions about what is most important to teach and communicate big ideas to students. This paper presents preliminary results of an attempt to create and validate a measure of teachers' comprehension of what matters in three sub-disciplines of Earth science. This measure was created as part of an experimental study of teacher professional development in Earth science. It is a task that requires teachers to take their state's curriculum standards and identify which standards are necessary or supplemental to developing students' understanding of fundamental concepts in the target sub-disciplines. To develop the task, a team of assessment experts and educational researchers asked a panel of four Earth scientists to identify key concepts embedded within middle school standards for the state of Florida. The Earth science panel reached a consensus on which standards needed to be taught in order to develop understanding of those concepts; this was used as a basis for comparison with teacher responses. Preliminary analysis of the responses of 44 teachers who participated in a pilot validation study identified differences between teachers' and scientists' maps of standards to big ideas in the sub-disciplines. On average, teachers identified just under one-third of the connections seen by expert Earth scientists between the concepts and their state standards

  6. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

  7. Signatures of Earth-scattering in the direct detection of Dark Matter

    SciT

    Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris, E-mail: bkavanagh@lpthe.jussieu.fr, E-mail: catena@chalmers.se, E-mail: kouvaris@cp3.sdu.dk

    Direct detection experiments search for the interactions of Dark Matter (DM) particles with nuclei in terrestrial detectors. But if these interactions are sufficiently strong, DM particles may scatter in the Earth, affecting their distribution in the lab. We present a new analytic calculation of this 'Earth-scattering' effect in the regime where DM particles scatter at most once before reaching the detector. We perform the calculation self-consistently, taking into account not only those particles which are scattered away from the detector, but also those particles which are deflected towards the detector. Taking into account a realistic model of the Earth andmore » allowing for a range of DM-nucleon interactions, we present the EARTHSHADOW code, which we make publicly available, for calculating the DM velocity distribution after Earth-scattering. Focusing on low-mass DM, we find that Earth-scattering reduces the direct detection rate at certain detector locations while increasing the rate in others. The Earth's rotation induces a daily modulation in the rate, which we find to be highly sensitive to the detector latitude and to the form of the DM-nucleon interaction. These distinctive signatures would allow us to unambiguously detect DM and perhaps even identify its interactions in regions of the parameter space within the reach of current and future experiments.« less

  8. Rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes in sedimentary organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freslon, Nicolas; Bayon, Germain; Toucanne, Samuel; Bermell, Sylvain; Bollinger, Claire; Chéron, Sandrine; Etoubleau, Joel; Germain, Yoan; Khripounoff, Alexis; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Rouget, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    We report rare earth element (REE) and neodymium (Nd) isotope data for the organic fraction of sediments collected from various depositional environments, i.e. rivers (n = 25), estuaries (n = 18), open-ocean settings (n = 15), and cold seeps (n = 12). Sedimentary organic matter (SOM) was extracted using a mixed hydrogen peroxide/nitric acid solution (20%-H2O2-0.02 M-HNO3), after removal of carbonate and oxy-hydroxide phases with dilute hydrochloric acid (0.25 M-HCl). A series of experimental tests indicate that extraction of sedimentary organic compounds using H2O2 may be complicated occasionally by partial dissolution of sulphide minerals and residual carbonates. However, this contamination is expected to be minor for REE because measured concentrations in H2O2 leachates are about two-orders of magnitude higher than in the above mentioned phases. The mean REE concentrations determined in the H2O2 leachates for samples from rivers, estuaries, coastal seas and open-ocean settings yield relatively similar levels, with ΣREE = 109 ± 86 ppm (mean ± s; n = 58). The organic fractions leached from cold seep sediments display even higher concentration levels (285 ± 150 ppm; mean ± s; n = 12). The H2O2 leachates for most sediments exhibit remarkably similar shale-normalized REE patterns, all characterized by a mid-REE enrichment compared to the other REE. This suggests that the distribution of REE in leached sedimentary organic phases is controlled primarily by biogeochemical processes, rather than by the composition of the source from which they derive (e.g. pore, river or sea-water). The Nd isotopic compositions for organic phases leached from river sediments are very similar to those for the corresponding detrital fractions. In contrast, the SOM extracted from marine sediments display εNd values that typically range between the εNd signatures for terrestrial organic matter (inferred from the analysis of the sedimentary detrital fractions) and marine organic matter

  9. [Transparent evolution of the energy/matter interactions on earth: from gas whirlwind to technogenic civilization].

    PubMed

    Pechurkin, N S; Shuvaev, A N

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the idea of transparent evolution through the long-term reaction of the planet Earth on the external flow of radiant energy from the Sun. Due to limitations of matter on Earth, as well as on any other planet, the continuous pumping flow of radiant energy was shown to lead to cyclization and transport of substance on emerging gradients. The evolution of energy-matter interaction follows the path of capturing and transferring more energy by the fewer matter, i.e., the path of growth of the amount of energy used by each unit mass. For this indicator, the least effective mass transfer is a simple mass transfer as vortices of gases, in the gradients of temperature and pressure, which occurred on the primary surface of the planet. A long-term natural selection related to the accumulation of water on the planet has played a special role in developing the interaction of energy and matter. Phase transformations (ice, water, vapor) and mechanical transfers are the most common energy-matter processes. Based on water cycles, cyclic transports and transformations, chemical transformation of substances became possible developing over time into a biological transformation. This kind of the interaction of energy and matter is most efficient. In particular, during photosynthesis the energy of our star "is captured and utilized" in the most active part of the spectrum of its radiation. In the process of biological evolution of heterotrophs, a rise (by a factor of hundreds) in the coefficient that characterizes the intensity of energy exchange from protozoa to mammals is most illustratory. The development and the current dominance of humans as the most energy-using active species in capturing the energy and meaningful organization of its new flows especially on the basis of organic debris of former biospheres is admirable, but quite natural from the energy positions. In the course of technological evolution of humankind, the measure of the intensity of energy for

  10. 77 FR 5865 - In the Matter of Blue Earth Refineries, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Blue Earth Refineries, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading February 2, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Blue Earth...

  11. Meteors as a Delivery Vehicle for Organic Matter to the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Only in recent years has a concerted effort been made to study the circumstances under which extraterrestrial organic matter is accreted on Earth by way of meteors. Meteors are the luminous phenomena associated with the (partial) ablation of meteoric matter and represent the dominant pathway from space to Earth, with the possible exception of rare giant impacts of asteroids and comets. Meteors dominated the supply of organics to the early Earth if organic matter survived this pathway efficiently. Moreover, meteors are a source of kinetic energy that can convert inert atmospheric gases such as CO, N, and H2O into useful compounds, such as HCN and NO. Understanding these processes relies heavily on empirical evidence that is still very limited. Here I report on the observations in hand and discuss their relevance in the context of the origin of life.

  12. Dark photons from the center of the Earth: Smoking-gun signals of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Smolinsky, Jordan; Tanedo, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter may be charged under dark electromagnetism with a dark photon that kinetically mixes with the Standard Model photon. In this framework, dark matter will collect at the center of the Earth and annihilate into dark photons, which may reach the surface of the Earth and decay into observable particles. We determine the resulting signal rates, including Sommerfeld enhancements, which play an important role in bringing the Earth's dark matter population to their maximal, equilibrium value. For dark matter masses mX˜100 GeV - 10 TeV , dark photon masses mA'˜MeV -GeV , and kinetic mixing parameters ɛ ˜1 0-9- 1 0-7 , the resulting electrons, muons, photons, and hadrons that point back to the center of the Earth are a smoking-gun signal of dark matter that may be detected by a variety of experiments, including neutrino telescopes, such as IceCube, and space-based cosmic ray detectors, such as Fermi-LAT and AMS. We determine the signal rates and characteristics and show that large and striking signals—such as parallel muon tracks—are possible in regions of the (mA',ɛ ) plane that are not probed by direct detection, accelerator experiments, or astrophysical observations.

  13. Earth Matters: Promoting Science Exploration through Blogs and Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, K.; Voiland, A. P.; Carlowicz, M. J.; Simmon, R. B.; Allen, J.; Scott, M.; Przyborski, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observatory (EO) is a 13-year old online publication focusing on the communication of NASA Earth science research, including climate change, weather, geology, oceanography, and solar flares. We serve two primary audiences: the "attentive public"--people interested in and willing to seek out information about science, technology, and the environment--and popular media. We use the EO website (earthobservatory.nasa.gov) to host a variety of content including image-driven stories (natural events and research-based), articles featuring NASA research and, more recently, blogs that give us the ability to increase interaction with our users. For much of our site's history, our communication has been largely one way, and we have relied primarily on traditional online marketing techniques such as RSS and email listservs. As the information ecosystem evolves into one in which many users expect to play a more active role in distributing and even developing content through social media, we've experimented with various social media outlets (blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc.) that offer new opportunities for people to interact with NASA data, scientists, and the EO editorial team. As part of our explorations, we are learning about how, and to what extent, these outlets can be used for interaction and outright promotion and how to achieve those goals with existing personnel and resources.

  14. A Novel Approach to Teaching and Understanding Transformations of Matter in Dynamic Earth Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Scott K.; Sibley, Duncan F.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Heidemann, Merle

    2009-01-01

    The need to engage K-12 and post-secondary students in considering the Earth as a dynamic system requires explicit discussion of system characteristics. Fundamentally, dynamic systems involve the movement and change of matter, often through processes that are difficult to see and comprehend. We introduce a novel instructional method, termed…

  15. In situ determination of Earth matter density in a neutrino factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakata, Hisakazu; Uchinami, Shoichi

    2007-04-01

    We point out that an accurate in situ determination of the earth matter density ρ is possible in neutrino factory by placing a detector at the magic baseline, L=2π/GFNe where Ne denotes electron number density. The accuracy of matter density determination is excellent in a region of relatively large θ13 with fractional uncertainty δρ/ρ of about 0.43%, 1.3%, and ≲3% at 1σ CL at sin⁡22θ13=0.1, 10-2, and 3×10-3, respectively. At smaller θ13 the uncertainty depends upon the CP phase δ, but it remains small, 3% 7% in more than 3/4 of the entire region of δ at sin⁡22θ13=10-4. The results would allow us to solve the problem of obscured CP violation due to the uncertainty of earth matter density in a wide range of θ13 and δ. It may provide a test for the geophysical model of the earth, or it may serve as a method for a stringent test of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein theory of neutrino propagation in matter once an accurate geophysical estimation of the matter density is available.

  16. Thermal effects in supernova matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinou, Constantinos

    intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions. To explore the effect momentum-dependent interactions have on the thermal properties of dense matter we study a schematic model constructed by Welke et al. in which the appropriate momentum dependence that fits optical potential data is built through finite-range exchange forces of the Yukawa type. We look into the finite-temperature properties of this model in the context of infinite, isospin-symmetric nucleonic matter. The exact numerical results are compared to analytical ones in the quantum regime where we rely on Landau's Fermi-Liquid Theory, and in the classical regime where the state variables are obtained through a steepest descent calculation. Detailed comparisons with similarly calibrated Skyrme models are also performed. We find that the high-density behavior of the thermal pressure is once again a differentiating feature. We attribute this to the temperature dependence of the energy spectrum of the finite-range and the meson-exchange models which leads to a higher specific heat and thus a lower pressure.

  17. The Suess-Urey mission (return of solar matter to Earth).

    PubMed

    Rapp, D; Naderi, F; Neugebauer, M; Sevilla, D; Sweetnam, D; Burnett, D; Wiens, R; Smith, N; Clark, B; McComas, D; Stansbery, E

    1996-01-01

    The Suess-Urey (S-U) mission has been proposed as a NASA Discovery mission to return samples of matter from the Sun to the Earth for isotopic and chemical analyses in terrestrial laboratories to provide a major improvement in our knowledge of the average chemical and isotopic composition of the solar system. The S-U spacecraft and sample return capsule will be placed in a halo orbit around the L1 Sun-Earth libration point for two years to collect solar wind ions which implant into large passive collectors made of ultra-pure materials. Constant Spacecraft-Sun-Earth geometries enable simple spin stabilized attitude control, simple passive thermal control, and a fixed medium gain antenna. Low data requirements and the safety of a Sun-pointed spinner, result in extremely low mission operations costs.

  18. New possibilities in supernova accretion phase from dense matter effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Mirizzi, A.; Saviano, N.

    2012-07-01

    We carry out a detailed analysis of the supernova (SN) neutrino flavor evolution during the accretion phase (at post-bounce times tpb <= 500 ms), characterizing the SN ν signal by recent hydrodynamical simulations. We find that trajectory-dependent multi-angle effects, associated with the dense ordinary matter suppress collective oscillations, that would have been induced by ν-ν interactions in the deepest SN regions. The matter suppression implies that neutrino oscillations will start outside the neutrino decoupling region and therefore will have a negligible impact on the neutrino heating and the explosion dynamics. Furthermore, the possible detection of the next galactic SN neutrino signal from the accretion phase, based on the usual Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in the SN mantle and Earth matter effects, can reveal the neutrino mass hierarchy in the likely case that the mixing angle θ13 is not very small.

  19. Ecological effects of particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Grantz, D A; Garner, J H B; Johnson, D W

    2003-06-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a heterogeneous material. Though regulated as un-speciated mass, it exerts most effects on vegetation and ecosystems by virtue of the mass loading of its chemical constituents. As this varies temporally and spatially, prediction of regional impacts remains difficult. Deposition of PM to vegetated surfaces depends on the size distribution of the particles and, to a lesser extent, on the chemistry. However, chemical loading of an ecosystem may be determined by the size distribution as different constituents dominate different size fractions. Coating with dust may cause abrasion and radiative heating, and may reduce the photosynthetically active photon flux reaching the photosynthetic tissues. Acidic and alkaline materials may cause leaf surface injury while other materials may be taken up across the cuticle. A more likely route for metabolic uptake and impact on vegetation and ecosystems is through the rhizosphere. PM deposited directly to the soil can influence nutrient cycling, especially that of nitrogen, through its effects on the rhizosphere bacteria and fungi. Alkaline cation and aluminum availability are dependent upon the pH of the soil that may be altered dramatically by deposition of various classes of PM. A regional effect of PM on ecosystems is linked to climate change. Increased PM may reduce radiation interception by plant canopies and may reduce precipitation through a variety of physical effects. At the present time, evidence does not support large regional threats due to un-speciated PM, though site-specific and constituent-specific effects can be readily identified. Interactions of PM with other pollutants and with components of climate change remain important areas of research in assessment of challenges to ecosystem stability.

  20. Earth Orientation Effects on Mobile VLBI Baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    Improvements in data quality for the mobile VLBI systems have placed higher accuracy requirements on Earth orientation calibrations. Errors in these calibrations may give rise to systematic effects in the nonlength components of the baselines. Various sources of Earth orientation data were investigated for calibration of Mobile VLBI baselines. Significant differences in quality between the several available sources of UT1-UTC were found. It was shown that the JPL Kalman filtered space technology data were at least as good as any other and adequate to the needs of current Mobile VLBI systems and observing plans. For polar motion, the values from all service suffice. The effect of Earth orientation errors on the accuracy of differenced baselines was also investigated. It is shown that the effect is negligible for the current mobile systems and observing plan.

  1. Ligand extraction of rare earth elements from aquifer sediments: Implications for rare earth element complexation with organic matter in natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianwu; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2010-12-01

    The ability of organic matter as well as carbonate ions to extract rare earth elements (REEs) from sandy sediments of a Coastal Plain aquifer was investigated for unpurified organic matter from different sources (i.e., Mississippi River natural organic matter, Aldrich humic acid, Nordic aquatic fulvic acid, Suwannee River fulvic acid, and Suwannee River natural organic matter) and for extraction solutions containing weak (i.e., CH 3COO -) or strong (i.e., CO32-) ligands. The experimental results indicate that, in the absence of strong REE complexing ligands in solution, the amount of REEs released from the sand is small and the fractionation pattern of the released REEs appears to be controlled by the surface stability constants for REE sorption with Fe(III) oxides/oxyhydroxides. In the presence of strong solution complexing ligands, however, the amount and the fractionation pattern of the released REEs reflect the strength and variation of the stability constants of the dominant aqueous REE species across the REE series. The varying amount of REEs extracted by the different organic matter employed in the experiments indicates that organic matter from different sources has different complexing capacity for REEs. However, the fractionation pattern of REEs extracted by the various organic matter used in our experiments is remarkable consistent, being independent of the source and the concentration of organic matter used, as well as solution pH. Because natural aquifer sand and unpurified organic matter were used in our experiments, our experimental conditions are more broadly similar to natural systems than many previous laboratory experiments of REE-humic complexation that employed purified humic substances. Our results suggest that the REE loading effect on REE-humic complexation is negligible in natural waters as more abundant metal cations (e.g., Fe, Al) out-compete REEs for strong binding sites on organic matter. More specifically, our results indicate that REE

  2. The formation and evolution of earth-mass dark matter microhalos and their impact on indirect probes of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2013-07-01

    Earth-mass dark matter microhalos with a size of ~100 AU are the first structures formed in the universe, if the dark matter of the universe is made of neutralinos. We report the results of ultra-high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations of the formation and evolution of these microhalos. We found that microhalos have the central density cusps of the form ρ ∝ r-1.5, much steeper than the cusps of larger dark halos. The central regions of these microhalos survive the encounters with stars except in the very inner region of the galaxy down to the radius of a few hundreds parsecs from the galactic center. The annihilation signals from the nearest microhalos are observed as gamma-ray point sources (radius less than 1'), with unusually large proper motions of ~0.2 deg per year. Their surface brightnesses are ~10% of that of the galactic center. Their signal-to-noise ratios might be better if they are far from the galactic plane.

  3. Probing the coupling of heavy dark matter to nucleons by detecting neutrino signature from the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Lee, Fei-Fan

    2015-02-01

    We argue that the detection of the neutrino signature from the Earth's core can effectively probe the coupling of heavy dark matter (mχ>104 GeV ) to nucleons. We first note that direct searches for dark matter (DM) in such a mass range provide much less stringent constraint than the constraint provided by such searches for mχ˜100 GeV . Furthermore, the energies of neutrinos arising from DM annihilation inside the Sun cannot exceed a few TeVs at the Sun's surface due to the attenuation effect. Therefore, the sensitivity to the heavy DM coupling is lost. Finally, the detection of the neutrino signature from the Galactic halo can only probe DM annihilation cross sections. We present neutrino event rates in IceCube and KM3NeT arising from the neutrino flux produced by annihilation of Earth-captured DM heavier than 104 GeV . The IceCube and KM3NeT sensitivities to spin-independent DM-proton scattering cross section σχ p in this mass range are presented for both isospin-symmetric and isospin-violating cases.

  4. Earth-mass dark-matter haloes as the first structures in the early Universe.

    PubMed

    Diemand, J; Moore, B; Stadel, J

    2005-01-27

    The Universe was nearly smooth and homogeneous before a redshift of z = 100, about 20 million years after the Big Bang. After this epoch, the tiny fluctuations imprinted upon the matter distribution during the initial expansion began to collapse because of gravity. The properties of these fluctuations depend on the unknown nature of dark matter, the determination of which is one of the biggest challenges in present-day science. Here we report supercomputer simulations of the concordance cosmological model, which assumes neutralino dark matter (at present the preferred candidate), and find that the first objects to form are numerous Earth-mass dark-matter haloes about as large as the Solar System. They are stable against gravitational disruption, even within the central regions of the Milky Way. We expect over 10(15) to survive within the Galactic halo, with one passing through the Solar System every few thousand years. The nearest structures should be among the brightest sources of gamma-rays (from particle-particle annihilation).

  5. Meteors: A Delivery Mechanism of Organic Matter to The Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Wilson, Mike A.; Packan, Dennis; Laux, Christophe O.; Krueger, Charles H.; Boyd, Iain, D.; Popova, Olga P.; Fonda, Mark; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    All potential exogenous pre-biotic matter arrived to Earth by ways of our atmosphere, where much material was ablated during a luminous phase called 1. meteors" in rarefied flows of high (up to 270) Mach number. The recent Leonid showers offered a first glimpse into the elusive physical conditions of the ablation process and atmospheric chemistry associated with high-speed meteors. Molecular emissions were detected that trace a meteor's brilliant light to a 4,300 K warm wake rather than to the meteor's head. A new theoretical approach using the direct simulation by Monte Carlo technique identified the source-region and demonstrated that the ablation process is critical in the heating of the meteor's wake. In the head of the meteor, organic carbon appears to survive flash heating and rapid cooling. The temperatures in the wake of the meteor are just right for dissociation of CO and the formation of more complex organic compounds. The resulting materials could account for the bulk of pre-biotic organic carbon on the early Earth at the time of the origin of life.

  6. Particle Dark Matter constraints: the effect of Galactic uncertainties

    SciT

    Benito, Maria; Bernal, Nicolás; Iocco, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    Collider, space, and Earth based experiments are now able to probe several extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics which provide viable dark matter candidates. Direct and indirect dark matter searches rely on inputs of astrophysical nature, such as the local dark matter density or the shape of the dark matter density profile in the target in object. The determination of these quantities is highly affected by astrophysical uncertainties. The latter, especially those for our own Galaxy, are ill-known, and often not fully accounted for when analyzing the phenomenology of particle physics models. In this paper we present amore » systematic, quantitative estimate of how astrophysical uncertainties on Galactic quantities (such as the local galactocentric distance, circular velocity, or the morphology of the stellar disk and bulge) propagate to the determination of the phenomenology of particle physics models, thus eventually affecting the determination of new physics parameters. We present results in the context of two specific extensions of the Standard Model (the Singlet Scalar and the Inert Doublet) that we adopt as case studies for their simplicity in illustrating the magnitude and impact of such uncertainties on the parameter space of the particle physics model itself. Our findings point toward very relevant effects of current Galactic uncertainties on the determination of particle physics parameters, and urge a systematic estimate of such uncertainties in more complex scenarios, in order to achieve constraints on the determination of new physics that realistically include all known uncertainties.« less

  7. Unimanual SNARC Effect: Hand Matters.

    PubMed

    Riello, Marianna; Rusconi, Elena

    2011-01-01

    A structural representation of the hand embedding information about the identity and relative position of fingers is necessary to counting routines. It may also support associations between numbers and allocentric spatial codes that predictably interact with other known numerical spatial representations, such as the mental number line (MNL). In this study, 48 Western participants whose typical counting routine proceeded from thumb-to-little on both hands performed magnitude and parity binary judgments. Response keys were pressed either with the right index and middle fingers or with the left index and middle fingers in separate blocks. 24 participants responded with either hands in prone posture (i.e., palm down) and 24 participants responded with either hands in supine (i.e., palm up) posture. When hands were in prone posture, the counting direction of the left hand conflicted with the direction of the left-right MNL, whereas the counting direction of the right hand was consistent with it. When hands were in supine posture, the opposite was true. If systematic associations existed between relative number magnitude and an allocentric spatial representation of the finger series within each hand, as predicted on the basis of counting habits, interactions would be expected between hand posture and a unimanual version of the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect. Data revealed that with hands in prone posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the right hand, and with hands in supine posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the left hand. We propose that a posture-invariant body structural representation of the finger series provides a relevant frame of reference, a within-hand directional vector, that is associated to simple number processing. Such frame of reference can significantly interact with stimulus-response correspondence effects, like the SNARC, that have been typically attributed to the mapping of numbers on a left

  8. Variable C : N : P stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter cycling in the Community Earth System Model

    DOE PAGES

    Letscher, R. T.; Moore, J. K.; Teng, Y. -C.; ...

    2014-06-16

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the ocean's biological carbon pump by providing an advective/mixing pathway for ~ 20% of export production. DOM is known to have a stoichiometry depleted in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) compared to the particulate organic matter pool, a~fact that is often omitted from biogeochemical-ocean general circulation models. However the variable C : N : P stoichiometry of DOM becomes important when quantifying carbon export from the upper ocean and linking the nutrient cycles of N and P with that of carbon. Here we utilize recent advances in DOM observational data coveragemore » and offline tracer-modeling techniques to objectively constrain the variable production and remineralization rates of the DOM C / N / P pools in a simple biogeochemical-ocean model of DOM cycling. The optimized DOM cycling parameters are then incorporated within the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) component of the Community Earth System Model and validated against the compilation of marine DOM observations. The optimized BEC simulation including variable DOM C : N : P cycling was found to better reproduce the observed DOM spatial gradients than simulations that used the canonical Redfield ratio. Global annual average export of dissolved organic C, N, and P below 100 m was found to be 2.28 Pg C yr -1 (143 Tmol C yr -1), 16.4 Tmol N yr -1, and 1 Tmol P yr -1, respectively with an average export C : N : P stoichiometry of 225 : 19 : 1 for the semilabile (degradable) DOM pool. DOC export contributed ~ 25% of the combined organic C export to depths greater than 100 m.« less

  9. Variable C : N : P stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter cycling in the Community Earth System Model

    DOE PAGES

    Letscher, R. T.; Moore, J. K.; Teng, Y. -C.; ...

    2015-01-12

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the ocean's biological carbon pump by providing an advective/mixing pathway for ~ 20% of export production. DOM is known to have a stoichiometry depleted in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) compared to the particulate organic matter pool, a fact that is often omitted from biogeochemical ocean general circulation models. However the variable C : N : P stoichiometry of DOM becomes important when quantifying carbon export from the upper ocean and linking the nutrient cycles of N and P with that of carbon. Here we utilize recent advances in DOM observationalmore » data coverage and offline tracer-modeling techniques to objectively constrain the variable production and remineralization rates of the DOM C : N : P pools in a simple biogeochemical-ocean model of DOM cycling. The optimized DOM cycling parameters are then incorporated within the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and validated against the compilation of marine DOM observations. The optimized BEC simulation including variable DOM C : N : P cycling was found to better reproduce the observed DOM spatial gradients than simulations that used the canonical Redfield ratio. Global annual average export of dissolved organic C, N, and P below 100 m was found to be 2.28 Pg C yr -1 (143 Tmol C yr -1, 16.4 Tmol N yr -1, and 1 Tmol P yr -1, respectively, with an average export C : N : P stoichiometry of 225 : 19 : 1 for the semilabile (degradable) DOM pool. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export contributed ~ 25% of the combined organic C export to depths greater than 100 m.« less

  10. Anomalous effects of dense matter under rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu-Guang; Nishimura, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2018-02-01

    We study the anomaly induced effects of dense baryonic matter under rotation. We derive the anomalous terms that account for the chiral vortical effect in the low-energy effective theory for light Nambu-Goldstone modes. The anomalous terms lead to new physical consequences, such as the anomalous Hall energy current and spontaneous generation of angular momentum in a magnetic field (or spontaneous magnetization by rotation). In particular, we show that, due to the presence of such anomalous terms, the ground state of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) under sufficiently fast rotation becomes the "chiral soliton lattice" of neutral pions that has lower energy than the QCD vacuum and nuclear matter. We briefly discuss the possible realization of the chiral soliton lattice induced by a fast rotation in noncentral heavy ion collisions.

  11. Gyroscopic effects in interference of matter waves

    SciT

    Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Morishita, Toru; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2005-11-15

    A new gyroscopic interference effect stemming from the Galilean translational factor in the matter wave function is pointed out. In contrast to the well-known Sagnac effect that stems from the geometric phase and leads to a shift of interference fringes, this effect causes slanting of the fringes. We illustrate it by calculations for two split cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates under the conditions of a recent experiment, see Y. Shin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 050405 (2004). Importantly, the measurement of slanting obviates the need of a third reference cloud.

  12. Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada Mining Matters: A Model of Effective Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hymers, L.; Heenan, S.

    2009-05-01

    , effectiveness and suitability of Mining Matters resources and training workshops for classroom instruction. Mining Matters also operates an Aboriginal Youth Outreach Program that promotes the importance of the minerals industry to Aboriginal youth through the distribution of educational resources, the provision of educational opportunities, and exposure to mineral and mining industry career opportunities and professionals. The Aboriginal Youth Outreach Program is designed to engage youth in Earth Sciences, providing them with the opportunity to develop skills, competencies and knowledge through Earth science, career, and skills development education. The Mining Matters program is effective and has garnered a National reputation for excellence. The Mining Matters program is a model of effective partnerships between industry, academia, and education outreach organizations. Our resources are currently used in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia, with new partnerships being developed in Quebec and Nova Scotia.

  13. Were Ocean Impacts an Important Mechanism to Deliver Meteoritic Organic Matter to the Early Earth? Some Inferences from Eltanin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.; Gersonde, Rainer; Kuhn. Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    Several workers have addressed the potential for extraterrestrial delivery of volatles, including water and complex organic compounds, to the early Earth. For example, Chyba and Sagan (1992) argued that since impacts would destroy organic matter, most extraterrestrial organics must be delivered in the fine-fractions of interplanetary dust. More recent computer simulations (Pierazzo and Chyba, 1999), however, have shown that substantial amounts of amino acids may survive the impacts of large (km-sized) comets and that this may exceed the amounts derived from IDPs or Miller-Urey synthesis in the atmosphere. Once an ocean developed on the early Earth, impacts of small ,asteroids and comets into deep-ocean basins were potentially common and may have been the most likely events to deliver large amounts of organics. The deposits of the late Pliocene impact of the Eltanin asteroid into the Bellingshausen Sea provide the only record of a deep-ocean (approx. 5 km) impact that can be used to constrain models of these events. This impact was first discovered in 1981 as an Ir anomaly in sediment cores collected by the USNS Eltanin in 1965 (Kyte et al., 1981). In 1995, Polarstem expedition ANT XII/4 made the first geological survey of the suspected impact region. Three sediment cores sampled around the San Martin seamounts (approx. 57.5S, 91 W) contained well-preserved impact deposits that include disturbed ocean sediments and meteoritic impact ejecta (Gersonde et al., 1997). The latter is composed of shock- melted asteroidal materials and unmelted meteorites. In 2001, the FS Polarstem returned to the impact area during expedition ANT XVIII/5a. At least 16 cores were recovered that contain ejecta deposits. These cores and geophysical data from the expedition can be used to map the effects of the impact over a large region of the ocean floor.

  14. PHYS: Division of Physical Chemistry 258 - Properties and Origins of Cometary and Asteroidal Organic Matter Delivered to the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott; Nguyen, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Comets and asteroids may have contributed much of the Earth's water and organic matter. The Earth accretes approximately 4x10(exp 7) Kg of dust and meteorites from these sources every year. The least altered meteorites contain complex assemblages of organic compounds and abundant hydrated minerals. These carbonaceous chondrite meteorites probably derive from asteroids that underwent hydrothermal processing within the first few million years after their accretion. Meteorite organics show isotopic and chemical signatures of low-T ion-molecule and grain-surface chemistry and photolysis of icy grains that occurred in cold molecular clouds and the outer protoplanetary disk. These signatures have been overprinted by aqueously mediated chemistry in asteroid parent bodies, forming amino acids and other prebiotic molecules. Comets are much richer in organic matter but it is less well characterized. Comet dust collected in the stratosphere shows larger H and N isotopic anomalies than most meteorites, suggesting better preservation of primordial organics. Rosetta studies of comet 67P coma dust find complex organic matter that may be related to the macromolecular material that dominates the organic inventory of primitive meteorites. The exogenous organic material accreting on Earth throughout its history is made up of thousands of molecular species formed in diverse processes ranging from circumstellar outflows to chemistry at near absolute zero in dark cloud cores and the formative environment within minor planets. NASA and JAXA are currently flying sample return missions to primitive, potentially organic-rich asteroids. The OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa2 missions will map their target asteroids, Bennu and Ryugu, in detail and return regolith samples to Earth. Laboratory analyses of these pristine asteroid samples will provide unprecedented views of asteroidal organic matter relatively free of terrestrial contamination within well determined geological context. Studies of

  15. First search for dark matter annihilations in the Earth with the IceCube detector: IceCube Collaboration

    DOE PAGES

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; ...

    2017-02-01

    © 2017, The Author(s). We present the results of the first IceCube search for dark matter annihilation in the center of the Earth. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), candidates for dark matter, can scatter off nuclei inside the Earth and fall below its escape velocity. Over time the captured WIMPs will be accumulated and may eventually self-annihilate. Among the annihilation products only neutrinos can escape from the center of the Earth. Large-scale neutrino telescopes, such as the cubic kilometer IceCube Neutrino Observatory located at the South Pole, can be used to search for such neutrino fluxes. Data from 327 days ofmore » detector livetime during 2011/2012 were analyzed. No excess beyond the expected background from atmospheric neutrinos was detected. The derived upper limits on the annihilation rate of WIMPs in the Earth and the resulting muon flux are an order of magnitude stronger than the limits of the last analysis performed with data from IceCube’s predecessor AMANDA. The limits can be translated in terms of a spin-independent WIMP–nucleon cross section. For a WIMP mass of 50 GeV this analysis results in the most restrictive limits achieved with IceCube data.« less

  16. First search for dark matter annihilations in the Earth with the IceCube detector: IceCube Collaboration

    SciT

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.

    © 2017, The Author(s). We present the results of the first IceCube search for dark matter annihilation in the center of the Earth. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), candidates for dark matter, can scatter off nuclei inside the Earth and fall below its escape velocity. Over time the captured WIMPs will be accumulated and may eventually self-annihilate. Among the annihilation products only neutrinos can escape from the center of the Earth. Large-scale neutrino telescopes, such as the cubic kilometer IceCube Neutrino Observatory located at the South Pole, can be used to search for such neutrino fluxes. Data from 327 days ofmore » detector livetime during 2011/2012 were analyzed. No excess beyond the expected background from atmospheric neutrinos was detected. The derived upper limits on the annihilation rate of WIMPs in the Earth and the resulting muon flux are an order of magnitude stronger than the limits of the last analysis performed with data from IceCube’s predecessor AMANDA. The limits can be translated in terms of a spin-independent WIMP–nucleon cross section. For a WIMP mass of 50 GeV this analysis results in the most restrictive limits achieved with IceCube data.« less

  17. Chiral Magnetic Effect in Condensed Matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang

    The chiral magnetic effect is the generation of electrical current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum chiral anomaly in systems possessing charged chiral fermions. In quark-gluon plasma containing nearly massless quarks, the chirality imbalance is sourced by the topological transitions. In condensed matter systems, the chiral quasiparticles emerge in the 3D Dirac and Weyl semimetals having a linear dispersion relation. Recently, the chiral magnetic effect was discovered in a 3D Dirac semimetal - zirconium pentatelluride, ZrTe5, in which a large negative magnetoresistance is observed when magnetic field is parallel with the current. It is now reported in more than a dozen Dirac and Weyl semimetals. Broadly speaking, the chiral magnetic effect can exist in a variety of condensed matters. In some cases, a material may be transformed into a Weyl semimetal by magnetic field, exhibiting the chiral magnetic effect. In other cases, the chiral magnetic current may be generated in magnetic Dirac semimetals without external magnetic field, or in asymmetric Weyl semimetals without electric field where only a magnetic field and the source of chiral quasipartiles would be necessary. In the limit of conserved quasiparticle chirality, charge transport by the chiral magnetic current is non-dissipative. The powerful notion of chirality, originally discovered in high-energy and nuclear physics, holds promise in new ways of transmitting and processing information and energy. At the same time, chiral materials have opened a fascinating possibility to study the quantum dynamics of relativistic field theory in condensed matter experiments.

  18. Ratchet Effects in Active Matter Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    2017-03-01

    Ratchet effects can arise for single or collectively interacting Brownian particles on an asymmetric substrate when a net dc transport is produced by an externally applied ac driving force or by periodically flashing the substrate. Recently, a new class of active ratchet systems that do not require the application of external driving has been realized through the use of active matter; they are self-propelled units that can be biological or nonbiological in nature. When active materials such as swimming bacteria interact with an asymmetric substrate, a net dc directed motion can arise even without external driving, opening a wealth of possibilities such as sorting, cargo transport, or micromachine construction. We review the current status of active matter ratchets for swimming bacteria, cells, active colloids, and swarming models, focusing on the role of particle-substrate interactions. We describe ratchet reversals produced by collective effects and the use of active ratchets to transport passive particles. We discuss future directions including deformable substrates or particles, the role of different swimming modes, varied particle-particle interactions, and nondissipative effects.

  19. Ratchet Effects in Active Matter Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Reichhardt, Cynthia Jane; Reichhardt, Charles

    2016-12-21

    Ratchet effects can arise for single or collectively interacting Brownian particles on an asymmetric substrate when a net dc transport is produced by an externally applied ac driving force or by periodically flashing the substrate. Recently, a new class of active ratchet systems that do not require the application of external driving has been realized through the use of active matter; they are self-propelled units that can be biological or nonbiological in nature. When active materials such as swimming bacteria interact with an asymmetric substrate, a net dc directed motion can arise even without external driving, opening a wealth ofmore » possibilities such as sorting, cargo transport, or micromachine construction. We review the current status of active matter ratchets for swimming bacteria, cells, active colloids, and swarming models, focusing on the role of particle-substrate interactions. Here, we describe ratchet reversals produced by collective effects and the use of active ratchets to transport passive particles. We discuss future directions including deformable substrates or particles, the role of different swimming modes, varied particle–particle interactions, and nondissipative effects.« less

  20. Techniques for Near-Earth Interplanetary Matter Detection and Characterisation From Optical Ground-Based Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, Francisco

    2017-05-01

    PhD Thesis defended the 5th June 2017. Universidad Complutense de Madrid.This dissertation undertakes the research of the interplanetary matter near the Earth using two different observational approaches.The first one is based on the detection of the sunlight reflected by the bodies. The detection and characterisation of these nearby population require networks of medium-sized telescopes to survey and track them. We design a robotic system (the TBT telescopes) for the European Space Agency as a prototype for a future network. The first unit is already installed in Spain and we present the results of the commissioning. Additionally we evaluate the expected performance of such an instrument using a simulation with a synthetic population. We consider that the system designed is a powerful instrument for nearby asteroid discovery and tracking. It is based on commercial components, and therefore ready for a scalable implementation in a global network.Meanwhile the bodies smaller than asteroids are observed using the atmosphere as a detector. When these particles collide with the atmospheric molecules they are heated, ablated, sublimated, and finally light is emitted by these hot vapours, what we call meteors. We conduct the investigation of these meteors to study the meteoroids. In particular we address two different topics: On one hand we explore the size/mass frequency distribution of meteoroids using flux determination when the collide into the atmosphere. We develop a method to determine this flux using video observations of meteors and analyse the properties of meteors as an optical proxy to meteoroids in order to maximise the detection. It yields three ground-based observational solutions that we transform into instrumental designs. First we design and develop a meteor all-sky detection station for Observatorio UCM and use the Draconids 2011 campaign as a showcase for the flux determination, with successful results. Then we investigate the observation of meteors

  1. Techniques For Near-Earth Interplanetary Matter Detection And Characterisation From Optical Ground-Based Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, Francisco

    2017-05-01

    PhD Thesis defended the 5th June 2017. Universidad Complutense de Madrid.This dissertation undertakes the research of the interplanetary matter near the Earth using two different observational approaches.The first one is based on the detection of the sunlight reflected by the bodies. The detection and characterisation of these nearby population require networks of medium-sized telescopes to survey and track them. We design a robotic system (the TBT telescopes) for the European Space Agency as a prototype for a future network. The first unit is already installed in Spain and we present the results of the commissioning. Additionally we evaluate the expected performance of such an instrument using a simulation with a synthetic population. We consider that the system designed is a powerful instrument for nearby asteroid discovery and tracking. It is based on commercial components, and therefore ready for a scalable implementation in a global network.Meanwhile the bodies smaller than asteroids are observed using the atmosphere as a detector. When these particles collide with the atmospheric molecules they are heated, ablated, sublimated, and finally light is emitted by these hot vapours, what we call meteors. We conduct the investigation of these meteors to study the meteoroids. In particular we address two different topics: On one hand we explore the size/mass frequency distribution of meteoroids using flux determination when the collide into the atmosphere. We develop a method to determine this flux using video observations of meteors and analyse the properties of meteors as an optical proxy to meteoroids in order to maximise the detection. It yields three ground-based observational solutions that we transform into instrumental designs. First we design and develop a meteor all-sky detection station for Observatorio UCM and use the Draconids 2011 campaign as a showcase for the flux determination, with successful results. Then we investigate the observation of meteors

  2. Chiral magnetic effect in condensed matter systems

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2016-12-01

    The chiral magnetic effect is the generation of electrical current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum anomaly in relativistic field theory of chiral fermions. In the quark-gluon plasma, the axial anomaly induces topological charge changing transition that results in the generation of electrical current along the magnetic field. In condensed matter systems, the chiral magnetic effect was first predicted in the gapless semiconductors with tow energy bands having pointlike degeneracies. In addition, thirty years later after this prediction, the chiral magnetic effect was finally observed in the 3Dmore » Dirac/Weyl semimetals.« less

  3. Chiral magnetic effect in condensed matter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2016-12-01

    The chiral magnetic effect (CME) is the generation of electrical current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum chiral anomaly [S. L. Adler. Axial-vector vertex in spinor electrodynamics. Physical Review, 177, 2426 (1969), J. S. Bell and R. Jackiw. A PCAC puzzle: π 0 γγin the σ-model. Il Nuovo Cimento A, 60, 47-61 (1969)] in systems possessing charged chiral fermions. In quark-gluon plasma containing nearly massless quarks, the chirality imbalance is sourced by the topological transitions. In condensed matter systems, the chiral quasiparticles emerge in gapless semiconductors with two energy bands having pointlike degeneracies opening the path to the study of chiral anomaly [H. B. Nielsen and M. Ninomiya. The Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly and Weyl fermions in a crystal. Physics Letters B, 130, 389-396 (1983)]. Recently, these novel materials - so-called Dirac and Weyl semimetals have been discovered experimentally, are suitable for the investigation of the CME in condensed matter experiments. Here we report on the first experimental observation of the CME in a 3D Dirac semimetal ZrTe5 [Q. Li, D. E. Kharzeev, C. Zhang, Y. Huang, I. Pletikosić, A. V. Fedorov, R. D. Zhong, J. A. Schneeloch, G. D. Gu, and T. Valla. Chiral magnetic effect in ZrTe5. Nature Physics (2016) doi:10.1038/nphys3648].

  4. Earth

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  5. An Effective Theory of Dirac Dark Matter

    SciT

    Harnik, Roni; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Kribs, Graham D.

    2010-06-11

    A stable Dirac fermion with four-fermion interactions to leptons suppressed by a scale {Lambda} {approx} 1 TeV is shown to provide a viable candidate for dark matter. The thermal relic abundance matches cosmology, while nuclear recoil direct detection bounds are automatically avoided in the absence of (large) couplings to quarks. The annihilation cross section in the early Universe is the same as the annihilation in our galactic neighborhood. This allows Dirac fermion dark matter to naturally explain the positron ratio excess observed by PAMELA with a minimal boost factor, given present astrophysical uncertainties. We use the Galprop program for propagationmore » of signal and background; we discuss in detail the uncertainties resulting from the propagation parameters and, more importantly, the injected spectra. Fermi/GLAST has an opportunity to see a feature in the gamma-ray spectrum at the mass of the Dirac fermion. The excess observed by ATIC/PPB-BETS may also be explained with Dirac dark matter that is heavy. A supersymmetric model with a Dirac bino provides a viable UV model of the effective theory. The dominance of the leptonic operators, and thus the observation of an excess in positrons and not in anti-protons, is naturally explained by the large hypercharge and low mass of sleptons as compared with squarks. Minimizing the boost factor implies the right-handed selectron is the lightest slepton, which is characteristic of our model. Selectrons (or sleptons) with mass less than a few hundred GeV are an inescapable consequence awaiting discovery at the LHC.« less

  6. Matter effects on the flavor conversions of solar neutrinos and high-energy astrophysical neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guo-yuan; Liu, Jun-Hao; Zhou, Shun

    2018-06-01

    Can we observe the solar eclipses in the neutrino light? In principle, this is possible by identifying the lunar matter effects on the flavor conversions of solar neutrinos when they traverse the Moon before reaching the detectors at the Earth. Unfortunately, we show that the lunar matter effects on the survival probability of solar 8B neutrinos are suppressed by an additional factor of 1.2%, compared to the day-night asymmetry. However, we point out that the matter effects on the flavor conversions of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, when they propagate through the Sun, can be significant. Though the flavor composition of high-energy neutrinos can be remarkably modified, it is quite challenging to observe such effects even in the next-generation of neutrino telescopes.

  7. Positive magnetoresistance effect in rare earth cobaltites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyanchuk, I. O.; Bushinskii, M. V.; Karpinsky, D. V.; Dobryanskii, V. M.; Sikolenko, V. V.; Balagurov, A. M.

    2009-06-01

    The structure, magnetic, and magnetotransport properties of the Pr0.5Sr0.5Co1 - x Fe x O3 system have been studied. The ferromagnet-spin glass ( x = 0.5)- G-type antiferromagnet ( x = 0.7) transitions and the metal—insulator transitions ( x = 0.25) have been revealed. It has been established that the magnetoresistance of the metallic ferromagnetic cobaltites changes sign from positive to negative as the external magnetic field increases. The positive component increases and the negative component decreases with decreasing temperature. The negative magnetoresistance increases sharply in the insulating spinglass phase. Possible causes of the low-magnetic-field positive magnetoresistance in the rare earth metallic cobaltites are discussed.

  8. The Hall Effect in Hydrided Rare Earth Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, D. W.; Azofeifa, D. E.; Clark, N.

    We describe two new techniques for measuring the Hall effect in capped rare earth films during hydriding. In one, we simultaneously measure resistivity and the Hall coefficient for a rare earth film covered with four different thicknesses of Pd, recovering the charge transport quantities for both materials. In the second technique, we replace Pd with Mn as the covering layer. We will present results from both techniques.

  9. Matter effects on binary neutron star waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Jocelyn S.; Baiotti, Luca; Creighton, Jolien D. E.; Friedman, John L.; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Markakis, Charalampos; Rezzolla, Luciano; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2013-08-01

    Using an extended set of equations of state and a multiple-group multiple-code collaborative effort to generate waveforms, we improve numerical-relativity-based data-analysis estimates of the measurability of matter effects in neutron-star binaries. We vary two parameters of a parametrized piecewise-polytropic equation of state (EOS) to analyze the measurability of EOS properties, via a parameter Λ that characterizes the quadrupole deformability of an isolated neutron star. We find that, to within the accuracy of the simulations, the departure of the waveform from point-particle (or spinless double black-hole binary) inspiral increases monotonically with Λ and changes in the EOS that did not change Λ are not measurable. We estimate with two methods the minimal and expected measurability of Λ in second- and third-generation gravitational-wave detectors. The first estimate using numerical waveforms alone shows that two EOSs which vary in radius by 1.3 km are distinguishable in mergers at 100 Mpc. The second estimate relies on the construction of hybrid waveforms by matching to post-Newtonian inspiral and estimates that the same EOSs are distinguishable in mergers at 300 Mpc. We calculate systematic errors arising from numerical uncertainties and hybrid construction, and we estimate the frequency at which such effects would interfere with template-based searches.

  10. Radiation shelter effectiveness beyond the earth magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurshakov, V. A.; Benghin, V. V.; Kolomensky, A. V.; Petrov, V. M.

    Solar energetic particles (SEP) and galactic cosmic rays are known to be the sources of radiation hazard for missions beyond the Earth magnetosphere. An additionally shielded compartment of the mission spacecraft, called usually the radiation shelter, is considered as an important part of the radiation safety system. The shielding of the radiation shelter must be at least a few times higher than that of the remaining compartments. The mission crewmembers are supposed to stay in the radiation shelter for relatively short time of less than a day or two during SEP events only. A job-oriented radiation monitoring system (RMS) should be used on board the Martian mission spacecraft to provide the crew with necessary prediction information concerning the onset of a large SEP event. The information should be obtained independently of the ground-based support services and, hence, should be derived from online measurements of the dynamics of soft X-rays and charged energetic particles using the RMS sensors. As a result, the signal for the spacecrew members to go to the shelter gets somewhat delayed with respect to the SEP event onset, so that they appear to stay outside the shelter for some time during the event. The dependence of the crew-received dose on the SEP event prediction lag has been analyzed in terms of the standard SEP dynamics model for a typical 500-day Martian mission scenario. The Martian mission dose simulations have demonstrated a high efficiency of the radiation shelter despite the unavoidable lag of the RMS prediction signal.

  11. Soil Organic Matter in Its Native State: Unravelling the Most Complex Biomaterial on Earth.

    PubMed

    Masoom, Hussain; Courtier-Murias, Denis; Farooq, Hashim; Soong, Ronald; Kelleher, Brian P; Zhang, Chao; Maas, Werner E; Fey, Michael; Kumar, Rajeev; Monette, Martine; Stronks, Henry J; Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, André J

    2016-02-16

    Since the isolation of soil organic matter in 1786, tens of thousands of publications have searched for its structure. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has played a critical role in defining soil organic matter but traditional approaches remove key information such as the distribution of components at the soil-water interface and conformational information. Here a novel form of NMR with capabilities to study all physical phases termed Comprehensive Multiphase NMR, is applied to analyze soil in its natural swollen-state. The key structural components in soil organic matter are identified to be largely composed of macromolecular inputs from degrading biomass. Polar lipid heads and carbohydrates dominate the soil-water interface while lignin and microbes are arranged in a more hydrophobic interior. Lignin domains cannot be penetrated by aqueous solvents even at extreme pH indicating they are the most hydrophobic environment in soil and are ideal for sequestering hydrophobic contaminants. Here, for the first time, a complete range of physical states of a whole soil can be studied. This provides a more detailed understanding of soil organic matter at the molecular level itself key to develop the most efficient soil remediation and agricultural techniques, and better predict carbon sequestration and climate change.

  12. Spaceflight Effect on White Matter Structural Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jessica K.; Kopplemans, Vincent; Paternack, Ofer; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports of elevated brain white matter hyperintensity (WMH) counts and volume in postflight astronaut MRIs suggest that further examination of spaceflight's impact on the microstructure of brain white matter is warranted. To this end, retrospective longitudinal diffusion-weighted MRI scans obtained from 15 astronauts were evaluated. In light of the recent reports of microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift and gray matter atrophy seen in astronauts, we applied a technique to estimate diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics corrected for free water contamination. This approach enabled the analysis of white matter tissue-specific alterations that are unrelated to fluid shifts, occurring from before spaceflight to after landing. After spaceflight, decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values were detected in an area encompassing the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Increased radial diffusivity (RD) and decreased axial diffusivity (AD) were also detected within overlapping regions. In addition, FA values in the corticospinal tract decreased and RD measures in the precentral gyrus white matter increased from before to after flight. The results show disrupted structural connectivity of white matter in tracts involved in visuospatial processing, vestibular function, and movement control as a result of spaceflight. The findings may help us understand the structural underpinnings of the extensive spaceflight-induced sensorimotor remodeling. Prospective longitudinal assessment of the white matter integrity in astronauts is needed to characterize the evolution of white matter microstructural changes associated with spaceflight, their behavioral consequences, and the time course of recovery. Supported by a grant from the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, NASA NCC 9-58.

  13. Effects of primitive photosynthesis on Earth's early climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Kazumi; Tajika, Eiichi; Hong, Peng K.; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Reinhard, Christopher T.

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of different forms of photosynthetic life has profoundly altered the activity level of the biosphere, radically reshaping the composition of Earth's oceans and atmosphere over time. However, the mechanistic impacts of a primitive photosynthetic biosphere on Earth's early atmospheric chemistry and climate are poorly understood. Here, we use a global redox balance model to explore the biogeochemical and climatological effects of different forms of primitive photosynthesis. We find that a hybrid ecosystem of H2-based and Fe2+-based anoxygenic photoautotrophs—organisms that perform photosynthesis without producing oxygen—gives rise to a strong nonlinear amplification of Earth's methane (CH4) cycle, and would thus have represented a critical component of Earth's early climate system before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis. Using a Monte Carlo approach, we find that a hybrid photosynthetic biosphere widens the range of geochemical conditions that allow for warm climate states well beyond either of these metabolic processes acting in isolation. Our results imply that the Earth's early climate was governed by a novel and poorly explored set of regulatory feedbacks linking the anoxic biosphere and the coupled H, C and Fe cycles. We suggest that similar processes should be considered when assessing the potential for sustained habitability on Earth-like planets with reducing atmospheres.

  14. Possible resonance effect of axionic dark matter in Josephson junctions.

    PubMed

    Beck, Christian

    2013-12-06

    We provide theoretical arguments that dark-matter axions from the galactic halo that pass through Earth may generate a small observable signal in resonant S/N/S Josephson junctions. The corresponding interaction process is based on the uniqueness of the gauge-invariant axion Josephson phase angle modulo 2π and is predicted to produce a small Shapiro steplike feature without externally applied microwave radiation when the Josephson frequency resonates with the axion mass. A resonance signal of so far unknown origin observed by C. Hoffmann et al. [Phys. Rev. B 70, 180503(R) (2004)] is consistent with our theory and can be interpreted in terms of an axion mass m(a)c2=0.11  meV and a local galactic axionic dark-matter density of 0.05  GeV/cm3. We discuss future experimental checks to confirm the dark-matter nature of the observed signal.

  15. Virtual Earth System Laboratory (VESL): Effective Visualization of Earth System Data and Process Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. D.; Larour, E. Y.; Cheng, D. L. C.; Halkides, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Virtual Earth System Laboratory (VESL) is a Web-based tool, under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and UC Irvine, for the visualization of Earth System data and process simulations. It contains features geared toward a range of applications, spanning research and outreach. It offers an intuitive user interface, in which model inputs are changed using sliders and other interactive components. Current capabilities include simulation of polar ice sheet responses to climate forcing, based on NASA's Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). We believe that the visualization of data is most effective when tailored to the target audience, and that many of the best practices for modern Web design/development can be applied directly to the visualization of data: use of negative space, color schemes, typography, accessibility standards, tooltips, etc cetera. We present our prototype website, and invite input from potential users, including researchers, educators, and students.

  16. Doppler effect on indirect detection of dark matter using dark matter only simulations

    SciT

    Powell, Devon; Laha, Ranjan; Ng, Kenny C. Y.

    Indirect detection of dark matter is a major avenue for discovery. However, baryonic backgrounds are diverse enough to mimic many possible signatures of dark matter. In this work, we study the newly proposed technique of dark matter velocity spectroscopy. The nonrotating dark matter halo and the Solar motion produce a distinct longitudinal dependence of the signal which is opposite in direction to that produced by baryons. Using collisionless dark matter only simulations of Milky Way like halos, we show that this new signature is robust and holds great promise. We develop mock observations by a high energy resolution x-ray spectrometermore » on a sounding rocket, the Micro-X experiment, to our test case, the 3.5 keV line. We show that by using six different pointings, Micro-X can exclude a constant line energy over various longitudes at ≥ 3σ. As a result, the halo triaxiality is an important effect, and it will typically reduce the significance of this signal. We emphasize that this new smoking gun in motion signature of dark matter is general and is applicable to any dark matter candidate which produces a sharp photon feature in annihilation or decay.« less

  17. Doppler effect on indirect detection of dark matter using dark matter only simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Powell, Devon; Laha, Ranjan; Ng, Kenny C. Y.; ...

    2017-03-15

    Indirect detection of dark matter is a major avenue for discovery. However, baryonic backgrounds are diverse enough to mimic many possible signatures of dark matter. In this work, we study the newly proposed technique of dark matter velocity spectroscopy. The nonrotating dark matter halo and the Solar motion produce a distinct longitudinal dependence of the signal which is opposite in direction to that produced by baryons. Using collisionless dark matter only simulations of Milky Way like halos, we show that this new signature is robust and holds great promise. We develop mock observations by a high energy resolution x-ray spectrometermore » on a sounding rocket, the Micro-X experiment, to our test case, the 3.5 keV line. We show that by using six different pointings, Micro-X can exclude a constant line energy over various longitudes at ≥ 3σ. As a result, the halo triaxiality is an important effect, and it will typically reduce the significance of this signal. We emphasize that this new smoking gun in motion signature of dark matter is general and is applicable to any dark matter candidate which produces a sharp photon feature in annihilation or decay.« less

  18. Coupling river hydrochemical information with catchment properties for multi-scale-analysis of lateral matter fluxes in the Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny; Moosdorf, Nils

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade the number of regional to global scale studies of river chemical fluxes and their steering factors increased rapidly, entailing a growing demand for appropriate databases to calculate mass budgets, to calibrate models, or to test hypotheses [1, 2]. Research applying compilations of hydrochemical data are related to questions targeting different time and spatial scales, as for example the annual to centennial scale. In focus are often the alteration of land-ocean matter fluxes due anthropogenic disturbance, the climate sensitivity of chemical weathering fluxes [3], or nutrient fluxes and their evolution [2, 4]. We present an overview of the GLObal RIver CHemistry database GLORICH, which combines an assemblage of hydrochemical data from varying sources with catchment characteristics of the sampling locations [1]. The information provided include e.g. catchment size, lithology, soil, climate, land cover, net primary production, population density and average slope gradient. The data base comprises 1.27 million samples distributed over 17,000 sampling locations [1]. It will be shown how large assemblages of data are useful to target some major questions about the alteration of land ocean element fluxes due to climate or land use change while coupling hydrochemical data with catchment properties in a homogenized database. An extension by isotopic data will be in the focus of future work [c.f. 5]. Further, applications in climate change studies for understanding feedbacks in the Earth system will be discussed [6]. References: [1] Hartmann, J., Lauerwald, R., & Moosdorf, N. (2014). A brief overview of the GLObal RIver CHemistry Database, GLORICH. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 10, 23-27. [2] Hartmann, J., Levy, J., & Kempe, S. (2011). Increasing dissolved silica trends in the Rhine River: an effect of recovery from high P loads?. Limnology, 12(1), 63-73. [3] Hartmann, J., Moosdorf, N., Lauerwald, R., Hinderer, M., & West, A. J. (2014). Global

  19. The MSW Effect and Matter Effects in Neutrino Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. Yu

    2005-01-01

    The MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect is the adiabatic or partially adiabatic neutrino flavor conversion in media with varying density. The main notions related to the effect, its dynamics and physical picture are reviewed. The large mixing MSW effect is realized inside the Sun providing a solution of the solar neutrino problem. The small mixing MSW effect driven by the 1 3 mixing can be realized for the supernova (SN) neutrinos. Inside collapsing stars new elements of the MSW dynamics may show up: non-oscillatory transition, non-adiabatic conversion, time dependent adiabaticity violation induced by shock waves. Effects of the resonance enhancement and the parametric enhancement of oscillations can be realized for atmospheric and accelerator neutrinos in the Earth. Precise results for neutrino oscillations in low density media with arbitrary density profile are presented and the attenuation effect is described. The area of applications is the solar and SN neutrinos inside the Earth, and the results are crucial for the neutrino oscillation tomography.

  20. The MSW Effect and Matter Effects in Neutrino Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2006-03-01

    The MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect is the adiabatic or partially adiabatic neutrino flavor conversion in media with varying density. The main notions related to the effect, its dynamics and physical picture are reviewed. The large mixing MSW effect is realized inside the Sun providing a solution of the solar neutrino problem. The small mixing MSW effect driven by the 1-3 mixing can be realized for the supernova (SN) neutrinos. Inside collapsing stars new elements of the MSW dynamics may show up: non-oscillatory transition, non-adiabatic conversion, time dependent adiabaticity violation induced by shock waves. Effects of the resonance enhancement and the parametric enhancement of oscillations can be realized for atmospheric and accelerator neutrinos in the Earth. Precise results for neutrino oscillations in low density media with arbitrary density profile are presented and the attenuation effect is described. The area of applications is the solar and SN neutrinos inside the Earth, and the results are crucial for the neutrino oscillation tomography.

  1. Propagation Effects in Space/Earth Paths.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    effects of clouds, fogs and gaseous absorption. The background loss in the various atmospheric windows occurring above 70 GHz appears to be higher...strongly positive, all the cases plotted give loss in horizon exceeding 50 km except for the thinnest region (0.1 km) and the smallers N (270). s 5...scatter signals causing respectively: a loss in signal level, a decrease in the efficiency of dual-polarize6 channels and station-to-station interference

  2. Effect of the Earth's rotation on subduction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, B. W.; Rodkin, M. V.; Sasorova, E. V.

    2017-09-01

    The role played by the Earth's rotation is very important in problems of physics of the atmosphere and ocean. The importance of inertia forces is traditionally estimated by the value of the Rossby number: if this parameter is small, the Coriolis force considerably affects the character of movements. In the case of convection in the Earth's mantle and movements of lithospheric plates, the Rossby number is quite small; therefore, the effect of the Coriolis force is reflected in the character of movements of the lithospheric plates. Analysis of statistical data on subduction zones verifies this suggestion.

  3. Recent Earth oblateness variations: unraveling climate and postglacial rebound effects.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Jean O; Marcus, Steven L; de Viron, Olivier; Fukumori, Ichiro

    2002-12-06

    Earth's dynamic oblateness (J2) has been decreasing due to postglacial rebound (PGR). However, J2 began to increase in 1997, indicating a pronounced global-scale mass redistribution within Earth's system. We have determined that the observed increases in J2 are caused primarily by a recent surge in subpolar glacial melting and by mass shifts in the Southern, Pacific, and Indian oceans. When these effects are removed, the residual trend in J2 (-2.9 x 10(-11) year-1) becomes consistent with previous estimates of PGR from satellite and eclipse data. The climatic significance of these rapid shifts in glacial and oceanic mass, however, remains to be investigated.

  4. The effects of general relativity on near-earth satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ries, J. C.; Watkins, M. M.; Tapley, B. D.; Huang, C.

    1990-01-01

    Whether one uses a solar system barycentric frame or a geocentric frame when including the general theory of relativity in orbit determination for near-earth satellites, the results should be equivalent to some limiting accuracy. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the effects of relativity in each frame and to demonstrate their equivalence through the analysis of three years of laser tracking data taken on the Lageos satellite. It is demonstrated that the simpler formulation in the geocentric frame is adequate for the purpose of near-earth satellite orbit determination. A correction to the conventional barycentric equations of motion is shown to be required.

