Science.gov

Sample records for earth metal fluoride

  1. An easy access to nanocrystalline alkaline earth metal fluorides - just by shaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreger, M.; Scholz, G.; Kemnitz, E.

    2012-04-01

    High energy ball milling as fast, direct and solvent free method allows an easy access to nanocrystalline alkaline earth metal fluorides MF2 (M: Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). Comparable metal sources (acetates, carbonates, hydroxides, alkoxides) were used for the reaction with NH4F as fluorinating agent. Even very simple manual shaking experiments between NH4F and the corresponding hydroxides in the stoichiometric ratio (M:F = 1:2, M: Ca, Sr, Ba) give phase pure fluorides. Moreover, comparable classical thermal reactions in closed crucibles at higher temperatures provide phase pure crystalline fluorides in nearly all cases as well.

  2. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 100. Rare Earth Metal Fluorides in Water and Aqueous Systems. Part 1. Scandium Group (Sc, Y, La)

    SciTech Connect

    Mioduski, Tomasz; Gumiński, Cezary, E-mail: cegie@chem.uw.edu.pl; Zeng, Dewen, E-mail: dewen-zeng@hotmail.com

    2014-03-15

    This work presents an assessment of solubility data for rare earth metal fluorides (generally of trivalent metals and of CeF{sub 4}) in water and in aqueous ternary systems. Compilations of all available experimental data are introduced for each rare earth metal fluoride with a corresponding critical evaluation. Every such evaluation contains a collection of all solubility results in water, a selection of suggested solubility data, and a brief discussion of the multicomponent systems. Because the ternary systems were seldom studied more than once, no critical evaluations of such data were possible. Only simple fluorides (no complexes or binary salts) aremore » treated as the input substances in this report. The literature has been covered through the end of 2013.« less

  3. Mechanochemical synthesis, structure and properties of lead containing alkaline earth metal fluoride solid solutions MxPb1-xF2 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, M.; Scholz, G.; Düvel, A.; Heitjans, P.; Kemnitz, E.

    2018-03-01

    The paper deals with the mechanochemical synthesis of lead containing alkaline earth metal fluoride solid solutions MxPb1-xF2 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) by high-energy ball milling. Several metal precursors and fluorinating agents were tested for synthesizing M0.5Pb0.5F2. Metal acetates and ammonium fluoride as precursors show the most promising results and were therefore used for the formation of MxPb1-xF2 with different metal cationic ratios. The characterization of the local fluorine coordination and the crystal structure was performed by 19F MAS NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Additional calculations of 19F chemical shifts using the superposition model allow a deeper insight into the local structure of the compounds. The fluoride ion conductivity was followed by temperature dependent DC conductivity measurements. Significantly higher conductivities were found in comparison with those of the corresponding binary fluorides. The highest values were observed for samples with high lead content M0.25Pb0.75F2, bearing in mind the much higher conductivity of PbF2 compared to MF2.

  4. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 100. Rare Earth Metal Fluorides in Water and Aqueous Systems. Part 3. Heavy Lanthanides (Gd–Lu)

    SciTech Connect

    Mioduski, Tomasz; Gumiński, Cezary, E-mail: cegie@chem.uw.edu.pl; Zeng, Dewen, E-mail: dewen-zeng@hotmail.com

    This is the third part of the volume devoted to solubility data for the rare earth metal (REM) fluorides in water and in aqueous ternary and multicomponent systems. It covers experimental results of trivalent fluorides of Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu (so-called heavy lanthanides), since no quantitative data on solubilities of TbF{sub 4} and YbF{sub 2} (the most stable compounds at these valencies) are available. The related literature has been covered through the end of 2014. Compilations of all available papers with the solubility data are introduced for each REM fluoride with a corresponding critical evaluation.more » Every such assessment contains a collection of all solubility results in aqueous solution, a selection of suggested solubility data, a solubility equation, and a brief discussion of the multicomponent systems. Only simple fluorides (no complexes or double salts) are treated as the input substances in this report. General features of the systems, such as nature of the equilibrium solid phases, solubility as a function of temperature, influence of ionic strength, solution pH, mixed solvent medium on the solubility, quality of the solubility results, and the solubility as a function of REM atomic number, have already been presented in Part 1 of the volume.« less

  5. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 100. Rare Earth Metal Fluorides in Water and Aqueous Systems. Part 2. Light Lanthanides (Ce-Eu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioduski, Tomasz; Gumiński, Cezary; Zeng, Dewen

    2015-03-01

    This is the second part of the volume devoted to the evaluation of experimental solubility data for rare earth metal (REM) fluorides in water as well as in aqueous ternary and multicomponent systems. Fluorides of Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, and Eu (so-called light lanthanides), as the main solutes, are covered in the present part, which has thorough coverage of the experimental literature through the end of 2012. The experimentally unknown solubility value for PmF3 in water was predicted by an interpolation of the solubility values for NdF3 and SmF3 at 298 K. General features of the systems, such as the nature of the equilibrium solid phases, solubility as a function of temperature, influence of ionic strength, pH, mixed solvent medium on the solubility, quality of the solubility results, and solubility as a function of REM atomic number, have already been presented in Part 1 of the volume.

  6. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 100. Rare Earth Metal Fluorides in Water and Aqueous Systems. Part 2. Light Lanthanides (Ce–Eu)

    SciTech Connect

    Mioduski, Tomasz; Gumiński, Cezary, E-mail: cegie@chem.uw.edu.pl; Zeng, Dewen, E-mail: dewen-zeng@hotmail.com

    This is the second part of the volume devoted to the evaluation of experimental solubility data for rare earth metal (REM) fluorides in water as well as in aqueous ternary and multicomponent systems. Fluorides of Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, and Eu (so-called light lanthanides), as the main solutes, are covered in the present part, which has thorough coverage of the experimental literature through the end of 2012. The experimentally unknown solubility value for PmF{sub 3} in water was predicted by an interpolation of the solubility values for NdF{sub 3} and SmF{sub 3} at 298 K. General features of themore » systems, such as the nature of the equilibrium solid phases, solubility as a function of temperature, influence of ionic strength, pH, mixed solvent medium on the solubility, quality of the solubility results, and solubility as a function of REM atomic number, have already been presented in Part 1 of the volume.« less

  7. REDUCTION OF FLUORIDE TO METAL

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, O.N.; Schmidt, F.A.; Spedding, F.H.

    1960-08-30

    A process is given for making yttrium metal by reducing yttrium fluoride with calcium plus magnesium. Calcium is added in an excess of from 10 to 20% and magnesium in a quantity to yield a magnesium--yttrium alloy containing from 12 to 25% magnesium when the reaction mass is heated in an inert atmosphere at from 900 to 1106 deg C, but preferably above the melting point of the alloy. Calcium chloride may be added so as to obtain a less viscous slag containing from 30 to 60% calcium chloride. After removal of the slag the alloy is vacuum-heated at about 1100 deg C for volatilization of the magnesium and calcium.

  8. PROCESS FOR TREATING VOLATILE METAL FLUORIDES

    DOEpatents

    Rudge, A.J.; Lowe, A.J.

    1957-10-01

    This patent relates to the purification of uranium hexafluoride, made by reacting the metal or its tetrafluoride with fluorine, from the frequently contained traces of hydrofluoric acid. According to the present process, UF/sub 6/ containing as an impurity a small amount of hydrofluoric acid, is treated to remove such impurity by contact with an anhydrous alkali metal fluoride such as sodium fluoride. In this way a non-volatile complex containing hydrofluoric acid and the alkali metal fluoride is formed, and the volatile UF /sub 6/ may then be removed by distillation.

  9. Scintillation of rare earth doped fluoride nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsohn, L. G.; McPherson, C. L.; Sprinkle, K. B.; Yukihara, E. G.; DeVol, T. A.; Ballato, J.

    2011-09-01

    The scintillation response of rare earth (RE) doped core/undoped (multi-)shell fluoride nanoparticles was investigated under x-ray and alpha particle irradiation. A significant enhancement of the scintillation response was observed with increasing shells due: (i) to the passivation of surface quenching defects together with the activation of the REs on the surface of the core nanoparticle after the growth of a shell, and (ii) to the increase of the volume of the nanoparticles. These results are expected to reflect a general aspect of the scintillation process in nanoparticles, and to impact radiation sensing technologies that make use of nanoparticles.

  10. Sol-Gel-Synthesis of Nanoscopic Complex Metal Fluorides

    PubMed Central

    Rehmer, Alexander; Scheurell, Kerstin; Scholz, Gudrun; Kemnitz, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    The fluorolytic sol-gel synthesis for binary metal fluorides (AlF3, CaF2, MgF2) has been extended to ternary and quaternary alkaline earth metal fluorides (CaAlF5, Ca2AlF7, LiMgAlF6). The formation and crystallization of nanoscopic ternary CaAlF5 and Ca2AlF7 sols in ethanol were studied by 19F liquid and solid state NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy, as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystalline phases of the annealed CaAlF5, Ca2AlF7, and LiMgAlF6 xerogels between 500 and 700 °C could be determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and 19F solid state NMR spectroscopy. The thermal behavior of un-annealed nanoscopic ternary and quaternary metal fluoride xerogels was ascertained by thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The obtained crystalline phases of CaAlF5 and Ca2AlF7 derived from non-aqueous sol-gel process were compared to crystalline phases from the literature. The corresponding nanoscopic complex metal fluoride could provide a new approach in ceramic and luminescence applications. PMID:29099086

  11. COMPLEX FLUORIDES OF PLUTONIUM AND AN ALKALI METAL

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for precipitating alkali metal plutonium fluorides. such as KPuF/sub 5/, KPu/sub 2/F/sub 9/, NaPuF/sub 5/, and RbPuF/sub 5/, from an aqueous plutonium(IV) solution by adding hydrogen fluoride and alkali-metal- fluoride.

  12. Production of sintered porous metal fluoride pellets

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, L.W.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1973-12-25

    Porous pellets characterized by a moderately reactive crust and a softer core of higher reactivity are produced by forming agglomerates containing a metal fluoride powder and a selected amount ofwater. The metal fluoride is selected to be sinterable and essentially non-reactive with gaseous fluorinating agents. The agglomerates are contacted with a gaseous fluorinating agent under controlled conditions whereby the heat generated by localized reaction of the agent and water is limited to values effccting bonding by localized sintering. Porous pellets composed of cryolite (Na/sub 3/AlF/sub 6/) can be used to selectively remove trace quantities of niobium pentafluoride from a feed gas consisting predominantly of uranium hexafluoride. (Official Gazette)

  13. Metal Fluorides, Metal Chlorides and Halogenated Metal Oxides as Lewis Acidic Heterogeneous Catalysts. Providing Some Context for Nanostructured Metal Fluorides.

    PubMed

    Lennon, David; Winfield, John M

    2017-01-28

    Aspects of the chemistry of selected metal fluorides, which are pertinent to their real or potential use as Lewis acidic, heterogeneous catalysts, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to β-aluminum trifluoride, aluminum chlorofluoride and aluminas γ and η, whose surfaces become partially fluorinated or chlorinated, through pre-treatment with halogenating reagents or during a catalytic reaction. In these cases, direct comparisons with nanostructured metal fluorides are possible. In the second part of the review, attention is directed to iron(III) and copper(II) metal chlorides, whose Lewis acidity and potential redox function have had important catalytic implications in large-scale chlorohydrocarbons chemistry. Recent work, which highlights the complexity of reactions that can occur in the presence of supported copper(II) chloride as an oxychlorination catalyst, is featured. Although direct comparisons with nanostructured fluorides are not currently possible, the work could be relevant to possible future catalytic developments in nanostructured materials.

  14. Method for decontamination of nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides

    DOEpatents

    Windt, Norman F.; Williams, Joe L.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a process for decontaminating particulate nickel contaminated with actinide-metal fluorides. In one aspect, the invention comprises contacting nickel-fluoride-coated nickel with gaseous ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation thereof and effecting hydrogen-reduction of the nickel fluoride. The resulting nickel is heated to form a melt and a slag and to effect transfer of actinide metals from the melt into the slag. The melt and slag are then separated. In another aspect, nickel containing nickel oxide and actinide metals is contacted with ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation to effect conversion of the nickel oxide to the metal. The resulting nickel is then melted and separated as described. In another aspect nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides is contacted with both steam and ammonia. The resulting nickel then is melted and separated as described. The invention is characterized by higher nickel recovery, efficient use of ammonia, a substantial decrease in slag formation and fuming, and a valuable increase in the service life of the furnace liners used for melting.

  15. Rare earth fluoride nano-/microstructures: hydrothermal synthesis, luminescent properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Xu, Zhenhe; Sun, Yaguang

    2014-02-01

    Rare earth fluoride materials have attracted wide interest and come to the forefront in nanophotonics due to their distinct electrical, optical and magnetic properties as well as their potential applications in diverse fields such as optical telecommunication, lasers, biochemical probes, infrared quantum counters, and medical diagnostics. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the flourishing field of rare earth fluorides materials in the past decade. We summarize the recent research progress on the preparation, morphology, luminescent properties and application of rare earth fluoride-based luminescent materials by hydrothermal systems. Various rare earth fluoride materials are obtained by fine-tuning of experimental conditions, such as capping agents, fluoride source, acidity, temperature and reaction time. The controlled morphology, luminescent properties and application of the rare earth fluorides are briefly discussed with typical examples.

  16. Method for decontamination of nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides

    DOEpatents

    Windt, N.F.; Williams, J.L.

    In one aspect, the invention comprises contacting nickel-fluoride-coated nickel with gaseous ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation thereof and effecting hydrogen-reduction of the nickel fluoride. The resulting nickel is heated to form a melt and a slag and to effect transfer of actinide metals from the melt into the slag. The melt and slag are then separated. In another aspect, nickel contianing nickel oxide and actinide metals is contacted with ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation to effect conversion of the nickel oxide to the metal. The resulting nickel is then melted and separated as described. In another aspect nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides is contacted with both steam and ammonia. The resulting nickel then is melted and separated as described. The invention is characterized by higher nickel recovery, efficient use of ammonia, a substantial decrease in slag formation and fuming, and a valuable increase in the service life of the furnace liners used for melting.

  17. Fluoride content of clay minerals and argillaceous earth materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Josephus; Glass, H.D.; White, W.A.; Trandel, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A reliable method, utilizing a fluoride ion-selective electrode, is described for the determination of fluoride in clays and shales. Interference by aluminum and iron is minimal. The reproducibility of the method is about ±5% at different levels of fluoride concentration.Data are presented for various clay minerals and for the <2-µm fractions of marine and nonmarine clays and shales. Fluoride values range from 44 ppm (0.0044%) for nontronite from Colfax, WA, to 51,800 ppm (5.18%) for hectorite from Hector, CA. In general, clays formed under hydrothermal conditions are relatively high in fluoride content, provided the hydrothermal waters are high in fluoride content. Besides hectorite, dickite from Ouray, CO, was found to contain more than 50 times as much fluoride (6700 ppm) as highly crystalline geode kaolinite (125 ppm). The clay stratum immediately overlying a fluorite mineralized zone in southern Illinois was found to have a higher fluoride content than the same stratum in a nonmineralized zone approximately 1 mile away. Nonmarine shales in contact with Australian coals were found to be lower in fluoride content than were marine shales in contact with Illinois coals.It is believed that, in certain instances, peak shifts on DTA curves of similar clay minerals are the result of significant differences in their fluoride content.

  18. Crystallization of heavy metal fluoride glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Bruce, Allan J.; Doremus, R. H.; Moynihan, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of crystallization of a number of fluorozirconate glasses were studied using isothermal and dynamic differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The addition of the fluorides LiF, NaF, AlF3, LaF3 to a base glass composition of ZrF4-BaF2 reduced the tendency to crystallize, probably by modifying the viscosity-temperature relation. ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF glass was the most stable against devitrification and perhaps is the best composition for optical fibers with low scattering loss. Some glasses first crystallize out into metastable beta-BaZr2F10 and beta-BaZrF6 phases, which transform into the most stable alpha-phases when heated to higher temperatures. The size of the crystallites was estimated to be about 600 A from X-ray diffraction.

  19. Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    Vortex® ... Fluoride is used to prevent tooth decay. It is taken up by teeth and helps to strengthen ... and block the cavity-forming action of bacteria. Fluoride usually is prescribed for children and adults whose ...

  20. Effects of Gravity on Processing Heavy Metal Fluoride Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the crystal nucleation of heavy metal fluoride fibers have been studied in preliminary experiments utilizing NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft and a microgravity sounding rocket flight. Commercially produced fibers were heated to the crystallization temperature in normal and reduced gravity. The fibers processed in normal gravity showed complete crystallization while the fibers processed in reduced gravity did not show signs of crystallization.

  1. Endothelialization of Novel Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloys with Fluoride and Collagen Coating

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Workman, Benjamin; Zhu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are promising scaffolds for the next generation of cardiovascular stents because of their better biocompatibility and biodegradation compared to traditional metals. However, insufficient mechanical strength and high degradation rate are still the two main limitations for Mg materials. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment and collagen coating were used in this research to improve the endothelialization of two rare earth-based Mg alloys. Results demonstrated that a nanoporous film structure of fluoride with thickness of ~20 μm was formed on the Mg material surface, which improved the corrosion resistance. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) had much better attachment, spreading, growth and proliferation (the process of endothelialization) on HF-treated Mg materials compared to bare- or collagen-coated ones. PMID:24670478

  2. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2] or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy. 3 figs.

  3. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a prefused, rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF.sub.2, CaCl.sub.2 or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy.

  4. Metal Fluoride Inhibition of a P-type H+ Pump

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Jesper Torbøl; Falhof, Janus; Ekberg, Kira; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Palmgren, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase is a P-type ATPase responsible for establishing electrochemical gradients across the plasma membrane in fungi and plants. This essential proton pump exists in two activity states: an autoinhibited basal state with a low turnover rate and a low H+/ATP coupling ratio and an activated state in which ATP hydrolysis is tightly coupled to proton transport. Here we characterize metal fluorides as inhibitors of the fungal enzyme in both states. In contrast to findings for other P-type ATPases, inhibition of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by metal fluorides was partly reversible, and the stability of the inhibition varied with the activation state. Thus, the stability of the ATPase inhibitor complex decreased significantly when the pump transitioned from the activated to the basal state, particularly when using beryllium fluoride, which mimics the bound phosphate in the E2P conformational state. Taken together, our results indicate that the phosphate bond of the phosphoenzyme intermediate of H+-ATPases is labile in the basal state, which may provide an explanation for the low H+/ATP coupling ratio of these pumps in the basal state. PMID:26134563

  5. Optimization of rare-earth-doped fluorides for infrared lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Rita Dedomenico

    2000-11-01

    The rare-earth-doped fluoride crystals Tm,Dy:BaY2F8 (Tm,Dy:BYF), Yb,Pr:NaYF4 (Yb,Pr:NYF), and Nd:NYF show considerable promise as infrared laser materials, operating at 3 μm, 1.3 μm, and 1.06 μm respectively. Lasing has been reported previously on all three ionic transitions, but not in these crystals. Optimization of these materials for laser applications requires a more complete spectroscopic characterization than is currently available, particularly with regard to the key parameters of fluorescence lifetime and stimulated emission cross section. To further the optimization process, polarized absorption and emission have been measured for Tm,Dy:BYF, Yb,Pr:NYF, and Nd:NYF, and relevant fluorescence lifetimes have been measured or estimated. For Tm,Dy:BYF and Yb,Pr:NYF which rely upon sensitization, energy transfer parameters were calculated. Results were used in a mathematical model to determine the conditions in which lasing may be obtained. The long upper laser level lifetime in Tm,Dy:BYF translates into low threshold pump intensity, but the ability to reach threshold depends strongly on active ion concentration. The short lifetime in Yb,Pr:NYF leads to much higher threshold pump intensities, but lasing is still attainable if resonator loss is minimized. In Nd:NYF lasing was demonstrated, with a maximum of 60 mW output from an absorbed pump power of 345 mW, and a slope efficiency of 21%. Thresholds were high owing to resonator losses near 9%. Two chief issues involving the optimization of these laser materials were identified and explored. First, identification of the orientation for which emission cross section is highest is complicated in Tm,Dy:BYF by the presence of strong magnetic dipole radiation on the 3 μm transition. This effect makes it necessary to account for the polarization of both the electric and magnetic fields of the emitted radiation when determining an optimal crystal orientation, an accounting further complicated by the low symmetry of

  6. High-temperature corrosion of metals in the salt and metallic melts containing rare earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, V. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Zhilyakov, A. Yu.; Belikov, S. V.; Volkovich, V. A.; Polovov, I. B.; Rebrin, O. I.

    2016-09-01

    A complex of independent methods was employed to study the corrosion resistance of molybdenum, zirconium, tantalum and tungsten in chloride, chloride-fluoride and fluoride-oxide melts based on LiCl, CaCl2, NaCl- KCl, LiF, and containing rare earths. Tests were conducted for 30 h at 750-1050 °C. The metals showed excellent corrosion resistance in fused chlorides (the corrosion rates were below 0.0005 g/(m2 h). Despite the presence of chemically active fluoride ions in the chloride-fluoride melts, the metals studied also showed very low corrosion rates, except molybdenum, for which the rate of corrosion was 0,8 g/(m2 h). The corrosion resistance of tantalum was considerably reduced in the fluoride-oxide melts; the corrosion rate was over 1 g/(m2 h) corresponding to the 8-th grade of stability and placing tantalum to the group of "low stability" materials.

  7. NMR parameters in alkali, alkaline earth and rare earth fluorides from first principle calculations.

    PubMed

    Sadoc, Aymeric; Body, Monique; Legein, Christophe; Biswal, Mamata; Fayon, Franck; Rocquefelte, Xavier; Boucher, Florent

    2011-11-07

    (19)F isotropic chemical shifts for alkali, alkaline earth and rare earth of column 3 basic fluorides are measured and the corresponding isotropic chemical shieldings are calculated using the GIPAW method. When using the PBE exchange-correlation functional for the treatment of the cationic localized empty orbitals of Ca(2+), Sc(3+) (3d) and La(3+) (4f), a correction is needed to accurately calculate (19)F chemical shieldings. We show that the correlation between experimental isotropic chemical shifts and calculated isotropic chemical shieldings established for the studied compounds allows us to predict (19)F NMR spectra of crystalline compounds with a relatively good accuracy. In addition, we experimentally determine the quadrupolar parameters of (25)Mg in MgF(2) and calculate the electric field gradients of (25)Mg in MgF(2) and (139)La in LaF(3) using both PAW and LAPW methods. The orientation of the EFG components in the crystallographic frame, provided by DFT calculations, is analysed in terms of electron densities. It is shown that consideration of the quadrupolar charge deformation is essential for the analysis of slightly distorted environments or highly irregular polyhedra. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  8. Hydrogels dispersed by doped rare earth fluoride nanocrystals: ionic liquid dispersion and down/up-conversion luminescence.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhi-Yuan; Jia, Li-Ping; Yan, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Two typical kinds of rare earth fluoride nanocrystals codoped with rare earth ions (Eu(3+) and Tm(3+)/Er(3+),Yb(3+)) are synthesized and dispersed in ionic liquid compound (1-chlorohexane-3-methylimidazolium chloride, abbreviated as [C6mim][Cl]). Assisted by agarose, the luminescent hydrogels are prepared homogeneously. The down/up-conversion luminescence of these hydrogels can be realized for the dispersed rare earth fluoride nanocrystals. The results provide a strategy to prepare luminescent (especially up-conversion luminescent) hydrogels with ionic liquid to disperse rare earth fluoride nanocrystals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Formation of H a - hydrogen centers upon additive coloration of alkaline-earth fluoride crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzhabov, E. A.; Egranov, A. V.; Shendrik, R. Yu.

    2017-06-01

    The mechanism of coloration of alkaline-earth fluoride crystals CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2 in calcium vapors in an autoclave with a cold zone is studied. It was found that the pressure in the autoclave upon constant evacuation by a vacuum pump within the temperature range of 500-800°C increases due to evaporation of metal calcium. In addition to the optical-absorption bands of color centers in the additively colored undoped crystals or to the bands of divalent ions in the crystals doped with rare-earth Sm, Yb, and Tm elements, there appear intense bands in the vacuum ultraviolet region at 7.7, 7.0, and 6.025 eV in CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2, respectively. These bands belong to the Ha - hydrogen centers. The formation of hydrogen centers is also confirmed by the appearance of the EPR signal of interstitial hydrogen atoms after X-ray irradiation of the additively colored crystals. Grinding of the outer edges of the colored crystals leads to a decrease in the hydrogen absorption-band intensity with depth to complete disappearance. The rate of hydrogen penetration inside the crystal is lower than the corresponding rate of color centers (anion vacancies) by a factor of tens. The visible color density of the outer regions of the hydrogen-containing crystals is several times lower than that of the inner region due to the competition between the color centers and hydrogen centers.

  10. Rare Earth Metals: Resourcefulness and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijie

    2013-10-01

    When we appreciate the digital revolution carried over from the twentieth century with mobile communication and the Internet, and when we enjoy our high-tech lifestyle filled with iDevices, hybrid cars, wind turbines, and solar cells in this new century, we should also appreciate that all of these advanced products depend on rare earth metals to function. Although there are only 136,000 tons of annual worldwide demand, (Cho, Rare Earth Metals, Will We Have Enough?)1 rare earth metals are becoming such hot commodities on international markets, due to not only to their increasing uses, including in most critical military hardware, but also to Chinese growth, which accounts for 95% of global rare earth metal production. Hence, the 2013 technical calendar topic, planned by the TMS/Hydrometallurgy and Electrometallurgy Committee, is particularly relevant, with four articles (including this commentary) contributed to the JOM October Issue discussing rare earth metals' resourcefulness and recovery.

  11. SORBENTS FOR FLUORIDE, METAL FINISHING, AND PETROLEUM SLUDGE LEACHATE CONTAMINANT CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the initial laboratory studies carried out to identify the most promising sorbents that may be used to significantly reduce the concentration of measurable contaminant in calcium fluoride sludge leachate, metal finishing sludge leachate, and petroleum sludge le...

  12. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  13. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Schmidt, Frederick A.

    1995-08-01

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

  14. Ab initio calculations on the positive ions of the alkaline-earth oxides, fluorides, and hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, H.; Langhoff, S. R.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical dissociation energies are presented for the alkaline-earth fluoride, hydroxide, and oxide positive ions that are considered to be accurate to 0.1-0.2 eV. The r(e) for the positive ions are found to be consistently shorter than the corresponding neutrals by 0.07 + or -0.02 A. The bonding in the ground states is demonstrated to be of predominantly M + 2 X - character. The a 3 Pi and A 1 Pi are found to lie considerably above the X 1 Sigma + ground states of the alkaline-earth fluoride and hydroxide positive ions. The overall agreement of the theoretical ionization potentials with the available experimental appearance potentials is satisfactory; these values should represent the most accurate and consistent set available.

  15. SEPARATION OF METAL VALUES FROM NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, D.O.; Cathers, G.I.

    1962-06-19

    A method is given for separating beryllium fluoride and an alkali metal fluoride from a mixture containing same and rare earth fluorides. The method comprises contacting said mixture with a liquid hydrogen fluoride solvent containing no more than about 30 per cent water by weight and saturated with a fluoride salt characterized by its solubility in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride for a period of time sufficient to dissolve said beryllium fluoride in said solvent. (AEC)

  16. The activity of calcium in calcium-metal-fluoride fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochifuji, Yuichiro; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka; Sano, Nobuo

    1995-08-01

    The standard Gibbs energy of reaction Ca (1) + O (mass pct, in Zr) = CaO (s) has been determined as follows by equilibrating molten calcium with solid zirconium in a CaO crucible: Δ G° = -64,300(±700) + 19.8(±3.5) T J/mol (1373 to 1623 K) The activities of calcium in the CaOsatd-Ca- MF2 ( M: Ca, Ba, Mg) and CaOsatd-Ca-NaF systems were measured as a function of calcium composition at high calcium contents at 1473 K on the basis of the standard Gibbs energy. The activities of calcium increase in the order of CaF2, BaF2, and MgF2 at the same calcium fraction of these fluxes. The observed activities are compared with those estimated by using the Temkin model for ionic solutions. Furthermore, the possibility of the removal of tramp elements such as tin, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and lead from carbon-saturated iron by using calcium-metal-fluoride fluxes is discussed.

  17. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  18. Preparation of high density heavy metal fluoride glasses with extended ultraviolet and infra red ranges, and such high density heavy metal fluoride glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Steven W. (Inventor); Huebsch, Jesse (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A heavy metal fluoride glass composition range (in mol percent) consisting essentially of: (16-30)BaF.sub.2.(8-26)HfF.sub.4.(6-24)InF.sub.3 or GaF.sub.3.(4-16)CdF.sub.2.(6-24)YbF.sub.3.(4-22)ZnF.sub.2. In an alternative embodiment, a heavy metal fluoride glass composition range (in mol percent) comprises (16-30)BaF.sub.2.(8-26)HfF.sub.4.(6-24) of (0-24)InF.sub.3, (0-24)GaF.sub.3 and (0-19)AlF.sub.3.(1-16)CdF.sub.2.(6-24)YbF.sub.3.(4-26)ZnF.sub.2. A preferred heavy metal fluoride glass produced in accordance with the present invention comprises a composition (in mol %) and comprises about 26BaF.sub.2.18HfF.sub.4.7InF.sub.3.5GaF.sub.3.10CdF.sub.2.18YbF.sub.3. 16ZnF.sub.2. A preferred heavy metal fluoride glass has maximum thickness of most preferably about 3 mm. Another preferred heavy metal fluoride glass comprises a composition (in mol %) and comprises about 26BaF.sub.2.18HfF.sub.4.12AlF.sub.3.10CdF.sub.2.18YbF.sub.3.16ZnF.sub.2.

  19. Tribological properties of self-lubricating fluoride-metal composites to 900 C (1650 F): A review and some new developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.; Graham, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The friction and wear behavior of some fluoride-metal, self-lubricating composites are summarized. Fluoride-infiltrated sintered nickel alloy composites and plasma-sprayed, co-deposited fluoride-nickel alloy composites are described. The importance of proper surface-conditioning of the composites is stressed. Performance of fluoride-metal composites in some machine application evaluation is discussed.

  20. Giant Faraday Rotation in Metal-Fluoride Nanogranular Films.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, N; Ikeda, K; Gu, Bo; Takahashi, S; Masumoto, H; Maekawa, S

    2018-03-21

    Magneto-optical Faraday effect is widely applied in optical devices and is indispensable for optical communications and advanced information technology. However, the bismuth garnet Bi-YIG is only the Faraday material since 1972. Here we introduce (Fe, FeCo)-(Al-,Y-fluoride) nanogranular films exhibiting giant Faraday effect, 40 times larger than Bi-YIG. These films have a nanocomposite structure, in which nanometer-sized Fe, FeCo ferromagnetic granules are dispersed in a Al,Y-fluoride matrix.

  1. Rare earth metal-containing ionic liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Prodius, Denis; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2018-03-07

    As an innovative tool, ionic liquids (ILs) are widely employed as an alternative, smart, reaction media (vs. traditional solvents) offering interesting technology solutions for dissolving, processing and recycling of metal-containing materials. The costly mining and refining of rare earths (RE), combined with increasing demand for high-tech and energy-related applications around the world, urgently requires effective approaches to improve the efficiency of rare earth separation and recovery. In this context, ionic liquids appear as an attractive technology solution. Finally, this paper addresses the structural and coordination chemistry of ionic liquids comprising rare earth metals with the aim to add to understandingmore » prospects of ionic liquids in the chemistry of rare earths.« less

  2. Rare earth metal-containing ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Prodius, Denis; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    As an innovative tool, ionic liquids (ILs) are widely employed as an alternative, smart, reaction media (vs. traditional solvents) offering interesting technology solutions for dissolving, processing and recycling of metal-containing materials. The costly mining and refining of rare earths (RE), combined with increasing demand for high-tech and energy-related applications around the world, urgently requires effective approaches to improve the efficiency of rare earth separation and recovery. In this context, ionic liquids appear as an attractive technology solution. Finally, this paper addresses the structural and coordination chemistry of ionic liquids comprising rare earth metals with the aim to add to understandingmore » prospects of ionic liquids in the chemistry of rare earths.« less

  3. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  4. Thermophysical properties of liquid rare earth metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakor, P. B.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Patel, H. P.; Jani, A. R.

    2013-06-01

    The thermodynamical properties like long wavelength limit S(0), iso-thermal compressibility (χT), thermal expansion coefficient (αV), thermal pressure coefficient (γV), specific heat at constant volume (CV) and specific heat at constant pressure (CP) are calculated for liquid rare earth metals. Our newly constructed parameter free model potential is used to describe the electron ion interaction due to Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function. Lastly, we conclude that our newly constructed model potential is capable to explain the thermophysical properties of liquid rare earth metals.

  5. Ammonium Fluoride Mediated Synthesis of Anhydrous Metal Fluoride-Mesoporous Carbon Nanocomposites for High-Performance Lithium Ion Battery Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jinyoung; Jo, Changshin; Sahgong, Sunhye; Kim, Min Gyu; Lim, Eunho; Kim, Dong Hyeon; Hwang, Jongkook; Kang, Eunae; Ryu, Keun Ah; Jung, Yoon Seok; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Jinwoo

    2016-12-28

    Metal fluorides (MF x ) are one of the most attractive cathode candidates for Li ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high conversion potentials with large capacities. However, only a limited number of synthetic methods, generally involving highly toxic or inaccessible reagents, currently exist, which has made it difficult to produce well-designed nanostructures suitable for cathodes; consequently, harnessing their potential cathodic properties has been a challenge. Herein, we report a new bottom-up synthetic method utilizing ammonium fluoride (NH 4 F) for the preparation of anhydrous MF x (CuF 2 , FeF 3 , and CoF 2 )/mesoporous carbon (MSU-F-C) nanocomposites, whereby a series of metal precursor nanoparticles preconfined in mesoporous carbon were readily converted to anhydrous MF x through simple heat treatment with NH 4 F under solventless conditions. We demonstrate the versatility, lower toxicity, and efficiency of this synthetic method and, using XRD analysis, propose a mechanism for the reaction. All MF x /MSU-F-C prepared in this study exhibited superior electrochemical performances, through conversion reactions, as the cathode for LIBs. In particular, FeF 3 /MSU-F-C maintained a capacity of 650 mAh g -1 FeF3 across 50 cycles, which is ∼90% of its initial capacity. We expect that this facile synthesis method will trigger further research into the development of various nanostructured MF x for use in energy storage and other applications.

  6. A new perspective on metals and other contaminants in fluoridation chemicals*

    PubMed Central

    Mullenix, Phyllis J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fluoride additives contain metal contaminants that must be diluted to meet drinking water regulations. However, each raw additive batch supplied to water facilities does not come labeled with concentrations per contaminant. This omission distorts exposure profiles and the risks associated with accidents and routine use. Objectives: This study provides an independent determination of the metal content of raw fluoride products. Methods: Metal concentrations were analyzed in three hydrofluorosilicic acid (HFS) and four sodium fluoride (NaF) samples using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Arsenic levels were confirmed using graphite furnace atomic absorption analysis. Results: Results show that metal content varies with batch, and all HFS samples contained arsenic (4.9–56.0 ppm) or arsenic in addition to lead (10.3 ppm). Two NaF samples contained barium (13.3–18.0 ppm) instead. All HFS (212–415 ppm) and NaF (3312–3630 ppm) additives contained a surprising amount of aluminum. Conclusions: Such contaminant content creates a regulatory blind spot that jeopardizes any safe use of fluoride additives. PMID:24999851

  7. The Effects of Gravity on the Crystallization Behavior of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Smith, Guy A.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metal fluoride glasses are used in such applications as fiber lasers and laser amplifiers. ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) is one of the more commonly used heavy metal fluoride glasses. ZBLAN is an infrared transmitter and has a theoretical attenuation coefficient of 0.002 db/km. However, due to impurities and small crystallites this attenuation coefficient has not been achieved to date. ZBLAN is a fragile glass which can lead to rapid crystallization, if the glass is not cooled rapidly to below the glass transition temperature or if the glass is reheated near the crystallization temperature for any period of time. Studies carried on at Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville since 1993 have shown that heating ZBLAN glass at the crystallization temperature in reduced gravity results in a suppression of crystallization when compared to ZBLAN processed in unit gravity. These studies utilized NASA's KC-135 aircraft and the Conquest sounding rocket. In the first series of experiments, short lengths of ZBLAN fiber were heated to the crystallization temperature in reduced gravity on board the KC- 135 and the Conquest sounding rocket and compared with fibers heated in unit gravity. The fibers processed in reduced gravity showed no evidence of crystallization when studied with x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. However, the fibers processed in unit gravity were completely crystallized. Subsequent experiments included heating small pieces of ZBLAN glass at the crystallization temperature while viewing with a video camera to follow the crystallization phenomenon. In this experiment crystallization was observed in reduced gravity, however, it was suppressed when compared to heating in unit gravity. In the most recent experiment on board the KC-135, rapid thermal analysis of ZBLAN was performed. A mechanism to explain the observations has been proposed. This mechanism is based on shear thinning whereby, the glass

  8. Musculoskeletal problems and fluoride exposure: A cross-sectional study among metal smelting workers.

    PubMed

    Saha, A; Mukherjee, A K; Ravichandran, B

    2016-09-01

    Frequent and repetitive activities in job and awkward postures are shown as major contributors of musculoskeletal problems in most of the occupational health studies; however, efforts to explore newer risk factor are important to plan interventional measures. In this backdrop, this study examined contribution of fluoride exposure to musculoskeletal complaints. A cross-sectional interviewer-administered questionnaire survey was conducted involving 180 randomly selected subjects from a metal smelting industry. Clinical examination of the subjects was also performed to assess their health status and morbidity details. Assessment of personal exposure to particulate and gaseous fluoride at workplace was conducted. Urinary fluoride level was also examined in post-shift samples collected from study subjects. The mean age of the study subjects was 39.1 (±6.7) years. Majority of the workers (42.5%) were engaged in pot room. About 54% workers were suffering from backache and 66% subjects had joint pain. Exposure of workers to both particulate and gaseous fluoride and post-working shift urinary fluoride level was significantly higher in pot-room workers in comparison with all other workers. It was observed that age (odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-2.34), drinking untreated water (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.03-2.76), working in pot room (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.13-1.91) and urinary fluoride level (OR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.81-3.75) had significant effects on musculoskeletal complaints. This study concludes that along with other predictors such as nature of work, posture at work and age of worker, exposure to fluoride also has significant role in the occurrence of musculoskeletal morbidity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Rare earth/iron fluoride and methods for making and using same

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Wheelock, John T.; Peterson, David T.

    1991-12-17

    A particulate mixture of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and RE.sub.2 O.sub.3, where RE is a rare earth element, is reacted with an excess of HF acid to form an insoluble fluoride compound (salt) comprising REF.sub.3 and FeF.sub.3 present in solid solution in the REF.sub.3 crystal lattice. The REF.sub.3 /FeF.sub.3 compound is dried to render it usable as a reactant in the thermite reduction process as well as other processes which require an REF.sub.3 /FeF.sub.3 mixture. The dried REF.sub.3 /FeF.sub.3 compound comprises about 5 weight % to about 40 weight % of FeF.sub.3 and the balance REF.sub.3 to this end.

  10. Formation Mechanism, Structural, and Upconversion Properties of Alkaline Rare-Earth Fluoride Nanocrystals Doped With Yb3+/Er3+ Ions.

    PubMed

    Grzyb, Tomasz; Przybylska, Dominika

    2018-06-04

    Ultrasmall (9-30 nm) Yb 3+ /Er 3+ -doped, upconverting alkaline rare-earth fluorides that are promising for future applications were synthesized by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The formation mechanism was proposed, indicating the influence of the stability of metal ions complexes with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on the composition of the product and tendency to form M 2 REF 7 (M 0.67 RE 0.33 F 2.33 ) cubic compounds in the M-RE-F systems. Their physicochemical properties (structure, morphology, and spectroscopic properties) are compared and discussed. The obtained nanoparticles exhibited emission of light in the visible spectra under excitation by 976 nm laser radiation. Excitation and emission spectra, luminescence decays, laser energy dependencies, and upconversion quantum yields were measured to determine the spectroscopic properties of prepared materials. The Yb 3+ /Er 3+ pair of ions used as dopants was responsible for an intense yellowish-green emission. The upconversion quantum yields determined for the first time for M 2 REF 7 -based materials were 0.0192 ± 0.001% and 0.0176 ± 0.001% for Sr 2 LuF 7 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ and Ba 2 LuF 7 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ respectively, the two best emitting samples. These results indicated the prepared materials are good and promising alternatives for the most studied NaYF 4 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ nanoparticles.

  11. PRODUCTION OF METALS

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.; Keller, W.H.

    1961-09-19

    A process is described producing metallic thorium, titanium, zirconium, or hafnium from the fluoride. In the process, the fluoride is reduced with alkali or alkaline earth metal and a booster compound (e.g. iodine or a decomposable oxysalt) in a sealed bomb at superatmospheric pressure and a temperature above the melting point of the metal to be produced.

  12. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Isotopic Yttrium-90-Labeled Rare Earth Fluoride Nanocrystals for Multimodal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Paik, Taejong; Chacko, Ann-Marie; Mikitsh, John L; Friedberg, Joseph S; Pryma, Daniel A; Murray, Christopher B

    2015-09-22

    Isotopically labeled nanomaterials have recently attracted much attention in biomedical research, environmental health studies, and clinical medicine because radioactive probes allow the elucidation of in vitro and in vivo cellular transport mechanisms, as well as the unambiguous distribution and localization of nanomaterials in vivo. In addition, nanocrystal-based inorganic materials have a unique capability of customizing size, shape, and composition; with the potential to be designed as multimodal imaging probes. Size and shape of nanocrystals can directly influence interactions with biological systems, hence it is important to develop synthetic methods to design radiolabeled nanocrystals with precise control of size and shape. Here, we report size- and shape-controlled synthesis of rare earth fluoride nanocrystals doped with the β-emitting radioisotope yttrium-90 ((90)Y). Size and shape of nanocrystals are tailored via tight control of reaction parameters and the type of rare earth hosts (e.g., Gd or Y) employed. Radiolabeled nanocrystals are synthesized in high radiochemical yield and purity as well as excellent radiolabel stability in the face of surface modification with different polymeric ligands. We demonstrate the Cerenkov radioluminescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging capabilities of (90)Y-doped GdF3 nanoplates, which offer unique opportunities as a promising platform for multimodal imaging and targeted therapy.

  13. Optimizing the performance of bandpass photon detectors for inverse photoemission: Transmission of alkaline earth fluoride window crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Thiede, Christian, E-mail: christian.thiede@uni-muenster.de; Schmidt, Anke B.; Donath, Markus

    2015-08-15

    Bandpass photon detectors are widely used in inverse photoemission in the isochromat mode at energies in the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral range. The energy bandpass of gas-filled counters is usually formed by the ionization threshold of the counting gas as high-pass filter and the transmission cutoff of an alkaline earth fluoride window as low-pass filter. The transmission characteristics of the window have, therefore, a crucial impact on the detector performance. We present transmission measurements in the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral range for alkaline earth fluoride window crystals in the vicinity of the transmission cutoff as a function of crystal purity, surface finish, surface contamination,more » temperature, and thickness. Our findings reveal that the transmission characteristics of the window crystal and, thus, the detector performance depend critically on these window parameters.« less

  14. Effects of Rare Earth Metals on Steel Microstructures

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hao-Long; Su, Yen-Hsun; Kuo, Chia-Liang; Su, Yen-Hao; Chen, Shin-Hau; Lin, Kuan-Ju; Hsieh, Ping-Hung; Hwang, Weng-Sing

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth metals are used in semiconductors, solar cells and catalysts. This review focuses on the background of oxide metallurgy technologies, the chemical and physical properties of rare earth (RE) metals, the background of oxide metallurgy, the functions of RE metals in steelmaking, and the influences of RE metals on steel microstructures. Future prospects for RE metal applications in steelmaking are also presented. PMID:28773545

  15. Ternary metal fluorides as high-energy cathodes with low cycling hysteresis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Kim, Sung-Wook; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Kang, Kisuk; Wang, Liping; Su, Dong; Vajo, John J.; Wang, John; Graetz, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal fluorides are an appealing alternative to conventional intercalation compounds for use as cathodes in next-generation lithium batteries due to their extremely high capacity (3–4 times greater than the current state-of-the-art). However, issues related to reversibility, energy efficiency and kinetics prevent their practical application. Here we report on the synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of ternary metal fluorides (M1yM21-yFx: M1, M2=Fe, Cu), which may overcome these issues. By substituting Cu into the Fe lattice, forming the solid–solution CuyFe1-yF2, reversible Cu and Fe redox reactions are achieved with surprisingly small hysteresis (<150 mV). This finding indicates that cation substitution may provide a new avenue for tailoring key electrochemical properties of conversion electrodes. Although the reversible capacity of Cu conversion fades rapidly, likely due to Cu+ dissolution, the low hysteresis and high energy suggest that a Cu-based fluoride cathode remains an intriguing candidate for rechargeable lithium batteries. PMID:25808876

  16. Ternary metal fluorides as high-energy cathodes with low cycling hysteresis

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Feng; Kim, Sung -Wook; Seo, Dong -Hwa; ...

    2015-03-26

    In this study, transition metal fluorides are an appealing alternative to conventional intercalation compounds for use as cathodes in next-generation lithium batteries due to their extremely high capacity (3–4 times greater than the current state-of-the-art). However, issues related to reversibility, energy efficiency and kinetics prevent their practical application. Here we report on the synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of ternary metal fluorides (M 1 yM 2 1-yF x: M 1, M 2 = Fe, Cu), which may overcome these issues. By substituting Cu into the Fe lattice, forming the solid–solution Cu yFe 1-yF 2, reversible Cu and Fe redox reactionsmore » are achieved with surprisingly small hysteresis (<150 mV). This finding indicates that cation substitution may provide a new avenue for tailoring key electrochemical properties of conversion electrodes. In conclusion, although the reversible capacity of Cu conversion fades rapidly, likely due to Cu + dissolution, the low hysteresis and high energy suggest that a Cu-based fluoride cathode remains an intriguing candidate for rechargeable lithium batteries.« less

  17. NMR parameters in column 13 metal fluoride compounds (AlF₃, GaF₃, InF₃ and TlF) from first principle calculations.

    PubMed

    Sadoc, Aymeric; Biswal, Mamata; Body, Monique; Legein, Christophe; Boucher, Florent; Massiot, Dominique; Fayon, Franck

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the experimental (19)F isotropic chemical shift and the (19)F isotropic shielding calculated using the gauge including projector augmented-wave (GIPAW) method with PBE functional is investigated in the case of GaF3, InF3, TlF and several AlF3 polymorphs. It is shown that the linear correlation between experimental and DFT-PBE calculated values previously established on alkali, alkaline earth and rare earth of column 3 basic fluorides (Sadoc et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13 (2011) 18539-18550) remains valid in the case of column 13 metal fluorides, indicating that it allows predicting (19)F solid state NMR spectra of a broad range of crystalline fluorides with a relatively good accuracy. For the isostructural α-AlF3, GaF3 and InF3 phases, PBE-DFT geometry optimization leads to noticeably overbended M-F-M bond angles and underestimated (27)Al, (71)Ga and (115)In calculated quadrupolar coupling constants. For the studied compounds, whose structures are built of corner shared MF6 octahedra, it is shown that the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor at the cationic sites is not related to distortions of the octahedral units, in contrast to what previously observed for isolated AlF6 octahedra in fluoroaluminates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. METHOD OF MAKING ALLOYS OF SECOND RARE EARTH SERIES METALS

    DOEpatents

    Baker, R.D.; Hayward, B.R.

    1963-01-01

    >This invention relates to a process for alloying the second rare earth series metals with Mo, Nb, or Zr. A halide of the rare earth metal is mixed with about 1 to 20 at.% of an oxide of Mo, Nb, or Zr. Iodine and an alkali or alkaline earth metal are added, and the resulting mixture is heated in an inert atmosphere to 350 deg C. (AEC)

  19. Commercial Production of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass Fiber in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1998-01-01

    International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will provide a platform not only for materials research but also a possible means to produce products in space which cannot be easily produced on the ground. Some products may even be superior to those now produced in unit gravity due to the lack of gravity induced convection effects. Our research with ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN glass) has shown that gravity does indeed play a major role in the crystallization behavior of this material. At the present time ZBLAN is being produced on earth in fiber optic form for use in surgical lasers and fiber optic lasers among other applications. High attenuation coefficients, however, have kept this material from being used in other applications such as long haul data transmission links. The high attenuation coefficients are due to impurities which can be removed through improved processing techniques and crystals which can only be removed or prevented from forming by processing in a reduced gravity environment.

  20. Ionic conductivity of binary fluorides of potassium and rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, N. I., E-mail: nsorokin1@yandex.ru

    2016-01-15

    The ionic conductivity s of KYF{sub 4} and K{sub 2}RF{sub 5} single crystals (R = Gd, Ho, Er) and KNdF{sub 4} and K{sub 2}RF{sub 5} ceramic samples (R = Dy, Er) has been studied in the temperature range of 340–500°C. A comparative analysis of the σ values for these objects has been performed. Binary fluorides of potassium and rare earth elements were synthesized by the hydrothermal method (temperature 480°C, pressure 100–150 MPa) in the R{sub 2}O{sub 3}–KF–H{sub 2}O systems. The σ values of tetraf luorides are 3 × 10{sup –5} S/cm (KYF{sub 4} single crystal) and 3 × 10{sup –6}more » S/cm (KNdF{sub 4} ceramics) at 435°C. A K{sub 2}ErF{sub 5} single crystal with σ = 1.2 × 10{sup –4} S/cm at 435°C has the maximum value of ionic conductivity among pentafluorides. The anisotropy of ionic transport was found in K{sub 2}HoF{sub 5} single crystals, σ{sub ∥c}/σ{sub ⊥c} = 2.5, where σ{sub ∥c} and σ{sub ⊥c} are, respectively, the conductivities along the crystallographic c axis and in the perpendicular direction.« less

  1. Synthesis of metal-fluoride nanoparticles supported on thermally reduced graphite oxide.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Alexa; Schütte, Kai; Ilievski, Vesko; Barthel, Juri; Burk, Laura; Mülhaupt, Rolf; Yue, Junpei; Smarsly, Bernd; Janiak, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Metal-fluoride nanoparticles, (MF x -NPs) with M = Fe, Co, Pr, Eu, supported on different types of thermally reduced graphite oxide (TRGO) were obtained by microwave-assisted thermal decomposition of transition-metal amidinates, (M{MeC[N(iPr)] 2 } n ) or [M(AMD) n ] with M = Fe(II), Co(II), Pr(III), and tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)europium, Eu(dpm) 3 , in the presence of TRGO in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF 4 ]). The crystalline phases of the metal fluorides synthesized in [BMIm][BF 4 ] were identified by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) to be MF 2 for M = Fe, Co and MF 3 for M = Eu, Pr. The diameters and size distributions of MF x @TRGO were from (6 ± 2) to (102 ± 41) nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for further characterization of the MF x -NPs. Electrochemical investigations of the FeF 2 -NPs@TRGO as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries were evaluated by galvanostatic charge/discharge profiles. The results indicate that the FeF 2 -NPs@TRGO as cathode material can present a specific capacity of 500 mAh/g at a current density of 50 mA/g, including a significant interfacial charge storage contribution. The obtained nanomaterials show a good rate capacity as well (220 mAh/g and 130 mAh/g) at a current density of 200 and 500 mA/g, respectively.

  2. Near-Earth asteroids: Metals occurrence, extraction, and fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westfall, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Near-earth asteroids occur in three principle types of orbits: Amor, Apollo, and Aten. Amor asteroids make relatively close (within 0.3 AU) approaches to the earth's orbit, but do not actually overlap it. Apollo asteroids spend most of their time outside the earth's orbital path, but at some point of close approach to the sun, they cross the orbit of the earth. Aten asteroids are those whose orbits remain inside the earth's path for the majority of their time, with semi-major axes less than 0.1 AU. Near-earth orbit asteroids include: stones, stony-irons, irons, carbonaceous, and super-carbonaceous. Metals within these asteroids include: iron, nickel, cobalt, the platinum group, aluminum, titanium, and others. Focus is on the extraction of ferrous and platinum group metals from the stony-iron asteroids, and the iron asteroids. Extraction of the metal fraction can be accomplished through the use of tunnel-boring-machines (TBM) in the case of the stony-irons. The metals within the story-iron asteroids occur as dispersed granules, which can be separated from the stony fraction through magnetic and gaseous digestion separation techniques. The metal asteroids are processes by drilling and gaseous digestion or by gaseous digestion alone. Manufacturing of structures, housings, framing networks, pressure vessels, mirrors, and other products is accomplished through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal coating on advanced composites and on the inside of contour-defining inflatables (CDI). Metal coatings on advanced composites provide: resistance to degradation in the hostile environments of space; superior optical properties; superior heat dissipation; service as wear coatings; and service as evidential coatings. Metal coatings on the inside of CDI produce metal load-bearing products. Fibers such as graphite, kevlar, glass, ceramic, metal, etc., can be incorporated in the metal coatings on the inside of CDI producing metal matrix products which exhibit high strength

  3. Near-Earth asteroids: Metals occurrence, extraction, and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westfall, Richard

    Near-earth asteroids occur in three principle types of orbits: Amor, Apollo, and Aten. Amor asteroids make relatively close (within 0.3 AU) approaches to the earth's orbit, but do not actually overlap it. Apollo asteroids spend most of their time outside the earth's orbital path, but at some point of close approach to the sun, they cross the orbit of the earth. Aten asteroids are those whose orbits remain inside the earth's path for the majority of their time, with semi-major axes less than 0.1 AU. Near-earth orbit asteroids include: stones, stony-irons, irons, carbonaceous, and super-carbonaceous. Metals within these asteroids include: iron, nickel, cobalt, the platinum group, aluminum, titanium, and others. Focus is on the extraction of ferrous and platinum group metals from the stony-iron asteroids, and the iron asteroids. Extraction of the metal fraction can be accomplished through the use of tunnel-boring-machines (TBM) in the case of the stony-irons. The metals within the story-iron asteroids occur as dispersed granules, which can be separated from the stony fraction through magnetic and gaseous digestion separation techniques. The metal asteroids are processes by drilling and gaseous digestion or by gaseous digestion alone. Manufacturing of structures, housings, framing networks, pressure vessels, mirrors, and other products is accomplished through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal coating on advanced composites and on the inside of contour-defining inflatables (CDI). Metal coatings on advanced composites provide: resistance to degradation in the hostile environments of space; superior optical properties; superior heat dissipation; service as wear coatings; and service as evidential coatings. Metal coatings on the inside of CDI produce metal load-bearing products. Fibers such as graphite, kevlar, glass, ceramic, metal, etc., can be incorporated in the metal coatings on the inside of CDI producing metal matrix products which exhibit high strength

  4. Zinc metal complex as a sensor for simultaneous detection of fluoride and HSO4(-) ions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasminder; Yadav, Manisha; Singh, Ajnesh; Singh, Narinder

    2015-07-28

    A Schiff base based tripodal receptor was synthesized and complexed with a zinc metal ion (n17) using a very easy single step process. The resulting complex was fully characterized by CHN and single crystal XRD. The real time application of the complex in aqueous media was devised by preparing its organic nanoparticles (ONPs) and their sensor activity was tested with various anions by observing changes in the fluorescence profile of n17. It was observed that ONPs of n17 responded excellently for fluoride and sulfate, producing two different signals, with detection limits of 4.84 × 10(-12) M and 5.67 × 10(-9) M respectively, without having any interference from each other. The real time application of the sensor was also tested using various samples collected from various daily utility items and found to respond exceptionally well.

  5. Highly sensitive and selective fluoride detection in water through fluorophore release from a metal-organic framework

    PubMed Central

    Hinterholzinger, Florian M.; Rühle, Bastian; Wuttke, Stefan; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Bein, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The detection, differentiation and visualization of compounds such as gases, liquids or ions are key challenges for the design of selective optical chemosensors. Optical chemical sensors employ a transduction mechanism that converts a specific analyte recognition event into an optical signal. Here we report a novel concept for fluoride ion sensing where a porous crystalline framework serves as a host for a fluorescent reporter molecule. The detection is based on the decomposition of the host scaffold which induces the release of the fluorescent dye molecule. Specifically, the hybrid composite of the metal-organic framework NH2-MIL-101(Al) and fluorescein acting as reporter shows an exceptional turn-on fluorescence in aqueous fluoride-containing solutions. Using this novel strategy, the optical detection of fluoride is extremely sensitive and highly selective in the presence of many other anions. PMID:24008779

  6. Crystallographic phases in heavy rare earth metals under megabar pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samudrala, G. K.; Vohra, Y. K.

    2012-07-01

    Experiments aimed at understanding the crystallographic phases of heavy rare earth metals were carried out in a diamond anvil cell at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. Heavy rare earth metals dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er) and thulium (Tm) were compressed to multi-megabar pressures. The rare earth crystal sequence hcp→Sm-type→dhcp→distorted-fcc (dfcc) is observed in all four elements. Upon further compression, a structural transformation to a monoclinic C2/m phase has been observed. We summarize the results from these experiments and present Rietveld structural refinements on high pressure phases for the specific case of dysprosium.

  7. Recent trends in binary and ternary rare-earth fluoride nanophosphors: How structural and physical properties influence optical behaviour

    DOE PAGES

    Sharma, Rahul Kumar; Mudring, Anja -Verena; Ghosh, Pushpal

    2017-03-28

    Rare-earth (RE) doped binary and ternary fluoride nanomaterials are currently receiving the highest attention as phosphor materials due to their potential for a wide range of photonic and biophotonic applications. This review article aims providing and introduction to the field and giving a critical overview about the latest developments in this fast evolving field. First, the underlying photoluminescence mechanisms like up- and downconversion (UC and DC), charge transfer (CT) and energy transfer (ET) between optically active trivalent RE ions are explained. Then, the influence of particle size and surface, shape and lattice strain, as well as the crystal phase ofmore » the host materials on the optical properties of rare earth based nanomaterias are illustrated. In addition, the effect of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the rare earth luminescence is discussed. In the following, different synthesis strategies which have been developed for tuning the crystal phase, shape, size, and morphology of the host nanomaterial are presented. The role of surface modification and functionalization for improving the luminescence intensity, stability, aqueous dispersity/dispersibility and biocompatibility of the materials is discussed. Lastly, photonic applications of RE-doped nanofluorides for energy efficient lighting, improved solar cells and biophotonic applications like photodynamic therapy, and biological detection techniques including in vivo and in vitro bioimaging are presented.« less

  8. Recent trends in binary and ternary rare-earth fluoride nanophosphors: How structural and physical properties influence optical behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Rahul Kumar; Mudring, Anja -Verena; Ghosh, Pushpal

    Rare-earth (RE) doped binary and ternary fluoride nanomaterials are currently receiving the highest attention as phosphor materials due to their potential for a wide range of photonic and biophotonic applications. This review article aims providing and introduction to the field and giving a critical overview about the latest developments in this fast evolving field. First, the underlying photoluminescence mechanisms like up- and downconversion (UC and DC), charge transfer (CT) and energy transfer (ET) between optically active trivalent RE ions are explained. Then, the influence of particle size and surface, shape and lattice strain, as well as the crystal phase ofmore » the host materials on the optical properties of rare earth based nanomaterias are illustrated. In addition, the effect of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the rare earth luminescence is discussed. In the following, different synthesis strategies which have been developed for tuning the crystal phase, shape, size, and morphology of the host nanomaterial are presented. The role of surface modification and functionalization for improving the luminescence intensity, stability, aqueous dispersity/dispersibility and biocompatibility of the materials is discussed. Lastly, photonic applications of RE-doped nanofluorides for energy efficient lighting, improved solar cells and biophotonic applications like photodynamic therapy, and biological detection techniques including in vivo and in vitro bioimaging are presented.« less

  9. Syntheses and structures of alkaline earth metal bis(diphenylamides).

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Martin; Fischer, Reinald; Langer, Jens; Görls, Helmar; Walther, Dirk; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2007-06-11

    Various preparative procedures are employed in order to synthesize alkaline earth metal bis(diphenylamides) such as (i) metalation of HNPh2 with the alkaline earth metal M, (ii) metalation of HNPh2 with MPh2, (iii) metathesis reaction of MI2 with KNPh2, (iv) metalation of HNPh2 with PhMI in THF, and (v) metathesis reaction of PhMI with KNPh2 followed by a dismutation reaction yielding MPh2 and M(NPh2)2. The magnesium compounds [(diox)MgPh2]infinity (1) and (thf)2Mg(NPh2)2 (2) show tetracoordinate metal atoms, whereas in (dme)2Ca(NPh2)2 (3), (thf)4Sr(NPh2)2 (4), and (thf)4Ba(NPh2)2 (5) the metals are 6-fold coordinated. Additional agostic interactions between an ipso-carbon of one of the phenyl groups of the amide ligand and the alkaline earth metal atom lead to unsymmetric coordination of the NPh2 anions with two strongly different M-N-C angles in 3-5.

  10. Rare-Earth Metals and Their Applications in Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    metals are not as common as iron and steel which are visible everywhere, yet they are not unfamiliar to us. We often encounter them in everyday life...the flint of a lighter. It is an alloy of rare-earth metal and iron . It contains about 30% iron and the remainder is a composite rare-earth alloy...used to manufacture the detonators of bullets and shells as well as the pyrophoric alloys of firing devices. This type of alloy has a 49.5% content of

  11. Recovery of protactinium from molten fluoride nuclear fuel compositions

    DOEpatents

    Baes, C.F. Jr.; Bamberger, C.; Ross, R.G.

    1973-12-25

    A method is provided for separating protactinium from a molten fluonlde salt composition consisting essentially of at least one alkali and alkaline earth metal fluoride and at least one soluble fluoride of uranium or thorium which comprises oxidizing the protactinium in said composition to the + 5 oxidation state and contacting said composition with an oxide selected from the group consisting of an alkali metal oxide, an alkaline earth oxide, thorium oxide, and uranium oxide, and thereafter isolating the resultant insoluble protactinium oxide product from said composition. (Official Gazette)

  12. Charge-separated and molecular heterobimetallic rare earth-rare earth and alkaline earth-rare earth aryloxo complexes featuring intramolecular metal-pi-arene interactions.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Glen B; Junk, Peter C; Moxey, Graeme J; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin; St Prix, Courtney; Zuniga, Maria F

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of a rare earth metal (Ln) and a potential divalent rare earth metal (Ln') or an alkaline earth metal (Ae) with 2,6-diphenylphenol (HOdpp) at elevated temperatures (200-250 degrees C) afforded heterobimetallic aryloxo complexes, which were structurally characterised. A charge-separated species [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)][Ln(Odpp)(4)] was obtained for a range of metals, demonstrating the similarities between the chemistry of the divalent rare earth metals and the alkaline earth metals. The [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)](+) cation in the heterobimetallic structures is unusual in that it consists solely of bridging aryloxide ligands. A molecular heterobimetallic species [AeEu(Odpp)(4)] (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba) was obtained by treating an alkaline earth metal and Eu metal with HOdpp at elevated temperatures. Similarly, [BaSr(Odpp)(4)] was prepared by treating Ba metal and Sr metal with HOdpp. Treatment of [Ba(2)(Odpp)(4)] with [Mg(Odpp)(2)(thf)(2)] in toluene afforded [Ba(2)(Odpp)(3)][Mg(Odpp)(3)(thf)]. Analogous solution-based syntheses were not possible for [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)][Ln(Odpp)(4)] complexes, for which the free-metal route was essential. As a result of the absence of additional donor ligands, the crystal structures of the heterobimetallic complexes feature extensive pi-Ph-metal interactions involving the pendant phenyl groups of the Odpp ligands, thus enabling the large electropositive metal atoms to attain coordination saturation. The charge-separated heterobimetallic species were purified by extraction with toluene/thf mixtures at ambient temperature (Ba-containing compounds) or by extraction with toluene under pressure above the boiling point of the solvent (other products). In donor solvents, heterobimetallic complexes other than those containing barium were found to fragment into homometallic species.

  13. Excellent fluoride decontamination and antibacterial efficacy of Fe-Ca-Zr hybrid metal oxide nanomaterial.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Ankita; Nair, Manjula; Bhargava, Suresh K; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop an efficient nanomaterial for the removal of fluoride and disinfection of harmful bacteria in order to make water potable according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. Hydrous hybrid Fe-Ca-Zr oxide nanoadsorbent presented a marked fluoride adsorption capacity of 250 mg/g at pH 7.0 (±0.1) much greater than other commercially accessible adsorbents for both synthetic and real water samples. The adsorption isotherms, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) fitted reasonably well fine having high coefficient of regression values. The adsorption of fluoride was established well using pseudo-second-order kinetics. The fluoride loaded adsorbent was efficiently regenerated by using an alkali solution. Interestingly, the developed nanomaterial not only showed excellent fluoride removal capacity but also demonstrated good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with IC50 (25 μg/mL). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative analysis of activator-Eσ54 complexes formed with nucleotide-metal fluoride analogues

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Patricia C.; Joly, Nicolas; Nixon, B. Tracy; Buck, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) containing the major variant σ54 factor forms open promoter complexes in a reaction in which specialized activator proteins hydrolyse ATP. Here we probe binding interactions between σ54-RNAP (Eσ54) and the ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) domain of the Escherichia coli activator protein, PspF, using nucleotide-metal fluoride (BeF and AlF) analogues representing ground and transition states of ATP, which allow complexes (that are otherwise too transient with ATP) to be captured. We show that the organization and functionality of the ADP–BeF- and ADP–AlF-dependent complexes greatly overlap. Our data support an activation pathway in which the initial ATP-dependent binding of the activator to the Eσ54 closed complex results in the re-organization of Eσ54 with respect to the transcription start-site. However, the nucleotide-dependent binding interactions between the activator and the Eσ54 closed complex are in themselves insufficient for forming open promoter complexes when linear double-stranded DNA is present in the initial closed complex. PMID:19553192

  15. Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride Nanoparticles And Hydrothermal Method For Forming Nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, John L.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2003-12-23

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  16. Rare earth oxide fluoride nanoparticles and hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, John L [Richland, WA; Hoffmann, Markus M [Richland, WA

    2001-11-13

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  17. Fluoride mechanisms.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M; van Loveren, C

    1999-10-01

    This article discusses fluoride mechanisms in relation to dental caries. The authors specifically address firmly bound versus loosely bound fluoride; different fluoride active ingredients; fluoride and demineralization and remineralization; fluoride slow-release devices and F-releasing dental materials; antimicrobial effects of fluoride; the uptake of fluoride by oral bacteria; inhibition of enolase, protein-intruding ATPase and sugar transport; the various aspects of plaque as it relates to fluoride; and the rational use of fluoride.

  18. Chromium chains as polydentate fluoride ligands for actinides and group IV metals.

    PubMed

    Leng, Ji-Dong; Kostopoulos, Andreas K; Isherwood, Liam H; Ariciu, Ana-Maria; Tuna, Floriana; Vitórica-Yrezábal, Iñigo J; Pritchard, Robin G; Whitehead, George F S; Timco, Grigore A; Mills, David P; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2018-05-08

    The reactions of {Cr6} horseshoe chains {[nPr2NH2]3[Cr6F11(O2CtBu)10]}2, 1 and precursors of actinides and group IV metals led to a series of ring complexes [nPr2NH2][Cr7TiF6O2(O2CtBu)16], 2, [nPr2NH2][Cr6Ti2F5O3(O2CtBu)16], 3, [Cr6ThF7(O2CtBu)15 (Me2SO)], 4, [(nPr2NH2)2(Cr6Th2F12(O2CtBu)16)], 5 and [nPr2NH2][Cr6U2O2F8(O2CtBu)16(Me2SO)], 6. X-ray structure studies indicate that the {Cr6} chains maintain their structures in these complexes, acting as polydentate fluoride ligands. Their static magnetic properties were measured and fitted by isotropic exchange Hamiltonian. In accordance with 1, the magnetic exchanges between CrIII are antiferromagnetic, while the exchange interactions can be modified by the tetravalent metals. For compound 6, ferromagnetic exchanges JCr-U and JU-U are obtained. EPR spectra of compounds 2-5 were measured at Q band and were simulated. The spectrum of 2 has the same profile as {Cr7Cd} and {Cr7Zn} rings with a ground state S = 3/2. 3, 4 and 5 give similar EPR spectra with S = 0 ground states.

  19. Syntheses of Eu-Activated Alkaline Earth Fluoride MF2 (M=Ca, Sr) Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Byung-Chul; Kawano, Katsuyasu

    2007-09-01

    The Eu2+ ion-activated CaF2 and SrF2 nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel technique assisted with the trifluoro-acetic acid (TFA), and were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observation. A modified reducing method based on the thermal-carbon reducing atmosphere (TCRA) treatment using activated carbon was proposed to realize the effective reduction from Eu3+ to Eu2+ ions, in which the nanoparticles showed a strong and broad luminescence due to the parity allowed 4f7-4f65d1 transition. From the XRD results, it was found that the average particle size proportionally increased in the range of 15 to 120 nm and 10 to 100 nm for CaF2 and SrF2, respectively, with increasing sintering temperatures 300-700 °C. The surface images of nanoparticles obtained by the AFM revealed that the grains with high uniformity grew with increasing TCRA temperatures. It was confirmed that the reduced Eu2+ ions were homogeneously dispersed with the critical distance 16-17 Å in the fluoride nanoparticles from the concentration quenching results.

  20. Structural characterization of metal complexes in aqueous solutions: a XAS study of stannous fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Alsina, Marco A.; Gaillard, Jean-François

    The identity and structure of tin(ii)-fluoride complexes formed in aqueous solutions are determined by combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy, thermodynamic modeling and quantum mechanical calculations.

  1. X-ray diffraction studies of phase transformations in heavy-metal fluoride glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, N. P.; Doremus, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry studies of the crystallization properties of five ZrF4-based glass compositions have indicated that the crystalline phase in Zr-Ba-La-Pb fluoride glass is beta-BaZrF6; no such identification of crystal phases was obtainable, however, for the other glasses. Reversible polymorphic phase transformations occur in Zr-Ba-La-Li and Zr-Ba-La-Na fluoride glasses, upon heating to higher temperatures.

  2. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.; Jones, Lawrence L.; Lincoln, Lanny P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets.

  3. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.; Lincoln, L.P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. 3 figs.