  5. The Runaway Greenhouse Effect on Earth and other Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabbette, Maura; Pilewskie, Peter; McKay, Christopher; Young, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Water vapor is an efficient absorber of outgoing longwave infrared radiation on Earth and is the primary greenhouse gas. Since evaporation increases with increasing sea surface temperature, and the increase in water vapor further increases greenhouse warming, there is a positive feedback. The runaway greenhouse effect occurs if this feedback continues unchecked until all the water has left the surface and enters the atmosphere. For Mars and the Earth the runaway greenhouse was halted when water vapor became saturated with respect to ice or liquid water respectively. However, Venus is considered to be an example of a planet where the runaway greenhouse effect did occur, and it has been speculated that if the solar luminosity were to increase above a certain limit, it would also occur on the Earth. Satellite data acquired during the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) under clear sky conditions shows that as the sea surface temperature (SST) increases, the rate of outgoing infrared radiation at the top of the atmosphere also increases, as expected. Over the pacific warm pool where the SST exceeds 300 K the outgoing radiation emitted to space actually decreases with increasing SST, leading to a potentially unstable system. This behavior is a signature of the runaway greenhouse effect on Earth. However, the SST never exceeds 303K, thus the system has a natural cap which stops the runaway. According to Stefan-Boltzmann's law the amount of heat energy radiated by the Earth's surface is proportional to (T(sup 4)). However, if the planet has a substantial atmosphere, it can absorb all infrared radiation from the lower surface before the radiation penetrates into outer space. Thus, an instrument in space looking at the planet does not detect radiation from the surface. The radiation it sees comes from some level higher up. For the earth#s atmosphere the effective temperature (T(sub e)) has a value of 255 K corresponding to the middle troposphere, above most of the

  6. A review of ionospheric effects on Earth-space propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klobuchar, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A short description is given of each ionospheric total electron content (TEC) effect upon radio waves, along with a representative value of the magnitude of each of these effects under normal ionospheric conditions. A discussion is given of the important characteristics of average ionospheric TEC behavior and the temporal and spatial variability of TEC. Radio waves undergo several effects when they pass through the Earth's ionosphere. One of the most important of these effects is a retardation, or group delay, on the modulation or information carried on the radio wave that is due to its encounter with the free, thermal electrons in the Earth's ionosphere. Other effects the ionosphere has on radio waves include: radio frequency (RF) carrier phase advance; Doppler shift of the RF carrier of the radio wave; Faraday rotation of the plane of polarization of linearly polarized waves; angular refraction or bending of the radio wave path as it travels through the ionosphere; and amplitude and phase scintillations.

  7. Dynamic ocean-tide effects on Earth's rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1993-01-01

    This article develops 'broad-band' Liouville equations which are capable of determining the effects on the rotation of the Earth of a periodic excitation even at frequencies as high as semi-diurnal; these equations are then used to predict the rotational effects of altimetric, numerical and 32-constituent spherical harmonic ocean-tide models. The rotational model includes a frequency-dependent decoupled core, the effects of which are especially marked near retrograde diurnal frequencies; and a fully dynamic oceanic response, whose effects appear to be minor despite significant frequency dependence. The model also includes solid-earth effects which are frequency dependent as the result of both anelasticity at long periods and the fluid-core resonance at nearly diurnal periods. The effects of both tidal inertia and relative angular momentum on Earth rotation (polar motion, length of day, 'nutation' and Universal Time) are presented for 32 long- and short-period ocean tides determined as solutions to the author's spherical harmonic tide theory. The lengthening of the Chandler wobble period by the pole tide is also re-computed using the author's full theory. Additionally, using the spherical harmonic theory, tidal currents and their effects on rotation are determined for available numerical and altimetric tide height models. For all models, we find that the effects of tidal currents are at least as important as those of tide height for diurnal and semi-diurnal constituents.

  8. Effectiveness of the Size Matters Handwriting Program.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Beth; Rai, Gillian; Murray, Tammy; Brusilovskiy, Eugene

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the research was to study changes in handwriting legibility among kindergarten, first- and second-grade students in response to the Size Matters curricular-based handwriting program. A two-group pre-post-test design was implemented at two public schools with half of the classrooms assigned to receive the Size Matters program and the other continuing to receive standard instruction. All participants completed two standardized handwriting measures at pre-test and after 40 instructional sessions were completed with the classes receiving the handwriting program. Results identified significant changes in legibility in the handwriting intervention group for all three grades when compared with the standard instruction group. The results of this study support the use of a curricular-embedded handwriting program and provide the foundation for future research examining the impact of handwriting legibility on learning outcomes.

  9. Effects of megascale eruptions on Earth and Mars

    Thordarson, T.; Rampino, M.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Self, S.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic features are common on geologically active earthlike planets. Megascale or "super" eruptions involving >1000 Gt of magma have occurred on both Earth and Mars in the geologically recent past, introducing prodigious volumes of ash and volcanic gases into the atmosphere. Here we discuss felsic (explosive) and mafi c (flood lava) supereruptions and their potential atmospheric and environmental effects on both planets. On Earth, felsic supereruptions recur on average about every 100-200,000 years and our present knowledge of the 73.5 ka Toba eruption implies that such events can have the potential to be catastrophic to human civilization. A future eruption of this type may require an unprecedented response from humankind to assure the continuation of civilization as we know it. Mafi c supereruptions have resulted in atmospheric injection of volcanic gases (especially SO2) and may have played a part in punctuating the history of life on Earth. The contrast between the more sustained effects of flood basalt eruptions (decades to centuries) and the near-instantaneous effects of large impacts (months to years) is worthy of more detailed study than has been completed to date. Products of mafi c supereruptions, signifi cantly larger than known from the geologic record on Earth, are well preserved on Mars. The volatile emissions from these eruptions most likely had global dispersal, but the effects may not have been outside what Mars endures even in the absence of volcanic eruptions. This is testament to the extreme variability of the current Martian atmosphere: situations that would be considered catastrophic on Earth are the norm on Mars. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  10. The Effects of Earth Science Programs on Student Knowledge and Interest in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.

    2016-12-01

    Ariana Wilson, Chris Skinner, Chris Poulsen Abstract For many years, academic programs have been in place for the instruction of young students in the earth sciences before they undergo formal training in high school or college. However, there has been little formal assessment of the impacts of these programs on student knowledge of the earth sciences and their interest in continuing with earth science. On August 6th-12th 2016 I will attend the University of Michigan's annual Earth Camp, where I will 1) ascertain high school students' knowledge of earth science-specifically atmospheric structure and wind patterns- before and after Earth Camp, 2) record their opinions about earth science before and after Earth Camp, and 3) record how the students feel about how the camp was run and what could be improved. I will accomplish these things through the use of surveys asking the students questions about these subjects. I expect my results will show that earth science programs like Earth Camp deepen students' knowledge of and interest in earth science and encourage them to continue their study of earth science in the future. I hope these results will give guidance on how to conduct future learning programs and how to recruit more students to become earth scientists in the future.

  11. Design of Scalable and Effective Earth Science Collaboration Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, M.; Ramachandran, R.; Kuo, K. S.; Lynnes, C.; Niamsuwan, N.; Chidambaram, C.

    2014-12-01

    Collaborative research is growing rapidly. Many tools including IDEs are now beginning to incorporate new collaborative features. Software engineering research has shown the effectiveness of collaborative programming and analysis. In particular, drastic reduction in software development time resulting in reduced cost has been highlighted. Recently, we have witnessed the rise of applications that allow users to share their content. Most of these applications scale such collaboration using cloud technologies. Earth science research needs to adopt collaboration technologies to reduce redundancy, cut cost, expand knowledgebase, and scale research experiments. To address these needs, we developed the Earth science collaboration workbench (CWB). CWB provides researchers with various collaboration features by augmenting their existing analysis tools to minimize learning curve. During the development of the CWB, we understood that Earth science collaboration tasks are varied and we concluded that it is not possible to design a tool that serves all collaboration purposes. We adopted a mix of synchronous and asynchronous sharing methods that can be used to perform collaboration across time and location dimensions. We have used cloud technology for scaling the collaboration. Cloud has been highly utilized and valuable tool for Earth science researchers. Among other usages, cloud is used for sharing research results, Earth science data, and virtual machine images; allowing CWB to create and maintain research environments and networks to enhance collaboration between researchers. Furthermore, collaborative versioning tool, Git, is integrated into CWB for versioning of science artifacts. In this paper, we present our experience in designing and implementing the CWB. We will also discuss the integration of collaborative code development use cases for data search and discovery using NASA DAAC and simulation of satellite observations using NASA Earth Observing System Simulation

  12. Effects of Long Period Ocean Tides on the Earth's Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Richard S.; Chao, Ben F.; Desai, Shailen D.

    1996-01-01

    The spectra of polar motion excitation functions exhibit enhanced power in the fortnightly tidal band. This enhanced power is attributed to ocean tidal excitation. Ocean tide models predict polar motion excitation effects that differ with each other, and with observations, by factors as large as 2-3. There is a need for inproved models for the effect of long-period ocean tides on Earth's rotation.

  13. Heavy dark matter annihilation from effective field theory.

    PubMed

    Ovanesyan, Grigory; Slatyer, Tracy R; Stewart, Iain W

    2015-05-29

    We formulate an effective field theory description for SU(2)_{L} triplet fermionic dark matter by combining nonrelativistic dark matter with gauge bosons in the soft-collinear effective theory. For a given dark matter mass, the annihilation cross section to line photons is obtained with 5% precision by simultaneously including Sommerfeld enhancement and the resummation of electroweak Sudakov logarithms at next-to-leading logarithmic order. Using these results, we present more accurate and precise predictions for the gamma-ray line signal from annihilation, updating both existing constraints and the reach of future experiments.

  14. A note on the Sagnac effect for matter beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Matteo Luca; Tartaglia, Angelo

    2015-05-01

    We study the Sagnac effect for matter beams, in order to estimate the kinematic corrections to the basic formula, deriving from the position and the extent of the interferometer, and discuss the analogy with the Aharonov-Bohm effect. We show that the formula for the Sagnac time delay is the same for matter and light beams in arbitrary stationary space-times, provided that a suitable condition on the speed of the beams is fulfilled. Hence, the same results obtained for light beams apply to matter beams.

  15. Earth Impact Effects Program: Estimating the Regional Environmental Consequences of Impacts On Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, G. S.; Melosh, H. J.; Marcus, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth Impact Effects Program (www.lpl.arizona.edu/impacteffects) is a popular web-based calculator for estimating the regional environmental consequences of a comet or asteroid impact on Earth. It is widely used, both by inquisitive members of the public as an educational device and by scientists as a simple research tool. It applies a variety of scaling laws, based on theory, nuclear explosion test data, observations from terrestrial and extraterrestrial craters and the results of small-scale impact experiments and numerical modelling, to quantify the principal hazards that might affect the people, buildings and landscape in the vicinity of an impact. The program requires six inputs: impactor diameter, impactor density, impact velocity prior to atmospheric entry, impact angle, and the target type (sedimentary rock, crystalline rock, or a water layer above rock), as well as the distance from the impact at which the environmental effects are to be calculated. The program includes simple algorithms for estimating the fate of the impactor during atmospheric traverse, the thermal radiation emitted by the impact plume (fireball) and the intensity of seismic shaking. The program also approximates various dimensions of the impact crater and ejecta deposit, as well as estimating the severity of the air blast in both crater-forming and airburst impacts. We illustrate the strengths and limitations of the program by comparing its predictions (where possible) against known impacts, such as Carancas, Peru (2007); Tunguska, Siberia (1908); Barringer (Meteor) crater, Arizona (ca 49 ka). These tests demonstrate that, while adequate for large impactors, the simple approximation of atmospheric entry in the original program does not properly account for the disruption and dispersal of small impactors as they traverse Earth's atmosphere. We describe recent improvements to the calculator to better describe atmospheric entry of small meteors; the consequences of oceanic impacts; and

  16. Migration of Matter from the Edgeworth-Kuiper and Main Asteroid Belts to the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipatov. S. I.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The main asteroid belt (MAB), the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt (EKB), and comets belong to the main sources of dust in the Solar System. Most of Jupiter-family comets came from the EKB. Comets can be distracted due to close encounters with planets and the Sun, collisions with small bodies, a nd internal forces. We support the Eneev's idea that the largest objects in the ELB and MAB could be formed directly by the compression of rarefied dust condensations of the protoplanetary cloud but not by the accretion of small (for example, 1-km) planetesimals. The total mass of planetesimals that entered the EKB from the feeding zone of the giant planets during their accumulation could exceed tens of Earth's masses. These planetesimals increased eccentricities of 'local' trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and swept most of these TNOs. A small portion of such planetesimals could left beyond Neptune's orbit in highly eccentric orbits. The results of previous investigations of migration and collisional evolution of minor bodies were summarized. Mainly our recent results are presented.

  17. Organic matter in the Titan lakes, and comparison with primitive Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Bishun N.; McKay, C.; Wilhite, P.; Beeler, D.; Carter, M.; Schurmeier, L.; Jagota, S.; Kawai, J.; Nna-Mvondo, D.; Cruikshank, D.; Embaye, T.

    2013-06-01

    Titan is the only world in the solar system besides the Earth that has liquid on its surface. The liquid in the lakes is thought to be composed primarily of ethane with methane and nitrogen in solution. The clouds are thought to be composed of liquid methane drops. Surface liquid is present in polar lakes and in surface materials at equatorial sites. Studying the chemical processing that potentially results from organic material interacting with this liquid is one of the main goals of proposed missions to Titan. We have been engaged in producing tholin under Titan-like conditions for more than three decades, first at the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at Cornell University in collaboration with Late Dr. Carl Sagan and for over a decade at Laboratory for Planetary Studies at NASA Ames Research Center and Carl Sagan Center for the Study of Life in the Universe, SETI Institute. Our focus is to understand the capabilities for analysis of tholin solubility in liquid methane and ethane for flight instruments. Our results are expected to contribute to an understanding of the organic chemistry on Titan and to the development of an explicit and targeted scientific strategy for near term analysis of the products of organic-liquid interactions on Titan. Organics are produced as a haze in Titan's high atmosphere due to photolysis of methane with the Sun's extreme ultraviolet light and subsequent reaction with N. Also tholins are formed at a much higher level on Titan by charged particles of Saturn magnetosphere. However, the presence of organics is not the sole feature, which makes Titan significant to astrobiology; organics are widely present in the outer solar system. The reason Titan is a prime target for future outer solar system missions is the combination of organic material and liquid on the surface; liquid that could over a medium for further organic synthesis. NASA recently selected for further study a Discovery proposal TiME to investigate the chemistry of the

  18. The effects of the solid inner core and nonhydrostatic structure on the earth's forced nutations and earth tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Vries, Dan; Wahr, John M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper computes the effects of the solid inner core (IC) on the forced nutations and earth tides, and on certain of the earth's rotational normal modes. The theoretical results are extended to include the effects of a solid IC and of nonhydrostatic structure. The presence of the IC is responsible for a new, almost diurnal, prograde normal mode which involves a relative rotation between the IC and fluid outer core about an equatorial axis. It is shown that the small size of the IC's effects on both nutations and tides is a consequence of the fact that the IC's moments of inertia are less than 1/1000 of the entire earth's.

  19. On the tidal effects in the motion of earth satellites and the love parameters of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musen, P.; Estes, R.

    1972-01-01

    The tidal effects in the motion of artificial satellites are studied to determine the elastic properties of the earth as they are observed from extraterrestrial space. Considering Love numbers, the disturbing potential is obtained as the analytical continuation of the tidal potential from the surface of the earth into-outer space, with parameters which characterize the earth's elastic response to tidal attraction by the moon and the sun. It is concluded that the tidal effects represent a superposition of a large number of periodic terms, and the rotation of the lunar orbital plane produces a term of 18 years period in tidal perturbations of the ascending node of the satellite's orbit.

  20. Application of Fenton process to remove organic matter and PCBs from waste (fuller's earth) contaminated with insulating oil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Milady Renata Apolinário; Rodrigues, Eduardo de Oliveira; Espanhol-Soares, Melina; Silva, Flavio Soares; Kondo, Márcia Matiko; Gimenes, Rossano

    2018-01-09

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are carcinogenic to humans and can be found in fuller's earth used for the treatment of used transformer oil. This work describes an optimization of the Fenton process for the removal of contaminants from fuller's earth. The effects of pH (2.5 and 4.0), [H 2 O 2 ] (1.47 and 2.07 mol L -1 ), and [Fe 2+ ] (1.7 and 40 mmol L -1 ) were studied. The Fenton process efficiency was monitored using the decreases in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the concentrations of oil and grease, total carbon (TC), PCBs, and H 2 O 2 . The fuller's earth contaminated with insulating oil presented 35% (w/w) of TC, 34% (w/w) of oil and grease, 297.0 g L -1 COD, and 64 mg of PCBs per kg. The material could therefore be considered a dangerous waste. After Fenton treatment, using a slurry mode, there was a removal of 55% of COD, 20% of oil and grease, and 20% of TC, achieved at pH 2.5 using 2.07 mol L -1 of H 2 O 2 and 40.0 mmol L -1 of Fe 2+ . No PCBs were detected in the samples after the Fenton treatment, even using smaller amounts of Fenton reagents (1.47 mol L -1 of H 2 O 2 , 1.7 mmol L -1 of Fe 2+ , pH 2.5). The results indicated that the treated fuller's earth was free from PCB residues and could be disposed of in a simple landfill, in accordance with Brazilian PCB regulations.

  1. Relativistic effects in earth-orbiting Doppler lidar return signals.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Neil

    2007-11-01

    Frequency shifts of side-ranging lidar signals are calculated to high order in the small quantities (v/c), where v is the velocity of a spacecraft carrying a lidar laser or of an aerosol particle that scatters the radiation back into a detector (c is the speed of light). Frequency shift measurements determine horizontal components of ground velocity of the scattering particle, but measured fractional frequency shifts are large because of the large velocities of the spacecraft and of the rotating earth. Subtractions of large terms cause a loss of significant digits and magnify the effect of relativistic corrections in determination of wind velocity. Spacecraft acceleration is also considered. Calculations are performed in an earth-centered inertial frame, and appropriate transformations are applied giving the velocities of scatterers relative to the ground.

  2. Anomalous Hall Effect in a Feromagnetic Rare-Earth Cobalite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoilov, A. V.; Yeh, N. C.; Vasquez, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    Rare-Earth manganites and cobalites with the perovskite structure have been a subject of great recent interest because their electrical resistance changes significantly when a magnetic field is applied...we have studied the Hall effect in thin film La(sub 0.5)Ca(sub 0.5)CoO(sub 3) material and have obtained convincing evidence fo the so called anomalous Hall effect, typical for magnetic metals...Our results suggest that near the ferromagnetic ordering temperature, the dominant electron scattering mechanism is the spin fluctuation.

  3. Atmospheric effects on earth rotation and polar motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salstein, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The variability in the earth's rotation rate not due to known solid body tides is dominated on time scales of about four years and less by variations in global atmospheric angular momentum (M) as derived from the zonal wind distribution. Among features seen in the length of day record produced by atmospheric forcing are the strong seasonal cycle, quasi-periodic fluctuations around 40-50 days, and an interannual signal forced by a strong Pacific warming event known as the El Nino. Momentum variations associated with these time scales arise in different latitudinal regions. Furthermore, winds in the stratosphere make a particularly important contribution to seasonal variability. Other related topics discussed here are: (1) comparisons of the M series from wind fields produced at different weather centers; (2) the torques that dynamically link the atmosphere and earth; and (3) longer-term nonatmospheric effects that can be seen upon removal of the atmospheric signal.an interestigapplication for climatological purposes is the use of the historical earth rotation series as a proxy for atmospheric wind variability prior to the era of upper-air data. Lastly, results pertaining to the role of atmospheric pressure systems in exciting rapid polar motion are presented.

  4. Chiral effective theory of dark matter direct detection

    SciT

    Bishara, Fady; Brod, Joachim; Grinstein, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    We present the effective field theory for dark matter interactions with the visible sector that is valid at scales of O(1 GeV). Starting with an effective theory describing the interactions of fermionic and scalar dark matter with quarks, gluons and photons via higher dimension operators that would arise from dimension-five and dimension-six operators above electroweak scale, we perform a nonperturbative matching onto a heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory that describes dark matter interactions with light mesons and nucleons. This is then used to obtain the coefficients of the nuclear response functions using a chiral effective theory description of nuclear forces.more » Our results consistently keep the leading contributions in chiral counting for each of the initial Wilson coefficients.« less

  5. Aid Effectiveness in Education: Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermingham, Desmond; Christensen, Olav Rex; Mahn, Timo Casjen

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the special issue of "Prospects" on "Aid effectiveness in education". It brings together case studies of attempts in several very different contexts to improve the effectiveness of the use of aid in the education sector. By drawing on the historical evolution of the new paradigm over the last 20 years, the authors make the…

  6. Magnus Effect on a Spinning Satellite in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramjatan, Sahadeo; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Yew, Alvin Garwai

    2016-01-01

    A spinning body in a flow field generates an aerodynamic lift or Magnus effect that displaces the body in a direction normal to the freestream flow. Earth orbiting satellites with substantial body rotation in appreciable atmospheric densities may generate a Magnus force to perturb orbital dynamics. We investigate the feasibility of using this effect for spacecraft at a perigee of 80km using the Systems Tool Kit (STK). Results show that for a satellite of reasonable properties, the Magnus effect doubles the amount of time in orbit. Orbital decay was greatly mitigated for satellites spinning at 10000 and 15000RPM. This study demonstrates that the Magnus effect has the potential to sustain a spacecraft's orbit at a low perigee altitude and could also serve as an orbital maneuver capability.

  7. Hot Strange Hadronic Matter in an Effective Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Wei-Liang; Su, Ru-Keng; Song, Hong-Qiu

    2003-10-01

    An effective model used to describe the strange hadronic matter with nucleons, Λ-hyperons, and Ξ-hyperons is extended to finite temperature. The extended model is used to study the density, temperature, and strangeness fraction dependence of the effective masses of baryons in the matter. The thermodynamical quantities, such as free energy and pressure, as well as the equation of state of the matter, are given. The project supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 10075071, 10047005, 19947001, 19975010, and 10235030, and the CAS Knowledge Innovation Project No. KJCX2-N11. Also supported by the State Key Basic Research Development Program under Grant No. G200077400 and the Exploration Project of Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

  8. The Programmed Instruction Era: When Effectiveness Mattered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenda, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Programmed instruction (PI) was devised to make the teaching-learning process more humane by making it more effective and customized to individual differences. B.F. Skinner's original prescription was modified by later innovators to incorporate more human interaction, social reinforcers and other forms of feedback, larger and more flexible chunks…

  9. DOSE CONCENTRATED COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE PRODUCE ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential for experiencing adverse health effects from particulate matter (PM) exposure is an important public health issue. Mortality associations have generally been shown to be stronger for fine PM (<2.5uM) produced by combustion processes (e.g. power plants, automobile...

  10. Evaluating litter decomposition and soil organic matter dynamics in earth system models: contrasting analysis of long-term litter decomposition and steady-state soil carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonan, G. B.; Wieder, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    Decomposition is a large term in the global carbon budget, but models of the earth system that simulate carbon cycle-climate feedbacks are largely untested with respect to litter decomposition. Here, we demonstrate a protocol to document model performance with respect to both long-term (10 year) litter decomposition and steady-state soil carbon stocks. First, we test the soil organic matter parameterization of the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4), the terrestrial component of the Community Earth System Model, with data from the Long-term Intersite Decomposition Experiment Team (LIDET). The LIDET dataset is a 10-year study of litter decomposition at multiple sites across North America and Central America. We show results for 10-year litter decomposition simulations compared with LIDET for 9 litter types and 20 sites in tundra, grassland, and boreal, conifer, deciduous, and tropical forest biomes. We show additional simulations with DAYCENT, a version of the CENTURY model, to ask how well an established ecosystem model matches the observations. The results reveal large discrepancy between the laboratory microcosm studies used to parameterize the CLM4 litter decomposition and the LIDET field study. Simulated carbon loss is more rapid than the observations across all sites, despite using the LIDET-provided climatic decomposition index to constrain temperature and moisture effects on decomposition. Nitrogen immobilization is similarly biased high. Closer agreement with the observations requires much lower decomposition rates, obtained with the assumption that nitrogen severely limits decomposition. DAYCENT better replicates the observations, for both carbon mass remaining and nitrogen, without requirement for nitrogen limitation of decomposition. Second, we compare global observationally-based datasets of soil carbon with simulated steady-state soil carbon stocks for both models. The models simulations were forced with observationally-based estimates of annual

  11. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciT

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. Here. we demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. In conclusion, we discussmore » the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.« less

  12. Nuclear matter from effective quark-quark interaction.

    PubMed

    Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K

    2014-12-12

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.

  13. Effective Dark Matter Halo Catalog in f(R) Gravity.

    PubMed

    He, Jian-Hua; Hawken, Adam J; Li, Baojiu; Guzzo, Luigi

    2015-08-14

    We introduce the idea of an effective dark matter halo catalog in f(R) gravity, which is built using the effective density field. Using a suite of high resolution N-body simulations, we find that the dynamical properties of halos, such as the distribution of density, velocity dispersion, specific angular momentum and spin, in the effective catalog of f(R) gravity closely mimic those in the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM). Thus, when using effective halos, an f(R) model can be viewed as a ΛCDM model. This effective catalog therefore provides a convenient way for studying the baryonic physics, the galaxy halo occupation distribution and even semianalytical galaxy formation in f(R) cosmologies.

  14. Fate of Earth Microbes on Mars: UV Radiation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockell, Charles

    2000-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to quantitatively investigate aspects of the martian ultraviolet radiation environment. Biological action spectra for DNA inactivation are used to estimate biologically effective irradiances for the martian surface under cloudless skies. Although the present-day martian UV flux is similar to early earth and thus may not be a limitation to life in the evolutionary context, it is a constraint to an unadapted biota and will rapidly kill spacecraft-borne microbes not covered by a martian dust layer. Here calculations for loss of microbial viability on the Pathfinder and Polar lander spacecraft are presented and the effects of martian dust on loss of viability are discussed. Details of the radiative transfer model are presented.

  15. Fate of Earth Microbes on Mars -- UV Radiation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockell, Charles

    2000-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to quantitatively investigate aspects of the martian ultraviolet radiation environment. Biological action spectra for DNA inactivation are used to estimate biologically effective irradiances for the martian surface under cloudless skies. Although the present-day martian UV flux is similar to early earth and thus may not be a limitation to life in the evolutionary context, it is a constraint to an unadapted biota and will rapidly kill spacecraft-borne microbes not covered by a martian dust layer. Here calculations for loss of microbial viability on the Pathfinder and Polar lander spacecraft are presented and the effects of martian dust on loss of viability are discussed. Details of the radiative transfer model are presented.

  16. Nucleon effective masses in neutron-rich matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-An; Cai, Bao-Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen; Xu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Various kinds of isovector nucleon effective masses are used in the literature to characterize the momentum/energy dependence of the nucleon symmetry potential or self-energy due to the space/time non-locality of the underlying isovector strong interaction in neutron-rich nucleonic matter. The multifaceted studies on nucleon isovector effective masses are multi-disciplinary in nature. Besides structures, masses and low-lying excited states of nuclei as well as nuclear reactions, studies of the isospin dependence of short-range correlations in nuclei from scatterings of high-energy electrons and protons on heavy nuclei also help understand nucleon effective masses especially the so-called E-mass in neutron-rich matter. A thorough understanding of all kinds of nucleon effective masses has multiple impacts on many interesting issues in both nuclear physics and astrophysics. Indeed, essentially all microscopic many-body theories and phenomenological models with various nuclear forces available in the literature have been used to calculate single-nucleon potentials and the associated nucleon effective masses in neutron-rich matter. There are also fundamental principles connecting different aspects and impacts of isovector strong interactions. In particular, the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem connects analytically nuclear symmetry energy with both isoscalar and isovector nucleon effective masses as well as their own momentum dependences. It also reveals how the isospin-quartic term in the equation of state of neutron-rich matter depends on the high-order momentum-derivatives of both isoscalar and isovector nucleon potentials. The Migdal-Luttinger theorem facilitates the extraction of nucleon E-mass and its isospin dependence from experimentally constrained single-nucleon momentum distributions. The momentum/energy dependence of the symmetry potential and the corresponding neutron-proton effective mass splitting also affect transport properties and the liquid-gas phase

  17. Andic soils : mineralogical effect onto organic matter dynamics, organic matter effect onto mineral dynamics, or both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile-Doelsch, Isabelle; Amundson, Ronald; Balesdent, Jérome; Borschneck, Daniel; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Colin, Fabrice; de Junet, Alexis; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Masion, Armand; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Rose, Jérôme

    2014-05-01

    From a strictly mineralogical point of view, weathering of volcanic glass produces secondary phases that are short range ordered alumino-silicates (SRO-AlSi). These are imogolite tubes (2 to 3 nm of diameter) and allophane supposedly spheres (3.5 to 5 nm). Their local structure is composed of a curved gibbsite Al layer and Si tetrahedra in the vacancies (Q0). Proto-imogolites have the same local structure but are roof-shape nanoparticles likely representing the precursors of imogolite and allophanes (Levard et al. 2010). These structures and sizes give to the SRO-AlSi large specific surfaces and high reactivities. In some natural sites, imogolites and allophanes are formed in large quantities. Aging of these phases may lead to the formation of more stable minerals (halloysite, kaolinite and gibbsite) (Torn et al 1997). In natural environments, when the weathering of volcanic glass is associated with the establishment of vegetation, the soils formed are generally andosols. These soils are particularly rich in organic matter (OM), which is explained by the high ability of SRO-AlSi mineral phases to form bonds with organic compounds. In a first order "bulk" approach, it is considered that these bonds strongly stabilize the organic compounds as their mean age can reach more than 10 kyrs in some studied sites (Basile-Doelsch et al. 2005; Torn et al. 1997). However, the structure of the mineral phases present in andosols deserves more attention. Traditionally, the presence in the SRO-AlSi andosols was shown by selective dissolution approaches by oxalate and pyrophosphate. Using spectroscopic methods, mineralogical analysis of SRO-AlSi in andosols samples showed that these mineral phases were neither imogolites nor allophanes as originally supposed, but only less organized structures remained in a state of proto-imogolites (Basile-Doelsch al. 2005 ; Levard et al., 2012). The presence of OM would have an inhibitory effect on the formation of secondary mineral phases, by

  18. Effect of gravitational focusing on annual modulation in dark-matter direct-detection experiments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Samuel K; Lisanti, Mariangela; Peter, Annika H G; Safdi, Benjamin R

    2014-01-10

    The scattering rate in dark-matter direct-detection experiments should modulate annually due to Earth's orbit around the Sun. The rate is typically thought to be extremized around June 1, when the relative velocity of Earth with respect to the dark-matter wind is maximal. We point out that gravitational focusing can alter this modulation phase. Unbound dark-matter particles are focused by the Sun's gravitational potential, affecting their phase-space density in the lab frame. Gravitational focusing can result in a significant overall shift in the annual-modulation phase, which is most relevant for dark matter with low scattering speeds. The induced phase shift for light O(10)  GeV dark matter may also be significant, depending on the threshold energy of the experiment.

  19. Space environment effects on polymers in low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, E.; Gouzman, I.

    2003-08-01

    Polymers are widely used in space vehicles and systems as structural materials, thermal blankets, thermal control coatings, conformal coatings, adhesives, lubricants, etc. The low earth orbit (LEO) space environment includes hazards such as atomic oxygen, UV radiation, ionizing radiation (electrons, protons), high vacuum, plasma, micrometeoroids and debris, as well as severe temperature cycles. Exposure of polymers and composites to the space environment may result in different detrimental effects via modification of their chemical, electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties as well as surface erosion. The high vacuum induces material outgassing (e.g. low-molecular weight residues, plasticizers and additives) and consequent contamination of nearby surfaces. The present work reviews the LEO space environment constituents and their interactions with polymers. Examples of degradation of materials exposed in ground simulation facilities are presented. The issues discussed include the erosion mechanisms of polymers, formation of contaminants and their interaction with the space environment, and protection of materials from the harsh space environment.

  20. Soil Organic Matter Content Effects on Dermal Pesticide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agricultural landscapes serve as active amphibian breeding grounds despite their seemingly poor habitat value. Activity of adults and dispersal of metamorphs to and from agricultural ponds occurs in most species from spring through late summer or early fall, a time that coincides with pesticide applications on farm fields and crops. In terrestrial landscapes, dermal contact with contaminated soil and plant matter may lead to bioconcentration as well as lethal and sublethal effects in amphibians.Although the physiological structure of the amphibian dermis may facilitate pesticide uptake, soil properties may ultimately dictate bioavailability of pesticides in terrestrial habitats. The organic matter fraction of soil readily binds to pesticides, potentially decreasing the availability of pesticides adhering to biological matter. Soil partition coefficient matter soils. We predicted that amphibian body burdens would be a function of soil carbon content or Koc. with greater bioconcentration in individuals exposed to pesticides on sa

  1. Effective Coulomb force modeling for spacecraft in Earth orbit plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seubert, Carl R.; Stiles, Laura A.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2014-07-01

    Coulomb formation flight is a concept that utilizes electrostatic forces to control the separations of close proximity spacecraft. The Coulomb force between charged bodies is a product of their size, separation, potential and interaction with the local plasma environment. A fast and accurate analytic method of capturing the interaction of a charged body in a plasma is shown. The Debye-Hückel analytic model of the electrostatic field about a charged sphere in a plasma is expanded to analytically compute the forces. This model is fitted to numerical simulations with representative geosynchronous and low Earth orbit (GEO and LEO) plasma environments using an effective Debye length. This effective Debye length, which more accurately captures the charge partial shielding, can be up to 7 times larger at GEO, and as great as 100 times larger at LEO. The force between a sphere and point charge is accurately captured with the effective Debye length, as opposed to the electron Debye length solutions that have errors exceeding 50%. One notable finding is that the effective Debye lengths in LEO plasmas about a charged body are increased from centimeters to meters. This is a promising outcome, as the reduced shielding at increased potentials provides sufficient force levels for operating the electrostatically inflated membrane structures concept at these dense plasma altitudes.

  2. Effective field theory of dark matter from membrane inflationary paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Dasgupta, Arnab

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we have studied the cosmological and particle physics constraints on dark matter relic abundance from effective field theory of inflation from tensor-to-scalar ratio (r), in case of Randall-Sundrum single membrane (RSII) paradigm. Using semi-analytical approach we establish a direct connection between the dark matter relic abundance (ΩDMh2) and primordial gravity waves (r), which establishes a precise connection between inflation and generation of dark matter within the framework of effective field theory in RSII membrane. Further assuming the UV completeness of the effective field theory perfectly holds good in the prescribed framework, we have explicitly shown that the membrane tension, σ ≤ O(10-9) Mp4 , bulk mass scale M5 ≤ O(0.04 - 0.05) Mp, and cosmological constant Λ˜5 ≥ - O(10-15) Mp5 , in RSII membrane plays the most significant role to establish the connection between dark matter and inflation, using which we have studied the features of various mediator mass scale suppressed effective field theory "relevant operators" induced from the localized s, t and u channel interactions in RSII membrane. Taking a completely model independent approach, we have studied an exhaustive list of tree-level Feynman diagrams for dark matter annihilation within the prescribed setup and to check the consistency of the obtained results, further we apply the constraints as obtained from recently observed Planck 2015 data and Planck + BICEP2 + Keck Array joint data sets. Using all of these derived results we have shown that to satisfy the bound on, ΩDMh2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, as from Planck 2015 data, it is possible to put further stringent constraint on r within, 0.01 ≤ r ≤ 0.12, for thermally averaged annihilation cross-section of dark matter, 〈 σv 〉 ≈ O(10-28 - 10-27) cm3 / s, which are very useful to constrain various membrane inflationary models.

  3. Accounting for the Effect of Earth's Rotation in Magnetotelluric Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegert, D. L.; Thomson, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The study of geomagnetism has been documented as far back as 1722 when the watchmaker G. Graham constructed a more sensitive compass and showed that the variations in geomagnetic direction varied with an irregular daily pattern. Increased interest in geomagnetism in geomagnetism began at the end of the 19th century (Lamb, Schuster, Chapman, and Price). The Magnetotelluric Method was first introduced in the 1950's (Cagniard and Tikhonov), and, at its core, is simply a regression problem. The result of this method is a transfer function estimate which describes the earth's response to magnetic field variations. This estimate can then be used to infer the earth's subsurface structure; useful for applications such as natural resource exploration. The statistical problem of estimating a transfer function between geomagnetic and induced current measurements has evolved since the 1950's due to a variety of problems: non-stationarity, outliers, and violation of Gaussian assumptions. To address some of these issues, robust regression methods (Chave and Thomson, 2004) and the remote reference method (Gambel, 1979) have been proposed and used. The current method seems to provide reasonable estimates, but still requires a large amount of data. Using the multitaper method of spectral analysis (Thomson, 1982), taking long (greater than 4 months) blocks of geomagnetic data, and concentrating on frequencies below 1000 microhertz to avoid ultraviolet effects, one finds that:1) the cross-spectra are dominated by many offset frequencies including plus and minus 1 and 2 cycles per day;2) the coherence at these offset frequencies is often stronger than at zero offset;3) there are strong couplings from the "quasi two-day" cycle;4) frequencines are usually not symmetric;5) the spectra are dominated by the normal modes of the Sun. This talk will discuss the method of incorporating these observations into the transfer function estimation model, some of the difficulties that arose, their

  4. Reassessing the effect of cloud type on Earth's energy balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, A.; L'Ecuyer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud feedbacks depend critically on the characteristics of the clouds that change, their location and their environment. As a result, accurately predicting the impact of clouds on future climate requires a better understanding of individual cloud types and their spatial and temporal variability. This work revisits the problem of documenting the effects of distinct cloud regimes on Earth's radiation budget distinguishing cloud types according to their signatures in spaceborne active observations. Using CloudSat's multi-sensor radiative fluxes product that leverages high-resolution vertical cloud information from CloudSat, CALIPSO, and MODIS observations to provide the most accurate estimates of vertically-resolved radiative fluxes available to date, we estimate the global annual mean net cloud radiative effect at the top of the atmosphere to be -17.1 W m-2 (-44.2 W m-2 in the shortwave and 27.1 W m-2 in the longwave), slightly weaker than previous estimates from passive sensor observations. Multi-layered cloud systems, that are often misclassified using passive techniques but are ubiquitous in both hemispheres, contribute about -6.2 W m-2 of the net cooling effect, particularly at ITCZ and higher latitudes. Another unique aspect of this work is the ability of CloudSat and CALIPSO to detect cloud boundary information providing an improved capability to accurately discern the impact of cloud-type variations on surface radiation balance, a critical factor in modulating the disposition of excess energy in the climate system. The global annual net cloud radiative effect at the surface is estimated to be -24.8 W m-2 (-51.1 W m-2 in the shortwave and 26.3 W m-2 in the longwave), dominated by shortwave heating in multi-layered and stratocumulus clouds. Corresponding estimates of the effects of clouds on atmospheric heating suggest that clouds redistribute heat from poles to equator enhancing the general circulation.

  5. The effects of puberty on white matter development in boys.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Lara; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Viner, Russell M

    2015-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies demonstrate considerable changes in white matter volume and microstructure during adolescence. Most studies have focused on age-related effects, whilst puberty-related changes are not well understood. Using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics, we investigated the effects of pubertal status on white matter mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in 61 males aged 12.7-16.0 years. Participants were grouped into early-mid puberty (≤Tanner Stage 3 in pubic hair and gonadal development; n=22) and late-post puberty (≥Tanner Stage 4 in pubic hair or gonadal development; n=39). Salivary levels of pubertal hormones (testosterone, DHEA and oestradiol) were also measured. Pubertal stage was significantly related to MD in diverse white matter regions. No relationship was observed between pubertal status and FA. Regression modelling of MD in the significant regions demonstrated that an interaction model incorporating puberty, age and puberty×age best explained our findings. In addition, testosterone was correlated with MD in these pubertally significant regions. No relationship was observed between oestradiol or DHEA and MD. In conclusion, pubertal status was significantly related to MD, but not FA, and this relationship cannot be explained by changes in chronological age alone. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of puberty on white matter development in boys

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, Lara; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Whitaker, Kirstie J.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Viner, Russell M.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies demonstrate considerable changes in white matter volume and microstructure during adolescence. Most studies have focused on age-related effects, whilst puberty-related changes are not well understood. Using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics, we investigated the effects of pubertal status on white matter mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in 61 males aged 12.7–16.0 years. Participants were grouped into early-mid puberty (≤Tanner Stage 3 in pubic hair and gonadal development; n = 22) and late-post puberty (≥Tanner Stage 4 in pubic hair or gonadal development; n = 39). Salivary levels of pubertal hormones (testosterone, DHEA and oestradiol) were also measured. Pubertal stage was significantly related to MD in diverse white matter regions. No relationship was observed between pubertal status and FA. Regression modelling of MD in the significant regions demonstrated that an interaction model incorporating puberty, age and puberty × age best explained our findings. In addition, testosterone was correlated with MD in these pubertally significant regions. No relationship was observed between oestradiol or DHEA and MD. In conclusion, pubertal status was significantly related to MD, but not FA, and this relationship cannot be explained by changes in chronological age alone. PMID:25454416

  7. Effects of the low Earth orbital environment on spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    It is evident from space flights during the last three years that the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment interacts with spacecraft surfaces in significant ways. One manifestation of these interactions is recession of, in particular, organic-polymer-based surfaces presumably due to oxidation by atomic oxygen, the major component of the LEO environment. Three experiments have been conducted on Space Shuttle flights 5, 8 and 41-G to measure reaction rates and the effects of various parameters on reaction rates. Surface recession on these flights indicates reaction efficiencies approximately 3 x 10(-24) cu cm/atoms for unfilled organic polymers. Of the metals, silver and osmium are very reactive. Effects on spacecraft or experiment surfaces can be evaluated using the derived reaction efficiencies and a definition of the total exposure to atomic oxygen. This exposure is obtained using an ambient density model, solar activity data and spacecraft parameters of altitude, attitude and operational date. Oxygen flux on a given surface is obtained from the ambient density and spacecraft velocity and can then be integrated to provide the total exposure or fluence. Such information can be generated using simple computational programs and can be converted to various formats. Overall, the extent of damage is strongly dependent on the type of surface and total exposure time.

  8. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciT

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implicationsmore » of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.« less

  9. Detecting inertial effects with airborne matter-wave interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, R.; Ménoret, V.; Stern, G.; Zahzam, N.; Cheinet, P.; Battelier, B.; Villing, A.; Moron, F.; Lours, M.; Bidel, Y.; Bresson, A.; Landragin, A.; Bouyer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Inertial sensors relying on atom interferometry offer a breakthrough advance in a variety of applications, such as inertial navigation, gravimetry or ground- and space-based tests of fundamental physics. These instruments require a quiet environment to reach their performance and using them outside the laboratory remains a challenge. Here we report the first operation of an airborne matter-wave accelerometer set up aboard a 0g plane and operating during the standard gravity (1g) and microgravity (0g) phases of the flight. At 1g, the sensor can detect inertial effects more than 300 times weaker than the typical acceleration fluctuations of the aircraft. We describe the improvement of the interferometer sensitivity in 0g, which reaches 2 x 10-4 ms-2 / √Hz with our current setup. We finally discuss the extension of our method to airborne and spaceborne tests of the Universality of free fall with matter waves. PMID:21934658

  10. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implicationsmore » of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.« less

  11. Exercise Effects on the Course of Gray Matter Changes Over 70 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppelmans, V.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.; DeDios, Y. E.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight affects posture control, locomotion, and manual control. The microgravity environment is an important causal factor for spaceflight induced sensorimotor changes through direct effects on peripheral changes that result from reduced vestibular stimulation and body unloading. Effects of microgravity on sensorimotor function have been investigated on earth using bed rest studies. Long duration bed rest serves as a space-flight analogue because it mimics microgravity in body unloading and bodily fluid shifts. It has been hypothesized that the cephalad fluid shift that has been observed in microgravity could potentially affect central nervous system function and structure, and thereby indirectly affect sensorimotor or cognitive functioning. Preliminary results of one of our ongoing studies indeed showed that 70 days of long duration head down-tilt bed rest results in focal changes in gray matter volume from pre-bed rest to various time points during bed rest. These gray matter changes that could reflect fluid shifts as well as neuroplasticity were related to decrements in motor skills such as maintenance of equilibrium. In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers both inand post-flight we are currently conducting a study that investigates the potential preventive effects of exercise on gray matter and motor performance changes that we observed over the course of bed rest. Numerous studies have shown beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on brain structure and cognitive performance in healthy and demented subjects over a large age range. We therefore hypothesized that an exercise intervention in bed rest could potentially mitigate or prevent the effects of bed rest on the central nervous system. Here we present preliminary outcomes of our study.

  12. On the effective operators for Dark Matter annihilations

    SciT

    Simone, Andrea De; Thamm, Andrea; Monin, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    We consider effective operators describing Dark Matter (DM) interactions with Standard Model fermions. In the non-relativistic limit of the DM field, the operators can be organized according to their mass dimension and their velocity behaviour, i.e. whether they describe s- or p-wave annihilations. The analysis is carried out for self-conjugate DM (real scalar or Majorana fermion). In this case, the helicity suppression at work in the annihilation into fermions is lifted by electroweak bremsstrahlung. We construct and study all dimension-8 operators encoding such an effect. These results are of interest in indirect DM searches.

  13. The Effects of Admixed Dark Matter on Accretion Induced Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Shing-Chi; Chu, Ming-Chung; Lin, Lap-Ming; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    About 90% mass of matter in the universe is dark matter (DM) and most of its properties remain poorly constrained since it does not interact with electromagnetic and strong forces. To constrain the properties of DM, studying its effects on stellar objects is one of the methods. In [Leung et al., Phys. Rev. D 87, 123506 (2013); Leung et al., Astrophys. J. 812, 110 (2015)] we have shown that the dark matter admixture can significantly lower the Chandrasekhar mass of a white dwarf and also its corresponding explosion as a Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia). This type of objects may explain some observed sub-luminous SNe Ia. Depending on their stellar evolution path and interactions with companion stars, such objects can also undergo a direct collapse to form neutron stars (NSs) instead of explosion. Here we present results of one-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations of a NS with admixed DM. The DM is assumed to be asymmetric and in the form of an ideal degenerate Fermi gas. We study how the admixture of DM affects the collapse dynamics, its neutrino signals and the properties of the proto-NS. Possible observational signals are also discussed.

  14. Effects of Low Earth Orbit on Docking Seal Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imka, Emily C.; Asmar, Olivia C.; deGroh, Henry C., III; Banks, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft docking seals are typically made of silicone elastomers. When such seals are exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions, they can suffer damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen (AO, or monoatomic oxygen, the predominant oxygen species in LEO). An experiment flew on the International Space Station (ISS) to measure the effects of LEO on seal materials S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401 and various mating counterface materials which included anodized aluminum. Samples flown in different orientations received different amounts of UV and AO. The hypotheses were that most of the damage would be from UV, and 10 days or more of exposure in LEO would badly damage the seals. Eighteen seals were exposed for 543 days in ram (windward), zenith (away from Earth), or wake (leeward) orientations, and 15 control samples (not flown) provided undamaged baseline leakage. To determine post-flight leak rates, each of the 33 seals were placed in an O-ring groove of a leak test fixture and pressure tested over time. Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), pressure transducers, and LabVIEW (National Instruments) programs were used to measure and analyze the temperature and pressure and calculate leakage. Average leakage of control samples was 2.6 x 10(exp -7) lbs/day. LEO exposure did not considerably damage ELA-SA-401. The S0383-70 flight samples leaked at least 10 times more than ELA-SA-401 in all cases except one, demonstrating that ELA-SA-401 may be a more suitable sealing material in LEO. AO caused greater damage than UV; samples in ram orientation (receiving an AO fluence of 4.3 x 10(exp 21) atoms/(sq cm) and in wake (2.9x 10(exp 20) atoms/(sq cm)) leaked more than those in zenith orientation (1.58 x 10(exp 20) atoms/(sq cm)), whereas variations in UV exposure did not seem to affect the samples. Exposure to LEO did less damage to the seals than hypothesized, and the data did not support the conjecture that UV causes more damage than AO.

  15. Effects of simulated rare earth recycling wastewaters on biological nitrification

    DOE PAGES

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; ...

    2015-07-16

    Current efforts to increase domestic availability of rare-earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing efforts will result in increased generation of associated wastewaters. In some cases disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological wastewater treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50 and 100 ppm), and the REE extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions above 10 ppm inhibited N.more » europaea activity, even when initially virtually all of the REE was insoluble. The provision of TBP together with Eu increased inhibition of nitrite production by the N. europaea, although TBP alone did not substantially alter nitrifying activity N. winogradskyi was more sensitive to the stimulated wastewaters, with even 10 ppm Eu or Y inducing significant inhibition, and a complete shutdown of nitrifying activity occurred in the presence of the TBP. To analyze the availability of REEs in aqueous solutions, REE solubility has been calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, which is typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but may also be influenced by the formation of a phosphate phase.« less

  16. Effect of Loop Geometry on TEM Response Over Layered Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Youzheng; Huang, Ling; Wu, Xin; Fang, Guangyou; Yu, Gang

    2014-09-01

    A large horizontal loop located on the ground or carried by an aircraft are the most common sources of the transient electromagnetic method. Although topographical factors or airplane outlines make the loop of arbitrary shape, magnetic sources are generally represented as a magnetic dipole or a circular loop, which may bring about significant errors in the calculated response. In this paper, we present a method for calculating the response of a loop of arbitrary shape (for which the description can be obtained by different methods, including GPS localization) in air or on the surface of a stratified earth. The principle of reciprocity is firstly used to exchange the functions of the transmitting loop and the dipole receiver, then the response of a vertical or a horizontal magnetic dipole is calculated beforehand, and finally the line integral of the second kind is employed to get the transient response. Analytical analysis and comparisons depict that our work got very good results in many situations. Synthetic and field examples are given in the end to show the effect of loop geometry and how our method improves the precision of the EM response.

  17. Effects of Simulated Rare Earth Recycling Wastewaters on Biological Nitrification.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M; Anderko, Andrzej; Riman, Richard E; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-08-18

    Increasing rare earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing will result in generation of new wastewaters. In some cases, disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored, but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50, and 100 ppm), and the extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions at 50 and 100 ppm inhibited N. europaea, even when virtually all of the REE was insoluble. Provision of TBP with Eu increased N. europaea inhibition, although TBP alone did not substantially alter activity. For N. winogradskyi cultures, Eu or Y additions at all tested levels induced significant inhibition, and nitrification shut down completely with TBP addition. REE solubility was calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but also likely affected by the formation of unknown phosphate phases, which determined aqueous concentrations experienced by the microorganisms.

  18. Effects of simulated rare earth recycling wastewaters on biological nitrification

    SciT

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali

    Current efforts to increase domestic availability of rare-earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing efforts will result in increased generation of associated wastewaters. In some cases disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological wastewater treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50 and 100 ppm), and the REE extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions above 10 ppm inhibited N.more » europaea activity, even when initially virtually all of the REE was insoluble. The provision of TBP together with Eu increased inhibition of nitrite production by the N. europaea, although TBP alone did not substantially alter nitrifying activity N. winogradskyi was more sensitive to the stimulated wastewaters, with even 10 ppm Eu or Y inducing significant inhibition, and a complete shutdown of nitrifying activity occurred in the presence of the TBP. To analyze the availability of REEs in aqueous solutions, REE solubility has been calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, which is typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but may also be influenced by the formation of a phosphate phase.« less

  19. Effects of differentiation on the geodynamics of the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolo, Andrea; Kaus, Boris; White, Richard; Johnson, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Archean geodynamic processes are not well understood, but there is general agreement that the mantle potential temperature was higher than present, and that as a consequence significant amounts of melt were produced both in the mantle and any overlying crust. This has likely resulted in crustal differentiation. An early attempt to model the geodynamic effects of differentiation was made by Johnson et al. (2014), who used numerical modeling to investigate the crust production and recycling in conjunction with representative phase diagrams (based on the inferred chemical composition of the primary melt in accordance with the Archean temperature field). The results of the simulations show that the base of the over-thickened primary basaltic crust becomes gravitational unstable due to the mineral assemblage changes. This instability leads to the dripping of dense material into the mantle, which causes an asthenospheric return flow, local partial melting and new primary crust generation that is rapidly recycled in to mantle. Whereas they gave important insights, the previous simulations were simplified in a number of aspects: 1) the rheology employed was viscous, and both elasticity and pressure-dependent plasticity were not considered; 2) extracted mantle melts were 100% transformed into volcanic rocks, whereas on the present day Earth only about 20-30% are volcanic and the remainder is plutonic; 3) the effect of a free surface was not studied in a systematic manner. In order to better understand how these simplifications affect the geodynamic models, we here present additional simulations to study the effects of each of these parameters. Johnson, T.E., Brown, M., Kaus, B., and VanTongeren, J.A., 2014, Delamination and recycling of Archaean crust caused by gravitational instabilities: Nature Geoscience, v. 7, no. 1, p. 47-52, doi: 10.1038/NGEO2019.

  20. Effects of Rare Earth Metals on Steel Microstructures

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hao-Long; Su, Yen-Hsun; Kuo, Chia-Liang; Su, Yen-Hao; Chen, Shin-Hau; Lin, Kuan-Ju; Hsieh, Ping-Hung; Hwang, Weng-Sing

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth metals are used in semiconductors, solar cells and catalysts. This review focuses on the background of oxide metallurgy technologies, the chemical and physical properties of rare earth (RE) metals, the background of oxide metallurgy, the functions of RE metals in steelmaking, and the influences of RE metals on steel microstructures. Future prospects for RE metal applications in steelmaking are also presented. PMID:28773545

  1. Precision Higgs Physics, Effective Field Theory, and Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Brian Quinn

    The recent discovery of the Higgs boson calls for detailed studies of its properties. As precision measurements are indirect probes of new physics, the appropriate theoretical framework is effective field theory. In the first part of this thesis, we present a practical three-step procedure of using the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT) to connect ultraviolet (UV) models of new physics with weak scale precision observables. With this procedure, one can interpret precision measurements as constraints on the UV model concerned. We give a detailed explanation for calculating the effective action up to one-loop order in a manifestly gauge covariant fashion. The covariant derivative expansion dramatically simplifies the process of matching a UV model with the SM EFT, and also makes available a universal formalism that is easy to use for a variety of UV models. A few general aspects of renormalization group running effects and choosing operator bases are discussed. Finally, we provide mapping results between the bosonic sector of the SM EFT and a complete set of precision electroweak and Higgs observables to which present and near future experiments are sensitive. With a detailed understanding of how to use the SM EFT, we then turn to applications and study in detail two well-motivated test cases. The first is singlet scalar field that enables the first-order electroweak phase transition for baryogenesis; the second example is due to scalar tops in the MSSM. We find both Higgs and electroweak measurements are sensitive probes of these cases. The second part of this thesis centers around dark matter, and consists of two studies. In the first, we examine the effects of relic dark matter annihilations on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The magnitude of these effects scale simply with the dark matter mass and annihilation cross-section, which we derive. Estimates based on these scaling behaviors indicate that BBN severely constrains hadronic and radiative dark

  2. Effect of hydrodynamical-simulation–inspired dark matter velocity profile on directional detection of dark matter

    DOE PAGES

    Laha, Ranjan

    2018-02-01

    Directional detection is an important way to detect dark matter. An input for these experiments is the dark matter velocity distribution. Recent hydrodynamical simulations have shown that the dark matter velocity distribution differs substantially from the Standard Halo Model. We study the impact of some of these updated velocity distributions in dark matter directional detection experiments. Here, we calculate the ratio of events required to confirm the forward-backward asymmetry and the existence of the ring of maximum recoil rate using different dark matter velocity distributions for 19F and Xe targets. We show that with the use of updated dark mattermore » velocity profiles, the forward-backward asymmetry and the ring of maximum recoil rate can be confirmed using a factor of ~ 2– 3 less events when compared to that using the Standard Halo Model.« less

  3. Effect of hydrodynamical-simulation–inspired dark matter velocity profile on directional detection of dark matter

    SciT

    Laha, Ranjan

    Directional detection is an important way to detect dark matter. An input for these experiments is the dark matter velocity distribution. Recent hydrodynamical simulations have shown that the dark matter velocity distribution differs substantially from the Standard Halo Model. We study the impact of some of these updated velocity distributions in dark matter directional detection experiments. Here, we calculate the ratio of events required to confirm the forward-backward asymmetry and the existence of the ring of maximum recoil rate using different dark matter velocity distributions for 19F and Xe targets. We show that with the use of updated dark mattermore » velocity profiles, the forward-backward asymmetry and the ring of maximum recoil rate can be confirmed using a factor of ~ 2– 3 less events when compared to that using the Standard Halo Model.« less

  4. Perturbation theory of nuclear matter with a microscopic effective interaction

    SciT

    Benhar, Omar; Lovato, Alessandro

    Here, an updated and improved version of the effective interaction based on the Argonne-Urbana nuclear Hamiltonian, derived using the formalism of correlated basis functions and the cluster expansion technique, is employed to obtain a number of properties of cold nuclear matter at arbitrary neutron excess within the formalism of many-body perturbation theory. The numerical results, including the ground-state energy per nucleon, the symmetry energy, the pressure, the compressibility, and the single-particle spectrum, are discussed in the context of the available empirical information, obtained from measured nuclear properties and heavy-ion collisions.

  5. Perturbation theory of nuclear matter with a microscopic effective interaction

    DOE PAGES

    Benhar, Omar; Lovato, Alessandro

    2017-11-01

    Here, an updated and improved version of the effective interaction based on the Argonne-Urbana nuclear Hamiltonian, derived using the formalism of correlated basis functions and the cluster expansion technique, is employed to obtain a number of properties of cold nuclear matter at arbitrary neutron excess within the formalism of many-body perturbation theory. The numerical results, including the ground-state energy per nucleon, the symmetry energy, the pressure, the compressibility, and the single-particle spectrum, are discussed in the context of the available empirical information, obtained from measured nuclear properties and heavy-ion collisions.

  6. Small collision systems: Theory overview on cold nuclear matter effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armesto, Néstor

    2018-02-01

    Many observables measured at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider show a smooth transition between proton-proton and protonnucleus collisions (small systems), and nucleus-nucleus collisions (large systems), when represented versus some variable like the multiplicity in the event. In this contribution I review some of the physics mechanisms, named cold nuclear matter effects, that may lead to a collective-like behaviour in small systems beyond the macroscopic description provided by relativistic hydrodynamics. I focus on the nuclear modification of parton densities, single inclusive particle production and correlations.

  7. [Physiological effects of rare earth elements and their application in traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Guo, Lanping; Xiao, Wenjuan; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao; Shi, Xin'gang; Dan, Staerk

    2012-08-01

    The process in the studies on physiological effects of rare earth elements in plants and their action mechanisms were summarized in the aspects of seed germination, photosynthesis, mineral metabolism and stress resistance. And the applications of rare earth elements in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in recent years were also overviewed, which will provide reference for further development and application of rare earth elements in TCM.

  8. ISS Charging Hazards and Low Earth Orbit Space Weather Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph; Parker, L.; Coffey, V.; Wright K.; Koontz, S.; Edwards, D.

    2008-01-01

    Current collection by high voltage solar arrays on the International Space Station (ISS) drives the vehicle to negative floating potentials in the low Earth orbit daytime plasma environment. Pre-flight predictions of ISS floating potentials Phi greater than |-100 V| suggested a risk for degradation of dielectric thermal control coatings on surfaces in the U.S. sector due to arcing and an electrical shock hazard to astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). However, hazard studies conducted by the ISS program have demonstrated that the thermal control material degradation risk is effectively mitigated during the lifetime of the ISS vehicle by a sufficiently large ion collection area present on the vehicle to balance current collection by the solar arrays. To date, crew risk during EVA has been mitigated by operating one of two plasma contactors during EVA to control the vehicle potential within Phi less than or equal to |-40 V| with a backup process requiring reorientation of the solar arrays into a configuration which places the current collection surfaces into wake. This operation minimizes current collection by the solar arrays should the plasma contactors fail. This paper presents an analysis of F-region electron density and temperature variations at low and midlatitudes generated by space weather events to determine what range of conditions represent charging threats to ISS. We first use historical ionospheric plasma measurements from spacecraft operating at altitudes relevant to the 51.6 degree inclination ISS orbit to provide an extensive database of F-region plasma conditions over a variety of solar cycle conditions. Then, the statistical results from the historical data are compared to more recent in-situ measurements from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) operating on ISS in a campaign mode since its installation in August, 2006.

  9. Solar rotation effects on the thermospheres of Mars and Earth.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Jeffrey M; Bruinsma, Sean; Lemoine, Frank G

    2006-06-02

    The responses of Earth's and Mars' thermospheres to the quasi-periodic (27-day) variation of solar flux due to solar rotation were measured contemporaneously, revealing that this response is twice as large for Earth as for Mars. Per typical 20-unit change in 10.7-centimeter radio flux (used as a proxy for extreme ultraviolet flux) reaching each planet, we found temperature changes of 42.0 +/- 8.0 kelvin and 19.2 +/- 3.6 kelvin for Earth and Mars, respectively. Existing data for Venus indicate values of 3.6 +/- 0.6 kelvin. Our observational result constrains comparative planetary thermosphere simulations and may help resolve existing uncertainties in thermal balance processes, particularly CO2 cooling.

  10. The effect of aerosols on the earth-atmosphere albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, B. M.; Browning, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents calculations of the change in reflected flux by the earth-atmosphere system in response to increases in the atmospheric aerosol loading for a range of complex indices of refraction, solar elevation angle and ground albedo. Results show that, for small values of ground albedo, the reflected solar flux may either increase or decrease with increasing aerosol loadings, depending upon the complex part of the index of refraction of the aerosols. For high ground albedos, an increase in aerosol levels always results in a decrease of reflected flux (i.e., a warming of the earth-atmosphere system).

  11. Effects of Cutoffs on Galactic Cosmic-Ray Interactions in Solar-System Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. J.; Reedy, R. C.; Masarik, J.

    2005-01-01

    The energetic particles in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) induce many interactions in a variety of solar-system matter. Cosmogenic nuclides are used to study the histories of meteorites and lunar samples. Gamma rays and neutrons are used to map the compositions of planetary surfaces, such as Mars, the Moon, and asteroids. In almost all of these cases, the spectra of incident GCR particles are fairly similar, with only some modulation by the Sun over an 11-year cycle. Strong magnetic fields can seriously affect the energy spectrum of GCR particles hitting the surface of objects inside the magnetic fields. The Earth s geomagnetic field is strong enough that only GCR particles with magnetic rigidities above approx. 17 GV (a proton energy of approx. 17 GeV) reach the atmosphere over certain regions near the equator. This effect of removing lower-energy GCR particles is called a cutoff. The jovian magnetic fields are so strong that the fluxes of GCR particles hitting the 4 large Galilean satellites are similarly affected. The cutoff at Europa is estimated to be similar to or a little higher than at the Earth s equator.