  4. Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles and Metal Fluoride Nanoparticles from Metal Amidinate Precursors in 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Ionic Liquids and Propylene Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Schütte, Kai; Barthel, Juri; Endres, Manuel; Siebels, Marvin; Smarsly, Bernd M; Yue, Junpei; Janiak, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Decomposition of transition-metal amidinates [M{MeC(N i Pr) 2 } n ] [M(AMD) n ; M=Mn II , Fe II , Co II , Ni II , n= 2; Cu I , n= 1) induced by microwave heating in the ionic liquids (ILs) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF 4 ]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF 6 ]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) ([BMIm][TfO]), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate ([BMIm][Tos]) or in propylene carbonate (PC) gives transition-metal nanoparticles (M-NPs) in non-fluorous media (e.g. [BMIm][Tos] and PC) or metal fluoride nanoparticles (MF 2 -NPs) for M=Mn, Fe, and Co in [BMIm][BF 4 ]. FeF 2 -NPs can be prepared upon Fe(AMD) 2 decomposition in [BMIm][BF 4 ], [BMIm][PF 6 ], and [BMIm][TfO]. The nanoparticles are stable in the absence of capping ligands (surfactants) for more than 6 weeks. The crystalline phases of the metal or metal fluoride synthesized in [BMIm][BF 4 ] were identified by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) to exclusively Ni- and Cu-NPs or to solely MF 2 -NPs for M=Mn, Fe, and Co. The size and size dispersion of the nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to an average diameter of 2(±2) to 14(±4) nm for the M-NPs, except for the Cu-NPs in PC, which were 51(±8) nm. The MF 2 -NPs from [BMIm][BF 4 ] were 15(±4) to 65(±18) nm. The average diameter from TEM is in fair agreement with the size evaluated from PXRD with the Scherrer equation. The characterization was complemented by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Electrochemical investigations of the CoF 2 -NPs as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries were simply evaluated by galvanostatic charge/discharge profiles, and the results indicated that the reversible capacity of the CoF 2 -NPs was much lower than the theoretical value, which may have originated from the complex conversion reaction mechanism and residue on the surface of the nanoparticles.

  5. Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles and Metal Fluoride Nanoparticles from Metal Amidinate Precursors in 1‐Butyl‐3‐Methylimidazolium Ionic Liquids and Propylene Carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Schütte, Kai; Barthel, Juri; Endres, Manuel; Siebels, Marvin; Smarsly, Bernd M.; Yue, Junpei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Decomposition of transition‐metal amidinates [M{MeC(NiPr)2}n] [M(AMD)n; M=MnII, FeII, CoII, NiII, n=2; CuI, n=1) induced by microwave heating in the ionic liquids (ILs) 1‐butyl‐3‐methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF4]), 1‐butyl‐3‐methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6]), 1‐butyl‐3‐methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate) ([BMIm][TfO]), and 1‐butyl‐3‐methylimidazolium tosylate ([BMIm][Tos]) or in propylene carbonate (PC) gives transition‐metal nanoparticles (M‐NPs) in non‐fluorous media (e.g. [BMIm][Tos] and PC) or metal fluoride nanoparticles (MF2‐NPs) for M=Mn, Fe, and Co in [BMIm][BF4]. FeF2‐NPs can be prepared upon Fe(AMD)2 decomposition in [BMIm][BF4], [BMIm][PF6], and [BMIm][TfO]. The nanoparticles are stable in the absence of capping ligands (surfactants) for more than 6 weeks. The crystalline phases of the metal or metal fluoride synthesized in [BMIm][BF4] were identified by powder X‐ray diffraction (PXRD) to exclusively Ni‐ and Cu‐NPs or to solely MF2‐NPs for M=Mn, Fe, and Co. The size and size dispersion of the nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to an average diameter of 2(±2) to 14(±4) nm for the M‐NPs, except for the Cu‐NPs in PC, which were 51(±8) nm. The MF2‐NPs from [BMIm][BF4] were 15(±4) to 65(±18) nm. The average diameter from TEM is in fair agreement with the size evaluated from PXRD with the Scherrer equation. The characterization was complemented by energy‐dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy (EDX). Electrochemical investigations of the CoF2‐NPs as cathode materials for lithium‐ion batteries were simply evaluated by galvanostatic charge/discharge profiles, and the results indicated that the reversible capacity of the CoF2‐NPs was much lower than the theoretical value, which may have originated from the complex conversion reaction mechanism and residue on the surface of the nanoparticles. PMID:28168159

  6. Dynamical Correlation In Some Liquid Alkaline Earth Metals Near Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakore, B. Y.; Suthar, P. H.; Khambholja, S. G.; Gajjar, P. N.; Jani, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    The study of dynamical variables: velocity autocorrelation function (VACF) and power spectrum of liquid alkaline earth metals (Ca, Sr, and Ba) have been presented based on the static harmonic well approximation. The effective interatomic potential for liquid metals is computed using our well recognized model potential with the exchange correlation functions due to Hartree, Taylor, Ichimaru and Utsumi, Farid et al. and Sarkar et al. It is observed that the VACF computed using Sarkar et al. gives the good agreement with available molecular dynamics simulation (MD) results [Phys Rev. B 62, 14818 (2000)]. The shoulder of the power spectrum depends upon the type of local field correlation function used.

  7. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  15. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting under...

  17. Metal Based Synthetic Strategies and the Examination of Structure Determining Factors in Alkaline Earth Metal Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuriko

    Last decades have witnessed a large expansion of the organometallic heavier alkaline earth metal species. However, continued growth of this promising area of chemistry has been slowed by severe restrictions and limitations in viable synthetic methodologies leading to difficulties in preparing and characterizing the target compounds. There is clearly a need for the further development of synthetic methodologies and detailed structure function analysis that will promote the further advancement of organoalkaline earth metal chemistry in applications as diverse as materials chemistry and catalysis. This thesis work greatly extends the synthetic options currently available towards organoalkaline earth metal species by introducing redox transmetallation protolysis (RTP), a reaction based on the readily available Ph3Bi as a non-toxic transmetallation agent. Based on a straightforward one-pot procedure and work-up, Ph3Bi based RTP presents a powerful synthetic alternative for the facile preparation of a large variety of heavy alkaline earth metal compounds. The second part of the thesis explores the effect of secondary non covalent interactions on the coordination chemistry as well as thermal properties of a series of novel alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth as well as heterobimetallic alkali/alkaline earth fluoroalkoxides. These compounds showcase the significance of non-covalent M···F-C and agostic interactions on metal stabilization and structural features, providing critical input on ligand design for the design of advanced metal organic vapor deposition (MOCVD) precursor materials. This work also showcases the impact of M···F-C interactions over M---co-ligand coordination, a critical precursor design element as well.

  18. Pentadienyl chemistry of the heavy alkaline-earth metals revisited.

    PubMed

    Reiners, Matthias; Fecker, Ann Christin; Freytag, Matthias; Jones, Peter G; Walter, Marc D

    2014-05-14

    Open-metallocenes of the heavy alkaline-earth metals [(η(5)-Pdl')2M(thf)n] (M = Ca (1), Sr (2), n = 1; M = Ba (3), n = 2; Pdl' = 2,4-tBu2C5H5) are readily prepared by salt-metathesis between MI2 and KPdl' and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies.

  19. Metal sulfide and rare-earth phosphate nanostructures and methods of making same

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Stanislaus; Zhang, Fen

    2016-06-28

    The present invention provides a method of producing a crystalline rare earth phosphate nanostructure. The method comprising: providing a rare earth metal precursor solution and providing a phosphate precursor solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal precursor solution and the phosphate precursor solution, wherein metal cations of the metal precursor solution and phosphate ions of the phosphate precursor solution react, thereby producing a crystalline rare earth metal phosphate nanostructure.

  20. Process for converting magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, A.B.; Palmer, D.A.

    1984-12-21

    This invention is a process for the conversion of magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride whereby magnesium fluoride is decomposed by heating in the presence of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Magnesium fluoride is a by-product of the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride to form uranium metal and has no known commercial use, thus its production creates a significant storage problem. The advantage of this invention is that the quality of calcium fluoride produced is sufficient to be used in the industrial manufacture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, steel mill flux or ceramic applications.

  1. Ferroelectric fluoride compositions and methods of making and using same

    DOEpatents

    Halasyamani, P Shiv; Chang, Hong-Young

    2015-04-07

    A method for synthesis of a ferroelectric material characterized by the general formula A.sub.xB.sub.yF.sub.z where A is an alkaline earth metal, B is transition metal or a main group metal, x and y each range from about 1 to about 5, and z ranges from about 1 to about 20 comprising contacting an alkaline earth metal fluoride, a difluorometal compound and a fluoroorganic acid in a medium to form a reaction mixture; and subjecting the reaction mixture to conditions suitable for hydrothermal crystal growth.

  2. Visualization of melanoma tumor with lectin-conjugated rare-earth doped fluoride nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Dumych, Tetiana; Lutsyk, Maxym; Banski, Mateusz; Yashchenko, Antonina; Sojka, Bartlomiej; Horbay, Rostyslav; Lutsyk, Alexander; Stoika, Rostyslav; Misiewicz, Jan; Podhorodecki, Artur; Bilyy, Rostyslav

    2014-01-01

    Aim To develop specific fluorescent markers for melanoma tumor visualization, which would provide high selectivity and reversible binding pattern, by the use of carbohydrate-recognizing proteins, lectins, combined with the physical ability for imaging deep in the living tissues by utilizing red and near infrared fluorescent properties of specific rare-earth doped nanocrystals (NC). Methods B10F16 melanoma cells were inoculated to C57BL/6 mice for inducing experimental melanoma tumor. Tumors were removed and analyzed by lectin-histochemistry using LABA, PFA, PNA, HPA, SNA, GNA, and NPL lectins and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. NPL lectin was conjugated to fluorescent NaGdF4:Eu3+-COOH nanoparticles (5 nm) via zero length cross-linking reaction, and the conjugates were purified from unbound substances and then used for further visualization of histological samples. Fluorescent microscopy was used to visualize NPL-NaGdF4:Eu3+ with the fluorescent emission at 600-720 nm range. Results NPL lectin selectively recognized regions of undifferentiated melanoblasts surrounding neoangiogenic foci inside melanoma tumor, PNA lectin recognized differentiated melanoblasts, and LCA and WGA were bound to tumor stroma regions. NPL-NaGdF4:Eu3+ conjugated NC were efficiently detecting newly formed regions of melanoma tumor, confirmed by fluorescent microscopy in visible and near infrared mode. These conjugates possessed high photostability and were compatible with convenient xylene-based mounting systems and preserved intensive fluorescent signal at samples storage for at least 6 months. Conclusion NPL lectin-NaGdF4:Eu3+ conjugated NC permitted distinct identification of contours of the melanoma tissue on histological sections using red excitation at 590-610 nm and near infrared emission of 700-720 nm. These data are of potential practical significance for development of glycans-conjugated nanoparticles to be used for in vivo visualization of melanoma tumor. PMID:24891277

  3. Evaluation of shielding parameters for heavy metal fluoride based tellurite-rich glasses for gamma ray shielding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyed, M. I.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Kityk, I. V.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we have evaluated the γ-ray shielding parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Zeff), half value layer (HVL), mean free path (MFP) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) for heavy metal fluoride (PbF2) based tellurite-rich glasses. In addition, neutron total macroscopic cross sections (∑R) for these glasses were also calculated. The maximum value for μ/ρ, Zeff and ∑R was found for heavy metal (Bi2O3) oxide introduced glass. The results of the selected glasses have been compared, in terms of MFP with different glass systems. The shielding effectiveness of the selected glasses is found comparable or better than of common ones, which indicates that these glasses with suitable oxides could be developed for gamma ray shielding applications.

  4. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  5. Metallic rare-earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dähne, Mario; Wanke, Martina

    2013-01-09

    The formation, atomic structure, and electronic properties of self-assembled rare-earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Metallic dysprosium and erbium silicide nanowires were observed on both the Si(001) and Si(557) surfaces. It was found that they consist of hexagonal rare-earth disilicides for both surface orientations. On Si(001), the nanowires are characterized by a one-dimensional band structure, while the electronic dispersion is two-dimensional for the nanowires formed on Si(557). This behavior is explained by the different orientations of the hexagonal c axis of the silicide leading to different conditions for the carrier confinement. By considering this carrier confinement it is demonstrated how the one-dimensional band structure of the nanowires on Si(001) can be derived from the two-dimensional one of the silicide monolayer on Si(111).

  6. Rare earth element and rare metal inventory of central Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Tucker, Robert D.; Renaud, Karine; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2018-03-06

    Rare earth elements (REE), with their unique physical and chemical properties, are an essential part of modern living. REE have enabled development and manufacture of high-performance materials, processes, and electronic technologies commonly used today in computing and communications, clean energy and transportation, medical treatment and health care, glass and ceramics, aerospace and defense, and metallurgy and chemical refining. Central Asia is an emerging REE and rare metals (RM) producing region. A newly compiled inventory of REE-RM-bearing mineral occurrences and delineation of areas-of-interest indicate this region may have considerable undiscovered resources.

  7. Removal of phosphorus, fluoride and metals from a gypsum mining leachate using steel slag filters.

    PubMed

    Claveau-Mallet, Dominique; Wallace, Scott; Comeau, Yves

    2013-03-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the capacity of steel slag filters to treat a gypsum mining leachate containing 11-107 mg P/L ortho-phosphates, 9-37 mg/L fluoride, 0.24-0.83 mg/L manganese, 0.20-3.3 zinc and 1.7-8.2 mg/L aluminum. Column tests fed with reconstituted leachates were conducted for 145-222 days and sampled twice a week. Two types of electric arc furnace (EAF) slags and three filter sequences were tested. The voids hydraulic retention time (HRT(v)) of columns ranged between 4.3 and 19.2 h. Precipitates of contaminants present in columns were sampled and analyzed with X-ray diffraction at the end of tests. The best removal efficiencies over a period of 179 days were obtained with sequential filters that were composed of Fort Smith EAF slag operated at a total HRT(v) of 34 h which removed 99.9% of phosphorus, 85.3% of fluoride, 98.0% of manganese and 99.3% of zinc. Mean concentration at this system's effluent was 0.04 mg P/L ortho-phosphates, 4 mg/L fluoride, 0.02 mg/L manganese, 0.02 zinc and 0.5 mg/L aluminum. Thus, slag filters are promising passive and economical systems for the remediation of mining effluents. Phosphorus was removed by the formation of apatite (hydroxyapatite, Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH or fluoroapatite, Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F) as confirmed by visual and X-ray diffraction analyses. The growth rate of apatite was favored by a high phosphorus concentration. Calcite crystals were present in columns and appeared to be competing for calcium and volume needed for apatite formation. The calcite crystal growth rate was higher than that of apatite crystals. Fluoride was removed by precipitation of fluoroapatite and its removal was favored by a high ratio of phosphorus to fluoride in the wastewater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molten metal containment vessel with rare earth oxysulfide protective coating thereon and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    An improved molten metal containment vessel is disclosed in which wetting of the vessel's inner wall surfaces by molten metal is inhibited by coating at least the inner surfaces of the containment vessel with one or more rare earth oxysulfide or rare earth sulfide compounds to inhibit wetting and or adherence by the molten metal to the surfaces of the containment vessel.

  9. Synthesis of adsorbent from Tamarix hispida and modified by lanthanum metal for fluoride ions removal from wastewater: Adsorbent characteristics and real wastewater treatment data.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Nasim; Rouhi, Parham; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2017-08-01

    This data article describes a facile method for production of an adsorbent from Tamarix hispida wasted wood and modified by lanthanum metal for fluoride ions removal from wastewater. The main characteristics of the adsorbent consist of BET surface area, functional groups, and elemental analysis is presented. The data for attenuating the pollutants from a real wastewater treatment which was provided from a glass factory is also represented. More than 90% of fluoride content of the real wastewater was treated by the adsorbent. Generally, these data would be informative for extend research aim to industrial wastewater treatment and those who work in the wastewater treatment plants.

  10. Fluorescent probes and bioimaging: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and pH.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Hu, Ying; Yoon, Juyoung

    2015-07-21

    All living species and life forms have an absolute requirement for bio-functional metals and acid-base equilibrium chemistry owing to the critical roles they play in biological processes. Hence, a great need exists for efficient methods to detect and monitor biometals and acids. In the last few years, great attention has been paid to the development of organic molecule based fluorescent chemosensors. The availability of new synthetic fluorescent probes has made fluorescence microscopy an indispensable tool for tracing biologically important molecules and in the area of clinical diagnostics. This review highlights the recent advances that have been made in the design and bioimaging applications of fluorescent probes for alkali metals and alkaline earth metal cations, including lithium, sodium and potassium, magnesium and calcium, and for pH determination within biological systems.

  11. Nickel-plating for active metal dissolution resistance in molten fluoride salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Luke; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd

    2011-04-01

    Ni electroplating of Incoloy-800H was investigated with the goal of mitigating Cr dissolution from this alloy into molten 46.5%LiF-11.5%NaF-42%KF eutectic salt, commonly referred to as FLiNaK. Tests were conducted in graphite crucibles at a molten salt temperature of 850 °C. The crucible material graphite accelerates the corrosion process due to the large activity difference between the graphite and the alloy. For the purposes of providing a baseline for this study, un-plated Incoloy-800H and a nearly pure Ni-alloy, Ni-201 were also tested. Results indicate that Ni-plating has the potential to significantly improve the corrosion resistance of Incoloy-800H in molten fluoride salts. Diffusion of Cr from the alloy through the Ni-plating does occur and if the Ni-plating is thin enough this Cr eventually dissolves into the molten salt. The post-corrosion test microstructure of the Ni-plating, particularly void formation was also observed to depend on the plating thickness. Diffusion anneals in a helium environment of Ni-plated Incoloy-800H and an Fe-Ni-Cr model alloy were also investigated to understand Cr diffusion through the Ni-plating. Further enhancements in the efficacy of the Ni-plating as a protective barrier against Cr dissolution from the alloy into molten fluoride salts can be achieved by thermally forming a Cr 2O 3 barrier film on the surface of the alloy prior to Ni electroplating.

  12. Fluoride glass compositions

    SciTech Connect

    El-Bayoumi, O.

    1983-08-09

    This invention relates to Fluoride-based glasses that exhibit a high degree of transparency throughout the near ultraviolet visible and mid infrared portions of the spectrum. The glasses are composed of MgF2 and ZnF2 as essential compositional ingredients together with at least two other metallic fluorides from the group of YbF3, ThF4, PbF2, A1F3 and MnF2.

  13. Removal of ammonium and heavy metals by cost-effective zeolite synthesized from waste quartz sand and calcium fluoride sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Lin, Bing; Hong, Junming; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2017-02-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of zeolite (10% CF-Z [0.5]) hydrothermally synthesized from waste quartz sand and calcium fluoride (CF) for ammonium ion and heavy metal removal. Zeolite was characterized through powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, micromeritics N 2 adsorption/desorption analysis, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The effects of CF addition, Si/Al ratio, initial ammonium concentration, solution pH, and temperature on the adsorption of ammonium on 10% CF-Z (0.5) were further examined. Results showed that 10% CF-Z (0.5) was a single-phase zeolite A with cubic-shaped crystals and 10% CF-Z (0.5) efficiently adsorbs ammonium and heavy metals. For instance, 91% ammonium (10 mg L -1 ) and 93% lead (10 mg L -1 ) are removed. The adsorption isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamics of ammonium adsorption on 10% CF-Z (0.5) were also theoretically analyzed. The adsorption isotherm of ammonium and lead on 10% CF-Z (0.5) in single systems indicated that Freundlich model provides the best fit for the equilibrium data, whereas pseudo-second-order model best describes the adsorption kinetics. The adsorption degree of ions on 10% CF-Z (0.5) in mixed systems exhibits the following pattern: lead > ammonium > cadmium > chromium.

  14. Rare-earth metal prices in the USA ca. 1960 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, James B.

    1997-01-01

    Rare-earth metal prices were compiled from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Although commercial demand for rare-earth metals began in 1908, as the alloy mischmetal, commercial quantities of a wide range of individual rare-earth metals were not available until the late 1950s. The discovery of a large, high-grade rare-earth deposit at Mountain Pass. CA, USA, in 1949, was significant because it led to the production of commercial quantities or rare-earth elements that reduced prices and encouraged wider application of the materials. The availability of ore from Mountain Pass, and other large rare-earth deposits, especially those in Australia and China, has provided the world with abundant resources for rare-earth metal production. This availability, coupled with improved technology from Government and private-sector metallurgical research, has resulted in substantial decreases in rare-earth metal prices since the late 1950s and early 1960s. Price series for the individual rare-earth metals (except promethium) are quoted on a kilogram basis from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Prices are given in US dollars on an actual and constant dollar basis. Industrial and economic factors affecting prices during this time period are examined.

  15. Rare-earth metal prices in the USA ca. 1960 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Rare-earth metal prices were compiled from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Although commercial demand for rare-earth metals began in 1908, as the alloy mischmetal, commercial quantities of a wide range of individual rare-earth metals were not available until the late 1950s. The discovery of a large, high-grade rare-earth deposit at Mountain Pass, CA, USA, in 1949, was significant because it led to the production of commercial quantities of rare-earth elements that reduced prices and encouraged wider application of the materials. The availability of ore from Mountain Pass, and other large rare-earth deposits, especially those in Australia and China, has provided the world with abundant resources for rare-earth metal production. This availability, coupled with improved technology from Government and private-sector metallurgical research, has resulted in substantial decreases in rare-earth metal prices since the late 1950s and early 1960s. Price series for the individual rare-earth metals (except promethium) are quoted on a kilogram basis from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Prices are given in US dollars on an actual and constant dollar basis. Industrial and economic factors affecting prices during this time period are examined.

  16. The effect of fluoride ions on the corrosion behaviour of Ti metal, and Ti6-Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V alloys in artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Milošev, Ingrid; Kapun, Barbara; Selih, Vid Simon

    2013-01-01

    Metallic materials used for manufacture of dental implants have to exhibit high corrosion resistance in order to prevent metal release from a dental implant. Oral cavity is aggressive towards metals as it represents a multivariate environment with wide range of conditions including broad range of temperatures, pH, presence of bacteria and effect of abrasion. An increasing use of various Ti-based materials for dental implants and orthodontic brackets poses the question of their corrosion resistance in the presence of fluoride ions which are present in toothpaste and mouth rinse. Corrosion behaviour of Ti metal, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V alloys and constituent metals investigated in artificial saliva is significantly affected by the presence of fluoride ions (added as NaF), as proven by electrochemical methods. Immersion test was performed for 32 days. During that time the metal dissolution was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. At the end of the test the composition, thickness and morphology of the surface layers formed were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof.

  18. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, O.H.; Curtis, P.G.

    1992-03-31

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof. 1 figure.

  19. Boric-Acid-Functional Lanthanide Metal-Organic Frameworks for Selective Ratiometric Fluorescence Detection of Fluoride Ions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Rui; Wang, Man-Man; Wang, Xue-Sheng; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2017-02-07

    Here, we report that boric acid is used to tune the optical properties of lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (LMOFs) for dual-fluorescence emission and improves the selectivity of LMOFs for the determination of F - ions. The LMOFs are prepared with 5-boronoisophthalic acid (5-bop) and Eu 3+ ions as the precursors. Emission mechanism study indicates that 5-bop is excited with UV photons to produce its triplet state, which then excites Eu 3+ ions for their red emission. This is the general story of the antenna effect, but electron-deficient boric acid decreases the energy transfer efficiency from the triplet state of 5-bop to Eu 3+ ions, so dual emission from both 5-bop and Eu 3+ ions is efficiently excited at the single excitation of 275 nm. Moreover, boric acid is used to identify fluoride specifically as a free accessible site. The ratiometric fluorescent detection of F - ions is validated with the dual emission at single excitation. The LMOFs are very monodisperse, so the determination of aqueous F - ions is easily achieved with high selectivity and a low detection limit (2 μM). For the first time, we reveal that rational selection of functional ligands can improve the sensing efficiency of LMOFs through tuning their optical property and enhancing the selectivity toward targets.

  20. Perspectives on Li and transition metal fluoride phosphates as cathode materials for a new generation of Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Antipov, Evgeny V; Khasanova, Nellie R; Fedotov, Stanislav S

    2015-01-01

    To satisfy the needs of rapidly growing applications, Li-ion batteries require further significant improvements of their key properties: specific energy and power, cyclability, safety and costs. The first generation of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries based on mixed oxides with either spinel or rock-salt derivatives has already been widely commercialized, but the potential to improve the performance of these materials further is almost exhausted. Li and transition metal inorganic compounds containing different polyanions are now considered as the most promising cathode materials for the next generation of Li-ion batteries. Further advances in cathode materials are considered to lie in combining different anions [such as (XO4) (n-) and F(-)] in the anion sublattice, which is expected to enhance the specific energy and power of these materials. This review focuses on recent advances related to the new class of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries containing phosphate and fluoride anions. Special attention is given to their crystal structures and the relationships between structure and properties, which are important for their possible practical applications.

  1. When VSEPR Fails: Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of the Behavior of Alkaline-Earth-Metal Acetylides

    PubMed Central

    Guino-o, Marites A.; Alexander, Jacob S.; McKee, Michael L.; Hope, Håkon; Englich, Ulrich B.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis, structural, and spectral characterization as well as a theoretical study of a family of alkaline-earth-metal acetylides provides insights into synthetic access and the structural and bonding characteristics of this group of highly reactive compounds. Based on our earlier communication that reported unusual geometry for a family of triphenylsilyl-substituted alkaline-earth-metal acetylides, we herein present our studies on an expanded family of target derivatives, providing experimental and theoretical data to offer new insights into the intensively debated theme of structural chemistry in heavy alkaline-earth-metal chemistry. PMID:19844925

  2. Catalysts Based on Earth-Abundant Metals for Visible Light-Driven Water Oxidation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Junqi; Han, Qing; Ding, Yong

    2018-06-04

    Exploration of water oxidation catalyst (WOC) with excellent performance is the key for the overall water splitting reaction, which is a feasible strategy to convert solar energy to chemical energy. Although some compounds composed of noble metals, mainly Ru and Ir, have been reported to catalyze water oxidation with high efficiency, catalysts based on low-cost and earth-abundant transition metals are essential for realizing economical and large-scale light-driven water splitting. Various WOCs containing earth-abundant metals (mainly Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) have been utilized for visible light-driven water oxidation in recent years. In this Personal Account, we summarize our recent developments in WOCs based on earth-abundant transition metals including polyoxometalates (POMs), metal oxides or bimetal oxides, and metal complexes containing multidentate ligand scaffolds for visible light-driven water oxidation reaction. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Process optimization and kinetics for leaching of rare earth metals from the spent Ni-metal hydride batteries.

    PubMed

    Meshram, Pratima; Pandey, B D; Mankhand, T R

    2016-05-01

    Nickel-metal hydride batteries (Ni-MH) contain not only the base metals, but valuable rare earth metals (REMs) viz. La, Sm, Nd, Pr and Ce as well. In view of the importance of resource recycling and assured supply of the contained metals in such wastes, the present study has focussed on the leaching of the rare earth metals from the spent Ni-MH batteries. The conditions for the leaching of REMs from the spent batteries were optimized as: 2M H2SO4, 348K temperature and 120min of time at a pulp density (PD) of 100g/L. Under this condition, the leaching of 98.1% Nd, 98.4% Sm, 95.5% Pr and 89.4% Ce was achieved. Besides the rare earth metals, more than 90% of base metals (Ni, Co, Mn and Zn) were also leached out in this condition. Kinetic data for the dissolution of all the rare earth metals showed the best fit to the chemical control shrinking core model. The leaching of metals followed the mechanism involving the chemical reaction proceeding on the surface of particles by the lixiviant, which was corroborated by the XRD phase analysis and SEM-EDS studies. The activation energy of 7.6, 6.3, 11.3 and 13.5kJ/mol was acquired for the leaching of neodymium, samarium, praseodymium and cerium, respectively in the temperature range 305-348K. From the leach liquor, the mixed rare earth metals were precipitated at pH∼1.8 and the precipitated REMs was analyzed by XRD and SEM studies to determine the phases and the morphological features. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Fluoride metabolism.

    PubMed

    Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of all aspects of fluoride metabolism is essential for comprehending the biological effects of this ion in humans as well as to drive the prevention (and treatment) of fluoride toxicity. Several aspects of fluoride metabolism - including gastric absorption, distribution and renal excretion - are pH-dependent because the coefficient of permeability of lipid bilayer membranes to hydrogen fluoride (HF) is 1 million times higher than that of F(-). This means that fluoride readily crosses cell membranes as HF, in response to a pH gradient between adjacent body fluid compartments. After ingestion, plasma fluoride levels increase rapidly due to the rapid absorption from the stomach, an event that is pH-dependent and distinguishes fluoride from other halogens and most other substances. The majority of fluoride not absorbed from the stomach will be absorbed from the small intestine. In this case, absorption is not pH-dependent. Fluoride not absorbed will be excreted in feces. Peak plasma fluoride concentrations are reached within 20-60 min following ingestion. The levels start declining thereafter due to two main reasons: uptake in calcified tissues and excretion in urine. Plasma fluoride levels are not homeostatically regulated and vary according to the levels of intake, deposition in hard tissues and excretion of fluoride. Many factors can modify the metabolism and effects of fluoride in the organism, such as chronic and acute acid-base disturbances, hematocrit, altitude, physical activity, circadian rhythm and hormones, nutritional status, diet, and genetic predisposition. These will be discussed in detail in this review. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Fluoride barriers in Nb/Pb Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, H.; Tanabe, K.; Michikami, O.; Igarashi, M.; Beasley, M. R.

    1985-03-01

    Josephson tunnel junctions are fabricated using a new class of artificial barriers, metal fluorides (Al fluoride and Zr fluoride). These fluoride barriers are deposited on the surface of a Nb base electrode, which are previously cleaned using a CF4 cleaning process, and covered by a Pb counterelectrode. The junctions with both Al fluoride and Zr fluoride barriers exhibit good tunneling characteristics and have low specific capacitance. In the case of Zr fluoride, it is observed that reasonable resistances are obtained even at thickness greater than 100 A. This phenomenon might be explained by tunneling via localized states in Zr fluoride.

  6. Phase- and size-controllable synthesis of hexagonal upconversion rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals through an oleic acid/ionic liquid two-phase system.

    PubMed

    He, Meng; Huang, Peng; Zhang, Chunlei; Ma, Jiebing; He, Rong; Cui, Daxiang

    2012-05-07

    Herein, we introduce a facile, user- and environmentally friendly (n-octanol-induced) oleic acid (OA)/ionic liquid (IL) two-phase system for the phase- and size-controllable synthesis of water-soluble hexagonal rare earth (RE = La, Gd, and Y) fluoride nanocrystals with uniform morphologies (mainly spheres and elongated particles) and small sizes (<50 nm). The unique role of the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmimPF(6)) and n-octanol in modulating the phase structure and particle size are discussed in detail. More importantly, the mechanism of the (n-octanol-induced) OA/IL two-phase system, the formation of the RE fluoride nanocrystals, and the distinctive size- and morphology-controlling capacity of the system are presented. BmimPF(6) is versatile in term of crystal-phase manipulation, size and shape maintenance, and providing water solubility in a one-step reaction. The luminescent properties of Er(3+)-, Ho(3+)-, and Tm(3+)-doped LaF(3), NaGdF(4), and NaYF(4) nanocrystals were also studied. It is worth noting that the as-prepared products can be directly dispersed in water due to the hydrophilic property of Bmim(+) (cationic part of the IL) as a capping agent. This advantageous feature has made the IL-capped products favorable in facile surface modifications, such as the classic Stober method. Finally, the cytotoxicity evaluation of NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystals before and after silica coating was conducted for further biological applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Process for preparing higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Bell, A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    High purity inorganic higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are prepared by subjecting the hydroxide of the alkali and alkaline earth metal to a radio frequency discharge sustained in oxygen. The process is particulary adaptable to the production of high purity potassium superoxide by subjecting potassium hydroxide to glow discharge sustained in oxygen under the pressure of about 0.75 to 1.00 torr.

  8. Dentifrice Fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakita, Philip E.

    2004-05-01

    The effectiveness of the fluoride ion in lowering the incidence of dental caries is a major factor in the field of dental health. Observations and research studies in the first half of the 20th century have lead to the widespread adoption of fluoridated water and the use of inorganic fluoride compounds in oral care products, such as toothpaste and dental rinses. This article provides a brief review of the types of compounds used and the chemistry involved.

  9. WHO water quality standards Vs Synergic effect(s) of fluoride, heavy metals and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues.

    PubMed

    Wasana, Hewa M S; Perera, Gamage D R K; Gunawardena, Panduka De S; Fernando, Palika S; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2017-02-14

    Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined "consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer". As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research. By an animal trial, we investigated the synergic effect(s) of heavy metals, aluminium, arsenic, fluoride and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues of mice. Our investigation strongly suggests existing of a synergic effect especially among Cd, F and hardness of water which could lead to severe kidney damage in mice, even at WHO maximum recommended levels. Hence, the synergic effect(s) of trace metals, fluoride and hardness present in drinking water should be investigated meticulously when stipulating the water quality at WHO maximum recommended levels.

  10. WHO water quality standards Vs Synergic effect(s) of fluoride, heavy metals and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasana, Hewa M. S.; Perera, Gamage D. R. K.; Gunawardena, Panduka De S.; Fernando, Palika S.; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2017-02-01

    Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined “consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer”. As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research. By an animal trial, we investigated the synergic effect(s) of heavy metals, aluminium, arsenic, fluoride and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues of mice. Our investigation strongly suggests existing of a synergic effect especially among Cd, F and hardness of water which could lead to severe kidney damage in mice, even at WHO maximum recommended levels. Hence, the synergic effect(s) of trace metals, fluoride and hardness present in drinking water should be investigated meticulously when stipulating the water quality at WHO maximum recommended levels.

  11. High Pressure Phase Transformations in Heavy Rare Earth Metals and Connections to Actinide Crystal Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, Yogesh K.; Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy; Stemshorn, Andrew K.

    2008-07-01

    High-pressure studies have been performed on heavy rare earth metals Terbium (Tb) to 155 GPa and Holmium (Ho) to 134 GPa in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. The following crystal structure sequence was observed in both metals hcp {yields} Sm-type {yields} dhcp {yields} distorted fcc (hR-24) {yields} monoclinic (C2/m) with increasing pressure. The last transformation to a low symmetry monoclinic phase is accompanied by a volume collapse of 5 % for Tb at 51 GPa and a volume collapse of 3 % for Ho at 103 GPa. This volume collapse under high pressure is reminiscent of f-shell delocalizationmore » in light rare earth metal Cerium (Ce), Praseodymium (Pr), and heavy actinide metals Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm). The orthorhombic Pnma phase that has been reported in Am and Cm after f-shell delocalization is not observed in heavy rare earth metals under high pressures. (authors)« less

  12. A long term study of fluoride release from metal-containing conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Williams, J A; Billington, R W; Pearson, G J

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine long term release of fluoride from a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Fuji II LC (FLC)) compared with that from two conventional acid-base setting cements (HiDense (HD) and KetacSilver (KS)) marketed for similar restorative purposes. Fluoride release from discs of cement immersed in water or artificial saliva was measured for 2.7 years using an ion selective electrode technique. The RMGIC was affected by water if immersed immediately after setting. This is similar to conventional acid-base cements and the experimental method was designed to allow for this. Over the 2.7-year period, the RMGIC and HD released similar amounts of fluoride into both water and artificial saliva. In water, the RMGIC released the most fluoride, while in artificial saliva the highest release was from HD. KS released the least amount of fluoride in both immersing liquids. In artificial saliva, release was reduced to 17-25% of that found in water, with the RMGIC showing the greatest reduction. Both acid-base cured cements showed changes in colour over the 2.7-year span, while the colour of the RMGIC was stable. It was concluded that the RMGIC released equivalent or greater amounts of fluoride than the two acid-base cure glass-ionomers over a period of 2.7 years.

  13. The pure rotational spectrum of TiF (X 4Φr): 3d transition metal fluorides revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, P. M.; McLamarrah, S. K.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2003-11-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of TiF in its X 4Φr (v=0) ground state has been measured using millimeter/sub-millimeter wave direct absorption techniques in the range 140-530 GHz. In ten out of the twelve rotational transitions recorded, all four spin-orbit components were observed, confirming the 4Φr ground state assignment. Additional small splittings were resolved in several of the spin components in lower J transitions, which appear to arise from magnetic hyperfine interactions of the 19F nucleus. In contrast, no evidence for Λ-doubling was seen in the data. The rotational transitions of TiF were analyzed using a case (a) Hamiltonian, resulting in the determination of rotational and fine structure constants, as well as hyperfine parameters for the fluorine nucleus. The data were readily fit in a case (a) basis, indicating strong first order spin-orbit coupling and minimal second-order effects, as also evidenced by the small value of λ, the spin-spin parameter. Moreover, only one higher order term, η, the spin-orbit/spin-spin interaction term, was needed in the analysis, again suggesting limited perturbations in the ground state. The relative values of the a, b, and c hyperfine constants indicate that the three unpaired electrons in this radical lie in orbitals primarily located on the titanium atom and support the molecular orbital picture of TiF with a σ1δ1π1 single electron configuration. The bond length of TiF (1.8342 Å) is significantly longer than that of TiO, suggesting that there are differences in the bonding between 3d transition metal fluorides and oxides.