  12. Removal of dissolved organic matter by anion exchange: Effect of dissolved organic matter properties

    Boyer, T.H.; Singer, P.C.; Aiken, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    Ten isolates of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) were evaluated to determine the effect that chemical properties of the DOM, such as charge density, aromaticity, and molecular weight, have on DOM removal by anion exchange. The DOM isolates were characterized asterrestrial, microbial, or intermediate humic substances or transphilic acids. All anion exchange experiments were conducted using a magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) resin. The charge density of the DOM isolates, determined by direct potentiometric titration, was fundamental to quantifying the stoichiometry of the anion exchange mechanism. The results clearly show that all DOM isolates were removed by anion exchange; however, differences among the DOM isolates did influence their removal by MIEX resin. In particular, MIEX resin had the greatest affinity for DOM with high charge density and the least affinity for DOM with low charge density and low aromaticity. This work illustrates that the chemical characteristics of DOM and solution conditions must be considered when evaluating anion exchange treatment for the removal of DOM. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  13. The Effect of Improved Sub-Daily Earth Rotation Models on Global GPS Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Choi, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Throughout the various International GNSS Service (IGS) products, strong periodic signals have been observed around the 14 day period. This signal is clearly visible in all IGS time-series such as those related to orbit ephemerides, Earth rotation parameters (ERP) and ground station coordinates. Recent studies show that errors in the sub-daily Earth rotation models are the main factors that induce such noise. Current IGS orbit processing standards adopted the IERS 2010 convention and its sub-daily Earth rotation model. Since the IERS convention had published, recent advances in the VLBI analysis have made contributions to update the sub-daily Earth rotation models. We have compared several proposed sub-daily Earth rotation models and show the effect of using those models on orbit ephemeris, Earth rotation parameters and ground station coordinates generated by the NGS global GPS data processing strategy.

  14. Urban tree effects on fine particulate matter and human health

    David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Overall, city trees reduce particulate matter and provide substantial health benefits; but under certain conditions, they can locally increase particulate matter concentrations. Urban foresters need to understand how trees affect particulate matter so they can select proper species and create appropriate designs to improve air quality. This article details trees'...

  15. Best Mitigation Paths To Effectively Reduce Earth's Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegman, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some ways to reduce the problem posed by debris in orbit around the Earth. It reviews the orbital debris environment, the near-term needs to minimize the Kessler syndrome, also known as collisional cascading, a survey of active orbital debris mitigation strategies, the best paths to actively remove orbital debris, and technologies that are required for active debris mitigation.

  16. Tidal effects on Earth, Planets, Sun by far visiting moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The Earth has been formed by a huge mini-planet collision forming our Earth surface and our Moon today. Such a central collision hit was statistically rare. A much probable skimming or nearby encounter by other moons or planets had to occur. Indeed Recent observations suggest that many planetary-mass objects may be present in the outer solar system between the Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud. Gravitational perturbations may occasionally bring them into the inner solar system. Their passage near Earth could have generated gigantic tidal waves, large volcanic eruptions, sea regressions, large meteoritic impacts and drastic changes in global climate. They could have caused the major biological mass extinctions in the past in the geological records. For instance a ten times a terrestrial radius nearby impact scattering by a peripherical encounter by a small moon-like object will force huge tidal waves (hundred meter height), able to lead to huge tsunami and Earth-quake. Moreover the historical cumulative planet hits in larger and wider planets as Juppiter, Saturn, Uranus will leave a trace, as observed, in their tilted spin axis. Finally a large fraction of counter rotating moons in our solar system probe and test such a visiting mini-planet captur origination. In addition the Earth day duration variability in the early past did show a rare discountinuity, very probably indebt to such a visiting planet crossing event. These far planets in rare trajectory to our Sun may, in thousands event capture, also explain sudden historical and recent temperature changes.

  17. Exploring spin-3 /2 dark matter with effective Higgs couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chia-Feng; He, Xiao-Gang; Tandean, Jusak

    2017-10-01

    We study an economical model of weakly interacting massive particle dark matter (DM) which has spin 3 /2 and interacts with the 125 GeV Higgs boson via effective scalar and pseudoscalar operators. We apply constraints on the model from the relic density data, LHC measurements of the Higgs boson, and direct and indirect searches for DM, taking into account the effective nature of the DM-Higgs couplings. We show that this DM is currently viable in most of the mass region from about 58 GeV to 2.3 TeV and will be probed more stringently by ongoing and upcoming experiments. Nevertheless, the presence of the DM-Higgs pseudoscalar coupling could make parts of the model parameter space elusive from future tests. We find that important aspects of this scenario are quite similar to those of its more popular spin-1 /2 counterpart.

  18. Many body effects in nuclear matter QCD sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukarev, E. G.; Ryskin, M. G.; Sadovnikova, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    We calculate the single-particle nucleon characteristics in symmetric nuclear matter with inclusion of the 3N and 4N interactions. We calculated the contribution of the 3N interactions earlier, now we add that of the 4N ones. The contribution of the 4N forces to nucleon self energies is expressed in terms of the nonlocal scalar condensate (d = 3) and of the configurations of the vector-scalar and the scalar-scalar quark condensates (d = 6) in which two diquark operators act on two different nucleons of the matter.These four-quark condensates are obtained in the model-independent way. The density dependence of the nucleon effective mass, of the vector self energy and of the single-particle potential energy are obtained. We traced the dependence of the nucleon characteristics on the actual value of the pion-nucleon sigma term. We obtained also the nucleon characteristics in terms of the quasifree nucleons, with the noninteracting nucleons surrounded by their pion clouds as the starting point. This approach leads to strict hierarchy of the many body forces.

  19. Z boson mediated dark matter beyond the effective theory

    DOE PAGES

    Kearney, John; Orlofsky, Nicholas; Pierce, Aaron

    2017-02-17

    Here, direct detection bounds are beginning to constrain a very simple model of weakly interacting dark matter—a Majorana fermion with a coupling to the Z boson. In a particularly straightforward gauge-invariant realization, this coupling is introduced via a higher-dimensional operator. While attractive in its simplicity, this model generically induces a large ρ parameter. An ultraviolet completion that avoids an overly large contribution to ρ is the singlet-doublet model. We revisit this model, focusing on the Higgs blind spot region of parameter space where spin-independent interactions are absent. This model successfully reproduces dark matter with direct detection mediated by the Zmore » boson but whose cosmology may depend on additional couplings and states. Future direct detection experiments should effectively probe a significant portion of this parameter space, aside from a small coannihilating region. As such, Z-mediated thermal dark matter as realized in the singlet-doublet model represents an interesting target for future searches.« less

  20. The Impenetrable Barrier Revisited - Anthroprogenic Effects on Earth's Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. C.; Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Albert, J.; Fennell, J. F.; Mishin, E. V.; Starks, M. J.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S. G.; Kletzing, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes are contributing significantly to the understanding of processes effecting Earth's radiation belts. It has been noted that the earthward extent of the outer zone highly-relativistic electrons encounters a nearly impenetrable barrier at a radial distance (L) near 2.8 RE inside of which they are not observed. Modeling suggests that this is the result of a balance between slow inward diffusion and hiss-induced precipitation. The large storm of 17 March 2015 afforded an excellent opportunity to investigate the impenetrable barrier using the full complement of sensors carried by the Van Allen Probes. The storm was marked by the rapid reappearance of strong fluxes of MeV electrons directly outside the barrier with the formation of very steep MeV flux gradients. In spite of the strong rapid recovery of MeV electron fluxes immediately outside the barrier, the sharpness and constancy of the gradient at the barrier is strongly suggestive of a previously unrecognized fast-acting and spatially localized mechanism responsible for the formation of such a well-defined feature during these dramatic circumstances. The Van Allen Probes regularly observe a magnetically confined bubble of VLF emissions of terrestrial origin filling the inner magnetosphere. Strongest signals are from US Navy VLF transmitters used for one-way communication to submarines. These signals largely are confined to the region of L space where their frequency is < ½ fce. The strong signal from station NAA at 24 kHz is confined to L < 2.8 where it encounters the ½ fce limit. During the event, the flux of MeV electrons decreased by 1000x across 0.5 RE outside L = 2.8 simultaneous with a 6 order of magnitude increase in the VLF wave intensity as the Probes entered the VLF bubble. The VLF transmitter frequencies are amplified at the point where they overlap natural chorus band near ½ fce suggestive of transmitter-induced triggered emissions. MeV radiation belt electrons encounter this

  1. An analytical treatment for three neutrino oscillations in the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Supanitsky, A. D.

    2012-08-01

    A simple, and at the same time accurate, description of the Earth matter effects on the oscillations between three neutrino flavors is given in terms of the Magnus expansion for the evolution operator.

  2. Comparative studies on the concentration of rare earth elements and heavy metals in the atmospheric particulate matter in Beijing, China, and in Delft, The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wang, C X; Zhu, W; Peng, A; Guichreit, R

    2001-05-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (APM) was collected at three sampling sites in Beijing, China, from February to June 1998. The concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) and cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the APM were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results obtained in Beijing, China, were compared to that obtained in Delft, the Netherlands, in 1997. The influence of coal combustion was considered. The results demonstrated that the content of APM, the concentrations of REE and Co, Zn, Cd, Pb in the APM in Beijing, China, were higher than that in Delft, the Netherlands. From the ratios of La to Ce, and La to Sm, which may be used as tracers for the origin of the REE, it is concluded that the origins of REE in China differ from those in the Netherlands.

  3. The effect of the earth's rotation on ground water motion.

    PubMed

    Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2007-01-01

    The average pore velocity of ground water according to Darcy's law is a function of the fluid pressure gradient and the gravitational force (per unit volume of ground water) and of aquifer properties. There is also an acceleration exerted on ground water that arises from the Earth's rotation. The magnitude and direction of this rotation-induced force are determined in exact mathematical form in this article. It is calculated that the gravitational force is at least 300 times larger than the largest rotation-induced force anywhere on Earth, the latter force being maximal along the equator and approximately equal to 34 N/m(3) there. This compares with a gravitational force of approximately 10(4) N/m(3).

  4. The Effect of Rare-Earth Metals on Cast Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1954-04-01

    as the 1-inch section is also illustrated in Figure 23 and consists of tempered bainite and tempered martensite. Both of the control steels (AE-1...section Tempered bainite and tempered martensite 4 inch section Figure 23 Microstructure ol the Mn-Cr-Mo base control steels . Etched with... bainite 4-inch Section Figure 25—Microstructures of the MnCr-Mo + Rare Earths f B cast steels . Etched with picral, SOOX - .1 €. Figure 26

  5. Some observations on the greenhouse effect at the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitt, J. W.

    2018-01-01

    It is shown that the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and water vapour reflect back to the surface, all IR radiation originating at the surface within their respective spectral bands. This reflection occurs in a very thin layer at the surface, not much over 12 cm in thickness. Heat is lost from the surface by heat exchange with the atmosphere and by loss of radiation. About 52% of radiation leaves the surface in two principal window regions but this is not enough to account for the earth's equilibrium temperature. This window radiation seems to disappear quite quickly and is replaced by black body radiation. It is this which eventually contributes to the earth's radiation balance, and has to originate approximately between 40 and 50 km altitude where the temperature is about correct, near 255 K. Doubling the CO2 concentration increases the surface temperature by about 0.9 °C and this need not have any influence higher up in the atmosphere. The surface temperature seems indeed to have no direct influence on the earth's external radiation balance.

  6. Some observations on the greenhouse effect at the Earth's surface.

    PubMed

    Akitt, J W

    2018-01-05

    It is shown that the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and water vapour reflect back to the surface, all IR radiation originating at the surface within their respective spectral bands. This reflection occurs in a very thin layer at the surface, not much over 12cm in thickness. Heat is lost from the surface by heat exchange with the atmosphere and by loss of radiation. About 52% of radiation leaves the surface in two principal window regions but this is not enough to account for the earth's equilibrium temperature. This window radiation seems to disappear quite quickly and is replaced by black body radiation. It is this which eventually contributes to the earth's radiation balance, and has to originate approximately between 40 and 50km altitude where the temperature is about correct, near 255K. Doubling the CO 2 concentration increases the surface temperature by about 0.9°C and this need not have any influence higher up in the atmosphere. The surface temperature seems indeed to have no direct influence on the earth's external radiation balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of white matter microstructure on phase and susceptibility maps.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Samuel; Bowtell, Richard

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effects on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) of the frequency variation produced by the microstructure of white matter (WM). The frequency offsets in a WM tissue sample that are not explained by the effect of bulk isotropic or anisotropic magnetic susceptibility, but rather result from the local microstructure, were characterized for the first time. QSM and STI were then applied to simulated frequency maps that were calculated using a digitized whole-brain, WM model formed from anatomical and diffusion tensor imaging data acquired from a volunteer. In this model, the magnitudes of the frequency contributions due to anisotropy and microstructure were derived from the results of the tissue experiments. The simulations suggest that the frequency contribution of microstructure is much larger than that due to bulk effects of anisotropic magnetic susceptibility. In QSM, the microstructure contribution introduced artificial WM heterogeneity. For the STI processing, the microstructure contribution caused the susceptibility anisotropy to be significantly overestimated. Microstructure-related phase offsets in WM yield artifacts in the calculated susceptibility maps. If susceptibility mapping is to become a robust MRI technique, further research should be carried out to reduce the confounding effects of microstructure-related frequency contributions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effects of White Matter Microstructure on Phase and Susceptibility Maps

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Samuel; Bowtell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) of the frequency variation produced by the microstructure of white matter (WM). Methods The frequency offsets in a WM tissue sample that are not explained by the effect of bulk isotropic or anisotropic magnetic susceptibility, but rather result from the local microstructure, were characterized for the first time. QSM and STI were then applied to simulated frequency maps that were calculated using a digitized whole-brain, WM model formed from anatomical and diffusion tensor imaging data acquired from a volunteer. In this model, the magnitudes of the frequency contributions due to anisotropy and microstructure were derived from the results of the tissue experiments. Results The simulations suggest that the frequency contribution of microstructure is much larger than that due to bulk effects of anisotropic magnetic susceptibility. In QSM, the microstructure contribution introduced artificial WM heterogeneity. For the STI processing, the microstructure contribution caused the susceptibility anisotropy to be significantly overestimated. Conclusion Microstructure-related phase offsets in WM yield artifacts in the calculated susceptibility maps. If susceptibility mapping is to become a robust MRI technique, further research should be carried out to reduce the confounding effects of microstructure-related frequency contributions. Magn Reson Med 73:1258–1269, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24619643

  9. Dark matters: effects of light at night on metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Randy J; Chbeir, Souhad

    2018-05-11

    Life on earth has evolved during the past several billion years under relatively bright days and dark night conditions. The wide-spread adoption of electric lights during the past century exposed animals, both human and non-human, to significant light at night for the first time in their evolutionary history. Endogenous circadian clocks depend on light to entrain to the external daily environment and seasonal rhythms depend on clear nightly melatonin signals to assess time of year. Thus, light at night can derange temporal adaptations. Indeed, disruption of naturally evolved light-dark cycles results in several physiological and behavioural changes with potentially serious implications for physiology, behaviour and mood. In this review, data from night-shift workers on their elevated risk for metabolic disorders, as well as data from animal studies will be discussed. Night-shift workers are predisposed to obesity and dysregulated metabolism that may result from disrupted circadian rhythms. Although studies in human subjects are correlative, animal studies have revealed several mechanisms through which light at night may exert its effects on metabolism by disrupting circadian rhythms that are associated with inflammation, both in the brain and in the periphery. Disruption of the typical timing of food intake is a key effect of light at night and subsequent metabolic dysregulation. Strategies to avoid the effects of light at night on body mass dysregulation should be pursued.

  10. Single Event Effects Testing For Low Earth Orbit Missions with Neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, Brandon; O'Neill, Pat; Bailey, Chuck; Nguyen, Kyson

    2015-01-01

    Neutrons can effectively be used to screen electronic parts intended to be used in Low Earth Orbit. This paper compares neutron with proton environments in spacecraft and discusses recent comparison testing.

  11. Characterization of extractable soil organic matter pools from African Dark Earths (AfDE): A case study in historical biochar and organic waste amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiu, Manna; Plante, Alain; Ohno, Tsutomu; Solomon, Dawit; Lehmann, Johannes; Fraser, James; Leach, Melissa; Fairhead, James

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic Dark Earths are soils generated through long-term human inputs of organic and pyrogenic materials. These soils were originally discovered in the Amazon, and have since been found in Australia and in this case in Africa. African Dark Earths (AfDE) are black, highly fertile and carbon-rich soils that were formed from the original highly-weathered infertile yellowish to red Oxisols and Ultisols through an extant but hitherto overlooked climate-smart sustainable soil management system that has long been an important feature of the indigenous West African agricultural repertoire. Studies have demonstrated that ADE soils in general have significantly different organic matter properties compared to adjacent non-DE soils, largely attributable to the presence of high concentrations of ash-derived carbon. Quantification and characterization of bulk soil organic matter of several (n=11) AfDE and non-AfDE pairs of surface (0-15 cm) soils using thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC-EGA) confirmed substantial differences in SOM composition and the presence of pyrogenic C. Such pyrogenic organic matter is generally considered recalcitrant or relatively stable, but the goal of the current study was to characterize the presumably labile, more rapidly cycling, pools of C in AfDEs through the characterization of hot water- and pyrophosphate-extractable fractions, referred to as HWEOC and PyroC respectively. Extracts were analyzed for carbon content, as well as composition using fluorescence (EEM/PARAFAC) and high resolution mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The amount of extractable C as a proportion of total soil C was relatively low: less than ~0.8% for HWEOC and 2.8% for PyroC. The proportion of HWEOC did not differ (P = 0.18, paired t-test) between the AfDE and the non-AfDE soils, while the proportions of PyroC were significantly larger (P = 0.001) in the AfDE soils compared to the non-AfDE soils. Preliminary analysis of the EEM/PARAFAC data suggests that AfDE samples had

  12. Study of effects of space power satellites on life support functions of the earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, M.; Laquey, R.; Deforest, S. E.; Lindsey, C.; Warshaw, H.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of the Satellite Solar Power System (SSPS) on the life support functions of the earth's magnetosphere were investigated. Topics considered include: (1) thruster effluent effects on the magnetosphere; (2) biological consequences of SSPS reflected light; (3) impact on earth bound astronomy; (4) catastrophic failure and debris; (5) satellite induced processes; and (6) microwave power transmission. Several impacts are identified and recommendations for further studies are provided.

  13. Effects of agricultural practices on organic matter degradation in ditches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunting, Ellard R.; Vonk, J. Arie; Musters, C. J. M.; Kraak, Michiel H. S.; Vijver, Martina G.

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural practices can result in differences in organic matter (OM) and agricultural chemical inputs in adjacent ditches, but its indirect effects on OM composition and its inherent consequences for ecosystem functioning remain uncertain. This study determined the effect of agricultural practices (dairy farm grasslands and hyacinth bulb fields) on OM degradation by microorganisms and invertebrates with a consumption and food preference experiment in the field and in the laboratory using natural OM collected from the field. Freshly cut grass and hyacinths were also offered to control for OM composition and large- and small mesh-sizes were used to distinguish microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption. Results show that OM decomposition by microorganisms and consumption by invertebrates was similar throughout the study area, but that OM collected from ditches adjacent grasslands and freshly cut grass and hyacinths were preferred over OM collected from ditches adjacent to a hyacinth bulb field. In the case of OM collected from ditches adjacent hyacinth bulb fields, both microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption were strongly retarded, likely resulting from sorption and accumulation of pesticides. This outcome illustrates that differences in agricultural practices can, in addition to direct detrimental effects on aquatic organisms, indirectly alter the functioning of adjacent aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Effective model approach to the dense state of QCD matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2011-12-01

    The first-principle approach to the dense state of QCD matter, i.e. the lattice-QCD simulation at finite baryon density, is not under theoretical control for the moment. The effective model study based on QCD symmetries is a practical alternative. However the model parameters that are fixed by hadronic properties in the vacuum may have unknown dependence on the baryon chemical potential. We propose a new prescription to constrain the effective model parameters by the matching condition with the thermal Statistical Model. In the transitional region where thermal quantities blow up in the Statistical Model, deconfined quarks and gluons should smoothly take over the relevant degrees of freedom from hadrons and resonances. We use the Polyakov-loop coupled Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model as an effective description in the quark side and show how the matching condition is satisfied by a simple ansäatz on the Polyakov loop potential. Our results favor a phase diagram with the chiral phase transition located at slightly higher temperature than deconfinement which stays close to the chemical freeze-out points.

  15. Gravitational waves with dark matter minispikes: The combined effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xiao-Jun; Han, Wen-Biao

    2018-03-01

    It was shown that the dark matter (DM) minihalo around an intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) can be redistributed into a cusp, called the DM minispike. We consider an intermediate-mass-ratio inspiral consisting of an IMBH harbored in a DM minispike with nonannihilating DM particles and a small black hole (BH) orbiting around it. We investigate gravitational waves (GWs) produced by this system and analyze the waveforms with the comprehensive consideration of gravitational pull, dynamical friction and accretion of the minispike and calculate the time difference and phase difference caused by it. We find that for a certain range of frequency, the inspiralling time of the system is dramatically reduced for smaller central IMBH and large density of DM. For the central IMBH with 105 M⊙ , the time of merger is ahead, which can be distinguished by LISA, Taiji and Tianqin. We focus on the effect of accretion and compare it with that of gravitational pull and friction. We find that the accretion mass is a small quantity compared to the initial mass of the small BH and the accretion effect is inconspicuous compared with friction. However, the accumulated phase shift caused by accretion is large enough to be detected by LISA, Taiji, and Tianqin, which indicate that the accretion effect can not be ignored in the detection of GWs.

  16. The effect of EarthPulse on learning of declarative knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, Heather E.

    The purpose of this double-blind, bio-medical research study was to investigate the effect of EarthPulse, a brainwave entrainment and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) device, on learning of declarative knowledge. Currently, PEMF research explores physiological and psychological effects but a gap exists in the potential effects of PEMF on learning. The study explored whether a relationship existed between receiving a thirty minute EarthPulse treatment on the "Entrain Up" setting and learning of declarative knowledge; whether the relationship remained over time; whether EarthPulse had an effect on sleep; and whether EarthPulse had an effect on attrition. Ninety-eight, randomly assigned, undergraduate students participated in this double-blind, experimental design study, of which 87 remained after attrition. After receiving a thirty minute EarthPulse or placebo treatment, experimental and control groups read identical passages and completed identical instruments to test learning and retention of declarative knowledge. Participants completed the same test in two intervals: an immediate (learning) and delayed (retention) posttest. Assumptions for normality and reliability were met. One-way ANOVA revealed no statistically significant effects on learning or retention at the 0.05 level. However, Chi square analysis revealed those who received the EarthPulse treatment were significantly less likely to fall asleep than those who received the control treatment (p=0.022) and very closely approached significance for attrition (p=0.051).

  17. The Effect of Rare Earth on the Structure and Performance of Laser Clad Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Ruiliang; Yu, Huijun; Chen, Chuanzhong; Dong, Qing

    Laser cladding is one kind of advanced surface modification technology and has the abroad prospect in making the wear-resistant coating on metal substrates. However, the application of laser cladding technology does not achieve the people's expectation in the practical production because of many defects such as cracks, pores and so on. The addiction of rare earth can effectively reduce the number of cracks in the clad coating and enhance the coating wear-resistance. In the paper, the effects of rare earth on metallurgical quality, microstructure, phase structure and wear-resistance are analyzed in turns. The preliminary discussion is also carried out on the effect mechanism of rare earth. At last, the development tendency of rare earth in the laser cladding has been briefly elaborated.

  18. Effects of iron on optical properties of dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Brett A; Ryan, Joseph N; Aiken, George R

    2014-09-02

    Iron is a source of interference in the spectroscopic analysis of dissolved organic matter (DOM); however, its effects on commonly employed ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) light adsorption and fluorescence measurements are poorly defined. Here, we describe the effects of iron(II) and iron(III) on the UV-vis absorption and fluorescence of solutions containing two DOM fractions and two surface water samples. In each case, regardless of DOM composition, UV-vis absorption increased linearly with increasing iron(III). Correction factors were derived using iron(III) absorption coefficients determined at wavelengths commonly used to characterize DOM. Iron(III) addition increased specific UV absorbances (SUVA) and decreased the absorption ratios (E2:E3) and spectral slope ratios (SR) of DOM samples. Both iron(II) and iron(III) quenched DOM fluorescence at pH 6.7. The degree and region of fluorescence quenching varied with the iron:DOC concentration ratio, DOM composition, and pH. Regions of the fluorescence spectra associated with greater DOM conjugation were more susceptible to iron quenching, and DOM fluorescence indices were sensitive to the presence of both forms of iron. Analyses of the excitation-emission matrices using a 7- and 13-component parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model showed low PARAFAC sensitivity to iron addition.

  19. Effects of iron on optical properties of dissolved organic matter

    Poulin, Brett; Ryan, Joseph N.; Aiken, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is a source of interference in the spectroscopic analysis of dissolved organic matter (DOM); however, its effects on commonly employed ultraviolet and visible (UV–vis) light adsorption and fluorescence measurements are poorly defined. Here, we describe the effects of iron(II) and iron(III) on the UV–vis absorption and fluorescence of solutions containing two DOM fractions and two surface water samples. In each case, regardless of DOM composition, UV–vis absorption increased linearly with increasing iron(III). Correction factors were derived using iron(III) absorption coefficients determined at wavelengths commonly used to characterize DOM. Iron(III) addition increased specific UV absorbances (SUVA) and decreased the absorption ratios (E2:E3) and spectral slope ratios (SR) of DOM samples. Both iron(II) and iron(III) quenched DOM fluorescence at pH 6.7. The degree and region of fluorescence quenching varied with the iron:DOC concentration ratio, DOM composition, and pH. Regions of the fluorescence spectra associated with greater DOM conjugation were more susceptible to iron quenching, and DOM fluorescence indices were sensitive to the presence of both forms of iron. Analyses of the excitation–emission matrices using a 7- and 13-component parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model showed low PARAFAC sensitivity to iron addition.

  20. Why Color Matters: The Effect of Visual Cues on Learner's Interpretation of Dark Matter in a Cosmology Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Z.

    2013-04-01

    As we turn more and more to high-end computing to understand the Universe at cosmological scales, visualizations of simulations will take on a vital role as perceptual and cognitive tools. In collaboration with the Adler Planetarium and University of California High-Performance AstroComputing Center (UC-HiPACC), I am interested in better understanding the use of visualizations to mediate astronomy learning across formal and informal settings. The aspect of my research that I present here uses quantitative methods to investigate how learners are relying on color to interpret dark matter in a cosmology visualization. The concept of dark matter is vital to our current understanding of the Universe, and yet we do not know how to effectively present dark matter visually to support learning. I employ an alternative treatment post-test only experimental design, in which members of an equivalent sample are randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups, followed by treatment and a post-test. Results indicate significant correlation (p < .05) between the color of dark matter in the visualization and survey responses, implying that aesthetic variations like color can have a profound effect on audience interpretation of a cosmology visualization.

  1. Spatial nonlinearities: Cascading effects in the earth system

    Peters, Debra P.C.; Pielke, R.A.; Bestelmeyer, B.T.; Allen, Craig D.; Munson-McGee, Stuart; Havstad, K. M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Pataki, Diane E.; Pitelka, Louis F.

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear behavior is prevalent in all aspects of the Earth System, including ecological responses to global change (Gallagher and Appenzeller 1999; Steffen et al. 2004). Nonlinear behavior refers to a large, discontinuous change in response to a small change in a driving variable (Rial et al. 2004). In contrast to linear systems where responses are smooth, well-behaved, continuous functions, nonlinear systems often undergo sharp or discontinuous transitions resulting from the crossing of thresholds. These nonlinear responses can result in surprising behavior that makes forecasting difficult (Kaplan and Glass 1995). Given that many system dynamics are nonlinear, it is imperative that conceptual and quantitative tools be developed to increase our understanding of the processes leading to nonlinear behavior in order to determine if forecasting can be improved under future environmental changes (Clark et al. 2001).

  2. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of size-fractionated airborne particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Amatullah, Hajera; North, Michelle L; Akhtar, Umme S; Rastogi, Neeraj; Urch, Bruce; Silverman, Frances S; Chow, Chung-Wai; Evans, Greg J; Scott, Jeremy A

    2012-02-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence exists linking particulate matter (PM) exposures with hospital admissions of individuals for cardiopulmonary symptoms. The PM size is important in influencing the extent of infiltration into the respiratory tract and systemic circulation and directs the differential physiological impacts. To investigate the differential effects of the quasi-ultrafine (PM(0.2)), fine (PM(0.15-2.5)), and coarse PM (PM(2.5-10)) size fractions on pulmonary and cardiac function. Female BALB/c mice were exposed to HEPA-filtered laboratory air or concentrated coarse, fine, or quasi-ultrafine PM using Harvard Ambient Particle Concentrators in conjunction with our nose-only exposure system. These exposures were conducted as part of the "Health Effects of Aerosols in Toronto (HEAT)" campaign. Following a 4 h exposure, mice underwent assessment of respiratory function and recording of electrocardiograms using the flexiVent® system. Exposure to coarse and fine PM resulted in a significant reduction in quasistatic compliance of the lung. Baseline total respiratory resistance and maximum responsiveness to methacholine were augmented after coarse PM exposures but were not affected by quasi-ultrafine PM exposures. In contrast, quasi-ultrafine PM alone had a significant effect on heart rate and in reducing heart rate variability. These findings indicate that coarse and fine PM influence lung function and airways responsiveness, while ultrafine PM can perturb cardiac function. This study supports the hypothesis that coarse and fine PM exerts its predominant physiologic effects at the site of deposition in the airways, whereas ultrafine PM likely crosses the alveolar epithelial barrier into the systemic circulation to affect cardiovascular function.

  3. Biological effects of high ultraviolet radiation on early earth--a theoretical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S

    1998-08-21

    The surface of early Earth was exposed to both UVC radiation (< 280 nm) and higher doses of UVB (280-315 nm) compared with the surface of present day Earth. The degree to which this radiation environment acted as a selection pressure on organisms and biological systems has rarely been theoretically examined with respect to the biologically effective irradiances that ancient organisms would receive. Here action spectra for DNA inactivation and isolated chloroplast inhibition are used to estimate biologically effective irradiances on archean Earth. Comparisons are made with present day Earth. The theoretical estimations on the UV radiation screening required to protect DNA on archean Earth compare well with field and laboratory observations on protection strategies found in present day microbial communities. They suggest that many physical and biological methods may have been effective and would have allowed for the radiation of life even under the high UV radiation regimes of archean Earth. Such strategies would also have provided effective reduction of photoinhibition by UV radiation. The data also suggest that the UV regime on the surface of Mars is not a life limiting factor per se, although other environmental factors such as desiccation and low temperatures may contribute towards the apparent lack of a surface biota.

  4. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  5. Nutrient Effects on Belowground Organic Matter in a ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Belowground structure and carbon dioxide emission rates were examined in minerogenic marshes of the North Inlet estuary, a system dominated by depositional processes and typical of the southeastern USA. Three areas were sampled: a long-term nutrient enrichment experiment (Goat Island); a fringing marsh that only receives drainage from an entirely forested watershed (upper Crab Haul Creek); and three locations along a creek basin that receives drainage from a residential and golf course development situated at its headwaters (Debidue Creek). Responses to fertilization at Goat Island were an increase in soil organic matter, an increase in number of rhizomes, enlarged rhizome diameters, decreased fine root mass, and increased carbon dioxide emission rates. At the Crab Haul Creek, the greatest abundances of coarse roots and rhizomes were observed in the high marsh compared to the low marsh and creekbank. The upper and mid Debidue Creek, which may be influenced by nutrient inputs associated with land development, had significantly fewer rhizomes compared to the mouth, which was dominated by exchange with bay waters. Carbon dioxide emission rates at the fertilized Goat Island plots were similar in magnitude to the upper Debidue Creek and significantly greater than the Goat Island control plots and the Crab Haul Creek. Inputs of sediment and particulates in marshes dominated by depositional processes such as the North Inlet may buffer the system from adverse effects of

  6. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  7. The effect of clouds on the earth's radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziskin, Daniel; Strobel, Darrell F.

    1991-01-01

    The radiative fluxes from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the cloud properties from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) over Indonesia for the months of June and July of 1985 and 1986 were analyzed to determine the cloud sensitivity coefficients. The method involved a linear least squares regression between co-incident flux and cloud coverage measurements. The calculated slope is identified as the cloud sensitivity. It was found that the correlations between the total cloud fraction and radiation parameters were modest. However, correlations between cloud fraction and IR flux were improved by separating clouds by height. Likewise, correlations between the visible flux and cloud fractions were improved by distinguishing clouds based on optical depth. Calculating correlations between the net fluxes and either height or optical depth segregated cloud fractions were somewhat improved. When clouds were classified in terms of their height and optical depth, correlations among all the radiation components were improved. Mean cloud sensitivities based on the regression of radiative fluxes against height and optical depth separated cloud types are presented. Results are compared to a one-dimensional radiation model with a simple cloud parameterization scheme.

  8. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.

    2018-02-01

    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  9. Strategies for oxychlorine removal to facilitate pyrolytic organic matter analysis in subsurface oxychlorine-rich brines on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, L.; Kenig, F. P. H.; Jackson, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    The ubiquity of oxychlorine salts in the Martian soil significantly hampers our ability to unambiguously detect and characterize organic matter (OM) that is of Martian origin via pyrolysis. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite onboard the Curiosity Rover detected chlorinated and non-chlorinated inorganic and organic compounds (HCl, CO2, C1-C4 chloroalkanes, chlorobenzenes) at Gale Crater. The C1 to C3 chloroalkanes have been attributed to the reaction between the oxychlorines and OM deriving from the SAM instrument suite. Chlorobenzenes and dichloroalkanes, on the other hand, were observed at elevated levels at Gale Crater and are hypothesized to be the first indigenous OM detected on Mars. However, due to complex chlorination and oxidation reactions in the SAM pyrolysis oven, the precursor molecules to these chlorohydrocarbons are unknown. In order to facilitate the detection of OM in ClO4-rich samples on Mars, we explore various strategies, such as using strong base anion (SBA) exchange resins, to remove ClO4- from a Mars analog sample. This sample was obtained from a subsurface brine beneath the frozen Lake Vida (East Antarctica). Lake Vida brine (LVBr) contains abundant DOC at 48.2 mmol·L-1 and ClO4- at 49 µg•L-1. Resin-treated samples were analyzed via solid phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The SBA resin successfully removed ClO4- to below detection level from standard brine solution (3M NaCl + 50 µg•L-1 ClO4-) and LVBr using a minimum of 3.4 mL of resin volume per 100 mL of sample volume. Although the abundance of CO2, CH2Cl2 and HCl formed via the oxidation and chlorination of OM during SPME GC-MS analysis of resin-treated LVBr was significantly reduced, it was not completely eliminated. This suggests that the degradation of other oxychlorines (i.e. ClO3-) may also be obstructing our ability to detect OM indigenous to LVBr. The average level of ClO3- in LVBr after resin treatment was 16.7 ppb. We

  10. Transport of dissolved organic matter in Boom Clay: Size effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durce, D.; Aertsens, M.; Jacques, D.; Maes, N.; Van Gompel, M.

    2018-01-01

    A coupled experimental-modelling approach was developed to evaluate the effects of molecular weight (MW) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on its transport through intact Boom Clay (BC) samples. Natural DOM was sampled in-situ in the BC layer. Transport was investigated with percolation experiments on 1.5 cm BC samples by measuring the outflow MW distribution (MWD) by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). A one-dimensional reactive transport model was developed to account for retardation, diffusion and entrapment (attachment and/or straining) of DOM. These parameters were determined along the MWD by implementing a discretisation of DOM into several MW points and modelling the breakthrough of each point. The pore throat diameter of BC was determined as 6.6-7.6 nm. Below this critical size, transport of DOM is MW dependent and two major types of transport were identified. Below MW of 2 kDa, DOM was neither strongly trapped nor strongly retarded. This fraction had an averaged capacity factor of 1.19 ± 0.24 and an apparent dispersion coefficient ranging from 7.5 × 10- 11 to 1.7 × 10- 11 m2/s with increasing MW. DOM with MW > 2 kDa was affected by both retardation and straining that increased significantly with increasing MW while apparent dispersion coefficients decreased. Values ranging from 1.36 to 19.6 were determined for the capacity factor and 3.2 × 10- 11 to 1.0 × 10- 11 m2/s for the apparent dispersion coefficient for species with 2.2 kDa < MW < 9.3 kDa. Straining resulted in an immobilisation of in average 49 ± 6% of the injected 9.3 kDa species. Our findings show that an accurate description of DOM transport requires the consideration of the size effects.

  11. Effect of limb darkening on earth radiation incident on a spherical satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzoff, S.; Smith, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The thermal radiation from the earth incident on a spherical satellite depends on the angular distribution of earth-emitted radiation. An analysis is presented of this dependency, and calculated results are given, based on a published limb-darkening curve for the earth. The curve was determined from Tiros data, and is a statistical average over the entire globe between 75 deg latitude. The computed effect of limb darkening was 1.8 percent at 900 km altitude, 2.5 percent at 500 km altitude, and 3.0 percent at 300 km altitude. Below 300 km, it increased rapidly with decreasing altitude. Discussion is included of various other problems inherent in the use of orbiting spheres and stabilized flat plates to measure the heat radiated from the earth.

  12. Effects of selective fusion on the thermal history of the earth's mantle

    Lee, W.H.K.

    1968-01-01

    A comparative study on the thermal history of the earth's mantle was made by numerical solutions of the heat equation including and excluding selective fusion of silicates. Selective fusion was approximated by melting in a multicomponent system and redistribution of radioactive elements. Effects of selective fusion on the thermal models are (1) lowering (by several hundred degrees centigrade) and stabilizing the internal temperature distribution, and (2) increasing the surface heat-flow. It was found that models with selective fusion gave results more compatible with observations of both present temperature and surface heat-flow. The results therefore suggest continuous differentiation of the earth's mantle throughout geologic time, and support the hypothesis that the earth's atmosphere, oceans, and crust have been accumulated throughout the earth's history by degassing and selective fusion of the mantle. ?? 1968.

  13. Using the Earth as an Effective Model for Integrating Space Science Into Education Outreach Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, P. A.; Allen, J.; Galindo, C.; McKay, G.; Obot, V.; Reiff, P.

    2005-05-01

    Our methods of teaching Earth and space science as two disciplines do not represent the spirit of earlier scientists such as Aristotle, da Vinci, and Galileo. We need to re-evaluate these methods and take advantage of the excitement created in the general public over the recent space science exploration programs. The information that we are obtaining from both the Mars missions and Cassini-Huygens focuses on interpreting geomorphology, mineral compositions and gas identification based on Earth as a baseline for data evaluation. This type of evaluation is an extension of Hutton's 18th century principle of Uniformitarianism, the present is the key to the past, or Earth is the key for understanding extraterrestrial bodies. Geomorphological examples are volcanic activity, meteoritic impacts, and evidence of water altering surface features. The Hawaiian, or shield, type volcanoes are analogues for Olympus Mons and the other volcanoes on Mars. Other examples include comparing sand dunes on Earth with possible Martian dunes, known stream patterns on Earth with potential stream patterns on Mars, and even comparing meteoritic impact features on Mars, the Earth, Moon and Mercury. All of these comparisons have been developed into inquiry-based activities and are available through NASA publications. Each of these activities is easily adapted to emphasize either Earth science or space science or both. Beyond geomorphology, solar storms are an excellent topic for integrating Earth and space science. Solar storms are traditionally part of space science studies, but most students do not understand their effect on Earth or the intense effects they could have on humans, whether traveling through space or exploring the surfaces of the Moon or Mars. Effects are not only limited to space travel and other planetary surfaces but also include Earth's magnetosphere, which in turn, affect radio transmission and potentially climate. Like geomorphology courses, there are extensive NASA

  14. Asteroid impacts on terrestrial planets: the effects of super-Earths and the role of the ν6 resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smallwood, Jeremy L.; Martin, Rebecca G.; Lepp, Stephen; Livio, Mario

    2018-01-01

    With N-body simulations of a planetary system with an asteroid belt, we investigate how the asteroid impact rate on the Earth is affected by the architecture of the planetary system. We find that the ν6 secular resonance plays an important role in the asteroid collision rate with the Earth. Compared to exoplanetary systems, the Solar system is somewhat special in its lack of a super-Earth mass planet in the inner Solar system. We therefore first consider the effects of the presence of a super-Earth in the terrestrial planet region. We find a significant effect for super-Earths with a mass of around 10 M⊕ and a separation greater than about 0.7 au. For a super-Earth which is interior to the Earth's orbit, the number of asteroids colliding with Earth increases the closer the super-Earth is to the Earth's orbit. This is the result of multiple secular resonance locations causing more asteroids to be perturbed on to Earth-crossing orbits. When the super-Earth is placed exterior to Earth's orbit, the collision rate decreases substantially because the ν6 resonance no longer exists in the asteroid belt region. We also find that changing the semimajor axis of Saturn leads to a significant decrease in the asteroid collision rate, though increasing its mass increases the collision rate. These results may have implications for the habitability of exoplanetary systems.

  15. Non-Rigid Earth Contributions to the Precession in Longitude and Indirect Effects on Nutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrandiz, J. M.; Escapa, A.; Baenas, T.; Getino, J.

    2016-12-01

    Precession in longitude is affected by the internal structure of the Earth. Although this effect is small, typically described as of second-order, it must be considered in current precession theories due to the stringent accuracy and consistency requirements. The current IAU2006 precession theory is based on Capitaine at al. (2003, 2005). The influence of the Earth's geophysical model is taken into account in IAU2006 only through a sole contribution, the so-called "non-linear effect" computed by Mathews (2004). In elastic Earth models the contributions are twofold. A main part comes from 2nd order terms of the mathematical solution stemming from crossed influences of certain nutation-rising terms. Only the Hamiltonian theory of the non-rigid Earth has succeeded in deriving a solution for those terms so far, and they were not considered in IAU2006 precession theory. Another contributions are caused by geopotential variations resulting from the tidal deformations of the Earth, or redistribution tidal potential. IAU2006 non-linear effect belongs to this category, although it just represents a partial, simplified approach to the total effect (Lambert & Mathews 2006, 2008). The mass redistribution is induced by the gravitational action of Moon and Sun, but also by the tidal variations of the Earth's angular velocity and the resultant changes of the centrifugal potential. We present a comprehensive study of the contributions to the precession in longitude due to the non-rigidity of the Earth, based on the Hamiltonian formalism developed by Getino and Ferrándiz for a two-layer Earth elastic model. To this end, we recall the achievements made by our group recently (Ferrándiz et al 2016, Baenas et al 2016) and complete them by incorporating the contributions due to the tidal variations of the Earth's angular velocity, as well as anelasticity effects consistent with the IERS Conventions. After that, we compute the total final correction to the precession in longitude due

  16. Perceived Barriers and Strategies to Effective Online Earth and Space Science Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottinger, James E.

    With the continual growth and demand of online courses, higher education institutions are attempting to meet the needs of today's learners by modifying and developing new student centered services and programs. As a result, faculty members are being forced into teaching online, including Earth and Space science faculty. Online Earth and Space science courses are different than typical online courses in that they need to incorporate an inquiry-based component to ensure students fully understand the course concepts and science principles in the Earth and Space sciences. Studies have addressed the barriers in other inquiry-based online science courses, including biology, physics, and chemistry. This holistic, multiple-case qualitative study investigated perceived barriers and strategies to effective online Earth and Space science instruction through in-depth interviews with six experienced post-secondary online science instructors. Data from this study was analyzed using a thematic analysis approach and revealed four common themes when teaching online Earth and Space science. A positive perception and philosophy of online teaching is essential, the instructor-student interaction is dynamic, course structure and design modification will occur, and online lab activities must make science operational and relevant. The findings in this study demonstrated that online Earth and Space science instructors need institutional support in the form of a strong faculty development program and support staff in order to be as effective as possible. From this study, instructors realize that the instructor-student relationship and course structure is paramount, especially when teaching online science with labs. A final understanding from this study was that online Earth and Space science lab activities must incorporate the use and application of scientific skills and knowledge. Recommendations for future research include (a) qualitative research conducted in specific areas within the

  17. Opposing effects of different soil organic matter fractions on crop yields.

    PubMed

    Wood, Stephen A; Sokol, Noah; Bell, Colin W; Bradford, Mark A; Naeem, Shahid; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Palm, Cheryl A

    2016-10-01

    Soil organic matter is critical to sustainable agriculture because it provides nutrients to crops as it decomposes and increases nutrient- and water-holding capacity when built up. Fast- and slow-cycling fractions of soil organic matter can have different impacts on crop production because fast-cycling fractions rapidly release nutrients for short-term plant growth and slow-cycling fractions bind nutrients that mineralize slowly and build up water-holding capacity. We explored the controls on these fractions in a tropical agroecosystem and their relationship to crop yields. We performed physical fractionation of soil organic matter from 48 farms and plots in western Kenya. We found that fast-cycling, particulate organic matter was positively related to crop yields, but did not have a strong effect, while slower-cycling, mineral-associated organic matter was negatively related to yields. Our finding that slower-cycling organic matter was negatively related to yield points to a need to revise the view that stabilization of organic matter positively impacts food security. Our results support a new paradigm that different soil organic matter fractions are controlled by different mechanisms, potentially leading to different relationships with management outcomes, like crop yield. Effectively managing soils for sustainable agriculture requires quantifying the effects of specific organic matter fractions on these outcomes. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Relativity mission with two counter-orbiting polar satellites. [nodal dragging effect on earth orbiting satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Patten, R. A.; Everitt, C. W. F.

    1975-01-01

    In 1918, J. Lense and H. Thirring calculated that a moon in orbit around a massive rotating planet would experience a nodal dragging effect due to general relativity. We describe an experiment to measure this effect with two counter-orbiting drag-free satellites in polar earth orbit. For a 2 1/2 year experiment, the measurement accuracy should approach 1%. In addition to precision tracking data from existing ground stations, satellite-to-satellite Doppler ranging data are taken at points of passing near the poles. New geophysical information on both earth harmonics and tidal effects is inherent in the polar ranging data.

  19. Effects of white matter lesions on brain perfusion in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Masato; Kimura, Noriyuki; Aso, Yasuhiro; Matsubara, Etsuro

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of white matter lesions on regional cerebral blood flow in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Seventy-five subjects with mild cognitive impairment (36 men and 39 women; mean age, 78.1 years) were included in the study. We used the Mini-Mental State Examination to assess cognitive function. All subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and 99m Tc ethylcysteinate dimer single photon emission computed tomography. Subjects were stratified based on the presence or absence of white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. Statistical parametric mapping of differences in regional cerebral blood flow between the two groups were assessed by voxel-by-voxel group analysis using SPM8. Of all 75 subjects with mild cognitive impairment, 46 (61.3%) had mild to moderate white matter lesions. The prevalence of hypertension tended to be higher in subjects with white matter lesions than in those without white matter lesions. Mini-Mental State Examination scores were significantly lower in subjects with white matter lesions than in those without white matter lesions. Subjects with white matter lesions had decreased regional cerebral blood flow mainly in the frontal, parietal, and medial temporal lobes, as well as the putamen, compared to those without white matter lesions. In subjects with mild cognitive impairment, white matter lesions were associated with cognitive impairment and mainly frontal lobe brain function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Natural Organic Matter on Plutonium Sorption to Goethite

    SciT

    Conroy, Nathan A.; Zavarin, Mavrik; Kersting, Annie B.

    For this research, the effect of citric acid (CA), desferrioxamine B (DFOB), fulvic acid (FA), and humic acid (HA) on plutonium (Pu) sorption to goethite was studied as a function of organic carbon concentration and pH using batch sorption experiments at 5 mg C·L –1 and 50 mg C·L –1 natural organic matter (NOM), 10 –9–10 –10 M 238Pu, and 0.1 g·L –1 goethite concentrations, at pH 3, 5, 7, and 9. Low sorption of ligands coupled with strong Pu complexation decreased Pu sorption at pH 5 and 7, relative to a ligand-free system. Conversely, CA, FA, and HA increasedmore » Pu sorption to goethite at pH 3, suggesting ternary complex formation or, in the case of humic acid, incorporation into HA aggregates. Mechanisms for ternary complex formation were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the absence of Pu. CA and FA demonstrated clear surface interactions at pH 3, HA appeared unchanged suggesting HA aggregates had formed, and no DFOB interactions were observed. Plutonium sorption decreased in the presence of DFOB (relative to a ligand free system) at all pH values examined. Thus, DFOB does not appear to facilitate formation of ternary Pu-DFOB-goethite complexes. At pH 9, Pu sorption in the presence of all NOM increased relative to pH 5 and 7; speciation models attributed this to Pu(IV) hydrolysis competing with ligand complexation, increasing sorption. In conclusion, the results indicate that in simple Pu-NOM-goethite ternary batch systems, NOM will decrease Pu sorption to goethite at all but particularly low pH conditions.« less

  1. Effect of Natural Organic Matter on Plutonium Sorption to Goethite

    DOE PAGES

    Conroy, Nathan A.; Zavarin, Mavrik; Kersting, Annie B.; ...

    2016-11-21

    For this research, the effect of citric acid (CA), desferrioxamine B (DFOB), fulvic acid (FA), and humic acid (HA) on plutonium (Pu) sorption to goethite was studied as a function of organic carbon concentration and pH using batch sorption experiments at 5 mg C·L –1 and 50 mg C·L –1 natural organic matter (NOM), 10 –9–10 –10 M 238Pu, and 0.1 g·L –1 goethite concentrations, at pH 3, 5, 7, and 9. Low sorption of ligands coupled with strong Pu complexation decreased Pu sorption at pH 5 and 7, relative to a ligand-free system. Conversely, CA, FA, and HA increasedmore » Pu sorption to goethite at pH 3, suggesting ternary complex formation or, in the case of humic acid, incorporation into HA aggregates. Mechanisms for ternary complex formation were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the absence of Pu. CA and FA demonstrated clear surface interactions at pH 3, HA appeared unchanged suggesting HA aggregates had formed, and no DFOB interactions were observed. Plutonium sorption decreased in the presence of DFOB (relative to a ligand free system) at all pH values examined. Thus, DFOB does not appear to facilitate formation of ternary Pu-DFOB-goethite complexes. At pH 9, Pu sorption in the presence of all NOM increased relative to pH 5 and 7; speciation models attributed this to Pu(IV) hydrolysis competing with ligand complexation, increasing sorption. In conclusion, the results indicate that in simple Pu-NOM-goethite ternary batch systems, NOM will decrease Pu sorption to goethite at all but particularly low pH conditions.« less

  2. Healthy imperfect dark matter from effective theory of mimetic cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Shin'ichi; Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu

    2017-07-01

    We study the stability of a recently proposed model of scalar-field matter called mimetic dark matter or imperfect dark matter. It has been known that mimetic matter with higher derivative terms suffers from gradient instabilities in scalar perturbations. To seek for an instability-free extension of imperfect dark matter, we develop an effective theory of cosmological perturbations subject to the constraint on the scalar field's kinetic term. This is done by using the unifying framework of general scalar-tensor theories based on the ADM formalism. We demonstrate that it is indeed possible to construct a model of imperfect dark matter which is free from ghost and gradient instabilities. As a side remark, we also show that mimetic F(Script R) theory is plagued with the Ostrogradsky instability.

  3. Titan's Greenhouse Effect And Climate: Lessons From The Earth's Cooler Cousin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Titan Climate White Paper Proposal Team

    2009-12-01

    We argue that continuing scientific study of Earth's `distant cousin’ Titan can provide a greater understanding and insight into the energy balance of our own planet's atmosphere. Titan's Earth-like properties have been recognized for some time, from the discovery of its atmosphere in 1907, through the Voyager 1 encounter in 1980 that showed Titan's atmosphere is mostly nitrogen gas with a surface pressure within a factor of two of terrestrial. Calculation shows that Titan's atmosphere causes `greenhouse’ warming of the surface, an effect similar to that seen on the Earth, Mars, and Venus. In the 1990s, direct imaging from the Earth by adaptive optics revealed that Titan's ubiquitous haze layer is slowly changing in apparent response to the seasons that occur due to the Saturn system's obliquity. The NASA Cassini mission that arrived in Saturnian orbit in 2004, and the ESA Huygens Titan probe of 2005, have returned a flood of new data regarding this intriguing world. For the first time, we are building a detailed picture of weather in the lower atmosphere, where condensable methane takes on the role played by water in the Earth's atmosphere, leading to methane rainfall, rivers and lakes. We examine parallels between the atmospheres of Earth and of Titan, including the possibilities for dramatic climate change. Extending the duration of the Cassini spacecraft mission during the next decade will provide part of the needed picture, but in addition we urge planning for a future new mission focused on Titan's climate, and other measures.

  4. Effects of exercise on capillaries in the white matter of transgenic AD mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Chao, Feng-Lei; Zhou, Chun-Ni; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Lin-Mu; Luo, Yan-Min; Xiao, Qian; Tang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exercise can prevent white matter atrophy in APP/PS1 transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mice. However, the mechanism of this protective effect remains unknown. To further understand this issue, we investigated the effects of exercise on the blood supply of white matter in transgenic AD mice. Six-month-old male APP/PS1 mice were randomly divided into a control group and a running group, and age-matched non-transgenic littermates were used as a wild-type control group. Mice in the running group ran on a treadmill at low intensity for four months. Then, spatial learning and memory abilities, white matter and white matter capillaries were examined in all mice. The 10-month-old AD mice exhibited deficits in cognitive function, and 4 months of exercise improved these deficits. The white matter volume and the total length, total volume and total surface area of the white matter capillaries were decreased in the 10-month-old AD mice, and 4 months of exercise dramatically delayed the changes in these parameters in the AD mice. Our results demonstrate that even low-intensity running exercise can improve spatial learning and memory abilities, delay white matter atrophy and protect white matter capillaries in early-stage AD mice. Protecting capillaries might be an important structural basis for the exercise-induced protection of the structural integrity of white matter in AD. PMID:29029478

  5. Effects of exercise on capillaries in the white matter of transgenic AD mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Chao, Feng-Lei; Zhou, Chun-Ni; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Lin-Mu; Luo, Yan-Min; Xiao, Qian; Tang, Yong

    2017-09-12

    Previous studies have shown that exercise can prevent white matter atrophy in APP/PS1 transgenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice. However, the mechanism of this protective effect remains unknown. To further understand this issue, we investigated the effects of exercise on the blood supply of white matter in transgenic AD mice. Six-month-old male APP/PS1 mice were randomly divided into a control group and a running group, and age-matched non-transgenic littermates were used as a wild-type control group. Mice in the running group ran on a treadmill at low intensity for four months. Then, spatial learning and memory abilities, white matter and white matter capillaries were examined in all mice. The 10-month-old AD mice exhibited deficits in cognitive function, and 4 months of exercise improved these deficits. The white matter volume and the total length, total volume and total surface area of the white matter capillaries were decreased in the 10-month-old AD mice, and 4 months of exercise dramatically delayed the changes in these parameters in the AD mice. Our results demonstrate that even low-intensity running exercise can improve spatial learning and memory abilities, delay white matter atrophy and protect white matter capillaries in early-stage AD mice. Protecting capillaries might be an important structural basis for the exercise-induced protection of the structural integrity of white matter in AD.

  6. Form factors for dark matter capture by the Sun in effective theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catena, Riccardo; Schwabe, Bodo

    2015-04-01

    In the effective theory of isoscalar and isovector dark matter-nucleon interactions mediated by a heavy spin-1 or spin-0 particle, 8 isotope-dependent nuclear response functions can be generated in the dark matter scattering by nuclei. We compute the 8 nuclear response functions for the 16 most abundant elements in the Sun, i.e. H, 3He, 4He, 12C, 14N, 16O, 20Ne, 23Na, 24Mg, 27Al, 28Si, 32S, 40Ar, 40Ca, 56Fe, and 59Ni, through numerical shell model calculations. We use our response functions to compute the rate of dark matter capture by the Sun for all isoscalar and isovector dark matter-nucleon effective interactions, including several operators previously considered for dark matter direct detection only. We study in detail the dependence of the capture rate on specific dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, and on the different elements in the Sun. We find that a so far neglected momentum dependent dark matter coupling to the nuclear vector charge gives a larger contribution to the capture rate than the constant spin-dependent interaction commonly included in dark matter searches at neutrino telescopes. Our investigation lays the foundations for model independent analyses of dark matter induced neutrino signals from the Sun. The nuclear response functions obtained in this study are listed in analytic form in an appendix, ready to be used in other projects.

  7. The effect of SST emissions on the earth's ozone layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Turco, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    The work presented here is directed toward assessment of environmental effects of the supersonic transport (SST). The model used for the purpose includes vertical eddy transport and the photochemistry of the O-H-N system. It is found that the flight altitude has a pronounced effect on ozone depletion. The largest ozone reduction occurs for NO deposition above an altitude of 20 km.

  8. Plasma and magnetic field variations in the distant magnetotail associated with near-earth substorm effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.; Mccomas, D. J.; Zwickl, R. D.; Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Examination of many individual event periods in the ISEE 3 deep-tail data set has suggested that magnetospheric substorms produce a characteristic pattern of effects in the distant magnetotail. During the growth, or tail-energy-storage phase of substorms, the magnetotail appears to grow diametrically in size, often by many earth radii. Subsequently, after the substorm expansive phase onset at earth, the distant tail undergoes a sequence of plasma, field, and energetic-particle variations as large-scale plasmoids move rapidly down the tail following their disconnection from the near-earth plasma sheet. ISEE 3 data are appropriate for the study of these effects since the spacecraft remained fixed within the nominal tail location for long periods. Using newly available auroral electrojet indices (AE and AL) and Geo particle data to time substorm onsets at earth, superposed epoch analyses of ISEE 3 and near-earth data prior to, and following, substorm expansive phase onsets have been performed. These analyses quantify and extend substantially the understanding of the deep-tail pattern of response to global substorm-induced dynamical effects.

  9. Dark matter as an effect of the quantum vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Emilio

    2018-04-01

    The interaction between the quantum vacuum and a weak gravitational field is calculated for the vacuum fields of quantum electrodynamics. The result shows that the vacuum state is modified by the gravitational field, giving rise to a nonzero interaction energy. This suggests a model that fits in the main properties of the hypothetical dark matter in galactic haloes.

  10. Climatic effects due to halogenated compounds in the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W.-C.; Pinto, J. P.; Yung, Y. L.

    1980-01-01

    Using a one-dimensional radiative-convective model, a sensitivity study is performed of the effect of ozone depletion in the stratosphere on the surface temperature. There could be a cooling of the surface temperature by approximately 0.2 K due to chlorofluoromethane-induced ozone depletion at steady state (assuming 1973 release rates). This cooling reduces significantly the greenhouse effect due to the presence of chlorofluoromethanes. Carbon tetrafluoride has a strong nu sub 3 band at 7.8 microns, and the atmospheric greenhouse effect is shown to be 0.07 and 0.12 K/ppbv with and without taking into account overlap with CH4 and N2O bands. At concentrations higher than 1 ppbv, absorption by the nu sub 3 band starts to saturate and the greenhouse effect becomes less efficient.

  11. Atmospheric Effect on Remote Sensing of the Earth's Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, R. S.; Kaufman, Y. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Radiative transfer theory (RT) for an atmosphere with a nonuniform surface is the basis for understanding and correcting for the atmospheric effect on remote sensing of surface properties. In the present work the theory is generalized and tested successfully against laboratory and field measurements. There is still a need to generalize the RT approximation for off-nadir directions and to take into account anisotropic reflectance at the surface. The reflectance at the surface. The adjacency effect results in a significant modification of spectral signatures of the surface, and therefore results in modification of classifications, of separability of field classes, and of spatial resolution. For example, the 30 m resolution of the Thematic Mapper is reduced to 100 m by a hazy atmosphere. The adjacency effect depends on several optical parameters of aerosols: optical thickness, depth of aerosol layer, scattering phase function, and absorption. Remote sensing in general depends on these parameter, not just adjacency effects, but they are not known well enough for making accurate atmospheric corrections. It is important to establish methods for estimating these parameters in order to develop correction methods for atmospheric effects. Such estimations can be based on climatological data, which are not available yet, correlations between the optical parameters and meteorological data, and the same satellite measurements of radiances that are used for estimating surface properties. Knowledge about the atmospheric parameters important for remote sensing is being enlarged with current measurements of them.

  12. The effect of fire on soil organic matter--a review.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, José A; González-Vila, Francisco J; Almendros, Gonzalo; Knicker, Heike

    2004-08-01

    The extent of the soil organic carbon pool doubles that present in the atmosphere and is about two to three times greater than that accumulated in living organisms in all Earth's terrestrial ecosystems. In such a scenario, one of the several ecological and environmental impacts of fires is that biomass burning is a significant source of greenhouse gases responsible for global warming. Nevertheless, the oxidation of biomass is usually incomplete and a range of pyrolysis compounds and particulate organic matter (OM) in aerosols are produced simultaneously to the thermal modification of pre-existing C forms in soil. These changes lead to the evolution of the OM to "pyromorphic humus", composed by rearranged macromolecular substances of weak colloidal properties and an enhanced resistance against chemical and biological degradation. Hence the occurrence of fires in both undisturbed and agricultural ecosystems may produce long-lasting effects on soils' OM composition and dynamics. Due to the large extent of the C pool in soils, small deviations in the different C forms may also have a significant effect in the global C balance and consequently on climate change. This paper reviews the effect of forest fires on the quantity and quality of soils' OM. It is focused mainly on the most stable pool of soil C; i.e., that having a large residence time, composed of free lipids, colloidal fractions, including humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA), and other resilient forms. The main transformations exerted by fire on soil humus include the accumulation of new particulate C forms highly resistant to oxidation and biological degradation including the so-called "black carbon" (BC). Controversial environmental implications of such processes, specifically in the stabilisation of C in soil and their bearing on the global C cycle are discussed.