  14. Yttrium and rare earth stabilized fast reactor metal fuel

    DOEpatents

    Guon, Jerold; Grantham, LeRoy F.; Specht, Eugene R.

    1992-01-01

    To increase the operating temperature of a reactor, the melting point and mechanical properties of the fuel must be increased. For an actinide-rich fuel, yttrium, lanthanum and/or rare earth elements can be added, as stabilizers, to uranium and plutonium and/or a mixture of other actinides to raise the melting point of the fuel and improve its mechanical properties. Since only about 1% of the actinide fuel may be yttrium, lanthanum, or a rare earth element, the neutron penalty is low, the reactor core size can be reduced, the fuel can be burned efficiently, reprocessing requirements are reduced, and the nuclear waste disposal volumes reduced. A further advantage occurs when yttrium, lanthanum, and/or other rare earth elements are exposed to radiation in a reactor, they produce only short half life radioisotopes, which reduce nuclear waste disposal problems through much shorter assured-isolation requirements.

  15. A Theoretical Study of Structural, Electronic and Vibrational Properties of Small Fluoride Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Kevin; Pandey, Ratnesh; Nigam, Sandeep; He, Haiying; Pingle, Subhash; Pandey, Avinash; Pandey, Ravindra

    2014-03-01

    Alkaline earth metal fluorides are an interesting family of ionic crystals having a wide range of applications in solid state lasers, luminescence, scintillators, to name just a few. In this work, small stoichiometric clusters of (MF2)n (M = Mg, Ca Sr, Ba, n =1-6) were studied for structural, vibrational and electronic properties using first-principles methods based on density functional theory. A clear trend of structural and electronic structure evolution was found for all the alkaline earth metal fluorides when the cluster size n increases from 1 to 6. Our study reveals that these fluoride clusters mimic the bulk-like behavior at the very small size. Among the four series of metal fluorides, however, (MgF2)n clusters stands out to be different in its preference of equilibrium structures owing to the much smaller ionic radius of Mg and the higher degree of covalency in the Mg-F bonding. The calculated binding energy, highest stretching frequency, ionization potential, and HOMO-LUMO gap decrease from MgF2 to BaF2 for the same cluster size. These variations are explained in terms of the change in the ionic radius and the basicity of the metal ions.

  16. Environmental Defects And Economic Impact On Global Market Of Rare Earth Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampides, G.; Vatalis, K.; Karayannis, V.; Baklavaridis, A.

    2016-11-01

    Rare earth elements include the 14 lanthanides as well as lanthanium and often yttrium. Actually, most of them are not very rare and occur widely dispersed in a variety of rocks. Rare earth metals are vital to some of the world's faster growing industries: catalysts, Nd-magnets, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, battery alloys, electronics and phosphors. Worldwide, the main countries for distribution of rare earths deposits include China, USA, Russia, Brasil, India, Australia, Greenland and Malaysia. The mining and processing of rare earth metals usually result in significant environmental defects. Many deposits are associated with high concentrations of radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium, which requires separate treatment and disposal. The accumulation of rare earth elements in soils has occurred due to pollution caused by the exploitation of rare earth resources and the wide use of rare earths as fertilizers in agriculture. This accumulation has a toxic effect on the soil microfauna community. However, there are large differences in market prices due to the degree of purity determined by the specifications in the applications. The main focus of this article is to overview Rare Earth Metals’ overall impact on global economy and their environmental defects on soils during processing techniques and as they are used as fertilizers.

  17. The Effect of Rare-Earth Metals on Cast Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1954-04-01

    as the 1-inch section is also illustrated in Figure 23 and consists of tempered bainite and tempered martensite. Both of the control steels (AE-1...section Tempered bainite and tempered martensite 4 inch section Figure 23 Microstructure ol the Mn-Cr-Mo base control steels . Etched with... bainite 4-inch Section Figure 25—Microstructures of the MnCr-Mo + Rare Earths f B cast steels . Etched with picral, SOOX - .1 €. Figure 26

  18. Divalent fluoride doped cerium fluoride scintillator

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Sparrow, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of divalent fluoride dopants in scintillator materials comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. The preferred divalent fluoride dopants are calcium fluoride, strontium fluoride, and barium fluoride. The preferred amount of divalent fluoride dopant is less than about two percent by weight of the total scintillator. Cerium fluoride scintillator crystals grown with the addition of a divalent fluoride have exhibited better transmissions and higher light outputs than crystals grown without the addition of such dopants. These scintillators are useful in radiation detection and monitoring applications, and are particularly well suited for high-rate applications such as positron emission tomography (PET).

  19. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... and School-Linked Dental Sealant Programs Coordinate Community Water Fluoridation Programs Targeted Clinical Preventive Services & Health Systems Changes State Oral Health Plans Research & Publications Oral Health In America: Summary of the ...

  20. Voltage Control of Rare-Earth Magnetic Moments at the Magnetic-Insulator-Metal Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Alejandro O.; Cahaya, Adam B.; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.

    2018-01-01

    The large spin-orbit interaction in the lanthanides implies a strong coupling between their internal charge and spin degrees of freedom. We formulate the coupling between the voltage and the local magnetic moments of rare-earth atoms with a partially filled 4 f shell at the interface between an insulator and a metal. The rare-earth-mediated torques allow the power-efficient control of spintronic devices by electric-field-induced ferromagnetic resonance and magnetization switching.

  1. Low frequency vibrational spectra and the nature of metal-oxygen bond of alkaline earth metal acetylacetonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakheri, Hamideh; Tayyari, Sayyed Faramarz; Heravi, Mohammad Momen; Morsali, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Theoretical quantum chemistry calculations were used to assign the observed vibrational band frequencies of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba acetylacetonates complexes. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out at the B3LYP level, using LanL2DZ, def2SVP, and mixed, GenECP, (def2SVP for metal ions and 6-311++G** for all other atoms) basis sets. The B3LYP level, with mixed basis sets, was utilized for calculations of vibrational frequencies, IR intensity, and Raman activity. Analysis of the vibrational spectra indicates that there are several bands which could almost be assigned mainly to the metal-oxygen vibrations. The strongest Raman band in this region could be used as a measure of the stability of the complex. The effects of central metal on the bond orders and charge distributions in alkaline earth metal acetylacetonates were studied by the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) method for fully optimized compounds. Optimization were performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level for the lighter alkaline earth metal complexes (Be, Mg, and Ca acetylacetonates) while the B3LYP level, using LanL2DZ (extrabasis, d and f on oxygen and metal atoms), def2SVP and mixed (def2SVP on metal ions and 6-311++G** for all other atoms) basis sets for all understudy complexes. Calculations indicate that the covalence nature of metal-oxygen bonds considerably decreases from Be to Ba complexes. The nature of metal-oxygen bond was further studied by using Atoms In Molecules (AIM) analysis. The topological parameters, Wiberg bond orders, natural charges of O and metal ions, and also some vibrational band frequencies were correlated with the stability constants of understudy complexes.

  2. Some metal-graphite and metal-ceramic composites for use as high energy brake lining materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Materials were studied as candidates for development as potential new aircraft brake lining materials. These families were (1) copper-graphite composites; (2) nickel-graphite composites; (3) copper - rare-earth-oxide (gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) or lanthanum oxide (La2O3)) composites and copper - rare-earth-oxide (La2O3) - rare-earth-fluoride (lanthanum fluoride (LaF3)) composites; (4) nickel - rare-earth-oxide composites and nickel - rare-earth-oxide - rare-earth-fluoride composites. For comparison purposes, a currently used metal-ceramic composite was also studied. Results showed that the nickel-Gd2O3 and nickel-La2O3-LaF3 composites were comparable or superior in friction and wear performance to the currently used composite and therefore deserve to be considered for further development.

  3. Rare earth elements in apatite: Uptake from H{sub 2}O-bearing phosphate-fluoride melts and the role of volatile components

    SciTech Connect

    Fleet, M.E.; Pan, Yuanming

    The partitioning of rare earth elements (REEs) between fluorapatite (FAp) and H{sub 2}O- bearing phosphate-fluoride melts has been studied at about 700 and 800{degrees}C and 0.10-0.15 GPa. REE uptake patterns, i.e., plots of D(REE:FAp/melt), are convex upwards and peak near Nd for single-REE substituted FAp at minor (0.03-0.25 wt% REE{sub 2}O{sub 3}) abundances, and binary (LREE + HREE)-substituted FAp, and hexa-REE-substituted FAp at minor to major (0.25-7.8 wt% REE{sub 2}O{sub 3}) abundances. Partition coefficients for minor abundances of REE and depolymerized phosphate melts are about 5, 8, and 1 for La, Nd, and Lu, respectively and broadly comparable to thosemore » for early fluorapatite in the fractionation of melts of basaltic composition. The Ca2 site exerts marked control on the selectivity of apatite for REE because it preferentially incorporates LREE and its effective size varies with substitution of the A-site volatile anion component (F, Cl, OH). Using simple crystal-chemical arguments, melt(or fluid)-normalized REE patterns are predicted to peak near Nd for fluorapatite and be more LREE-enriched for chlorapatite. These predictions are consistent with data from natural rocks and laboratory experiments. The wide variation in D(REE:apatite/melt) in nature (from <1 for whitlockite-bearing lunar rocks to about 100 for evolved alkalic rocks) is attributed largely to the influence of the volatile components. 49 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  4. New technology of extracting the amount of rare earth metals from the red mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martoyan, G. A.; Karamyan, G. G.; Vardan, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper outlined the environmental and economic problems associated with red mud - the waste generated in processing of bauxite ore for aluminum production. The chemical analysis of red mud has identified a number of useful elements including rare earth metals. The electromembrane technology of red mud processing with extraction of valuable elements is described. A possible scheme of separation of these metals through electrolysis is also given.

  5. Aluminum/alkaline earth metal composites and method for producing

    DOEpatents

    Russell, Alan M; Anderson, Iver E; Kim, Hyong J; Freichs, Andrew E

    2014-02-11

    A composite is provided having an electrically conducting Al matrix and elongated filaments comprising Ca and/or Sr and/or Ba disposed in the matrix and extending along a longitudinal axis of the composite. The filaments initially comprise Ca and/or Sr and/or Ba metal or allow and then may be reacted with the Al matrix to form a strengthening intermetallic compound comprising Al and Ca and/or Sr and/or Ba. The composite is useful as a long-distance, high voltage power transmission conductor.

  6. Pore-Environment Engineering with Multiple Metal Sites in Rare-Earth Porphyrinic Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Yuan, Shuai; Feng, Liang; Guo, Bingbing; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Xu, Ben; Lollar, Christina; Sun, Daofeng; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2018-04-23

    Multi-component metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with precisely controlled pore environments are highly desired owing to their potential applications in gas adsorption, separation, cooperative catalysis, and biomimetics. A series of multi-component MOFs, namely PCN-900(RE), were constructed from a combination of tetratopic porphyrinic linkers, linear linkers, and rare-earth hexanuclear clusters (RE 6 ) under the guidance of thermodynamics. These MOFs exhibit high surface areas (up to 2523 cm 2  g -1 ) and unlimited tunability by modification of metal nodes and/or linker components. Post-synthetic exchange of linear linkers and metalation of two organic linkers were realized, allowing the incorporation of a wide range of functional moieties. Two different metal sites were sequentially placed on the linear linker and the tetratopic porphyrinic linker, respectively, giving rise to an ideal platform for heterogeneous catalysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Rare earth zirconium oxide buffer layers on metal substrates

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2001-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0metal-organic decomposition. The laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  8. [Fluoride toxicity].

    PubMed

    Giachini, M; Pierleoni, F

    2004-04-01

    Many years have passed since domestic water fluoridation was adopted to reduce the incidence of caries in developed countries; however, since there is an additional dose of fluorides ingested with foods and drinks prepared with such waters, the problem has emerged of possible adverse effects on health associated to them, so that in some countries fluorine integrator selling is allowed only with preventive medical prescription. Owing to the affinity for calcifited tissues, fluorine has a powerful effect on bone cellular order (mediated by growth factors' upregulation system IGF-2, TGF-beta, PDGF, bFGF, EGF, BMP-2 and PTH), on function and length, since it can provoke chronic joints-pain, ligaments-calcification, osteosclerosis. Moreover, sodium-fluoride may cause adverse effects on testicular activity (connected to oxidative-stress depending on increased activity of peroxidases and catalases) due to inhibition of 2 androgenesis-regulator enzymes DELTA(5)b-HSD and 17beta-HSD. Furthermore, insoluble gut formed calcium-fluoride may be responsible for hypocalcemia inducing a secondary hyperparathyroidism with bone matrix resorption, osteoporosis, osteomalacia and, perhaps, lowered level of phosphorus. At encephalic level, then, high doses of fluorine cause the onset of neurological symptoms and of a decreased spontaneous motor activity due to a reduction in the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Nevertheless, epidemiological studies about fluoride toxicity have established that such oligoelement may be safely used at odontoiatric dosages.

  9. Composite nanoparticles containing rare earth metal and methods of preparation thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Kandapallil, Binil Itty Ipe; Krishnan, Lakshmi; Johnson, Francis

    The present invention is directed to composite nanoparticles comprising a metal, a rare earth element, and, optionally, a complexing ligand. The invention is also directed to composite nanoparticles having a core-shell structure and to processes for preparation of composite nanoparticles of the invention.

  10. Adsorption Behavior of Rare Earth Metal Cations in the Interlayer Space of γ-ZrP.

    PubMed

    Takei, Takahiro; Iidzuka, Kiyoaki; Miura, Akira; Yanagida, Sayaka; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Magome, Eisuke; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2016-10-04

    Adsorption competencies of rare earth metal cations in γ-zirconium phosphate were examined by ICP, synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD), and ab initio simulation. The adsorption amounts are around 0.06-0.10 per zirconium phosphate. From the SXRD patterns of the adsorbed samples, the basal spacing estimated by c sin β increased linearly with an increasing ionic radius of rare earth metal cation, though a and b lattice constants show no change. These SXRD patterns can be classified into four groups that have different super lattices. The four superlattices have multiplicities of x131, x241, and x221 for the xabc axis, and the location of the rare earth metal cation in the original unit cell changes depending on the superlattice cell. In the x131 superlattice, Yb and Er occupied the site near the zirconium phosphate layer, though La and Ce in the x221 superlattice remained in the center position between the phosphate sheet. For the ab initio simulation of γ-ZrP with the typical rare earth metal cations (Tb, Eu, Dy, and La), the results of simulation show a similar tendency of the position estimated by SXRD refinements.

  11. Experimentally determined Si isotope fractionation between silicate and Fe metal and implications for Earth's core formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahar, Anat; Ziegler, Karen; Young, Edward D.; Ricolleau, Angele; Schauble, Edwin A.; Fei, Yingwei

    2009-10-01

    Stable isotope fractionation amongst phases comprising terrestrial planets and asteroids can be used to elucidate planet-forming processes. To date, the composition of the Earth's core remains largely unknown though cosmochemical and geophysical evidence indicates that elements lighter than iron and nickel must reside there. Silicon is often cited as a light element that could explain the seismic properties of the core. The amount of silicon in the core, if any, can be deduced from the difference in 30Si/ 28Si between meteorites and terrestrial rocks if the Si isotope fractionation between silicate and Fe-rich metal is known. Recent studies (e.g., [Georg R.B., Halliday A.N., Schauble E.A., Reynolds B.C., 2007. Silicon in the Earth's core. Nature 447 (31), 1102-1106.]; [Fitoussi, C., Bourdon, B., Kleine, T., Oberli, F., Reynolds, B. C., 2009. Si isotope systematics of meteorites and terrestrial peridotites: implications for Mg/Si fractionation in the solar nebula and for Si in the Earth's core. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 287, 77-85.]) showing (sometimes subtle) differences between 30Si/ 28Si in meteorites and terrestrial rocks suggest that Si missing from terrestrial rocks might be in the core. However, any conclusion based on Earth-meteorite comparisons depends on the veracity of the 30Si/ 28Si fractionation factor between silicates and metals at appropriate conditions. Here we present the first direct experimental evidence that silicon isotopes are not distributed uniformly between iron metal and rock when equilibrated at high temperatures. High-precision measurements of the silicon isotope ratios in iron-silicon alloy and silicate equilibrated at 1 GPa and 1800 °C show that Si in silicate has higher 30Si/ 28Si than Si in metal, by at least 2.0‰. These findings provide an experimental foundation for using isotope ratios of silicon as indicators of terrestrial planet formation processes. They imply that if Si isotope equilibrium existed during segregation of Earth

  12. Rare-Earth-compound nanowires, nanotubes, and fullerene-like nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xun; Li, Yadong

    2003-11-21

    Various low-dimensional nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanotubes, nanosheets, and fullerene-like nanoparticles have been selectively synthesized from rare-earth compounds (hydroxides, fluorides) based on a facile hydrothermal method. The subsequent dehydration, sulfidation, and fluoridation processes lead to the formation of rare-earth oxide, oxysulfide, and oxyhalide nanostructures, which can be functionalized further by doping with other rare-earth ions or by coating with metal nanoparticles. Owing to the interesting combination of novel nanostructures and functional compounds, these nanostructures can be expected to bring new opportunities in the vast research areas of and application in biology, catalysts, and optoelectronic devices.

  13. Determination of Thermodynamic Properties of Alkaline Earth-liquid Metal Alloys Using the Electromotive Force Technique

    PubMed Central

    Nigl, Thomas P.; Smith, Nathan D.; Lichtenstein, Timothy; Gesualdi, Jarrod; Kumar, Kuldeep; Kim, Hojong

    2017-01-01

    A novel electrochemical cell based on a CaF2 solid-state electrolyte has been developed to measure the electromotive force (emf) of binary alkaline earth-liquid metal alloys as functions of both composition and temperature in order to acquire thermodynamic data. The cell consists of a chemically stable solid-state CaF2-AF2 electrolyte (where A is the alkaline-earth element such as Ca, Sr, or Ba), with binary A-B alloy (where B is the liquid metal such as Bi or Sb) working electrodes, and a pure A metal reference electrode. Emf data are collected over a temperature range of 723 K to 1,123 K in 25 K increments for multiple alloy compositions per experiment and the results are analyzed to yield activity values, phase transition temperatures, and partial molar entropies/enthalpies for each composition. PMID:29155770

  14. Effect of rare earth metal on the spin-orbit torque in magnetic heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Kohei; Pai, Chi-Feng; Tan, Aik Jun

    2016-06-06

    We report the effect of the rare earth metal Gd on current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in perpendicularly magnetized Pt/Co/Gd heterostructures, characterized using harmonic measurements and spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR). By varying the Gd metal layer thickness from 0 nm to 8 nm, harmonic measurements reveal a significant enhancement of the effective fields generated from the Slonczewski-like and field-like torques. ST-FMR measurements confirm an enhanced effective spin Hall angle and show a corresponding increase in the magnetic damping constant with increasing Gd thickness. These results suggest that Gd plays an active role in generating SOTs in these heterostructures. Our finding may lead tomore » spin-orbitronics device application such as non-volatile magnetic random access memory, based on rare earth metals.« less

  15. Asymmetric Catalysis with bis(hydroxyphenyl)diamides/rare-earth metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Naoya; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2013-01-02

    A series of asymmetric catalysts composed of conformationally flexible amide-based chiral ligands and rare-earth metals was developed for proton-transfer catalysis. These ligands derived from amino acids provide an intriguing chiral platform for the formation of asymmetric catalysts upon complexation with rare-earth metals. The scope of this arsenal of catalysts was further broadened by the development of heterobimetallic catalytic systems. The cooperative function of hydrogen bonding and metal coordination resulted in intriguing substrate specificity and stereocontrol, and the dynamic nature of the catalysts led to a switch of their function. Herein, we summarize our recent exploration of this class of catalysts. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Flotation of Metallurgical Grade Silicon and Silicon Metal from Slag by Selective Hydrogen Fluoride-Assisted Flotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, E.; Kleiv, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Flotation experiments performed on metallurgical grade silicon have demonstrated that silicon (Si) can be floated in diluted solutions of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and a frother. The recovery was found to depend on HF conditioning time, frother type, and the concentration of both HF and frother. Although Brij 58 produced the highest recoveries of the frothers that was tested, good recoveries were also obtained for Flotanol C07. Chemical analyses showed that the flotation products were purer than the corresponding feed materials, and that most impurity elements were concentrated in the tailings. A case study on cleaning of slag containing 36 pct metallurgical silicon showed promising results concerning the recovery of silicon by flotation.

  17. Selective extraction and recovery of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps using an ionic liquid system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Kubota, Fukiko; Baba, Yuzo; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2013-06-15

    The recycling of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps by solvent extraction using ionic liquids was studied. Acid leaching of rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powder was examined first. Yttrium (Y) and europium (Eu) dissolved readily in the acid solution; however, the leaching of other rare earth metals required substantial energy input. Ionization of target rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powders into the leach solution was critical for their successful recovery. As a high temperature was required for the complete leaching of all rare earth metals, ionic liquids, for which vapor pressure is negligible, were used as an alternative extracting phase to the conventional organic diluent. An extractant, N, N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (DODGAA), which was recently developed, showed a high affinity for rare earth metal ions in liquid-liquid extraction although a conventional commercial phosphonic extractant did not. An effective recovery of the rare earth metals, Y, Eu, La and Ce, from the metal impurities, Fe, Al and Zn, was achieved from the acidic leach solution of phosphor powders using an ionic liquid containing DODGAA as novel extractant system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High pressure phase transitions in the rare earth metal erbium to 151 GPa.

    PubMed

    Samudrala, Gopi K; Thomas, Sarah A; Montgomery, Jeffrey M; Vohra, Yogesh K

    2011-08-10

    High pressure x-ray diffraction studies have been performed on the heavy rare earth metal erbium (Er) in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature to a pressure of 151 GPa and Er has been compressed to 40% of its initial volume. The rare earth crystal structure sequence hcp → Sm type → dhcp → distorted fcc (hcp: hexagonal close packed; fcc: face centered cubic; dhcp: double hcp) is observed in Er below 58 GPa. We have carried out Rietveld refinement of crystal structures in the pressure range between 58 GPa and 151 GPa. We have examined various crystal structures that have been proposed for the distorted fcc (dfcc) phase and the post-dfcc phase in rare earth metals. We find that the hexagonal hR 24 structure is the best fit between 58 and 118 GPa. Above 118 GPa, a structural transformation from hR 24 phase to a monoclinic C 2/m phase is observed with a volume change of - 1.9%. We have also established a clear trend for the pressure at which a post-dfcc phase is formed in rare earth metals and show that there is a monotonic increase in this pressure with the filling of 4f shell.

  19. High pressure phase transitions in the rare earth metal erbium to 151 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2011-08-01

    High pressure x-ray diffraction studies have been performed on the heavy rare earth metal erbium (Er) in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature to a pressure of 151 GPa and Er has been compressed to 40% of its initial volume. The rare earth crystal structure sequence {hcp} \\to {Sm}~ {type} \\to {dhcp} \\to {distorted} fcc (hcp: hexagonal close packed; fcc: face centered cubic; dhcp: double hcp) is observed in Er below 58 GPa. We have carried out Rietveld refinement of crystal structures in the pressure range between 58 GPa and 151 GPa. We have examined various crystal structures that have been proposed for the distorted fcc (dfcc) phase and the post-dfcc phase in rare earth metals. We find that the hexagonal hR 24 structure is the best fit between 58 and 118 GPa. Above 118 GPa, a structural transformation from hR 24 phase to a monoclinic C 2/m phase is observed with a volume change of - 1.9%. We have also established a clear trend for the pressure at which a post-dfcc phase is formed in rare earth metals and show that there is a monotonic increase in this pressure with the filling of 4f shell.

  20. Fluoridated Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... between people with osteosarcoma and people in a control group who had other malignant bone tumors ( 7 ). More recent population-based studies using cancer registry data found no evidence of an association ... for Disease Control and Prevention. Public Health Service report on fluoride ...

  1. Adsorption of alkali and alkaline earth metal atoms and dimers on monolayer germanium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökçe, Aytaç Gürhan; Ersan, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    First-principles plane wave calculations have been performed to study the adsorption of alkali and alkaline earth metals on monolayer germanium carbide (GeC). We found that the favourable adsorption sites on GeC sheet for single alkali and alkaline earth adatoms are generally different from graphene or germanene. Among them, Mg, Na and their dimers have weakly bounded to GeC due to their closed valence electron shells, so they may have high mobility on GeC. Two different levels of adatom coverage (? and ?) have been investigated and we concluded that different electronic structures and magnetic moments for both coverages owing to alkali and alkaline earth atoms have long range electrostatic interactions. Lithium atom prefers to adsorbed on hollow site similar to other group-IV monolayers and the adsorption results in metallisation of GeC instead of semiconducting behaviour. Na and K adsorption can induce 1 ? total magnetic moment on GeC structures and they have shown semiconductor property which may have potential use in spintronic devices. We also showed that alkali or alkaline earth metal atoms can form dimer on GeC sheet. Calculated adsorption energies suggest that clustering of alkali and alkaline earth atoms is energetically favourable. All dimer adsorbed GeC systems have nonmagnetic semiconductor property with varying band gaps from 0.391 to 1.311 eV which are very suitable values for various device applications.

  2. Rare earth element recycling from waste nickel-metal hydride batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiuli; Zhang, Junwei; Fang, Xihui

    2014-08-30

    With an increase in number of waste nickel-metal hydride batteries, and because of the importance of rare earth elements, the recycling of rare earth elements is becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we investigate the effects of temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time to optimize leaching conditions and determine leach kinetics. The results indicate that an increase in temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time enhance the leaching rate of rare earth elements. A maximum rare earth elements recovery of 95.16% was achieved at optimal leaching conditions of 70°C, solid/liquid ratio of 1:10, 20% hydrochloric acid concentration, -74μm particle size, and 100min leaching time. The experimental data were best fitted by a chemical reaction-controlled model. The activation energy was 43.98kJ/mol and the reaction order for hydrochloric acid concentration was 0.64. The kinetic equation for the leaching process was found to be: 1-(1-x)(1/3)=A/ρr0[HCl](0.64)exp-439,8008.314Tt. After leaching and filtration, by adding saturated oxalic solution to the filtrate, rare earth element oxalates were obtained. After removing impurities by adding ammonia, filtering, washing with dilute hydrochloric acid, and calcining at 810°C, a final product of 99% pure rare earth oxides was obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of metal binding sites onto biochar using rare earth elements as a fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Pourret, Olivier; Houben, David

    2018-02-01

    The ability of biochar to immobilize metals relies on the amount of functional groups at its surface but the contribution of each functional groups (e.g. carboxylic, phenolic) to metal bonding is poorly known. Using a new approach based on previous works on rare earth element (REE) interactions with humic substances, we aim at elucidating the relative contribution of these binding sites to metal sorption under various conditions (i.e. pH and ionic strengths, IS). Using batch experiments, REE sorption onto biochar was analyzed from pH 3 to 9 and IS 10 -1 mol/L to 10 -3 mol/L. Rare earth element patterns show a Middle REE (MREE) downward concavity at acidic pH and low ionic strength. These patterns are in good agreement with existing datasets quantifying REE binding with humic substances. Indeed, the MREE downward concavity displayed by REE-biochar complexation pattern compares well with REE patterns with various organic compounds. This similarity in the REE complexation pattern shapes suggests that carboxylic groups are the main binding sites of REE in biochar. Overall, our results indicate that the strength of the metal bonding with biochar increases when pH and IS increase, suggesting that biochar is more efficient for long-term metal immobilization at near neutral pH and high ionic strength.

  4. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework nodes

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X.; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C–H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals. PMID:27574182

  5. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai

    2016-08-30

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C–H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturatedmore » metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.« less

  6. Lattice vibrations and electronic transitions in the rare-earth metals: yttrium, gadolinium and lutetium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olijnyk, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Lattice vibrations in high-pressure phases of Y, Gd and Lu were studied by Raman spectroscopy. The observed phonon frequencies decrease towards the transitions to the dhcp and fcc phases. There is evidence that the entire structural sequence {\\mathrm {hcp \\to Sm\\mbox {-}type \\to dhcp \\to fcc}} under pressure for the individual regular rare-earth metals and along the lanthanide series at ambient pressure involve softening of certain acoustic and optical phonon modes and of the elastic shear modulus C44. Comparison is made to transitions between close-packed lattices in other metals, and possible correlations to s-d electron transfer are discussed.

  7. Lattice vibrations and electronic transitions in the rare-earth metals: yttrium, gadolinium and lutetium.

    PubMed

    Olijnyk, Helmut

    2005-01-12

    Lattice vibrations in high-pressure phases of Y, Gd and Lu were studied by Raman spectroscopy. The observed phonon frequencies decrease towards the transitions to the dhcp and fcc phases. There is evidence that the entire structural sequence [Formula: see text] under pressure for the individual regular rare-earth metals and along the lanthanide series at ambient pressure involve softening of certain acoustic and optical phonon modes and of the elastic shear modulus C(44). Comparison is made to transitions between close-packed lattices in other metals, and possible correlations to s-d electron transfer are discussed.

  8. Solvation structures and dynamics of alkaline earth metal halides in supercritical water: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshri, Sonanki; Mandal, Ratnamala; Tembe, B. L.

    2016-09-01

    Constrained molecular dynamics simulations of alkaline earth metal halides have been carried out to investigate their structural and dynamical properties in supercritical water. Potentials of mean force (PMFs) for all the alkaline earth metal halides in supercritical water have been computed. Contact ion pairs (CIPs) are found to be more stable than all other configurations of the ion pairs except for MgI2 where solvent shared ion pair (SShIP) is more stable than the CIP. There is hardly any difference in the PMFs between the M2+ (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and the X- (X = F, Cl, Br, I) ions whether the second X- ion is present in the first coordination shell of the M2+ ion or not. The solvent molecules in the solvation shells diffuse at a much slower rate compared to the bulk. Orientational distribution functions of solvent molecules are sharper for smaller ions.

  9. Encapsulation of ZnO particles by metal fluorides: Towards an application as transparent insulating coatings for windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenque, Isabelle; Mornet, Stéphane; Duguet, Etienne; Majimel, Jérôme; Brüll, Annelise; Teinz, Katharina; Kemnitz, Erhard; Gaudon, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Because ZnO is a promising candidate for getting efficient films or varnishes with thermal insulating abilities for windows applications, the effect of the encapsulation of ZnO particles in shells of low refractive index material on the improvement of the visible light transmission was investigated. ZnO-MgF2 core-shell particles were synthesized by deposition of fluoride sols on ZnO particles through a vacuum slip casting process like. The transmission behaviours were first indirectly studied by diffuse reflexion measurements on powder beds. Then, particle films were elaborated by a screen printing process which ensured direct transmission measurements. The encapsulation of ZnO particles with a coating shell of 1.3 wt.% of MgF2 improves the visible light transmission of 32%.

  10. Neutron Diffraction Studies of Some Rare Earth-Transition Metal Deuterides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    RD-A168 M NEUTRON DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF SONE RARE EARTH-TRANSITION METAL DEUTERIDES(U) MISSOURI UNIV-ROLLR MATERIALS RESEARCH CENTER N J JAMES MY 86...REPORT William J. James OTtO -il May 1986 ZLECTEJU U. S. Army Research Office DAAG29-83-K-01 59 ".;’ Graduate Center for Materials Research ...9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS 2* Graduate Center for Materials Research

  11. Formation of an integrated holding company to produce rare-earth metal articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, S. V.; Grishaev, S. I.

    2013-12-01

    The possibility of formation of a Russian holding company for the production of rare-earth metal articles under conditions of its increasing demand on the world market is considered. It is reasonable to ensure stable business operation on the market under conditions of state-private partnership after the fraction of soled products is determined and supported by the competitive advantages of Russian products.

  12. Influence of noble metals alloying additions on the corrosion behaviour of titanium in a fluoride-containing environment.

    PubMed

    Rosalbino, F; Delsante, S; Borzone, G; Scavino, G

    2012-05-01

    Titanium alloys exhibit excellent corrosion resistance in most aqueous media due to the formation of a stable oxide film, and some of these alloys (particularly Ti-6Al-7Nb) have been chosen for surgical and odontological implants for their resistance and biocompatibility. Treatment with fluorides (F(-)) is known to be the main method for preventing plaque formation and dental caries. Toothpastes, mouthwashes, and prophylactic gels can contain from 200 to 20,000 ppm F(-) and can affect the corrosion behaviour of titanium alloy devices present in the oral cavity. In this work, the electrochemical corrosion behaviour of Ti-1M alloys (M = Ag, Au, Pd, Pt) was assessed in artificial saliva of pH = 3.0 containing 910 ppm F(-) (0.05 M NaF) through open circuit potential, E(OC), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The corrosion behaviour of the Ti-6Al-7Nb commercial alloy was also evaluated for comparison. E (OC) measurements show an active behaviour for all the titanium alloys in fluoridated acidified saliva due to the presence of significant concentrations of HF and HF(2) (-) species that dissolve the spontaneous air-formed oxide film giving rise to surface activation. However, an increase in stability of the passive oxide layer and consequently a decrease in surface activation is observed for the Ti-1M alloys. This behaviour is confirmed by EIS measurements. In fact, the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy exhibits lower impedance values as compared with Ti-1M alloys, the highest values being measured for the Ti-1Au alloy. The experimental results show that the corrosion resistance of the studied Ti-1M alloys is similar to or better than that of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy currently used as biomaterial, suggesting their potential for dental applications.

  13. Ground-state properties of rare-earth metals: an evaluation of density-functional theory.

    PubMed

    Söderlind, Per; Turchi, P E A; Landa, A; Lordi, V

    2014-10-15

    The rare-earth metals have important technological applications due to their magnetic properties, but are scarce and expensive. Development of high-performance magnetic materials with less rare-earth content is desired, but theoretical modeling is hampered by complexities of the rare earths electronic structure. The existence of correlated (atomic-like) 4f electrons in the vicinity of the valence band makes any first-principles theory challenging. Here, we apply and evaluate the efficacy of density-functional theory for the series of lanthanides (rare earths), investigating the influence of the electron exchange and correlation functional, spin-orbit interaction, and orbital polarization. As a reference, the results are compared with those of the so-called 'standard model' of the lanthanides in which electrons are constrained to occupy 4f core states with no hybridization with the valence electrons. Some comparisons are also made with models designed for strong electron correlations. Our results suggest that spin-orbit coupling and orbital polarization are important, particularly for the magnitude of the magnetic moments, and that calculated equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, and magnetic moments show correct trends overall. However, the precision of the calculated properties is not at the level of that found for simpler metals in the Periodic Table of Elements, and the electronic structures do not accurately reproduce x-ray photoemission spectra.