  13. Effects of dynamic long-period ocean tides on changes in earth's rotation rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nam, Young; Dickman, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    As a generalization of the zonal response coefficient first introduced by Agnew and Farrell (1978), the zonal response function kappa of the solid earth-ocean system is defined as the ratio, in the frequency domain, of the tidal change in earth's rotation rate to the tide-generating potential. Amplitudes and phases of kappa for the monthly, fortnightly, and nine-day lunar tides are estimated from 2 1/2 years of VLBI UT1 observations, corrected for atmospheric angular momentum effects using NMC wind and pressure series. Using the dynamic ocean tide model of Dickman (1988, 1989), amplitudes and phases of kappa for an elastic earth-ocean system are predicted. The predictions confirm earlier results which found that dynamic effects of the longer-period ocean tides reduce the amplitude of kappa by about 1 percent.

  14. Effects of Solar Radiation Pressure on Earth Satellite Orbits.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, R W; Jones, H M; Shapiro, I I

    1960-03-25

    Calculations show that, at a mean altitude of 1000 miles, radiation pressure can displace the orbit of the 100-foot Echo balloon at rates up to 3.7 miles per day, the orbit of the 12-foot Beacon satellite at 0.7 mile per day. For certain resonant conditions this effect accumulates, drastically affecting the satellite's lifetime.

  15. Global change-driven effects on dissolved organic matter composition: Implications for food webs of northern lakes.

    PubMed

    Creed, Irena F; Bergström, Ann-Kristin; Trick, Charles G; Grimm, Nancy B; Hessen, Dag O; Karlsson, Jan; Kidd, Karen A; Kritzberg, Emma; McKnight, Diane M; Freeman, Erika C; Senar, Oscar E; Andersson, Agneta; Ask, Jenny; Berggren, Martin; Cherif, Mehdi; Giesler, Reiner; Hotchkiss, Erin R; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Palta, Monica M; Vrede, Tobias; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A

    2018-03-15

    Northern ecosystems are experiencing some of the most dramatic impacts of global change on Earth. Rising temperatures, hydrological intensification, changes in atmospheric acid deposition and associated acidification recovery, and changes in vegetative cover are resulting in fundamental changes in terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages. The effects of global change are readily observed in alterations in the supply of dissolved organic matter (DOM)-the messenger between terrestrial and lake ecosystems-with potentially profound effects on the structure and function of lakes. Northern terrestrial ecosystems contain substantial stores of organic matter and filter or funnel DOM, affecting the timing and magnitude of DOM delivery to surface waters. This terrestrial DOM is processed in streams, rivers, and lakes, ultimately shifting its composition, stoichiometry, and bioavailability. Here, we explore the potential consequences of these global change-driven effects for lake food webs at northern latitudes. Notably, we provide evidence that increased allochthonous DOM supply to lakes is overwhelming increased autochthonous DOM supply that potentially results from earlier ice-out and a longer growing season. Furthermore, we assess the potential implications of this shift for the nutritional quality of autotrophs in terms of their stoichiometry, fatty acid composition, toxin production, and methylmercury concentration, and therefore, contaminant transfer through the food web. We conclude that global change in northern regions leads not only to reduced primary productivity but also to nutritionally poorer lake food webs, with discernible consequences for the trophic web to fish and humans. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Continental Growth and Mantle Hydration as Earth System Feedback Cycles and possible Effects of the Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of Earth is charcterized by intertwined feedback cycles. We focus on two feedback cycles that include the mantle water budget and the continental crust and study possible effects of the Earth's biosphere. The first feedback loop includes cycling of water into the mantle at subduction zones and outgassing at volcanic chains and mid-ocean ridges. Water will reduce the viscosity of mantle rock, and therefore the speed of mantle convection and plate subduction will increase with the mantle water concentration, eventually enhancing the rates of mantle water regassing and outgassing. A second feedback loop includes the production and erosion of continental crust. Continents grow by volcanism above subduction zones, whose total length is determined by the total area of the continents. Furthermore, the erosion rate of the continents is proportional to the total surface area of continental crust. The rate of sediment subduction affects the rate of transport of water to the mantle and the production rate of new continental crust. We present a model that includes both cycles and show how the system develops stable and unstable fixed points in a plane defined by mantle water concentration and surface are of continents. The stable points represent either an Earth mostly covered by continents and a wet mantle or an Earth mostly covered by oceans with a dry mantle. The presently observed Earth is inbetween these extreme states but the state is intrinsically unstable. We couple the feedback model to a parameterized thermal evolution model. We show how Earth evolved towards its present unstable state. We argue that other feedback cycles such as the carbonate silicate cycle may act to stabilize the present state, however. By enhancing continental weathering and erosion, and eventually the sediment transport into subduction zones, the biosphere impacts both feedback cycles and might play a crucial role in regulating Earth's system and keep continental crust coverage and

  17. The Conceptual Grouping Effect: Categories Matter (and Named Categories Matter More)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupyan, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Do conceptual categories affect basic visual processing? A conceptual grouping effect for familiar stimuli is reported using a visual search paradigm. Search through conceptually-homogeneous non-targets was faster and more efficient than search through conceptually-heterogeneous non-targets. This effect cannot be attributed to perceptual factors…

  18. Low Earth Orbit Environmental Effects on Space Tether Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckernor, Miria M.; Gitlemeier, Keith A.; Hawk, Clark W.; Watts, Ed

    2005-01-01

    Atomic oxygen (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation erode and embrittle most polymeric materials. This research was designed to test several different materials and coatings under consideration for their application to space tethers, for resistance to these effects. The samples were vacuum dehydrated, weighed and then exposed to various levels of AO or UV radiation at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. They were then re-weighed to determine mass loss due to atomic oxygen erosion, inspected for damage and tensile tested to determine strength loss. The experiments determined that the Photosil coating process, while affording some protection, damaged the tether materials worse than the AO exposure. TOR-LM also failed to fully protect the materials, especially from UV radiation. The POSS and nickel coatings did provide some protection to the tethers, which survived the entire test regime. M5 was tested, uncoated, and survived AO exposure, though its brittleness prevented any tensile testing.

  19. The effect of clouds on the earth's radiation balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, G. F.; Wu, M. L. C.; Johnson, W. T.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of global cloudiness on the radiation balance at the top of the atmosphere is studied in general circulation model experiments. Wintertime simulations were conducted with clouds that had realistic optical properties, and were compared with simulations in which the clouds were transparent to either solar or thermal radiation. Clouds increase the net balance by limiting longwave loss to space, but decrease it by reflecting solar radiation. It is found that the net result of cloudiness is to maintain net radiation which is less than would be realized under clear conditions: Clouds cause the net radiation at the top of the atmosphere to increase due to longwave absorption, but to decrease even more due to cloud reflectance of solar radiation.

  20. Effect of supersonic relative motion between baryons and dark matter on collapsed objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaba, Shinsuke; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Tashiro, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Great attention is given to the first star formation and the epoch of reionization as main targets of planned large radio interferometries (e.g. Square Kilometre Array). Recently, it is claimed that the supersonic relative velocity between baryons and cold dark matter can suppress the abundance of first stars and impact the cosmological reionization process. Therefore, in order to compare observed results with theoretical predictions it is important to examine the effect of the supersonic relative motion on the small-scale structure formation. In this paper, we investigate this effect on the nonlinear structure formation in the context of the spherical collapse model in order to understand the fundamental physics in a simple configuration. We show the evolution of the dark matter sphere with the relative velocity by both using N-body simulations and numerically calculating the equation of motion for the dark matter mass shell. The effects of the relative motion in the spherical collapse model appear as the delay of the collapse time of dark matter halos and the decrease of the baryon mass fraction within the dark matter sphere. Based on these results, we provide the fitting formula of the critical density contrast for collapses with the relative motion effect and calculate the mass function of dark matter halos in the Press-Schechter formalism. As a result, the relative velocity decreases the abundance of dark matter halos whose mass is smaller than 108M⊙/h .

  1. [Effects of rare earth elements on soil fauna community structure and their ecotoxicity to Holotrichia parallela].

    PubMed

    Li, Guiting; Jiang, Junqi; Chen, Jie; Zou, Yunding; Zhang, Xincai

    2006-01-01

    By the method of OECD filter paper contact, this paper studied the effects of applied rare earth elements on soil fauna community structure and their ecological toxicity to Holotrichia parallela in bean field. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the treatments and the control in soil fauna species, quantity of main species, and diversity index. Urgent and chronic toxic test showed that the differences between the treatments and the control were not significant. It was suggested that within the range of test dosages, rare earth elements had little ecological toxicity to Holotrichia parallela, and did not change the soil fauna community structure.

  2. Astrometric detectability of systems with unseen companions: effects of the Earth orbital motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkevich, Alexey G.

    2018-06-01

    The astrometric detection of an unseen companion is based on an analysis of the apparent motion of its host star around the system's barycentre. Systems with an orbital period close to 1 yr may escape detection if the orbital motion of their host stars is observationally indistinguishable from the effects of parallax. Additionally, an astrometric solution may produce a biased parallax estimation for such systems. We examine the effects of the orbital motion of the Earth on astrometric detectability in terms of a correlation between the Earth's orbital position and the position of the star relative to its system barycentre. The χ2 statistic for parallax estimation is calculated analytically, leading to expressions that relate the decrease in detectability and accompanying parallax bias to the position correlation function. The impact of the Earth's motion critically depends on the exoplanet's orbital period, diminishing rapidly as the period deviates from 1 yr. Selection effects against 1-yr-period systems is, therefore, expected. Statistical estimation shows that the corresponding loss of sensitivity results in a typical 10 per cent increase in the detection threshold. Consideration of eccentric orbits shows that the Earth's motion has no effect on detectability for e≳ 0.5. The dependence of the detectability on other parameters, such as orbital phases and inclination of the orbital plane to the ecliptic, are smooth and monotonic because they are described by simple trigonometric functions.

  3. Effects of dynamic long-period ocean tides on changes in Earth's rotation rate

    SciT

    Nam, Y.S.; Dickman, S.R.

    1990-05-10

    As a generalization of the zonal response coefficient first introduced by Agnew and Farrell (1978), the authors define the zonal response function k of the solid earth-ocean system as the ratio, in the frequency domain, of the tidal change in Earth's rotation rate to the tide-generating potential. Amplitudes and phases of k for the monthly, fortnightly, and 9-day lunar tides are estimated from 2 1/2 years of very long baseline interferometry UTI observations (both 5-day and daily time series), corrected for atmospheric angular momentum effects using NMC wind and pressure series. Using the dynamic ocean tide model of Dickman (1988a,more » 1989a), the authors predict amplitudes and phases of k for an elastic earth-ocean system. The predictions confirm earlier results which found that dynamic effects of the longer-period ocean tides reduce the amplitude of k by about 1%. However, agreement with the observed k is best achieved for all three tides if the predicted tide amplitudes are combined with the much larger satellite-observed ocean tide phases; in these cases the dynamic tidal effects reduce k by up to 8%. Finally, comparison between the observed and predicted amplitudes of k implies that anelastic effects on Earth's rotation at periods less than fortnightly cannot exceed 2%.« less

  4. The Effect of Google Earth and Wiki Models on Oral Presentation Skills of University EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awada, Ghada; Diab, Hassan B.

    2018-01-01

    This article reports the results of an experimental study that investigated the effectiveness of Google Earth and Wiki tools in improving the oral presentation skills of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners and boosting their motivation for learning. The participants (n =81) are enrolled in writing classes at two English-medium…

  5. A Study of Students' Perceptions of the Organisation and Effectiveness of Fieldwork in Earth Sciences Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Luis; Praia, Joao; Kempa, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a preliminary evaluation of an in-service training programme designed for practising geology/earth science teachers in Portuguese high schools and intended to enhance the effectiveness of fieldwork activities organised by them for their students. Among the points particularly stressed during the in-service…

  6. The effects of solar Reimers η on the final destinies of Venus, the Earth, and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianpo; Lin, Ling; Bai, Chunyan; Liu, Jinzhong

    2016-04-01

    Our Sun will lose sizable mass and expand enormously when it evolves to the red giant branch phase and the asymptotic giant branch phase. The loss of solar mass will push a planet outward. On the contrary, solar expansion will enhance tidal effects, and tidal force will drive a planet inward. Will our Sun finally engulf Venus, the Earth, and Mars? In the literature, one can find a large number of studies with different points of view. A key factor is that we do not know how much mass the Sun will lose at the late stages. The Reimers η can describe the efficiency of stellar mass-loss and greatly affect solar mass and solar radius at the late stages. In this work, we study how the final destinies of Venus, the Earth, and Mars can be depending on Reimers η chosen. In our calculation, the Reimers η varies from 0.00 to 0.75, with the minimum interval 0.0025. Our results show that Venus will be engulfed by the Sun and Mars will most probably survive finally. The fate of the Earth is uncertain. The Earth will finally be engulfed by the Sun while η <0.4600, and it will finally survive while η ≥ 0.4600. New observations indicate that the average Reimers η for solar-like stars is 0.477. This implies that Earth may survive finally.

  7. Cardiac Effects of Seasonal Ambient Particulate Matter and Ozone Co-exposure in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundThe potential for seasonal differences in the physicochemical characteristics of ambient particulate matter (PM) to modify interactive effects with gaseous pollutants has not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac responses in conscio...

  8. Cardiovascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Older Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Advanced age is among the factors identified as conferring susceptibility to PM inhalation. In order to characteri...

  9. Effects of Earth's curvature in full-wave modeling of VLF propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Inan, U. S.; Stanford VLF Group

    2011-12-01

    We show how to include curvature in the full-wave finite element approach to calculate ELF/VLF wave propagation in horizontally stratified earth-ionosphere waveguide. A general curvilinear stratified system is considered, and the numerical solutions of full-wave method in curvilinear system are compared with the analytic solutions in the cylindrical and spherical waveguides filled with an isotropic medium. We calculate the attenuation and height gain for modes in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, taking into account the anisotropicity of ionospheric plasma, for different assumptions about the Earth's curvature, and quantify the corrections due to the curvature. The results are compared with the results of previous models, such as LWPC, as well as with ground and satellite observations, and show improved accuracy compared with full-wave method without including the curvature effect.

  10. The Study of Effects of Time Variations in the Earth's Gravity Field on Geodetic Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shum, C. K.

    1998-01-01

    The temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field are the consequences of complex interactions between atmosphere, ocean, solid Earth, hydrosphere and cryosphere. The signal ranges from several hours to 18.6 years to geological time scale. The direct and indirect consequences of these variations are manifested in such phenomena as changes in the global sea level and in the global climate pattern. These signals produce observable geodetic satellites. The primary objectives of the proposed effects on near-Earth orbiting investigation include (1) the improved determination of the time-varying gravity field parameters (scale from a few hour to 18.6 year and secular) using long-term satellite laser rs ranging (SLR) observations to multiple geodetic satellites, and (2) the enhanced understanding of these variations with their associated meteorological and geophysical consequences.

  11. The Effects of Earth's Outer Core's Viscosity on Geodynamo Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, C.; Jiao, L.; Zhang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Geodynamo process is controlled by mathematic equations and input parameters. To study effects of parameters on geodynamo system, MoSST model has been used to simulate geodynamo outputs under different outer core's viscosity ν. With spanning ν for nearly three orders when other parameters fixed, we studied the variation of each physical field and its typical length scale. We find that variation of ν affects the velocity field intensely. The magnetic field almost decreases monotonically with increasing of ν, while the variation is no larger than 30%. The temperature perturbation increases monotonically with ν, but by a very small magnitude (6%). The averaged velocity field (u) of the liquid core increases with ν as a simple fitted scaling relation: u∝ν0.49. The phenomenon that u increases with ν is essentially that increasing of ν breaks the Taylor-Proudman constraint and drops the critical Rayleigh number, and thus u increases under the same thermal driving force. Forces balance is analyzed and balance mode shifts with variation of ν. When compared with former studies of scaling laws, this study supports the conclusion that in a certain parameter range, the magnetic field strength doesn't vary much with the viscosity, but opposes to the assumption that the velocity field has nothing to do with the outer core viscosity.

  12. The effect of the earth's and stray magnetic fields on mobile mass spectrometer systems.

    PubMed

    Bell, Ryan J; Davey, Nicholas G; Martinsen, Morten; Short, R Timothy; Gill, Chris G; Krogh, Erik T

    2015-02-01

    Development of small, field-portable mass spectrometers has enabled a rapid growth of in-field measurements on mobile platforms. In such in-field measurements, unexpected signal variability has been observed by the authors in portable ion traps with internal electron ionization. The orientation of magnetic fields (such as the Earth's) relative to the ionization electron beam trajectory can significantly alter the electron flux into a quadrupole ion trap, resulting in significant changes in the instrumental sensitivity. Instrument simulations and experiments were performed relative to the earth's magnetic field to assess the importance of (1) nonpoint-source electron sources, (2) vertical versus horizontal electron beam orientation, and (3) secondary magnetic fields created by the instrument itself. Electron lens focus effects were explored by additional simulations, and were paralleled by experiments performed with a mass spectrometer mounted on a rotating platform. Additionally, magnetically permeable metals were used to shield (1) the entire instrument from the Earth's magnetic field, and (2) the electron beam from both the Earth's and instrument's magnetic fields. Both simulation and experimental results suggest the predominant influence on directionally dependent signal variability is the result of the summation of two magnetic vectors. As such, the most effective method for reducing this effect is the shielding of the electron beam from both magnetic vectors, thus improving electron beam alignment and removing any directional dependency. The improved ionizing electron beam alignment also allows for significant improvements in overall instrument sensitivity.

  13. Characterisation of Organic Matter Preserved in Earths Using Micromorphological and Chemical Analysis. Initial Results from Two Prehistoric French Sites : Les Bossats and Régismont-le-Haut.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejay, Mathieu; Alexis, Marie; Quenea, Katell; Sellami, Farid; Bodu, Pierre; Naton, Henri-Georges; Vassiliu, Ligia; Dumarçay, Gaëlle; Bon, François; Mensan, Romain

    2014-05-01

    -situ character of this feature and its direct association with hearth use. Following these observations we sampled several structures and facies in order to characterize this amorphous organic matter at the molecular scale. We first used C/N Elemental Analysis to quantify the organic carbon contained. The most promising samples have been selected for further detailed analyses (including pyrolysis, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and lipid analysis) in the hopes determining their exact molecular composition. Preliminary results indicate the conservation of long chain fatty acids, probably linked to higher plants, and cholesterol, so of animal origin. While the former can probably be explained by the nature of the fuel used (wood), the latter may in fact be implicated in the impregnation of sediments by amorphous organic matter. Although this research is still in its early stages, preliminary results are extremely encouraging. Our methodology seems effective as analysis at multiple scales allows us to trace features from the field to the lab and avoid on-site contamination issues. The flexibility of this methodology is also extremely positive, as analyses can be modified in view of the preceding step's results. Keywords : Micromorphology ; Organic chemistry ; Organic matter preservation ; Prehistoric hearths ; Upper Palaeolithic

  14. Effects of rare-earth co-doping on the local structure of rare-earth phosphate glasses using high and low energy X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Alisha J; Cole, Jacqueline M; FitzGerald, Vicky; Honkimaki, Veijo; Roberts, Mark A; Brennan, Tessa; Martin, Richard A; Saunders, George A; Newport, Robert J

    2013-06-14

    Rare-earth co-doping in inorganic materials has a long-held tradition of facilitating highly desirable optoelectronic properties for their application to the laser industry. This study concentrates specifically on rare-earth phosphate glasses, (R2O3)x(R'2O3)y(P2O5)(1-(x+y)), where (R, R') denotes (Ce, Er) or (La, Nd) co-doping and the total rare-earth composition corresponds to a range between metaphosphate, RP3O9, and ultraphosphate, RP5O14. Thereupon, the effects of rare-earth co-doping on the local structure are assessed at the atomic level. Pair-distribution function analysis of high-energy X-ray diffraction data (Q(max) = 28 Å(-1)) is employed to make this assessment. Results reveal a stark structural invariance to rare-earth co-doping which bears testament to the open-framework and rigid nature of these glasses. A range of desirable attributes of these glasses unfold from this finding; in particular, a structural simplicity that will enable facile molecular engineering of rare-earth phosphate glasses with 'dial-up' lasing properties. When considered together with other factors, this finding also demonstrates additional prospects for these co-doped rare-earth phosphate glasses in nuclear waste storage applications. This study also reveals, for the first time, the ability to distinguish between P-O and P[double bond, length as m-dash]O bonding in these rare-earth phosphate glasses from X-ray diffraction data in a fully quantitative manner. Complementary analysis of high-energy X-ray diffraction data on single rare-earth phosphate glasses of similar rare-earth composition to the co-doped materials is also presented in this context. In a technical sense, all high-energy X-ray diffraction data on these glasses are compared with analogous low-energy diffraction data; their salient differences reveal distinct advantages of high-energy X-ray diffraction data for the study of amorphous materials.

  15. Fire effects on soil organic matter content, composition, and nutrients in boreal interior Alaska

    Neff, J.C.; Harden, J.W.; Gleixner, G.

    2005-01-01

    Boreal ecosystems contain a substantial fraction of the earth's soil carbon stores and are prone to frequent and severe wildfires. In this study, we examine changes in element and organic matter stocks due to a 1999 wildfire in Alaska. One year after the wildfire, burned soils contained between 1071 and 1420 g/m2 less carbon than unburned soils. Burned soils had lower nitrogen than unburned soils, higher calcium, and nearly unchanged potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus stocks. Burned surface soils tended to have higher concentrations of noncombustible elements such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus compared with unburned soils. Combustion losses of carbon were mostly limited to surface dead moss and fibric horizons, with no change in the underlying mineral horizons. Burning caused significant changes in soil organic matter structure, with a 12% higher ratio of carbon to combustible organic matter in surface burned horizons compared with unburned horizons. Pyrolysis gas chromatography - mass spectroscopy also shows preferential volatilization of polysaccharide-derived organic matter and enrichment of lignin-and lipid-derived compounds in surface soils. The chemistry of deeper soil layers in burned and unburned sites was similar, suggesting that immediate fire impacts were restricted to the surface soil horizon. ?? 2005 NRC.

  16. [Effects of rare earth compounds on human peripheral mononuclear cell telomerase and apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Dai, Yu-Cheng; Yuan, Zhao-Kang; Li, Jie

    2004-07-01

    To study the effects of rare earth exposure on human telomerase and apoptosis of human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMNs). Rare earth mine lot in Xunwu county, the biggest ion absorptive rare earth mine lot of China, was selected as the study site. Another village of Xunwu county, with comparable geological structure and social environment was selected as the control site. Thirty healthy adults were randomly selected from the study site as exposure group and another 30 healthy adults randomly selected from the control site as control group. The blood content of 15 rare earth elements, including La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu and Y, were determined by inductive coupled plasma-source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The total contents of rare earth elements in the blood were calculated. The TRAP and FCM assays were carried out to analyse the telomerase and apoptosis of human PBMNCs respectively. In the exposure group, the concentration of La, Ce, Dy and Y were significantly higher (P<0.001), and Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd and Yb were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The total content of rare earth in the blood of exposure group showed significant difference compared with control group (P<0.001). Telomerase activity in PBMNs of the exposure group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05); there were 11 adults in the exposure group (30 adults) and 5 adults in control group (30 adults) showed positive telomerase activity. The average age of the exposure group was (38.69 +/- 8.02) years-old, while the control group was (40.45 +/- 9.02) years-old (P >0.05). It was found that there was a significant relationship between telomerase activity and the total content of rare earth elements (P <0.01). 3. The proportion of apoptosis was not different between the two groups (P >0.05), but the cells in the S-phase and G2-M phase were increased (P <0.01) in the exposed group. The telomerase activity of PBMNs in the rare earth elements exposed group

  17. Effects of bilingualism on white matter integrity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John A E; Grundy, John G; De Frutos, Jaisalmer; Barker, Ryan M; Grady, Cheryl; Bialystok, Ellen

    2018-02-15

    Bilingualism can delay the onset of dementia symptoms and has thus been characterized as a mechanism for cognitive or brain reserve, although the origin of this reserve is unknown. Studies with young adults generally show that bilingualism is associated with a strengthening of white matter, but there is conflicting evidence for how bilingualism affects white matter in older age. Given that bilingualism has been shown to help stave off the symptoms of dementia by up to four years, it is crucial that we clarify the mechanism underlying this reserve. The current study uses diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare monolinguals and bilinguals while carefully controlling for potential confounds (e.g., I.Q., MMSE, and demographic variables). We show that group differences in Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and Radial Diffusivity (RD) arise from multivariable interactions not adequately controlled for by sequential bivariate testing. After matching and statistically controlling for confounds, bilinguals still had greater axial diffusivity (AD) in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus than monolingual peers, supporting a neural reserve account for healthy older bilinguals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of Dark Matter annihilation on cosmic reionization

    DOE PAGES

    Kaurov, Alexander A.; Hooper, Dan; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2016-12-15

    We revisit the possibility of constraining the properties of dark matter (DM) by studying the epoch of cosmic reionization. Previous studies have shown that DM annihilation was unlikely to have provided a large fraction of the photons that ionized the universe, but instead played a subdominant role relative to stars and quasars. The DM, however, begins to efficiently annihilate with the formation of primordial microhalos atmore » $$z\\sim100-200$$, much earlier than the formation of the first stars. Therefore, if DM annihilation ionized the universe at even the percent level over the interval $$z \\sim 20-100$$, it can leave a significant imprint on the global optical depth, $$\\tau$$. Moreover, we show that cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization data and future 21 cm measurements will enable us to more directly probe the DM contribution to the optical depth. In order to compute the annihilation rate throughout the epoch of reionization, we adopt the latest results from structure formation studies and explore the impact of various free parameters on our results. Here, we show that future measurements could make it possible to place constraints on the dark matter's annihilation cross section that are at a level comparable to those obtained from the observations of dwarf galaxies, cosmic ray measurements, and studies of recombination.« less

  19. Dynamical effects of dark matter in systems of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, J. F.; Garcia Lambas, D.; Sersic, J. L.

    1986-06-01

    Several N-body experiments were performed in order to simulate the dynamical behavior of systems of galaxies gravitationally dominated by a massive dark background. Mass estimates from the dynamics of the luminous component under the influence of such a background are discussed, assuming a constant dark/luminous mass ratio and plausible physical conditions. Previous studies (Smith, 1980, 1984) about the dependence of the virial theorem mass on the relative distributions of dark and luminous matter (Limber, 1959) are extended. It is found that the observed ratio of the virial theorem mass to luminosity in systems of galaxies of different sizes could be the result of different stages of their postvirialisation evolution as previously suggested by White and Rees (1978) and Barnes (1983). This evolution is mainly the result of the dynamical friction that dark matter exerts on the luminous component. Thus the results give support to the idea that compact groups of galaxies are dynamically more evolved than large clusters, which is expected from the 'hierarchical cluster' picture for the formation of such structures.

  20. Lack of gender effects on gray matter volumes in adolescent generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Liao, Mei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yan; He, Zhong; Su, Linyan; Li, Lingjiang

    2014-02-01

    Previous epidemiological and clinical studies have reported gender differences in prevalence and clinical features of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Such gender differences in clinical phenomenology suggest that the underlying neural circuitry of GAD could also be different in males and females. This study aimed to explore the possible gender effect on gray matter volumes in adolescents with GAD. Twenty-six adolescent GAD patients and 25 healthy controls participated and underwent high-resolution structural magnetic resonance scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate gray matter alterations. Our study revealed a significant diagnosis main effect in the right putamen, with larger gray matter volumes in GAD patients compared to healthy controls, and a significant gender main effect in the left precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, with larger gray matter volumes in males compared to females. No gender-by-diagnosis interaction effect was found in this study. The relatively small sample size in this study might result in a lack of power to demonstrate gender effects on brain structure in GAD. The results suggested that there are differences in gray matter volumes between males and females, but gray matter volumes in GAD are not influenced by gender. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effect of Oxygen Enrichment in Propane Laminar Diffusion Flames under Microgravity and Earth Gravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Pramod; Singh, Ravinder

    2017-06-01

    Diffusion flames are the most common type of flame which we see in our daily life such as candle flame and match-stick flame. Also, they are the most used flames in practical combustion system such as industrial burner (coal fired, gas fired or oil fired), diesel engines, gas turbines, and solid fuel rockets. In the present study, steady-state global chemistry calculations for 24 different flames were performed using an axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics code (UNICORN). Computation involved simulations of inverse and normal diffusion flames of propane in earth and microgravity condition with varying oxidizer compositions (21, 30, 50, 100 % O2, by mole, in N2). 2 cases were compared with the experimental result for validating the computational model. These flames were stabilized on a 5.5 mm diameter burner with 10 mm of burner length. The effect of oxygen enrichment and variation in gravity (earth gravity and microgravity) on shape and size of diffusion flames, flame temperature, flame velocity have been studied from the computational result obtained. Oxygen enrichment resulted in significant increase in flame temperature for both types of diffusion flames. Also, oxygen enrichment and gravity variation have significant effect on the flame configuration of normal diffusion flames in comparison with inverse diffusion flames. Microgravity normal diffusion flames are spherical in shape and much wider in comparison to earth gravity normal diffusion flames. In inverse diffusion flames, microgravity flames were wider than earth gravity flames. However, microgravity inverse flames were not spherical in shape.

  2. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and rare earth elements uptake of soybean grown in rare earth mine tailings].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zhao, Ren-xin; Zhao, Wen-jing; Fu, Rui-ying; Guo, Jiang-yuan; Zhang, Jun

    2013-05-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus versiforme on the plant growth, nutrient uptake, C: N: P stoichiometric, uptake of heavy metals and rare earth elements by soybean (Glycine max) grown in rare earth mine tailings. The aim was to provide a basis for the revegetation of rare earth mine tailings. The results indicated that soybean had a high mycorrhizal colonization and symbiotic associations were successfully established with G. versiforme, with an average rate of approximately 67%. The colonization of G. versiforme significantly promoted the growth of soybean, increased P, K contents, and decreased C: N: P ratios, supporting the growth rate hypothesis. Inoculation with G. versiforme significantly decreased shoots and roots La, Ce, Pr and Nd concentrations of soybean compared to the control treatment. However, inoculation with G. versiforme had no significant effect on the heavy metal concentrations, except for significantly decreased shoot Fe and Cr concentrations and increased root Cd concentrations. The experiment demonstrates that AM fungi have a potential role for soybean to adapt the composite adversity of rare earth tailings and play a positive role in revegetation of rare earth mine tailings. Further studies on the role of AM fungi under natural conditions should be conducted.

  3. Effect of rare earth metal on the spin-orbit torque in magnetic heterostructures

    SciT

    Ueda, Kohei; Pai, Chi-Feng; Tan, Aik Jun

    2016-06-06

    We report the effect of the rare earth metal Gd on current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in perpendicularly magnetized Pt/Co/Gd heterostructures, characterized using harmonic measurements and spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR). By varying the Gd metal layer thickness from 0 nm to 8 nm, harmonic measurements reveal a significant enhancement of the effective fields generated from the Slonczewski-like and field-like torques. ST-FMR measurements confirm an enhanced effective spin Hall angle and show a corresponding increase in the magnetic damping constant with increasing Gd thickness. These results suggest that Gd plays an active role in generating SOTs in these heterostructures. Our finding may lead tomore » spin-orbitronics device application such as non-volatile magnetic random access memory, based on rare earth metals.« less

  4. Low Earth orbit environmental effects on the space station photovoltaic power generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.

    1987-01-01

    A summary of the Low Earth Orbital Environment, its impact on the Photovoltaic Power systems of the space station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low Earth Orbital Environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the Photovoltaic power systems of the space station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the space station with the desired life are also summarized.

  5. What Is the Atmosphere’s Effect on Earth's Surface Temperature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xubin

    2010-04-01

    It is frequently stated in textbooks and scholarly articles that the surface temperature of Earth is 33°C warmer than it would be without the atmosphere and that this difference is due to the greenhouse effect. This Forum shows that the atmosphere effect leads to warming of only 20°C. This new conclusion requires a revision to all of the relevant literature in K-12, undergraduate, and graduate education material and to science papers and reports. The greenhouse effect on Earth's surface temperature is well understood qualitatively and is regarded as basic knowledge about Earth's climate and climate change. The 33°C warming has been used to quantify the greenhouse effect of greenhouse gases, or of greenhouse gases and clouds, in K-12 educational material (e.g., http://epa.gov/climatechange/kids/greenhouse.html), undergraduate freshman introductory textbooks on weather and climate [e.g., Ahrens, 2008], and graduate textbooks on climate [e.g., Peixoto and Oort, 1992]. Some textbooks and various other publications have less stringently attributed the warming to the greenhouse effect [e.g., Wallace and Hobbs, 2006; Le Treut et al., 2007; American Meteorological Society, 2000].

  6. Co-Seismic Mass Dislocation and its Effect on Earth's Rotation and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.; Gross, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    Mantle processes often involve large-scale mass transport, ranging from mantle convection, tectonic motions, glacial isostatic adjustment, to tides, atmospheric and oceanic loadings, volcanism and seismicity. On very short time scale of less than an hour, co-seismic event, apart from the shaking that is the earthquake, leaves behind permanent (step-function-like) dislocations in the crust and mantle. This redistribution of mass changes the Earth's inertia tensor (and hence Earth's rotation in both length-of-day and polar motion), and the gravity field (in terms of spherical harmonic Stokes coefficients). The question is whether these effects are large enough to be of any significance. In this paper we report updated calculation results based on Chao & Gross (1987). The calculation uses the normal mode summation scheme, applied to nearly twenty thousand major earthquakes that occurred during 1976-2002, according to source mechanism solutions given by the Harvard Central Moment Tensor catalog. Compared to the truly large ones earlier in the century, the earthquakes we study are individually all too small to have left any discernible signature in geodetic records of Earth rotation or global gravity field. However, their collective effects continue to exhibit an extremely strong statistical tendencies. For example, earthquakes conspire to decrease J2 and J22 while shortening LOD, resulting in a rounder and more compact Earth. Strong tendency is also seen in the earthquakes trying to nudge the Earth rotation pole towards approximately 140 degrees E, roughly opposite to the observed polar drift direction. The geophysical significance and implications will be further studied.

  7. Co-Seismic Mass Dislocation and Its Effect on Earth's Rotation and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    1999-01-01

    Mantle processes often involve large-scale mass transport, ranging from mantle convection, tectonic motions, glacial isostatic adjustment, to tides, atmospheric and oceanic loadings, volcanism and seismicity. On very short time scale of less than an hour, co-seismic event, apart from the "shaking" that is the earthquake, leaves behind permanent (step-function-like) dislocations in the crust and mantle. This redistribution of mass changes the Earth's inertia tensor (and hence Earth's rotation in both length-of-day and polar motion), and the gravity field (in terms of spherical harmonic Stokes coefficients). The question is whether these effects are large enough to be of any significance. In this paper we report updated calculation results. The calculation uses the normal mode summation scheme, applied to 15,814 major earthquakes that occurred during 1976-1998, according to source mechanism solutions given by the Harvard Central Moment Tensor catalog. Compared to the truly large ones earlier in the century, the earthquakes we study are individually all too small to have left any discernible signature in geodetic records of Earth rotation or global gravity field. However, their collective effects continue to exhibit an extremely strong statistical tendencies. For example, earthquakes conspire to decrease J(sub 2) and J(sub 22) while shortening LOD, resulting in a rounder and more compact Earth. Strong tendency is also seen in the earthquakes trying to "nudge" the Earth rotation pole towards about 140 degree E, roughly opposite to the observed polar drift direction. The geophysical significance and implications will be further studied.

  8. The effects of refraction on transit transmission spectroscopy: application to Earth-like exoplanets

    SciT

    Misra, Amit; Meadows, Victoria; Crisp, Dave, E-mail: amit0@astro.washington.edu

    2014-09-01

    We quantify the effects of refraction in transit transmission spectroscopy on spectral absorption features and on temporal variations that could be used to obtain altitude-dependent spectra for planets orbiting stars of different stellar types. We validate our model against altitude-dependent transmission spectra of the Earth from ATMOS and against lunar eclipse spectra from Pallé et al. We perform detectability studies to show the potential effects of refraction on hypothetical observations of Earth analogs with the James Webb Space Telescope NIRSPEC. Due to refraction, there will be a maximum tangent pressure level that can be probed during transit for each givenmore » planet-star system. We show that because of refraction, for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star only the top 0.3 bars of the atmosphere can be probed, leading to a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of absorption features by 60%, while for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of an M5V star it is possible to probe almost the entire atmosphere with minimal decreases in S/N. We also show that refraction can result in temporal variations in the transit transmission spectrum which may provide a way to obtain altitude-dependent spectra of exoplanet atmospheres. Additionally, the variations prior to ingress and subsequent to egress provide a way to probe pressures greater than the maximum tangent pressure that can be probed during transit. Therefore, probing the maximum range of atmospheric altitudes, and in particular the near-surface environment of an Earth-analog exoplanet, will require looking at out-of-transit refracted light in addition to the in-transit spectrum.« less

  9. Co-Seismic Mass Displacement and its Effect on Earth's Rotation and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.; Gross, R. S.

    2004-01-01

    Mantle processes often involve large-scale mass transport, ranging from mantle convection, tectonic motions, glacial isostatic adjustment, to tides, atmospheric and oceanic loadings, volcanism and seismicity. On very short time scale of less than an hour, co-seismic event, apart from the "shaking" that is the earthquake, leaves behind permanent (step-function-like) displacements in the crust and mantle. This redistribution of mass changes the Earth's inertia tensor (and hence Earth's rotation in both length-of-day and polar motion), and the gravity field. The question is whether these effects are large enough to be of any significance. In this paper we report updated calculation results based on Chao & Gross. The calculation uses the normal mode summation scheme, applied to over twenty thousand major earthquakes that occurred during 1976-2002, according to source mechanism solutions given by the Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor catalog. Compared to the truly large ones earlier in the century, the earthquakes we study are individually all too small to have left any discernible signature in geodetic records of Earth rotation or global gravity field. However, their collective effects continue to exhibit an extremely strong statistical tendencies, conspiring to decrease J2 and J22 while shortening LOD, resulting in a rounder and more compact Earth. Strong tendency is also seen in the earthquakes trying to "nudge" the Earth rotation pole towards approx. 140 deg.E, roughly opposite to the observed polar drift direction. Currently, the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) is measuring the time-variable gravity to high degree and order with unprecedented accuracy. Our results show that great earthquakes such as the 1960 Chilean or 1964 Alaskan events cause gravitational field changes that are large enough to be detected by GRACE.

  10. Examining the effect of psychopathic traits on gray matter volume in a community substance abuse sample.

    PubMed

    Cope, Lora M; Shane, Matthew S; Segall, Judith M; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K; Stevens, Michael C; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2012-11-30

    Psychopathy is believed to be associated with brain abnormalities in both paralimbic (i.e., orbitofrontal cortex, insula, temporal pole, parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate) and limbic (i.e., amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate) regions. Recent structural imaging studies in both community and prison samples are beginning to support this view. Sixty-six participants, recruited from community corrections centers, were administered the Hare psychopathy checklist-revised (PCL-R), and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry was used to test the hypothesis that psychopathic traits would be associated with gray matter reductions in limbic and paralimbic regions. Effects of lifetime drug and alcohol use on gray matter volume were covaried. Psychopathic traits were negatively associated with gray matter volumes in right insula and right hippocampus. Additionally, psychopathic traits were positively associated with gray matter volumes in bilateral orbital frontal cortex and right anterior cingulate. Exploratory regression analyses indicated that gray matter volumes within right hippocampus and left orbital frontal cortex combined to explain 21.8% of the variance in psychopathy scores. These results support the notion that psychopathic traits are associated with abnormal limbic and paralimbic gray matter volume. Furthermore, gray matter increases in areas shown to be functionally impaired suggest that the structure-function relationship may be more nuanced than previously thought. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neutron Monitors as a Tool for Specifying Solar Energetic Particle Effects on Earth and in Near-Earth Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Kuwabara, T.; Pyle, R.; Ruffolo, D.; Saiz, A.

    2007-12-01

    Neutron monitors are ground-based instruments that record the byproducts of collisions between cosmic rays and molecules in Earth's atmosphere. When linked together in real-time coordinated arrays, these instruments can make valuable contributions to the specification of major solar energetic particle events. Neutron monitors can provide the earliest alert of elevated radiation levels in Earth's atmosphere caused by the arrival of relativistic solar particles (Ground Level Enhancement or GLE). Early detection of GLE is of interest to the aviation industry because of the associated radiation hazard for pilots and air crews, especially for those flying polar routes. Network observations can also be used to map, in principle in real time, the distribution of radiation in Earth's atmosphere, taking into account the particle anisotropy which can be very large in early phases of the event. Observations from the large GLE of January 20, 2005 and December 13, 2006 will be used to illustrate these applications of neutron monitors. Supported by NSF grant ATM-0527878, the Thailand Research Fund, and the Mahidol University Postdoctoral Fellowship Program.

  12. Effect of Earth and Mars departure delays on human missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Tartabini, Paul V.

    1993-01-01

    This study determines the impact on the initial mass in low-Earth orbit (IMLEO) for delaying departure from Mars and Earth by 5, 15, and 30 days, once a nominal mission to Mars has been selected. Additionally, the use of a deep space maneuver (DSM) is attempted to alleviate the IMLEO penalties. Three different classes of missions are analyzed using chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion systems in the 2000-2025 time-frame: opposition, conjunction, and fast-transfer conjunction. The results indicate that Mars and Earth delays can lead to large IMLEO penalties. Opposition and fast-transfer conjunction class missions have the highest IMLEO penalties, upwards of 432.4 mt and 1977.3 mt, respectively. Conjunction class missions, on the other hand, tend to be insensitive to Mars and Earth delays having IMLEO penalties under 103.5 mt. As expected, nuclear thermal propulsion had significantly lower IMLEO penalties as compared to chemical propulsion. The use of a DSM is found not to have a significant impact on reducing the IMLEO penalties. Through this investigation, the effect of off-nominal departure conditions on the overall mission (i.e., IMLEO) can be gained, enabling mission designers to incorporate the influence of off-nominal departure conditions of the interplanetary trajectory in the overall conceptual design process of a Mars transfer vehicle.

  13. Atomic scale study of vacancies in Earth's inner core: effect of pressure and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritterbex, S.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic observations of the Earth's inner core [1] remain ambiguously related to mineral physics studies of the inner core stable crystalline iron phase [2,3,4,5]. This makes it difficult to clarify the role of plastic deformation as one of the primary candidates responsible for the observed seismic anisotropy of Earth's inner core. Nonetheless, atomic self-diffusion mechanisms provide a direct link between plastic deformation and the mechanical properties of Earth's inner core stable iron phase(s). Using first-principles density functional based calculation techniques, we have studied the conjugate effect of pressure and chemistry on vacancy diffusion in HCP-, BCC- and FCC-iron by taking into account potential light alloying elements as hydrogen, silicon and sulfur. Our results show that inner core pressure highly inhibits the rate of intrinsic self-diffusion by suppressing defect concentration rather than by effecting the mobility of the defects. Moreover, we found light elements to be able to affect metallic bonding which allows for extrinsic diffusion mechanisms in iron under inner core conditions. The latter clearly enables to enhance defect concentration and hence to enhance the rate of plastic deformation. This suggests that inner core chemistry affects the rheological properties (e.g.viscosity) of iron alloys which finally should match with seismic observations. references: [1] Deuss, A., 2014. Heterogeneity and Anisotropy of Earth's inner core. An. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 42, 103-126. [2] Anzellini, S., Dewaele, A., Mezouar, M., Loubeyre, P., Morard, G., 2013. Melting of iron at Earth's inner core boundary based on fast X-ray diffraction. Science 340, 464-466. [3] Godwal, B.K., Gonzales-Cataldo, F., Verma, A.K., Stixrude, L., Jeanloz, R., 2015. Stability of iron crystal structures at 0.3-1.5 TPa. [4] Vocadlo, L., 2007. Ab initio calculations of the elasticity of iron and iron alloys at inner core conditions: evidence for a partially molten inner core

  14. Effect of organic matter on CO(2) hydrate phase equilibrium in phyllosilicate suspensions.

    PubMed

    Park, Taehyung; Kyung, Daeseung; Lee, Woojin

    2014-06-17

    In this study, we examined various CO2 hydrate phase equilibria under diverse, heterogeneous conditions, to provide basic knowledge for successful ocean CO2 sequestration in offshore marine sediments. We investigated the effect of geochemical factors on CO2 hydrate phase equilibrium. The three-phase (liquid-hydrate-vapor) equilibrium of CO2 hydrate in the presence of (i) organic matter (glycine, glucose, and urea), (ii) phyllosilicates [illite, kaolinite, and Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT)], and (iii) mixtures of them was measured in the ranges of 274.5-277.0 K and 14-22 bar. Organic matter inhibited the phase equilibrium of CO2 hydrate by association with water molecules. The inhibition effect decreased in the order: urea < glycine < glucose. Illite and kaolinite (unexpandable clays) barely affected the CO2 hydrate phase equilibrium, while Na-MMT (expandable clay) affected the phase equilibrium because of its interlayer cations. The CO2 hydrate equilibrium conditions, in the illite and kaolinite suspensions with organic matter, were very similar to those in the aqueous organic matter solutions. However, the equilibrium condition in the Na-MMT suspension with organic matter changed because of reduction of its inhibition effect by intercalated organic matter associated with cations in the Na-MMT interlayer.

  15. Effect of aggregation on SOC transport: linking soil properties to sediment organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Soils are an interface between the Earth's spheres and shaped by the nature of the interaction between them. The relevance of soil properties for the nature of the interaction between atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere is well-studied and accepted, on point- or ecotone-scale. However, this understanding of the largely vertical connections between spheres is not matched by a similar recognition of soil properties affecting processes acting largely in a lateral way across the land surface, such as erosion, transport and deposition of soil and the associated organic matter. Understanding the redistribution of eroded soil organic matter falls into several disciplines, most notably soil science, agronomy, hydrology and geomorphology, and recently into biogeochemistry. Accordingly, the way soil and sediment are described differs: in soil science, aggregation and structure are essential properties, while most process-based soil erosion models treat soil as a mixture of individual mineral grains, based on concepts derived in fluvial geomorphology or civil engineering. The actual behavior of aggregated sediment and the associated organic matter is not reflected by either approach and difficult to capture due to the dynamic nature of aggregation, especially in an environment such as running water. Still, a proxy to assess the uncertainties introduced by aggregation on the behavior of soil/sediment organic while moving in water across landscapes and into the aquatic system would represent a major step forward. To develop such a proxy, a database collating relevant soil, organic matter and sediment properties could serve as an initial step to identify which soil types and erosion scenarios are prone to generate a high uncertainty compared to the use of soil texture in erosion models. Furthermore, it could serve to develop standardized analytical procedures for appropriate description of soil and organic matter as sediment.

  16. Earth Science

    1992-07-18

    Workers at Launch Complex 17 Pad A, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) encapsulate the Geomagnetic Tail (GEOTAIL) spacecraft (upper) and attached payload Assist Module-D upper stage (lower) in the protective payload fairing. GEOTAIL project was designed to study the effects of Earth's magnetic field. The solar wind draws the Earth's magnetic field into a long tail on the night side of the Earth and stores energy in the stretched field lines of the magnetotail. During active periods, the tail couples with the near-Earth magnetosphere, sometimes releasing energy stored in the tail and activating auroras in the polar ionosphere. GEOTAIL measures the flow of energy and its transformation in the magnetotail and will help clarify the mechanisms that control the imput, transport, storage, release, and conversion of mass, momentum, and energy in the magnetotail.

  17. Quantifying and Comparing Effects of Climate Engineering Methods on the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, Sebastian; Ferrer González, Miriam; Ilyina, Tatiana; Kracher, Daniela; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Niemeier, Ulrike; Pongratz, Julia; Reick, Christian H.; Schmidt, Hauke

    2018-02-01

    To contribute to a quantitative comparison of climate engineering (CE) methods, we assess atmosphere-, ocean-, and land-based CE measures with respect to Earth system effects consistently within one comprehensive model. We use the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) with prognostic carbon cycle to compare solar radiation management (SRM) by stratospheric sulfur injection and two carbon dioxide removal methods: afforestation and ocean alkalinization. The CE model experiments are designed to offset the effect of fossil-fuel burning on global mean surface air temperature under the RCP8.5 scenario to follow or get closer to the RCP4.5 scenario. Our results show the importance of feedbacks in the CE effects. For example, as a response to SRM the land carbon uptake is enhanced by 92 Gt by the year 2100 compared to the reference RCP8.5 scenario due to reduced soil respiration thus reducing atmospheric CO2. Furthermore, we show that normalizations allow for a better comparability of different CE methods. For example, we find that due to compensating processes such as biogeophysical effects of afforestation more carbon needs to be removed from the atmosphere by afforestation than by alkalinization to reach the same global warming reduction. Overall, we illustrate how different CE methods affect the components of the Earth system; we identify challenges arising in a CE comparison, and thereby contribute to developing a framework for a comparative assessment of CE.

  18. Constraints on the near-Earth asteroid obliquity distribution from the Yarkovsky effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardioli, C.; Farnocchia, D.; Rozitis, B.; Cotto-Figueroa, D.; Chesley, S. R.; Statler, T. S.; Vasile, M.

    2017-12-01

    Aims: From light curve and radar data we know the spin axis of only 43 near-Earth asteroids. In this paper we attempt to constrain the spin axis obliquity distribution of near-Earth asteroids by leveraging the Yarkovsky effect and its dependence on an asteroid's obliquity. Methods: By modeling the physical parameters driving the Yarkovsky effect, we solve an inverse problem where we test different simple parametric obliquity distributions. Each distribution results in a predicted Yarkovsky effect distribution that we compare with a χ2 test to a dataset of 125 Yarkovsky estimates. Results: We find different obliquity distributions that are statistically satisfactory. In particular, among the considered models, the best-fit solution is a quadratic function, which only depends on two parameters, favors extreme obliquities consistent with the expected outcomes from the YORP effect, has a 2:1 ratio between retrograde and direct rotators, which is in agreement with theoretical predictions, and is statistically consistent with the distribution of known spin axes of near-Earth asteroids.

  19. Simple model to estimate the contribution of atmospheric CO2 to the Earth's greenhouse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Derrek J.; Gea-Banacloche, Julio

    2012-04-01

    We show how the CO2 contribution to the Earth's greenhouse effect can be estimated from relatively simple physical considerations and readily available spectroscopic data. In particular, we present a calculation of the "climate sensitivity" (that is, the increase in temperature caused by a doubling of the concentration of CO2) in the absence of feedbacks. Our treatment highlights the important role played by the frequency dependence of the CO2 absorption spectrum. For pedagogical purposes, we provide two simple models to visualize different ways in which the atmosphere might return infrared radiation back to the Earth. The more physically realistic model, based on the Schwarzschild radiative transfer equations, uses as input an approximate form of the atmosphere's temperature profile, and thus includes implicitly the effect of heat transfer mechanisms other than radiation.

  20. Effect of organic matter amendment, arsenic amendment and water management regime on rice grain arsenic species.

    PubMed

    Norton, Gareth J; Adomako, Eureka E; Deacon, Claire M; Carey, Anne-Marie; Price, Adam H; Meharg, Andrew A

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic accumulation in rice grain has been identified as a major problem in some regions of Asia. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increased organic matter in the soil on the release of arsenic into soil pore water and accumulation of arsenic species within rice grain. It was observed that high concentrations of soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth and delayed flowering time. Total grain arsenic accumulation was higher in the plants grown in high soil arsenic in combination with high organic matter, with an increase in the percentage of organic arsenic species observed. The results indicate that the application of organic matter should be done with caution in paddy soils which have high soil arsenic, as this may lead to an increase in accumulation of arsenic within rice grains. Results also confirm that flooding conditions substantially increase grain arsenic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preliminary Results on the Gravitational Slingshot Effect and the Population of Hyperbolic Meteoroids at Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegert, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    Interstellar meteoroids, solid particles arriving from outside our Solar System, are not easily distinguished from local meteoroids. A velocity above the escape velocity of the Sun is often used as an indicator of a possible interstellar origin. We demonstrate that the gravitational slingshot effect, resulting from the passage of local meteoroid near a planet, can produce hyperbolic meteoroids at the Earth s orbit with excess velocities comparable to those expected of interstellar meteoroids.

  2. The effects from high-altitude storm discharges in Earth atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, L.; Odzimek, A.; Ivchenko, V.; Kozak, P.; Gala, I.; Lapchuk, V.

    2016-06-01

    The regularities of appearance of transient luminous effects in Earth atmosphere and features of their ground-based observations are considered. Using video-observations obtained in the Institution of Geophysics of Poland Academy of Sciences the energy of atmospheric afterglow from these processes in visual wavelength range has been determined. Calibrating curve was plotted using unfocal images of Vega. The star spectrum,atmosphere absorption coefficient and characteristics of the observational camera were used.

  3. Effect of UV Radiation on the Spectral Fingerprints of Earth-like Planets Orbiting M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, S.; Kaltenegger, L.; Segura, A.; Linsky, J.; Mohanty, S.

    2015-08-01

    We model the atmospheres and spectra of Earth-like planets orbiting the entire grid of M dwarfs for active and inactive stellar models with Teff = 2300 K to Teff = 3800 K and for six observed MUSCLES M dwarfs with UV radiation data. We set the Earth-like planets at the 1 AU equivalent distance and show spectra from the visible to IR (0.4-20 μm) to compare detectability of features in different wavelength ranges with the James Webb Space Telescope and other future ground- and spaced-based missions to characterize exo-Earths. We focus on the effect of UV activity levels on detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely, H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, and CH3Cl. To observe signatures of life—O2/O3 in combination with reducing species like CH4—we find that early and active M dwarfs are the best targets of the M star grid for future telescopes. The O2 spectral feature at 0.76 μm is increasingly difficult to detect in reflected light of later M dwarfs owing to low stellar flux in that wavelength region. N2O, another biosignature detectable in the IR, builds up to observable concentrations in our planetary models around M dwarfs with low UV flux. CH3Cl could become detectable, depending on the depth of the overlapping N2O feature. We present a spectral database of Earth-like planets around cool stars for directly imaged planets as a framework for interpreting future light curves, direct imaging, and secondary eclipse measurements of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone to design and assess future telescope capabilities.

  4. Effects of Variable Eccentricity on the Climate of an Earth-Like World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, M. J.; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    The Kepler era of exoplanetary discovery has presented the Astronomical community with a cornucopia of planetary systems very different from the one which we inhabit. It has long been known that Jupiter plays a major role in the orbital parameters of Mars and its climate, but there is also a long-standing belief that Jupiter would play a similar role for Earth if not for its large moon. Using a three dimensional general circulation model (3-D GCM) with a fully-coupled ocean we simulate what would happen to the climate of an Earth-like world if Mars did not exist, but a Jupiter-like planet was much closer to Earths orbit. We investigate two scenarios that involve evolution of the Earth-like planets orbital eccentricity from 0 to 0.066 on a time scale of 4500 years, and from 0 to 0.283 over 6500 years. We discover that during most of the 6500 year scenario the planet would experience a moist greenhouse effect when near periastron. This could have implications for the ability of such a world to retain an ocean on time scales of 109 years. More Earth-like planets in multi-planet systems will be discovered as we continue to survey the skies and the results herein show that the proximity of large gas giant planets may play an important role in the habitabilty of these worlds. These are the first such 3-D GCM simulations using a fully-coupled ocean with a planetary orbit that evolves over time due to the presence of a giant planet.

  5. Effects of Source-Apportioned Coarse Particulate Matter (PM) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Cleveland Multiple Air Pollutant Study (CMAPS) is one of the first comprehensive studies conducted to evaluate particulate matter (PM) over local and regional scales. Cleveland and the nearby Ohio River Valley impart significant regional sources of air pollution including coal combustion and steel production. Size-fractionated PM (coarse, fine and ultrafine) were collected from an urban site (G.T. Craig (GTC)) and a rural site (Chippewa Lake monitor (CLM) located 53 km southwest of Cleveland) from July 2009 to June 2010. Following collection, resulting speciated PM data were apportioned to identify local industrial emission sources for each size fraction and location, indicating these samples were enriched with resident emission sources. This study was designed to determine whether exposure of the CMAPS coarse PM contributes to the exacerbation of allergic asthma. Non-sensitized and house dust mite (HDM)-sensitized female Balb/cJ mice (n= 8/group) were exposed via oropharyngeal (OP) aspiration to 100 g coarse fractions of one of five source apportioned groups representative of distinct time periods of 4-6 weeks (traffic, coal, steel 1, steel 2, or winter PM) and OP challenge with HDM conducted 2 hr following dosing with PM. Two days later, airway responsiveness to methacholine aerosol was assessed in anesthetized ventilated control and HDM mice. The HDM-allergic mice demonstrated increased airway reactivity in comparison to control mice. Bronchoalveolar l

  6. Effects of anisotropic turbulent thermal diffusion on spherical magnetoconvection in the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivers, D. J.; Phillips, C. G.

    2018-03-01

    We re-consider the plate-like model of turbulence in the Earth's core, proposed by Braginsky and Meytlis (1990), and show that it is plausible for core parameters not only in polar regions but extends to mid- and low-latitudes where rotation and gravity are not parallel, except in a very thin equatorial layer. In this model the turbulence is highly anisotropic with preferred directions imposed by the Earth's rotation and the magnetic field. Current geodynamo computations effectively model sub-grid scale turbulence by using isotropic viscous and thermal diffusion values significantly greater than the molecular values of the Earth's core. We consider a local turbulent dynamo model for the Earth's core in which the mean magnetic field, velocity and temperature satisfy the Boussinesq induction, momentum and heat equations with an isotropic turbulent Ekman number and Roberts number. The anisotropy is modelled only in the thermal diffusion tensor with the Earth's rotation and magnetic field as preferred directions. Nonlocal organising effects of gravity and rotation (but not aspect ratio in the Earth's core) such as an inverse cascade and nonlocal transport are assumed to occur at longer length scales, which computations may accurately capture with sufficient resolution. To investigate the implications of this anisotropy for the proposed turbulent dynamo model we investigate the linear instability of turbulent magnetoconvection on length scales longer than the background turbulence in a rotating sphere with electrically insulating exterior for no-slip and isothermal boundary conditions. The equations are linearised about an axisymmetric basic state with a conductive temperature, azimuthal magnetic field and differential rotation. The basic state temperature is a function of the anisotropy and the spherical radius. Elsasser numbers in the range 1-20 and turbulent Roberts numbers 0.01-1 are considered for both equatorial symmetries of the magnetic basic state. It is found

  7. Effects of Insect-Proof Net Cultivation, Rice-Duck Farming, and Organic Matter Return on Rice Dry Matter Accumulation and Nitrogen Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Xu, Guochun; Wang, Qiangsheng; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Insect-proof net cultivation (IPN), rice-duck farming (RD), and organic matter return (OM) are important methods to realize sustainable development of rice production. A split-plot field experiment was performed to study the effects of IPN, RD, and OM on the rice yield, dry matter accumulation and N utilization. Results showed that compared to inorganic N fertilizer (IN), wheat straw return, and biogas residue return increased the rice yield by 2.11–4.28 and 4.78–7.67%, respectively, and also improved dry matter and N accumulation after the elongation stage (EG), dry matter and N translocation, and N recovery efficiency (NRE). These results attributed to an increase in leaf SPAD values and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) after the EG. Compared to conventional rice farming (CR), RD promoted the rice yield by 1.52–3.74%, and contributed to higher the leaf photosynthesis, dry matter and N accumulation, dry matter and N translocation, and NRE. IPN decreased the intensity of sun radiation in the nets due to the coverage of the insect-proof nets, which declined the leaf Pn, dry matter accumulation and translocation, N absorption and translocation, and NRE compared to open field cultivation (OFC). The rice yield of IPN were 2.48–4.98% lower than that of OFC. Compared to the interaction between CR and IN, the interaction between RD and OM improved the rice yield by 5.26–9.33%, and increased dry matter and N accumulation after the EG, dry matter and N translocation, and NRE. These results indicated that OM, RD and the interaction between RD and OM could promote dry matter accumulation and N utilization, which was beneficial to improve the rice yield. PMID:28174589

  8. Form factors for dark matter capture by the Sun in effective theories

    SciT

    Catena, Riccardo; Schwabe, Bodo

    2015-04-24

    In the effective theory of isoscalar and isovector dark matter-nucleon interactions mediated by a heavy spin-1 or spin-0 particle, 8 isotope-dependent nuclear response functions can be generated in the dark matter scattering by nuclei. We compute the 8 nuclear response functions for the 16 most abundant elements in the Sun, i.e. H, {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He, {sup 12}C, {sup 14}N, {sup 16}O, {sup 20}Ne, {sup 23}Na, {sup 24}Mg, {sup 27}Al, {sup 28}Si, {sup 32}S, {sup 40}Ar, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 56}Fe, and {sup 59}Ni, through numerical shell model calculations. We use our response functions to compute the rate of dark mattermore » capture by the Sun for all isoscalar and isovector dark matter-nucleon effective interactions, including several operators previously considered for dark matter direct detection only. We study in detail the dependence of the capture rate on specific dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, and on the different elements in the Sun. We find that a so far neglected momentum dependent dark matter coupling to the nuclear vector charge gives a larger contribution to the capture rate than the constant spin-dependent interaction commonly included in dark matter searches at neutrino telescopes. Our investigation lays the foundations for model independent analyses of dark matter induced neutrino signals from the Sun. The nuclear response functions obtained in this study are listed in analytic form in an appendix, ready to be used in other projects.« less

  9. Effects of Surgery and Proton Therapy on Cerebral White Matter of Craniopharyngioma Patients

    SciT

    Uh, Jinsoo, E-mail: jinsoo.uh@stjude.org; Merchant, Thomas E.; Li, Yimei

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine radiation dose effect on the structural integrity of cerebral white matter in craniopharyngioma patients receiving surgery and proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Fifty-one patients (2.1-19.3 years of age) with craniopharyngioma underwent surgery and proton therapy in a prospective therapeutic trial. Anatomical magnetic resonance images acquired after surgery but before proton therapy were inspected to identify white matter structures intersected by surgical corridors and catheter tracks. Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to measure microstructural integrity changes in cerebral white matter. Fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from DTI was statistically analyzed for 51more » atlas-based white matter structures of the brain to determine radiation dose effect. FA in surgery-affected regions in the corpus callosum was compared to that in its intact counterpart to determine whether surgical defects affect radiation dose effect. Results: Surgical defects were seen most frequently in the corpus callosum because of transcallosal resection of tumors and insertion of ventricular or cyst catheters. Longitudinal DTI data indicated reductions in FA 3 months after therapy, which was followed by a recovery in most white matter structures. A greater FA reduction was correlated with a higher radiation dose in 20 white matter structures, indicating a radiation dose effect. The average FA in the surgery-affected regions before proton therapy was smaller (P=.0001) than that in their non–surgery-affected counterparts with more intensified subsequent reduction of FA (P=.0083) after therapy, suggesting that surgery accentuated the radiation dose effect. Conclusions: DTI data suggest that mild radiation dose effects occur in patients with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy. Surgical defects present at the time of proton therapy appear to accentuate the radiation dose effect

  10. Thematic mapper research in the earth sciences: Small scale patches of suspended matter and phytoplankton in the Elbe River Estuary, German Bight and Tidal Flats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grassl, H.; Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Brockmann, C.; Stoessel, M.