  14. Alkaline earth metal doped tin oxide as a novel oxygen storage material

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Qiang, E-mail: dong@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp; Yin, Shu; Yoshida, Mizuki

    2015-09-15

    Alkaline earth metal doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) hollow nanospheres with a diameter of 50 nm have been synthesized successfully via a facial solvothermal route in a very simple system composed of only ethanol, acetic acid, SnCl{sub 4}·5H{sub 2}O and A(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·xH{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). The synthesized undoped SnO{sub 2} and A-doped SnO{sub 2} hollow nanospheres were characterized by the oxygen storage capacity (OSC), X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and the Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) technique. The OSC values of all samples were measured using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis. The incorporation of alkaline earth metal ion into tinmore » oxide greatly enhanced the thermal stability and OSC. Especially, Ba-doped SnO{sub 2} hollow nanospheres calcined at 1000 °C for 20 h with a BET surface area of 61 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} exhibited the considerably high OSC of 457 μmol-O g{sup −1} and good thermal stability. Alkaline earth metal doped tin oxide has the potential to be a novel oxygen storage material.« less

  15. Metal-silicate Partitioning and Its Role in Core Formation and Composition on Super-Earths

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Laura; Petaev, M. I.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

    We use a thermodynamic framework for silicate-metal partitioning to determine the possible compositions of metallic cores on super-Earths. We compare results using literature values of the partition coefficients of Si and Ni, as well as new partition coefficients calculated using results from laser shock-induced melting of powdered metal-dunite targets at pressures up to 276 GPa, which approaches those found within the deep mantles of super-Earths. We find that larger planets may have little to no light elements in their cores because the Si partition coefficient decreases at high pressures. The planet mass at which this occurs will depend on themore » metal-silicate equilibration depth. We also extrapolate the equations of state (EOS) of FeO and FeSi alloys to high pressures, and present mass–radius diagrams using self-consistent planet compositions assuming equilibrated mantles and cores. We confirm the results of previous studies that the distribution of elements between mantle and core will not be detectable from mass and radius measurements alone. While observations may be insensitive to interior structure, further modeling is sensitive to compositionally dependent properties, such as mantle viscosity and core freeze-out properties. We therefore emphasize the need for additional high pressure measurements of partitioning as well as EOSs, and highlight the utility of the Sandia Z-facilities for this type of work.« less

  16. Rare earth elements and critical metal content of extracted landfilled material and potential recovery opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Silvia C; Coulon, Frédéric; Jiang, Ying; Wagland, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs), Platinum group metals (PGMs) and other critical metals currently attract significant interest due to the high risks of supply shortage and substantial impact on the economy. Their uses in many applications have made them present in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in commercial and industrial waste (C&I), since several industrial processes produce by-products with high content of these metals. With over 4000 landfills in the UK alone, the aim of this study was to assess the existence of these critical metals within landfills. Samples collected from four closed landfills in UK were subjected to a two-step acid digestion to extract 27 metals of interest. Concentrations across the four landfill sites were 58±6mgkg(-1) for REEs comprising 44±8mgkg(-1) for light REEs, 11±2mgkg(-1) for heavy REEs and 3±1mgkg(-1) for Scandium (Sc) and 3±1.0mgkg(-1) of PGMs. Compared to the typical concentration in ores, these concentrations are too low to achieve a commercially viable extraction. However, content of other highly valuable metals (Al and Cu) was found in concentrations equating to a combined value across the four landfills of around $400 million, which increases the economic viability of landfill mining. Presence of critical metals will mainly depend on the type of waste that was buried but the recovery of these metals through landfill mining is possible and is economically feasible only if additional materials (plastics, paper, metallic items and other) are also recovered for reprocessing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermodynamic Investigation of the Reduction-Distillation Process for Rare Earth Metals Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, W. D.; Azimi, G.

    2017-10-01

    Owing to their high vapor pressure, the four rare earth metals samarium, europium, thulium, and ytterbium are produced by reduction-distillation whereby their oxides are reduced with metallic lanthanum in vacuo, and the produced metal is subsequently vaporized off. Here, we performed a thorough thermodynamic investigation to establish a fundamental understanding of the reduction-distillation process. Thermodynamic functions including vapor pressures, Gibbs free energies, and enthalpies of reaction were calculated and compared with available experimental data. Furthermore, the kinetics of the process was explored and theoretical evaporation rates were calculated from thermodynamic data. The thermodynamic model developed in this work can help optimize processing conditions to maximize the yield and improve the overall process.

  18. How Does Boiling in the Earth's Crust Influence Metal Speciation and Transport?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, K.; Lemke, K.

    2014-12-01

    The presence of large quantities of precious metals, such as gold and copper, near the Earth's surface (upper crust) is commonly attributed to transport in aqueous solution and precipitation upon variations in temperature and pressure. As a consequence, gold exploration is closely linked to solution chemistry, i.e. hydrothermal processes involving aqueous fluids with densities of around unity. However, as crustal fluids buoyantly ascend, boiling produces a coexisting low-density aqueous liquid with fundamentally different physical and chemical properties, and a, most importantly, a high affinity for coinage metals (Heinrich et al., Econ Geol., 1992, 87, 1566). From recent experimental studies of Au (Hurtig and Williams-Jones, 2014, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta,, 127, 304), we know that metal speciation in this low-density phase differs fundamentally from that observed in bulk solution, clearly, with important implications for Au, and metal speciation in general, transport and ore concentrations processes (these processes would also be operable in industrial geothermal plants given the quite special solvent properties of steam). In brief, this study focuses on the speciation of select metal halides in bulk solution as well as in water vapor, and is driven by our need to understand the solvent properties of around 2.0x109 cubic kilometers of free water (or 2,500 times as much water as stored in all lakes and rivers) present in the Earth's crust. The scope of this study has particular applications in the geothermal and oil industries, as both deal with high temperature low-density aqueous fluids. Understanding how metal halide species behave upon boiling can also provide insight into how metals, such as copper and silver, coat turbine equipment and steam piping in geothermal plants, ultimately rendering these components inoperable. This study will also provide preliminary results from mass spectrometric experiments of transition metal halides, and will be augmented with

  19. The Effect of Alkaline Earth Metal on the Cesium Loading of Ionsiv(R) IE-910 and IE-911

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2001-01-16

    This study investigated the effect of variances in alkaline earth metal concentrations on cesium loading of IONSIV(R) IE-911. The study focused on Savannah River Site (SRS) ''average'' solution with varying amounts of calcium, barium and magnesium.

  20. Heterogeneous Delivery of Silicate and Metal to the Earth via Large Planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, S.; Canup, R. M.; Walker, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's mantle abundances of at least some highly siderophile elements, (HSE; Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Rh, Pd, and Au), are much higher than would result from metal-silicate equilibration during terrestrial core formation, and can be better explained as a result of late accretion of a minimum of 0.5% Earth's masses after core formation was complete. Traditional models assume that HSEs delivered by late projectiles completely mixed and chemically equilibrated with the Earth's mantle. This appears likely for undifferentiated, well-mixed projectiles, or for relatively small, differentiated projectiles. However several arguments suggest that late projectiles may have been large (> 1500 km in diameter) and differentiated, and in this case, portions of the projectile's core may merge with the Earth's core, rather than being mixed into the Earth's mantle. We investigate projectile mixing with a suite of SPH simulations of differentiated planetesimal colliding with the Earth. A range of outcomes emerge from our simulations suggesting that for large impactors (>1500 km), the delivery of HSE to the Earth's mantle may be disproportionate with the overall delivery of mass. For impacts with impact angles < 45° , between ˜ 20% to 80% of the impactor's core may merge directly with the Earth's core; while for impact angle > 60°, most of the impactor core escapes for moderate impact speeds. An implication is that the late accreted mass inferred from terrestrial HSE abundances may be a substantial underestimate, by a factor 2-5. In addition, partial mixing of projectiles result in an enrichment in mantle vs core material delivered to the bulk silicate Earth, implying substantial compositional variations in the accreted mass. Such variations could produce initially localized domains in Earth's mantle with distinct, mass independent isotopic signatures, given the isotopic variability resulting from nucleosynthetic heterogeneities among genetically diverse meteorites. In general we find

  1. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOEpatents

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-31

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  2. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOEpatents

    Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving; Palekar, Vishwesh M.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  3. Matrix infrared spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations for the coinage-metal fluorides: comparisons of Ar-AuF, Ne-AuF, and Molecules MF2 and MF3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuefeng; Andrews, Lester; Brosi, Felix; Riedel, Sebastian

    2013-01-21

    The reactions of laser-ablated Au, Ag, and Cu atoms with F(2) in excess argon and neon gave new absorptions in the M-F stretching region of their IR spectra, which were assigned to metal-fluoride species. For gold, a Ng-AuF bond was identified in mixed neon/argon samples. However, this bonding was much weaker with AgF and CuF. Molecules MF(2) and MF(3) (M=Au, Ag, Cu) were identified from the isotopic distribution of the Cu and Ag atoms, comparison of the frequencies for three metal fluorides, and theoretical frequency calculations. The AuF(5) molecule was characterized by its strongest stretching mode and theoretical frequency calculations. Additional evidence was observed for the formation of the Au(2) F(6) molecule. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. SBIR-Long fluoride fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Raymond E.; Vacha, Lubos J.

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes results obtained under a program aimed at developing new techniques for fabricating long lengths of heavy metal fluoride glass (HMFG) optical fiber. A new method for overcladding conventional HMFG preforms with a low melting oxide glass was developed, and improvements in the rotational casting method were made to increase preform length. The resulting composite glass canes consist of a fluoride glass overcoat layer to enhance strength and chemical durability. To show feasibility, prototype optical fiber preforms up to 1.6 cm in diameter with lengths of 22 cm were fabricated. These were drawn into optical fibers with lengths up to 900 meters.

  5. Hydrometallurgical separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from spent nickel-metal-hydride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Carmo; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    The separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from NiMH battery residues is evaluated in this paper. Analysis of the internal content of the NiMH batteries shows that nickel is the main metal present in the residue (around 50% in weight), as well as potassium (2.2-10.9%), cobalt (5.1-5.5%), rare earth elements (15.3-29.0%) and cadmium (2.8%). The presence of cadmium reveals that some Ni-Cd batteries are possibly labeled as NiMH ones. The leaching of nickel and cobalt from the NiMH battery powder with sulfuric acid is efficient; operating variables temperature and concentration of H 2O 2 has no significant effect for the conditions studied. A mixture of rare earth elements is separated by precipitation with NaOH. Finally, solvent extraction with D2EHPA (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid) followed by Cyanex 272 (bis-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid) can separate cadmium, cobalt and nickel from the leach liquor. The effect of the main operating variables of both leaching and solvent extraction steps are discussed aiming to maximize metal separation for recycling purposes.

  6. High-pressure phase transitions in rare earth metal thulium to 195 GPa.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Jeffrey M; Samudrala, Gopi K; Tsoi, Georgiy M; Vohra, Yogesh K

    2011-04-20

    We have performed image plate x-ray diffraction studies on a heavy rare earth metal, thulium (Tm), in a diamond anvil cell to a pressure of 195 GPa and volume compression V/V₀ = 0.38 at room temperature. The rare earth crystal structure sequence, hcp →Sm-type→ dhcp →fcc → distorted fcc, is observed in Tm below 70 GPa with the exception of a pure fcc phase. The focus of our study is on the ultrahigh-pressure phase transition and Rietveld refinement of crystal structures in the pressure range between 70 and 195 GPa. The hexagonal hR-24 phase is seen to describe the distorted fcc phase between 70 and 124 GPa. Above 124 ± 4 GPa, a structural transformation from hR 24 phase to a monoclinic C 2/m phase is observed with a volume change of -1.5%. The equation of state data shows rapid stiffening above the phase transition at 124 GPa and is indicative of participation of f-electrons in bonding. We compare the behavior of Tm to other heavy rare-earths and heavy actinide metals under extreme conditions of pressure.

  7. High-pressure phase transitions in rare earth metal thulium to 195 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2011-04-01

    We have performed image plate x-ray diffraction studies on a heavy rare earth metal, thulium (Tm), in a diamond anvil cell to a pressure of 195 GPa and volume compression V/Vo = 0.38 at room temperature. The rare earth crystal structure sequence, {hcp}\\to {Sm {-}type} \\to {dhcp} \\to {fcc} \\to distorted fcc, is observed in Tm below 70 GPa with the exception of a pure fcc phase. The focus of our study is on the ultrahigh-pressure phase transition and Rietveld refinement of crystal structures in the pressure range between 70 and 195 GPa. The hexagonal hR- 24 phase is seen to describe the distorted fcc phase between 70 and 124 GPa. Above 124 ± 4 GPa, a structural transformation from hR 24 phase to a monoclinic C 2/m phase is observed with a volume change of - 1.5%. The equation of state data shows rapid stiffening above the phase transition at 124 GPa and is indicative of participation of f-electrons in bonding. We compare the behavior of Tm to other heavy rare-earths and heavy actinide metals under extreme conditions of pressure.

  8. Polyoxometalate electrocatalysts based on earth-abundant metals for efficient water oxidation in acidic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco-Ahicart, Marta; Soriano-López, Joaquín; Carbó, Jorge J.; Poblet, Josep M.; Galan-Mascaros, J. R.

    2018-01-01

    Water splitting is a promising approach to the efficient and cost-effective production of renewable fuels, but water oxidation remains a bottleneck in its technological development because it largely relies on noble-metal catalysts. Although inexpensive transition-metal oxides are competitive water oxidation catalysts in alkaline media, they cannot compete with noble metals in acidic media, in which hydrogen production is easier and faster. Here, we report a water oxidation catalyst based on earth-abundant metals that performs well in acidic conditions. Specifically, we report the enhanced catalytic activity of insoluble salts of polyoxometalates with caesium or barium counter-cations for oxygen evolution. In particular, the barium salt of a cobalt-phosphotungstate polyanion outperforms the state-of-the-art IrO2 catalyst even at pH < 1, with an overpotential of 189 mV at 1 mA cm-2. In addition, we find that a carbon-paste conducting support with a hydrocarbon binder can improve the stability of metal-oxide catalysts in acidic media by providing a hydrophobic environment.

  9. High-pressure metallization of FeO and implications for the earth's core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knittle, Elise; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1986-01-01

    The phase diagram of FeO has been experimentally determined to pressures of 155 GPa and temperatures of 4000 K using shock-wave and diamond-cell techniques. A metallic phase of FeO is observed at pressures greater than 70 GPa and temperatures exceeding 1000 K. The metallization of FeO at high pressures implies that oxygen can be present as the light alloying element of the earth's outer core, in accord with the geochemical predictions of Ringwood (1977 and 1979). The high pressures necessary for this metallization suggest that the core has acquired its composition well after the initial stages of the earth's accretion. Direct experimental observations at elevated pressures and temperatures indicate that core-forming alloy can react chemically with oxides such as those forming the mantle. The core and mantle may never have reached complete chemical equilibrium, however. If this is the case, the core-mantle boundary is likely to be a zone of active chemical reactions.

  10. Bond-length distributions for ions bonded to oxygen: alkali and alkaline-earth metals.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Olivier Charles; Hawthorne, Frank Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Bond-length distributions have been examined for 55 configurations of alkali-metal ions and 29 configurations of alkaline-earth-metal ions bonded to oxygen, for 4859 coordination polyhedra and 38 594 bond distances (alkali metals), and for 3038 coordination polyhedra and 24 487 bond distances (alkaline-earth metals). Bond lengths generally show a positively skewed Gaussian distribution that originates from the variation in Born repulsion and Coulomb attraction as a function of interatomic distance. The skewness and kurtosis of these distributions generally decrease with increasing coordination number of the central cation, a result of decreasing Born repulsion with increasing coordination number. We confirm the following minimum coordination numbers: ([3])Li(+), ([3])Na(+), ([4])K(+), ([4])Rb(+), ([6])Cs(+), ([3])Be(2+), ([4])Mg(2+), ([6])Ca(2+), ([6])Sr(2+) and ([6])Ba(2+), but note that some reported examples are the result of extensive dynamic and/or positional short-range disorder and are not ordered arrangements. Some distributions of bond lengths are distinctly multi-modal. This is commonly due to the occurrence of large numbers of structure refinements of a particular structure type in which a particular cation is always present, leading to an over-representation of a specific range of bond lengths. Outliers in the distributions of mean bond lengths are often associated with anomalous values of atomic displacement of the constituent cations and/or anions. For a sample of ([6])Na(+), the ratio Ueq(Na)/Ueq(bonded anions) is partially correlated with 〈([6])Na(+)-O(2-)〉 (R(2) = 0.57), suggesting that the mean bond length is correlated with vibrational/displacement characteristics of the constituent ions for a fixed coordination number. Mean bond lengths also show a weak correlation with bond-length distortion from the mean value in general, although some coordination numbers show the widest variation in mean bond length for zero distortion, e.g. Li(+) in

  11. Application of Freeze-Dried Powders of Genetically Engineered Microbial Strains as Adsorbents for Rare Earth Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Masuda, Reiko; Yamazaki, Yuki; Horiuchi, Kaoru; Miyashita, Mari; Kasahara, Jun; Tanaka, Tatsuhito; Yamamoto, Hiroki

    2016-10-12

    The adsorption behaviors of the rare earth metal ions onto freeze-dried powders of genetically engineered microbial strains were compared. Cell powders obtained from four kinds of strains, Bacillus subtilis 168 wild type (WT), lipoteichoic acid-defective (ΔLTA), wall teichoic acid-defective (ΔWTA), and cell wall hydrolases-defective (EFKYOJLp) strains, were used as an adsorbent of the rare earth metal ions at pH 3. The adsorption ability of the rare earth metal ions was in the order of EFKYOJLp > WT > ΔLTA > ΔWTA. The order was the same as the order of the phosphorus quantity of the strains. This result indicates that the main adsorption sites for the ions are the phosphate groups and the teichoic acids, LTA and WTA, that contribute to the adsorption of the rare earth metal ions onto the cell walls. The contribution of WTA was clearly greater than that of LTA. Each microbial powder was added to a solution containing 16 kinds of rare earth metal ions, and the removals (%) of each rare earth metal ion were obtained. The scandium ion showed the highest removal (%), while that of the lanthanum ion was the lowest for all the microbial powders. Differences in the distribution coefficients between the kinds of lanthanide ions by the EFKYOJLp and ΔWTA powders were greater than those of the other strains. Therefore, the EFKYOJLp and ΔWTA powders could be applicable for the selective extraction of the lanthanide ions. The ΔLTA powder coagulated by mixing with a rare earth metal ion, although no sedimentation of the WT or ΔWTA powder with a rare earth metal ion was observed under the same conditions. The EFKYOJLp powder was also coagulated, but its flocculating activity was lower than that of ΔLTA. The ΔLTA and EFKYOJLp powders have a long shape compared to those of the WT or ΔWTA strain. The shapes of the cells will play an important role in the sedimentation of the microbial powders with rare earth metal ions. As the results, three kinds of the genetically

  12. Characterization of metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor structures based on ferroelectric Langmuir-Blodgett polyvinylidene fluoride copolymer films for nondestructive random access memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, Timothy James

    Ferroelectric field effect transistors (FeFETs) have attracted much attention recently because of their ability to combine high speed, low power consumption, and fast nondestructive readout with the potential for high density nonvolatile memory. The polarization of the ferroelectric is used to switch the channel at the silicon surface between states of high and low conductance. Among the ferroelectric thin films used in FET devices; the ferroelectric copolymer of Polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF (C2H2F 2), with trifluoroethylene, TrFE (C2HF3), has distinct advantages, including low dielectric constant, low processing temperature, low cost and compatibility with organic semiconductors. By employing the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, films as thin as 1.8 nm can be deposited, reducing the operating voltage. An MFIS structure consisting of aluminum, 170 nm P(VDF-TrFE), 100 nm silicon oxide and n-type silicon exhibited low leakage current (˜1x10 -8 A/cm2), a large memory window (4.2 V) and operated at 35 Volts. The operating voltage was lowered through use of high k insulators like cerium oxide. A sample consisting of 25 nm P(VDF-TrFE), 30 nm cerium oxide and p-type silicon exhibited a 1.9 V window with 7 Volt gate amplitude. The leakage current in this case was considerably higher (1x10 -6 A/cm2). The characterization, modeling, and fabrication of metal-ferroelectricinsulator semiconductor (MFIS) structures based on these films are discussed.

  13. Formation and properties of metallic nanoparticles in lithium and sodium fluorides with radiation-induced color centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryukvina, L. I.; Martynovich, E. F.

    2012-12-01

    The specific features of light- and temperature-induced formation of metallic nanoparticles in γ-irradiated LiF and NaF crystals have been investigated. Atomic force microscope images of nanoparticles of different sizes and in different locations have been presented. The relation between the crystal processing regimes and properties of the nanoparticles formed has been revealed. The optical properties of the processed crystals have been analyzed. The thermo- and light-stimulated processes underlying the formation of metallic nanoparticles in aggregation of the color centers and their decay due to the recovery of the crystal lattice have been studied.

  14. Controlling Magnetic and Ferroelectric Order Through Geometry: Synthesis, Ab Initio Theory, Characterization of New Multi-Ferric Fluoride Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Halasyamani, Shiv; Fennie, Craig

    2016-11-03

    We have focused on the synthesis, characterization, and ab initio theory on multi-functional mixed-metal fluorides. With funding from the DOE, we have successfully synthesized and characterized a variety of mixed metal fluoride materials.

  15. Kinetics of the mechanochemical synthesis of alkaline-earth metal amides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garroni, Sebastiano; Takacs, Laszlo; Leng, Haiyan; Delogu, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    A phenomenological framework is developed to model the kinetics of the formation of alkaline-earth metal amides by the ball milling induced reaction of their hydrides with gaseous ammonia. It is shown that the exponential character of the kinetic curves is modulated by the increase of the total volume of the powder inside the reactor due to the substantially larger molar volume of the products compared to the reactants. It is claimed that the volume of powder effectively processed during each collision connects the transformation rate to the physical and chemical processes underlying the mechanochemical transformations.

  16. Liquefaction process for solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates

    DOEpatents

    Epperly, William R.; Deane, Barry C.; Brunson, Roy J.

    1982-01-01

    An improved liquefaction process wherein wall scale and particulate agglomeration during the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates is reduced and/or eliminated by subjecting the solid carbonaceous materials to controlled cyclic cavitation during liquefaction. It is important that the solid carbonaceous material be slurried in a suitable solvent or diluent during liquefaction. The cyclic cavitation may be imparted via pressure cycling, cyclic agitation and the like. When pressure cycling or the like is employed an amplitude equivalent to at least 25 psia is required to effectively remove scale from the liquefaction vessel walls.

  17. Processing of Phosphorus Slag with Recovery of Rare Earth Metals and Obtaining Silicon Containing Cake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karshigina, Zaure; Abisheva, Zinesh; Bochevskaya, Yelena; Akcil, Ata; Sharipova, Aynash; Sargelova, Elmira

    2016-10-01

    The present research is devoted to the processing of slag generating during the yellow phosphorus production. In this paper are presented studies on leaching of phosphorus production slag by nitric acid with recovery of rare earth metals (REMs) into solution. REMs recovery into the solution achieved 98 % during the leaching process with using 7.5 mol/L of HNO3, liquid-to-solid ratio is 2.6:1, temperature is 60°C, process duration is 1 hour and stirrer speed is 500 rpm. Behaviour during the leaching of associated components such as calcium, aluminium, and iron was studied. After the leaching cake contains ∼⃒75-85 % of SiO2 and it might be useful for obtaining of precipitated silicon dioxide. With the purpose of separation from the impurities, recovery and concentrating of REMs, the obtained solution after leaching was subjected to extraction processing methods. The influence of ratio of organic and aqueous phases (O: A) on the extraction of rare earth metals by tributyl phosphate (TBP) with concentrations from 20 up to 100 % was studied. The REMs extraction with increasing TBP concentration under changes O:A ratio from 1:20 down to 1:1 into the organic phase from the solutions after nitric acid leaching increased from 22.2 up to 99.3%. The duration effect of REMs extraction process was studied by tributyl phosphate. It is revealed that with increasing of duration of the extraction process from 10 to 30 minutes REMs recovery into the organic phase almost did not changed. The behaviour of iron in the extraction process by TBP was studied. It was found that such accompanying components as calcium and aluminium by tributyl phosphate didn't extracted. To construct isotherm of REMs extraction of by tributyl phosphate was used variable volume method. It was calculated three-step extraction is needed for REMs recovery from the solutions after nitric acid leaching of phosphorus production slag. The process of the three-steps counter current extraction of rare earth

  18. Hyperfine structure of 2Σ molecules containing alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldegunde, Jesus; Hutson, Jeremy M.

    2018-04-01

    Ultracold molecules with both electron spin and an electric dipole moment offer new possibilities in quantum science. We use density-functional theory to calculate hyperfine coupling constants for a selection of molecules important in this area, including RbSr, LiYb, RbYb, CaF, and SrF. We find substantial hyperfine coupling constants for the fermionic isotopes of the alkaline-earth-metal and Yb atoms. We discuss the hyperfine level patterns and Zeeman splittings expected for these molecules. The results will be important both to experiments aimed at forming ultracold open-shell molecules and to their applications.

  19. Effects of enamel sealing on shear bond strength and the adhesive remnant index : Study of three fluoride-releasing adhesives in combination with metal and ceramic brackets.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Elisabeth; Elsner, Laura; Hirschfelder, Ursula; Ebert, Thomas; Hanke, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Selected combinations of materials were used to create tooth-adhesive-bracket complexes to evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) with regard to enamel sealing. Four adhesive systems also appropriate for use as enamel sealants were combined with four bracket types, resulting in 16 adhesive-bracket combinations, each of which was tested on 15 permanent bovine incisors. Sealant-adhesives included two recently introduced fluoride-releasing systems (Riva bond LC ® and go! ® ), one established primer (Opal ® Seal™), and one commonly used adhesive as control (Transbond™ XT). Brackets included two metal (discovery ® by Dentaurum and Sprint ® ) and two ceramic (discovery ® pearl and GLAM ® ) systems. After embedding the bovine teeth, bonding the brackets to their surface, and storing the resultant samples as per DIN 13990-2 with modifications, an SBS test was performed by applying the shear force directly at the bracket base in an incisocervical direction. Then the ARI scores were determined. Discovery ®  + Transbond™ XT yielded the highest (47.2 MPa) and GLAM ®  + go! ® the lowest (17.0 MPa) mean SBS values. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were found between metal and ceramic brackets of the same manufacturers (Dentaurum and Forestadent). Our ratings of the failure modes upon debonding predominantly yielded ARI 0 or 1. The high SBS values and low ARI scores observed with discovery ®  + Transbond XT™ were reflected in a high rate of enamel fracture, which occurred on 11 of the 15 tooth specimens in this group. All sealant-bracket combinations were found to yield levels of SBS adequate for clinical application. SBS values and ARI scores varied significantly depending on which sealant-brackets were used.

  20. Hybridization wave as the cause of the metal-insulator transition in rare earth nickelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyowon; Marianetti, Chris A.; Millis, Andrew J.

    2012-02-01

    The metal-insulator transition driven by varying rare earth (Re) ion in ReNiO3 has been a longstanding challenge to materials theory. Experimental evidence suggesting charge order is seemingly incompatible with the strong Mott-Hubbard correlations characteristic of transition metals. We present density functional, Hartree-Fock and Dynamical Mean field calculations showing that the origin of the insulating phase is a hybridization wave, in which a two sublattice ordering of the oxygen breathing mode produces two Ni sites with almost identical Ni d-charge densities but very different magnetic moments and other properties. The high temperature crystal structure associated with smaller Re ions such as Lu is shown to be more susceptible to the distortion than the high temperature structure associated with larger Re ions such as La.

  1. Anomalous positive flatband voltage shifts in metal gate stacks containing rare-earth oxide capping layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Hedhili, M. N.; Wang, H.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2012-03-01

    It is shown that the well-known negative flatband voltage (VFB) shift, induced by rare-earth oxide capping in metal gate stacks, can be completely reversed in the absence of the silicon overlayer. Using TaN metal gates and Gd2O3-doped dielectric, we measure a ˜350 mV negative shift with the Si overlayer present and a ˜110 mV positive shift with the Si overlayer removed. This effect is correlated to a positive change in the average electrostatic potential at the TaN/dielectric interface which originates from an interfacial dipole. The dipole is created by the replacement of interfacial oxygen atoms in the HfO2 lattice with nitrogen atoms from TaN.

  2. Computational Studies of Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Metal Oxides in Li-Ion Batteries and Earth's Lower Mantle Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shenzhen

    Metal oxide materials are ubiquitous in nature and in our daily lives. For example, the Earth's mantle layer that makes up about 80% of our Earth's volume is composed of metal oxide materials, the cathode materials in the lithium-ion batteries that provide power for most of our mobile electronic devices are composed of metal oxides, the chemical components of the passivation layers on many kinds of metal materials that protect the metal from further corrosion are metal oxides. This thesis is composed of two major topics about the metal oxide materials in nature. The first topic is about our computational study of the iron chemistry in the Earth's lower mantle metal oxide materials, i.e. the bridgmanite (Fe-bearing MgSiO3 where iron is the substitution impurity element) and the ferropericlase (Fe-bearing MgO where iron is the substitution impurity element). The second topic is about our multiscale modeling works for understanding the nanoscale kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the metal oxide cathode interfaces in Li-ion batteries, including the intrinsic cathode interfaces (intergrowth of multiple types of cathode materials, compositional gradient cathode materials, etc.), the cathode/coating interface systems and the cathode/electrolyte interface systems. This thesis uses models based on density functional theory quantum mechanical calculations to explore the underlying physics behind several types of metal oxide materials existing in the interior of the Earth or used in the applications of lithium-ion batteries. The exploration of this physics can help us better understand the geochemical and seismic properties of our Earth and inspire us to engineer the next generation of electrochemical technologies.

  3. Prediction of metastable metal-rare gas fluorides: FMRgF (M =Be and Mg; Rg =Ar, Kr and Xe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasekharan, T.; Ghanty, T. K.

    2008-04-01

    The structure, stability, charge redistribution, bonding, and harmonic vibrational frequencies of rare gas containing group II-A fluorides with the general formula FMRgF (where M =Be and Mg; Rg =Ar, Kr, and Xe) have been investigated using second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, density functional theory, and coupled cluster theory [CCSD(T)] methods. The species, FMRgF show a quasilinear structure at the minima and a bent structure at the transition state. The predicted species are unstable with respect to the two-body dissociation channel, leading to the global minima (MF2+Rg) on the singlet potential energy surface. However, with respect to other two-body dissociation channel (FM+RgF), they are found to be stable and have high positive energies on the same surface. The computed binding energy for the two-body dissociation channels are 94.0, 164.7, and 199.7kJmol-1 for FBeArF, FBeKrF, FBeXeF, respectively, at CCSD(T) method. The corresponding energy values are 83.4, 130.7, and 180.1kJmol-1 for FMgArF, FMgKrF, and FMgXeF, respectively, at the same level of theory. With respect to the three-body dissociation (FM+Rg+F) channel as well as dissociation into atomic constituent, they are also found to be stable and have high positive energies. The dissociation of the predicted species typically proceeds via MRgF bending mode at the transition state. The computed barrier heights for the transition states are 11.4, 32.2, and 57.6kJmol-1 for FBeArF, FBeKrF, and FBeXeF, respectively, at the CCSD(T) method. The corresponding barrier heights for the Mg containing species are 2.1, 9.2, and 32.1kJmol-1 along the series Ar KrXe, respectively. The M Rg bond energies of the FMRgF species is significantly higher than the corresponding bond energies of the M+Rg species (˜53 and ˜15kJmol-1 for Be+Ar and Mg+Ar, respectively). The computed energy diagram as well as the geometrical parameters along with the AIM results suggest that the species are metastable

  4. The adsorption kinetics of metal ions onto different microalgae and siliceous earth.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, D; Müller, A; Csögör, Z; Frimmel, F H; Posten, C

    2001-03-01

    In the present work the adsorption kinetics of the six metal ions aluminum, zinc, mercury, lead, copper, and cadmium onto living microalgae were measured. The freshwater green microalga Scenedesmus subspicatus, the brackish water diatom Cyclotella cryptica, the seawater diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and the seawater red alga Porphyridium purpureum were the subject of investigation. In most cases the adsorption rate of the metals could be well described by using the equation of the Langmuir adsorption rate expression. Inverse parameter estimation allowed the determination of the rate constants of the adsorption process and the maximum metal content of the algae. The highest values for the rate constant were obtained for Porphyridium purpureum followed by Phaeodactylum tricornutum. High values for the maximum content were obtained for Cyclotella cryptica and Scenedesmus subspicatus. The maximum rate constant was 24.21 h-1 for the adsorption of Hg to Porphyridium purpureum whereas the maximum metal content (0.243 g g-1) was obtained for Zn on Cyclotella cryptica. A comparison of these values with those obtained for the mineral siliceous earth exhibiting low maximum content and high adsorption rates reveals that the mechanism of adsorption onto the algae is a mixture of adsorption and accumulation.

  5. Alkaline earth metal complexes of a phosphine-borane-stabilized carbanion: synthesis, structures, and stabilities.

    PubMed

    Izod, Keith; Wills, Corinne; Clegg, William; Harrington, Ross W

    2007-05-14

    The reaction between either MgI2 or CaI2 and 2 equiv of [(Me3Si)2{Me2(H3B)P}C]K (2) in toluene gives the corresponding organo-alkaline earth metal compounds [(Me3Si)2{Me2(H3B)P}C]2M in moderate to good yields [M = Mg (3), Ca (4)]. Compound 3 crystallizes solvent-free, whereas X-ray quality crystals of 4 could not be obtained in the absence of coordinating solvents; crystallization of 4 from cold methylcyclohexane/THF gives the solvate [(Me3Si)2{Me2(H3B)P}C]2Ca(THF)4 (4a). The corresponding heavier alkaline earth metal complexes [(Me3Si)2{Me2(H3B)P}C]2M(THF)5 [M = Sr (7), Ba (8)] are obtained from the reaction between MI2 and 2 equiv of 2 in THF, followed by recrystallization from cold methylcyclohexane/THF. Compound 3 degrades over a period of several weeks at room-temperature both in the solid state and in toluene solution to give the free phosphine-borane (Me3Si)2{Me2(H3B)P}CH (5) as the sole phosphorus-containing product. In addition, compounds 3, 4, and 4a react rapidly with THF in toluene solution, yielding 5 as the sole phosphorus-containing product; in contrast, compounds 7 and 8 are stable toward this solvent.

  6. Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  7. Rare-earth metal oxide doped transparent mesoporous silica plates under non-aqueous condition as a potential UV sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Joon; Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Sang Hyun; Hong, Sang-Hyun; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2013-11-01

    Transparent mesoporous silica plates doped with rare-earth metal oxide were prepared using solvent-evaporation method based on the self-organization between structure-directing agent and silicate in a non-aqueous solvent. A triblock copolymer, Pluronic (F127 or P123), was used as the structure-directing agent, while tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as a silica source. The pore diameter and the surface area of the mesoporous silica plate prepared with the optimized conditions were ca 40 A and 600 m2 g(-1), respectively, for both structure-directing agent. Rare-earth metal oxides (Eu, Tb, Tm oxide) in mesochannel were formed via one-step synthetic route based on the preparation method of a silica plate. Optical properties of rare-earth metal oxide-doped mesoporous silica plates were investigated by UV irradiation and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Under the exitation wavelength of 254 nm, the doped mesoporous silica plates emitted red, green and blue for Eu, Tb and Tm oxides, respectively. Rare-earth metal oxide-doped mesoporous silica plates showed enhanced PL intensity compared to that of the bulk rare-earth metal oxide.

  8. Alkali and alkaline earth metal salts of tetrazolone: structurally interesting and excellently thermostable.

    PubMed

    He, Piao; Wu, Le; Wu, Jin-Ting; Yin, Xin; Gozin, Michael; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2017-07-04

    Tetrazolone (5-oxotetrazole) was synthesized by a moderate strategy through three steps (addition, cyclization and catalytic hydrogenation) avoiding the unstable intermediate diazonium, as reported during the previous preparation. Alkali and alkaline earth metal salts with lithium (1), sodium (2), potassium (3), rubidium (4) caesium (5), magnesium (6), calcium (7), strontium (8) and barium (9) were prepared and fully characterized using elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy, DSC and TG analysis. All metal salts were characterized via single-crystal X-ray diffraction. They crystallize in common space groups with high densities ranging from 1.479 (1) to 3.060 g cm -3 (5). Furthermore, the crystal structures of 7, 8 and 9 reveal interesting porous energetic coordination polymers with strong hydrogen bond interactions. All new salts have good thermal stabilities with decomposition temperature between 215.0 °C (4) and 328.2 °C (7), significantly higher than that of the reported nitrogen-rich salt neutral tetrazolone. The sensitivities towards impact and friction were tested using standard methods, and all the tetrazolone-based compounds investigated can be classified into insensitive. The flame test of these metal salts supports their potential use as perchlorate-free pyrotechnics or eco-friendly insensitive energetic materials.

  9. Applications Of Graphite Fluoride Fibers In Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheng; Long, Martin; Dever, Therese

    1993-01-01

    Report characterizes graphite fluoride fibers made from commercially available graphitized carbon fibers and discusses some potential applications of graphite fluoride fibers in outer space. Applications include heat-sinking printed-circuit boards, solar concentrators, and absorption of radar waves. Other applications based on exploitation of increased resistance to degradation by atomic oxygen, present in low orbits around Earth.

  10. Theoretical study of the alkaline-earth metal superoxides BeO2 through SrO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Sodupe, Mariona; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    Three competing bonding mechanisms have been identified for the alkaline-earth metal superoxides: these result in a change in the optimal structure and ground state as the alkaline-earth metal becomes heavier. For example, BeO2 has a linear 3Sigma(-)g ground-state structure, whereas both CaO2 and SrO2 have C(2v)1A1 structures. For MgO2, the theoretical calculations are less definitive, as the 3A2 C(2v) structure is computed to lie only about 3 kcal/mol above the 3Sigma(-)g linear structure. The bond dissociation energies for the alkaline-earth metal superoxides have been computed using extensive Gaussian basis sets and treating electron correlation at the modified coupled-pair functional or coupled-cluster singles and doubles level with a perturbational estimate of the triple excitations.

  11. Recovery of Rare Earths, Precious Metals and Other Critical Materials from Geothermal Waters with Advanced Sorbent Structures

    DOE Data Explorer

    Pamela M. Kinsey

    2015-09-30

    The work evaluates, develops and demonstrates flexible, scalable mineral extraction technology for geothermal brines based upon solid phase sorbent materials with a specific focus upon rare earth elements (REEs). The selected organic and inorganic sorbent materials demonstrated high performance for collection of trace REEs, precious and valuable metals. The nanostructured materials typically performed better than commercially available sorbents. Data contains organic and inorganic sorbent removal efficiency, Sharkey Hot Springs (Idaho) water chemsitry analysis, and rare earth removal efficiency from select sorbents.

  12. First-principles study on interlayer state in alkali and alkaline earth metal atoms intercalated bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Tomoaki; Saito, Riichiro

    2017-11-01

    Energetics and electronic structures of alkali metal (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) and alkaline earth metal (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) atoms intercalated bilayer graphene are systematically investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Formation of alkali and alkaline earth metal atoms intercalated bilayer graphene is exothermic except for Be and Mg. The interlayer state between two graphene layers is occupied for K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, and Ba. We find that the energetic position of the interlayer states between bilayer graphene monotonically shifts downward with increasing of interlayer distance. The interlayer distances of more than 4.5 Å and 4.0 Å, respectively, are necessary for the occupation of the interlayer state in bilayer graphene for alkali and alkaline earth metal atoms, which is almost independent of the intercalant metal species. We discuss the relevance to occurrence of superconductivity for the metal intercalated bilayer graphene in terms of the occupation of the interlayer state and the phonon frequency of metal ions.

  13. Water fluoridation: a critical review of the physiological effects of ingested fluoride as a public health intervention.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Stephen; Awofeso, Niyi

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine is the world's 13th most abundant element and constitutes 0.08% of the Earth crust. It has the highest electronegativity of all elements. Fluoride is widely distributed in the environment, occurring in the air, soils, rocks, and water. Although fluoride is used industrially in a fluorine compound, the manufacture of ceramics, pesticides, aerosol propellants, refrigerants, glassware, and Teflon cookware, it is a generally unwanted byproduct of aluminium, fertilizer, and iron ore manufacture. The medicinal use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries began in January 1945 when community water supplies in Grand Rapids, United States, were fluoridated to a level of 1 ppm as a dental caries prevention measure. However, water fluoridation remains a controversial public health measure. This paper reviews the human health effects of fluoride. The authors conclude that available evidence suggests that fluoride has a potential to cause major adverse human health problems, while having only a modest dental caries prevention effect. As part of efforts to reduce hazardous fluoride ingestion, the practice of artificial water fluoridation should be reconsidered globally, while industrial safety measures need to be tightened in order to reduce unethical discharge of fluoride compounds into the environment. Public health approaches for global dental caries reduction that do not involve systemic ingestion of fluoride are urgently needed.

  14. Water Fluoridation: A Critical Review of the Physiological Effects of Ingested Fluoride as a Public Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine is the world's 13th most abundant element and constitutes 0.08% of the Earth crust. It has the highest electronegativity of all elements. Fluoride is widely distributed in the environment, occurring in the air, soils, rocks, and water. Although fluoride is used industrially in a fluorine compound, the manufacture of ceramics, pesticides, aerosol propellants, refrigerants, glassware, and Teflon cookware, it is a generally unwanted byproduct of aluminium, fertilizer, and iron ore manufacture. The medicinal use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries began in January 1945 when community water supplies in Grand Rapids, United States, were fluoridated to a level of 1 ppm as a dental caries prevention measure. However, water fluoridation remains a controversial public health measure. This paper reviews the human health effects of fluoride. The authors conclude that available evidence suggests that fluoride has a potential to cause major adverse human health problems, while having only a modest dental caries prevention effect. As part of efforts to reduce hazardous fluoride ingestion, the practice of artificial water fluoridation should be reconsidered globally, while industrial safety measures need to be tightened in order to reduce unethical discharge of fluoride compounds into the environment. Public health approaches for global dental caries reduction that do not involve systemic ingestion of fluoride are urgently needed. PMID:24719570

  15. Nonstoichiometry in inorganic fluorides: 2. Ionic conductivity of nonstoichiometric M 1 - x R xF2 + x and R 1 - y M yF3 - y crystals ( M = Ca, Sr, Ba; R are rare earth elements)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, B. P.; Sorokin, N. I.

    2014-11-01

    The peak manifestation of nonstoichiometry in fluoride systems in the number of phases with valuable properties and wide homogeneity ranges is 45 MF2- RF3 systems, where M = Ca, Sr, Ba and R are 15 rare earth elements from La to Lu and Y (with Pm and Sc excluded). A deviation from stoichiometry in crystals of the M 1 - x R xF2 + x (CaF2 fluorite type) and R 1 - y M yF3 - y (LaF3 tysonite type) phases is responsible for the fluorine superionic conductivity σ. The range of variation in σ with changes in the qualitative ( M, R) and quantitative ( x, y) compositions in both structure types is very wide. The σ value changes by a factor of 108 in the M 1 - x R xF2 + x phases (at 500 K) and by a factor of 106 in the R 1 - y M yF3 - y phases (at 293 K). Changing compositions, one can also obtain crystals with σ values large enough for their use as fluorine-conducting solid electrolytes. Phases promising for solid electrolytes were revealed in the MFm- RFn systems ( m < n ≤ 4), which were studied within the program of searching for new multicomponent fluoride materials at the Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences (IC RAS). Superionic conductivity is one of the peak manifestations of the influence of defect structure of nonstoichiometric crystals on their properties. The subject of this review is the results of the studies performed at the IC RAS on the ionic conductivity of single crystals of the M 1 - x R xF2 + x and R 1 - y M yF3 - y nonstoichiometric phases.

  16. Magnetic properties of transition metal fluorides MF2 (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) via high-energy photon diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strempfer, J.; Rütt, U.; Bayrakci, S.; Brückel, Th.; Jauch, W.

    2004-01-01

    We present an overview of recent results from nonresonant magnetic diffraction experiments on the antiferromagnetic compounds MnF2, FeF2, CoF2, and NiF2 using high-energy synchrotron radiation of photon energies above 100 keV. New results are presented on the determination of the spin and of the L/S ratio for CoF2 and NiF2. For CoF2, the saturation value of the long-range-ordered pure spin Sz component Sz=1.11(1) is considerably lower than the value Sz=3/2 for the free Co2+ ion. This is in contrast to our results for NiF2, where the full spin of the free transition-metal ion was found, Sz=0.98(1). The temperature dependence of the magnetization in the critical region as well as in the low-temperature region is also presented. For all compounds, Ising behavior is found in the critical regime, whereas the crossover to the low-temperature spin-wave behavior varies. We attribute this to different anisotropies in this series of compounds.

  17. Story of Fluoridation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Info Health Topics Fluoride Share The Story of Fluoridation It started as an observation, that ... this time using photospectrographic analysis, a more sophisticated technology than that used by McKay. Churchill asked an ...

  18. Calculating the Magnetic Anisotropy of Rare-Earth-Transition-Metal Ferrimagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Christopher E.; Kumar, Santosh; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Edwards, Rachel S.; Lees, Martin R.; Petit, Leon; Staunton, Julie B.

    2018-03-01

    Magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the microscopic origin of permanent magnetism, is often explained in terms of ferromagnets. However, the best performing permanent magnets based on rare earths and transition metals (RE-TM) are in fact ferrimagnets, consisting of a number of magnetic sublattices. Here we show how a naive calculation of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the classic RE-TM ferrimagnet GdCo5 gives numbers that are too large at 0 K and exhibit the wrong temperature dependence. We solve this problem by introducing a first-principles approach to calculate temperature-dependent magnetization versus field (FPMVB) curves, mirroring the experiments actually used to determine the anisotropy. We pair our calculations with measurements on a recently grown single crystal of GdCo5 , and find excellent agreement. The FPMVB approach demonstrates a new level of sophistication in the use of first-principles calculations to understand RE-TM magnets.

  19. Cluster synthesis and direct ordering of rare-earth transition-metal nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Skomski, Ralph; Li, Xingzhong; Valloppilly, Shah R; Shield, Jeffrey E; Hadjipanayis, George C; Sellmyer, David J

    2011-04-13

    Rare-earth transition-metal (R-TM) alloys show superior permanent magnetic properties in the bulk, but the synthesis and application of R-TM nanoparticles remains a challenge due to the requirement of high-temperature annealing above about 800 °C for alloy formation and subsequent crystalline ordering. Here we report a single-step method to produce highly ordered R-TM nanoparticles such as YCo(5) and Y(2)Co(17), without high-temperature thermal annealing by employing a cluster-deposition system and investigate their structural and magnetic properties. The direct ordering is highly desirable to create and assemble R-TM nanoparticle building blocks for future permanent-magnet and other significant applications.

  20. Spin-Orbit Qubits of Rare-Earth-Metal Ions in Axially Symmetric Crystal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaina, S.; Shim, J. H.; Gambarelli, S.; Malkin, B. Z.; Barbara, B.

    2009-11-01

    Contrary to the well-known spin qubits, rare-earth-metal qubits are characterized by a strong influence of crystal field due to large spin-orbit coupling. At low temperature and in the presence of resonance microwaves, it is the magnetic moment of the crystal-field ground state which nutates (for several μs) and the Rabi frequency ΩR is anisotropic. Here, we present a study of the variations of ΩR(H→0) with the magnitude and direction of the static magnetic field H→0 for the odd Er167 isotope in a single crystal CaWO4:Er3+. The hyperfine interactions split the ΩR(H→0) curve into eight different curves which are fitted numerically and described analytically. These “spin-orbit qubits” should allow detailed studies of decoherence mechanisms which become relevant at high temperature and open new ways for qubit addressing using properly oriented magnetic fields.

  1. Spin-orbit qubits of rare-earth-metal ions in axially symmetric crystal fields.

    PubMed

    Bertaina, S; Shim, J H; Gambarelli, S; Malkin, B Z; Barbara, B

    2009-11-27

    Contrary to the well-known spin qubits, rare-earth-metal qubits are characterized by a strong influence of crystal field due to large spin-orbit coupling. At low temperature and in the presence of resonance microwaves, it is the magnetic moment of the crystal-field ground state which nutates (for several micros) and the Rabi frequency Omega(R) is anisotropic. Here, we present a study of the variations of Omega(R)(H(0)) with the magnitude and direction of the static magnetic field H(0) for the odd 167Er isotope in a single crystal CaWO(4):Er(3+). The hyperfine interactions split the Omega(R)(H(0)) curve into eight different curves which are fitted numerically and described analytically. These "spin-orbit qubits" should allow detailed studies of decoherence mechanisms which become relevant at high temperature and open new ways for qubit addressing using properly oriented magnetic fields.

  2. Coercivity of domain wall motion in thin films of amorphous rare earth-transition metal alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansuripur, M.; Giles, R. C.; Patterson, G.

    1991-01-01

    Computer simulations of a two dimensional lattice of magnetic dipoles are performed on the Connection Machine. The lattice is a discrete model for thin films of amorphous rare-earth transition metal alloys, which have application as the storage media in erasable optical data storage systems. In these simulations, the dipoles follow the dynamic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation under the influence of an effective field arising from local anisotropy, near-neighbor exchange, classical dipole-dipole interactions, and an externally applied field. Various sources of coercivity, such as defects and/or inhomogeneities in the lattice, are introduced and the subsequent motion of domain walls in response to external fields is investigated.

  3. Prolonged QT Syndrome and Seizure Secondary to Alkaline Earth Metal Deficiency: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    McKinney, A; Keegan, B C

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Alkaline earth metal deficiency is recognized as a cause of both seizure and long QT syndrome. Their deficiency can have significant repercussions on the function of cells, tissues, and organs of the body. An understanding of the role of electrolytes allows an appreciation of the significance of depleted levels on cell function. Case Report. A 65-year-old lady was admitted with symptoms of chest discomfort, vomiting, increased stoma output, and dizziness. Two days following admission she suffered a tonic-clonic seizure. ECG review demonstrated a prolonged QTc interval, raising the possibility of an underlying Torsades de Pointes as the precipitant. This was attributed to electrolyte disturbance arising as a result of multiple aetiologies. Discussion. This paper highlights the multisystem effects of electrolyte disturbance, with emphasis upon its role in precipitating cardiac arrhythmia and neurological symptoms.

  4. Calculating the Magnetic Anisotropy of Rare-Earth-Transition-Metal Ferrimagnets.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher E; Kumar, Santosh; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Edwards, Rachel S; Lees, Martin R; Petit, Leon; Staunton, Julie B

    2018-03-02

    Magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the microscopic origin of permanent magnetism, is often explained in terms of ferromagnets. However, the best performing permanent magnets based on rare earths and transition metals (RE-TM) are in fact ferrimagnets, consisting of a number of magnetic sublattices. Here we show how a naive calculation of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the classic RE-TM ferrimagnet GdCo_{5} gives numbers that are too large at 0 K and exhibit the wrong temperature dependence. We solve this problem by introducing a first-principles approach to calculate temperature-dependent magnetization versus field (FPMVB) curves, mirroring the experiments actually used to determine the anisotropy. We pair our calculations with measurements on a recently grown single crystal of GdCo_{5}, and find excellent agreement. The FPMVB approach demonstrates a new level of sophistication in the use of first-principles calculations to understand RE-TM magnets.

  5. Enantioselective Reduction of Ketones Catalyzed by Rare-Earth Metals Complexed with Phenoxy Modified Chiral Prolinols.

    PubMed

    Song, Peng; Lu, Chengrong; Fei, Zenghui; Zhao, Bei; Yao, Yingming

    2018-06-01

    Enantioselective reduction of ketones and α,β-unsaturated ketones by pinacolborane (HBpin) has been well-established by using chiral rare-earth metal catalysts with phenoxy modified prolinols. A number of highly optically active alcohols were obtained from reduction of simple ketones catalyzed by ytterbium complex 1 [L 4 Yb(L 4 H)] (H 2 L 4 = ( S)-2- tert-butyl-6-((2-(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)phenol). Moreover, α,β-unsaturated ketones were selectively reduced to a wide range of chiral allylic alcohols with excellent yields, high enantioselectivity, and complete chemoselectivity, catalyzed by a single component chiral ytterbium complex 2 [L 1 Yb(L 1 H)] (H 2 L 1 = ( S)-2,4-di- tert-butyl-6-((2-(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)phenol).

  6. Binary rare earth element-Ni/Co metallic glasses with distinct β-relaxation behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z. G.; Wang, Z.; Wang, W. H., E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn

    2015-10-21

    We report the formation of a series of rare earth element (RE)-Ni/Co binary metallic glasses (MGs) with unusual distinct β-relaxation peak compared with that of most of the reported MGs which usually exhibit as an excess wing or a shoulder. The β-relaxation behavior of RE-Ni/Co MGs is sensitive to the composition and the atomic radii of the RE and can be tuned through changing the fraction of RE-Ni (or Co) atomic pairs. The novel RE-Ni/Co MGs with distinct β-relaxation can serve as model system to investigate the nature of the β-relaxation as well as its relations with other physical andmore » mechanical properties of MGs.« less

  7. Coordination Polymerization of Renewable 3-Methylenecyclopentene with Rare-Earth-Metal Precursors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Li, Shihui; Wang, Meiyan; Cui, Dongmei

    2017-04-10

    Coordination polymerization of renewable 3-methylenecyclopentene has been investigated for the first time using rare-earth metal-based precursors bearing various bulky ligands. All the prepared complexes catalyze controllable polymerization of 3-methylenecyclopentene into high molecular weight polymers, of which the NPN- and NSN-tridentate non-Cp ligated lutetium-based catalytic systems exhibited extremely high activities up to 11 520 kg/(mol Lu ⋅h) in a dilute toluene solution (3.2 g/100 mL) at room temperature. The resultant polymers have pure 1,4-regioregularity (>99 %) and tailorable number average molecular weights (1-20×10 4 ) with narrow molecular weight distributions (polydispersity index (PDI)=1.45-1.79). DFT simulations were employed to study the polymerization mechanism and stereoregularity control. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Metal/Silicate Partitioning, Melt Speciation, Accretion, and Core Formation in the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, M. J.; Hillgren, V. J.; Dearo, J. A.; Capobianco, C. J.

    1993-07-01

    Core formation in terrestrial planets was concomitant with accretion. Siderophile and chalcophile element signatures in the mantles of planets are the result of these processes. For Earth, abundances of most siderophile and chalcophile elements are elevated relative to predictions from simple metal/silicate equilibria at low pressures [1]. This observation has led to three hypotheses for how these abundances were established: heterogeneous accretion [2], inefficient core formation [3], and metal/silicate equilibria at magma ocean pressures and temperatures [4]. Knowledge of speciation of siderophile elements in silicate melts in equilibrium with metal may help distinguish between these hypotheses. But there is some uncertainty regarding speciation. For example, Ni and Co have been reported to be present as 1+ or zero valence species in silicate melts at redox states appropriate to planetary accretion, rather than the expected 2+ state [5-7]. Independent metal/silicate partitioning experiments by three members of this group using two different experimental designs on both synthetic and natural compositions do not show evidence for Ni and Co in valence states other than 2+ over a wide range of redox states. For example, solid metal/silicate melt partition coefficients for Ni at 1260 degrees C obtained by VJH from experiments investigating the partitioning of Ni, Co, Mo, W, and P are indistinguishable from those obtained by JAD in similar experiments investigating the partitioning of Ni, Ge, and Sn. Both datasets define a line with the equation: log D(Ni) = - 0.54log fO2 - 3.14 with r^2 > 0.995. (Note that fO2 was calculated in both studies from thermodynamic data and phase compositions. A small, systematic offset from the true fO2 as measured by a solid electrolyte cell affects both equations similarly, but does not diminish their close agreement.) The valence of Ni in the silicate melt is obtained by multiplying the slope of the line by -4, indicating divalent Ni in

  9. Extraction of trivalent rare-earth metal nitrates by solutions of tributyl phosphate and diisooctylmethylphosphonate in kerosene

    SciTech Connect

    Pyartman, A.K.; Puzikov, E.A.; Kopyrin, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Isotherms of extraction of trivalent rare-earth metal nitrates in the series lanthanum-lutetium, yttrium by 0.5-2.5 M solutions of tri-n-buty1 phosphate and diisooctyl methylphosphonate in kerosene at 298.15 K, pH 2 are presented. The influence of the ionic strength of aqueous phase and extractant concentration on the concentration extraction constants in the case of formation of metal(III) trisolvates in organic phase is given by equation.

  10. Thermodynamic Considerations of Direct Oxygen Removal from Titanium by Utilizing the Deoxidation Capability of Rare Earth Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Toru H.; Zheng, Chenyi; Taninouchi, Yu-ki

    2018-06-01

    Oxygen removal from metallic Ti is extremely difficult and, currently, there is no commercial process for effectively deoxidizing Ti or its alloys. The oxygen concentration in Ti scraps is normally higher than that in virgin metals such as in Ti sponges produced by the Kroll process. When scraps are remelted with virgin metals for producing primary ingots of Ti or its alloys, the amount of scrap that can be used is limited owing to the accumulation of oxygen impurities. Future demands of an increase in Ti production and of mitigating environmental impacts require that the amount of scrap recycled as a feed material of Ti ingots should also increase. Therefore, it is important to develop methods for removing oxygen directly from Ti scraps. In this study, we evaluated the deoxidation limit for β-Ti using Y or light rare earth metals (La, Ce, Pr, or Nd) as a deoxidant. Thermodynamic considerations suggest that extra-low-oxygen Ti, with an oxygen concentration of 100 mass ppm or less can be obtained using a molten salt equilibrating with rare earth metals. The results presented herein also indicate that methods based on molten salt electrolysis for producing rare earth metals can be utilized for effectively and directly deoxidizing Ti scraps.

  11. The role of ions, heavy metals, fluoride, and agrochemicals: critical evaluation of potential aetiological factors of chronic kidney disease of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo/CKDu) and recommendations for its eradication.

    PubMed

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2016-06-01

    The pollution of water and food through human waste and anthropogenic activities, including industrial waste and agricultural runoff, is a mounting problem worldwide. Water pollution from microbes causes identifiable diarrhoeal illnesses. The consumption of water contaminated with heavy metals, fluoride, and other toxins causes insidious illnesses that lead to protracted, non-communicable diseases and death. Chronic kidney disease of unusual/uncertain/unknown aetiology is one such example, began to manifest in the mid-1960s in several dry-zonal agricultural societies in developing economies that are located around the equator. In Sri Lanka, such a disease is affecting the North Central Province, the rice bowl of the country that first appeared in the mid-1990s. Several potential causes have been postulated, including heavy metals, fluoride, cyanobacterial and algae toxins, agrochemicals, and high salinity and ionicity in water, but no specific source or causative factor has been identified for CKD of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo). Three large studies conducted in the recent past failed to find any of the postulated components (heavy metals, cyanobacterial toxins, fluoride, salinity, or agrochemicals) at levels higher than those deemed safe by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. At the reported low levels in water and with the heterogeneous geographical distribution, it is unrealistic to expect any of these components individually could cause this disease. However, the additive or synergistic effects of a combination of factors and components, even at lower exposure levels, together with malnutrition and harmful behaviours, and/or a yet-unidentified (or not investigated) toxin, can cause this epidemic. Because the cause is unknown, scientists need to work on broader hypotheses, so that key causative elements are not missed. Taken together the plausibility of multiple factors in the genesis of this disease, the appropriate

  12. Alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM) species leaching and Cu(II) sorption by biochar.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Lou, Zhenjun; Wang, Yang; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Yaping; Zhou, Jizhi; Qian, Guangren

    2015-01-01

    Alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM) species water leaching and Cu(II) sorption by biochar prepared from two invasive plants, Spartina alterniflora (SA) and water hyacinth (WH), were explored in this work. Significant amounts of Na and K can be released (maximum leaching for Na 59.0 mg g(-1) and K 79.9 mg g(-1)) from SA and WH biochar when they are exposed to contact with water. Cu(II) removal by biochar is highly related with pyrolysis temperature and environmental pH with 600-700 °C and pH of 6 showing best performance (29.4 and 28.2 mg g(-1) for SA and WH biochar). Cu(II) sorption exerts negligible influence on Na/K/Mg leaching but clearly promotes the release of Ca. Biochars from these two plant species provide multiple benefits, including nutrient release (K), heavy metal immobilization as well as promoting the aggregation of soil particles (Ca) for soil amelioration. AAEM and Cu(II) equilibrium concentrations in sorption were analyzed by positive matrix factorization (PMF) to examine the factors underlying the leaching and sorption behavior of biochar. The identified factors can provide insightful understanding on experimental phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Unambiguously identifying spin states of transition-metal ions in the Earth (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H.

    2010-12-01

    The spin state of a transition-metal ion in crystalline solids, defined by the number of unpaired electrons in the ion’s incomplete 3d shell, may vary with many factors, such as temperature, pressure, strain, and the local atomic configuration, to name a few. Such a phenomenon, known as spin-state crossover, plays a crucial role in spintronic materials. Recently, the pressure-induced spin-state crossover in iron-bearing minerals has been recognized to affect the minerals’ structural and elastic properties. However, the detailed mechanism of such crossover in iron-bearing magnesium silicate perovskite, the most abundant mineral in the Earth, remains unclear. A significant part of this confusion arises from the difficulty in reliably extracting the spin state from experiments. For the same reason, the thermally-induced spin-state crossover in lanthanum cobaltite (LaCoO3) has been controversial for more than four decades. In this talk, I will discuss how first-principle calculations can help clarifying these long-standing controversies. In addition to the total energy, equation of state, and elastic properties of each spin state, first-principle calculations also predict the electric field gradient (EFG) at the nucleus of each transition-metal ion. Our calculations showed that the nuclear EFG, a quantity that can be measured via Mössbauer or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, depends primarily on the spin state, irrespective of the concentration or configuration of transition-metal ions. Such robustness makes EFG a unique fingerprint to identify the spin state. The combination of first-principle calculations and Mössbauer/NMR spectroscopy can therefore be a reliable and efficient approach in tackling spin-state crossover problems in the Earth. This work was primarily supported by the MRSEC Program of NSF under Awards Number DMR-0212302 and DMR-0819885, and partially supported by NSF under ATM-0428774 (V-Lab), EAR-1019853, and EAR-0810272. The

  14. Silylation of C-H bonds in aromatic heterocycles by an Earth-abundant metal catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toutov, Anton A.; Liu, Wen-Bo; Betz, Kerry N.; Fedorov, Alexey; Stoltz, Brian M.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2015-02-01

    Heteroaromatic compounds containing carbon-silicon (C-Si) bonds are of great interest in the fields of organic electronics and photonics, drug discovery, nuclear medicine and complex molecule synthesis, because these compounds have very useful physicochemical properties. Many of the methods now used to construct heteroaromatic C-Si bonds involve stoichiometric reactions between heteroaryl organometallic species and silicon electrophiles or direct, transition-metal-catalysed intermolecular carbon-hydrogen (C-H) silylation using rhodium or iridium complexes in the presence of excess hydrogen acceptors. Both approaches are useful, but their limitations include functional group incompatibility, narrow scope of application, high cost and low availability of the catalysts, and unproven scalability. For this reason, a new and general catalytic approach to heteroaromatic C-Si bond construction that avoids such limitations is highly desirable. Here we report an example of cross-dehydrogenative heteroaromatic C-H functionalization catalysed by an Earth-abundant alkali metal species. We found that readily available and inexpensive potassium tert-butoxide catalyses the direct silylation of aromatic heterocycles with hydrosilanes, furnishing heteroarylsilanes in a single step. The silylation proceeds under mild conditions, in the absence of hydrogen acceptors, ligands or additives, and is scalable to greater than 100 grams under optionally solvent-free conditions. Substrate classes that are difficult to activate with precious metal catalysts are silylated in good yield and with excellent regioselectivity. The derived heteroarylsilane products readily engage in versatile transformations enabling new synthetic strategies for heteroaromatic elaboration, and are useful in their own right in pharmaceutical and materials science applications.

  15. Theoretical Study of pKa Values for Trivalent Rare-Earth Metal Cations in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Yu, Donghai; Du, Ruobing; Xiao, Ji-Chang; Xu, Shengming; Rong, Chunying; Liu, Shubin

    2018-01-18

    Molecular acidity of trivalent rare-earth metal cations in aqueous solution is an important factor dedicated to the efficiency of their extraction and separation processes. In this work, the aqueous acidity of these metal ions has been quantitatively investigated using a few theoretical approaches. Our computational results expressed in terms of pK a values agree well with the tetrad effect of trivalent rare-earth ions extensively reported in the extraction and separation of these elements. Strong linear relationships have been observed between the acidity and quantum electronic descriptors such as the molecular electrostatic potential on the acidic nucleus and the sum of the valence natural atomic orbitals energies of the dissociating proton. Making use of the predicted pK a values, we have also predicted the major ionic forms of these species in the aqueous environment with different pH values, which can be employed to rationalize the behavior difference of different rare-earth metal cations during the extraction process. Our present results should provide needed insights not only for the qualitatively understanding about the extraction and separation between yttrium and lanthanide elements but also for the prediction of novel and more efficient rare-earth metal extractants in the future.

  16. Carbide-fluoride-silver self-lubricating composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite material is described for use over a wide temperature spectrum from cryogenic temperature to about 900 C in a chemically reactive environment comprising silver, barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic, and metal bonded chromium carbide.

  17. Carbide/fluoride/silver self-lubricating composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite material for use over a wide temperature spectrum from cryogenic temperature to about 900.degree. C. in a chemically reactive environment comprising silver, barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic, and metal bonded chromium carbide.

  18. Preparation of thin film silver fluoride electrodes from constituent elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of preparing thin-film metal fluoride electrodes from the elemental constituents has been demonstrated. Silver fluoride cathodes were prepared by deposition of silver on a conducting graphite substrate followed by fluorination under controlled conditions using elemental fluorine. The resulting electrodes were of high purity, and the variables such as size, shape, and thickness were easily controlled.

  19. Metal sulfide and rare-earth phosphate nanostructures and methods of making same

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Stanislaus; Zhang, Fen

    2014-05-13

    The present invention provides a method of producing a crystalline metal sulfide nanostructure. The metal is a transitional metal or a Group IV metal. In the method, a porous membrane is placed between a metal precursor solution and a sulfur precursor solution. The metal cations of the metal precursor solution and sulfur ions of the sulfur precursor solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal sulfide nanostructure.

  20. Blending Non-Group-3 Transition Metal and Rare-Earth Metal into a C80 Fullerene Cage with D5h Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Jin, Fei; Guan, Runnan; Huang, Jing; Chen, Muqing; Li, Qunxiang; Yang, Shangfeng

    2018-02-11

    Rare-earth metals have been mostly entrapped into fullerene cages to form endohedral clusterfullerenes, whereas non-Group-3 transition metals that can form clusterfullerenes are limited to titanium (Ti) and vanadium (V), and both are exclusively entrapped within an I h -C 80 cage. Non-Group-3 transition-metal-containing endohedral fullerenes based on a C 80 cage with D 5h symmetry, V x Sc 3-x N@D 5h -C 80 (x=1, 2), have now been synthesized, which exhibit two variable cluster compositions. The molecular structure of VSc 2 N@D 5h -C 80 was unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. According to a comparative study with the reported Ti- and V-containing clusterfullerenes based on a I h -C 80 cage and the analogous D 5h -C 80 -based metal nitride clusterfullerenes containing rare-earth metals only, the decisive role of the non-Group-3 transition metal on the formation of the corresponding D 5h -C 80 -based clusterfullerenes is unraveled. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Effect of high-energy electron irradiation in an electron microscope column on fluorides of alkaline earth elements (CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaichik, V. I.; Sobolev, B. P.; Zaporozhets, M. A.; Avilov, A. S.

    2012-03-01

    The effect of high-energy (150 eV) electron irradiation in an electron microscope column on crystals of fluorides of alkaline earth elements CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2 is studied. During structural investigations by electron diffraction and electron microscopy, the electron irradiation causes chemical changes in MF2 crystals such as the desorption of fluorine and the accumulation of oxygen in the irradiated area with the formation of oxide MO. The fluorine desorption rate increases significantly when the electron-beam density exceeds the threshold value of ˜2 × 103 pA/cm2). In BaF2 samples, the transformation of BaO into Ba(OH)2 was observed when irradiation stopped. The renewal of irradiation is accompanied by the inverse transformation of Ba(OH)2 into BaO. In the initial stage of irradiation of all MF2 compounds, the oxide phase is in the single-crystal state with a lattice highly matched with the MF2 matrix. When the irradiation dose is increased, the oxide phase passes to the polycrystalline phase. Gaseous products of MF2 destruction (in the form of bubbles several nanometers in diameter) form a rectangular array with a period of ˜20 nm in the sample.

  2. Silicon oxidation in fluoride solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.; Kapur, V.

    1980-01-01

    Silicon is produced in a NaF, Na2SiF6, and Na matrix when SiF4 is reduced by metallic sodium. Hydrogen is evolved during acid leaching to separate the silicon from the accompanying reaction products, NaF and Na2SiF6. The hydrogen evolution reaction was studied under conditions simulating leaching conditions by making suspensions of the dry silicon powder in aqueous fluoride solutions. The mechanism for the hydrogen evolution is discussed in terms of spontaneous oxidation of silicon resulting from the cooperative effects of (1) elemental sodium in the silicon that reacts with water to remove a protective silica layer, leaving clean reactive silicon, and (2) fluoride in solution that complexes with the oxidized silicon in solution and retards formation of a protective hydrous oxide gel.

  3. DISSOLUTION OF LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATES

    DOEpatents

    Fries, B.A.

    1959-11-10

    A plutonium separatory ore concentration procedure involving the use of a fluoride type of carrier is presented. An improvement is given in the derivation step in the process for plutonium recovery by carrier precipitation of plutonium values from solution with a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate and subsequent derivation from the resulting plutonium bearing carrier precipitate of an aqueous acidic plutonium-containing solution. The carrier precipitate is contacted with a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium carbonate to effect dissolution therein of at least a part of the precipitate, including the plutonium values. Any remaining precipitate is separated from the resulting solution and dissolves in an aqueous solution containing at least 20% by weight of potassium carbonate. The reacting solutions are combined, and an alkali metal hydroxide added to a concentration of at least 2N to precipitate lanthanum hydroxide concomitantly carrying plutonium values.

  4. Solid electrolytes for fluoride ion batteries: ionic conductivity in polycrystalline tysonite-type fluorides.

    PubMed

    Rongeat, Carine; Reddy, M Anji; Witter, Raiker; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2014-02-12

    Batteries based on a fluoride shuttle (fluoride ion battery, FIB) can theoretically provide high energy densities and can thus be considered as an interesting alternative to Li-ion batteries. Large improvements are still needed regarding their actual performance, in particular for the ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte. At the current state of the art, two types of fluoride families can be considered for electrolyte applications: alkaline-earth fluorides having a fluorite-type structure and rare-earth fluorides having a tysonite-type structure. As regard to the latter, high ionic conductivities have been reported for doped LaF3 single crystals. However, polycrystalline materials would be easier to implement in a FIB due to practical reasons in the cell manufacturing. Hence, we have analyzed in detail the ionic conductivity of La(1-y)Ba(y)F(3-y) (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.15) solid solutions prepared by ball milling. The combination of DC and AC conductivity analyses provides a better understanding of the conduction mechanism in tysonite-type fluorides with a blocking effect of the grain boundaries. Heat treatment of the electrolyte material was performed and leads to an improvement of the ionic conductivity. This confirms the detrimental effect of grain boundaries and opens new route for the development of solid electrolytes for FIB with high ionic conductivities.