    1987-01-01

    A Thematic Mapper (TM) field experiment was followed by a data analysis to determine TM capabilities for analysis of suspended matter and phytoplankton. Factor analysis showed that suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature can be retrieved as independent factors which determine the variation in the TM data over water areas. Spectral channels in the near infrared open the possibility of determining the Angstrom exponent better than for the coastal zone color scanner. The suspended matter distribution may then be calculated by the absolute radiance of channel 2 or 3 or the ratio of both. There is no indication of whether separation of chlorophyll is possible. The distribution of suspended matter and sea surface temperature can be observed with the expected fine structure. A good correlation between water depth and suspended matter distribution as found from ship data can now be analyzed for an entire area by the synoptic view of the TM scenes.

  11. The Earth rotation and revolution effect on the daily and annual variation of sporadic meteor echo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Kouji; Hattori, Shinobu; Nishimura, Osamu; Ishikawa, Toshiyuki; Aoki, Yoshie; Iijima, Yukiko; Kobayashi, Aya; Maegawa, Kimio; Abe, Shinsuke

    2001-11-01

    The Earth rotation and revolution will affect the daily and annual variation of sporadic meteor echo. We try to investigate such effect using Ham-band Radio Observation (HRO). Our system is constructed with paired two-element loop antennas (F/B ratio is 10 dB) at Nagano, Japan using the beacon signals at 53.750 MHz, 50W from Sabae, Fukui, Japan. The direction of one of this paired antenna was West toward Sagae and the other was East, so that this system could be roughly detected the direction of the reflected radio echoes. Using this system, (1) The total echo rose from midnight with the peak coming at about 6:00 and decreasing to the noon. This is well known daily variation due to the Earth rotation. (2) The peak echoes time by Eastward antenna and by Westward antennas was different; Westward was at 3:00 and Eastward was at 10:00. This daily variation is interpreted as the effect of the Earth rotation and revolution and the specular reflection property of forward meteor scattering observation.

  12. Effects of Earth's rotation on the early differentiation of a terrestrial magma ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Christian; Hansen, Ulrich

    2015-11-01

    Similar to other terrestrial planets like Moon and Mars, Earth experienced a magma ocean period about 4.5 billion years ago. On Earth differentiation processes in the magma ocean set the initial conditions for core formation and mantle evolution. During the magma ocean period Earth was rotating significantly faster than today. Further, the viscosity of the magma was low, thus that planetary rotation potentially played an important role for differentiation. However, nearly all previous studies neglect rotational effects. All in all, our results suggest that planetary rotation plays an important role for magma ocean crystallization. We employ a 3-D numerical model to study crystal settling in a rotating and vigorously convecting early magma ocean. We show that crystal settling in a terrestrial magma ocean is crucially affected by latitude as well as by rotational strength and crystal density. Due to rotation an inhomogeneous accumulation of crystals during magma ocean solidification with a distinct crystal settling between pole and equator could occur. One could speculate that this may have potentially strong effects on the magma ocean solidification time and the early mantle composition. It could support the development of a basal magma ocean and the formation of anomalies at the core-mantle boundary in the equatorial region, reaching back to the time of magma ocean solidification.

  13. THE EFFECT OF SIZE FRACTIONED PARTICULATE MATTER ON HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE EFFECT OF SIZE FRACTIONATED PARTICULATE MATTER ON HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS IN VITRO. LA Dailey1, C Sioutas2, JM Soukup1, S Becker1, RB Devlin1. 1National Health & Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, RTP, NC,USA; 2USC, Civil & Environmental Engineering, LA, ...

  14. The Effect of Constructivist Science Teaching on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakici, Yilmaz; Yavuz, Gulben

    2010-01-01

    In the last three decades, the constructivist approach has been the dominant ideology in the field of educational research. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of constructivist science teaching on the students' understanding about matter, and to compare the effectiveness of a constructivist approach over traditional teaching methods.…

  15. The Effects of CLIL Education on the Subject Matter (Mathematics) and the Target Language (English)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouazizi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL for short, on both the attainment of the subject matter, mathematics in our case, hence the content aspect of CLIL. The second axes of research focuses on the effect of CLIL on the learners' proficiency vis-à-vis the language of instruction, epitomized here by…

  16. Matter effects on LIGO/Virgo searches for gravitational waves from merging neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Torrey; Harry, Ian; Read, Jocelyn; Flynn, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Gravitational waves from merging neutron stars are expected to be observed in the next five years. We explore the potential impact of matter effects on gravitational waves from merging double neutron-star binaries. If neutron star binaries exist with chirp masses less than roughly one solar mass and typical neutron-star radii are larger than roughly 14 km, or if neutron-star radii are larger than 15-16 km for the chirp masses of galactic neutron-star binaries, then matter will have a significant impact on the effectiveness of a point-particle-based search at Advanced LIGO design sensitivity (roughly 5% additional loss of signals). In a configuration typical of LIGO’s first observing run, extreme matter effects lead to up to 10% potential loss in the most extreme cases.

  17. Theory connecting nonlocal sediment transport, earth surface roughness, and the Sadler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumer, Rina; Taloni, Alessandro; Furbish, David Jon

    2017-03-01

    Earth surface evolution, like many natural phenomena typified by fluctuations on a wide range of scales and deterministic smoothing, results in a statistically rough surface. We present theory demonstrating that scaling exponents of topographic and stratigraphic statistics arise from long-time averaging of noisy surface evolution rather than specific landscape evolution processes. This is demonstrated through use of "elastic" Langevin equations that generically describe disturbance from a flat earth surface using a noise term that is smoothed deterministically via sediment transport. When smoothing due to transport is a local process, the geologic record self organizes such that a specific Sadler effect and topographic power spectral density (PSD) emerge. Variations in PSD slope reflect the presence or absence and character of nonlocality of sediment transport. The range of observed stratigraphic Sadler slopes captures the same smoothing feature combined with the presence of long-range spatial correlation in topographic disturbance.

  18. Compact High Current Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode for Hall Effect Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan M. (Inventor); Watkins, Ronnie M. (Inventor); Hofer, Richard R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus and method for achieving an efficient central cathode in a Hall effect thruster is disclosed. A hollow insert disposed inside the end of a hollow conductive cathode comprises a rare-earth element and energized to emit electrons from an inner surface. The cathode employs an end opening having an area at least as large as the internal cross sectional area of the rare earth insert to enhance throughput from the cathode end. In addition, the cathode employs a high aspect ratio geometry based on the cathode length to width which mitigates heat transfer from the end. A gas flow through the cathode and insert may be impinged by the emitted electrons to yield a plasma. One or more optional auxiliary gas feeds may also be employed between the cathode and keeper wall and external to the keeper near the outlet.

  19. Substance-use initiation moderates the effect of stress on white-matter microstructure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Zu Wei; Yip, Sarah W; Morie, Kristen P; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C; Potenza, Marc N

    2018-04-01

    While childhood stress may contribute risk to substance-use initiation and differences in brain white-matter development, understanding of the potential impact of substance-use initiation on the relationship between experienced stress and white-matter microstructure remains limited. This study examined whether substance-use initiation moderated the effect of perceived stress on white-matter differences using measures of primary white-matter fiber anisotropy. Forty adolescents (age 14.75 ± .87 years) were assessed on the Perceived Stress Scale, and 50% were determined to have presence of substance-use initiation. White-matter microstructure was examined using primary-fiber orientations anisotropy, which may reflect white-matter integrity, modeled separately from other fiber orientations in the same voxels. Analyses were conducted on regions of interest previously associated with childhood stress and substance use. Lower perceived stress and presence of substance-use initiation were related to greater right cingulum primary-fiber measures. Substance-use-initiation status moderated the association between perceived stress and right cingulum primary-fiber measures, such that higher perceived stress was associated with lower right cingulum primary-fiber anisotropy in adolescents without substance-use initiation, but not in those with substance-use initiation. Findings in primary-fiber anisotropy suggest differences in right cingulum white-matter integrity is associated with substance-use initiation in higher-stress adolescents. This reflects a possible pre-existing risk factor, an impact of early substance use, or a combination thereof. Examination of potential markers associated with substance-use initiation in white-matter microstructure among stress-exposed youth warrant additional investigation as such biomarkers may inform efforts relating to tailored interventions. (Am J Addict 2018;27:217-224). © 2018 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  20. Effect of organic matters on CO2 hydrate phase equilibrium conditions in Na-montmorillonite clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, T.; Kyung, D.; Lee, W.

    2013-12-01

    Formation of gas hydrates provides an attractive idea for storing greenhouse gases in a long-term stable geological formation. Since the phase equilibrium conditions of gas hydrates indicate the stability of hydrates, estimation of the phase equilibrium conditions of gas hydrates in marine geological conditions is necessary. In this study, we have identified the effects of organic matters (glycine, glucose, and urea) and solid surface (montmorillonite (MMT)) on the three-phase (liquid-hydrate-vapor) equilibrium conditions of CO2 hydrate. CO2 phase equilibrium experiments were conducted using 0.5mol% organic matter solutions with and without 10g soil mineral were experimentally conducted. Addition of organic matters shifted the phase equilibrium conditions of CO2 hydrate to the higher pressure or lower pressure region because of higher competition of water molecules due to the dissolved organic matters. Presence of MMT also leaded to the higher equilibrium pressure due to the interaction of cations with water molecules. By addition of organic matters to the clay suspension, the hydrate phase equilibrium conditions were less inhibited compared to those of MMT and organic matters independently. The diminished magnitudes by addition of organic matters to the clay suspension (MMT > MMT+urea > MMT+glycine > MMT+glucose > DIW) were different to the order of inhibition degree without MMT (Glucose > glycine > urea > DIW). X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and ion chromatography (IC) analysis were conducted to support the hypothesis that the organic matters interact with cations in MMT interlayer space, and leads to the less inhibition of phase equilibrium conditions. The present study provides basic information for the formation and dissociation of CO2 hydrates in the geological formation when sequestering CO2 as a form of CO2 hydrate.

  1. [Effects of Tillage on Distribution of Heavy Metals and Organic Matter Within Purple Paddy Soil Aggregates].

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiong-bin; Zhao, Xiu-lan; Chang, Tong-ju; Lu, Ji-wen

    2016-05-15

    A long-term experiment was utilized to study the effects of tillage methods on the contents and distribution characteristics of organic matter and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe and Mn) in aggregates with different sizes (including 1-2, 0.25-1, 0.05-0.25 mm and < 0.05 mm) in a purple paddy soil under two tillage methods including flooded paddy field (FPF) and paddy-upland rotation (PR). The relationship between heavy metals and organic matter in soil aggregates was also analyzed. The results showed that the aggregates of two tillage methods were dominated by 0.05-0.25 mm and < 0.05 mm particle size, respectively. The contents of organic matter in each aggregate decreased with the decrease of aggregate sizes, however, compared to PR, FPF could significantly increase the contents of organic matter in soils and aggregates. The tillage methods did not significantly affect the contents of heavy metals in soils, but FPF could enhance the accumulation and distribution of aggregate, organic matter and heavy metals in aggregates with diameters of 1-2 mm and 0.25-1 mm. Correlation analysis found that there was a negative correlation between the contents of heavy metals and organic matter in soil aggregates, but a positive correlation between the amounts of heavy metal and organic matter accumulated in soil aggregates. From the slope of the correlation analysis equations, we could found that the sensitivities of heavy metals to the changes of soil organic matters followed the order of Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu > Fe > Cd under the same tillage. When it came to the same heavy metal, it was more sensitive in PR than in FPF.

  2. Urban airborne matter in central and southern Chile: Effects of meteorological conditions on fine and coarse particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yáñez, Marco A.; Baettig, Ricardo; Cornejo, Jorge; Zamudio, Francisco; Guajardo, Jorge; Fica, Rodrigo

    2017-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the major global environmental problems affecting human health and life quality. Many cities of Chile are heavily polluted with PM2.5 and PM10, mainly in the cold season, and there is little understanding of how the variation in particle matter differs between cities and how this is affected by the meteorological conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of meteorological variables on respirable particulate matter (PM) of the main cities in the central-south valley of Chile during the cold season (May to August) between 2014 and 2016. We used hourly PM2.5 and PMcoarse (PM10- PM2.5) information along with wind speed, temperature and relative humidity, and other variables derived from meteorological parameters. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were fitted for each of the eight cities selected, covering a latitudinal range of 929 km, from Santiago to Osorno. Great variation in PM was found between cities during the cold months, and that variation exhibited a marked latitudinal pattern. Overall, the more northerly cities tended to be less polluted in PM2.5 and more polluted in PMcoarse than the more southerly cities, and vice versa. The results show that other derived variables from meteorology were better related with PM than the use of traditional daily means. The main variables selected with regard to PM2.5 content were mean wind speed and minimum temperature (negative relationship). Otherwise, the main variables selected with regard to PMcoarse content were mean wind speed (negative), and the daily range in temperature (positive). Variables derived from relative humidity contributed differently to the models, having a higher effect on PMcoarse than PM2.5, and exhibiting both negative and positive effects. For the different cities the deviance explained by the GAMs ranged from 37.6 to 79.1% for PM2.5 and from 18.5 to 63.7% for PMcoarse. The percentage of deviance explained by the models for PM2.5 exhibited a

  3. Peer Effects in College Academic Outcomes--Gender Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficano, Carlena Cochi

    2012-01-01

    An extensive literature exploring a range of peer influences on both academic and non-academic outcomes continues to produce contradictory evidence regarding the existence and magnitude of peer effects. Our results provide no evidence of peer effects in models where peer academic ability is measured in the aggregate. However, models that control…

  4. Effects on optical systems from interactions with oxygen atoms in low earth orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, P. N.; Swann, J. T.; Gregory, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications of material surface properties due to interactions with ambient atomic oxygen have been observed on surfaces facing the orbital direction in low earth orbits. Some effects are very damaging to surface optical properties while some are more subtle and even beneficial. Most combustible materials are heavily etched, and some coatings, such as silver and osmium, are seriously degraded or removed as volatile oxides. The growth of oxide films on metals and semiconductors considered stable in dry air was measured. Material removal, surface roughness, reflectance, and optical densities are reported. Effects of temperature, contamination, and overcoatings are noted.

  5. Effects on optical systems from interactions with oxygen atoms in low earth orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, P. N.; Swann, J. T.; Gregory, J. C.

    1986-04-01

    Modifications of material surface properties due to interactions with ambient atomic oxygen have been observed on surfaces facing the orbital direction in low earth orbits. Some effects are very damaging to surface optical properties while some are more subtle and even beneficial. Most combustible materials are heavily etched, and some coatings, such as silver and osmium, are seriously degraded or removed as volatile oxides. The growth of oxide films on metals and semiconductors considered stable in dry air was measured. Material removal, surface roughness, reflectance, and optical densities are reported. Effects of temperature, contamination, and overcoatings are noted.

  6. Solar and terrestrial physics. [effects of solar activities on earth environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The effects of solar radiation on the near space and biomental earth, the upper atmosphere, and the magnetosphere are discussed. Data obtained from the OSO satellites pertaining to the solar cycle variation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation are analyzed. The effects of solar cycle variation of the characteristics of the solar wind are examined. The fluid mechanics of shock waves and the specific relationship to the characteristics of solar shock waves are investigated. The solar and corpuscular heating of the upper atmosphere is reported based on the findings of the AEROS and NATE experiments. Seasonal variations of the upper atmosphere composition are plotted based on OGO-6 mass spectrometer data.

  7. On the Effects of the Evolution of Microbial Mats and Land Plants on the Earth as a Planet. Photometric and Spectroscopic Light Curves of Paleo-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanromá, E.; Pallé, E.; García Munõz, A.

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the spectral and photometric variability of the Earth and the rest of the solar system planets has become of utmost importance for the future characterization of rocky exoplanets. As this is not only interesting at present times but also along the planetary evolution, we studied the effect that the evolution of microbial mats and plants over land has had on the way our planet looks from afar. As life evolved, continental surfaces changed gradually and non-uniformly from deserts through microbial mats to land plants, modifying the reflective properties of the ground and most likely the distribution of moisture and cloudiness. Here, we used a radiative transfer model of the Earth, together with geological paleo-records of the continental distribution and a reconstructed cloud distribution, to simulate the visible and near-IR radiation reflected by our planet as a function of Earth's rotation. We found that the evolution from deserts to microbial mats and to land plants produces detectable changes in the globally averaged Earth's reflectance. The variability of each surface type is located in different bands and can induce reflectance changes of up to 40% in period of hours. We conclude that by using photometric observations of an Earth-like planet at different photometric bands it would be possible to discriminate between different surface types. While recent literature proposes the red-edge feature of vegetation near 0.7 μm as a signature for land plants, observations in near-IR bands can be equally or even better suited for this purpose.

  8. Do less effective teachers choose professional development does it matter?

    PubMed

    Barrett, Nathan; Butler, J S; Toma, Eugenia F

    2012-10-01

    In an ongoing effort to improve teacher quality, most states require continuing education or professional development for their in-service teachers. Studies evaluating the effectiveness of various professional development programs have assumed a normal distribution of quality of teachers participating in the programs. Because participation in many professional development programs is either targeted or voluntary, this article suggests past evaluations of the effectiveness of professional development may be subject to selection bias and policy recommendations may be premature. This article presents an empirical framework for evaluating professional development programs where treatment is potentially nonrandom, and explicitly accounts for the teacher's prior effectiveness in the classroom as a factor that may influence participation in professional development. This article controls for the influence of selection bias on professional development outcomes by generating a matched sample based on propensity scores and then estimating the program's effect. In applying this framework to the professional development program examined in this article, less effective teachers are found to be more likely to participate in the program, and correcting for this selection leads to different conclusions regarding the program's effectiveness than when ignoring teacher selection patterns.

  9. Displacements of the earth's surface due to atmospheric loading - Effects of gravity and baseline measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dam, T. M.; Wahr, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loads and deforms the earth's crust. By performing a convolution sum between daily, global barometric pressure data and mass loading Green's functions, the time dependent effects of atmospheric loading, including those associated with short-term synoptic storms, on surface point positioning measurements and surface gravity observations are estimated. The response for both an oceanless earth and an earth with an inverted barometer ocean is calculated. Load responses for near-coastal stations are significantly affected by the inclusion of an inverted barometer ocean. Peak-to-peak vertical displacements are frequently 15-20 mm with accompanying gravity perturbations of 3-6 micro Gal. Baseline changes can be as large as 20 mm or more. The perturbations are largest at higher latitudes and during winter months. These amplitudes are consistent with the results of Rabbel and Zschau (1985), who modeled synoptic pressure disturbances as Gaussian functions of radius around a central point. Deformation can be adequately computed using real pressure data from points within about 1000 km of the station. Knowledge of local pressure, alone, is not sufficient. Rabbel and Zschau's hypothesized corrections for these displacements, which use local pressure and the regionally averaged pressure, prove accurate at points well inland but are, in general, inadequate within a few hundred kilometers of the coast.

  10. Effects of spin crossover on iron isotope fractionation in Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, T.; Shukla, G.; Wu, Z.; Wentzcovitch, R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the iron isotope composition of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) is +0.1‰ richer in heavy Fe (56Fe) relative to chondrites, while basalts from Mars and Vesta have similar Fe isotopic composition as chondrites. Several hypotheses could explain these observations. For instance, iron isotope fractionation may have occurred during core formation or Earth may have lost some light Fe isotope during the high temperature event in the early Earth. To better understand what drove these isotopic observations, it is important to obtain accurate Fe isotope fractionation factors among mantle and core phases at the relevant P-T conditions. In bridgmanite, the most voluminous mineral in the lower mantle, Fe can occupy more than one crystalline site, be in ferrous and/or ferric states, and may undergo a spin crossover in the lower mantle. Iron isotopic fractionation properties under spin crossover are poorly constrained, while this may be relevant to differentiation of Earth's magma ocean. In this study we address the effect of these multiple states on the iron isotope fractionation factors between mantle and core phases.

  11. Diatomaceous earth and oil enhance effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae against Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Luz, Christian; Rodrigues, Juscelino; Rocha, Luiz F N

    2012-04-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi, especially Metarhizium anisopliae, have potential for integrated control of peridomestic triatomine bugs. However, the high susceptibility of these vectors to fungal infection at elevated ambient humidities decreases in the comparatively dry conditions that often prevail in their microhabitats. A formulation adapted to this target pest that induces high and quick mortality can help to overcome these drawbacks. In the present study diatomaceous earth, which is used against pests of stored grains or as an additive to mycoinsecticides, delayed but did not reduce in vitro germination of M. anisopliae s.l. IP 46 conidia after >24h agitation without affecting viability, and did not hamper the survival of Triatoma infestans nymphs exposed to treated surfaces. The settling behavior of nymphs on a treated surface in choice tests depended on the concentration of diatomaceous earth and ambient light level. Conidia formulated with diatomaceous earth and a vegetable oil synergized the insecticidal effect of the fungus in nymphs, and quickly killed all treated insects, even at 75% relative humidity (LT(90) 8.3 days) where unformulated conidia caused only 25% mortality after a 25 days exposure. The improved performance of a combined oil and desiccant dust formulation of this Metarhizium isolate raises the likelihood for its successful mycoinsecticidal use for triatomine control and, apparently, against other domestic insect pests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High-Accuracy Ring Laser Gyroscopes: Earth Rotation Rate and Relativistic Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beverini, N.; Di Virgilio, A.; Belfi, J.; Ortolan, A.; Schreiber, K. U.; Gebauer, A.; Klügel, T.

    2016-06-01

    The Gross Ring G is a square ring laser gyroscope, built as a monolithic Zerodur structure with 4 m length on all sides. It has demonstrated that a large ring laser provides a sensitivity high enough to measure the rotational rate of the Earth with a high precision of ΔΩE < 10-8. It is possible to show that further improvement in accuracy could allow the observation of the metric frame dragging, produced by the Earth rotating mass (Lense-Thirring effect), as predicted by General Relativity. Furthermore, it can provide a local measurement of the Earth rotational rate with a sensitivity near to that provided by the international system IERS. The GINGER project is intending to take this level of sensitivity further and to improve the accuracy and the long-term stability. A monolithic structure similar to the G ring laser is not available for GINGER. Therefore the preliminary goal is the demonstration of the feasibility of a larger gyroscope structure, where the mechanical stability is obtained through an active control of the geometry. A prototype moderate size gyroscope (GP-2) has been set up in Pisa in order to test this active control of the ring geometry, while a second structure (GINGERino) has been installed inside the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in order to investigate the properties of a deep underground laboratory in view of an installation of a future GINGER apparatus. The preliminary data on these two latter instruments are presented.

  13. Effect of dark matter halo on global spiral modes in a collisionless galactic disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Soumavo; Saini, Tarun Deep; Jog, Chanda J.

    2017-07-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are dominated by dark matter halo from the innermost radii; hence they are ideal candidates to investigate the influence of dark matter on different dynamical aspects of spiral galaxies. Here, we study the effect of dark matter halo on grand-design, m = 2 , spiral modes in a galactic disk, treated as a collisionless system, by carrying out a global modal analysis within the WKB approximation. First, we study a superthin, LSB galaxy UGC 7321 and show that it does not support discrete global spiral modes when modeled as a disk-alone system or as a disk plus dark matter system. Even a moderate increase in the stellar central surface density does not yield any global spiral modes. This naturally explains the observed lack of strong large-scale spiral structure in LSBs. An earlier work (Ghosh et al., 2016) where the galactic disk was treated as a fluid system for simplicity had shown that the dominant halo could not arrest global modes. We found that this difference arises due to the different dispersion relation used in the two cases and which plays a crucial role in the search for global spiral modes. Thus the correct treatment of stars as a collisionless system as done here results in the suppression of global spiral modes, in agreement with the observations. We performed a similar modal analysis for the Galaxy, and found that the dark matter halo has a negligible effect on large-scale spiral structure.

  14. Effect of electromagnetic dipole dark matter on energy transport in the solar interior

    SciT

    Geytenbeek, Ben; Rao, Soumya; White, Martin

    In recent years, a revised set of solar abundances has led to a discrepancy in the sound-speed profile between helioseismology and theoretical solar models. Conventional solutions require additional mechanisms for energy transport within the Sun. Vincent et al. have recently suggested that dark matter with a momentum or velocity dependent cross section could provide a solution. In this work, we consider three models of dark matter with such cross sections and their effect on the stellar structure. In particular, the three models incorporate dark matter particles interacting through an electromagnetic dipole moment: an electric dipole, a magnetic dipole or anmore » anapole. Each model is implemented in the DarkStec stellar evolution program, which incorporates the effects of dark matter capture and heat transport within the solar interior. We show that dark matter with an anapole moment of ∼ 1 GeV{sup −2} or magnetic dipole moment of ∼ 10{sup −3}μ {sub p} can improve the sound-speed profile, small frequency separations and convective zone radius with respect to the Standard Solar Model. However, the required dipole moments are strongly excluded by direct detection experiments.« less

  15. IR properties of chiral effects in pionic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdoshkin, A.; Sadofyev, A. V.; Zakharov, V. I.

    2018-04-01

    Chiral effects exhibit peculiar universality in idealized theoretical limits. However, they are known to be infrared sensitive and get modified in more realistic settings. In this work we study how the corresponding conductivities vary with the constituent mass. We concentrate on a pionic realization of chiral effects which provides a better control over infrared properties of the theory. The pionic medium is considered at finite vector and axial isospin chemical potentials in the presence of an external magnetic field. This system supports electric and axial isospin currents along the magnetic field which correspond to chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects. We show that these currents are sensitive to the finite mass of the constituents but the conductivities follow a simple scaling with the corresponding charge densities as one would expect for polarization effects. It is argued that this relation can capture the dependence of chiral effects on other infrared parameters. Finally, we briefly comment on the realization of the 't Hooft matching condition in pionic media at finite densities.

  16. IR properties of chiral effects in pionic matter

    SciT

    Avdoshkin, A.; Sadofyev, A. V.; Zakharov, V. I.

    Chiral effects exhibit peculiar universality in idealized theoretical limits. However, they are known to be infrared sensitive and get modified in more realistic settings. In this work we study how the corresponding conductivities vary with the constituent mass. We concentrate on a pionic realization of chiral effects which provides a better control over infrared properties of the theory. The pionic medium is considered at finite vector and axial isospin chemical potentials in the presence of an external magnetic field. This system supports electric and axial isospin currents along the magnetic field which correspond to chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects.more » We show that these currents are sensitive to the finite mass of the constituents but the conductivities follow a simple scaling with the corresponding charge densities as one would expect for polarization effects. It is argued that this relation can capture the dependence of chiral effects on other infrared parameters. Finally, we briefly comment on the realization of the ’t Hooft matching condition in pionic media at finite densities.« less

  17. IR properties of chiral effects in pionic matter

    DOE PAGES

    Avdoshkin, A.; Sadofyev, A. V.; Zakharov, V. I.

    2018-04-27

    Chiral effects exhibit peculiar universality in idealized theoretical limits. However, they are known to be infrared sensitive and get modified in more realistic settings. In this work we study how the corresponding conductivities vary with the constituent mass. We concentrate on a pionic realization of chiral effects which provides a better control over infrared properties of the theory. The pionic medium is considered at finite vector and axial isospin chemical potentials in the presence of an external magnetic field. This system supports electric and axial isospin currents along the magnetic field which correspond to chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects.more » We show that these currents are sensitive to the finite mass of the constituents but the conductivities follow a simple scaling with the corresponding charge densities as one would expect for polarization effects. It is argued that this relation can capture the dependence of chiral effects on other infrared parameters. Finally, we briefly comment on the realization of the ’t Hooft matching condition in pionic media at finite densities.« less

  18. Why herd size matters - mitigating the effects of livestock crashes.

    PubMed

    Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the effect of pastoral risk management strategies provides insights into a system of subsistence that have persevered in marginal areas for hundreds to thousands of years and may shed light into the future of around 200 million households in the face of climate change. This study investigated the efficiency of herd accumulation as a buffer strategy by analysing changes in livestock holdings during an environmental crisis in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway. We found a positive relationship between: (1) pre- and post-collapse herd size; and (2) pre-collapse herd size and the number of animals lost during the collapse, indicating that herd accumulation is an effective but costly strategy. Policies that fail to incorporate the risk-beneficial aspect of herd accumulation will have a limited effect and may indeed fail entirely. In the context of climate change, official policies that incorporate pastoral risk management strategies may be the only solution for ensuring their continued existence.

  19. Truncation effects in computing free wobble/nutation modes explored using a simple Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, Behnam; Rochester, Michael G.; Rogers, Christopher M.

    2017-06-01

    The displacement field accompanying the wobble/nutation of the Earth is conventionally represented by an infinite chain of toroidal and spheroidal vector spherical harmonics, coupled by rotation and ellipticity. Numerical solutions for the eigenperiods require truncation of that chain, and the standard approaches using the linear momentum description (LMD) of deformation during wobble/nutation have truncated it at very low degrees, usually degree 3 or 4, and at most degree 5. The effects of such heavy truncation on the computed eigenperiods have hardly been examined. We here investigate the truncation effects on the periods of the free wobble/nutation modes using a simplified Earth model consisting of a homogeneous incompressible inviscid liquid outer core with a rigid (but not fixed) inner core and mantle. A novel Galerkin method is implemented using a Clairaut coordinate system to solve the classic Poincaré problem in the liquid core and, to close the problem, we use the Lagrangean formulation of the Liouville equation for each of the solid parts of the Earth model. We find that, except for the free inner core nutation (FICN), the periods of the free rotational modes converge rather quickly. The period of the tiltover mode is found to excellent accuracy. The computed periods of the Chandler wobble and free core nutation are nearly identical to the values cited in the literature for similar Earth models, but that for the inner core wobble is slightly different. Truncation at low-degree harmonics causes the FICN period to fluctuate over a range as large as 90 sd, with different values at different truncation levels. For example, truncation at degree 6 gives a period of 752 sd (almost identical with the value cited in the literature for such an Earth model) but truncation at degree 24 is required to obtain convergence, and the resulting period is 746 ± 1 sd, as more terms are included, with no guarantee that its proximity to earlier values is other than fortuitous

  20. Truncation Effects in Computing Free Wobble/Nutation Modes Explored Using a Simple Earth Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, B.; Rochester, M. G.; Rogers, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    The displacement field accompanying the wobble/nutation of the Earth is conventionally represented by an infinite chain of toroidal and spheroidal vector spherical harmonics, coupled by rotation and ellipticity. Numerical solutions for the eigenperiods require truncation of that chain, and the standard approaches using the linear momentum description (LMD) of deformation during wobble/nutation have truncated it at very low degrees, usually degree 3 or 4, and at most degree 5. The effects of such heavy truncation on the computed eigenperiods have hardly been examined. We here investigate the truncation effects on the periods of the free wobble/nutation modes using a simplified Earth model consisting of a homogeneous incompressible inviscid liquid outer core with a rigid (but not fixed) inner core and mantle. A novel Galerkin method is implemented using a Clairaut coordinate system to solve the classic Poincare problem in the liquid core and, to close the problem, we use the Lagrangean formulation of the Liouville equation for each of the solid parts of the Earth model. We find that, except for the free inner core nutation (FICN), the periods of the free rotational modes converge rather quickly. The period of the tiltover mode (TOM) is found to excellent accuracy. The computed periods of the Chandler wobble (CW) and free core nutation (FCN) are nearly identical to the values cited in the literature for similar Earth models, but that for the inner core wobble (ICW) is slightly different. Truncation at low-degree harmonics causes the FICN period to fluctuate over a range as large as 90 sd, with different values at different truncation levels. For example, truncation at degree 6 gives a period of 752 sd (almost identical with the value cited in the literature for such an Earth model) but truncation at degree 24 is required to obtain convergence, and the resulting period is 746 sd, with no guarantee that its proximity to earlier values is other than fortuitous. We

  1. The Effect of Alkaline Earth Metal on the Cesium Loading of Ionsiv(R) IE-910 and IE-911

    SciT

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2001-01-16

    This study investigated the effect of variances in alkaline earth metal concentrations on cesium loading of IONSIV(R) IE-911. The study focused on Savannah River Site (SRS) ''average'' solution with varying amounts of calcium, barium and magnesium.

  2. Necessity of using heterogeneous ellipsoidal Earth model with terrain to calculate co-seismic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huihong; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Huai; Huang, Luyuan; Qu, Wulin; Shi, Yaolin

    2016-04-01

    Co-seismic deformation and stress changes, which reflect the elasticity of the earth, are very important in the earthquake dynamics, and also to other issues, such as the evaluation of the seismic risk, fracture process and triggering of earthquake. Lots of scholars have researched the dislocation theory and co-seismic deformation and obtained the half-space homogeneous model, half-space stratified model, spherical stratified model, and so on. Especially, models of Okada (1992) and Wang (2003, 2006) are widely applied in the research of calculating co-seismic and post-seismic effects. However, since both semi-infinite space model and layered model do not take the role of the earth curvature or heterogeneity or topography into consideration, there are large errors in calculating the co-seismic displacement of a great earthquake in its impacted area. Meanwhile, the computational methods of calculating the co-seismic strain and stress are different between spherical model and plane model. Here, we adopted the finite element method which could well deal with the complex characteristics (such as anisotropy, discontinuities) of rock and different conditions. We use the mash adaptive technique to automatically encrypt the mesh at the fault and adopt the equivalent volume force replace the dislocation source, which can avoid the difficulty in handling discontinuity surface with conventional (Zhang et al., 2015). We constructed an earth model that included earth's layered structure and curvature, the upper boundary was set as a free surface and the core-mantle boundary was set under buoyancy forces. Firstly, based on the precision requirement, we take a testing model - - a strike-slip fault (the length of fault is 500km and the width is 50km, and the slippage is 10m) for example. Because of the curvature of the Earth, some errors certainly occur in plane coordinates just as previous studies (Dong et al., 2014; Sun et al., 2012). However, we also found that: 1) the co

  3. Effect of different kinds of crop residues on aggregate-protected soil organic matter fractions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisz, A.

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter content of soils determines many important soil properties, such as soil structure, fertility and water-management. To improve its fertility and quality, returning different kinds of organic matter to soil has a long historical tradition. Ameliorating of soil and enhancing its fertility by enhancing its carbon stock with organic matter incorporation (like farmyard manure, crop residues or green manure) are general practices, but the extent of the amelioration depends much on several factors such as quantity, quality of the used organic matters. Quality of soil organic matters is affected by their chemical build-up, which differs by their origin (i.e. plant species); and their decomposability is affected by particle-size, protection by soil aggregates and the extent of their association to mineral surfaces. In our paper we investigated the effect of three different kinds of organic matter incorporation on aggregate-protected organic matter fractions: (1) Maize stem (M), (2) Wheat straw (W), and (3) Maize stem & Wheat straw (MW). Our samples were originated from Keszthely, Western Hungary, where the texture of the investigated soil is Sandy loam, the type of soil is Eutric Cambisol (soil type FAO), or Alfisol (soil type USDA). SOM fractions might be isolated and measured by physical fractionation of soil (Cambardella and Elliott (1992), Jensen et al. (1992)). Firstly, microaggregates were separated according to their particle-size with physical fractionation (i.e. wet sieving) (Six et al. (2000a)). Each sample was pre-treated by capillary wetting and was sieved for 2 min in an analytic sieve shaker machine with the following aperture sizes: 2 mm, 250 μm, 53 μm. Therefore 4 fractions were resulted: (1) the >2000 μm large macro-, (2) the 250-2000 μm small macro-, (3) the 53-250 μm microaggregates, and (4) the

  4. The effect of work on mental health: does occupation matter?

    PubMed

    Llena-Nozal, Ana; Lindeboom, Maarten; Portrait, France

    2004-10-01

    This paper considers the effect of work choices on mental health and looks at whether this differs across occupations. This requires a model that can deal with the endogeneity in the relationship between health, occupation and work choices. We specify such a model and estimate it on a unique UK panel survey. The survey, called the National Child development Survey (NCDS), follows a cohort since their birth in 1958 until age 42. The analyses show us that early childhood health and ability have long lasting consequences for the mental health at the later ages. Females have lower levels of mental health. Mental health deteriorates with age for males and females, but the rate of deterioration is substantially lower for females. We also find that the rate of depreciation is lower when individuals work. For females we find large effects of occupation, for males we do not find this. Employment status is important for males, but not for females. For both genders we find very large effects of the onset of a long-standing illness. The probability of experiencing such an event depends on employment status, occupation and life style variables. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Earth Science

    1991-01-01

    In July 1990, the Marshall Space Flight Center, in a joint project with the Department of Defense/Air Force Space Test Program, launched the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) using an Atlas I launch vehicle. The mission was designed to study the effects of artificial ion clouds produced by chemical releases on the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere, and to monitor the effects of space radiation environment on sophisticated electronics.

  6. A Supernova at 50 pc: Effects on the Earth's Atmosphere and Biota

    SciT

    Melott, A. L; Thomas, B. C.; Kachelrieß, M.

    Recent {sup 60}Fe results have suggested that the estimated distances of supernovae in the last few million years should be reduced from ∼100 to ∼50 pc. Two events or series of events are suggested, one about 2.7 million years to 1.7 million years ago, and another about 6.5–8.7 million years ago. We ask what effects such supernovae are expected to have on the terrestrial atmosphere and biota. Assuming that the Local Bubble was formed before the event being considered, and that the supernova and the Earth were both inside a weak, disordered magnetic field at that time, TeV–PeV cosmic raysmore » (CRs) at Earth will increase by a factor of a few hundred. Tropospheric ionization will increase proportionately, and the overall muon radiation load on terrestrial organisms will increase by a factor of ∼150. All return to pre-burst levels within 10 kyr. In the case of an ordered magnetic field, effects depend strongly on the field orientation. The upper bound in this case is with a largely coherent field aligned along the line of sight to the supernova, in which case, TeV–PeV CR flux increases are ∼10{sup 4}; in the case of a transverse field they are below current levels. We suggest a substantial increase in the extended effects of supernovae on Earth and in the “lethal distance” estimate; though more work is needed. This paper is an explicit follow-up to Thomas et al. We also provide more detail on the computational procedures used in both works.« less

  7. Unusual locations of Earth's bow shock on September 24 - 25, 1987: Mach number effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Fairfield, Donald H.; Anderson, Oger R.; Carlton, Victoria E. H.; Paularena, Karolen I.; Lazarus, Alan J.

    1995-01-01

    International Sun Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE 1) and Interplanetary Monitoring Platform 8 (IMP 8) data are used to identify 19 crossings of Earth's bow shock during a 30-hour period following 0000 UT on September 24, 1987. Apparent standoff distances for the shock are calculated for each crossing using two methods and the spacecraft location; one method assumes the average shock shape, while the other assumes a ram pressure-dependent shock shape. The shock's apparent standoff distance, normally approximately 14 R(sub E), is shown to increase from near 10 R(sub E) initially to near 19 R(sub E) during an 8-hour period, followed by an excursion to near 35 R(sub E) (where two IMP 8 shock crossings occur) and an eventual return to values smaller than 19 R(sub E). The Alfven M(sub A) and fast magnetosonic M(sub ms). Mach numbers remain above 2 and the number density above 4/cu cm for almost the entire period. Ram pressure effects produce the initial near-Earth shock location, whereas expansions and contractions of the bow shock due to low Mach number effects account, qualitatively and semiquantitatively, for the timing and existence of almost all the remaining ISEE crossings and both IMP 8 crossings. Significant quantitative differences exist between the apparent standoff distances for the shock crossings and those predicted using the observed plasma parameters and the standard model based on Spreiter et al.'s (1966) gasdynamic equation. These differences can be explained in terms of either a different dependence of the standoff distance on Mach number at low M(sub A) and M(sub ms), or variations in shock shape with M(sub A) and M(sub ms) (becoming increasingly "puffed up" with decreasing M(sub A) and M(sub ms), as expected theoretically), or by a combination of both effects.

  8. Effects of the observed J2 variations on the Earth's precession and nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrándiz, José M.; Baenas, Tomás; Belda, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's oblateness parameter J2 is closely related to the dynamical ellipticity H, which factorizes the main components of the precession and the different nutation terms. In most theoretical approaches to the Earth's rotation, with IAU2000 nutation theory among them, H is assumed to be constant. The precession model IAU2006 supposes H to have a conventional linear variation, based on the J2 time series derived mainly from satellite laser ranging (SLR) data for decades, which gives rise to an additional quadratic term of the precession in longitude and some corrections of the nutation terms. The time evolution of J2 is, however, too complex to be well approximated by a simple linear model. The effect of more general models including periodic terms and closer to the observed time series, although still unable to reproduce a significant part of the signal, has been seldom investigated. In this work we address the problem of deriving the effect of the observed J2 variations without resorting to such simplified models. The Hamiltonian approach to the Earth rotation is extended to allow the McCullagh's term of the potential to depend on a time-varying oblateness. An analytical solution is derived by means of a suitable perturbation method in the case of the time series provided by the Center for Space Research (CSR) of the University of Texas, which results in non-negligible contributions to the precession-nutation angles. The presentation focuses on the main effects on the longitude of the equator; a noticeable non-linear trend is superimposed to the linear main precession term, along with some periodic and decadal variations.

  9. Studying the physical basis of global warming: thermal effects of the interaction between radiation and matter and greenhouse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, Ugo; De Ambrosis, Anna; Mascheretti, Paolo

    2010-03-01

    We present a teaching module dealing with the thermal effects of interaction between radiation and matter, the infrared emission of bodies and the greenhouse effect devoted to university level and teacher education. The module stresses the dependence of the optical properties of materials (transparency, absorptivity and emissivity) on radiation frequency, as a result of interaction between matter and radiation. Multiple experiences are suggested to favour a progressive construction of knowledge on the physical aspects necessary to understand the greenhouse effect and global warming. Some results obtained with university students are briefly reported.

  10. Do Babies Matter? The Effect of Family Formation on Men and Women in Science

    SciT

    Mary Ann Mason

    2007-10-30

    Mary Ann Mason, Professor of Social Welfare and Law at the University of California, Berkeley, presents "Do Babies Matter? The Effect of Family Formation on Men and Women in Science." In her talk, she discusses the difficulties of women who have a career in science or in other male-dominated professions.

  11. Analysis of the effects of natural organic matter in zinc beneficiation

    In this study, we present the analysis of the effects of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) in zinc beneficiation from abandoned mine tailings using bioleaching technologies. We used standardized Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) as the NOM source to analyze the importance of the quality of the process wat...

  12. Lasting effect of soil warming on organic matter decomposition depends on tillage practices

    Global warming affects various parts of carbon (C) cycle including acceleration of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition with strong feedback to atmospheric CO2 concentration. Despite many soil warming studies showed changes of microbial community structure, very few were focused on the effect of ...

  13. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of particulate matter- and ozone-enhanced smog atmospheres in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to compare the cardiac effects of particulate matter (PM)-enhanced and ozone(O3)-enhanced smog atmospheres in mice. We hypothesized that O3-enhanced smog would cause greater cardiac dysfunction than PM-enhanced smog due to the higher concentrations of irr...

  14. Effect of PDEODE Teaching Strategy on Turkish Students' Conceptual Understanding: Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demircioglu, Hülya

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of activities developed in accordance with PDEODE teaching strategy on students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter. The sample of the study consists of the first grade students who study in the Primary School Teacher Education Program. In order to determine the conceptual change on…

  15. SEASONAL EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON HUMAN PRIMARY AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEASONAL EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE, AND COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) ON HUMAN PRIMARY AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Exposure of humans to PM results in increased mortality and morbidity. Recent toxicology studies have shown a number of pathophysiological pulmonary and car...

  16. Mycorrhizal associations of trees have different indirect effects on organic matter decomposition

    Melanie K. Taylor; Richard A. Lankau; Nina Wurzburger; Franciska de Vries

    2016-01-01

    1. Organic matter decomposition is the main process by which carbon (C) is lost from terrestrialecosystems, and mycorrhizal associations of plants (i.e. arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) and ectomycorrhizas(ECM)) may have different indirect effects on this loss pathway. AM and ECM plants differin the soil...

  17. Stream nutrient enrichment has a greater effect on coarse than on fine benthic organic matter

    Cynthia J. Tant; Amy D. Rosemond; Matthew R. First

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment affects bacteria and fungi associated with detritus, but little is known about how biota associated with different size fractions of organic matter respond to nutrients. Bacteria dominate on fine (1 mm) fractions, which are used by different groups of detritivores. We measured the effect of experimental...

  18. PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN CARS IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac patients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and ambient PM(2.5) were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Caro...

  19. TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM THE DESTRUCTION OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    May 15, 2002
    Abstract submitted by Stephen H. Gavett for American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) annual meeting October 7-11, 2002 in Charlotte, NC.

    TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER DERIVED FROM THE DESTRUCTION OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER
    Stephen H ...

  20. TEMPORAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN HEALTHY AND CARDIOVASCULAR COMPROMISED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temporal association between pulmonary and systemic effects of particulate matter in healthy and cardiovascular compromised rats

    Urmila P. Kodavanti, Mette C. Schladweiler, Allen D. Ledbetter, Russ Hauser*, David C. Christiani*, John McGee, Judy R. Richards, Daniel L. Co...

  1. Effect of Natural Organic Matter on the Reduction of Nitroaromatics by Fe(II) Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although natural organic matter is a necessary electron source for the microbial mediated development of redox zones in nature, uncertainty still exists regarding its role(s) in the reduction of chemicals. This work studied the effect of Suwannee river humic acid (SRHA) on the r...

  2. Do Babies Matter? The Effect of Family Formation on Men and Women in Science

    Mary Ann Mason

    2017-12-09

    Mary Ann Mason, Professor of Social Welfare and Law at the University of California, Berkeley, presents "Do Babies Matter? The Effect of Family Formation on Men and Women in Science." In her talk, she discusses the difficulties of women who have a career in science or in other male-dominated professions.

  3. Photoperiod and growing degree days effect on dry matter partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke

    The effect of photoperiod and growing degree days (GDD) on dry matter and dry partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke was investigated during 2008-09 and 2009-10. Three Jerusalem artichoke genotypes (CN-52867, JA-89 and HEL-65) were planted in 15 day-intervals between with thirteen different dates (Sep...

  4. EFFECTS OF INSTILLED AND INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY PARAMETERS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF INSTILLED AND INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY PARAMETERS IN RATS

    LB Wichers (UNC - Chapel Hill; Chapel Hill, NC USA), MJ Campen (LRRI; Albuquerque, NM USA), JP Nolan, WH Rowan, AD Ledbetter, DW Winsett, UP Kodavanti, MCJ Schladweiler, DL Costa, and...

  5. Non-traditional Aharonov-Bohm effects in condensed matter

    SciT

    Krive, I.V.; Rozhavsky, A.S.

    1992-05-10

    In 1959, Aharonov and Bohm proposed an elegant experiment demonstrating observability of electromagnetic potentials (or, which is the same, the non-locality of the wave function of charged particles) in quantum mechanics. This paper discusses the Aharonov-Bohm effect, based on the fundamental principles of quantum theory, as the superposition principles, the quantum character of motion of particles and locality of the interaction of a charge with an electromagnetic potential L{sub int} = j{sub {mu}}A{sup {mu}}. It is thus no wonder that the Aharonov-Bohm's paper aroused much dispute which is still ongoing. Originally, the Aharonov-Bohm effect (ABE) means the dependence of themore » interference pattern on the magnetic fluid flux {phi} in a Gendaken experiment on a coherent electron beam in the field of an infinitely thin solenoid. Later, however, it became common to refer to the Aharonov-Bohm phenomenon wherever the characteristics of systems under study appear to depend on the flux {phi} in the absence of electric and magnetic fields. In this sense, it was highly interesting to analyze the ABE in condensed media (the many-particle Aharonov-Bohm effect), in particular to study the dependence of the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics, e.g., of metal on the flux. Such a problem was first discussed by Byers and Yang who formulated the general theorems related to the ABE in conducting condensed media. The next important step was the work of Kulik who formulated a concrete model and calculated the flux-dependent contribution to the metal free energy and provided a first clear formulation of the requirements to reveal.« less

  6. Simplified models vs. effective field theory approaches in dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simone, Andrea; Jacques, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    In this review we discuss and compare the usage of simplified models and Effective Field Theory (EFT) approaches in dark matter searches. We provide a state of the art description on the subject of EFTs and simplified models, especially in the context of collider searches for dark matter, but also with implications for direct and indirect detection searches, with the aim of constituting a common language for future comparisons between different strategies. The material is presented in a form that is as self-contained as possible, so that it may serve as an introductory review for the newcomer as well as a reference guide for the practitioner.

  7. Effect of alginate in patients with GERD hiatal hernia matters.

    PubMed

    Vardar, R; Keskin, M; Valitova, E; Bayrakci, B; Yildirim, E; Bor, S

    2017-10-01

    Alginate-based formulations are frequently used as add-on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy to help control of heartburn and regurgitation. There are limited data regarding the mechanisms and effects of alginate-based formulations. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the sodium alginate intake and its likely temporal relations on intraesophageal reflux events by MII-pH in patients with and without hiatal hernia (HH). Fifty GERD patients (18 with HH, 32 without HH) with heartburn or regurgitation once a week or more common were included. After combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH-metry (MII-pH) had been performed, all patients were asked to eat the same standard meal (double cheeseburger, 1 banana, 100 g regular yoghurt, and 200 mL water with total energy value of 744 kcal: 37.6% of carbohydrates, 21.2% of proteins, and 41.2% of lipids) during two consecutive days. On separate random two consecutive days, all patients took 10 mL of sodium alginate (GA; Gaviscon Advance; Reckitt Benckiser Healthcare, Hull, UK) or 10 mL of water, 30 minutes after the refluxogenic meal. After eating refluxogenic meal, patients were examined ½ hour for basal conditions, 1 hour in upright, and 1 hour in supine positions. Alginate significantly decreased acid reflux after intake at the first hour in comparison to water in patients with HH (6.1 vs. 13.7, P = 0.004) and without HH (3.5 vs. 5.5, P = 0.001). Weakly acid reflux were increased at the first hour in patients with HH (3.4 vs. 1.3, P = 0.019) and without HH (1.7 vs. 5, P = 0.02) compared to water. There was no distinctive effect of alginate on the height of proximal migration of reflux events in patients with HH and without HH. Alginate decreases acid reflux events within a limited time period, especially at the first hour both in patients with and without HH. Alginate has no effect on the height of reflux events along the esophagus both in patients with and without HH. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford

  8. Cost-effective technology advancement directions for electric propulsion transportation systems in earth-orbital missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regetz, J. D., Jr.; Terwilliger, C. H.

    1979-01-01

    The directions that electric propulsion technology should take to meet the primary propulsion requirements for earth-orbital missions in the most cost effective manner are determined. The mission set requirements, state of the art electric propulsion technology and the baseline system characterized by it, adequacy of the baseline system to meet the mission set requirements, cost optimum electric propulsion system characteristics for the mission set, and sensitivities of mission costs and design points to system level electric propulsion parameters are discussed. The impact on overall costs than specific masses or costs of propulsion and power systems is evaluated.

  9. Effects of clouds on the Earth radiation budget; Seasonal and inter-annual patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans L.

    1992-01-01

    Seasonal and regional variations of clouds and their effects on the climatological parameters were studied. The climatological parameters surface temperature, solar insulation, short-wave absorbed, long wave emitted, and net radiation were considered. The data of climatological parameters consisted of about 20 parameters of Earth radiation budget and clouds of 2070 target areas which covered the globe. It consisted of daily and monthly averages of each parameter for each target area for the period, Jun. 1979 - May 1980. Cloud forcing and black body temperature at the top of the atmosphere were calculated. Interactions of clouds, cloud forcing, black body temperature, and the climatological parameters were investigated and analyzed.

  10. Numerical study of the effect of earth tides on recurring short-term slow slip events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzawa, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Shibazaki, B.

    2017-12-01

    Short-term slow slip events (SSEs) in the Nankai region are affected by earth tides (e.g., Nakata et al., 2008; Ide and Tanaka, 2014; Yabe et al., 2015). The effect of tidal stress on the SSEs is also examined numerically (e.g., Hawthorne and Rubin, 2013). In our previous study (Matsuzawa et al., 2017, JpGU-AGU), we numerically simulated SSEs in the Shikoku region, and reported that tidal stress makes the variance of recurrence intervals of SSEs smaller in relatively isolated SSE regions. However, the reason of such stable recurrence was not clear. In this study, we examine the tidal effect on short-term SSEs based on a flat plate and a realistic plate model (e.g., Matsuzawa et al., 2013, GRL). We adopt a rate- and state-dependent friction law (RS-law) with cutoff velocities as in our previous studies (Matsuzawa et al., 2013). We assume that (a-b) value in the RS-law is negative within the short-term SSE region, and positive outside the region. In a flat plate model, the short-term SSE region is a circular patch with the radius of 6 km. In a realistic plate model, the short-term SSE region is based on the actual distribution of low-frequency tremor. Low effective normal stress is assumed at the depth of SSEs. Calculating stress change by earth tides as in Yabe et al., (2015), we examine the stress perturbation by two different earth tides with the period of semidiurnal (M2) and fortnight (Mf) tide in this study. In the result of a flat plate case, amplitude of SSEs becomes smaller just after the slip at whole simulated area. Recurring SSEs become clear again within one year in the case with tides (M2 or Mf), while the recurrence becomes clear after seven years in the case without tides. Interestingly, the effect of the Mf tide is similar to the case with the M2 tide, even though the amplitude of the Mf tide (0.01 kPa) is two-order smaller than that of the M2 tide. In the realistic plate model of Shikoku, clear recurrence of short-term SSEs is found earlier than the

  11. Effective and responsible teaching of climate change in Earth Science-related disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Z. P.; Greenhough, B. J.

    2009-04-01

    topic to cover within the Earth Science-related curricula due to wide-ranging, and sometimes polarised, existing attitudes of students and levels of existing partial and sometimes flawed knowledge in addition to the troublesome concepts that need to be grasped. These issues highlight the responsibility and challenge inherent in teaching the subject of climate change and the importance of consideration of integrating sustainability issues with the core science of climate change. The talk will include a discussion of strategies and resources for the effective teaching of climate change topics for a range of levels and discipline backgrounds.

  12. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina; Redal, María Ana; Alghamdi, Mansour A; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shamy, Magdy; Muñoz, Manuel J; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2015-07-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrodynamic effects on phase transition in active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gidituri, Harinadha; Akella, V. S.; Panchagnula, Mahesh; Vedantam, Srikanth; Multiphase flow physics lab Team

    2017-11-01

    Organized motion of active (self-propelled) objects are ubiquitous in nature. The objective of this study to investigate the effect of hydrodynamics on the coherent structures in active and passive particle mixtures. We use a mesoscopic method Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD). The system shows three different states viz. meso-turbulent (disordered state), polar flock and vortical (ordered state) for different values of activity and volume fraction of active particles. From our numerical simulations we construct a phase diagram between activity co-efficient, volume fraction and viscosity of the passive fluid. Transition from vortical to polar is triggered by increasing the viscosity of passive fluid which causes strong short-range hydrodynamic interactions. However, as the viscosity of the fluid decreases, both vortical and meso-turbulent states transition to polar flock phase. We also calculated the diffusion co-efficients via mean square displacement (MSD) for passive and active particles. We observe ballistic and diffusive regimes in the present system.

  14. The Effects of Meditation on Grey Matter Atrophy and Neurodegeneration: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Last, Nicole; Tufts, Emily; Auger, Leslie E

    2017-01-01

    The present systematic review is based on the premise that a variety of neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by grey matter atrophy in the brain and meditation may impact this. Given that age is a major risk factor for many of these progressive and neurodegenerative diseases and that the percentage of the population over the age of 65 is quickly increasing, there is an obvious need for prompt treatment and prevention advances in research. As there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, many are seeking non-pharmacological treatment options in attempts to offset the disease-related cognitive and functional declines. On the basis of a growing body of research suggesting that meditation is effective in increasing grey matter volume in healthy participants, this paper systematically reviewed the literature regarding the effects of meditation on restoring grey matter volume in healthy individuals and those affected by neurodegeneration. This review searched PubMed, CINAHL, and APA PsycNET to identify original studies that included MRI imaging to measure grey matter volume in meditators and post-mindfulness-based intervention participants compared to controls. Thirteen studies were considered eligible for review and involved a wide variety of meditation techniques and included participants with and without cognitive impairment. All studies reported significant increases in grey matter volume in the meditators/intervention group, albeit in assorted regions of the brain. Limited research exists on the mechanisms through which meditation affects disease-related neurodegeneration, but preliminary evidence suggests that it may offset grey matter atrophy.

  15. Effect of 3-D heterogeneous-earth on rheology inference of postseismic model following the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratama, C.; Ito, T.; Sasajima, R.; Tabei, T.; Kimata, F.; Gunawan, E.; Ohta, Y.; Yamashina, T.; Ismail, N.; Muksin, U.; Maulida, P.; Meilano, I.; Nurdin, I.; Sugiyanto, D.; Efendi, J.

    2017-12-01

    Postseismic deformation following the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake has been modeled by several studies (Han et al. 2015, Hu et al. 2016, Masuti et al. 2016). Although each study used different method and dataset, the previous studies constructed a significant difference of earth structure. Han et al. (2015) ignored subducting slab beneath Sumatra while Masuti et al. (2016) neglect sphericity of the earth. Hu et al. (2016) incorporated elastic slab and spherical earth but used uniform rigidity in each layer of the model. As a result, Han et al. (2015) model estimated one order higher Maxwell viscosity than the Hu et al. (2016) and half order lower Kelvin viscosity than the Masuti et al. (2016) model predicted. In the present study, we conduct a quantitative analysis of each heterogeneous geometry and parameter effect on rheology inference. We develop heterogeneous three-dimensional spherical-earth finite element models. We investigate the effect of subducting slab, spherical earth, and three-dimensional earth rigidity on estimated lithosphere-asthenosphere rheology beneath the Indian Ocean. A wide range of viscosity structure from time constant rheology to time dependent rheology was chosen as previous studies have been modeled. In order to evaluate actual displacement, we compared the model to the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observation. We incorporate the GNSS data from previous studies and introduce new GNSS site as a part of the Indonesian Continuously Operating Reference Stations (InaCORS) located in Sumatra that has not been used in the last analysis. As a preliminary result, we obtained the effect of the spherical earth and elastic slab when we assumed burgers rheology. The model that incorporates the sphericity of the earth needs a one third order lower viscosity than the model that neglects earth curvature. The model that includes elastic slab needs half order lower viscosity than the model that excluding the elastic slab.

  16. Studying the Physical Basis of Global Warming: Thermal Effects of the Interaction between Radiation and Matter and Greenhouse Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besson, Ugo; De Ambrosis, Anna; Mascheretti, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We present a teaching module dealing with the thermal effects of interaction between radiation and matter, the infrared emission of bodies and the greenhouse effect devoted to university level and teacher education. The module stresses the dependence of the optical properties of materials (transparency, absorptivity and emissivity) on radiation…

  17. Small Effect of Hydration on Elastic Wave Velocities of Ringwoodite in Earth's Transition Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, K.; Marquardt, H.; Boffa Ballaran, T.; Kurnosov, A.; Kawazoe, T.; Koch-Müller, M.

    2017-12-01

    Ringwoodite can incorporate significant amounts of hydrogen as OH-defects into its crystal structure. The measurement of 1.4 wt.% H20 in a natural ringwoodite diamond inclusion (Pearson et al. 2014) showed that hydrous ringwoodite can exist in the Earth's mantle. Since ringwoodite is considered to be the major phase in the mantle between 520 and 660 km depth it likely plays an important role for Earth's deep water cycle and the mantle water budget. Previous experimental work has shown that hydration reduces seismic wave velocities in ringwoodite, motivating attempts to map the hydration state of the mantle using seismic wave speed variations as depicted by seismic tomography. However, large uncertainties on the actual effects at transition zone pressures and temperatures remain. A major difficulty is the comparability of studies with different experimental setups and pressure- and temperature conditions. Here, we present results from a comparative elasticity study designed to quantify the effects of hydration on the seismic wave velocities of ringwoodite in Earth's transition zone. Focused ion beam cut single-crystals of four samples of either Fo90 or Fo100 ringwoodite with hydration states between 0.21 - 1.71 wt.% H2O were loaded in the pressure chamber of one diamond-anvil cell to ensure identical experimental conditions. Single-crystal Brillouin Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed at room temperature to a pressure of 22 GPa. Additional experiments at high pressure and temperatures up to 500 K were performed. Our data collected at low pressures show a significant reduction of elastic wave velocities with hydration, consistent with previous work. However, in contrast to previous inferences, our results indicate that pressure significantly reduces the effect of hydration. Based on the outcome of our work, the redution in aggregate velocities caused by 1 wt.% H2O becomes smaller than 1% in ringwoodite at pressures equivalent to the Earth

  18. Evidence against a chondritic Earth.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ian H; O'Neill, Hugh St C

    2012-03-28

    The (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratio of the Earth is greater than the solar ratio as inferred from chondritic meteorites, which challenges a fundamental assumption of modern geochemistry--that the composition of the silicate Earth is 'chondritic', meaning that it has refractory element ratios identical to those found in chondrites. The popular explanation for this and other paradoxes of mantle geochemistry, a hidden layer deep in the mantle enriched in incompatible elements, is inconsistent with the heat flux carried by mantle plumes. Either the matter from which the Earth formed was not chondritic, or the Earth has lost matter by collisional erosion in the later stages of planet formation.