  5. Behavior and Distribution of Heavy Metals Including Rare Earth Elements, Thorium, and Uranium in Sludge from Industry Water Treatment Plant and Recovery Method of Metals by Biosurfactants Application

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Sato, Yuichi; Li, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the behavior, distribution, and characteristics of heavy metals including rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in sludge, the total and fractional concentrations of these elements in sludge collected from an industry water treatment plant were determined and compared with those in natural soil. In addition, the removal/recovery process of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, and Ni) from the polluted sludge was studied with biosurfactant (saponin and sophorolipid) elution by batch and column experiments to evaluate the efficiency of biosurfactant for the removal of heavy metals. Consequently, the following matters have been largely clarified. (1) Heavy metallic elements in sludge have generally larger concentrations and exist as more unstable fraction than those in natural soil. (2) Nonionic saponin including carboxyl group is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals in polluted sludge. Saponin has selectivity for the mobilization of heavy metals and mainly reacts with heavy metals in F3 (the fraction bound to carbonates) and F5 (the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides). (3) The recovery efficiency of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cr) reached about 90–100% using a precipitation method with alkaline solution. PMID:22693485

  6. Alkali-earth metal bridges formed in biofilm matrices regulate the uptake of fluoroquinolone antibiotics and protect against bacterial apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Fuxing; Wang, Qian; Shou, Weijun; Collins, Chris D; Gao, Yanzheng

    2017-01-01

    Bacterially extracellular biofilms play a critical role in relieving toxicity of fluoroquinolone antibiotic (FQA) pollutants, yet it is unclear whether antibiotic attack may be defused by a bacterial one-two punch strategy associated with metal-reinforced detoxification efficiency. Our findings help to assign functions to specific structural features of biofilms, as they strongly imply a molecularly regulated mechanism by which freely accessed alkali-earth metals in natural waters affect the cellular uptake of FQAs at the water-biofilm interface. Specifically, formation of alkali-earth-metal (Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ ) bridge between modeling ciprofloxacin and biofilms of Escherichia coli regulates the trans-biofilm transport rate of FQAs towards cells (135-nm-thick biofilm). As the addition of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ (0-3.5 mmol/L, CIP: 1.25 μmol/L), the transport rates were reduced to 52.4% and 63.0%, respectively. Computational chemistry analysis further demonstrated a deprotonated carboxyl in the tryptophan residues of biofilms acted as a major bridge site, of which one side is a metal and the other is a metal girder jointly connected to the carboxyl and carbonyl of a FQA. The bacterial growth rate depends on the bridging energy at anchoring site, which underlines the environmental importance of metal bridge formed in biofilm matrices in bacterially antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical Conversion of Anhydrous Hydrogen Fluoride for Safe Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Thomas A.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Bachmann, William J.

    A procedure for the safe conversion of a small (~ 1 gram) quantity of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride to calcium fluoride is described. The purpose of the conversion is to put the toxic, corrosive, gaseous compound into a chemical form that is a less toxic solid (calcium fluoride) and easier to dispose of. The hydrogen fluoride, which was contained in a 50 cc metal sample cylinder, was drawn by a small mechanical vacuum pump through an all-metal gas manifold and into a metal trap containing alternating layers of calcium oxide powder and Teflon turnings. The anhydrous hydrogen fluoride reacts with themore » calcium oxide to produce calcium fluoride and water vapor. Because some of the calcium oxide powder was drawn out of the trap and into the vacuum tubing, it was not possible to quantify the amount of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride converted to calcium fluoride. However, it was noted that there was a temperature rise in the trap when the gas was flowing through it, and no HF gas was detected at the vacuum pump exhaust at this time using a colorimetric Dräger tube. The trap was sealed and disposed of as solid chemical waste.« less

  8. Sol-gel-derived hybrid materials multi-doped with rare-earth metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelazowska, E.; Rysiakiewicz-Pasek, E.; Borczuch-Laczka, M.; Cholewa-Kowalska, K.

    2012-06-01

    Four different hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on TiO2-SiO2 matrices with organic additives and doped with rare-earth metal ions (III) from the group of europium, cerium, terbium, neodymium, dysprosium and samarium, were synthesized by sol-gel method. Tetraethyl orthosilicate, titanium (IV) isopropoxide and organic compounds, such as butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, ethyl acetate, propylene carbonate, organic solvents and certain inorganic salts were used in the synthesis. The inorganic part of the sols, which were used in the synthesis of all the hybrid materials, was prepared separately and then the organic parts were added. The materials obtained were aged for three weeks at room temperature and then heated in an electric oven for three hours at temperatures of 80 °C-150 °C. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX); X-ray diffraction (XRD); Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (KBr technique); 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance; and fluorescence spectroscopy were used for the examination of morphology, microstructure and luminescence properties, respectively. Photoluminescence properties with relatively intense narrow emission lines of Tb, Eu, Dy, Nd, Sm respectively to the RE-ions doping, were observed for all the hybrid materials.

  9. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal Dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to extreme conditions of pressure to 69 GPa and temperature to 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were only able to track magnetic ordering temperature till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed ( hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. Thismore » is followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hexagonal close packed phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Lastly, our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remain localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.« less

  10. Alkaline earth metal and samarium co-doped ceria as efficient electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Amjad; Raza, Rizwan; Kaleem Ullah, M.; Rafique, Asia; Wang, Baoyuan; Zhu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Co-doped ceramic electrolytes M0.1Sm0.1Ce0.8O2-δ (M = Ba, Ca, Mg, and Sr) were synthesized via co-precipitation. The focus of this study was to highlight the effects of alkaline earth metals in doped ceria on the microstructure, densification, conductivity, and performance. The ionic conductivity comparisons of prepared electrolytes in the air atmosphere were studied. It has been observed that Ca0.1Sm0.1Ce0.8O2-δ shows the highest conductivity of 0.124 Scm-1 at 650 °C and a lower activation energy of 0.48 eV. The cell shows a maximum power density of 630 mW cm-2 at 650 °C using hydrogen fuel. The enhancement in conductivity and performance was due to increasing the oxygen vacancies in the ceria lattice with the increasing dopant concentration. The bandgap was calculated from UV-Vis data, which shows a red shift when compared with pure ceria. The average crystallite size is in the range of 37-49 nm. DFT was used to analyze the co-doping structure, and the calculated lattice parameter was compared with the experimental lattice parameter.

  11. Effect of patch borders on coercivity in amorphous rare earth-transition metal thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, G.; Fu, H.; Giles, R. C.; Mansuripur, M.

    1991-01-01

    The coercivity at the micron scale is a very important property of magneto-optical media. It is a key factor that determines the magnetic domain wall movement and domain reversal. How the coercivity is influenced by a special type of patch borders is discussed. Patch formation is a general phenomenon in growth processes of amorphous rare earth transition metal thin films. Different patches may stem from different seeds and the patch borders are formed when they merge. Though little is known about the exact properties of the borders, we may expect that the exchange interaction at the patch border is weaker than that within a patch, since there is usually a spatial gap between two patches. Computer simulations were performed on a 2-D hexagonal lattice consisting of 37 complete patches with random shape and size. From the series of simulations we may conclude that the domain in the patch with borders of 30 percent exchange strength can expand most easily to the whole lattice, because the exchange strength can expand most easily to the whole lattice, because the exchange strength of the border is not too high to prevent the domain from growing within the patch and it is not too low to prevent the domain from expanding beyond the patch.

  12. Filament wound metal lined propellant tanks for future Earth-to-orbit transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, Ian O.; Davis, Robert B.; Freeman, William T., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    For future Earth-to-orbit transport vehicles, reusability and lighter weights are sought for the main propellant tanks. To achieve this, a filament wound tank with a metal liner and an intermediate layer of foam-filled honeycomb is proposed. A hydrogen tank is used as an example. To accommodate mismatches in the expansion of liner and overwrap a design is proposed wherin the liner is configured so that the extension of the liner under pressure matches the expected contraction of the same liner due to the presence of a cryogen. In operation, the liner is pressurized at a rate such that the pressure strain matches the contraction due to decrease in temperature. As an alternate approach, compressive pre-stress is placed in the liner such that it will not separate from the overwrap. A finite element program is used to show stresses in the liner and overwrap for various tank pressures for the pre-stressed liner concept. A fracture mechanics analysis is made of the liners to determine tank life. The tank concept shown has a similar weight to the Shuttle external hydrogen tank, but the filament wound tank is expected to be reusable. Integration of the propellant tanks into a future transport vehicle is discussed.

  13. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    DOE PAGES

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; ...

    2014-04-03

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal Dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to extreme conditions of pressure to 69 GPa and temperature to 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were only able to track magnetic ordering temperature till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed ( hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. Thismore » is followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hexagonal close packed phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Lastly, our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remain localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.« less

  14. Particle size dependence of alkali and alkaline earth metal enrichment in marine aerosols from Bermuda

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.J.; Hoffman, G.L.; Duce, R.A.

    1980-10-20

    Three cascade impactor samples were collected from a 20-m-high tower on the southeastern coast of Bermuda. These samples were analyzed for Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. When the alkali-alkakine earth metal concentrations are corrected for a soil-derived component, utilizing the atmospheric Fe concentrations, Mg, Ca, and Na are found to be present in the same relative abundances as in seawater for all particle sizes sampled. Potassium also shows no deviation from a bulk seawater composition for particles with radii greater than approx.0.5 ..mu..m. However, excess K above that expected from either a bulk seawater ormore » soil source is observed on particles with radii less than approx.0.5 ..mu..m. While oceanic chemical fractionation processes during bubble bursting may be responsible for this excess small particle K, it is most likely due to long-range transport of K-rich particles of terrestrial vegetative origin.« less

  15. Inhibition of cholinesterases by fluoride in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cimasoni, Giorgio

    1966-01-01

    1. Series of colorimetric dynamic assays allowed the study of the inhibition of cholinesterases by F− ions in vitro, by using, as sources of enzyme, whole human blood, human serum, homogenized rat brain and two preparations of red blood cells (human and bovine) whose enzymic purity was ascertained. 2. The first evidence of inhibition of human serum pseudocholinesterase by fluoride was noticed at 15–25μm-fluoride. Ten times as much fluoride was needed to start inhibition of acetylcholinesterase of the red blood cells. 3. The action of fluoride on the enzymic reaction was immediate. The reversibility of the inhibition was shown by dialysis and dilution. 4. Kinetic measurements showed that the inhibition under study was not dependent on the substrate concentration and was of the uncompetitive type, similar to that observed in the presence of a heavy metal (cadmium). 5. The activity of serum cholinesterase did not change in the absence of Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. Fluoride was shown to inhibit the enzyme in the absence of these ions as well as of phosphate. 6. Fluoride could inhibit cholinesterases in the presence of three different substrates and had no action on the non-enzymic hydrolysis. 7. It is thought that the halide is bound reversibly to the enzyme molecule, with the probable exclusion of the active site, but no firm conclusion could be reached on this point. PMID:6007454

  16. Distribution of rare-earth (Y, La, Ce) and other heavy metals in the profiles of the podzolic soil group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Goryachkin, S. V.; Savichev, A. T.

    2011-05-01

    Along with Fe and Al, many heavy metals (Mn, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni) show a markedly pronounced eluvial-illuvial redistribution in the profiles of soils of the podzolic group. The intensity of the redistribution of the bulk forms of these metals is comparable with that of Fe and exceeds that of Al. Although the podzolic soils are depleted of rare-earth metals, the latter respond readily to soil podzolization. The inactive participation of Al is explained by an insignificant portion of the active reaction-capable fraction. Podzolization does not influence the profile distribution of Sr and Ba. The leaching degree of heavy metals such as Mn, Cr, Zn, Ni, and Zr is noticeably higher in the sandy podzols than in the loamy podzolic soils. Leaching of heavy metals from the podzolic horizons is of geochemical importance, whereas the depletion of metals participating in plant nutrition and biota development is of ecological importance. The leaching of heavy metals is related to the destruction of clay particles in the heavy-textured podzolic soils; the effect of the soil acidity on the leaching of heavy metals is less significant.

  17. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  18. Fluoride and Water (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the label. The Controversy Over Fluoride Opponents of water fluoridation have questioned its safety and effectiveness; however, there has been little evidence to support these concerns. Scientific research continues to show the benefits of fluoride when ...

  19. Ion release from, and fluoride recharge of a composite with a fluoride-containing bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Davis, Harry B; Gwinner, Fernanda; Mitchell, John C; Ferracane, Jack L

    2014-10-01

    Materials that are capable of releasing ions such as calcium and fluoride, that are necessary for remineralization of dentin and enamel, have been the topic of intensive research for many years. The source of calcium has most often been some form of calcium phosphate, and that for fluoride has been one of several metal fluoride or hexafluorophosphate salts. Fluoride-containing bioactive glass (BAG) prepared by the sol-gel method acts as a single source of both calcium and fluoride ions in aqueous solutions. The objective of this investigation was to determine if BAG, when added to a composite formulation, can be used as a single source for calcium and fluoride ion release over an extended time period, and to determine if the BAG-containing composite can be recharged upon exposure to a solution of 5000ppm fluoride. BAG 61 (61% Si; 31% Ca; 4% P; 3% F; 1% B) and BAG 81 (81% Si; 11% Ca; 4% P; 3% F; 1% B) were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The composite used was composed of 50/50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA, 0.8% EDMAB, 0.4% CQ, and 0.05% BHT, combined with a mixture of BAG (15%) and strontium glass (85%) to a total filler load of 72% by weight. Disks were prepared, allowed to age for 24h, abraded, then placed into DI water. Calcium and fluoride release was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and fluoride ion selective electrode methods, respectively, after 2, 22, and 222h. The composite samples were then soaked for 5min in an aqueous 5000ppm fluoride solution, after which calcium and fluoride release was again measured at 2, 22, and 222h time points. Prior to fluoride recharge, release of fluoride ions was similar for the BAG 61 and BAG 81 composites after 2h, and also similar after 22h. At the four subsequent time points, one prior to, and three following fluoride recharge, the BAG 81 composite released significantly more fluoride ions (p<0.05). Both composites were recharged by exposure to 5000ppm fluoride, although the BAG 81 composite was recharged more than the BAG

  20. Enrichment of rare earth metal ions by the highly selective adsorption of phytate intercalated layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng; Liu, Huimin; Kong, Xianggui; Yan, Hong; Lei, Xiaodong

    2018-02-27

    Phytate intercalated MgAl layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) was prepared by an anion exchange method with the precursor NO 3 - containing MgAl-LDH. The final as-synthesized product [Mg 0.69 Al 0.31 (OH) 2 ] (phytateNa 6 ) 0.05 (NO 3 ) 0.01 ·mH 2 O (phytate-LDH) has highly selective adsorption ability for some metal ions and can be used to enrich rare earth metal ions in mixed solution, such as Pr 3+ and Ce 3+ from a mixed solution of them with Pb 2+ and Co 2+ . At first, phytate-LDH has good adsorption performance for these ions in single metal ion solutions. At low concentration (below 10 mg L -1 ), all the capture rates of the four metal ions were more than 97%, for highly toxic Pb 2+ it was even up to nearly 100%, and a high capture rate (99.87%) was maintained for Pb 2+ at a high concentration (100 mg L -1 ). When all the four metal ions are co-existing in aqueous solution, the selectivity order is Pb 2+ ≫ Pr 3+ ≈ Ce 3+ > Co 2+ . In a solution containing mixtures of the three metal ions of Pr 3+ , Ce 3+ , and Co 2+ , the selectivity order is Pr 3+ ≈ Ce 3+ ≫ Co 2+ , and in a solution containing mixtures of Pr 3+ with Co 2+ and Ce 3+ with Co 2+ , the selectivity orders are Pr 3+ ≫ Co 2+ and Ce 3+ ≫ Co 2+ , respectively. The high selectivity and adsorption capacities for Pb 2+ , Co 2+ , Pr 3+ , and Ce 3+ result in the efficient removal of Pb 2+ and enrichment of the rare earth metal ions Pr 3+ and Ce 3+ by phytate-LDH. Based on the elemental analysis, it is found that the difference of the adsorption capacities is mainly due to the different coordination number of them with phytate-LDH. With molecular simulation, we believe that the adsorption selectivity is due to the difference of the binding energy between the metal ion and phytate-LDH. Therefore, the phytate-LDH is promising for the enrichment and/or purification of the rare earth metal ions and removal of toxic metal ions from waste water.

  1. Distribution behavior of uranium, neptunium, rare-earth elements ( Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) and alkaline-earth metals (Sr,Ba) between molten LiClKCI eutectic salt and liquid cadmium or bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, M.; Sakamura, Y.; Hijikata, T.; Kinoshita, K.

    1995-12-01

    Distribution coefficients of uranium neptunium, eight rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) and two alkaline-earth metals (Sr and Ba) between molten LiCl-KCI eutectic salt and either liquid cadmium or bismuth were measured at 773 K. Separation factors of trivalent rare-earth elements to uranium or neptunium in the LiCl-KCl/Bi system were by one or two orders of magnitude larger than those in the LiCl-KCl/Cd system. On the contrary, the separation factors of alkaline-earth metals and divalent rare-earth elements to trivalent rare-earth elements were by one or two orders of magnitude smaller in the LiCl-KCl/Bi system.

  2. Influence of resin-modified glass ionomer and topical fluoride on levels of Streptococcus mutans in saliva and biofilm adjacent to metallic brackets

    PubMed Central

    ANDRUCIOLI, Marcela Cristina Damião; FARIA, Gisele; NELSON-FILHO, Paulo; ROMANO, Fábio Lourenço; MATSUMOTO, Mírian Aiko Nakane

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Decalcification of enamel during fixed orthodontic appliance treatment remains a problem. White spot lesions are observed in nearly 50% of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The use of fluoride-containing orthodontic materials has shown inconclusive results on their ability to reduce decalcification. The aims of this investigation were to compare the levels of Streptococcus mutans (SM) in saliva and biofilm adjacent to orthodontic brackets retained with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Fuji ORTHO LC) and a light cured composite resin (Transbond XT), and to analyze the influence of topical application of the 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) on SM counts. In a parallel study design, two groups (n=14/15) were used with random allocation and high salivary SM counts before treatment. Biofilm was collected from areas adjacent to the brackets on teeth 13, 22, 33, and 41. Both saliva and biofilm were collected on the 7th, 21st, 35th, and 49th days after appliance placement. Topical fluoride application was carried out on the 35th day. Bonding with RMGIC did not alter SM counts in saliva or biofilm adjacent to the brackets. On the other hand, the biofilm adjacent to brackets retained with composite resin showed a significant increase in SM counts along the trial period. Topical application of 1.23% APF did not reduce salivary or biofilm SM counts regardless of the bonding material. In conclusion, fluoride topical application did not show efficacy in reducing SM. The use of RMGIC as bonding materials allowed a better control of SM cfu counts in dental biofilm hindering the significant increase of these microorganisms along the trial period, which was observed in the biofilm adjacent to the composite material. PMID:28403360

  3. Influence of resin-modified glass ionomer and topical fluoride on levels of Streptococcus mutans in saliva and biofilm adjacent to metallic brackets.

    PubMed

    Andrucioli, Marcela Cristina Damião; Faria, Gisele; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Romano, Fábio Lourenço; Matsumoto, Mírian Aiko Nakane

    2017-01-01

    Decalcification of enamel during fixed orthodontic appliance treatment remains a problem. White spot lesions are observed in nearly 50% of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The use of fluoride-containing orthodontic materials has shown inconclusive results on their ability to reduce decalcification. The aims of this investigation were to compare the levels of Streptococcus mutans (SM) in saliva and biofilm adjacent to orthodontic brackets retained with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Fuji ORTHO LC) and a light cured composite resin (Transbond XT), and to analyze the influence of topical application of the 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) on SM counts. In a parallel study design, two groups (n=14/15) were used with random allocation and high salivary SM counts before treatment. Biofilm was collected from areas adjacent to the brackets on teeth 13, 22, 33, and 41. Both saliva and biofilm were collected on the 7th, 21st, 35th, and 49th days after appliance placement. Topical fluoride application was carried out on the 35th day. Bonding with RMGIC did not alter SM counts in saliva or biofilm adjacent to the brackets. On the other hand, the biofilm adjacent to brackets retained with composite resin showed a significant increase in SM counts along the trial period. Topical application of 1.23% APF did not reduce salivary or biofilm SM counts regardless of the bonding material. In conclusion, fluoride topical application did not show efficacy in reducing SM. The use of RMGIC as bonding materials allowed a better control of SM cfu counts in dental biofilm hindering the significant increase of these microorganisms along the trial period, which was observed in the biofilm adjacent to the composite material.

  4. Polyvinylidene fluoride film as a capacitor dielectric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dematos, H. V.

    1981-01-01

    Thin strips of polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF) with vacuum deposited electrodes were made into capacitors by conventional winding and fabrication techniques. These devices were used to identify and evaluate the performance characteristics offered by the PVDF in metallized film capacitors. Variations in capacitor parameters with temperature and frequence were evaluated and compared with other dielectric films. Their impact on capacitor applications is discussed.

  5. Super earth interiors and validity of Birch's Law for ultra-high pressure metals and ionic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Lucas Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Super Earths, recently detected by the Kepler Mission, expand the ensemble of known terrestrial planets beyond our Solar System's limited group. Birch's Law and velocity-density systematics have been crucial in constraining our knowledge of the composition of Earth's mantle and core. Recently published static diamond anvil cell experimental measurements of sound velocities in iron, a key deep element in most super Earth models, are inconsistent with each other with regard to the validity of Birch's Law. We examine the range of validity of Birch's Law for several metallic elements, including iron, and ionic solids shocked with a two-stage light gas gun into the ultra-high pressure, temperature fluid state and make comparisons to the recent static data.

  6. A miniature single element effusion cell for the vacuum deposition of transition-metal and rare-earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, V. G.; Koon, N. C.

    1997-08-01

    A miniature single element effusion cell has been fabricated and tested that allows for the high-vacuum deposition of a variety of transition-metal and rare-earth elements. The cell is designed to operate under high-vacuum conditions, ≈10-9 Torr, with low power demands, <200 W. The virtues of this evaporator are the simplicity of design and ease of fabrication, assembly, maintenance, and operation.

  7. Dual Functionalization of White Phosphorus: Formation, Characterization, and Reactivity of Rare-Earth-Metal Cyclo-P3 Complexes.

    PubMed

    Du, Shanshan; Yin, Jianhao; Chi, Yue; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-12-11

    The [3+1] fragmentation reaction of rare-earth metallacyclopentadienes 1 a-c with 0.5 equivalents of P 4 affords a series of rare-earth metal cyclo-P 3 complexes 2 a-c and a phospholyl anion 3. 2 a-c demonstrate an unusual η 3 coordination mode with one P-P bond featuring partial π-bonding character. 2 a-c are the first cyclo-P 3 complexes of rare-earth metals, and also the first organo-substituted polyphosphides in the category of Group 3 and f-block elements. Rare-earth metallacyclopentadienes play a dual role in the combination of aromatization and Diels-Alder reaction. Compounds 2 a-c can coordinate to one or two [W(CO) 5 ] units, yielding 4 a-c or 5 c, respectively. Furthermore, oxidation of 2 a with p-benzoquinone produces its corresponding phospholyllithium and regenerated P 4 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A mini-review on rare earth metal-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic remediation of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Saqib, Najm Us; Adnan, Rohana; Shah, Irfan

    2016-08-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been considered a useful material for the treatment of wastewater due to its non-toxic character, chemical stability and excellent electrical and optical properties which contribute in its wide range of applications, particularly in environmental remediation technology. However, the wide band gap of TiO2 photocatalyst (anatase phase, 3.20 eV) limits its photocatalytic activity to the ultraviolet region of light. Besides that, the electron-hole pair recombination has been found to reduce the efficiency of the photocatalyst. To overcome these problems, tailoring of TiO2 surface with rare earth metals to improve its surface, optical and photocatalytic properties has been investigated by many researchers. The surface modifications with rare earth metals proved to enhance the efficiency of TiO2 photocatalyts by way of reducing the band gap by shifting the working wavelength to the visible region and inhibiting the anatase-to-rutile phase transformations. This review paper summarises the attempts on modification of TiO2 using rare earth metals describing their effect on the photocatalytic activities of the modified TiO2 photocatalyst.

  9. Trivalent rare-earth activated hexagonal lanthanum fluoride (LaF3 :RE3+ , where RE = Tb, Sm, Dy and Tm) nanocrystals: Synthesis and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Kasturi, Singh; Marikumar, R; Vaidyanathan, Sivakumar

    2018-05-10

    The LaF 3 nanocrystals through a facile hydrothermal route with hexagonal structures have been synthesized via doping of trivalent rare earth (RE 3+ ) ions - RE = Tb, Sm, Dy and Tm - with rod-like and perforated morphologies using NH 4 F as fluorine precursor. Hexagonal phase formation was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. The crystalline sizes were calculated by the Scherrer equation where found to have an average crystalline size of 12 to 35 nm. The morphological studies of the nanocrystals were carried out by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The LaF 3 :Tm 3+ ,Sm 3+ ions show the characteristic emission of Tb 3+ and Tm 3+ respectively. In Sm 3+ -doped LaF 3 , three prominent emission peaks at 561, 597 and 641 nm were found, which belong to 4 G 5/2  →  6 H 5/2 , 4 G 5/2  →  6 H 7/2 (magnetic dipole) and 4 G 5/2  →  6 H 9/2 (electric dipole) transitions, respectively. The Dy 3+ activated LaF 3 shows blue and yellow emission and the corresponding CIE color coordinate show white light emission (CCT value 10650 K). Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Accumulation of alkaline earth metals by the green macroalga Bryopsis maxima.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Aizawa, Kyoko; Nakamura, Saki; Nakayama, Katsumi; Fujisaki, Shingo; Watanabe, Soichiro; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    Twenty-five days after the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011, we collected samples of the green macroalga Bryopsis maxima from the Pacific coast of Japan. Bryopsis maxima is a unicellular, multinuclear, siphonous green macroalga. Radiation analysis revealed that B. maxima emitted remarkably high gamma radiation of (131)I, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (140)Ba as fission products of (235)U. Interestingly, B. maxima contained naturally occurring radionuclides derived from (226)Ra and (228)Ra. Analysis of element content revealed that B. maxima accumulates many ocean elements, especially high quantities of the alkaline earth metals Sr (15.9 g per dry-kg) and Ba (3.79 g per dry-kg), whereas Ca content (12.5 g per dry-kg) was lower than that of Sr and only 61 % of the mean content of 70 Japanese seaweed species. Time-course analysis determined the rate of radioactive (85)Sr incorporation into thalli to be approximately 0.13 g Sr per dry-kg of thallus per day. Subcellular fractionation of B. maxima cells showed that most of the (85)Sr was localized in the soluble fraction, predominantly in the vacuole or cytosol. Given that (85)Sr radioactivity was permeable through a dialysis membrane, the (85)Sr was considered to be a form of inorganic ion and/or bound with a small molecule. Precipitation analysis with sodium sulfate showed that more than 70% of the Sr did not precipitate as SrSO4, indicating that a proportion of the Sr may bind with small molecules in B. maxima.

  11. Materials flow analysis of neodymium, status of rare earth metal in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Swain, Basudev; Kang, Leeseung; Mishra, Chinmayee; Ahn, JoongWoo; Hong, Hyun Seon

    2015-11-01

    Materials flow analysis of neodymium, status of rare earth elements (REEs) in the Republic of Korea has been investigated. Information from various resources like the Korean Ministry of Environment, Korea international trade association, United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database and from individual industry were collected and analyzed for materials flow analysis of neodymium. Demand of neodymium in the Republic of Korea for the year 2010 was 409.5 tons out of which the majority of neodymium, i.e., 68.41% was consumed by domestic electronics industry followed by medical appliances manufacturing (13.36%). The Republic Korea is one of the biggest consumer and leading exporter of these industrial products, absolutely depends on import of neodymium, as the country is lacking natural resources. The Republic of Korea has imported 325.9 tons of neodymium permanent magnet and 79.5 tons of neodymium containing equipment parts mainly for electronics, medical appliances, and heavy/light vehicles manufacturing industry. Out of which 95.4 tons of neodymium permanent magnet get exported as an intermediate product and 140.6 tons of neodymium in the form of consumable products get exported. Worldwide the neodymium is at the high end of supply chain critical metal because of increasing demand, scarcity and irreplaceable for technological application. To bring back the neodymium to supply stream the recycling of end of life neodymium-bearing waste can be a feasible option. Out of total domestic consumption, only 21.9 tons of neodymium have been collected and subsequently recycled. From material flow analysis, the requirement for an efficient recycling system and element-wise material flow management for these REEs in the Republic of Korea were realized and recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluorides and non-fluoride remineralization systems.

    PubMed

    Amaechi, Bennett T; van Loveren, Cor

    2013-01-01

    Caries develops when the equilibrium between de- and remineralization is unbalanced favoring demineralization. De- and remineralization occur depending on the degree of saturation of the interstitial fluids with respect to the tooth mineral. This equilibrium is positively influenced when fluoride, calcium and phosphate ions are added favoring remineralization. In addition, when fluoride is present, it will be incorporated into the newly formed mineral which is then less soluble. Toothpastes may contain fluoride and calcium ions separately or together in various compounds (remineralization systems) and may therefore reduce demineralization and promote remineralization. Formulating all these compounds in one paste may be challenging due to possible premature calcium-fluoride interactions and the low solubility of CaF2. There is a large amount of clinical evidence supporting the potent caries preventive effect of fluoride toothpastes indisputably. The amount of clinical evidence of the effectiveness of the other remineralization systems is far less convincing. Evidence is lacking for head to head comparisons of the various remineralization systems. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. PRODUCTION OF THORIUM FLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Zachariasen, W.H.

    1959-08-11

    A process is presented for producing anhydrous thorium fluoride comprising the step of contacting a saturated aqueous solution of thorium nitrate with an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid having a concentration of about 45 to 50% by weight at a temperature above 70 deg C whereby anhydrous thorium fluoride precipitates.

  14. Highly efficient hydrophosphonylation of aldehydes and unactivated ketones catalyzed by methylene-linked pyrrolyl rare earth metal amido complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuangliu; Wu, Zhangshuan; Rong, Jiewei; Wang, Shaowu; Yang, Gaosheng; Zhu, Xiancui; Zhang, Lijun

    2012-02-27

    A series of rare earth metal amido complexes bearing methylene-linked pyrrolyl-amido ligands were prepared through silylamine elimination reactions and displayed high catalytic activities in hydrophosphonylations of aldehydes and unactivated ketones under solvent-free conditions for liquid substrates. Treatment of [(Me(3)Si)(2)N](3)Ln(μ-Cl)Li(THF)(3) with 2-(2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3)NHCH(2))C(4)H(3)NH (1, 1 equiv) in toluene afforded the corresponding trivalent rare earth metal amides of formula {(μ-η(5):η(1)):η(1)-2-[(2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3))NCH(2)](C(4)H(3)N)LnN(SiMe(3))(2)}(2) [Ln=Y (2), Nd (3), Sm (4), Dy (5), Yb (6)] in moderate to good yields. All compounds were fully characterized by spectroscopic methods and elemental analyses. The yttrium complex was also characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses. The structures of complexes 2, 3, 4, and 6 were determined by single-crystal X-ray analyses. Study of the catalytic activities of the complexes showed that these rare earth metal amido complexes were excellent catalysts for hydrophosphonylations of aldehydes and unactivated ketones. The catalyzed reactions between diethyl phosphite and aldehydes in the presence of the rare earth metal amido complexes (0.1 mol%) afforded the products in high yields (up to 99%) at room temperature in short times of 5 to 10 min. Furthermore, the catalytic addition of diethyl phosphite to unactivated ketones also afforded the products in high yields of up to 99% with employment of low loadings (0.1 to 0.5 mol%) of the rare earth metal amido complexes at room temperature in short times of 20 min. The system works well for a wide range of unactivated aliphatic, aromatic or heteroaromatic ketones, especially for substituted benzophenones, giving the corresponding α-hydroxy diaryl phosphonates in moderate to high yields. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Oral fluoride retention after use of fluoride dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, R M; Morgan, S N

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride is the only extensively clinically proven means of reducing dental caries. Despite a large body of epidemiological data on the effectiveness of fluoride, delivered in the form of dentifrices, mouthrinses, drinking water, etc., the precise mode of action of fluoride is not completely understood. The purpose of this paper is to report an investigation of the link between oral fluoride levels and applied fluoride dose from dentifrices. Human salivary fluoride clearance studies and equilibrium baseline studies of fluoride in saliva and plaque have been carried out with dentifrices which contained 1,000, 1,500 and 2,500 micrograms fluoride per gram as sodium monofluorophosphate. After a single brushing with a fluoride dentifrice, salivary fluoride decreased in two distinct phases: an initial rapid phase which lasted for 40-80 min, depending on the individual, and a second slow phase lasting for several hours. The latter phase is believed to be due to fluoride released from an oral fluoride reservoir. During regular repeated use of the test dentifrices, the equilibrium baseline fluoride concentration, attained in both saliva and plaque between one application and the next, increased significantly compared with placebo values. Such elevated baseline fluoride concentrations also increased with increasing Na2FPO3 content of the dentifrices. The present work supports the concept that labile fluoride, stored in an oral fluoride reservoir at the time of treatment application, may maintain a prolonged protective effect against dental caries.

  16. Labile rhizosphere soil solution fraction for prediction of bioavailability of heavy metals and rare earth elements to plants.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiao-Quan; Wang, Zhongwen; Wang, Weisheng; Zhang, Shuzhen; Wen, Bei

    2003-02-01

    A labile rhizosphere soil solution fraction has been recommended to predict the bioavailability of heavy metals and rare earth elements to plants. This method used moist rhizosphere soil in combination with a mixture of 0.01 mol L(-1) of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) as extractant. The extracted soil solutions were fractionated into two colloidal fractions of <0.45 microm (F(3)) and <0.2 microm (F(2)), and one truly dissolved fraction including free metal ions and inorganic and organic complexes (fractionmetals and rare earth elements in F(2) and F(3) were quite similar. However, the mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd in F(lrss) accounted for 79.9%, 91.3%, 90.8%, 60.1%, 77.5%, 75.3%, 81.2%, 77.2%, 80.3%, and 79.5%, respectively, of their concentrations in F(2). In contrast, there were no differences in the extractable metal concentrations between the three fractions while the first step of the method recommended by the European Community of Reference (BCR), where 0.1 mol L(-1) acetic acid was used as an extractant. The single correlation analysis was made between metal concentrations in the different fractions of soil solutions and their concentrations in wheat. If the first step of BCR method was used there was no good correlation between heavy metals in soil pools and that in wheat shoots and roots. When LMWAOs were used a good correlation was obtained between the concentrations of heavy metals in soil pools and that in wheat roots, which followed a general order of r(1 kD, LMWOAs) >r(0.2 microm, LMWOAs) approximately r(0.45 microm, LMWOAs). In the case of rare earth elements the good correlation was obtained for both the wheat roots and shoots. Generally, the correlation coefficients

  17. Tunable magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in heavy rare-earth based metallic glasses through the substitution of similar elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Li, Ran; Zhang, Leilei; Zhang, Tao

    2014-04-01

    The influence of interchangeable substitution of similar heavy rare-earth-elements (HRE), i.e., Gd-Ho, Gd-Er, and Ho-Er, on the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of HRE55Al27.5Co17.5 metallic glasses was evaluated. The magnetic transition temperature (TC) can be tuned in a wide temperature range from 8 K to 93 K by adjusting the substitutional concentration in the resulting metallic glasses. A roughly linear correlation between peak value of magnetic entropy change (|ΔSMpk|) and TC-2/3 was obtained in the three systems. This kind of substitutional adjustment provides a useful method for designing desirable candidates in metallic glasses with high magnetic entropy change, large magnetic cooling efficiency, and tunable TC for magnetic refrigerant in nitrogen and hydrogen liquefaction temperature ranges.