  19. On the dark matter as a geometric effect in f (R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    A mysterious type of matter is supposed to exist because the observed rotational velocity curves of particles moving around the galactic center and the expected rotational velocity curves do not match. This type of matter is called dark matter. There are also a number of proposals in the modified gravity which are alternatives to the dark matter. In this contrast, in 2008, Christian G. Böhmer, Tiberiu Harko and Francisco S.N. Lobo presented an interesting idea in Böhmer et al. (Astropart Phys 29(6):386-392, 2008) where they showed that a f (R) gravity model could actually explain dark matter to be a geometric effect only. They solved the gravitational field equations in vacuum using generic f (R) gravity model for constant velocity regions (i.e. dark matter regions around the galaxy). They found that the resulting modifications in the Einstein Hilbert Lagrangian is of the form R^{1+m}, where m=V_{tg}^2/c^2; V_{tg} being the tangential velocity of the test particle moving around the galaxy in the dark matter regions and c being the speed of light. From observations it is known that m≈ O(10^{-6}) (Böhmer et al. 2008; Salucci et al. in Mon Not R Astron Soc 378(1):41-47, 2007; Persic et al. in Mon Not R Astron Soc 281:27-47, 1996; Borriello and Salucci in Mon Not R Astron Soc 323(2):285-292, 2001). In this article, we perform two things (1) We show that the form of f (R) they claimed is not correct. In doing the calculations, we found that when the radial component of the metric for constant velocity regions is a constant then the exact solutions for f (R) obtained is of the form of R^{1-α } which corresponds to a negative correction rather than positive claimed by the authors of Böhmer et al. (2008), where α is the function of m. (2) We also show that we can not have an analytic solution of f(R) for all values of tangential velocity including the observed value of tangential velocity 200-300 km/s (Salucci et al. 2007; Persic et al. 1996; Borriello and Salucci

  20. DAMA confronts null searches in the effective theory of dark matter-nucleon interactions

    SciT

    Catena, Riccardo; Ibarra, Alejandro; Wild, Sebastian

    2016-05-17

    We examine the dark matter interpretation of the modulation signal reported by the DAMA experiment from the perspective of effective field theories displaying Galilean invariance. We consider the most general effective coupling leading to the elastic scattering of a dark matter particle with spin 0 or 1/2 off a nucleon, and we analyze the compatibility of the DAMA signal with the null results from other direct detection experiments, as well as with the non-observation of a high energy neutrino flux in the direction of the Sun from dark matter annihilation. To this end, we develop a novel semi-analytical approach formore » comparing experimental results in the high-dimensional parameter space of the non-relativistic effective theory. Assuming the standard halo model, we find a strong tension between the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal and the null result experiments. We also list possible ways-out of this conclusion.« less

  1. A new method to quantify the effects of baryons on the matter power spectrum

    SciT

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain, E-mail: aurel@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: teyssier@physik.uzh.ch

    2015-12-01

    Future large-scale galaxy surveys have the potential to become leading probes for cosmology provided the influence of baryons on the total mass distribution is understood well enough. As hydrodynamical simulations strongly depend on details in the feedback implementations, no unique and robust predictions for baryonic effects currently exist. In this paper we propose a baryonic correction model that modifies the density field of dark-matter-only N-body simulations to mimic the effects of baryons from any underlying adopted feedback recipe. The model assumes haloes to consist of 4 components: 1- hot gas in hydrostatical equilibrium, 2- ejected gas from feedback processes, 3-more » central galaxy stars, and 4- adiabatically relaxed dark matter, which all modify the initial dark-matter-only density profiles. These altered profiles allow to define a displacement field for particles in N-body simulations and to modify the total density field accordingly. The main advantage of the baryonic correction model is to connect the total matter density field to the observable distribution of gas and stars in haloes, making it possible to parametrise baryonic effects on the matter power spectrum. We show that the most crucial quantities are the mass fraction of ejected gas and its corresponding ejection radius. The former controls how strongly baryons suppress the power spectrum, while the latter provides a measure of the scale where baryonic effects become important. A comparison with X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich cluster observations suggests that baryons suppress wave modes above k∼0.5 h/Mpc with a maximum suppression of 10-25 percent around k∼ 2 h/Mpc. More detailed observations of the gas in the outskirts of groups and clusters are required to decrease the large uncertainties of these numbers.« less

  2. Propagation effects on radio range and noise in earth-space telecommunications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flock, W. L.; Slobin, S. D.; Smith, E. K.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is given to the propagation effects on radio range and noise in earth-space telecommunications. The use of higher frequencies minimizes ionospheric effects on propagation, but tropospheric effects often increase or dominate. For paths of geostationary satellites, and beyond, the excess range delay caused by the ionosphere and plasmasphere is proportional to the total electron content along the path and inversely proportional to frequency squared. The delay due to dry air is usually of the order of a few meters while the delay due to water vapor (a few tens of centimeters) is responsible for most of the temporal variation in the range delay for clean air. For systems such as that of the Voyager spacecraft, and for attenuation values up to about 10 dB, increased sky noise degrades the received signal-to-noise ratio more than does the reduction in signal level due to attenuation.

  3. Effect of Long-Period Ocean Tides on the Earth's Polar Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, R. S.; Chao, B. F.; Desai, S. D.

    1997-01-01

    The second-degree zonal tide raising potential is symmetric about the polar axis and hence can excite the Earth's polar motion only through its action upon nonaxisymmetric features of the Earth such as the oceans.

  4. Uptake and effect of rare earth elements on gene expression in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    DOE PAGES

    Gu, Wenyu; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; DiSpirito, Alan A.; ...

    2016-05-12

    It is well-known that M. trichosporium OB3b has two forms of methane monooxygenase responsible for the initial conversion of methane to methanol, a cytoplasmic (soluble) methane monooxygenase (sMMO) and a membrane-associated (particulate) methane monooxygenase (pMMO) and that copper strongly regulates expression of these alternative forms of MMO. More recently, it has been discovered that M. trichosporium OB3b has multiple types of the methanol dehydrogenase (MeDH), i.e. the Mxa-MeDH and Xox-MeDH, and the expression of these two forms is regulated by the availability of the rare earth element, cerium. Here we extend these studies and show that lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium andmore » samarium also regulate expression of alternative forms of MeDH. The effect of these rare earth elements on MeDH expression, however, was only observed in the absence of copper. Further, a mutant of M. trichosporium OB3b where the Mxa-MeDH was knocked out was able to grow in the presence of lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium, but was not able to grow in the presence of samarium. In conclusion, collectively these data suggest that multiple levels of gene regulation by metals exist in M. trichosporium OB3b but that copper overrides the effect of other metals by an as yet unknown mechanism.« less

  5. Near-Earth Magnetic Field Effects of Large-Scale Magnetospheric Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lühr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Olsen, Nils; Le, Guan

    2017-03-01

    Magnetospheric currents play an important role in the electrodynamics of near-Earth space. This has been the topic of many space science studies. Here we focus on the magnetic fields they cause close to Earth. Their contribution to the geomagnetic field is the second largest after the core field. Significant progress in interpreting the magnetic fields from the different sources has been achieved thanks to magnetic satellite missions like Ørsted, CHAMP and now Swarm. Of particular interest for this article is a proper representation of the magnetospheric ring current effect. Uncertainties in modelling its effect still produce the largest residuals between observations and present-day geomagnetic field models. A lot of progress has been achieved so far, but there are still open issues like the characteristics of the partial ring current. Other currents discussed are those flowing in the magnetospheric tail. Also their magnetic contribution at LEO orbits is non-negligible. Treating them as an independent source is a more recent development, which has cured some of the problems in geomagnetic field modelling. Unfortunately there is no index available for characterising the tail current intensity. Here we propose an approach that may help to properly quantify the magnetic contribution from the tail current for geomagnetic field modelling. Some open questions that require further investigation are mentioned at the end.

  6. Near-Earth Magnetic Field Effects of Large-Scale Magnetospheric Currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luehr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Olsen, Nils; Le, Guan

    2016-01-01

    Magnetospheric currents play an important role in the electrodynamics of near- Earth space. This has been the topic of many space science studies. Here we focus on the magnetic fields they cause close to Earth. Their contribution to the geomagnetic field is the second largest after the core field. Significant progress in interpreting the magnetic fields from the different sources has been achieved thanks to magnetic satellite missions like Ørsted, CHAMP and now Swarm. Of particular interest for this article is a proper representation of the magnetospheric ring current effect. Uncertainties in modelling its effect still produce the largest residuals between observations and present-day geomagnetic field models. A lot of progress has been achieved so far, but there are still open issues like the characteristics of the partial ring current. Other currents discussed are those flowing in the magnetospheric tail. Also their magnetic contribution at LEO orbits is non-negligible. Treating them as an independent source is a more recent development, which has cured some of the problems in geomagnetic field modelling. Unfortunately there is no index available for characterizing the tail current intensity. Here we propose an approach that may help to properly quantify the magnetic contribution from the tail current for geomagnetic field modelling. Some open questions that require further investigation are mentioned at the end.

  7. Effective Integration of the World-Wide Web in Earth Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Bruce; Bednarz, Sarah; Boyd, Tom; Blake, Sally; Harder, Vicki; Sutter, Marilyn

    The earth sciences is an evolving set of disciplines encompassing more than 30 specialties; however, earth scientists continue to be trained within the traditional disciplinary structure. Earth science education should focus not only on student acquisition and retention of factual knowledge, but also on the development of higher-order skills…

  8. Nucleon effective E-mass in neutron-rich matter from the Migdal–Luttinger jump

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Bao-Jun; Li, Bao-An

    2016-03-25

    The well-known Migdal-Luttinger theorem states that the jump of the single-nucleon momentum distribution at the Fermi surface is equal to the inverse of the nucleon effective E-mass. Recent experiments studying short-range correlations (SRC) in nuclei using electron-nucleus scatterings at the Jefferson National Laboratory (JLAB) together with model calculations constrained significantly the Migdal-Luttinger jump at saturation density of nuclear matter. We show that the corresponding nucleon effective E-mass is consequently constrained to M-0(*,E)/M approximate to 2.22 +/- 0.35 in symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) and the E-mass of neutrons is smaller than that of protons in neutron-rich matter. Moreover, the average depletionmore » of the nucleon Fermi sea increases (decreases) approximately linearly with the isospin asymmetry delta according to kappa(p/n) approximate to 0.21 +/- 0.06 +/- (0.19 +/- 0.08)delta for protons (neutrons). These results will help improve our knowledge about the space-time non-locality of the single-nucleon potential in neutron-rich nucleonic matter Useful in both nuclear physics and astrophysics. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Funded by SCOAP(3).« less

  9. The effect of the Earth's oblateness on the Moon's physical libration in latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratyev, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    The Moon's physical libration in latitude generated by gravitational forces caused by the Earth's oblateness has been examined by a vector analytical method. Libration oscillations are described by a close set of five linear inhomogeneous differential equations, the dispersion equation has five roots, one of which is zero. A complete solution is obtained. It is revealed that the Earth's oblateness: a) has little effect on the instantaneous axis of Moon's rotation, but causes an oscillatory rotation of the body of the Moon with an amplitude of 0.072″ and pulsation period of 16.88 Julian years; b) causes small nutations of poles of the orbit and of the ecliptic along tight spirals, which occupy a disk with a cut in a center and with radius of 0.072″. Perturbations caused by the spherical Earth generate: a) physical librations in latitude with an amplitude of 34.275″; b) nutational motion for centers of small spiral nutations of orbit (ecliptic) pole over ellipses with semi-major axes of 113.850″ (85.158″) and the first pole rotates round the second one along a circle with radius of 28.691″; c) nutation of the Moon's celestial pole over an ellipse with a semi-major axis of 45.04″ and with an axes ratio of about 0.004 with a period of T = 27.212 days. The principal ellipse's axis is directed tangentially with respect to the precession circumference, along which the celestial pole moves nonuniformly nearly in one dimension. In contrast to the accepted concept, the latitude does not change while the Moon's poles of rotation move. The dynamical reason for the inclination of the Moon's mean equator with respect to the ecliptic is oblateness of the body of the Moon.

  10. Effects of spin transition on diffusion of Fe2+ in ferropericlase in Earth's lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Saumitra; Bengtson, Amelia; Crispin, Katherine L.; van Orman, James A.; Morgan, Dane

    2011-11-01

    Knowledge of Fe composition in lower-mantle minerals (primarily perovskite and ferropericlase) is essential to a complete understanding of the Earth's interior. Fe cation diffusion potentially controls many aspects of the distribution of Fe in the Earth's lower mantle, including mixing of chemical heterogeneities, element partitioning, and the extent of core-mantle communications. Fe in ferropericlase has been shown to undergo a spin transition starting at about 40 GPa and exists in a mixture of high-spin and low-spin states over a wide range of pressures. Present experimental data on Fe transport in ferropericlase is limited to pressures below 35 GPa and provides little information on the pressure dependence of the activation volume and none on the impact of the spin transition on diffusion. Therefore, known experimental data on Fe diffusion cannot be reliably extrapolated to predict diffusion throughout the lower mantle. Here, first-principles and statistical modeling are combined to predict diffusion of Fe in ferropericlase over the entire lower mantle, including the effects of the Fe spin transition. A thorough statistical thermodynamic treatment is given to fully incorporate the coexistence of high- and low-spin Fe in the model of overall Fe diffusion in the lower mantle. Pure low-spin Fe diffuses approximately 104 times slower than high-spin Fe in ferropericlase but Fe diffusion of the mixed-spin state is only about 10 times slower than that of high-spin Fe. The predicted Fe diffusivities demonstrate that ferropericlase is unlikely to be rate limiting in transporting Fe in deep earth since much slower Fe diffusion in perovskite is predicted.

  11. Synergistic Effects of Age on Patterns of White and Gray Matter Volume across Childhood and Adolescence1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Krongold, Mark; Cooper, Cassandra; Lebel, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The human brain develops with a nonlinear contraction of gray matter across late childhood and adolescence with a concomitant increase in white matter volume. Across the adult population, properties of cortical gray matter covary within networks that may represent organizational units for development and degeneration. Although gray matter covariance may be strongest within structurally connected networks, the relationship to volume changes in white matter remains poorly characterized. In the present study we examined age-related trends in white and gray matter volume using T1-weighted MR images from 360 human participants from the NIH MRI study of Normal Brain Development. Images were processed through a voxel-based morphometry pipeline. Linear effects of age on white and gray matter volume were modeled within four age bins, spanning 4-18 years, each including 90 participants (45 male). White and gray matter age-slope maps were separately entered into k-means clustering to identify regions with similar age-related variability across the four age bins. Four white matter clusters were identified, each with a dominant direction of underlying fibers: anterior–posterior, left–right, and two clusters with superior–inferior directions. Corresponding, spatially proximal, gray matter clusters encompassed largely cerebellar, fronto-insular, posterior, and sensorimotor regions, respectively. Pairs of gray and white matter clusters followed parallel slope trajectories, with white matter changes generally positive from 8 years onward (indicating volume increases) and gray matter negative (decreases). As developmental disorders likely target networks rather than individual regions, characterizing typical coordination of white and gray matter development can provide a normative benchmark for understanding atypical development. PMID:26464999

  12. Land use effects on gaseous nitrogen emissions and gross nitrogen transformations in Amazonian Dark Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa Lima, Amanda; Westphal Muniz, Aleksander; Lenhart, Katharina; Moser, Gerald; Brenzinger, Kristof; Ha, Mi-Kyung; Eckhardt, Christian; Steffens, Diedrich; Kammann, Claudia; Müller, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) in the Brazilian Amazon provide a strong indication that soils lacking in nutrients can be converted into highly fertile land. These soils have been considered as a model soil when compared to the surrounding soil due to the high concentrations of P, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, stable organic matter and soil organic C (SOC). Soils with high SOC contents can lead to extensive emissions of the greenhouse gas N2O. In this context, we measured the fluxes of CO2, N2O and CH4 in ADE and adjacent (ADJ) soils under secondary forest and manioc plantation. Moreover, we added 15N-NH4+ and -NO3- and measured N2O emissions and gross-N transformations of the different N species for two weeks (15N signal, N concentrations; work on-going), to quantify the simultaneousyl operating N transformation rates (method see: Müller et al. (2004; 2007). We observed higher amounts of NO3- in both ADE and ADJ soils under forest. High consumption rates for NH4+ were shown by both ADE soils under forest followed by manioc plantation. CO2 effluxes from ADJ were higher than from ADE soils, and higher from the forest compared to the manioc plantation. N2O fluxes were much lower in ADE under forest and higher in the other soils. The results of the gross N transformations are distinctively different among ADE and Adjacent sites, providing a strong indication how the dynamics of the individual N transformation rates have been affected by the long-term management. References cited Müller et al. (2004) A 15N tracing model to analyse N-transformations in old grassland soil. SBB 36:619-632. Müller et al. (2007) Estimation of parameters in complex 15N tracing models by Monte Carlo sampling. SBB 39:715-726.

  13. Effects of silver nanoparticles on soil enzyme activities with and without added organic matter.

    PubMed

    Peyrot, Caroline; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    The effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on terrestrial ecosystems need to be better understood and assessed. Cationic silver (Ag+) has well-documented toxicity against bacteria, but it is not clear what will be the effect of nanoscale Ag. In the present study, the potential effects of AgNPs were investigated in soils by measuring activity of the enzymes phosphomonoesterase, arylsulfatase, β-D-glucosidase, and leucine-aminopeptidase. The toxicity of AgNPs was compared with that of ionic Ag, and the ameliorating effects of soil organic matter were evaluated. To this end, 2 soils with different organic matter contents were artificially contaminated with either AgNPs or Ag-acetate at equivalent total Ag concentrations. In general, enzyme activities were inhibited as a function of the Ag concentration in the soil. In the AgNP exposures, only a small fraction of the AgNP was actually truly dissolved (found in the <1-nm fraction), suggesting that the particulate forms of AgNPs resulted in a significant inhibition of soil enzymes. The addition of organic matter to the soils appeared to enhance enzyme activities; however, the mechanism of organic matter action is not clear given that dissolved Ag concentrations were similar in both the organic-matter–amended and unamended soils. The present study shows that the AgNP produces significant negative effects on the soil enzyme activities tested. The Ag chemical speciation measurements suggested that the AgNP caused greater toxic effects to the soil enzymes at the low Ag concentrations. For the larger concentrations of total soil Ag, causes of the negative effects on enzyme activities are less obvious but suggest that colloidal forms of Ag play a role.

  14. Earth's magnetic field effect on MUF calculation and consequences for hmF2 trend estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Ana G.; Zossi, Bruno S.; Yiğit, Erdal; Saavedra, Zenon; de Haro Barbas, Blas F.

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the state of the upper atmosphere, and in particular of the ionosphere, is essential in several applications such as systems used in radio frequency communications, satellite positioning and navigation. In general, these systems depend on the state and evolution of the ionosphere. In all applications involving the ionosphere an essential task is to determine the path and modifications of ray propagation through the ionospheric plasma. The ionospheric refractive index and the maximum usable frequency (MUF) that can be received over a given distance are some key parameters that are crucial for such technological applications. However, currently the representation of these parameters are in general simplified, neglecting the effects of Earth's magnetic field. The value of M(3000)F2, related to the MUF that can be received over 3000 km is routinely scaled from ionograms using a technique which also neglects the geomagnetic field effects assuming a standard simplified propagation model. M(3000)F2 is expected to be affected by a systematic trend linked to the secular variations of Earth's magnetic field. On the other hand, among the upper atmospheric effects expected from increasing greenhouse gases concentration is the lowering of the F2-layer peak density height, hmF2. This ionospheric parameter is usually estimated using the M(3000)F2 factor, so it would also carry this ;systematic trend;. In this study, the geomagnetic field effect on MUF estimations is analyzed as well as its impact on hmF2 long-term trend estimations. We find that M(3000)F2 increases when the geomagnetic field is included in its calculation, and hence hmF2, estimated using existing methods involving no magnetic field for M(3000)F2 scaling, would present a weak but steady trend linked to these variations which would increase or compensate the few kilometers decrease ( 2 km per decade) expected from greenhouse gases effect.

  15. Effects of Aerobic Capacity on Thrombin-Induced Hydrocephalus and White Matter Injury.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei; Gao, Feng; Zheng, Mingzhe; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury is less in rats bred for high aerobic capacity (high capacity runners; HCR) compared with those bred for low aerobic capacity (low capacity runners; LCRs). Thrombin, an essential component in the coagulation cascade, is produced after cerebral hemorrhage. Intraventricular injection of thrombin causes significant hydrocephalus and white matter damage. In the present study, we examined the effect of exercise capacity on thrombin-induced hydrocephalus and white matter damage. Mid-aged (13-month-old) female LCRs (n = 13) and HCRs (n = 12) rats were used in this study. Rats received an intraventricular injection of thrombin (3 U, 50 μl). All rats underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 h and were then euthanized for brain histology and Western blot. The mortalities were 20 % in LCRs and 33 % in HCRs after thrombin injection (p > 0.05). No rats died after saline injection. Intraventricular thrombin injection resulted in hydrocephalus and periventricular white matter damage as determined on MRI. In LCR rats, thrombin induced significant ventricle enlargement (23.0 ± 2.3 vs12.8 ± 1.9 mm(3) in LCR saline group; p < 0.01) and white matter lesion (9.3 ± 7.6 vs 0.6 ± 0.5 mm(3) in LCR saline group, p < 0.05). In comparison, in HCR rats thrombin induced less ventricular enlargement (17.3 ± 3.9 vs 23.0 ± 2.3 mm(3) in LCRs, p < 0.01) and smaller white matter lesions (2.6 ± 1.2 mm(3) vs 9.3 ± 7.6 mm(3) in LCRs, p < 0.05). In LCR rats, there was also upregulation of heat shock protein-32, a stress marker, and microglial activation in the periventricular white matter. These changes were significantly reduced in HCR rats. Intraventricular injection of thrombin caused more white matter damage and hydrocephalus in rats with low aerobic capacity. A differential effect of thrombin may contribute to differences in the effects of cerebral

  16. Gamma-Ray Bursts and the Earth: Exploration of Atmospheric, Biological, Climatic, and Biogeochemical Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Brian C.; Melott, Adrian L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Laird, Claude M.; Medvedev, Mikhail V.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Hogan, Daniel P.; Ejzak, Larissa M.

    2005-11-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are likely to have made a number of significant impacts on the Earth during the last billion years. The gamma radiation from a burst within a few kiloparsecs would quickly deplete much of the Earth's protective ozone layer, allowing an increase in solar UVB radiation reaching the surface. This radiation is harmful to life, damaging DNA and causing sunburn. In addition, NO2 produced in the atmosphere would cause a decrease in visible sunlight reaching the surface and could cause global cooling. Nitric acid rain could stress portions of the biosphere, but the increased nitrate deposition could be helpful to land plants. We have used a two-dimensional atmospheric model to investigate the effects on the Earth's atmosphere of GRBs delivering a range of fluences, at various latitudes, at the equinoxes and solstices, and at different times of day. We have estimated DNA damage levels caused by increased solar UVB radiation, reduction in solar visible light due to NO2 opacity, and deposition of nitrates through rainout of HNO3. For the ``typical'' nearest burst in the last billion years, we find globally averaged ozone depletion up to 38%. Localized depletion reaches as much as 74%. Significant global depletion (at least 10%) persists up to about 7 yr after the burst. Our results depend strongly on time of year and latitude over which the burst occurs. The impact scales with the total fluence of the GRB at the Earth but is insensitive to the time of day of the burst and its duration (1-1000 s). We find DNA damage of up to 16 times the normal annual global average, well above lethal levels for simple life forms such as phytoplankton. The greatest damage occurs at mid- to low latitudes. We find reductions in visible sunlight of a few percent, primarily in the polar regions. Nitrate deposition similar to or slightly greater than that currently caused by lightning is also observed, lasting several years. We discuss how these results support the

  17. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation effects on polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.

    1991-01-01

    Because atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet radiation present in the low earth orbital (LEO) environment can alter the chemistry of polymers resulting in degradation, their effects and mechanisms of degradation must be determined in order to determine the long term durability of polymeric surfaces to be exposed on missions such as Space Station Freedom. The effects of atomic oxygen on polymers which contain protective coatings must also be explored, since unique damage mechanisms can occur in areas where the protective coatings has failed. Mechanisms can be determined by utilizing results from previous LEO missions, by performing ground based LEO simulation tests and analysis, and by carrying out focussed space experiments. A survey is presented of the interactions and possible damage mechanisms for environmental atomic oxygen and UV radiation exposure of polymers commonly used in LEO.

  18. The Effect of Nickel on Iron Isotope Fractionation and Implications for the Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, M. M.; Shahar, A.; Elardo, S. M.; Liu, J.; Xiao, Y.; Mao, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's core is thought to be composed mainly of an iron-rich iron nickel (FeNi) alloy. Therefore, determining the behavior of these alloys at core conditions is crucial for interpreting and constraining geophysical and geochemical models. Understanding the effect of nickel on iron isotope fractionation can shed light on planetary core formation. We collected a series of phonon excitation spectra using nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) on 57Fe-enriched FeNi alloys with varying (Fe0.9Ni0.1, Fe0.8Ni0.2, Fe0.7Ni0.3) nickel content in a diamond anvil cell at pressures up to 50 GPa. All three alloys studied exhibited differences from pure Fe, indicating that increasing nickel content could have an effect on iron isotope fractionation which would have implications for planetary core formation and provide constraints the bulk composition for terrestrial planets.

  19. Proceedings of the NASA Workshop on Atomic Oxygen Effects. [low earth orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    A workshop was held to address the scientific issues concerning the effects of atomic oxygen on materials in the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment. The program included 18 invited speakers plus contributed posters covering topics such as LEO spaceflight experiments, interaction mechanisms, and atomic oxygen source development. Discussion sessions were also held to organize a test program to evaluate atomic oxygen exposure facilities. The key issues raised in the workshop were: (1) the need to develop a reliable predictive model of the effects of long-term exposure of materials to the LEO environment; (2) the ability of ground-based exposure facilities to provide useful data for development of durable materials; and (3) accurate determination of the composition of the LEO environment. These proceedings include the invited papers, the abstracts for the contributed posters, and an account of the test program discussion sessions.

  20. Retrograde spins of near-Earth asteroids from the Yarkovsky effect.

    PubMed

    La Spina, A; Paolicchi, P; Kryszczyńska, A; Pravec, P

    2004-03-25

    Dynamical resonances in the asteroid belt are the gateway for the production of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). To generate the observed number of NEAs, however, requires the injection of many asteroids into those resonant regions. Collisional processes have long been claimed as a possible source, but difficulties with that idea have led to the suggestion that orbital drift arising from the Yarkovsky effect dominates the injection process. (The Yarkovsky effect is a force arising from differential heating-the 'afternoon' side of an asteroid is warmer than the 'morning' side.) The two models predict different rotational properties of NEAs: the usual collisional theories are consistent with a nearly isotropic distribution of rotation vectors, whereas the 'Yarkovsky model' predicts an excess of retrograde rotations. Here we report that the spin vectors of NEAs show a strong and statistically significant excess of retrograde rotations, quantitatively consistent with the theoretical expectations of the Yarkovsky model.

  1. Effects of ocean acidification on marine dissolved organic matter are not detectable over the succession of phytoplankton blooms.

    PubMed

    Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the largest active organic carbon reservoirs on Earth, and changes in its pool size or composition could have a major impact on the global carbon cycle. Ocean acidification is a potential driver for these changes because it influences marine primary production and heterotrophic respiration. We simulated ocean acidification as expected for a "business-as-usual" emission scenario in the year 2100 in an unprecedented long-term mesocosm study. The large-scale experiments (50 m(3) each) covered a full seasonal cycle of marine production in a Swedish Fjord. Five mesocosms were artificially enriched in CO2 to the partial pressure expected in the year 2100 (900 μatm), and five more served as controls (400 μatm). We applied ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry to monitor the succession of 7360 distinct DOM formulae over the course of the experiment. Plankton blooms had a clear effect on DOM concentration and molecular composition. This succession was reproducible across all 10 mesocosms, independent of CO2 treatment. In contrast to the temporal trend, there were no significant differences in DOM concentration and composition between present-day and year 2100 CO2 levels at any time point of the experiment. On the basis of our results, ocean acidification alone is unlikely to affect the seasonal accumulation of DOM in productive coastal environments.

  2. Effects of ocean acidification on marine dissolved organic matter are not detectable over the succession of phytoplankton blooms

    PubMed Central

    Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the largest active organic carbon reservoirs on Earth, and changes in its pool size or composition could have a major impact on the global carbon cycle. Ocean acidification is a potential driver for these changes because it influences marine primary production and heterotrophic respiration. We simulated ocean acidification as expected for a “business-as-usual” emission scenario in the year 2100 in an unprecedented long-term mesocosm study. The large-scale experiments (50 m3 each) covered a full seasonal cycle of marine production in a Swedish Fjord. Five mesocosms were artificially enriched in CO2 to the partial pressure expected in the year 2100 (900 μatm), and five more served as controls (400 μatm). We applied ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry to monitor the succession of 7360 distinct DOM formulae over the course of the experiment. Plankton blooms had a clear effect on DOM concentration and molecular composition. This succession was reproducible across all 10 mesocosms, independent of CO2 treatment. In contrast to the temporal trend, there were no significant differences in DOM concentration and composition between present-day and year 2100 CO2 levels at any time point of the experiment. On the basis of our results, ocean acidification alone is unlikely to affect the seasonal accumulation of DOM in productive coastal environments. PMID:26601292

  3. Effects of rare earth oxide nanoparticles on root elongation of plants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhui; Kuang, Linglin; He, Xiao; Bai, Wei; Ding, Yayun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2010-01-01

    The phytotoxicity of four rare earth oxide nanoparticles, nano-CeO(2), nano-La(2)O(3), nano-Gd(2)O(3) and nano-Yb(2)O(3) on seven higher plant species (radish, rape, tomato, lettuce, wheat, cabbage, and cucumber) were investigated in the present study by means of root elongation experiments. Their effects on root growth varied greatly between different nanoparticles and plant species. A suspension of 2000 mg L(-1) nano-CeO(2) had no effect on the root elongation of six plants, except lettuce. On the contrary, 2000 mg L(-1) suspensions of nano-La(2)O(3), nano-Gd(2)O(3) and nano-Yb(2)O(3) severely inhibited the root elongation of all the seven species. Inhibitory effects of nano-La(2)O(3), nano-Gd(2)O(3), and nano-Yb(2)O(3) also differed in the different growth process of plants. For wheat, the inhibition mainly took place during the seed incubation process, while lettuce and rape were inhibited on both seed soaking and incubation process. The fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) for rape were about 40 mg L(-1) of nano-La(2)O(3), 20mg L(-1) of nano-Gd(2)O(3), and 70 mg L(-1) of nano-Yb(2)O(3), respectively. In the concentration ranges used in this study, the RE(3+) ion released from the nanoparticles had negligible effects on the root elongation. These results are helpful in understanding phytotoxicity of rare earth oxide nanoparticles. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Exposure on Phenylphosphine Oxide-Containing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of phenylphosphine oxide-containing polymers were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard a space shuttle flight (STS-85) as part of flight experiment designated Evaluation of Space Environment and Effects on Materials (ESEM). This flight experiment was a cooperative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The thin film samples described herein were part of an atomic oxygen exposure experiment (AOE) and were exposed to primarily atomic oxygen (1 X 1019 atoms/cm2). The thin film samples consisted of three phosphine oxide containing polymers (arylene ether, benzimidazole and imide). Based on post-flight analyses using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and weight loss data, it was found that atomic oxygen exposure of these materials efficiently produces a phosphate layer at the surface of the samples. This layer provides a barrier towards further attack by AO. Consequently, these materials do not exhibit linear erosion rates which is in contrast with most organic polymers. Qualitatively, the results obtained from these analyses compare favorably with those obtained from samples exposed to atomic oxygen and or oxygen plasma in ground based exposure experiments. The results of the low Earth orbit atomic oxygen exposure on these materials will be compared with those of ground based exposure to AO.

  5. Physical activity and inflammation: effects on gray-matter volume and cognitive decline in aging.

    PubMed

    Papenberg, Goran; Ferencz, Beata; Mangialasche, Francesca; Mecocci, Patrizia; Cecchetti, Roberta; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bäckman, Lars

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity has been positively associated with gray-matter integrity. In contrast, pro-inflammatory cytokines seem to have negative effects on the aging brain and have been related to dementia. It was investigated whether an inactive lifestyle and high levels of inflammation resulted in smaller gray-matter volumes and predicted cognitive decline across 6 years in a population-based study of older adults (n = 414). Self-reported physical activity (fitness-enhancing, health-enhancing, inadequate) was linked to gray-matter volume, such that individuals with inadequate physical activity had the least gray matter. There were no overall associations between different pro-and anti-inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, G-CSF, and TNF-α) and gray-matter integrity. However, persons with inadequate activity and high levels of the pro-inflammatory marker IL-12p40 had smaller volumes of lateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and declined more on the Mini-Mental State Examination test over 6 years compared with physically inactive individuals with low levels of IL-12p40 and to more physically active persons, irrespective of their levels of IL-12p40. These patterns of data suggested that inflammation was particularly detrimental in inactive older adults and may exacerbate the negative effects of physical inactivity on brain and cognition in old age. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3462-3473, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The effect of ageing on grey and white matter reductions in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bose, Subrata K; Mackinnon, Toby; Mehta, Mitul A; Turkheimer, Federico E; Howes, Oliver D; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Kempton, Matthew J; Grasby, Paul M

    2009-07-01

    Total brain volume and, in particular gray matter (GM) volume is reduced in patients with schizophrenia and recent studies suggest there is greater progressive loss of brain volume in the patients with schizophrenia than in normal controls. However, as the longitudinal studies do not include life-long follow-up, it is not clear if this occurs across the lifespan or only in the early phase of the illness. In this study we investigated this by studying the effects of age on brain tissue volumes in schizophrenia (n=34, age range=27-65 years)to test the prediction that there is a progressive loss in grey matter volume with increasing age in patients compared to healthy controls (n=33, age range=18-73 years). The results showed there was diminished relative GM volume loss with age in patients with schizophrenia compared to controls--in contrast to our prediction. However, there was increased relative white matter (WM) loss with age in schizophrenia. The results also replicated previous findings that patients with schizophrenia have significantly lower total (1509 versus 1596 mm(3)) and regional GM volume (755 versus 822 mm(3)) and increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume when compared to matched healthy volunteers. Overall these findings indicate that the proportion of grey matter in schizophrenia is reduced compared to controls early in the illness, and this difference diminishes with age; the corresponding effect in the proportion of WM is an increase with age compared to controls. This suggests that illness related factors may differentially affect grey and white matter, with implications for understanding the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.

  7. Effects of amyloid and small vessel disease on white matter network disruption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Im, Kiho; Kwon, Hunki; Lee, Jong Min; Ye, Byoung Seok; Kim, Yeo Jin; Cho, Hanna; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Jae Seung; Lee, Jae Hong; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the human brain is a large scale complex network. The structural network is reported to be disrupted in cognitively impaired patients. However, there have been few studies evaluating the effects of amyloid and small vessel disease (SVD) markers, the common causes of cognitive impairment, on structural networks. Thus, we evaluated the association between amyloid and SVD burdens and structural networks using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Furthermore, we determined if network parameters predict cognitive impairments. Graph theoretical analysis was applied to DTI data from 232 cognitively impaired patients with varying degrees of amyloid and SVD burdens. All patients underwent Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB) PET to detect amyloid burden, MRI to detect markers of SVD, including the volume of white matter hyperintensities and the number of lacunes, and detailed neuropsychological testing. The whole-brain network was assessed by network parameters of integration (shortest path length, global efficiency) and segregation (clustering coefficient, transitivity, modularity). PiB retention ratio was not associated with any white matter network parameters. Greater white matter hyperintensity volumes or lacunae numbers were significantly associated with decreased network integration (increased shortest path length, decreased global efficiency) and increased network segregation (increased clustering coefficient, increased transitivity, increased modularity). Decreased network integration or increased network segregation were associated with poor performances in attention, language, visuospatial, memory, and frontal-executive functions. Our results suggest that SVD alters white matter network integration and segregation, which further predicts cognitive dysfunction.

  8. Effects of salinity and organic matter on the partitioning of perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAs) to clay particles.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Junho; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Lim, Byung J; An, Kwang Guk; Kim, Sang Don

    2011-06-01

    The influence of salinity and organic matter on the distribution coefficient (K(d)) for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in a brackish water-clay system was studied. The distribution coefficients (K(d)) for PFAs onto inorganic clay surfaces increased with salinity, providing evidence for electrostatic interaction for the sorption of PFAs, whereas the relationship between K(d) and organic carbon content (f(oc)) suggested that hydrophobic interaction is the primary driving force for the sorption of PFAs onto organic matter. The organic carbon normalized adsorption coefficient (K(oc)) of PFAs can be slightly overestimated due to the electrostatic interaction within uncoated inorganic surfaces. In addition, the dissolved organic matter released from coated clay particles seemed to solvate PFA molecules in solution, which contributed to a decrease in K(d). A positive relationship between K(d) and salinity was apparent, but an empirical relationship for the 'salting-out' effect was not evident. The K(d) values of PFAs are relatively small compared with those reported for persistent organic pollutants. Thus, sorption may not be a significant route of mass transfer of PFAs from water columns in estuarine environments. However, enhancement of sorption of PFAs to particulate matter at high salinity values could evoke potential risks to benthic organisms in estuarine areas.

  9. Effects of vibratory microscreening on proximate composition and recovery of poultry processing wastewater particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Kiepper, B H; Merka, W C; Fletcher, D L

    2008-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the effects of tertiary microscreen gap size on the proximate composition and rate of recovery of particulate matter from poultry processing wastewater (PPW). A high-speed vibratory screen was installed within the wastewater treatment area of a southeast US broiler slaughter plant after the existing primary and secondary mechanical rotary screens. Microscreen panels with nominal gap size openings of 212, 106 and 45mum were investigated. The particulate matter samples recovered were subjected to proximate analysis to determine percent moisture, fat, protein, crude fiber and ash. The average percent wet weight moisture (%WW) content for all samples was 79.1. The average percent dry matter (%DM) fat, protein, crude fiber and ash were 63.5, 17.5, 4.8 and 1.5, respectively. The mean concentration of total solids (TS) recovered from all microscreen runs was 668mg/L, which represents a potential additional daily offal recovery rate of 12.1metric tons (MT) per 3.78 million L (1.0 million gallons US) of PPW. There was no significant difference in the performance of the three microscreen gap sizes with regard to proximate composition or mass of particulate matter recovered.

  10. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    SciT

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colonmore » cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.« less

  11. Effect of nitrite on the formation of halonitromethanes during chlorination of organic matter from different origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Huachang; Qian, Lingya; Xiao, Zhuoqun; Zhang, Jianqing; Chen, Jianrong; Lin, Hongjun; Yu, Haiying; Shen, Liguo; Liang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Occurrence of halonitromethanes (HNMs) in drinking water has been a public concern due to the potential risks to human health. Though quite a lot of work has been carried out to understand the formation of HNMs, the relationship between HNMs formation and the nitrite remains unclear. In this study, the effects of nitrite on the formation of HNMs during chlorination of organic matter from different origin were assessed. Organic matter (OM) derived from phoenix tree (fallen leaves: FLOM; green leaves: GLOM) and Microcystis aeruginosa (intracellular organic matter: IOM) were used to mimic the allochthonous and autochthonous organic matter in surface water, respectively. Results showed that HNMs yields were significantly enhanced with the addition of nitrite, and the highest enhancement was observed for FLOM, successively followed by GLOM and IOM, suggesting that the contribution of nitrite to HNMs formation was positively related with SUVA (an indicator for aromaticity) of OM. Therefore, the nitrite contamination should be strictly controlled for the source water dominated by allochthonous OM, which may significantly reduce the formation of HNMs during chlorination. Moreover, given a certain nitrite level, the higher pH resulted in higher stimulation of HNM formation, yet the chlorine dose (always added in excess resulting in residual reactive chlorine), reaction time and temperature did not show obvious influence.

  12. Effects of different forms of plant-derived organic matter on nitrous oxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qingyan; Wu, Lanfang; Ouyang, Zhu; Li, Binbin; Xu, Yanyan

    2016-07-13

    To investigate the impact of different forms of plant-derived organic matter on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, an incubation experiment with the same rate of total nitrogen (N) application was carried out at 25 °C for 250 days. Soils were incorporated with maize-derived organic matter (i.e., maize residue-derived dissolved organic matter and maize residues with different C/N ratios) and an inorganic N fertilizer (urea). The pattern and magnitude of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were affected by the form of N applied. Single application of maize-derived organic matter resulted in a higher N2O emission than single application of the inorganic N fertilizer or combined application of the inorganic N fertilizer and maize-derived organic matter. The positive effect of maize residue-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) addition on N2O emissions was relatively short-lived and mainly occurred at the early stage following DOM addition. In contrast, the positive effect induced by maize residue addition was more pronounced and lasted for a longer period. Single application of maize residues resulted in a substantial decrease in soil nitric nitrogen (NO3(-)-N), but it did not affect the production of N2O. No significant relationship between N2O emission and NO3(-)-N and ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) suggested that the availability of soil N was not limiting the production of N2O in our study. The key factors affecting soil N2O emission were the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and metabolism quotient (qCO2). Both of them could explain 87% of the variation in cumulative N2O emission. The C/N ratio of maize-derived organic matter was a poor predictor of N2O emission when the soil was not limited by easily available C and the available N content met the microbial N demands for nitrification and denitrification. The results suggested that the magnitude of N2O emission was determined by the impact of organic amendments on soil C availability and microbial activity

  13. Solar Irradiance Changes And Photobiological Effects At Earth's Surface Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Brian; Neale, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth for decades. Although there is some direct biological damage on the surface from redistributed radiation several studies have indicated that the greatest long term threat is from ozone depletion and subsequent heightened solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It is known that organisms exposed to this irradiation experience harmful effects such as sunburn and even direct damage to DNA, proteins, or other cellular structures. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In the present work, we employed a radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light). Using biological weighting functions we have considered a wide range of effects, including: erythema and skin cancer in humans; inhibition of photosynthesis in the diatom Phaeodactylum sp. and dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans inhibition of carbon fixation in Antarctic phytoplankton; inhibition of growth of oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Otana) seedlings; and cataracts. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance, but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA damaging radiation are still similar to our improved calculations. We also found that the intensity of biologically damaging radiation varies widely with organism and specific impact considered; these results have implications for biosphere-level damage following astrophysical ionizing radiation events. When considering changes in surface-level visible light irradiance, we found that, contrary to previous assumptions, a decrease in irradiance is only present for a short time in

  14. Dark matter annihilation in the milky way galaxy: effects of baryonic compression.

    PubMed

    Prada, F; Klypin, A; Flix, J; Martínez, M; Simonneau, E

    2004-12-10

    If the dark matter (DM), which is considered to constitute most of the mass of galaxies, is made of supersymmetric particles, the central region of our Galaxy should emit gamma rays produced by their annihilation. We use detailed models of the Milky Way to make accurate estimates of continuum gamma-ray fluxes. We argue that the most important effect, which was previously neglected, is the compression of the dark matter due to the infall of baryons to the galactic center: it boosts the expected signal by a factor 1000. To illustrate this effect, we computed the expected gamma fluxes in the minimal supergravity scenario. Our models predict that the signal could be detected at high confidence levels by imaging atmospheric C erenkov telescopes assuming that neutralinos make up most of the DM in the Universe.

  15. Effect of Experimental Thyrotoxicosis on Brain Gray Matter: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    PubMed

    Göbel, Anna; Heldmann, Marcus; Göttlich, Martin; Dirk, Anna-Luise; Brabant, Georg; Münte, Thomas F

    2015-09-01

    Hyper-as well hypothyroidism have an effect on behavior and brain function. Moreover, during development thyroid hormones influence brain structure. This study aimed to demonstrate an effect of experimentally induced hyperthyroidism on brain gray matter in healthy adult humans. High-resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired in 29 healthy young subjects prior to as well as after receiving 250 µg of T4 per day for 8 weeks. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 (SPM8). Laboratory testing confirmed the induction of hyperthyroidism. In the hyperthyroid condition, gray matter volumes were increased in the right posterior cerebellum (lobule VI) and decreased in the bilateral visual cortex and anterior cerebellum (lobules I-IV) compared to the euthyroid condition. Our study provides evidence that short periods of hyperthyroidism induce distinct alterations in brain structures of cerebellar regions that have been associated with sensorimotor functions as well as working memory in the literature.

  16. New constraints on dark matter effective theories from standard model loops.

    PubMed

    Crivellin, Andreas; D'Eramo, Francesco; Procura, Massimiliano

    2014-05-16

    We consider an effective field theory for a gauge singlet Dirac dark matter particle interacting with the standard model fields via effective operators suppressed by the scale Λ ≳ 1 TeV. We perform a systematic analysis of the leading loop contributions to spin-independent Dirac dark matter-nucleon scattering using renormalization group evolution between Λ and the low-energy scale probed by direct detection experiments. We find that electroweak interactions induce operator mixings such that operators that are naively velocity suppressed and spin dependent can actually contribute to spin-independent scattering. This allows us to put novel constraints on Wilson coefficients that were so far poorly bounded by direct detection. Constraints from current searches are already significantly stronger than LHC bounds, and will improve in the near future. Interestingly, the loop contribution we find is isospin violating even if the underlying theory is isospin conserving.

  17. Effect of soil pH and organic matter on the adsorption and desorption of pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shui-Wen Chang; Chen, Shou-Hung; Li, Chi-Jui

    2018-02-01

    Various properties of soil affect the partition of organic contaminants within, and conversely, the properties of the organic contaminants also directly affect their partition behavior in soil. Therefore, understanding the effects of various properties of soil on the partition of organic contaminants favors subsequent assessment and provides soil remediation methods for policymakers. This study selected pentachlorophenol (PCP), a common hydrophobic ionizable organic compound in contaminated sites worldwide, as the target contaminant. The effects of pH, organic matter, and the combination of both, on PCP adsorption/desorption behavior in soil were investigated. Phosphoric acid and potassium hydroxide were used as buffer solutions to modify the soil pH by the batch and column extraction methods. A common retail organic fertilizer and fulvic acid were selected as additives to manipulate the soil organic content. Modifying the pH of the soil samples revealed that acidic soil exhibited a greater PCP adsorption rate than alkaline soil. The amount of PCP desorption increased regardless of pH of the in situ contaminated soil. The adsorption of PCP increased with increasing amount of organic additive. However, addition of fulvic acid yielded different results compared to the addition of organic fertilizer. Specifically, the organic fertilizer could not compete with the in situ contaminated soil in PCP adsorption, whereas fulvic acids increased the PCP dissolution to facilitate adsorbing contaminant adsorption. The combined effect of pH modification and organic matter addition provides additional PCP adsorption sites; therefore, adding the organic fertilizer to decrease the soil pH elevated the PCP adsorption rates of the laterite, alluvial, and in situ contaminated soil samples. The study results revealed that both pH and organic matter content are crucial to PCP adsorption/desorption in soil. Therefore, the effects of soil pH and organic matter should be considered in

  18. Extensive piano practicing has regionally specific effects on white matter development.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Sara L; Nagy, Zoltán; Skare, Stefan; Forsman, Lea; Forssberg, Hans; Ullén, Fredrik

    2005-09-01

    Using diffusion tensor imaging, we investigated effects of piano practicing in childhood, adolescence and adulthood on white matter, and found positive correlations between practicing and fiber tract organization in different regions for each age period. For childhood, practicing correlations were extensive and included the pyramidal tract, which was more structured in pianists than in non-musicians. Long-term training within critical developmental periods may thus induce regionally specific plasticity in myelinating tracts.

  19. Effects of a Cooperative Learning Strategy on Teaching and Learning Phases of Matter and One-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doymus, Kemal

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of cooperative learning (using the jigsaw method) on students' achievement in a general chemistry course. The Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) and Phase Achievement Test (PAT) were used. The questions on the CAT relate to solids, liquids, gases, bonding, matter, and matter states. This test was given to…

  20. Health Effects of Alkaline Diet and Water, Reduction of Digestive-tract Bacterial Load, and Earthing.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Haider Abdul-Lateef

    2016-04-01

    In the article, the author discusses the issue of chronic, low-grade acidosis that is thought to be brought about primarily by 2 factors: (1) advancing age, with a consequent decline in renal function; and (2) diet. An acid-forming diet can induce low-grade metabolic acidosis, which causes very small decreases in blood pH and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3-) that remain within the range considered to be normal. However, if the duration of the acidosis is prolonged or chronically present, even a low degree of acidosis can become significant. This article reviews supporting evidence in the literature that has shown that consumption of abundant alkaline-forming foods can result in improvement in bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle mass, protection from chronic illnesses, reduced tumor-cell invasion and metastasis, and effective excretion of toxins from the body. In addition, a large number of studies showing the benefits of alkaline water (mineral water) have revealed that people consuming water with a high level of total dissolved solids (TDS) (ie, with a high mineral content) have shown a lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer and lower total mortality rates. Consumption of alkaline water also may prevent osteoporosis and protect pancreatic beta cells with its antioxidant effects. In addition, this article discusses the literature that shows that reducing digestive-tract bacterial load can play an important role in increasing blood alkalinity toward the normal upper limit. That change occurs through good oral hygiene, flossing of teeth, perfect chewing of food, and bowel evacuation as soon as possible. Finally, the author reviews the literature that shows that earthing (ie, the direct contact of the human body with the earth) can supply a current of plentiful electrons. Earthing has been shown to reduce acute and chronic inflammation, blood glucose in patients with diabetes, red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, and blood

  1. Effects of low Earth orbit environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampair, Thomas R.; Berrios, William M.

    1992-01-01

    One of the benefits of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was the opportunity to study the before and after effects of low earth orbit space environment on the spacecraft thermal control coatings. Since the LDEF's thermal control was totally passive by design, the selection of the external surface absorptivity to emissivity ratio (alpha/epsilon) and the ability for the coating to retain the alpha/epsilon over time was an important consideration in the thermal design of the LDEF. The primary surface coating chosen for the LDEF structure was clear chromic anodized aluminum with an average design alpha/epsilon of 0.32/0.16. External surface absorptivity (alpha) and emissivity (epsilon) were measured on all intercostals, longerons, tray mounting flanges, thermal control panels, and a limited number of experiment surface coatings after the experiment trays were removed from the LDEF structure. All surface alpha/epsilon measurements were made using portable hand held infrared and solar spectrum reflectometers. The absorptivity measurements were taken with a Devices and Services SSR-ER version 5.0 solar spectra reflectometer which has a stated uncertainty of +/- 0.01, and all normal emissivity measurements were made using the Gier Dunkle DB-100 infrared reflectometer also with a stated uncertainty of +/- 0.01. Both instruments were calibrated in the laboratory by LaRC instrumentation personnel before being used in the field at KSC. A combined total of 733 measurements were taken on the anodized aluminum hardware which included the structure (intercostals, longerons, and center ring), earth and space end thermal control panels, and experiment tray mounting flanges. The facility thermal control coatings measured in this survey cover 33 percent of the total exposed LDEF surface area. To correlate low earth orbit environmental effects on the anodized coatings, measurements were taken in both exposed and unexposed surfaces and compared to quality assurance (QA

  2. Effects of sex hormone treatment on white matter microstructure in individuals with gender dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Georg S; Seiger, Rene; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Hummer, Allan; Hahn, Andreas; Ganger, Sebastian; Tik, Martin; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2017-04-15

    Sex steroid hormones such as estradiol and testosterone are known to have organizing, as well as activating effects on neural tissue in animals and humans. This study investigated the effects of transgender hormone replacement therapy on white matter microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging. Female-to-male and male-to-female transgender participants were measured at baseline, four weeks and four months past treatment start and compared to female and male controls. We observed androgenization-related reductions in mean diffusivity and increases in fractional anisotropy. We also observed feminization-related increases in mean diffusivity and reductions in fractional anisotropy. In both transgender participants and controls, hormonal fluctuations were correlated with changes in white matter microstructure. Although the present study does not preclude regression to the mean as a potential contributing factor, the results indicate that sex hormones are - at least in part - responsible for white matter variability in the human brain. Studies investigating the effects of sex hormones on adult human brain structure may be an important route for greater understanding of the psychological differences between females and males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Oblate-Earth Effects on the Calculation of Ec During Spacecraft Reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.; Matney, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The bulge in the Earth at its equator has been shown to lead to a clustering of natural decays biased to occur towards the equator and away from the orbit's extreme latitudes. Such clustering must be considered when predicting the Expectation of Casualty (Ec) during a natural decay, because of the corresponding clustering of the human population in the lower latitudes. This study expands upon prior work, and formalizes in a single empirical equation the correction that must be made to the calculation of the average exposed population density as a result of this effect. The equation is represented as a function of ballistic number and inclination of the entering spacecraft over the credible range of ballistic numbers.

  4. Ammonia photolysis and the greenhouse effect in the primordial atmosphere of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, W. R.; Atreya, S. K.

    1979-01-01

    Photochemical calculations indicate that in the prebiotic atmosphere of earth ammonia would have been irreversibly converted to N2 in less than 40 years if the ammonia surface mixing ratio were no more than 0.0001. However, if a continuous outgassing of ammonia were maintained, radiative-equilibrium calculations indicate that a surface mixing ratio of ammonia of 0.0001 or greater would provide a sufficient greenhouse effect to keep the surface temperature above freezing. With a 0.0001 mixing ratio of ammonia, 60% to 70% of the present-day solar luminosity would be adequate to maintain surface temperatures above freezing. A lower limit to the time constant for accumulation of an amount of nitrogen equivalent to the present day value is 10 my if the outgassing were such as to provide a continuous surface mixing ratio of ammonia of at least 0.00001.

  5. Compensation for effects of ambient temperature on rare-earth doped fiber optic thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, G.; Sotomayor, J. L.; Krasowski, M. J.; Eustace, J. G.

    1989-01-01

    Variations in ambient temperature have a negative effect on the performance of any fiber optic sensing system. A change in ambient temperature may alter the design parameters of fiber optic cables, connectors, sources, detectors, and other fiber optic components and eventually the performance of the entire system. The thermal stability of components is especially important in a system which employs intensity modulated sensors. Several referencing schemes have been developed to account for the variable losses that occur within the system. However, none of these conventional compensating techniques can be used to stabilize the thermal drift of the light source in a system based on the spectral properties of the sensor material. The compensation for changes in ambient temperature becomes especially important in fiber optic thermometers doped with rare earths. Different approaches to solving this problem are searched and analyzed.

  6. Compensation for effects of ambient temperature on rare-earth doped fiber optic thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, G.; Sotomayor, J. L.; Krasowski, M. J.; Eustace, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Variations in ambient temperature have a negative effect on the performance of any fiber optic sensing system. A change in ambient temperature may alter the design parameters of fiber optic cables, connectors, sources, detectors, and other fiber optic components and eventually the performance of the entire system. The thermal stability of components is especially important in a system which employs intensity modulated sensors. Several referencing schemes have been developed to account for the variable losses that occur within the system. However, none of these conventional compensating techniques can be used to stabilize the thermal drift of the light source in a system based on the spectral properties of the sensor material. The compensation for changes in ambient temperature becomes especially important in fiber optic thermometers doped with rare earths. Different approaches to solving this problem are searched and analyzed.

  7. Effects of inclination and eccentricity on optimal trajectories between earth and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravier, J.-P.; Marchal, C.; Culp, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    The true optimal transfers, including the effects of the inclination and eccentricity of the planets' orbits, between earth and Venus are presented as functions of the corresponding idealized Hohmann transfers. The method of determining the optimal transfers using the calculus of variations is presented. For every possible Hohmann window, specified as a continuous function of the longitude of perihelion of the Hohmann trajectory, the corresponding numerically exact optimal two-impulse transfers are given in graphical form. The cases for which the optimal two-impulse transfer is the absolute optimal, and those for which a three-impulse transfer provides the absolute optimal transfer are indicated. This information furnishes everything necessary for quick and accurate orbit calculations for preliminary Venus mission analysis. This makes it possible to use the actual optimal transfers for advanced planning in place of the standard Hohmann transfers.

  8. Sheath effects observed on a 10 meter high voltage panel in simulated low earth orbit plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccox, J. E.; Konradi, A.

    1979-01-01

    A large (1m x 10m) flat surface of conductive material was biased to high voltage (+ or - 3000 V) to simulate the behavior of a large solar array in low earth orbit. The model array was operated in a plasma environment of 1,000 to 1,000,000/cu cm, with sufficient free space around it for the resulting plasma sheaths to develop unimpeded for 5-10 meters into the surrounding plasma. Measurements of the resulting sheath thickness were obtained. The observed thickness varied approximately as V to the 3/4 power and N to the 1/2 power. This effect appears to limit total current leakage from the test array until sheath dimensions exceed about 1 meter. Total leakage current was also measured with the array.

  9. Health effects and toxicity mechanisms of rare earth elements-Knowledge gaps and research prospects.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Giovanni; Guida, Marco; Tommasi, Franca; Oral, Rahime

    2015-05-01

    In the recent decades, rare earth elements (REE) have undergone a steady spread in several industrial and medical applications, and in agriculture. Relatively scarce information has been acquired to date on REE-associated biological effects, from studies of bioaccumulation and of bioassays on animal, plant and models; a few case reports have focused on human health effects following occupational REE exposures, in the present lack of epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed groups. The literature is mostly confined to reports on few REE, namely cerium and lanthanum, whereas substantial information gaps persist on the health effects of other REE. An established action mechanism in REE-associated health effects relates to modulating oxidative stress, analogous to the recognized redox mechanisms observed for other transition elements. Adverse outcomes of REE exposures include a number of endpoints, such as growth inhibition, cytogenetic effects, and organ-specific toxicity. An apparent controversy regarding REE-associated health effects relates to opposed data pointing to either favorable or adverse effects of REE exposures. Several studies have demonstrated that REE, like a number of other xenobiotics, follow hormetic concentration-related trends, implying stimulatory or protective effects at low levels, then adverse effects at higher concentrations. Another major role for REE-associated effects should be focused on pH-dependent REE speciation and hence toxicity. Few reports have demonstrated that environmental acidification enhances REE toxicity; these data may assume particular relevance in REE-polluted acidic soils and in REE mining areas characterized by concomitant REE and acid pollution. The likely environmental threats arising from REE exposures deserve a new line of research efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Solar irradiance changes and photobiological effects at earth's surface following astrophysical ionizing radiation events.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Brian C; Neale, Patrick J; Snyder, Brock R

    2015-03-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in surface-level solar ultraviolet radiation. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In this work, we employed the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV) radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light) for clear-sky conditions and fixed aerosol parameter values. We also considered a wide range of biological effects on organisms ranging from humans to phytoplankton. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA-damaging radiation are still similar to our improved calculations. We also found that the intensity of biologically damaging radiation varies widely with organism and specific impact considered; these results have implications for biosphere-level damage following astrophysical ionizing radiation events. When considering changes in surface-level visible light irradiance, we found that, contrary to previous assumptions, a decrease in irradiance is only present for a short time in very limited geographical areas; instead we found a net increase for most of the modeled time-space region. This result has implications for proposed climate changes associated with ionizing radiation events.

  11. Effects of CubeSat Deployments in Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, M. J.; Vavrin, A. B.; Manis, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Long-term models, such as NASA's LEGEND (LEO (Low-Earth Orbit)-to-GEO (Geosynchrous Earth Orbit) Environment Debris) model, are used to make predictions about how space activities will affect the long-term evolution of the debris environment. Part of this process is to predict how spacecraft and rocket bodies will be launched and left in the environment in the future. This has usually been accomplished by repeating past launch history to simulate future launches. It was partially upon the basis of the results of such models that both national and international orbital debris mitigation guidelines - especially the "25-year rule" for post-mission disposal - were determined. The proliferation of Cubesat launches in recent years, however, has raised concerns that we are seeing a fundamental shift in how humans launch satellites into space that may alter the assumptions upon which our current mitigation guidelines are based. The large number of Cubesats, and their short lifetime and general inability to perform collision avoidance, potentially makes them an important new source of debris. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has conducted a series of LEGEND computations to investigate the long-term effects of adding Cubesats to the environment. Several possible future scenarios were simulated to investigate the effects of the size of future Cubesat launches and the efficiency of post-mission disposal on the proliferation of catastrophic collisions over the next 200 years. These results are compared to a baseline "business-as-usual" scenario where launches are assumed to continue as in the past without major Cubesat deployments. Using these results, we make observations about the continued use of the 25-year rule and the importance of the universal application of post-mission disposal. We also discuss how the proliferation of Cubesats may affect satellite traffic at lower altitudes.

  12. Exploring the Atmosphere of Neoproterozoic Earth: The Effect of O2 on Haze Formation and Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörst, Sarah M.; He, Chao; Ugelow, Melissa S.; Jellinek, A. Mark; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies of haze formation in the atmosphere of the early Earth have focused on N2/CO2/CH4 atmospheres. Here, we experimentally investigate the effect of O2 on the formation and composition of aerosols to improve our understanding of haze formation on the Neoproterozoic Earth. We obtained in situ size, particle density, and composition measurements of aerosol particles produced from N2/CO2/CH4/O2 gas mixtures subjected to FUV radiation (115–400 nm) for a range of initial CO2/CH4/O2 mixing ratios (O2 ranging from 2 ppm to 0.2%). At the lowest O2 concentration (2 ppm), the addition increased particle production for all but one gas mixture. At higher oxygen concentrations (20 ppm and greater), particles are still produced, but the addition of O2 decreases the production rate. Both the particle size and number density decrease with increasing O2, indicating that O2 affects particle nucleation and growth. The particle density increases with increasing O2. The addition of CO2 and O2 not only increases the amount of oxygen in the aerosol, but it also increases the degree of nitrogen incorporation. In particular, the addition of O2 results in the formation of nitrate-bearing molecules. The fact that the presence of oxygen-bearing molecules increases the efficiency of nitrogen fixation has implications for the role of haze as a source of molecules required for the origin and evolution of life. The composition changes also likely affect the absorption and scattering behavior of these particles but optical property measurements are required to fully understand the implications for the effect on the planetary radiative energy balance and climate.

  13. The Effect of Rare Earth Dopants in Crystal Structure of Bi-2212 Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suharta, W. G.; Widagda, IGA.; Putra, K.; Suyanto, H.

    2017-03-01

    Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+∂ samples have been successfully synthesized by doping rare earth (RE) variations using wet-mixing method. Samples calcined at 600°C for 3 hours and sintered at 850°C for 10 hours. The purpose of research is to determine the effect of the RE dopant on the microscopic structure of BSCRECO superconductors. Therefore, the research was conducted characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Measurements with XRD could be carried out and crystal system of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+∂ with rare earth (RE) dopants could be determined clearly. Generally, crystallization has occurred very well demonstrated by the diffraction peaks are sharp, which is dominated by the emergence of Bi-2212 phase. Search match results of XRD spectrum showed Bi2Sr2CuOx (2201) and Ca2CuO3 (21) as an impurity phase with small intensity. Also, that is showing volume fraction from 85 to 92% and orthorombic value for all samples from 5 to 7%. The effect of RE dopants resulted a shift angle 2θ and changes in the volume of the unit cells of each sample. The value of the unit cell volume of the largest to smallest is BS(CN)CO, BS(CNG)CO, BS(CNEG)CO, BS(CNE)CO, BS(CG)CO, BS(CEG)CO and BS(CE)CO. Measurement with FTIR showed the bending vibration absorption by CO3 2- in the wavelength range between 1500 and 1520 cm-1, vibration of M-O between 420 and 650 cm-1, the complex formation of BSCCO in the wavelength range between 1690 and 1700 cm-1. Measurement with SEM showed rod shape with particle size in hundreds nanometer.

  14. Effect of gravity on terminal particle settling velocity on Moon, Mars and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2013-04-01

    Gravity has a non-linear effect on the settling velocity of sediment particles in liquids and gases due to the interdependence of settling velocity, drag and friction. However, StokeśLaw, the common way of estimating the terminal velocity of a particle moving in a gas of liquid assumes a linear relationship between terminal velocity and gravity. For terrestrial applications, this "error" is not relevant, but it may strongly influence the terminal velocity achieved by settling particles on Mars. False estimates of these settling velocities will, in turn, affect the interpretation of particle sizes observed in sedimentary rocks on Mars. Wrong interpretations may occur, for example, when the texture of sedimentary rocks is linked to the amount and hydraulics of runoff and thus ultimately the environmental conditions on Mars at the time of their formation. A good understanding of particle behaviour in liquids on Mars is therefore essential. In principle, the effect of lower gravity on settling velocity can also be achieved by reducing the difference in density between particle and gas or liquid. However, the use of such analogues simulating the lower gravity on Mars on Earth is creates other problems because the properties (i.e. viscosity) and interaction of the liquids and sediment (i.e. flow around the boundary layer between liquid and particle) differ from those of water and mineral particles. An alternative for measuring the actual settling velocities of particles under Martian gravity, on Earth, is offered by placing a settling tube on a reduced gravity flight and conduct settling tests within the 20 to 25 seconds of Martian gravity that can be simulated during such a flight. In this presentation we report the results of such a test conducted during a reduced gravity flight in November 2012. The results explore the strength of the non-linearity in the gravity-settling velocity relationship for terrestrial, lunar and Martian gravity.

  15. Effects of sediment transport and deposition on crustal loading, Earth's gravitational field, and sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrier, K.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Perron, T.; Milne, G. A.; Wickert, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial patterns in static sea level are controlled by the interplay between the history of ice mass variations and the associated deformational, gravitational and rotational perturbations in the Earth's state. Over the last decade, there has been a renewed effort to extend classic treatments of ice-age sea-level change (Farrell and Clark, 1976) to incorporate effects such as shoreline migration due to the local onlap or offlap of seawater and changes in the extent of grounded, marine-based ice, as well as feedbacks between sea level and the orientation of Earth's rotation axis. To date, the impact of sediment transport - whether in the context of glacial processes, or other processes such as fluvial deposition - has not been incorporated into a gravitationally self-consistent sea-level theory. Here we briefly summarize the main elements of a new sea-level theory that includes sediment transport, and we apply this new theory to investigate crustal deformation and sea-level changes driven by sediment deposition on the Mississippi fan in the Gulf of Mexico. The calculations incorporate sediment transport from the start of the last glacial cycle through to the present and are constrained to conserve sediment and ocean mass. We compare relative sea level histories predicted with and without sediment transport at sites in and around the Gulf of Mexico, and we quantify the relative impacts of gravitational and deformational effects of sediment deposition. We also explore the extent to which sea-level changes associated with sediment transport impact the interpretation of paleo-sea-level records. Our new sea-level formulation provides an important component of a comprehensive coupling between sediment transfer and sea level on local, regional and global spatial scales, and on time scales extending from decades to tens of thousands of years. References: Farrell, W.E., and Clark, J.A., 1976. On postglacial sea level: Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, v

  16. A nucleosynthetic origin for the Earth's anomalous (142)Nd composition.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, C; Borg, L E; Brennecka, G A; Shollenberger, Q R; Dauphas, N; Kleine, T

    2016-09-15

    A long-standing paradigm assumes that the chemical and isotopic compositions of many elements in the bulk silicate Earth are the same as in chondrites. However, the accessible Earth has a greater (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratio than do chondrites. Because (142)Nd is the decay product of the now-extinct (146)Sm (which has a half-life of 103 million years), this (142)Nd difference seems to require a higher-than-chondritic Sm/Nd ratio for the accessible Earth. This must have been acquired during global silicate differentiation within the first 30 million years of Solar System formation and implies the formation of a complementary (142)Nd-depleted reservoir that either is hidden in the deep Earth, or lost to space by impact erosion. Whether this complementary reservoir existed, and whether or not it has been lost from Earth, is a matter of debate, and has implications for determining the bulk composition of Earth, its heat content and structure, as well as for constraining the modes and timescales of its geodynamical evolution. Here we show that, compared with chondrites, Earth's precursor bodies were enriched in neodymium that was produced by the slow neutron capture process (s-process) of nucleosynthesis. This s-process excess leads to higher (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios; after correction for this effect, the (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios of chondrites and the accessible Earth are indistinguishable within five parts per million. The (142)Nd offset between the accessible silicate Earth and chondrites therefore reflects a higher proportion of s-process neodymium in the Earth, and not early differentiation processes. As such, our results obviate the need for hidden-reservoir or super-chondritic Earth models and imply a chondritic Sm/Nd ratio for the bulk Earth. Although chondrites formed at greater heliocentric distances and contain a different mix of presolar components than Earth, they nevertheless are suitable proxies for Earth's bulk chemical composition.

  17. The Effects of Solar Variability on Earth's Climate: A Workshop Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    varbility and Earth s climate is multifaceted and that some components are understood better than others. According to two presenters on paleoclimate, there is a need to study the idiosyncrasies of each key proxy record. Yet they also emphasized that there may be an emerging pattern of paleoclimate change coincident with periods of solar activity and inactivity, but only on long timescales of multiple decades to millennia. Several speakers discussed the effects of particle events and cosmic-ray variability. These are all areas of exciting fundamental research; however, they have not yet led to conclusive evidence for significant related climate effects. The key problem of attribution of climate variability on the timescales of the Little Ice Age and the Maunder Minimum were directly addressed in several presentations. Several workshop participants remarked that the combination of solar, paleoclimatic, and climate modeling research has the potential to dramatically improve the credibility of these attribution studies.

  18. Challenges of including nitrogen effects on decomposition in earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbie, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the importance of litter decomposition for ecosystem fertility and carbon balance, key uncertainties remain about how this fundamental process is affected by nitrogen (N) availability. Nevertheless, resolving such uncertainties is critical for mechanistic inclusion of such processes in earth system models, towards predicting the ecosystem consequences of increased anthropogenic reactive N. Towards that end, we have conducted a series of experiments examining nitrogen effects on litter decomposition. We found that both substrate N and externally supplied N (regardless of form) accelerated the initial decomposition rate. Faster initial decomposition rates were linked to the higher activity of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes associated with externally supplied N and the greater relative abundances of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria associated with green leaves and externally supplied organic N (assessed using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA). By contrast, later in decomposition, externally supplied N slowed decomposition, increasing the fraction of slowly decomposing litter and reducing lignin-degrading enzyme activity and relative abundances of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Our results suggest that elevated atmospheric N deposition may have contrasting effects on the dynamics of different soil carbon pools, decreasing mean residence times of active fractions comprising very fresh litter, while increasing those of more slowly decomposing fractions including more processed litter. Incorporating these contrasting effects of N on decomposition processes into models is complicated by lingering uncertainties about how these effects generalize across ecosystems and substrates.

  19. Effect of organic matter supplementation on nitrogen transformations in soils. I. Chemical and bacteriological changes.

    PubMed

    Abd-el-Malek, Y; Monib, M; Hosny, I; Girgis, S A

    1979-01-01

    The effect of supplementation with different organic materials on nitrogen transformations and on certain bacterial groups in soil was studied. Addition of wide C/N ratio organic matter, sawdust and maize stalks prevented NO3-N from being lost through leaching out or dentrification and favoured the development of Azotobacter and N2-fixing clostridia that in turn resulted in marked gains in nitrogen through N2-fixation. Nitrifying bacteria were adversely affected. Application of such materials together with high amounts of NH4NO3 lessened nitrogen losses in drainage water but increased losses through denitrification. Nitrogen-rich organic matter resulted in higher losses in nitrates from soils in comparison to those of wide C/N ratio organic materials.

  20. Comparison of νμ->νe Oscillation calculations with matter effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael; Toki, Walter

    2013-04-01

    An introduction to neutrino oscillations in vacuum is presented, followed by a survey of various techniques for obtaining either exact or approximate expressions for νμ->νe oscillations in matter. The method devised by Mann, Kafka, Schneps, and Altinok produces an exact expression for the oscillation by determining explicitely the evolution operator. The method used by Freund yields an approximate oscillation probability by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian, finding the eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and then using those to find modified mixing angles with the matter effect taken into account. The method developed by Arafune, Koike, and Sato uses an alternate method to find an approximation of the evolution operator. These methods are compared to each other using parameters from both the T2K and LBNE experiments.

  1. Effect of Permanganate Preoxidation to Natural Organic Matter and Disinfection by-Products Formation Potential Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayah, E. N.; Yeh, H. H.

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments was conducted to examine effect of permanganate (KMnO4) peroxidation in characterizing and to remove natural organic matter (NOM) in source water. The experimental results shows that increasing permanganate dosage could decreased aromatic matter, as indicated by decreasing UV254 and SUVA value about 23% and 28%, respectively. It seems that permanganate preoxidation caused the breakdown of high molecular weight (MW) organics into low MW ones, as represented by increasing NPDOC about 10%. Further, disinfection by-products formation potential (DBPFP) in terms of trihalomethanes formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAP) decreased about 15% and 23%, respectively. HAAFP removal is higher than THMFP removal and that DPBFP removal is consistent with UV254 and NPDOC removal.

  2. Effects of snow grain shape on climate simulations: sensitivity tests with the Norwegian Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räisänen, Petri; Makkonen, Risto; Kirkevåg, Alf; Debernard, Jens B.

    2017-12-01

    Snow consists of non-spherical grains of various shapes and sizes. Still, in radiative transfer calculations, snow grains are often treated as spherical. This also applies to the computation of snow albedo in the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model and in the Los Alamos sea ice model, version 4 (CICE4), both of which are employed in the Community Earth System Model and in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). In this study, we evaluate the effect of snow grain shape on climate simulated by NorESM in a slab ocean configuration of the model. An experiment with spherical snow grains (SPH) is compared with another (NONSPH) in which the snow shortwave single-scattering properties are based on a combination of three non-spherical snow grain shapes optimized using measurements of angular scattering by blowing snow. The key difference between these treatments is that the asymmetry parameter is smaller in the non-spherical case (0.77-0.78 in the visible region) than in the spherical case ( ≈ 0.89). Therefore, for the same effective snow grain size (or equivalently, the same specific projected area), the snow broadband albedo is higher when assuming non-spherical rather than spherical snow grains, typically by 0.02-0.03. Considering the spherical case as the baseline, this results in an instantaneous negative change in net shortwave radiation with a global-mean top-of-the-model value of ca. -0.22 W m-2. Although this global-mean radiative effect is rather modest, the impacts on the climate simulated by NorESM are substantial. The global annual-mean 2 m air temperature in NONSPH is 1.17 K lower than in SPH, with substantially larger differences at high latitudes. The climatic response is amplified by strong snow and sea ice feedbacks. It is further demonstrated that the effect of snow grain shape could be largely offset by adjusting the snow grain size. When assuming non-spherical snow grains with the parameterized grain size increased by ca. 70 %, the

  3. Preliminary evaluation of effects of best management practices in the Black Earth Creek, Wisconsin, priority watershed

    Walker, J.F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Olem, H.

    1993-01-01

    Nonpoint-source contamination accounts for a substantial part of the water quality problems in many watersheds. The Wisconsin Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement Program provides matching money for voluntary implementation of various best management practices (BMPs). The effectiveness of BMPs on a drainage-basin scale has not been adequately assessed in Wisconsin by use of data collected before and after BMP implementation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, monitored water quality in the Black Earth Creek watershed in southern Wisconsin from October 1984 through September 1986 (pre-BMP conditions). BMP implementation began during the summer of 1989 and is planned to continue through 1993. Data collection resumed in fall 1989 and is intended to provide information during the transitional period of BMP implementation (1990-93) and 2 years of post-BMP conditions (1994-95). Preliminary results presented for two subbasins in toe Black Earth Creek watershed (Brewery and Garfoot Creeks) are based on data collected during pre-BMP conditions and the first 3 years of the transitional period. The analysis includes the use of regressions to control for natural variability in the data and, hence, enhance the ability to detect changes. Data collected to date (1992) indicate statistically significant differences in storm mass transport of suspended sediment and ammonia nitrogen at Brewery Creek. The central tendency of the regression residuals has decreased with the implementation of BMPs; hence, the improvement in water quality in the Brewery Creek watershed is likely a result of BMP implementation. Differences in storm mass transport at Garfoot Creek were not detected, primarily because of an insufficient number of storms in the transitional period. As practice implementation continues, the additional data will be used to determine the level of management which results in significant improvements in water

  4. Tissue deposition and toxicological effects of commercially significant rare earth oxide nanomaterials: Material and physical properties.

    PubMed

    Das, Soumen; Reed McDonagh, Philip; Selvan Sakthivel, Tamil; Barkam, Swetha; Killion, Kelsey; Ortiz, Julian; Saraf, Shashank; Kumar, Amit; Gupta, Ankur; Zweit, Jamal; Seal, Sudipta

    2017-03-01

    Rare earth oxide (REO) materials are found naturally in earth's crust and at the nanoscale these REO nanoparticles exhibit unique thermal, electrical, and physicochemical properties. REO nanoparticles are widely used in different industrial sectors for ceramics, glass polishing, metallurgy, lasers, and magnets. Recently, some of these REO nanoparticles have been identified for their potential application in medicine, including therapy, imaging, and diagnostics. Concurrent research into the REO nanomaterials' toxicities has also raised concern for their environmental impacts. The correlation of REO nanoparticles mediated toxicity with their physiochemical properties can help to design nanoparticles with minimal effect on the environment and living organisms. In vitro assay revealed toxicity toward Human squamous epithelial cell line (CCL30) and Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) at a concentration of 100 µM and higher. In vivo results showed, with the exception of CeO 2 and Gd 2 O 3 , most of the naoparticles did not clear or had minimum clearance (10-20%) from the system. Elevated levels of alanine transferase were seen for animals given each different nanoparticle, however the increases were not significant for CeO 2 and Dy 2 O 3 . Nephrotoxicity was only seen in case of Dy 2 O 3 and Gd 2 O 3 . Lastly, histological examination revealed presence of swollen hepatocytes which further confirms toxicity of the commercial REO nanomaterials. The in vivo toxicity is mainly due to excessive tissue deposition (70-90%) due to the commercial REO nanoparticles' poor physical properties (shape, stability, and extent of agglomeration). Therefore, optimization of nanoparticles physical properties is very important. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 904-917, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. DataStreme Earth's Climate System: Building a Climate Literate Society through Effective Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Weinbeck, R. S.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.; Stimach, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Effective partnerships are key to increasing climate and overall environmental literacy. Financial support from NSF, NASA, and NOAA has allowed the American Meteorological Society (AMS) to offer DataStreme courses for almost 20 years. DataStreme Atmosphere, Ocean, and Earth's Climate System (ECS) are offered each fall and spring semester by Local Implementation Teams (LITs) across the country in coordination with AMS Education Program scientists and educators who develop instructional materials, provide logistical support to the LITs, and administer the project. A long-standing partnership with State University of New York's The College at Brockport gives teachers the opportunity to receive 3 tuition-free graduate credits upon successful completion of each DataStreme course and construction of a Plan of Action for educational peer-training. DataStreme ECS investigates the fundamental science of Earth's climate system, explores humans' impact on it, and identifies actions needed in response to climate change. The course provides participants with the knowledge to make informed climate decisions. In fact, according to a recent three-year study conducted by AMS, 98% of DataStreme ECS participants reported an increase in environmental literacy as a result of the course. DataStreme Atmosphere, Ocean, and ECS content has been improved because of AMS partnerships with NOAA and NASA. Specifically, hundreds of NASA and NOAA scientists and faculty from numerous institutions both domestic and abroad have contributed and reviewed DataStreme ECS content. Additional collaborations with Consortium for Ocean Leadership and the U.S. Ice Drilling Program greatly improved the course's paleoclimate content. Looking ahead, the Climate Resilience Toolkit from NOAA's Climate Program Office will further bolster the course this fall. These partnerships have resulted in a powerful, content-rich climate science course for K-12 teachers, building the foundation to a climate literate society.

  6. The Effect of Varying Atmospheric Pressure upon Habitability and Biosignatures of Earth-like Planets.

    PubMed

    Keles, Engin; Grenfell, John Lee; Godolt, Mareike; Stracke, Barbara; Rauer, Heike

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the possible climatic conditions on rocky extrasolar planets, and thereby their potential habitability, is one of the major subjects of exoplanet research. Determining how the climate, as well as potential atmospheric biosignatures, changes under different conditions is a key aspect when studying Earth-like exoplanets. One important property is the atmospheric mass, hence pressure and its influence on the climatic conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to understand the influence of atmospheric mass on climate, hence habitability, and the spectral appearance of planets with Earth-like, that is, N 2 -O 2 dominated, atmospheres orbiting the Sun at 1 AU. This work utilizes a 1D coupled, cloud-free, climate-photochemical atmospheric column model; varies atmospheric surface pressure from 0.5 to 30 bar; and investigates temperature and key species profiles, as well as emission and brightness temperature spectra in a range between 2 and 20 μm. Increasing the surface pressure up to 4 bar leads to an increase in the surface temperature due to increased greenhouse warming. Above this point, Rayleigh scattering dominates, and the surface temperature decreases, reaching surface temperatures below 273 K (approximately at ∼34 bar surface pressure). For ozone, nitrous oxide, water, methane, and carbon dioxide, the spectral response either increases with surface temperature or pressure depending on the species. Masking effects occur, for example, for the bands of the biosignatures ozone and nitrous oxide by carbon dioxide, which could be visible in low carbon dioxide atmospheres. Key Words: Planetary habitability and biosignatures-Atmospheres-Radiative transfer. Astrobiology 18, 116-132.

  7. Pharmacological Effects of Erythropoietin and its Derivative Carbamyl erythropoietin in Cerebral White Matter Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei

    Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is the predominant form of brain injury in the premature infant and the most common cause of cerebral palsy, yet no therapy currently exists for this serious human disorder. As PVL often occurs in preterm infants suffering from cerebral hypoxia/ischemia with or without prior exposure to maternal-fetal infection/inflammation, we used hypoxia/ischemia with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, to produce clinically relevant PVL-like lesions in the white matter in postnatal day six (P6) mice. We studied the white matter pathology under different conditions, such as different durations of hypoxia and different doses of LPS, to evaluate the effects of those etiological factors on neonatal white matter injury. Distinct related pathological events were investigated at different time points during the progression of PVL. We used immunohistochemistry, histological analysis, and electron microscopy (EM) to study demylination that occurs in the white matter area, which is consistent with the pathology of human PVL. Previous studies have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) and its derivative carbamylated EPO (CEPO) are neuroprotective in various experimental models of brain injury. However, none of these studies investigated their efficacy against white matter injury using appropriate animal models of PVL. We produced unilateral or bilateral white matter injury in P6 mice using unilateral carotid ligation (UCL) followed by hypoxia (6% oxygen, 35 min) or by UCL/hypoxia plus LPS injection, respectively. We administered a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of EPO or CEPO (5000 IU/kg) immediately after the insult, and found both drugs to provide significant protection against white matter injury in PVL mice compared to vehicle-treated groups. In addition, EPO and CEPO treatments attenuated neurobehavioral dysfunctions in an acute manner after PVL injury. EPO and CEPO have relatively few adverse effects, and thus may be a therapeutic agent

  8. Monthly modulation in dark matter direct-detection experiments

    SciT

    Britto, Vivian; Meyers, Joel, E-mail: vivian.britto@mail.utoronto.ca, E-mail: jmeyers@cita.utoronto.ca

    2015-11-01

    The signals in dark matter direct-detection experiments should exhibit modulation signatures due to the Earth's motion with respect to the Galactic dark matter halo. The annual and daily modulations, due to the Earth's revolution about the Sun and rotation about its own axis, have been explored previously. Monthly modulation is another such feature present in direct detection signals, and provides a nearly model-independent method of distinguishing dark matter signal events from background. We study here monthly modulations in detail for both WIMP and WISP dark matter searches, examining both the effect of the motion of the Earth about the Earth-Moonmore » barycenter and the gravitational focusing due to the Moon. For WIMP searches, we calculate the monthly modulation of the count rate and show the effects are too small to be observed in the foreseeable future. For WISP dark matter experiments, we show that the photons generated by WISP to photon conversion have frequencies which undergo a monthly modulating shift which is detectable with current technology and which cannot in general be neglected in high resolution WISP searches.« less

  9. Impact of pyrogenic organic matter decomposition and induced priming effect on soil C budget.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestrini, Bernardo; Abiven, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) results from the incomplete combustion of biomass and may contribute to constitute an important fraction of soil C in forest and agricultural soils, in the form of charcoal (produced by wildfires) or biochar (anthropogenic). Although many evidences exist on the long mean residence time of PyOM there is still a large uncertainty on PyOM loss processes and rate and on possible induced priming effect on non-PyOM. Therefore determining PyOM mineralization rate, loss processes and possible induced priming effect on soil organic matter decomposition are key issues to understand the impact of PyOM on the carbon (C) cycle. We investigated the impact of PyOM on soil C budget by combining results from three independent studies: (i) a field study to investigate PyOM mineralization rate and the relative importance of PyOM loss processes, (ii) a PyOM and soil incubation experiment to correlate C and N mineralization rates, (iii) a review of the priming effect induced by PyOM on soil organic C. We employed 13C labelled pinewood-derived PyOM for the field experiment and 13C labelled ryegrass-derived PyOM in the incubation experiment to trace PyOM losses. In the field experiment it was observed that: (i) Pyrolysis process reduced pinewood decomposition by a factor of 60, (ii) leaching and translocation of fresh PyOM along the soil profile were negligible compared to losses as CO2. In the incubation experiment we found that ryegrass induced a two phase priming effect on native soil organic matter, with a positive priming effect followed by a negative priming effect phase, we also found that ryegrass-derived PyOM decomposition was much slower than pinewood one. The different decomposition rate results probably from the different aromaticity of the two PyOM together with the different set-up of the two experiments. Both the incubation experiment and the meta-analysis revealed that PyOM may induce a two-phase priming effect on native soil organic matter

  10. Low-Earth orbit effects on organic composite materials flown on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Pete E.; Dursch, Harry W.

    1993-01-01

    Over 35 different types of organic matrix composites were flown as part of 11 different experiments onboard the NASA Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite. This materials and systems experiment satellite flew in low-earth orbit (LEO) for 69 months. For that period, the experiments were subjected to the LEO environment including atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, microvacuum, meteoroid and space debris (M&D), and particle radiation. Since retrieval of the satellite in January of 1990, the principal experiment investigators have been deintegrating, examining, and testing the materials specimens flown. The most detrimental environmental effect on all organic matrix composites was material loss due to AO erosion. AO erosion of uncoated organic matrix composites (OMC) facing the satellite ram direction was responsible for significant mechanical property degradations. Also, thermal cycling-induced microcracking was observed in some nonunidirectional reinforced OMC's. Thermal cycling and outgassing caused significant but predictable dimensional changes as measured in situ on one experiment. Some metal and metal oxide-based coatings were found to be very effective at preventing AO erosion of OMC's. However, M&D impacts and coating fractures which compromised these coatings allowed AO erosion of the underlying OMC substrates. The findings for organic matrix composites flown on the LDEF are summarized and the LEO environmental factors, their effects, and the influence on space hardware design factors for LEO applications are identified.

  11. Potential Effects of Heliogeophysical Activity on the Dynamics of Sudden Cardiac Death at Earth Middle Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.; Babayev, E.; Mustafa, F.

    2017-01-01

    Limited studies exist on comparing the possible effects of heliogeophysical activity (solar and geomagnetic) on the dynamics of sudden cardiac death (SCD) as a function of latitude on Earth. In this work we continue our earlier studies concerning the changing space environment and SCD dynamics at middle latitudes. The study covered 25 to 80-year old males and females, and used medical data provided by all emergency and first medical aid stations in the Grand Baku Area, Azerbaijan. Data coverage includedthe second peak of Solar Cycle 23 and its descending activity years followed by its long-lasting minimum. Gradation of geomagnetic activity into six levels was introduced to study the effect of space weather on SCD. The ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) test was applied to study the significance of the geomagnetic activity effect, estimated by different geomagnetic indices, on SCD dynamics. Variations inthe number of SCDs occurring on days preceding and following the development of geomagnetic storms were also studied. Results revealed that the SCD number was largest on days of very low geomagnetic activity and on days proceeding and following geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Vulnerability for males was found to be higher around days of major and severe geomagnetic storms. Females, on the other hand, were more threatened around days of lower intensity storms. It is concluded that heliogeophysical activity could be considered as one of the regulating external/environmental factors in human homeostasis.

  12. Investigation of Strategies to Promote Effective Teacher Professional Development Experiences in Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelmann, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation serves as a call to geoscientists to share responsibility with K-12 educators for increasing Earth science literacy. When partnerships are created among K-12 educators and geoscientists, the synergy created can promote Earth science literacy in students, teachers, and the broader community. The research described here resulted in…

  13. Perceived Barriers and Strategies to Effective Online Earth and Space Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottinger, James E.

    2012-01-01

    With the continual growth and demand of online courses, higher education institutions are attempting to meet the needs of today's learners by modifying and developing new student centered services and programs. As a result, faculty members are being forced into teaching online, including Earth and Space science faculty. Online Earth and Space…

  14. Effect of the addition of low rare earth elements (lanthanum, neodymium, cerium) on the biodegradation and biocompatibility of magnesium.

    PubMed

    Willbold, Elmar; Gu, Xuenan; Albert, Devon; Kalla, Katharina; Bobe, Katharina; Brauneis, Maria; Janning, Carla; Nellesen, Jens; Czayka, Wolfgang; Tillmann, Wolfgang; Zheng, Yufeng; Witte, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements are promising alloying element candidates for magnesium alloys used as biodegradable devices in biomedical applications. Rare earth elements have significant effects on the high temperature strength as well as the creep resistance of alloys and they improve magnesium corrosion resistance. We focused on lanthanum, neodymium and cerium to produce magnesium alloys with commonly used rare earth element concentrations. We showed that low concentrations of rare earth elements do not promote bone growth inside a 750 μm broad area around the implant. However, increased bone growth was observed at a greater distance from the degrading alloys. Clinically and histologically, the alloys and their corrosion products caused no systematic or local cytotoxicological effects. Using microtomography and in vitro experiments, we could show that the magnesium-rare earth element alloys showed low corrosion rates, both in in vitro and in vivo. The lanthanum- and cerium-containing alloys degraded at comparable rates, whereas the neodymium-containing alloy showed the lowest corrosion rates. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of dissolved organic matter leaching from macrophyte litter on black water events in shallow lakes.

    PubMed

    He, Yuhong; Song, Na; Jiang, He-Long

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the black water phenomenon has become an environmental event in eutrophic shallow lakes in China, leading to deterioration of lake ecosystems and potable water crises. Decomposition of macrophyte debris has been verified as a key inducement for black water events. In this study, the effects of the decomposition of dissolved organic matter (Kottelat et al., WASP 187:343-351, 2008) derived from macrophyte leachate on the occurrence of black water events are investigated to clarify the detailed mechanisms involved. Results show that dissolved organic matter (DOM) is composed of a trace of chromophoric DOM and mostly non-chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). DOM decomposition is accompanied by varied concentration of CDOM components, generation of organic particles, and increased microbial concentrations. These processes increase water chroma only during initial 48 h, so the intensified water color cannot be maintained by DOM decomposition alone. During DOM decomposition, microorganisms first consume non-CDOM, increasing the relative CDOM concentration and turning the water color to black (or brown). Simultaneously, tryptophan and aromatic proteins, which are major ingredients of CDOM, enhance UV light absorption, further aggravating the macroscopic phenomenon of black color. Our results show that DOM leached from decayed macrophytes promotes or even triggers the occurrence of black water events and should be taken more seriously in the future.

  16. Tensor Fermi liquid parameters in nuclear matter from chiral effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, J. W.; Kaiser, N.; Whitehead, T. R.

    2018-05-01

    We compute from chiral two- and three-body forces the complete quasiparticle interaction in symmetric nuclear matter up to twice nuclear matter saturation density. Second-order perturbative contributions that account for Pauli blocking and medium polarization are included, allowing for an exploration of the full set of central and noncentral operator structures permitted by symmetries and the long-wavelength limit. At the Hartree-Fock level, the next-to-next-to-leading order three-nucleon force contributes to all noncentral interactions, and their strengths grow approximately linearly with the nucleon density up to that of saturated nuclear matter. Three-body forces are shown to enhance the already strong proton-neutron effective tensor interaction, while the corresponding like-particle tensor force remains small. We also find a large isovector cross-vector interaction but small center-of-mass tensor interactions in the isoscalar and isovector channels. The convergence of the expansion of the noncentral quasiparticle interaction in Landau parameters and Legendre polynomials is studied in detail.

  17. Effect of water depth on the removal of organic matter in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Paula; Ojeda, Esther; García, Joan; Barragán, Jesús; Mujeriego, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the effect of water depth on organic matter removal efficiency in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSFs). Experiments were carried out in a pilot plant comprising eight parallel SSF of almost equal surface area (54-56 m2 each) and treating urban wastewater. Each SSF differs from the others in the aspect ratio or the size of the granular medium or the water depth. During a period of two years, the shallow SSFs (0.27 m water depth) removed more chemical oxygen demand (COD) (72-81%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)5 (72-85%), ammonia (35-56%), and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) (8-23%) than deep SSFs (0.5 m water depth) (59-64% for COD; 51-57% for BOD5; 18-29% for ammonia; and 0-7% for DRP). Experiments carried out during the summer indicated that sulphate reduction accounted for a clearly higher organic matter removal in the deep SSFs than in the shallow ones. Denitrification seemed to be a significant mechanism for organic matter removal to occur in shallow SSFs. The results suggest that the relative contribution of different metabolic pathways varies with depth.

  18. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  19. Zebrafish Locomotor Responses Reveal Irritant Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Extracts and a Role for TRPA1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution causes adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes. Yet the limited capacity to readily identify contributing PM sources and associated PM constituents in any given ambient air shed impedes risk assessment efforts. The health effects of...

  20. EFFECT OF CONTAMINANT AND ORGANIC MATTER BIOAVAILABILITY ON THE MICROBIAL DEHALOGENATION OF SEDIMENT-BOUND CHLOROBENZENES. (R825513C007)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extent of reductive dechlorination occurring in contaminated, estuarine sediments was investigated. Contaminant and organic matter bioavailability and their effect on the reductive dechlorination of sediment-bound chlorobenzenes was the main focus of the work presented her...

  1. A Simplified and Rapid Screening Assay using Zebrafish to Assess Cardiac Effects of Air Pollution-derived Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative toxicity assessment of particulate matter (PM) from different sources will potentially inform the understanding of regional differences in PM-induced cardiac health effects by identifying PM sources linked to highest potency components. Conventional low-throughput in...

  2. Evaluation of Low Earth Orbit Environmental Effects on International Space Station Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Reed, Charles K.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of International Space Station (ISS) thermal control coatings were exposed to simulated low Earth orbit (LEO) environmental conditions to determine effects on optical properties. In one test, samples of the white paint coating Z-93P were coated with outgassed products from Tefzel(R) (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer) power cable insulation as-may occur on ISS. These samples were then exposed, along with an uncontaminated Z-93P witness sample, to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation to determine solar absorptance degradation. The Z-93P samples coated with Tefzel(R) outgassing products experienced greater increases in solar absorptance than witness samples not coated with Tefzel(R) outgassing products. In another test, samples of second surface silvered Teflon(R) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), SiO. (where x=2)-coated silvered Teflon(R) FEP, and Z-93P witness samples were exposed to the combined environments of atomic oxygen and VLTV radiation to determine optical properties changes due to these simulated ISS environmental effects. This test verified the durability of these materials in the absence of contaminants.

  3. Evaluation of Low-Earth-Orbit Environmental Effects on International Space Station Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.

    1998-01-01

    Many spacecraft thermal control coatings in low Earth orbit (LEO) can be affected by solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen. Ultraviolet radiation can darken some polymers and oxides commonly used in thermal control materials. Atomic oxygen can erode polymer materials, but it may reverse the ultraviolet-darkening effect on oxides. Maintaining the desired solar absorptance for thermal control coatings is important to assure the proper operating temperature of the spacecraft. Thermal control coatings to be used on the International Space Station (ISS) were evaluated for their performance after exposure in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Atomic Oxygen-Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure (AO-VUV) facility. This facility simulated the LEO environments of solar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation (wavelength range, 115 to 200 nanometers (nm)) and VUV combined with atomic oxygen. Solar absorptance was measured in vacuo to eliminate the "bleaching" effects of ambient oxygen on VUV-induced degradation. The objective of these experiments was to determine solar absorptance increases of various thermal control materials due to exposure to simulated LEO conditions similar to those expected for ISS. Work was done in support of ISS efforts at the requests of Boeing Space and Defense Systems and Lockheed Martin Vought Systems.

  4. Uptake and effect of rare earth elements on gene expression in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenyu; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; DiSpirito, Alan A; Semrau, Jeremy D

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b has two forms of methane monooxygenase (MMO) responsible for the initial conversion of methane to methanol, a cytoplasmic (soluble) methane monooxygenase and a membrane-associated (particulate) methane monooxygenase, and that copper strongly regulates expression of these alternative forms of MMO. More recently, it has been discovered that M. trichosporium OB3b has multiple types of the methanol dehydrogenase (MeDH), i.e. the Mxa-type MeDH (Mxa-MeDH) and Xox-type MeDH (Xox-MeDH), and the expression of these two forms is regulated by the availability of the rare earth element (REE), cerium. Here, we extend these studies and show that lanthanum, praseodymium, neodymium and samarium also regulate expression of alternative forms of MeDH. The effect of these REEs on MeDH expression, however, was only observed in the absence of copper. Further, a mutant of M. trichosporium OB3b, where the Mxa-MeDH was knocked out, was able to grow in the presence of lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium, but was not able to grow in the presence of samarium. Collectively, these data suggest that multiple levels of gene regulation by metals exist in M. trichosporium OB3b, but that copper overrides the effect of other metals by an as yet unknown mechanism. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Oblate-Earth Effects on the Calculation of Ec During Spacecraft Reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.; Matney, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    The bulge in the Earth at its equator has been shown to lead to a clustering of natural decays biased to occur towards the equator and away from the orbit's extreme latitudes. Such clustering must be considered when predicting the Expectation of Casualty (Ec) during a natural decay because of the clustering of the human population in the same lower latitudes. This study expands upon prior work, and formalizes the correction that must be made to the calculation of the average exposed population density as a result of this effect. Although a generic equation can be derived from this work to approximate the effects of gravitational and atmospheric perturbations on a final decay, such an equation averages certain important subtleties in achieving a best fit over all conditions. The authors recommend that direct simulation be used to calculate the true Ec for any specific entry as a more accurate method. A generic equation is provided, represented as a function of ballistic number and inclination of the entering spacecraft over the credible range of ballistic numbers.

  6. Effects of space plasma discharge on the performance of large antenna structures in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, Hans-Juergen C.

    1987-01-01

    The anomalous plasma around spacecrafts in low Earth orbit represents the coma of an artificial comet. The plasma discharge is caused by an energetic disturbance of charged particles which were formerly in a state of equilibrium. The plasma can effect the passive and active radio frequency operation of large space antennas by inducing corona discharge or strong arcing in the antenna feeds. One such large space antenna is the 15-meter hoop column antenna which consists of a mesh membrane material (tricot knitted gold plated wire) reflector and carbon fiber tension cords. The atomic oxygen in the plasma discharge state can force the wire base metal particles through the gold lattice and oxydize the metal particles to build a Schottky-barrier contact at the point where the wires meet. This effect can cause strong deviations in the reflector performance in terms of antenna pattern and losses. Also, the carbon-fiber cords can experience a strength reduction of 30 percent over a 40-hour exposure time.

  7. [Research on the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of rare-earth element holmium to Vicia faba].

    PubMed

    Qu, Ai; Wang, Cheng-Run; Bo, Jun

    2004-03-01

    Crystal of nitrate, made by the reaction of holmium trioxide and nitric acid, was dissolved in distilled water, thus diluted into gradient solution. Soaked in the solution for 6 hours (6h), the root tips of Vicia faba were then recovered and cultivated for 22 h and 24 h, respectively. By observing the change of root tips and calculating the frequency of micronucleus (FMN), the frequency of chromosomal aberrations(CAF) and mitosis index (MI),we find that the dosage below 4mg/L (expressed by concentration of holmium trioxide) could accelerate the growth of root tips of Vicia faba. CAF and FMN increased while MI decreased with the rise of concentrations. From it a dosage effect relationship is clearly seen. And it indicated that the rare earth element holmium has certain cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. Furthermore, the different recovery groups have different FMN, CAF and MI, and the difference lies in the fact that FMN of 22 h recovery group was lower than that of 24 h recovery group, while CAF and MI were higher than those of 24 h recovery group. The results suggest that the statistics of FMN should be made after that of CAF.

  8. The Effects of Solar Maximum on the Earth's Satellite Population and Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly approaching maximum of Solar Cycle 24 will have wide-ranging effects not only on the number and distribution of resident space objects, but also on vital aspects of space situational awareness, including conjunction assessment processes. The best known consequence of high solar activity is an increase in the density of the thermosphere, which, in turn, increases drag on the vast majority of objects in low Earth orbit. The most prominent evidence of this is seen in a dramatic increase in space object reentries. Due to the massive amounts of new debris created by the fragmentations of Fengyun-1C, Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 during the recent period of Solar Minimum, this effect might reach epic levels. However, space surveillance systems are also affected, both directly and indirectly, historically leading to an increase in the number of lost satellites and in the routine accuracy of the calculation of their orbits. Thus, at a time when more objects are drifting through regions containing exceptionally high-value assets, such as the International Space Station and remote sensing satellites, their position uncertainties increase. In other words, as the possibility of damaging and catastrophic collisions increases, our ability to protect space systems is degraded. Potential countermeasures include adjustments to space surveillance techniques and the resetting of collision avoidance maneuver thresholds.

  9. Soil type-depending effect of paddy management: composition and distribution of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanski, Livia; Kölbl, Angelika; Lehndorff, Eva; Houtermans, Miriam; Schad, Peter; Zhang, Gang-Lin; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    Paddy soil management is assumed to promote soil organic matter accumulation and specifically lignin caused by the resistance of the aromatic lignin structure against biodegradation under anaerobic conditions during inundation of paddy fields. The present study investigates the effect of paddy soil management on soil organic matter composition compared to agricultural soils which are not used for rice production (non-paddy soils). A variety of major soil types, were chosen in Indonesia (Java), including Alisol, Andosol and Vertisol sites (humid tropical climate of Java, Indonesia) and in China Alisol sites (humid subtropical climate, Nanjing). This soils are typically used for rice cultivation and represent a large range of soil properties to be expected in Asian paddy fields. All topsoils were analysed for their soil organic matter composition by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and lignin-derived phenols by CuO oxidation method. The soil organic matter composition, revealed by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, was similar for the above named different parent soil types (non-paddy soils) and was also not affected by the specific paddy soil management. The contribution of lignin-related carbon groups to total SOM was similar in the investigated paddy and non-paddy soils. A significant proportion of the total aromatic carbon in some paddy and non-paddy soils was attributed to the application of charcoal as a common management practise. The extraction of lignin-derived phenols revealed low VSC (vanillyl, syringyl, cinnamyl) values for all investigated soils, being typical for agricultural soils. An inherent accumulation of lignin-derived phenols due to paddy management was not found. Lignin-derived phenols seem to be soil type-dependent, shown by different VSC concentrations between the parent soil types. The specific paddy management only affects the lignin-derived phenols in Andosol-derived paddy soils which are characterized by

  10. Research on Earth's rotation and the effect of atmospheric pressure on vertical deformation and sea level variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahr, John

    1993-01-01

    The work done under NASA grant NAG5-485 included modelling the deformation of the earth caused by variations in atmospheric pressure. The amount of deformation near coasts is sensitive to the nature of the oceanic response to the pressure. The PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) data suggest the response is inverted barometer at periods greater than a couple months. Green's functions were constructed to describe the perturbation of the geoid caused by atmospheric and oceanic loading and by the accompanying load-induced deformation. It was found that perturbation of up to 2 cm are possible. Ice mass balance data was used for continental glaciers to look at the glacial contributions to time-dependent changes in polar motion, the lod, the earth's gravitational field, the position of the earth's center-of-mass, and global sea level. It was found that there can be lateral, non-hydrostatic structure inside the fluid core caused by gravitational forcing from the mantle, from the inner core, or from topography at the core/mantle or inner core/outer core boundaries. The nutational and tidal response of a non-hydrostatic earth with a solid inner core was modeled. Monthly, global tide gauge data from PSMSL was used to look at the 18.6-year ocean tide, the 14-month pole tide, the oceanic response to pressure, the linear trend and inter-annual variability in the earth's gravity field, the global sea level rise, and the effects of post glacial rebound. The effects of mantle anelasticity on nutations, earth tides, and tidal variation in the lod was modeled. Results of this model can be used with Crustal Dynamics observations to look at the anelastic dissipation and dispersion at tidal periods. The effects of surface topography on various components of crustal deformation was also modeled, and numerical models were developed of post glacial rebound.

  11. Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Gartmann, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and, more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars.

  12. Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and,more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars. try, 2001

  13. Effect of black holes in local dwarf spheroidal galaxies on gamma-ray constraints on dark matter annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Morales, Alma X.; Profumo, Stefano; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.

    2014-11-01

    Recent discoveries of optical signatures of black holes in dwarf galaxies indicates that low-mass galaxies can indeed host intermediate massive black holes. This motivates the assessment of the resulting effect on the host dark matter density profile, and the consequences for the constraints on the plane of the dark matter annihilation cross section versus mass, stemming from the nonobservation of gamma rays from local dwarf spheroidals with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We compute the density profile using three different prescriptions for the black hole mass associated with a given spheroidal galaxy, and taking into account the cutoff to the density from dark matter pair-annihilation. We find that the limits on the dark matter annihilation rate from observations of individual dwarfs are enhanced by factors of a few up to 1 06 , depending on the specific galaxy, on the black hole mass prescription, and on the dark matter particle mass. We estimate limits from combined observations of a sample of 15 dwarfs, for a variety of assumptions on the dwarf black hole mass and on the dark matter density profile prior to adiabatic contraction. We find that if black holes are indeed present in local dwarf spheroidals, then, independent of assumptions, (i) the dark matter interpretation of the Galactic center gamma-ray excess would be conclusively ruled out, (ii) wino dark matter would be excluded up to masses of about 3 TeV, and (iii) vanilla thermal relic weakly interacting massive particles must be heavier than 100 GeV.

  14. Effects of energy conservation on equilibrium properties of hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Ko, Che Ming

    2018-01-01

    Based on the relativistic Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport model, which includes relativistic scalar and vector potentials on baryons, we consider an N -Δ -π system in a box with periodic boundary conditions to study the effects of energy conservation in particle production and absorption processes on the equilibrium properties of the system. The density and temperature of the matter in the box are taken to be similar to the hot dense matter formed in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. We find that to maintain the equilibrium numbers of N ,Δ , and π , which depend on the mean-field potentials of N and Δ , we must include these potentials in the energy conservation condition that determines the momenta of outgoing particles after a scattering or decay process. We further find that the baryon scalar potentials mainly affect the Δ and pion equilibrium numbers, while the baryon vector potentials have considerable effect on the effective charged pion ratio at equilibrium. Our results thus indicate that it is essential to include in the transport model the effect of potentials in the energy conservation of a scattering or decay process, which is ignored in most transport models, for studying pion production in heavy ion collisions.

  15. Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

    To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 μg/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

  16. The Effect of Gender on the Attitudes of Undergraduates toward Young-Earth Creationism after Enrollment in an Origins Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinaja, Sean Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Many Christian students graduate from secondary schools and enter Christian colleges with worldviews that are unbiblical or contain unbiblical components, many of which stem from their beliefs regarding origins. Little research has been done to study the effect of gender on the role of a young-earth creationist (YEC) origins course in shaping…

  17. Effects of rare earth element lanthanum on rumen methane and volatile fatty acid production and microbial flora in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T T; Zhao, G Y; Zheng, W S; Niu, W J; Wei, C; Lin, S X

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of the trial were to study the effects of rare earth element (REE) lanthanum (La) on the in vitro rumen methane (CH4 ) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and the microbial flora of feeds. Four feed mixtures with different levels of neutral detergent fibre (NDF), that is 20.0% (I), 31.0% (II), 41.9% (III) and 52.7% (IV), were formulated as substrates. Five levels of LaCl3 , that is 0, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mmol/kg dry matter (DM), were added to the feed mixtures, respectively, as experimental treatments in a two-factor 5 × 4 randomized design. The in vitro incubation lasted for 24 h. The results showed that supplementing LaCl3 increased the total gas (p < 0.001) production and tended to increase the total VFA production (p = 0.072) and decreased the CH4 production (p = 0.001) and the ratios of acetate/propionate (p = 0.019) and CH4 /total VFA (p < 0.001). Interactions between LaCl3 and NDF were significant in total gas production (p = 0.030) and tended to be significant in CH4 production (p = 0.071). Supplementing LaCl3 at the level of 0.8 mmol/g DM decreased the relative abundance of methanogens and protozoa in the total bacterial 16S rDNA analysed using the real-time PCR (p < 0.0001), increased F. succinogenes (p = 0.0003) and decreased R. flavefaciens (p < 0.0001) whereas did not affect R. albus and anaerobic fungi (p > 0.05). It was concluded that LaCl3 decreased the CH4 production without negatively affecting feed digestion through manipulating rumen microbial flora when feed mixtures with different levels of NDF were used as substrates. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Study of the effect of cloud inhomogeneity on the earth radiation budget experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip J.

    1988-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is the most recent and probably the most intensive mission designed to gather precise measurements of the Earth's radiation components. The data obtained from ERBE is of great importance for future climatological studies. A statistical study reveals that the ERBE scanner data are highly correlated and that instantaneous measurements corresponding to neighboring pixels contain almost the same information. Analyzing only a fraction of the data set when sampling is suggested and applications of this strategy are given in the calculation of the albedo of the Earth and of the cloud-forcing over ocean.

  19. (abstract) Effect of Long Period Ocean Tides on the Earth's Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, R. S.; Chao, B. F.; Desai, S.

    1996-01-01

    The second-degree zonal tide raising potential, which is responsible for tidal changes in the Earth's rotation rate and length-of-day, is symmetric about the polar axis and hence can excite the Earth's polar motion only through its action upon nonaxisymmetric features of the Earth such as the oceans. Ocean tidal excitation of polar motion in the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal bands has been previously detected and extensively examined. Here, the detection of ocean tidal excitation of polar motion in the long-period tidal band, specifically at the Mf' (13.63-day) and Mf (13.66-day) tidal frequencies, is reported.

  20. Climatic effects of large-scale deforestation in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovkin, V.; Boysen, L.; Pongratz, J.

    2017-12-01

    Processes in terrestrial ecosystems, to a large extent, are controlled by climate and CO2 concentration. In turn, geographical distribution of vegetation cover strongly affects heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes between land surface and atmosphere (biogeophysical effects). Anthropogenic land use and land cover changes (LULCC) are now included into Earth System Models (ESMs) in the form of historical and hypothetical future scenarios as a forcing in the Coupled Model Intercomparison project, phase 6 (CMIP6). A propagation of climatic effects from land to the ocean in ESMs allows to investigate a global climate response to LULCC in addition to analysis of local effects over deforested land. One complication in the analysis of global climatic effects of historical and future LULCC scenarios is their relatively small amplitude. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio, the Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP) suggested an idealized deforestation simulation following a prototype of 1%-CO2 increase experiment commonly used in CMIPs. The idealized experiment allows to investigate - in a harmonized way across models - a response of land surface biophysics and climate to a large-scale deforestation of 20 million km2 distributed over the most forested parts of globe. The forest is removed linearly over a period of 50 years, with an additional 30 years with no specified change in forest cover. Boundary conditions such as CO2 concentration and other forcings are kept at the pre-industrial level. We will present results of idealized deforestation experiments and other sensitivity runs with the CMIP6-version of MPI-ESM, which will be part of the later multi-model comparison. A special focus will be put on less well investigated aspects of LULCC that the idealized setup is particularly well suited for studying, such as non-linearities of the model response to the deforestation forcing and detectability of the signal over time.

  1. Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2014-02-01

    The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Matter effects in upward-going muons and sterile neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MACRO Collaboration; Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Bakari, D.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G. C.; Barish, B. C.; Battistoni, G.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Brigida, M.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Caruso, R.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Choudhary, B. C.; Coutu, S.; De Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; Derkaoui, J.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giorgini, M.; Grassi, M.; Gray, L.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Heinz, R.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katsavounidis, I.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D. S.; Lipari, P.; Longley, N. P.; Longo, M. J.; Loparco, F.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michael, D. G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolò, D.; Nolty, R.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C. W.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Pistilli, P.; Popa, V.; Rainò, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Rrhioua, A.; Satriano, C.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra, P.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Surdo, A.; Tarlè, G.; Togo, V.; Vakili, M.; Walter, C. W.; Webb, R.

    2001-09-01

    The angular distribution of upward-going muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos in the rock below the MACRO detector shows anomalies in good agreement with two flavor νμ-->ντ oscillations with maximum mixing and Δm2 around 0.0024 eV2. Exploiting the dependence of magnitude of the matter effect on oscillation channel, and using a set of 809 upward-going muons observed in MACRO, we show that the two flavor νμ-->νs oscillation is disfavored with 99% C.L. with respect to νμ-->ντ.

  3. The effect of lifelong bilingualism on regional grey and white matter volume.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Rosanna K; Pangelinan, Melissa M; Bogulski, Cari; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Luk, Gigi; Grady, Cheryl L; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    Lifelong bilingualism is associated with the delayed diagnosis of dementia, suggesting bilingual experience is relevant to brain health in aging. While the effects of bilingualism on cognitive functions across the lifespan are well documented, less is known about the neural substrates underlying differential behaviour. It is clear that bilingualism affects brain regions that mediate language abilities and that these regions are at least partially overlapping with those that exhibit age-related decline. Moreover, the behavioural advantages observed in bilingualism are generally found in executive function performance, suggesting that the frontal lobes may also be sensitive to bilingualism, which exhibit volume reductions with age. The current study investigated structural differences in the brain of lifelong bilingual older adults (n=14, mean age=70.4) compared with older monolinguals (n=14, mean age=70.6). We employed two analytic approaches: 1) we examined global differences in grey and white matter volumes; and, 2) we examined local differences in volume and cortical thickness of specific regions of interest previously implicated in bilingual/monolingual comparisons (temporal pole) or in aging (entorhinal cortex and hippocampus). We expected bilinguals would exhibit greater volume of the frontal lobe and temporal lobe (grey and white matter), given the importance of these regions in executive and language functions, respectively. We further hypothesized that regions in the medial temporal lobe, which demonstrate early changes in aging and exhibit neural pathology in dementia, would be more preserved in the bilingual group. As predicted, bilinguals exhibit greater frontal lobe white matter compared with monolinguals. Moreover, increasing age was related to decreasing temporal pole cortical thickness in the monolingual group, but no such relationship was observed for bilinguals. Finally, Stroop task performance was positively correlated with frontal lobe white

  4. Effect of incorporation of walnut cake (Juglans regia) in concentrate mixture on degradation of dry matter, organic matter and production of microbial biomass in vitro in goat

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Mohsin Ahmad; Sharma, R. K.; Rastogi, Ankur; Barman, Keshab

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of incorporation of different level of walnut cake in concentrate mixture on in vitro dry matter degradation in order to determine its level of supplementation in ruminant ration. Materials and Methods: Walnut cake was used @ 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% level to formulate an iso-nitrogenous concentrate mixtures and designated as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 respectively. The different formulae of concentrate mixtures were used for in vitro gas production studies using goat rumen liquor with wheat straw in 40:60 ratio. Proximate composition, fiber fractionation and calcium and phosphrous content of walnut cake were estimated. Result: The per cent IVDMD value of T1 and T2 diets was 68.42 ± 1.20 and 67.25 ± 1.37 respectively which was found highest (P<0.05) T3, T4, T5 and T6. Similar trend was also found for TDOM and MBP. Inclusion of walnut cake at 10% level in the concentrate mixture does not affect in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), truly degradable organic matter (TDOM, mg/200 mg DM), total gas production, microbial biomass production (MBP) and efficiency of microbial biomass production (EMP). Conclusion: It is concluded that walnut cake incorporation up to 10% level in the iso -nitrogenous concentrate mixture has no any negative effect on in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DM), TDOM, MBP, EMP and total gas production in goat. PMID:27047013

  5. Effects of a controlled freeze-thaw event on dissolved and colloidal soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Ah; Lee, Ha Kyung; Choi, Jung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the freezing and thawing that accompany the warming process on the composition of the soil organic matter in the dissolved and colloidal fractions. Temperate soil samples were incubated in a refrigerator at 2 °C for 4 weeks and compared with those frozen at -20 °C in the second week followed by thawing at 2 °C to study a freeze-thaw effect with minimal effect from the thawing temperature. The freeze-thaw group was compared with those incubated at 25 °C in the last week to investigate a warming effect after thawing. Thawing at 2 °C after freezing at -20 °C increased the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), but decreased colloidal Ca. The subsequent warming condition greatly increased both DOC and colloidal Ca. The colloidal organic carbon (COC) and dissolved Ca showed rather subtle changes in response to the freeze-thaw and warming treatments compared to the changes in DOC and colloidal Ca. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) and Fourier transformation-infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) results showed that the freeze-thaw and warming treatments gave the opposite effects on the compositions of dissolved humic-like substances, polysaccharides or silicates, and aliphatic alcohols. A principal component analysis (PCA) with the DOC, fluorescence EEM, and FT-IR spectra produced two principal components that successfully distinguished the effects of the freeze-thaw and warming treatments. Due to the contrasting effects of the freeze-thaw and warming treatments, the overall effects of freeze-thaw events in nature on the dissolved and colloidal soil organic matter could vary depending on the thawing temperature.

  6. Field monitoring of mechanically stabilized earth walls to investigate secondary reinforcement effects.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-12-01

    Mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls have been commonly used in highway construction. AASHTO (2007) has : detailed design procedures for such a wall system. In the current AASHTO design, only primary reinforcements are used in : relatively large...

  7. Titan is to Earth's Hydrological Cycle what Venus is to its Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2012-06-01

    Titan serves as an extreme extrapolation of Earth's possible present trend toward more violent rainstorms interspersed by long droughts, much as Venus has acted as a bogeyman to illustrate the perils of enhanced greenhouse warming.

  8. Field monitoring of mechanically stabilized earth walls to investigate secondary reinforcement effects : [technical summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-12-01

    Mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls have been commonly used in highway : construction. AASHTO (2007) has detailed design procedures for such a wall system. : In the current AASHTO design, only primary reinforcements are used in relatively : lar...

  9. In vitro particulate matter exposure causes direct and lung-mediated indirect effects on cardiomyocyte function.

    PubMed

    Gorr, Matthew W; Youtz, Dane J; Eichenseer, Clayton M; Smith, Korbin E; Nelin, Timothy D; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Wold, Loren E

    2015-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure induces a pathological response from both the lungs and the cardiovascular system. PM is capable of both manifestation into the lung epithelium and entrance into the bloodstream. Therefore, PM has the capacity for both direct and lung-mediated indirect effects on the heart. In the present studies, we exposed isolated rat cardiomyocytes to ultrafine particulate matter (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) and examined their contractile function and calcium handling ability. In another set of experiments, lung epithelial cells (16HBE14o- or Calu-3) were cultured on permeable supports that allowed access to both the basal (serosal) and apical (mucosal) media; the basal media was used to culture cardiomyocytes to model the indirect, lung-mediated effects of PM on the heart. Both the direct and indirect treatments caused a reduction in contractility as evidenced by reduced percent sarcomere shortening and reduced calcium handling ability measured in field-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with various anti-oxidants before culture with DEP was able to partially prevent the contractile dysfunction. The basal media from lung epithelial cells treated with PM contained several inflammatory cytokines, and we found that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was a key trigger for cardiomyocyte dysfunction. These results indicate the presence of both direct and indirect effects of PM on cardiomyocyte function in vitro. Future work will focus on elucidating the mechanisms involved in these separate pathways using in vivo models of air pollution exposure. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Confronting effective models for deconfinement in dense quark matter with lattice data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Brauner, Tomáš; Naylor, William R.

    2015-12-01

    Ab initio numerical simulations of the thermodynamics of dense quark matter remain a challenge. Apart from the infamous sign problem, lattice methods have to deal with finite volume and discretization effects as well as with the necessity to introduce sources for symmetry-breaking order parameters. We study these artifacts in the Polyakov-loop-extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model and compare its predictions to existing lattice data for cold and dense two-color matter with two flavors of Wilson quarks. To achieve even qualitative agreement with lattice data requires the introduction of two novel elements in the model: (i) explicit chiral symmetry breaking in the effective contact four-fermion interaction, referred to as the chiral twist, and (ii) renormalization of the Polyakov loop. The feedback of the dense medium to the gauge sector is modeled by a chemical-potential-dependent scale in the Polyakov-loop potential. In contrast to previously used analytical Ansätze, we determine its dependence on the chemical potential from lattice data for the expectation value of the Polyakov loop. Finally, we propose adding a two-derivative operator to our effective model. This term acts as an additional source of explicit chiral symmetry breaking, mimicking an analogous term in the lattice Wilson action.

  11. [The effection of white matter abnormality to auditory and speech rehabilitation after cochlear implantation in prelingual deafness children].

    PubMed

    Zhang, X Y; Liang, M J; Liu, J H; Li, X H; Zhen, Y Q; Weng, Y L

    2017-04-20

    Objective: To investigatethe effection of white matter abnormality to auditory and speech rehabilitation after cochlear implantation in prelingual deafness children. Method: Thirty-five children with white matter abnormality were included in this study. The degree of leukoaraiosis was evaluated by Scheltens scale based on MRI.The hearing and speechrecovery level was rated by auditory behavior grading standards(CAP) and speech intelligibility grading standards(SIR) at 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months post operation. Result: The CAP scores and SIR scores of the children with white matter abnormality were lower than those of the control group at 6 months after operation ( P <0.05).The SIR scores of the children with white matter abnormality at 12 months and 24 months post operation were significantly lower than those of the control group.There was no statistically significant difference between the CAP scores of the two groups at 12 and 24 months after operation( P >0.05).Schelten classification had a greater impact on SIR scores than on CAP scores. Conclusion: The effect of white matter abnormality on auditory and speech rehabilitation after cochlear implantation was related to the degree of leukoencephalopathy. When the lesion of white matter abnormality was larger, the level of hearing and verbal rehabilitation was lower, and the speech rehabilitation was more significantly impacted by white matter lesions degree. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  12. Effect of the Earth's inner structure on the gravity in definitions of height systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenzer, Robert; Foroughi, Ismael; Pitoňák, Martin; Šprlák, Michal

    2017-04-01

    In context of the vertical datum unification, the geoid-to-quasi-geoid separation has been of significant interest in recent years, because most of existing local vertical datums are realized in the system of either normal or orthometric heights. Nevertheless, the normal-orthometric heights are still used in many other countries where the normal gravity values along leveling lines were adopted instead of the observed gravity. Whereas the conversion between the orthometric and normal heights is defined by means of the mean gravity disturbances (i.e. differences between the mean values of the actual and normal gravity) along the plumbline within the topography, differences between the normal and normal-orthometric heights can be described by means of the surface gravity disturbances. Since the normal gravity field does not reflect the topographic masses and actual mass density distribution inside the Earth, the definition of gravity represents a principal aspect for a realization of particular vertical datum. To address this issue in this study, we investigate effects of the Earth's inner density structure on the surface and mean gravity disturbances, and discuss their impact on the vertical datum realization. These two gravity field quantities are computed globally with a spectral resolution complete to a spherical harmonic degree 2160 using the global gravity, terrain, ice-thickness, inland bathymetry and crustal structure models. Our results reveal that both, the surface and mean gravity disturbances mostly comprise the gravitational signal of topography and masses distributed below the geoid surface. Moreover, in polar areas, a significant contribution comes from large glaciers. In contrast, the contributions of anomalous density distribution within the topography attributed to major lakes, sediments and bedrock density variations are much less pronounced. We also demonstrate that the mean gravity disturbances within the topography are significantly modified

  13. Effect of Aerosol Variation on Radiance in the Earth's Atmosphere-Ocean System.

    PubMed

    Plass, G N; Kattawar, G W

    1972-07-01

    The reflected and transmitted radiance is calculated for a realistic model of the atmosphere-ocean system. Multiple scattering to all orders as well as anisotropic scattering from aerosols are taken into account by a Monte Carlo technique. The probability for reflection or refraction at the ocean surface is calculated for each photon. Scattering and absorption by water molecules (Rayleigh) and by hydrosols (Mie) are taken into account within the ocean. The radiance is calculated for a normal aerosol distribution as well as for a three and ten times normal distribution. Calculations are also made for an aerosol layer near the earth as well as for one in the stratosphere. The upward radiance at the top of the atmosphere depends strongly on the total number of aerosols but not on their spatial distribution. Variations in the ozone amount also have little effect on the upward radiance. The calculations are made at the following wavelengths: 0.7 micro, 0.9 micro, 1.67 micro. The radiance above and below the ocean surface as well as the flux at various levels are also discussed.

  14. A mathematical characterization of vegetation effect on microwave remote sensing from the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choe, Y.; Tsang, L.

    1983-01-01

    In passive microwave remote sensing of the earth, a theoretical model that utilizes the radiative transfer equations was developed to account for the volume scattering effects of the vegetation canopy. Vegetation canopies such as alfalfa, sorghum, and corn are simulated by a layer of ellipsoidal scatterers and cylindrical structures. The ellipsoidal scatterers represent the leaves of vegetation and are randomly positioned and oriented. The orientation of ellipsoids is characterized by a probability density function of Eulerian angles of rotation. The cylindrical structures represent the stalks of vegetation and their radii are assumed to be much smaller than their lengths. The underlying soil is represented by a half-space medium with a homogeneous permittivity and uniform temperature profile. The radiative transfer quations are solved by a numerical method using a Gaussian quadrature formula to compute both the vertical and horizontal polarized brightness temperature as a function of observation angle. The theory was applied to the interpretation of experimental data obtained from sorghum covered fields near College Station, Texas.

  15. Solar Effects of Low-Earth Orbit objects in ORDEM 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P.; Kelley, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Variances in atmospheric density are directly related to the variances in solar flux intensity between 11- year solar cycles. The Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0) uses a solar flux table as input for calculating orbital lifetime of intact and debris objects in Low-Earth Orbit. Long term projections in solar flux activity developed by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) extend the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Space Environment Center (NOAA/SEC) daily historical flux values with a 5-year projection. For purposes of programmatic scheduling, the Q2 2009 solar flux table was chosen for ORDEM 3.0. Current solar flux activity shows that the current solar cycle has entered a period of lower solar flux intensity than previously forecasted in 2009. This results in a deviation of the true orbital debris environment propagation in ORDEM 3.0. In this paper, we present updated orbital debris populations in LEO using the latest solar flux values. We discuss the effects on recent breakup events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test and the Iridium 33 / Cosmos 2251 accidental collision. Justifications for chosen solar flux tables are discussed.

  16. A study of students' perceptions of the organisation and effectiveness of fieldwork in earth sciences education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Luis; Praia, Joa¨O.; Kempa, Richard

    2003-02-01

    This paper reports the findings of a preliminary evaluation of an in-service training programme designed for practising geology/earth science teachers in Portuguese high schools and intended to enhance the effectiveness of fieldwork activities organised by them for their students. Among the points particularly stressed during the in-service training were that students should be adequately prepared for fieldwork through classroom-based activities prior to the fieldwork itself and that to arrive at the maximum educational benefit for the students, they should be involved in collaborative group-based investigation. The findings, derived from an enquiry among students following their exposure to fieldwork, revealed that in both these aspects teachers failed to put theory into practice, probably as the result of a lack of confidence to implement novel procedures. On the positive side, the students reported that they enjoyed the social interaction with other students that the fieldwork made possible and the opportunity to work independently of the teachers.

  17. Effects of the Large June 1975 Meteoroid Storm on Earth's Ionosphere.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, P; Kuntz, V L; Leme, N M; Piazza, L R; Boas, J W; Brecher, K; Crouchley, J

    1989-11-10

    The June 1975 meteoroid storm detected on the moon by the Apollo seismometers was the largest ever observed. Reexamination of radio data taken at that time showed that the storm also produced pronounced disturbances on Earth, which were recorded as unique phase anomalies on very low frequency (VLF) radio propagation paths in the low terrestrial ionosphere. Persistent effects were observed for the major storm period (20 to 30 June 1975), including reductions in the diurnal phase variation, advances in the nighttime and daytime phase levels, and reductions in the sunset phase delay rate. Large nighttime phase advances, lasting a few hours, were detected on some days at all VLF transmissions, and for the shorter propagation path they were comparable to solar Lyman alpha daytime ionization. Ion production rates attributable to the meteor storm were estimated to be about 0.6 to 3.0 ions per centimeter cubed per second at the E and D regions, respectively. The storm was a sporadic one with a radiant (that is, the point of apparent origin in the sky) located in the Southern Hemisphere, with a right ascension 1 to 2 hours larger than the sun's right ascension.

  18. Snow load effect on earth's rotation and gravitational field, 1979-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. Fong; O'Connor, William P.; Chang, Alfred T. C.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.

    1987-01-01

    A global, monthly snow depth data set has been generated from the Nimbus 7 satellite observations using passive microwave remote-sensing techniques. Seven years of data, 1979-1985, are analyzed to compute the snow load effects on the earth's rotation and low-degree zonal gravitational field. The resultant time series show dominant seasonal cycles. The annual peak-to-peak variation in J2 is found to be 2.3 x 10 to the -10th, that in J3 to be 1.1 x 10 to the -10th, and believed to decrease rapidly for higher degrees. The corresponding change in the length of day is 41 micro-s. The annual wobble excitation is (4.9 marc sec, -109 deg) for the prograde motion component and (4.8 marc sec, -28 deg) for the retrograde motion component. The excitation power of the Chandler wobble due to the snow load is estimated to be about 25 dB less than the power needed to maintain the observed Chandler wobble.

  19. Mixed alkali effect on the spectroscopic properties of alkali-alkaline earth oxide borate glasses

    SciT

    Srinivas, G., E-mail: srinu123g@gmail.com; Ramesh, B.; Shareefuddin, Md.

    2016-05-06

    The mixed alkali and alkaline earth oxide borate glass with the composition xK{sub 2}O - (25-x) Li{sub 2}O-12.5BaO-12.5MgO-50B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25mol %) and doped with 1mol% CuO were prepared by the melt quenching technique. From the optical absorption spectra the optical band gap, electronic polarizability(α{sub 0}2-), interaction parameter (A), theoretical and experimental optical basicity (Λ) values were evaluated. From the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectral data the number of spins (N) and susceptibility (χ) were evaluated. The values of (α{sub 0}2-), and (Λ) increases with increasing of K{sub 2}O content and electronicmore » polarizability and interaction parameter show opposite behaviuor which may be due to the creation of non-bridging oxygens and expansion of borate network. The reciprocal of susceptibility (1/χ) and spin concentration (N) as a function of K{sub 2}O content, varied nonlinearly which may be due to creation of non-bridging oxygens in the present glass system. This may be attributed to mixed alkali effect (MAE).« less

  20. Open top culverts as an alternative drainage system to minimize ecological effects in earth roads.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Jose L.; Elorrieta, Jose; Robredo, Jose C.; García, Ricardo; García, Fernando; Gimenez, Martin C.

    2013-04-01

    During the last fifteen years a research team from School of Forestry at the Technical University of Madrid (Spain) has developed several competitive research projects regarding forest roads and open top culverts. A first approach was established with a prototype of 7 meters length in a hydraulic channel at the laboratory determining main parameters of different open top culverts in relation to different sizes of gravels and the self washing properties relationship with different slopes up to 8 %. The curves obtained may help to properly install these drainage systems avoiding maintenance costs. In addition more targeted pilot studies were developed in different forest earth roads in center and north Spain. The construction of the stations under study was financed by the U.P.M and the R&D National Plan. The main outcomes relates the low variation of humidity in a 20 m. wide range at both sides of the open top culverts and several considerations relating the angle of installation, the spacing of such drainage systems and the benefits against rilling along the roads. Also the erosion produced downhill was established and some construction methods to avoid adverse ecological effects. The diffusion of results includes congresses and a small booklet with a great acceptance in forestry services. Also a patent (ES 2 262 437) of an advanced model has been registered.

  1. Effect of low doses of dietary rare earth elements on growth performance of broilers.

    PubMed

    He, M L; Wehr, U; Rambeck, W A

    2010-02-01

    The present study was designed to investigate effect of dietary rare earth elements (REE), including both organic and inorganic compounds, on growth performance of broilers. In experiment 1, a total of 180 male Ross broiler chicks were allocated to 72 pens with different assignment: four chicks per pen or individually. The following three treatment diets were applied: control, REE-chlorides at a dose of 40 mg/kg and REE-citrate at a dose of 70 mg/kg. Each treatment group had 24 pens containing both assignments (12 pens each). In experiment 2, a total of 72 male 3-day-old Ross broiler chicks were separated to four groups: control, REE-chlorides at a dose of 70 mg/kg and REE-citrate at doses of 70 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. In experiment 1, dietary REE-citrate improved body weight gain during the overall period by 5.0% (p < 0.05) while the increase with REE-chloride was not significant. In experiment 2, growth effects (p < 0.05) were only found in the period from day 21 to slaughter with all REE forms, and feed conversion ratio was improved by 3.4% (p < 0.05) with REE-citrate. No significant effects of REE were found on chill weight, percentages of breast meat, thigh weight, drumstick weight and wing weight. Concentrations of La and Ce in the liver and muscles were very low, accounting for 0.11-0.76 and 0.02-0.30 mg/kg respectively. There was weak tendency for a dose-response relationship especially in the groups supplemented with REE-chlorides. The main blood serum biochemical parameters were not significantly affected by REE in the diets. The results suggest that dietary supplementation of low doses of REE-citrates might improve growth performance of broilers without affecting carcass composition and health of the broilers.

  2. Effectiveness of two contrasting mulching rates to reduce post-fire soil and organic matter losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Flavio; Prats, Sergio; Vieira, Diana; Puga, João; Lopes, Rita; Gonzaléz-Pelayo, Oscar; Caetano, Ana; Campos, Isabel; Keizer, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Wildfire-affected soils can reveal strong responses in runoff generation and associated soil (fertility) losses, thereby constituting a major threat to the typically shallow and poor forest soils of the Portuguese mountain areas. Mulching with logging residues from these forests has proven to provide a protective soil cover that is highly effective in reducing post-fire runoff and especially erosion (Prats et al., 2012, 2014, 2016a, 2016b). However, these past experiments have all applied comparatively large amounts of forest residues, in the order of 10 Mg ha-1, so that the relationship between application rate and effectiveness is still poorly known. Such relationship would nonetheless be of crucial importance for the employment of forest residue mulching in practice, as one of the possible emergency stabilization measures to be contemplated in post-fire land management of a recently-burned area. Further research gaps that exist in relation to post-fire forest residue mulching include its effectiveness in reducing soil fertility losses (C, N, P; Ferreira et al., 2016a, 2016b) and in minimizing export of contaminants (especially PAHs and metals; Campos et al., 2016), and its (secondary) impacts on soil biological activity and diversity (Puga et al., 2016) and on forest productivity (including through the addition of organic matter to the soil surface, partially replacing the burned litter layer; Prats et al. 2016b). In the framework of the EU-project RECARE, the effectiveness of two contrasting mulching rates with forest logging residues has been tested following a wildfire that on August 9th - 10th 2015 consumed some 715 ha of eucalypt plantations in the Semide municipality, central Portugal. Commercially-available logging residues (chopped bark and twigs) from eucalypt plantations were purchased, transported to the study site and applied to six out of nine 16 m2 erosion bounded plots that had been installed in a burned eucalypt plantation using a randomized

  3. Effect of algal flocculation on dissolved organic matters using cationic starch modified soils.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenqing; Bi, Lei; Pan, Gang

    2016-07-01

    Modified soils (MSs) are being increasingly used as geo-engineering materials for the sedimentation removal of cyanobacterial blooms. Cationic starch (CS) has been tested as an effective soil modifier, but little is known about its potential impacts on the treated water. This study investigated dissolved organic matters in the bloom water after algal removal using cationic starch modified soils (CS-MSs). Results showed that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) could be decreased by CS-MS flocculation and the use of higher charge density CS yielded a greater DOC reduction. When CS with the charge density of 0.052, 0.102 and 0.293meq/g were used, DOC was decreased from 3.4 to 3.0, 2.3 and 1.7mg/L, respectively. The excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and UV254 analysis indicated that CS-MS exhibits an ability to remove some soluble organics, which contributed to the DOC reduction. However, the use of low charge density CS posed a potential risk of DOC increase due to the high CS loading for effective algal removal. When CS with the charge density of 0.044meq/g was used, DOC was increased from 3.4 to 3.9mg/L. This study suggested, when CS-MS is used for cyanobacterial bloom removal, the content of dissolved organic matters in the treated water can be controlled by optimizing the charge density of CS. For the settled organic matters, other measures (e.g., capping treatments using oxygen loaded materials) should be jointly applied after algal flocculation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Spectral band selection for classification of soil organic matter content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Tracey L.; Szilagyi, Andrea; Baumgardner, Marion F.; Chen, Chih-Chien Thomas; Landgrebe, David A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the spectral-band-selection (SBS) algorithm of Chen and Landgrebe (1987, 1988, and 1989) and uses the algorithm to classify the organic matter content in the earth's surface soil. The effectiveness of the algorithm was evaluated comparing the results of classification of the soil organic matter using SBS bands with those obtained using Landsat MSS bands and TM bands, showing that the algorithm was successful in finding important spectral bands for classification of organic matter content. Using the calculated bands, the probabilities of correct classification for climate-stratified data were found to range from 0.910 to 0.980.

  5. Neutron matter at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order in chiral effective field theory.

    PubMed

    Tews, I; Krüger, T; Hebeler, K; Schwenk, A

    2013-01-18

    Neutron matter presents a unique system for chiral effective field theory because all many-body forces among neutrons are predicted to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N(3)LO). We present the first complete N(3)LO calculation of the neutron matter energy. This includes the subleading three-nucleon forces for the first time and all leading four-nucleon forces. We find relatively large contributions from N(3)LO three-nucleon forces. Our results provide constraints for neutron-rich matter in astrophysics with controlled theoretical uncertainties.

  6. Distinctive effects of allochthonous and autochthonous organic matter on CDOM spectra in a tropical lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Mello Brandão, Luciana; Silva Brighenti, Ludmila; Staehr, Peter Anton; Asmala, Eero; Massicotte, Philippe; Tonetta, Denise; Antônio Rodrigues Barbosa, Francisco; Pujoni, Diego; Fernandes Bezerra-Neto, José

    2018-05-01

    Despite the increasing understanding about differences in carbon cycling between temperate and tropical freshwater systems, our knowledge on the importance of organic matter (OM) pools on light absorption properties in tropical lakes is very scarce. We performed a factorial mesocosm experiment in a tropical lake (Minas Gerais, Brazil) to evaluate the effects of increased concentrations of allochthonous and autochthonous OM, and differences in light availability on the light absorption characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Autochthonous OM deriving from phytoplankton ( ˜ Chl a) was stimulated by addition of nutrients, while OM from degradation of terrestrial leaves increased allochthonous OM, and neutral shading was used to manipulate light availability. Effects of the additions and shading on DOC, Chl a, nutrients, total suspended solid concentrations (TSM) and spectral CDOM absorption were monitored every 3 days. CDOM quality was characterized by spectral indices (S250-450, S275-295, S350-450, SR and SUVA254). Effects of carbon sources and shading on the spectral CDOM absorption was investigated through principal component (PCA) and redundancy (RDA) analyses. The two different OM sources affected CDOM quality very differently and shading had minor effects on OM levels, but significant effects on OM quality, especially in combination with nutrient additions. Spectral indices (S250-450 and SR) were mostly affected by allochthonous OM addition. The PCA showed that enrichment by allochthonous carbon had a strong effect on the CDOM spectra in the range between 300 and 400 nm, while the increase in autochthonous carbon increased absorption at wavelengths below 350 nm. Our study shows that small inputs of allochthonous OM can have large effects on the spectral light absorption compared to large production of autochthonous OM, with important implications for carbon cycling in tropical lakes.

  7. Assessment of the effect of three-dimensional mantle density heterogeneity on earth rotation in tidal frequencies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lanbo; Chao, Benjamin F; Sun, Wenke; Kuang, Weijia

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we report the assessment of the effect of the three-dimensional (3D) density heterogeneity in the mantle on Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) (i.e., the polar motion, or PM, and the length of day, or LOD) in the tidal frequencies. The 3D mantle density model is estimated based upon a global S-wave velocity tomography model (S16U6L8) and the mineralogical knowledge derived from laboratory experiment. The lateral density variation is referenced against the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). Using this approach the effects of the heterogeneous mantle density variation in all three tidal frequencies (zonal long periods, tesseral diurnal, and sectorial semidiurnal) are estimated in both PM and LOD. When compared with mass or density perturbations originated on the earth's surface such as the oceanic and barometric changes, the heterogeneous mantle only contributes less than 10% of the total variation in PM and LOD in tidal frequencies. Nevertheless, including the 3D variation of the density in the mantle into account explained a substantial portion of the discrepancy between the observed signals in PM and LOD extracted from the lump-sum values based on continuous space geodetic measurement campaigns (e.g., CONT94) and the computed contribution from ocean tides as predicted by tide models derived from satellite altimetry observations (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon). In other word, the difference of the two, at all tidal frequencies (long-periods, diurnals, and semi-diurnals) contains contributions of the lateral density heterogeneity of the mantle. Study of the effect of mantle density heterogeneity effect on torque-free earth rotation may provide useful constraints to construct the Reference Earth Model (REM), which is the next major objective in global geophysics research beyond PREM.

  8. [Effects of Cunninghamia lanceolata-broadleaved tree species mixed leaf litters on active soil organic matter].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-kui; Wang, Si-long; Yu, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Yan-xin

    2007-06-01

    With incubation test, this paper studied the effects of Cunninghamia lanceolata leaf litter and its mixture with the litters of main broadleaved tree species in subtropical China, such as Alnus cremastogyne, Kalopanax septemlobus and Michelia macclurei on active soil organic matter. The results showed that adding leaf litters into soil could significantly increase soil microbial biomass C and N, respiration rate and dissolved organic C, and mixed leaf litters were more effective than C. lanceolata leaf litter in increasing soil dissolved organic C. By the end of the incubation, the increment of soil microbial biomass C and N, respiration rate, and dissolved organic C in treatments C. lanceolata leaf litter and C. lanceolata-broadleaved tree species mixed leaf litters was 49% and 63%, 35% and 75%, 65% and 100%, and 66% and 108%, respectively, compared with control. The addition of leaf litters had no significant effects on soil microbial quotient and microbial biomass C/N ratio.

  9. Evidence for Changes in 81PIWild 2 Organic Matter Since Collection and Comparison of 82PIWild 2 and IDP Organic Matter to Access the Thermal Effects of Aerogel Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L.; Messenger, Nakamura; Sandford, S. A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Peltzer, C.; Jacobsen, C.

    2009-01-01

    NASA s Stardust spacecraft collected cometary material during its passage through the dust coma of comet 81P/Wild 2 on January 2nd, 2004 and delivered this material to Earth on January 15th 2006. The first fragment we analyzed during the preliminary examination was partially vaporized by the X-ray beam. The carbonaceous material that survived was re-analysis approx.2 months later and the carbon spectrum for this material had significantly changed from what we first observed.. We have observed similar changes to the carbonaceous matter in some interplanetary dust particles ( IDPs). Some of the 81P/Wild 2 organic matter volatilized upon impact with the aerogel as observed using IR spectroscopy where IR spectra were collected several mms away from sample tracks [1]. The time-temperature profile experienced by any particular 81P/Wild 2 grain during aerogel capture is not known, although Brownlee, et al. suggest that fine-grained materials, <1 micron in size, fragmented and then partially vaporized during collection, while particles much larger then 1 micron in size were captured intact [2]. Nearly all organic matter is subject to thermal alteration. To assess the heating and alteration experienced by the 81P/Wild 2 organic matter during capture we are comparing 81P/Wild2 organic matter with IDP organic matter where we have evidence of heating in the IDP [3,4].

  10. Nucleation-dependant chemical bonding paradigm: the effect of rare earth ions on the nucleation of urea in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Sun, Congting; Wu, Sixin; Xue, Dongfeng

    2017-03-29

    Rare earth ions can be used to construct a variety of novel structures and are favorable to chemical bonding regulation and design. In this study, the chemical bonding paradigm between rare earth ions (Ln 3+ ) and urea molecules in an aqueous solution can be tracked by the evolution of C[double bond, length as m-dash]O, NH 2 , and CN vibration bands during the urea nucleation stage. Rare earth ions such as La 3+ , Gd 3+ , and Lu 3+ can manipulate the nucleation time of urea via regulating the nucleation-dependant N-C[double bond, length as m-dash]OH-N hydrogen-bonding between urea molecules. Two types of chemical bondings between Ln 3+ and urea molecules have been confirmed, which are Ln 3+ O[double bond, length as m-dash]C-N and Ln 3+ NH 2 -C. Compared with Ln 3+ NH 2 -C, Ln 3+ prefers to coordinate with the O[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond in urea. With a higher concentration of rare earth ions in the solution, some N-C[double bond, length as m-dash]OH-N hydrogen bonds are broken as a consequence of the incorporation of Ln 3+ into the lattice, resulting in the decreased symmetry of local urea molecules in the crystalline nuclei and the consequent Ln 3+ concentration-dependent nucleation time of urea. Moreover, using the ionic electronegativity scale of Ln 3+ , the different effects of La 3+ , Gd 3+ , and Lu 3+ on urea nucleation can be further distinguished. The present study provides basic data for unrevealing the chemical bonding regulation role of rare earth ions in the formation of hydrogen bonded materials, which may give insight into the design and fabrication of novel materials utilizing rare earth ions to adjust the chemical bonding process.

  11. Earth Observation

    2014-06-01

    ISS040-E-006327 (1 June 2014) --- A portion of International Space Station solar array panels and Earth?s horizon are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the space station.

  12. The effects of rare earth elements on an anaerobic hydrogen producing microorganism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Y.; St Jeor, J. D.; Reed, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid growth of new energy technologies and consumer electronics is leading to increased fluxes of rare earth elements (REE), during the phases of resource extraction, product usage, recycling, and disposal. However, little is known about the impacts of these increased REE fluxes on environmental ecosystems, whether natural or engineered (e.g., biological waste treatment systems). We have been evaluating the effects of europium and yttrium on hydrogen production by an anaerobic fermenting microorganism, Sporacetigenium mesophilum, originally isolated from an anaerobic digester at a wastewater treatment plant.1 Europium and yttrium are important components of phosphors used in fluorescent lighting, and are expected to be recycled in larger quantities in the future. Also tested was the compound tributyl phosphate (TBP), a widely used complexing agent in lanthanide and actinide separations. TBP and related compounds may be used in recycling processes for REE. S. mesophilumcultures were amended with Eu at 100 ppb, 1 ppm and 10 ppm and hydrogen production was measured. While the lowest Eu concentration had minimal effect on hydrogen production compared to the no Eu control, the two higher Eu amendment levels appeared to enhance hydrogen production. TBP at 0.1 g/L completely inhibited hydrogen production. Measurements of aqueous Eu concentrations indicated that >85% of the added Eu remained soluble at all three of the Eu addition levels tested. Experiments to ascertain whether enhancement (or inhibition) occurs at even higher Eu concentrations are underway, as are corresponding experiments with yttrium. This work contributes to the assessment of the potential impacts of increased REE recycling and processing on ecosystems, and supports decision making with respect to disposal of wastewaters generated during these industrial practices. 1Chen, S., Song, L. and X. Dong. Int J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56, 721-725, doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.63686-0 (2006).

  13. The effects of magnetospheric processes on relativistic electron dynamics in the Earth's outer radiation belt

    SciT

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.

    Using the electron phase space density (PSD) data measured by Van Allen Probe A from January 2013 to April 2015, we investigate the effects of magnetospheric processes on relativistic electron dynamics in the Earth's outer radiation belt during 50 geomagnetic storms. A statistical study shows that the maximum electron PSDs for various μ (μ = 630, 1096, 2290, and 3311 MeV/G) at L*~4.0 after the storm peak have good correlations with storm intensity (cc~0.70). This suggests that the occurrence and magnitude of geomagnetic storms are necessary for relativistic electron enhancements at the inner edge of the outer radiation belt (L*more » = 4.0). For moderate or weak storm events (SYM–H min > ~–100 nT) with weak substorm activity (AE max < 800 nT) and strong storm events (SYM–H min ≤ ~–100 nT) with intense substorms (AE max ≥ 800 nT) during the recovery phase, the maximum electron PSDs for various μ at different L* values (L* = 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0) are well correlated with storm intensity (cc > 0.77). For storm events with intense substorms after the storm peak, relativistic electron enhancements at L* = 4.5 and 5.0 are observed. This shows that intense substorms during the storm recovery phase are crucial to relativistic electron enhancements in the heart of the outer radiation belt. In conclusion, our statistics study suggests that magnetospheric processes during geomagnetic storms have a significant effect on relativistic electron dynamics.« less

  14. The effects of magnetospheric processes on relativistic electron dynamics in the Earth's outer radiation belt

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.; ...

    2017-08-11

    Using the electron phase space density (PSD) data measured by Van Allen Probe A from January 2013 to April 2015, we investigate the effects of magnetospheric processes on relativistic electron dynamics in the Earth's outer radiation belt during 50 geomagnetic storms. A statistical study shows that the maximum electron PSDs for various μ (μ = 630, 1096, 2290, and 3311 MeV/G) at L*~4.0 after the storm peak have good correlations with storm intensity (cc~0.70). This suggests that the occurrence and magnitude of geomagnetic storms are necessary for relativistic electron enhancements at the inner edge of the outer radiation belt (L*more » = 4.0). For moderate or weak storm events (SYM–H min > ~–100 nT) with weak substorm activity (AE max < 800 nT) and strong storm events (SYM–H min ≤ ~–100 nT) with intense substorms (AE max ≥ 800 nT) during the recovery phase, the maximum electron PSDs for various μ at different L* values (L* = 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0) are well correlated with storm intensity (cc > 0.77). For storm events with intense substorms after the storm peak, relativistic electron enhancements at L* = 4.5 and 5.0 are observed. This shows that intense substorms during the storm recovery phase are crucial to relativistic electron enhancements in the heart of the outer radiation belt. In conclusion, our statistics study suggests that magnetospheric processes during geomagnetic storms have a significant effect on relativistic electron dynamics.« less

  15. Study of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth spatial resolution effect on particulate matter concentration prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strandgren, J.; Mei, L.; Vountas, M.; Burrows, J. P.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.

    2014-10-01

    The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) spatial resolution effect is investigated for the linear correlation between satellite retrieved AOD and ground level particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5). The Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for obtaining AOD with a high spatial resolution of 1 km and provides a good dataset for the study of the AOD spatial resolution effect on the particulate matter concentration prediction. 946 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground monitoring stations across the contiguous US have been used to investigate the linear correlation between AOD and PM2.5 using AOD at different spatial resolutions (1, 3 and 10 km) and for different spatial scales (urban scale, meso-scale and continental scale). The main conclusions are: (1) for both urban, meso- and continental scale the correlation between PM2.5 and AOD increased significantly with increasing spatial resolution of the AOD, (2) the correlation between AOD and PM2.5 decreased significantly as the scale of study region increased for the eastern part of the US while vice versa for the western part of the US, (3) the correlation between PM2.5 and AOD is much more stable and better over the eastern part of the US compared to western part due to the surface characteristics and atmospheric conditions like the fine mode fraction.

  16. Effects of pore size and dissolved organic matters on diffusion of arsenate in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulong; Wang, Shaofeng; Wang, Xin; Jia, Yongfeng

    2017-02-01

    Presented here is the influence of membrane pore size and dissolved organic matters on the diffusion coefficient (D) of aqueous arsenate, investigated by the diffusion cell method for the first time. The pH-dependent diffusion coefficient of arsenate was determined and compared with values from previous studies; the coefficient was found to decrease with increasing pH, showing the validity of our novel diffusion cell method. The D value increased dramatically as a function of membrane pore size at small pore sizes, and then increased slowly at pore sizes larger than 2.0μm. Using the ExpAssoc model, the maximum D value was determined to be 11.2565×10 -6 cm 2 /sec. The presence of dissolved organic matters led to a dramatic increase of the D of arsenate, which could be attributed to electrostatic effects and ionic effects of salts. These results improve the understanding of the diffusion behavior of arsenate, especially the important role of various environmental parameters in the study and prediction of the migration of arsenate in aquatic water systems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Temperature modifies the health effects of particulate matter in Brisbane, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Cizao; Tong, Shilu

    2006-11-01

    A few epidemiological studies have examined whether there was an interactive effect between temperature and ambient particulate matter on cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality, but the results were inconsistent. The present study used three time-series approaches to explore whether maximum temperature modified the impact of ambient particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10) on daily respiratory hospital admissions, cardiovascular hospital admissions, respiratory emergency visits, cardiovascular emergency visits, non-external cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in Brisbane between 1996 and 2001. The analytical approaches included a bivariate response surface model, a non-stratification parametric model and a stratification parametric model. Results show that there existed a statistically significant interaction between PM10 and temperature on most health outcomes at various lags. PM10 exhibited more adverse health effects on warm days than cold days. The choice of the degree of freedom for smoothers to adjust for confounders and the selection of arbitrary cut-offs for temperature affected the interaction estimates to a certain extent, but did not change the overall conclusion. The results imply that it is important to control and reduce the emission of air particles in Brisbane, particularly when temperature increases.

  18. Null Environmental Effects of the Cosmic Web on Dark Matter Halo Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Tze; Primack, Joel; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel; Hellinger, Doug; Rodriguez-Puebla, Aldo; Lee, Christoph; Eckleholm, Elliot; Johnston, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    We study the effects of the cosmic web environment (filaments, voids and walls) and environmental density on key properties of dark matter halos at redshift z = 0 using the Bolshoi-Planck ΛCDM. The z=0 Bolshoi-Planck simulation is analysed into filaments, voids and walls using the SpineWeb method, as well as VIDE method, both of which use Voronoi tessellation and the watershed transform. The key halo properties that we study are the mass accretion rate, spin parameter, concentration, prolateness, scale factor of the last major merger, and scale factor when the halo had half of its z=0 mass. For all these properties, we find that there is no discernible difference between the halo properties in filaments, walls or voids when compared at the same environmental density. As a result, we conclude that environmental density is the core attribute that affects these properties. This conclusion is in line with recent findings that properties of galaxies in redshift surveys are independent of their cosmic web environment at the same environmental density. We also find that the local web environment of the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxy near the centre of a cosmic wall does not appear to have any effect on the key properties of these galaxies' dark matter halos, although we find that it is rather rare to have such massive halos near the centre of a relatively small cosmic wall.

  19. Effect of Rare Earth Ions on the Properties of Composites Composed of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer and Layered Double Hydroxides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Li, Bin; Zhao, Xiaohong; Chen, Chunxia; Cao, Jingjing

    2012-01-01

    Background The study on the rare earth (RE)-doped layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has received considerable attention due to their potential applications in catalysts. However, the use of RE-doped LDHs as polymer halogen-free flame retardants was seldom investigated. Furthermore, the effect of rare earth elements on the hydrophobicity of LDHs materials and the compatibility of LDHs/polymer composite has seldom been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings The stearate sodium surface modified Ni-containing LDHs and RE-doped Ni-containing LDHs were rapidly synthesized by a coprecipitation method coupled with the microwave hydrothermal treatment. The influences of trace amounts of rare earth ions La, Ce and Nd on the amount of water molecules, the crystallinity, the morphology, the hydrophobicity of modified Ni-containing LDHs and the adsorption of modifier in the surface of LDHs were investigated by TGA, XRD, TEM, contact angle and IR, respectively. Moreover, the effects of the rare earth ions on the interfacial compatibility, the flame retardancy and the mechanical properties of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA)/LDHs composites were also explored in detail. Conclusions/Significance S-Ni0.1MgAl-La displayed more uniform dispersion and better interfacial compatibility in EVA matrix compared with other LDHs. Furthermore, the S-Ni0.1MgAl-La/EVA composite showed the best fire retardancy and mechanical properties in all composites. PMID:22693627

  20. Cost-effective and robust mitigation of space debris in low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R.; Martin, C.

    It is predicted that the space debris population in low Earth orbit (LEO) will continue to grow and in an exponential manner in the long-term due to an increasing rate of collisions between large objects, unless internationally-accepted space debris mitigation measures are adopted soon. Such measures are aimed at avoiding the future generation of space debris objects and primarily need to be effective in preventing significant long-term growth in the debris population, even in the potential scenario of an increase in future space activity. It is also important that mitigation measures can limit future debris population levels, and therefore the underlying collision risk to space missions, to the lowest extent possible. However, for their wide acceptance, the cost of implementation associated with mitigation measures needs to be minimised as far as possible. Generally, a lower collision risk will cost more to achieve and vice versa, so it is necessary to strike a balance between cost and risk in order to find a cost-effective set of mitigation measures. In this paper, clear criteria are established in order to assess the cost-effectiveness of space debris mitigation measures. A full cost-risk-benefit trade-off analysis of numerous mitigation scenarios is presented. These scenarios consider explosion prevention and post-mission disposal of space systems, including de-orbiting to limited lifetime orbits and re-orbiting above the LEO region. The ESA DELTA model is used to provide long-term debris environment projections for these scenarios as input to the benefit and risk parts of the trade-off analysis. Manoeuvre requirements for the different post-mission disposal scenarios were also calculated in order to define the cost-related element. A 25-year post-mission lifetime de-orbit policy, combined with explosion prevention and mission-related object limitation, was found to be the most cost-effective solution to the space debris problem in LEO. This package would also

  1. Earth's gravity gradient and eddy currents effects on the rotational dynamics of space debris objects: Envisat case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Natalia Ortiz; Walker, Scott J. I.

    2015-08-01

    The space debris population has grown rapidly over the last few decades with the consequent growth of impact risk between current objects in orbit. Active Debris Removal (ADR) has been recommended to be put into practice by several National Agencies in order to remove objects that pose the biggest risk for the space community. The most immediate target that is being considered for ADR by the European Space Agency is the Earth-observing satellite Envisat. In order to safely remove such a massive object from its orbit, a capturing process followed by a controlled reentry is necessary. However, current ADR methods that require physical contact with the target have limitations on the maximum angular momentum that can be absorbed and a de-tumbling phase prior to the capturing process may be required. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for the ADR mission design to be able to predict accurately how the target will be rotating at the time of capture. This article analyses two perturbations that affect an object in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), the Earth's gravity gradient and the eddy currents induced by the Earth's magnetic field. The gravity gradient is analysed using the equation of conservation of total energy and a graphical method is presented to understand the expected behaviour of any object under the effect of this perturbation. The eddy currents are also analysed by studying the total energy of the system. The induced torque and the characteristic time of decay are presented as a function of the object's magnetic tensor. In addition, simulations were carried out for the Envisat spacecraft including the gravity gradient perturbation as well as the eddy currents effect using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field IGRF-11 to model the Earth's magnetic field. These simulations show that the combined effect of these two perturbations is a plausible explanation for the rotational speed decay observed between April 2013 and September 2013.

  2. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates the effect of loneliness on white matter microstructure in young adults.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jie; Hao, Lei; Wei, Dongtao; Sun, Jiangzhou; Li, Yu; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Loneliness is a common experience. Susceptibility to loneliness is a stable trait and is heritable. Previous studies have suggested that loneliness may impact regional gray matter density and brain activation to social stimuli, but its relation to white matter structure and how it may interact with genetic factors remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether and how a common polymorphism (Val66Met) in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene modulated the association between loneliness and white matter microstructure in 162 young adults. The tract-based spatial statistics analyses revealed that the relationships between loneliness and white matter microstructures were significantly different between Val/Met heterozygotes and Val/Val homozygotes. Specifically, loneliness was significantly correlated with reduced fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity in widespread white matter fibers within Val/Met heterozygotes. It was also significantly correlated with increased radial diffusivity in Met/Met genotypes but showed no significant association with white matter measures in Val/Val genotypes. Furthermore, the associations between loneliness and fractional anisotropy (or radial diffusivity) in Val/Met heterozygotes turned out to be global effects. These results provide evidence that loneliness may interact with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism to shape the microstructures of white matter, and the Val/Met heterozygotes may be more susceptible to social environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of a seasonal diffuse pollution migration on natural organic matter behavior in a stratified dam reservoir.

    PubMed

    Yu, Soon Ju; Lee, Jae Yil; Ha, Sung Ryong

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to describe the influence of diffuse pollution on the temporal and spatial characteristics of natural organic matter (NOM) in a stratified dam reservoir, the Daecheong Dam, on the basis of intensive observation results and the dynamic water quality simulation using CE-QUAL-W2. Turbidity is regarded as a comprehensive representation of allochothonous organic matter from diffuse sources in storm season because the turbidity concentration showed reasonable significance in a statistical correlation with the UV absorbance at 254 nm and total phosphorus. CE-QUAL-W2 simulation results showed good consistency with the observed data in terms of dissolved organic matter (DOM) including refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC) and labile DOC and also well explained the internal movement of constituents and stratification phenomenon in the reservoir. Instead turbidity and NOM were related well in the upper region of the reservoir according to flow distance, gradually as changing to dissolved form of organic matter, RDOM affected organic matter concentration of reservoir water quality compared to turbidity. To control the increase of soluble organic matters in the dam reservoir, appropriate dam water discharge gate operation provided effective measurement. Because of the gate operation let avoid the accumulation of organic matter within a dam reservoir by shorten of turbid regime retention time.

  4. Organic matter from the Bunte Breccia of the Ries Crater, southern Germany: investigating possible thermal effects of the impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, P.; Leythaeuser, D.; Schwark, L.

    2001-07-01

    In order to determine thermal effects of the Ries impact, southern Germany, on organic matter in its ejecta blanket, the maturity of organic matter of Posidonia Shale components from the Bunte Breccia at Harburg and Gundelsheim is compared with the maturity of organic matter of a reference section of Posidonia Shale outside the impact site at Hesselberg. Three black shale samples from the Bunte Breccia were identified as corresponding to the organic matter-rich Posidonia Shale based on the molecular composition of extractable organic matter. They show n-alkane patterns with a maximum of n-C 17, a predominance of odd over even n-alkanes in the range from n-C 26 to n-C 35, a dominance of unsaturated sterenes over steranes and monoaromatic over triaromatic steroids, and contain isorenieratene. The maturity of the organic matter from the Bunte Breccia samples corresponds to 0.32-0.35% random vitrinite reflectance ( Rr) and a spectral red/green quotient ( Q) of 0.32-0.34. The organic matter from the Bunte Breccia is more mature than the Posidonia Shale sample from the reference site Hesselberg (0.25% Rr; 0.21 for Q). The thermal overprint is presumed to be too high to be explained by differences in the burial history prior to the impact alone and is, therefore, attributed to processes related to the displacement of the Bunte Breccia.

  5. Effect of biochar amendment on compost organic matter composition following aerobic composting of manure.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Nikolas; Subdiaga, Edisson; Orsetti, Silvia; de la Rosa, José María; Knicker, Heike; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    Biochar, a material defined as charred organic matter applied in agriculture, is suggested as a beneficial additive and bulking agent in composting. Biochar addition to the composting feedstock was shown to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching during the composting process, and to result in a fertilizer and plant growth medium that is superior to non-amended composts. However, the impact of biochar on the quality and carbon speciation of the organic matter in bulk compost has so far not been the focus of systematic analyses, although these parameters are key to determine the long-term stability and carbon sequestration potential of biochar-amended composts in soil. In this study, we used different spectroscopic techniques to compare the organic carbon speciation of manure compost amended with three different biochars. A non-biochar-amended compost served as control. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy we did not observe any differences in carbon speciation of the bulk compost independent of biochar type, despite a change in the FTIR absorbance ratio 2925cm -1 /1034cm -1 , that is suggested as an indicator for compost maturity. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) and emission-excitation matrixes (EEM) revealed minor differences in the extractable carbon fractions, which only accounted for ~2-3% of total organic carbon. Increased total organic carbon content of biochar-amended composts was only due to the addition of biochar-C and not enhanced preservation of compost feedstock-C. Our results suggest that biochars do not alter the carbon speciation in compost organic matter under conditions optimized for aerobic decomposition of compost feedstock. Considering the effects of biochar on compost nutrient retention, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration, biochar addition during aerobic composting of manure might be an attractive strategy to produce a sustainable, slow

  6. Effects of Enhanced Thaw Depth on the Composition of Arctic Soil Organic Matter Leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, J.; Zhang, X.; Bianchi, T. S.; Schuur, E.; Arellano, A. R.; Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Pan-Arctic permafrost is increasingly susceptible to thaw due to the disproportionally high rate of temperature change in high latitudes. These soils contain a globally significant quantity of organic carbon that, when thawed, interacts with the modern carbon cycle. Current research has focused on atmospheric carbon fluxes and transport by rivers and streams to continental shelves, but has overlooked the lateral flux of carbon within watershed soils, which is the primary link between terrestrial and riverine ecosystems. Understanding the effects of water movement through permafrost soils on dissolved organic carbon is critical to better modelling of lateral carbon fluxes and interpreting the resulting observed riverine carbon fluxes with applications to investigations of the past, present, and future of the pan-Arctic. We conducted a laboratory leaching experiment using active layer soils from the Eight Mile Lake region of interior Alaska. Cores were sampled into surface and deep sections. Surface sections were subjected to a three-stage leaching process using artificial rain, with cores stored frozen overnight between stages (which crudely simulated freeze-thaw mechanisms). Surface leachates were sampled for analysis and the remainder percolated through deep soils using the same three-staged approach. Measurements of surface and deep leachates were selected to characterize transport-related changes to dissolved organic matter and included dissolved organic carbon, fluorescent dissolved organic matter via excitation emission matrices, and molecular composition via Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Primary findings from the experiment include a net retention of 2.4 to 27% of dissolved organic carbon from surface leachates in deep soils, a net release of fluorescent dissolved organic matter from deep soils that was 43 to 106% greater than surface leachates, increased hydrophobicity during stage three of leaching, and the preferential

  7. The one-loop matter bispectrum in the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures

    DOE PAGES

    Angulo, Raul E.; Foreman, Simon; Schmittfull, Marcel; ...

    2015-10-14

    With this study, given the importance of future large scale structure surveys for delivering new cosmological information, it is crucial to reliably predict their observables. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS) provides a manifestly convergent perturbative scheme to compute the clustering of dark matter in the weakly nonlinear regime in an expansion in k/k NL, where k is the wavenumber of interest and k NL is the wavenumber associated to the nonlinear scale. It has been recently shown that the EFTofLSS matches to 1% level the dark matter power spectrum at redshift zero up to k ≃more » 0.3 h Mpc –1 and k ≃ 0.6 h Mpc –1 at one and two loops respectively, using only one counterterm that is fit to data. Similar results have been obtained for the momentum power spectrum at one loop. This is a remarkable improvement with respect to former analytical techniques. Here we study the prediction for the equal-time dark matter bispectrum at one loop. We find that at this order it is sufficient to consider the same counterterm that was measured in the power spectrum. Without any remaining free parameter, and in a cosmology for which kNL is smaller than in the previously considered cases (σ 8=0.9), we find that the prediction from the EFTofLSS agrees very well with N-body simulations up to k ≃ 0.25 h Mpc –1, given the accuracy of the measurements, which is of order a few percent at the highest k's of interest. While the fit is very good on average up to k ≃ 0.25 h Mpc –1, the fit performs slightly worse on equilateral configurations, in agreement with expectations that for a given maximum k, equilateral triangles are the most nonlinear.« less

  8. Dark Matter Core Defies Explanation

    2017-12-08

    NASA image release March 2, 2012 This composite image shows the distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and hot gas in the core of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 520, formed from a violent collision of massive galaxy clusters. The natural-color image of the galaxies was taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in Hawaii. Superimposed on the image are "false-colored" maps showing the concentration of starlight, hot gas, and dark matter in the cluster. Starlight from galaxies, derived from observations by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, is colored orange. The green-tinted regions show hot gas, as detected by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The gas is evidence that a collision took place. The blue-colored areas pinpoint the location of most of the mass in the cluster, which is dominated by dark matter. Dark matter is an invisible substance that makes up most of the universe's mass. The dark-matter map was derived from the Hubble Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observations, by detecting how light from distant objects is distorted by the cluster galaxies, an effect called gravitational lensing. The blend of blue and green in the center of the image reveals that a clump of dark matter resides near most of the hot gas, where very few galaxies are found. This finding confirms previous observations of a dark-matter core in the cluster. The result could present a challenge to basic theories of dark matter, which predict that galaxies should be anchored to dark matter, even during the shock of a collision. Abell 520 resides 2.4 billion light-years away. To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/science/dark-matter-cor... Credit: NASA, ESA, CFHT, CXO, M.J. Jee (University of California, Davis), and A. Mahdavi (San Francisco State University) NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and

  9. Effects of primordial magnetic field on the formation rate of dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheera, Varalakshmi; Nigam, Rahul

    2018-05-01

    We construct and demonstrate a method for computing the formation rate of the dark matter halo in the hierarchical model set up. This method uses the Press-Schecter distribution for the halos and hence applies only to the spherical halos. But this can be generalized to ellipsoidal structures also if one uses the Sheth-Torman distribution. After obtaining the formation rate, we study the effect of primordial magnetic field on the dynamics of these halos. We investigate the effect for different field strengths and conclude that a magnetic field stronger than 10 nG would impact the halos larger than 108 solar masses while a weaker field affects the formation rate of smaller halos.

  10. Neurobehavioural methods, effects and prevention: workers' human rights are why the field matters for developing countries.

    PubMed

    London, L

    2009-11-01

    Little research into neurobehavioural methods and effects occurs in developing countries, where established neurotoxic chemicals continue to pose significant occupational and environmental burdens, and where agents newly identified as neurotoxic are also widespread. Much of the morbidity and mortality associated with neurotoxic agents remains hidden in developing countries as a result of poor case detection, lack of skilled personnel, facilities and equipment for diagnosis, inadequate information systems, limited resources for research and significant competing causes of ill-health, such as HIV/AIDS and malaria. Placing the problem in a human rights context enables researchers and scientists in developing countries to make a strong case for why the field of neurobehavioural methods and effects matters because there are numerous international human rights commitments that make occupational and environmental health and safety a human rights obligation.

  11. High-energy effective theory for matter on close Randall-Sundrum branes

    SciT

    Rham, Claudia de; Webster, Samuel

    2005-09-15

    Extending the analysis of C. de Rham and S. Webster [Phys. Rev. D 71, 124025 (2005)], we obtain a formal expression for the coupling between brane matter and the radion in a Randall-Sundrum braneworld. This effective theory is correct to all orders in derivatives of the radion in the limit of small brane separation, and, in particular, contains no higher than second derivatives. In the case of cosmological symmetry the theory can be obtained in closed form and reproduces the five-dimensional behavior. Perturbations in the tensor and scalar sectors are then studied. When the branes are moving, the effective Newtonianmore » constant on the brane is shown to depend both on the distance between the branes and on their velocity. In the small-distance limit, we compute the exact dependence between the four-dimensional and the five-dimensional Newtonian constants.« less

  12. Various Particulate Matter Effects on Glacial Melting Rates in the Himalayan Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barwegen, S.

    2017-12-01

    Due to increased human activity and the impact of global warming in the Himalayas, glaciers are melting at alarming rates. It is hypothesized that by the year 2100, about 5,500 glaciers located in the Hindu-Kush will melt by up to 70%-90%. This will be severely detrimental to farmers as well as lessen the potential to harness hydropower, which requires the glaciers to be fully present (Vidal 2015). The melting of these glaciers is accelerating, in part, due to the deposition of particulate matter onto the snow, which lowers the albedo and causes the glaciers to absorb more heat. The Himalayan glaciers, specifically, are melting due to intense human movement over the snow, movement of particulate matter from storms, the increase in temperatures due to global warming, and soot deposited from forest fires (Dimmick 2014). This whole mountain range needs to retain glaciers in order to support the population of people living there by providing water. This project investigated the effect of both different types and amounts of particulate matter (PM) on ice melting rates. It was a model simulating the impact of PM of varying sizes and sources on glacial melting rates in the Himalayan glaciers. The impact of eight different types of PM (charcoal, pumice, sand/organic soil mixture, peat moss/soil, gravel/soil, soot, and soil), at two different masses (0.1g and 0.3g) on the melting rate of ice was assessed. Ice cubes were covered in PM and placed 5 cm away from a 50W incandescent bulb, with mass measured at regular intervals as they melted. Mass loss was recorded at 3, 6, 9, and 15 minutes and each sample type was repeated in triplicate. Over the course of the experiment, the ice cubes with 0.1 gram of PM were observed to be melting at a slower rate. Of the ice cubes with .3 g of PM on top, the ice covered in the sand and organic soil mixture had the lowest mass loss (3.4 g over 15 minutes), while the gravel and potting soil (4.9 g over 15 minutes) resulted in the highest (4

  13. Earth survey applications division: Research leading to the effective use of space technology in applications relating to the Earth's surface and interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, L. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Accomplishments and future plans are described for the following areas: (1) geology - geobotanical indicators and geopotential data; (2) modeling magnetic fields; (3) modeling the structure, composition, and evolution of the Earth's crust; (4) global and regional motions of the Earth's crust and earthquake occurrence; (5) modeling geopotential from satellite tracking data; (6) modeling the Earth's gravity field; (7) global Earth dynamics; (8) sea surface topography, ocean dynamics; and geophysical interpretation; (9) land cover and land use; (10) physical and remote sensing attributes important in detecting, measuring, and monitoring agricultural crops; (11) prelaunch studies using LANDSAT D; (12) the multispectral linear array; (13) the aircraft linear array pushbroom radiometer; and (14) the spaceborne laser ranging system.

  14. Structural flexibility in magnetocaloric RE 5T 4 (RE=rare-earth; T=Si,Ge,Ga) materials: Effect of chemical substitution on structure, bonding and properties

    SciT

    Misra, Sumohan

    The binary, ternary and multicomponent intermetallic compounds of rare-earth metals (RE) with group 14 elements (Tt) at the RE 5Tt 4 stoichiometry have been known for over 30 years, but only in the past decade have these materials become a gold mine for solid-state chemistry, materials science and condensed matter physics. It all started with the discovery of a giant magnetocaloric effect in Gd 5Si 2Ge 2, along with other extraordinary magnetic properties, such as a colossal magnetostriction and giant magnetoresistance. The distinctiveness of this series is in the remarkable flexibility of the chemical bonding between well-defined, subnanometer-thick slabs andmore » the resultant magnetic, transport, and thermodynamic properties of these materials. This can be controlled by varying either or both RE and Tt elements, including mixed rare-earth elements on the RE sites and different group 14 (or T = group 13 or 15) elements occupying the Tt sites. In addition to chemical means, the interslab interactions are also tunable by temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Thus, this system provides a splendid 'playground' to investigate the interrelationships among composition, structure, physical properties, and chemical bonding. The work presented in this dissertation involving RE 5T 4 materials has resulted in the successful synthesis, characterization, property measurements, and theoretical analyses of various new intermetallic compounds. The results provide significant insight into the fundamental magnetic and structural behavior of these materials and help us better understand the complex link between a compound's composition, its observed structure, and its properties.« less

  15. Biospheric feedback effects in a synchronously coupled model of human and Earth systems

    SciT

    Thornton, Peter E.; Calvin, Katherine; Jones, Andrew D.

    Fossil fuel combustion and land-use change are the first and second largest contributors to industrial-era increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, which is itself the largest driver of present-day climate change1. Projections of fossil fuel consumption and land-use change are thus fundamental inputs for coupled Earth system models (ESM) used to estimate the physical and biological consequences of future climate system forcing2,3. While empirical datasets are available to inform historical analyses4,5, assessments of future climate change have relied on projections of energy and land use based on energy economic models, constrained using historical and present-day data and forced with assumptionsmore » about future policy, land-use patterns, and socio-economic development trajectories6. Here we show that the influence of biospheric change – the integrated effect of climatic, ecological, and geochemical processes – on land ecosystems has a significant impact on energy, agriculture, and land-use projections for the 21st century. Such feedbacks have been ignored in previous ESM studies of future climate. We find that synchronous exposure of land ecosystem productivity in the economic system to biospheric change as it develops in an ESM results in a 10% reduction of land area used for crop cultivation; increased managed forest area and land carbon; a 15-20% decrease in global crop price; and a 17% reduction in fossil fuel emissions for a low-mid range forcing scenario7. These simulation results demonstrate that biospheric change can significantly alter primary human system forcings to the climate system. This synchronous two-way coupling approach removes inconsistencies in description of climate change between human and biosphere components of the coupled model, mitigating a major source of uncertainty identified in assessments of future climate projections8-10.« less

  16. The effect of Low Earth Orbit exposure on some experimental fluorine and silicon-containing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Young, Philip R.; Kalil, Carol G.; Chang, Alice C.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    1994-01-01

    Several experimental fluorine and silicon-containing polymers in film form were exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) on a Space Shuttle flight experiment (STS-46, Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials, EOIM-3). The environmental parameters of primary concern were atomic oxygen (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The materials were exposed to 2.3 plus or minus 0.1 x 10(exp 20) oxygen atoms/sq cm and 30.6 UV sun hours during the flight. In some cases, the samples were exposed at ambient, 120 C and 200 C. The effects of exposure on these materials were assessed utilizing a variety of characterization techniques including optical, scanning electron (SEM) and scanning tunneling (STM) microscopy, UV-visible (UV-VIS) transmission, diffuse reflectance infrared (DR-FTIR), x-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, and in a few cases, gel permeation chromatography (GPC). In addition, weight losses of the films, presumably due to AO erosion, were measured. The fluorine-containing polymers exhibited significant AO erosion and exposed films were diffuse or 'frosted' in appearance and consequently displayed dramatic reductions in optical transmission. The silicon-containing films exhibited minimum AO erosion and the optical transmission of exposed films was essentially unchanged. The silicon near the exposed surface in the films was converted to silicate/silicon oxide upon AO exposure which subsequently provided protection for the underlying material. The silicon-containing epoxies are potentially useful as AO resistant coatings and matrix resins as they are readily processed into carbon fiber reinforced composites and cured via electron radiation.

  17. Effects of rare earth doping on multi-core iron oxide nanoparticles properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petran, Anca; Radu, Teodora; Borodi, Gheorghe; Nan, Alexandrina; Suciu, Maria; Turcu, Rodica

    2018-01-01

    New multi-core iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles doped with rare earth metals (Gd, Eu) were obtained by a one step synthesis procedure using a solvothermal method for potential biomedical applications. The obtained clusters were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and magnetization measurements. They possess high colloidal stability, a saturation magnetization of up to 52 emu/g, and nearly spherical shape. The presence of rare earth ions in the obtained samples was confirmed by EDX and XPS. XRD analysis proved the homogeneous distribution of the trivalent rare earth ions in the inverse-spinel structure of magnetite and the increase of crystal strain upon doping the samples. XPS study reveals the valence state and the cation distribution on the octahedral and tetrahedral sites of the analysed samples. The observed shift of the XPS valence band spectra maximum in the direction of higher binding energies after rare earth doping, as well as theoretical valence band calculations prove the presence of Gd and Eu ions in octahedral sites. The blood protein adsorption ability of the obtained samples surface, the most important factor of the interaction between biomaterials and body fluids, was assessed by interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The rare earth doped clusters surface show higher afinity for binding BSA. In vitro cytotoxicity test results for the studied samples showed no cytotoxicity in low and medium doses, establishing a potential perspective for rare earth doped MNC to facilitate multiple therapies in a single formulation for cancer theranostics.

  18. [Effects of irrigation and planting pattern on winter wheat water consumption characteristics and dry matter production].

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Chen, Yu-Hai; Zhou, Xun-Bo

    2013-07-01

    Taking high-yield winter wheat cultivar 'Jimai 22' as test material, a field experiment was conducted in 2008-2010 to study the effects of different irrigation and planting modes on the water consumption characteristics and dry matter accumulation and distribution of winter wheat. Three planting patterns (uniform row, wide-narrow row, and furrow) and four irrigation schedules (no irrigation, W0; irrigation at jointing stage, W1; irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages, W2; and irrigation at jointing, anthesis, and milking stages, W3; with 60 mm per irrigation) were installed. With increasing amount of irrigation, the total water consumption and the ratio of irrigation water to total water consumption under different planting patterns all increased, while the soil water consumption and its ratio to total water consumption decreased significantly. As compared with W0, the other three irrigation schedules had a higher dry matter accumulation after anthesis and a higher grain yield, but a lower water use efficiency (WUE). Under the same irrigation schedules, furrow pattern had higher water consumption ratio, grain yield, and WUE. Taking the grain yield and WUE into consideration, furrow pattern combined with irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages would be the optimal water-saving and planting modes for the winter wheat production in North China Plain.

  19. Effects of retorting factors on combustion properties of shale char. 3. Distribution of residual organic matters.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin; Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Junwei

    2010-03-15

    Shale char, formed in retort furnaces of oil shale, is classified as a dangerous waste containing several toxic compounds. In order to retort oil shale to produce shale oil as well as treat shale char efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way, a novel kind of comprehensive utilization system was developed to use oil shale for shale oil production, electricity generation (shale char fired) and the extensive application of oil shale ash. For exploring the combustion properties of shale char further, in this paper organic matters within shale chars obtained under different retorting conditions were extracted and identified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Subsequently, the effects of retorting factors, including retorting temperature, residence time, particle size and heating rate, were analyzed in detail. As a result, a retorting condition with a retorting temperature of 460-490 degrees C, residence time of <40 min and a middle particle size was recommended for both keeping nitrogenous organic matters and aromatic hydrocarbons in shale char and improving the yield and quality of shale oil. In addition, shale char obtained under such retorting condition can also be treated efficiently using a circulating fluidized bed technology with fractional combustion. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. WIMP capture by the Sun in the effective theory of dark matter self-interactions

    SciT

    Catena, Riccardo; Widmark, Axel, E-mail: catena@chalmers.se, E-mail: axel.widmark@fysik.su.se

    We study the capture of WIMP dark matter by the Sun in the non-relativistic effective theory of dark matter self-interactions. The aim is to assess how self-interactions affect the expected neutrino flux coming from WIMP annihilation in the Sun, and to do so in a model independent manner. We consider all non-relativistic Galilean invariant self-interaction operators that can arise from the exchange of a heavy particle of spin less than or equal to 1 for WIMPs of spin equal to 0, 1/2 and 1. We show that for interaction operators depending at most linearly on the momentum transfer, the WIMP-inducedmore » neutrino flux can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude compared to the same flux in absence of self-interactions. This is true even for standard values of the thermally averaged annihilation cross-section. This conclusion impacts the analysis of present and future observations performed at neutrino telescopes.« less

  1. Modeling the effectiveness of shielding in the earth-moon-mars radiation environment using PREDICCS: five solar events in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Philip R.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Townsend, Larry W.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Case, Anthony W.; Spence, Harlan E.; Wilson, Jody K.; Joyce, Colin J.

    2017-08-01

    Radiation in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs) presents a severe risk to the short-term health of astronauts and the success of human exploration missions beyond Earth's protective shielding. Modeling how shielding mitigates the dose accumulated by astronauts is an essential step toward reducing these risks. PREDICCS (Predictions of radiation from REleASE, EMMREM, and Data Incorporating the CRaTER, COSTEP, and other SEP measurements) is an online tool for the near real-time prediction of radiation exposure at Earth, the Moon, and Mars behind various levels of shielding. We compare shielded dose rates from PREDICCS with dose rates from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) at the Moon and from the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) during its cruise phase to Mars for five solar events in 2012 when Earth, MSL, and Mars were magnetically well connected. Calculations of the accumulated dose demonstrate a reasonable agreement between PREDICCS and RAD ranging from as little as 2% difference to 54%. We determine mathematical relationships between shielding levels and accumulated dose. Lastly, the gradient of accumulated dose between Earth and Mars shows that for the largest of the five solar events, lunar missions require aluminum shielding between 1.0 g cm-2 and 5.0 g cm-2 to prevent radiation exposure from exceeding the 30-day limits for lens and skin. The limits were not exceeded near Mars.

  2. Expected first-order effects of a notional equatorial ring on Earth's night sky: a geometric consideration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, L. O.

    2013-12-01

    : a schema of ring effects on the southern sky: (i) extinction of extra-terrestrial light between celestial equator and horizon; (ii) brightening of extra-terrestrial light via light-through-dust effects near the southern horizon; and (iii) reflection of sunlight from celestial equator to horizon. These effects would be modulated by season (due to ring self-shadowing) and hour of the night (because of Earth's shadow). We suggest that the expected effects are not "missing" at all - similar effects are well known to observers but are taken to be fully accounted for by skyglow, airglow and light pollution, qualitatively similar phenomena that certainly exist. We conclude that ground-based observers' non-identification of an equatorial ring is not a counter-indicator of a ring's existence. As far as this consideration goes, the question of an Earth ring system is open.

  3. Fluorescence quenching effects of antibiotics on the main components of dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng-Fei; Hu, Zhen-Hu; Yu, Han-Qing; Li, Wei-Hua; Liu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in wastewater can be characterized using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix and parallel factor (EEM-PARAFAC) analysis. Wastewater from animal farms or pharmaceutical plants usually contains high concentration of antibiotics. In this study, the quenching effect of antibiotics on the typical components of DOM was explored using fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC analysis. Four antibiotics (roxarsone, sulfaquinoxaline sodium, oxytetracycline, and erythromycin) at the concentration of 0.5∼4.0 mg/L and three typical components of DOM (tyrosine, tryptophan, and humic acid) were selected. Fluorescence quenching effects were observed with the addition of antibiotics. Among these four antibiotics, roxarsone (2.9∼20.2 %), sulfaquinoxaline sodium (0∼32.0 %), and oxytetracycline (0∼41.8 %) led to a stronger quenching effect than erythromycin (0∼8.0 %). From the side of DOM, tyrosine and tryptophan (0.5∼41.8 %) exhibited a similar quenching effect, but they were higher than humic acids (0∼20.2 %) at the same concentration of antibiotics. For humic acid, a significant quenching effect was observed only with the addition of roxarsone. This might be the first report about the fluorescence quenching effect caused by antibiotics. The results from this study confirmed the interference of antibiotics on the fluorescence intensity of the main components of DOM and highlighted the importance of correcting fluorescence data in the wastewater containing antibiotics.

  4. People and the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John James William; Feiss, P. Geoffrey

    1998-03-01

    People and the Earth examines the numerous ways in which this planet enhances and limits our lifestyles. Written with wit and remarkable insight, and illustrated with numerous case histories, it provides a balanced view of the complex environmental issues facing our civilization. The authors look at the geologic restrictions on our ability to withdraw resources--food, water, energy, and minerals--from the earth, the effect human activity has on the earth, and the lingering damage caused by natural disasters. People and the