  18. Trivalent Rare-Earth-Metal Bis(trimethylsilyl)amide Halide Complexes by Targeted Oxidations.

    PubMed

    Bienfait, André M; Wolf, Benjamin M; Törnroos, Karl W; Anwander, Reiner

    2018-05-07

    In contrast to previously applied salt metathesis protocols the targeted rare-earth-metal compounds Ln[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 2 (halogenido) were accessed by oxidation of Ln(II) silylamide precursors. Treatment of Sm[N(SiMe 3 ) 3 ] 2 (thf) 2 with 0.5 equiv of C 2 Cl 6 or 0.25 equiv of TeBr 4 in thf and crystallization thereof gave [Sm{N(SiMe 3 ) 2 } 2 (μ-X)(thf)] 2 (X = Cl, Br). A similar reaction/crystallization procedure performed with 0.5 equiv of 1,2-diiodoethane gave monomeric Sm[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 2 I(thf) 2 . Switching to Yb[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 2 (thf) 2 , the aforementioned oxidants generated monomeric five-coordinate complexes Yb[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 2 X(thf) 2 (X = Cl, Br, I). The reaction of Eu[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 2 (thf) 2 with 0.5 equiv of C 2 Cl 6 in thf yielded the separated ion pair [Eu{N(SiMe 3 ) 2 } 3 Cl][(thf) 5 Eu(μ-Cl) 2 Eu(thf) 5 ]. Performing the chlorination in n-hexane led to oxidation followed by rapid disproportionation into EuCl 3 (thf) x and Eu[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 3 . The bromination reaction did not afford crystalline material, while the iodination gave crystals of divalent EuI 2 (thf) 5 . Use of trityl chloride (Ph 3 CCl) as the oxidant in thf accomplished the Eu(III) species [Eu{N(SiMe 3 ) 2 } 2 (μ-Cl)(thf)] 2 . In situ oxidation of putative [Tm{N(SiMe 3 ) 2 } 2 (thf) x ] using 0.5 equiv of C 2 Cl 6 in thf followed by crystallization from n-hexane led to the formation of a mixture of [Tm{N(SiMe 3 ) 2 } 2 (μ-Cl)(thf)] 2 and Tm[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 3 . Switching the oxidant to 0.5 equiv of 1,2-diiodoethane and crystallizing from thf repeatedly afforded the bis-halogenated complex Tm[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ]I 2 (thf) 3 .

  19. Characterization of archaeal group II chaperonin-ADP-metal fluoride complexes: implications that group II chaperonins operate as a "two-stroke engine".

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Ryo; Yoshida, Takao; Ishii, Noriyuki; Zako, Tamotsu; Takahashi, Kazunobu; Maki, Kosuke; Inobe, Tomonao; Kuwajima, Kunihiro; Yohda, Masafumi

    2005-12-02

    Group II chaperonins, found in Archaea and in the eukaryotic cytosol, act independently of a cofactor corresponding to GroES of group I chaperonins. Instead, the helical protrusion at the tip of the apical domain forms a built-in lid of the central cavity. Although many studies on the lid's conformation have been carried out, the conformation in each step of the ATPase cycle remains obscure. To clarify this issue, we examined the effects of ADP-aluminum fluoride (AlFx) and ADP-beryllium fluoride (BeFx) complexes on alpha-chaperonin from the hyperthermophilic archaeum, Thermococcus sp. strain KS-1. Biochemical assays, electron microscopic observations, and small angle x-ray scattering measurements demonstrate that alpha-chaperonin incubated with ADP and BeFx exists in an asymmetric conformation; one ring is open, and the other is closed. The result indicates that alpha-chaperonin also shares the inherent functional asymmetry of bacterial and eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonins. Most interestingly, addition of ADP and BeFx induced alpha-chaperonin to encapsulate unfolded proteins in the closed ring but did not trigger their folding. Moreover, alpha-chaperonin incubated with ATP and AlFx or BeFx adopted a symmetric closed conformation, and its functional turnover was inhibited. These forms are supposed to be intermediates during the reaction cycle of group II chaperonins.

  20. Immobilization of Alkali Metal Fluorides via Recrystallization in a Cationic Lamellar Material, [Th(MoO4)(H2O)4Cl]Cl·H2O.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Bao, Hongliang; Qie, Meiying; Silver, Mark A; Yue, Zenghui; Li, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Linjuan; Wang, Jian-Qiang

    2018-06-05

    Searching for cationic extended materials with a capacity for anion exchange resulted in a unique thorium molybdate chloride (TMC) with the formula of [Th(MoO 4 )(H 2 O) 4 Cl]Cl·H 2 O. The structure of TMC is composed of zigzagging cationic layers [Th(MoO 4 )(H 2 O) 4 Cl] + with Cl - as interlamellar charge-balancing anions. Instead of performing ion exchange, alkali thorium fluorides were formed after soaking TMC in AF (A = Na, K, and Cs) solutions. The mechanism of AF immobilization is elucidated by the combination of SEM-EDS, PXRD, FTIR, and EXAFS spectroscopy. It was observed that four water molecules coordinating with the Th 4+ center in TMC are vulnerable to competition with F - , due to the formation of more favorable Th-F bonds compared to Th-OH 2 . This leads to a single crystal-to-polycrystalline transformation via a pathway of recrystallization to form alkali thorium fluorides.

  1. Fluoride intake of infants living in non-fluoridated and fluoridated areas.

    PubMed

    Zohoori, F V; Whaley, G; Moynihan, P J; Maguire, A

    2014-01-01

    Data on fluoride exposure of infants are sparse. This study aimed to estimate total daily fluoride intake (TDFI) of infants aged 1-12 months, living in non-fluoridated and fluoridated areas in north-east England. Daily dietary fluoride intake was assessed using a three-day food diary coupled with analysis of fluoride content of food/drink consumed, using a F-ISE and diffusion method. A questionnaire with an interview was used to collect information on toothbrushing habits. TDFI was estimated from diet, plus fluoride supplements and dentifrice ingestion where used. Thirty-eight infants completed the study; 19 receiving fluoridated water (mean 0.97 mgF/l) and 19 receiving non-fluoridated water (mean 0.19 mgF/l). Mean (SD) TDFI for the infants living in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas was 0.107 (0.054) and 0.024 (0.015) mg/kg body weight per day, respectively. Diet was the only fluoride source for 87% of infants and none used fluoride supplements. For infants for whom mouth/teeth cleaning was undertaken, dentifrice contribution to TDFI ranged from 24 to 78%. Infants living in fluoridated areas, in general, may receive a fluoride intake, from diet only, of more than the suggested optimal range for TDFI. This emphasises the importance of estimating TDFI at an individual level when recommendations for fluoride use are being considered.

  2. Tuning the surface properties of novel ternary iron(III) fluoride-based catalysts using the template effect of the matrix.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Lippitz, Andreas; Saftien, Paul; Unger, Wolfgang E S; Kemnitz, Erhard

    2015-03-21

    Sol-gel prepared ternary FeF3-MgF2 materials have become promising heterogeneous catalysts due to their porosity and surface Lewis/Brønsted acidity (bi-acidity). Despite the good catalytic performance, nanoscopic characterisations of this type of material are still missing and the key factors controlling the surface properties have not yet been identified, impeding both a better understanding and further development of ternary fluoride catalysts. In this study, we characterised the interaction between the bi-acidic component (FeF3) and the matrix (MgF2) on the nano-scale. For the first time, the formation pathway of FeF3-MgF2 was profiled and the template effect of MgF2 during the synthesis process was discovered. Based on these new insights two novel materials, FeF3-CaF2 and FeF3-SrF2, were established, revealing that with decreasing the atomic numbers (from Sr to Mg), the ternary fluorides exhibited increasing surface acidity and surface area but decreasing pore size. These systematic changes gave rise to a panel of catalysts with tuneable surface and bulk properties either by changing the matrix alkaline earth metal fluoride or by adjusting their ratios to Fe or both. The template effect of the alkaline earth metal fluoride matrix was identified as the most probable key factor determining the surface properties and further influencing the catalytic performance in ternary fluoride based catalysts, and paves the way to targeted design of next-generation catalysts with tunable properties.

  3. Effects of pH on frog gustatory responses to chloride salts of alkali-metal and alkali-earth-metal.

    PubMed

    Kumai, T; Nomura, H

    1980-01-01

    The pH effects on frog gustatory responses to alkali-metal and alkali-earth-metal chloride salts were examined using single fungi-form papilla preparations. Responses to 0.1-0.5 M NaCl were clearly dependent upon the pH of the stimulating solutions. The responses increased as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.5 and were almost completely suppressed at pH's above 6.5. There was no significant difference in the pH dependency of the response among alkali-metal chlorides. HCl solutions elicited only a poor response under conditions in which the water response was suppressed by the simultaneous presence of a low NaCl concentration. Responses to alkali-earth-metal chlorides varied in their pH dependency. Response to CaCl2 was slightly affected by pH changes from 4.5 to 9.0, response to SrCl2 was considerably suppressed in the alkaline region, and responses to BaCl2 and MgCl2 were strongly suppressed at pH's above 6.5. BeCl2 solutions showed less marked stimulating effects over the pH range tested. The differences in pH dependency described above suggest the existence of two kinds of receptor sites, one being pH-insensitive sites responsible for the calcium response and the other pH-sensitive sites responsible for the sodium response. A cross-adaptation test appeared to support this possibility. Assuming that the pH effect mentioned is related to changes in the state of ionization of the receptor molecule, the pKa of the ionizable group responsible for the sodium response was determined to be approximately 5.5.

  4. Lunar oxygen and metal for use in near-Earth space: Magma electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, Russell O.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1990-01-01

    Because it is energetically easier to get material from the Moon to Earth orbit than from the Earth itself, the Moon is a potentially valuable source of materials for use in space. The unique conditions on the Moon, such as vacuum, absence of many reagents common on the Earth, and the presence of very nontraditional ores suggest that a unique and nontraditional process for extracting materials from the ores may prove the most practical. With this in mind, an investigation of unfluxed silicate electrolysis as a method for extracting oxygen, iron, and silicon from lunar regolith was initiated and is discussed. The advantages of the process include simplicity of concept, absence of need to supply reagents from Earth, and low power and mass requirements for the processing plant. Disadvantages include the need for uninterrupted high temperature and the highly corrosive nature of the high-temperature silicate melts which has made identifying suitable electrode and container materials difficult.

  5. Hyporheic Microbial Biofilms as Indicators of Heavy and Rare Earth Metals in the Clark Fork Basin, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, E. P.; Hornberger, M.; Hwang, C.; Dror, I.; Bouskill, N.; Short, T.; Cain, D.; Fields, M. W.

    2016-12-01

    The ability to effectively monitor the impact of hard rock mining activities on rivers and streams is a growing concern given the large number of active and abandoned mines in the western United States. One such example, the Clark Fork Basin (CFB), western Montana, was extensively mined for copper in the early 20th century: it is now one of largest U.S. EPA superfund sites. Microbial biofilms are at the base of the lotic food chain and may provide a useful biomonitoring tool for the assessment of metal toxicity due to their environmental ubiquity, rapidity of response to environmental perturbation, and importance in determining metal mobility. Hyporheic microbial biofilms from the CFB were sampled in 2014, concurrent with the USGS National Research Programs (NRP) long-term site monitoring of metals in bed sediment and aquatic benthic insects. Integration of the DNA sequencing results from the hyporheic biofilms with the sediment and insect metal concentrations correlated several bacterial phyla with metal contamination. For example, the genus Lysobacter was strongly associated with copper (Cu) bioaccumulation in the aquatic insect Hydropsyche. These results support previous studies identifying Lysobacter as a bacterial genus that is resistant to Cu ions. Our analysis is the first to indicate that specific microorganisms can act as biomarkers of Cu contamination in rivers. Moreover, our work demonstrates that changes at the microbial community level in the hyporheic zone can be coupled to observed perturbations across higher trophic levels. In 2015, extensive remediation occurred at several of the sites sampled in 2014, providing an excellent opportunity to revisit the sites and examine the temporal variability of identified biomarkers and the short-term effectiveness of remediation. In addition, samples were analyzed for rare earth metals, of which little is known, and could provide additional insight into other metals that change the microbial community structure.

  6. More arrows in the quiver: new pathways and old problems with heavy alkaline earth metal diphenylmethanides.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jacob S; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin

    2004-03-05

    Progress in the field of sigma-bonded alkaline earth organometallics has been handicapped by numerous complications, such as high reactivity, low solubility, and the limited availability of suitable starting materials. Here we present two synthetic methods, hydrocarbon elimination and desilylation, as alternative routes into this chemistry. A novel barium diphenylmethanide was prepared using these routes delineating that both methods provide a powerful, versatile synthetic access route to an extended library of organometallic alkaline earth derivatives.

  7. Other Fluoride Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... and School-Linked Dental Sealant Programs Coordinate Community Water Fluoridation Programs Targeted Clinical Preventive Services & Health Systems Changes State Oral Health Plans Research & Publications Oral Health In America: Summary of the ...

  8. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    ... and School-Linked Dental Sealant Programs Coordinate Community Water Fluoridation Programs Targeted Clinical Preventive Services & Health Systems Changes State Oral Health Plans Research & Publications Oral Health In America: Summary of the ...

  9. How Does Fluoride Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... when teeth are growing, it mixes with tooth enamel — that hard coating on your teeth. That prevents ... formed. It works with saliva to protect tooth enamel from plaque and sugars. By using fluoride toothpaste, ...

  10. Fluoride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... broken through the gums have changes in the enamel that covers the teeth. Faint white lines or ... regarding fluoride intake from reconstituted infant formula and enamel fluorosis: a report of the American Dental Association ...

  11. Fluoride toothpastes and fluoride mouthrinses for home use.

    PubMed

    Rugg-Gunn, Andrew; Bánóczy, Jolán

    2013-11-01

    To provide a brief commentary review of fluoride-containing toothpastes and mouthrinses with emphasis on their use at home. Toothpastes and mouthrinses are just two of many ways of providing fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. The first investigations into incorporating fluoride into toothpastes and mouthrinses were reported in the middle 1940s. Unlike water fluoridation (which is 'automatic fluoridation'), fluoride-containing toothpastes and fluoridecontaining mouthrinses are, primarily, for home use and need to be purchased by the individual. By the 1960s, research indicated that fluoride could be successfully incorporated into toothpastes and clinical trials demonstrated their effectiveness. By the end of the 1970s, almost all toothpastes contained fluoride. The widespread use of fluoride- containing toothpastes is thought to be the main reason for much improved oral health in many countries. Of the many fluoride compounds investigated, sodium fluoride, with a compatible abrasive, is the most popular, although amine fluorides are used widely in Europe. The situation is similar for mouthrinses. Concentrations of fluoride (F), commonly found, are 1500 ppm (1500 μg F/g) for toothpastes and 225 ppm (225 μg F/ml) for mouthrinse. Several systematic reviews have concluded that fluoride-containing toothpastes and mouthrinses are effective, and that there is added benefit from their use with other fluoride delivery methods such as water fluoridation. Guidelines for the appropriate use of fluoride toothpastes and mouthrinses are available in many countries. Fluoride toothpastes and mouthrinses have been developed and extensive testing has demonstrated that they are effective and their use should be encouraged. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  12. The composition of Earth's core from equations of state, metal-silicate partitioning, and core formation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Rebecca; Campbell, Andrew; Ciesla, Fred

    2016-04-01

    The Earth accreted in a series of increasingly large and violent collisions. Simultaneously, the metallic core segregated from the silicate mantle, acquiring its modern composition through high pressure (P), high temperature (T) partitioning reactions. Here we present a model that couples these aspects of early planetary evolution, building on recent accretion simulations and metal-silicate partitioning experiments, constrained by density measurements of Fe-rich alloys. Previously, the equations of state of FeO, Fe-9Si, Fe-16Si, and FeSi were measured to megabar pressures and several thousand K using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. With these equations of state, we determined that the core's density can be reproduced through the addition of 11.3 +/- 0.6 wt% silicon or 8.1 +/- 1.1 wt% oxygen to an Fe-Ni alloy (Fischer et al., 2011, 2014). Metal-silicate partitioning experiments of Ni, Co, V, Cr, Si, and O have been performed in a diamond anvil cell to 100 GPa and 5700 K, allowing the effects of P, T, and composition on the partitioning behaviors of these elements to be parameterized (Fischer et al., 2015; Siebert et al., 2012). Here we apply those experimental results to model Earth's core formation, using N-body simulations to describe the delivery, masses, and original locations of planetary building blocks (Fischer and Ciesla, 2014). As planets accrete, their core and mantle compositions are modified by high P-T reactions with each collision (Rubie et al., 2011). For partial equilibration of the mantle at 55% of the evolving core-mantle boundary pressure and the liquidus temperature, we find that the core contains 5.4 wt% Si and 1.9 wt% O. This composition is consistent with the seismologically-inferred density of Earth's core, based on comparisons to our equations of state, and indicate that the core cannot contain more than ~2 wt% S or C. Earth analogues experience 1.2 +/- 0.2 log units of oxidation during accretion, due to both the effects of high P

  13. A Liquid Chromatography Detector for Transition and Rare-Earth Metal Ions Based on a Cupric Ion-Selective Electrode

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    RARE-EARTH METAL IONS BASED ON A CUPRIC ION-SELECTIVE ELECTRODE By - 4 R. CAMERON DOREY TECHNICAL REPORT FJSRL-TR-81-0005 MAY 1981 Approved for public...FORM . REPORT NUMBER 12. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER FJSRL-TR-81-0005BO CO ENGO 4 . TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD...common anions, including halide ions, is shown, and the advantages and limitations of the system are discussed. II ’ 4 UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY

  14. Nickel(0)-Catalyzed Inert C-O Bond Functionalization: Organo Rare-Earth Metal Complex as the Coupling Partner.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiangqian; Yang, Fanzhi; Cai, Guilong; Meng, Qingwei; Li, Xiaofang

    2018-02-02

    An organo rare-earth metal complex has been employed as a highly efficient nucleophile in Ni(0)-catalyzed C-O bond functionalization. The optimized catalytic system which consists of Ni(cod) 2 , PCy 3 , and t-BuONa could smoothly convert 1 equiv of naphthyl ethers to alkylated naphthalene analogues with 0.4 equiv of Ln(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) 3 (THF) 2 , delivering good to excellent yields. The reaction system could also activate the ArCH 2 -O bond with mild base.

  15. Effect of Destined High-Pressure Torsion on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Rare Earth-Based Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Cheng, H.; Jiang, X.; Wu, M. L.; Li, G.

    2018-03-01

    Changes in the atomic structure and mechanical properties of rare earth-based metallic glasses caused by destined high-pressure torsion (HPT) were studied by X-ray diffraction synchrotron radiation and nanoindentation. Results showed that destined HPT improved nanohardness and wear resistance, which indicated the significant contributions of this technique. The diffraction patterns showed that the contents of pairs between solvent and solute atoms with a large negative mixing enthalpy increased, whereas those of pairs between solvent atoms and between solute atoms decreased after destined HPT. Thus, the process was improved by increasing the proportion of high-intensity pairs between solvent and solute atoms.

  16. Catalytic asymmetric ring-opening of meso-aziridines with malonates under heterodinuclear rare earth metal Schiff base catalysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingjie; Lin, Luqing; Kanai, Motomu; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2011-04-20

    Catalytic asymmetric ring-opening of meso-aziridines with malonates is described. The combined use of two rare earth metal sources with different properties promoted the desired ring-opening reaction. A 1:1:1 mixture of a heterobimetallic La(O-iPr)(3)/Yb(OTf)(3)/Schiff base 1a (0.25-10 mol %) efficiently promoted the reaction of five-, six-, and seven-membered ring cyclic meso-aziridines as well as acyclic meso-aziridines with dimethyl, diethyl, and dibenzyl malonates, giving chiral cyclic and acyclic γ-amino esters in 99-63% yield and >99.5-97% ee.

  17. Electronic and structural properties of Lu under pressure: Relation to structural phases of the rare-earth metals

    SciTech Connect

    Min, B.I.; Oguchi, T.; Jansen, H.J.F.

    1986-07-15

    Ground-state electronic and structural properties of Lu under pressure are investigated with use of the self-consistent all-electron total-energy linear muffin-tin orbital band-structure method within a local-density-functional approximation. Pressure-induced structural transitions are found to occur in the following sequence: hcp--(Sm-type)--dhcp--fcc, which is the same as that observed in the crystal structures of the trivalent rare-earth metals with decreasing atomic number. This structural transition is correlated with the increase in the number of d-italic electrons under pressure.

  18. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Bo; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Bowu; Yang, Xuanxuan; Li, Linfan; Yu, Ming; Li, Jingye

    2011-02-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  19. Regio- and Stereochemical Control in Ocimene Polymerization by Half-Sandwich Rare-Earth Metal Dialkyl Complexes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Deqian; Du, Gaixia; Zhang, Pengfei; Yao, Bo; Li, Xiaofang; Zhang, Shaowen

    2016-06-01

    The polymerization of ocimene has been first achieved by half-sandwich rare-earth metal dialkyl complexes in combination with activator and Al(i) Bu3 . The regio- and stereoselectivity in the ocimene polymerization can be controlled by tuning the cyclopentadienyl ligand and the central metal of the complex. The chiral cyclopentadienyl-ligated Sc complex 1 prepares syndiotactic cis-1,4-polyocimene (cis-1,4-selectivity up to 100%, rrrr = 100%), while the corresponding Lu, Y, and Dy complexes 2-4 and the achiral pentamethylcyclopentadienyl Sc, Lu, and Y complexes 5-7 afford isotactic trans-1,2-polyocimenes (trans-1,2-selectivity up to 100%, mm = 100%). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Volatile fluoride process for separating plutonium from other materials

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F. H.; Newton, A. S.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or fission products by formation of the higher fluorides off uranium and/or plutonium is described. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first converted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treated with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sub 6/ leaving plutonium behind. Thc plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 5004DEC and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

  1. VOLATILE FLUORIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM OTHER MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Newton, A.S.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or tission products by formation of the higher fluorides of uranium and/or plutonium is discussed. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first convcrted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treatced with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sup 6/ leaving plutonium behind. The plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 500 deg C and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

  2. [CHRONIC FLUORIDE INTOXICATION AS A RISK FACTOR FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS].

    PubMed

    Korotenko, O Yu; Panev, N I; Zakharenkov, V V; Filimonov, S N; Semenova, E A; Panev, R N

    2015-01-01

    In workers employed in the aluminum industry, the main harmful production factor is exposure to fluoride salts, which can cause chronic fluoride intoxication. For the assessment of the impact of chronic fluoride intoxication on the development of atherosclerosis, we conducted a comprehensive survey of 87 aluminum-metal makers with chronic fluoride intoxication and 43 aluminum-metal makers without occupational diseases, mean age--52.1 ± 0.4 years. There were considered the presence and severity of atherosclerosis of brachiocephalic arteries, and the arteries of the lower extremities in the studied group, there was evaluated the effect of other risk factors for atherosclerosis (smoking, presence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia). With the use of Doppler ultrasound of the arteries it was revealed that in metallurgists with chronic fluoride intoxication atherosclerosis was detected in 73.6% versus 55.8% in persons of the comparison group. The performed analysis of the prevalence of main risk factors for atherosclerosis showed that in metal makers with chronic fluoride intoxication in combination with atherosclerosis hypertension is more common (in 54.7%) than in metallurgists with chronic fluoride intoxication without atherosclerosis--only 26.1%. According to the frequency of occurrence of smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, there were no significant differences between the metallurgists with chronic fluoride intoxication, with and without atherosclerosis, and the control group, the increase in LDL cholesterol occurs significantly more often in metal-makers with chronic fluoride intoxication in combination with atherosclerosis if compared to workers without occupational diseases. Thus, chronic fluoride intoxication acts as a risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis: atherosclerosis in metal-makers with chronic fluoride intoxication occurs more frequently than in workers who do not have professional pathology

  3. Reaction of metals in lower earth orbit during Space Shuttle flight 41-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, A. T., Jr.; Daneshvar, K.; Whitaker, A. F.; Little, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of ambient space environment on metals were studied by exposing specimens of Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Cr, Al, Pt, and Pd on flight 41-G (STS-17). Data obtained by ellipsometry (ELL), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) before and after flight are summarized. Although the effects of space environment were most pronounced for silver, there were significant changes in the surface properties of the majority of the other metals. The surface optical constants proved to be the most sensitive measure of surface changes. These changes are attributed to the interaction of the metals with atomic oxygen.

  4. Origins of conductivity improvement in fluoride-enhanced silicon doping of ZnO films.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Nazanin; Vai, Alex T; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Dilworth, Jonathan R; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-06-07

    Fluoride in spray pyrolysis precursor solutions for silicon-doped zinc oxide (SiZO) transparent conductor thin films significantly improves their electrical conductivity by enhancing silicon doping efficiency and not, as previously assumed, by fluoride doping. Containing only earth-abundant elements, SiZO thus prepared rivals the best solution-processed indium-doped ZnO in performance.

  5. RARE-EARTH METAL FISSION PRODUCTS FROM LIQUID U-Bi

    DOEpatents

    Wiswall, R.H.

    1960-05-10

    Fission product metals can be removed from solution in liquid bismuth without removal of an appreciable quantity of uranium by contacting the liquid metal solution with fused halides, as for example, the halides of sodium, potassium, and lithium and by adding to the contacted phases a quantity of a halide which is unstable relative to the halides of the fission products, a specific unstable halide being MgCl/sub 3/.

  6. Effect of metal cation replacement on the electronic structure of metalorganic halide perovskites: Replacement of lead with alkaline-earth metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazoki, Meysam; Jacobsson, T. Jesper; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit; Edvinsson, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    Organic and inorganic lead halogen perovskites, and in particular, C H3N H3Pb I3 , have during the last years emerged as a class of highly efficient solar cell materials. Herein we introduce metalorganic halogen perovskite materials for energy-relevant applications based on alkaline-earth metals. Based on the classical notion of Goldschmidt's rules and quantum mechanical considerations, the three alkaline-earth metals, Ca, Sr, and Ba, are shown to be able to exchange lead in the perovskite structure. The three alkaline-earth perovskites, C H3N H3Ca I3,C H3N H3Sr I3 , and C H3N H3Ba I3 , as well as the reference compound, C H3N H3Pb I3 , are in this paper investigated with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which predict these compounds to exist as stable perovskite materials, and their electronic properties are explored. A detailed analysis of the projected molecular orbital density of states and electronic band structure from DFT calculations were used for interpretation of the band-gap variations in these materials and for estimation of the effective masses of the electrons and holes. Neglecting spin-orbit effects, the band gap of MACa I3,MASr I3 , and MABa I3 were estimated to be 2.95, 3.6, and 3.3 eV, respectively, showing the relative change expected for metal cation exchange. The shifts in the conduction band (CB) edges for the alkaline-earth perovskites were quantified using scalar relativistic DFT calculations and tight-binding analysis, and were compared to the situation in the more extensively studied lead halide perovskite, C H3N H3Pb I3 , where the change in the work function of the metal is the single most important factor in tuning the CB edge and band gap. The results show that alkaline-earth-based organometallic perovskites will not work as an efficient light absorber in photovoltaic applications but instead could be applicable as charge-selective contact materials. The rather high CB edge and the wide band gap together with the large

  7. The cariostatic mechanisms of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Rošin-Grget, Kata; Peroš, Kristina; Sutej, Ivana; Bašić, Krešimir

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses the possible cariostatic mechanisms of the action of fluoride. In the past, fluoride inhibition of caries was ascribed to reduced solubility of enamel due to incorporation of fluoride (F-) into the enamel minerals. The present evidence from clinical and laboratory studies suggests that the caries-preventive mode of action of fluoride is mainly topical. There is convincing evidence that fluoride has a major effect on demineralisation and remineralisation of dental hard tissue. The source of this fluoride could either be fluorapatite (formed due to the incorporation of fluoride into enamel) or calcium fluoride (CaF2)-like precipitates, which are formed on the enamel and in the plaque after application of topical fluoride. Calcium fluoride deposits are protected from rapid dissolution by a phosphate -protein coating of salivary origin. At lower pH, the coating is lost and an increased dissolution rate of calcium fluoride occurs. The CaF2, therefore, act as an efficient source of free fluoride ions during the cariogenic challenge. The current evidence indicates that fluoride has a direct and indirect effect on bacterial cells, although the in vivo implications of this are still not clear. A better understanding of the mechanisms of the action of fluoride is very important for caries prevention and control. The effectiveness of fluoride as a cariostatic agent depends on the availability of free fluoride in plaque during cariogenic challenge, i.e. during acid production. Thus, a constant supply of low levels of fluoride in biofilm/saliva/dental interference is considered the most beneficial in preventing dental caries. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  8. Separation of rare earths from transition metals by liquid-liquid extraction from a molten salt hydrate to an ionic liquid phase.

    PubMed

    Rout, Alok; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-02-28

    The solvent extraction of trivalent rare-earth ions and their separation from divalent transition metal ions using molten salt hydrates as the feed phase and an undiluted fluorine-free ionic liquid as the extracting phase were investigated in detail. The extractant was tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate, [A336][NO3], and the hydrated melt was calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, Ca(NO3)2·4H2O. The extraction behavior of rare-earth ions was studied for solutions of individual elements, as well as for mixtures of rare earths in the hydrated melt. The influence of different extraction parameters was investigated: the initial metal loading in the feed phase, percentage of water in the feed solution, equilibration time, and the type of hydrated melt. The extraction of rare earths from Ca(NO3)2·4H2O was compared with extraction from CaCl2·4H2O by [A336][Cl] (Aliquat 336). The nitrate system was found to be the better one. The extraction and separation of rare earths from the transition metals nickel, cobalt and zinc were also investigated. Remarkably high separation factors of rare-earth ions over transition metal ions were observed for extraction from Ca(NO3)2·4H2O by the [A336][NO3] extracting phase. Furthermore, rare-earth ions could be separated efficiently from transition metal ions, even in melts with very high concentrations of transition metal ions. Rare-earth oxides could be directly dissolved in the Ca(NO3)2·4H2O phase in the presence of small amounts of Al(NO3)3·9H2O or concentrated nitric acid. The efficiency of extraction after dissolving the rare-earth oxides in the hydrated nitrate melt was identical to extraction from solutions with rare-earth nitrates dissolved in the molten phase. The stripping of the rare-earth ions from the loaded ionic liquid phase and the reuse of the recycled ionic liquid were also investigated in detail.

  9. Flexible poly(ethylene carbonate)/garnet composite solid electrolyte reinforced by poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) for lithium metal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zijian; Chen, Long; Zhang, Bochen; Liu, Yongchang; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2018-07-01

    Solid-state electrolytes with high ionic conductivities, great flexibility, and easy processability are needed for high-performance solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. In this work, we synthesize nanosized cubic Li6.25Al0.25La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) by solution combustion method and develop a flexible garnet-based composite solid electrolyte composed of LLZO, poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-HFP) and lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI)). In the flexible composite solid electrolytes, LLZO nanoparticles, as ceramic matrix, have a positive effect on ionic conductivities and lithium ion transference number (tLi+). PEC, as a fast ion-conducting polymer, possesses high tLi+ inherently. P(VdF-HFP), as a binder, can strengthen mechanical properties. Consequently, the as-prepared composite solid electrolyte demonstrates high tLi+ (0.82) and superb thermal stability (remaining LLZO matrix after burning). All-solid-state LiFePO4|Li cells assembled with the flexible composite solid electrolyte deliver a high initial discharge specific capacity of 121.4 mAh g-1 and good cycling stability at 55 °C.

  10. Rare Earth Doped GaN Laser Structures Using Metal Modulated Epitaxy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-30

    from Eu-doped GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 75, pp. 1189–1191, 1999. 24. D. S . Lee and A. J. Steckl, “Room-temperature-grown rare- earth -doped GaN...luminescent thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, pp. 1962–1964,2001. 25. D. S . Lee and A. J. Steckl, “Lateral color integration on rare- earth doped... s . 0.259nm/ s =1.14E13cm-2/ s =1 ML/ s .Our plasma source was optimized to work at 1.5 sccm and 230 W RF power and it provides a growth rate of 0.8 ML/ s

  11. Lunar oxygen and metal for use in near-earth space - Magma electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, Russell O.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1990-01-01

    The unique conditions on the moon, such as vacuum, absence of many reagents common on the earth, and presence of very nontraditional 'ores', suggest that a unique and nontraditional process for extracting materials from the ores may prove the most practical. An investigation has begun into unfluxed silicate electrolysis as a method for extracting oxygen, Fe, and Si from lunar regolith. The advantages of the process include simplicity of concept, absence of need to supply reagents from the earth, and low power and mass requirements for the processing plant. Disadvantages include the need for uninterrupted high temperature and the highly corrosive nature of the high-temperature silicate melts, which has made identifying suitable electrode and container materials difficult.

  12. MOLTEN FLUORIDE NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Barton, C.J.; Grimes, W.R.

    1960-01-01

    Molten-salt reactor fuel compositions consisting of mixtures of fluoride salts are reported. In its broadest form, the composition contains an alkali fluoride such as sodium fluoride, zirconium tetrafluoride, and a uranium fluoride, the latter being the tetrafluoride or trifluoride or a mixture of the two. An outstanding property of these fuel compositions is a high coeffieient of thermal expansion which provides a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity in reactors in which they are used.

  13. Magnetocaloric effect in heavy rare-earth elements doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with tunable Curie temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jiawei; Huo, Juntao; Chang, Chuntao, E-mail: ctchang@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: dujun@nimte.ac.cn

    2014-08-14

    The effects of heavy rare earth (RE) additions on the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) and magnetocaloric effect of the Fe-RE-B-Nb (RE = Gd, Dy and Ho) bulk metallic glasses were studied. The type of dopping RE element and its concentration can easily tune T{sub C} in a large temperature range of 120 K without significantly decreasing the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}) and refrigerant capacity (RC) of the alloys. The observed values of ΔS{sub M} and RC of these alloys compare favorably with those of recently reported Fe-based metallic glasses with enhanced RC compared to Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 1.9}Si{sub 2}Fe{sub 0.1}. The tunable T{submore » C} and large glass-forming ability of these RE doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses can be used in a wide temperature range with the final required shapes.« less

  14. The Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Anatase TiO₂ with Rare Earth Metal Dopants from First-Principles Calculations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kefeng; Jia, Qiangqiang; Wang, Yizhe; Zhang, Wenxue; Xu, Jingcheng

    2018-01-24

    The electronic and optical properties of the rare earth metal atom-doped anatase TiO₂ have been investigated systematically via density functional theory calculations. The results show that TiO₂ doped by Ce or Pr is the optimal choice because of its small band gap and strong optical absorption. Rare earth metal atom doping induces several impurity states that tune the location of valence and conduction bands and an obvious lattice distortion that should reduce the probability of electron-hole recombination. This effect of band change originates from the 4 f electrons of the rare earth metal atoms, which leads to an improved visible light absorption. This finding indicates that the electronic structure of anatase TiO₂ is tuned by the introduction of impurity atoms.

  15. The Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Anatase TiO2 with Rare Earth Metal Dopants from First-Principles Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Kefeng; Jia, Qiangqiang; Wang, Yizhe; Zhang, Wenxue; Xu, Jingcheng

    2018-01-01

    The electronic and optical properties of the rare earth metal atom-doped anatase TiO2 have been investigated systematically via density functional theory calculations. The results show that TiO2 doped by Ce or Pr is the optimal choice because of its small band gap and strong optical absorption. Rare earth metal atom doping induces several impurity states that tune the location of valence and conduction bands and an obvious lattice distortion that should reduce the probability of electron–hole recombination. This effect of band change originates from the 4f electrons of the rare earth metal atoms, which leads to an improved visible light absorption. This finding indicates that the electronic structure of anatase TiO2 is tuned by the introduction of impurity atoms. PMID:29364161

  16. Alkaline-earth metal carboxylates characterized by 43Ca and 87Sr solid-state NMR: impact of metal-amine bonding.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Kevin M N; Xu, Yang; Leclerc, Matthew C; Bryce, David L

    2014-01-06

    A series of calcium and strontium complexes featuring aryl carboxylate ligands has been prepared and characterized by alkaline-earth ((43)Ca and (87)Sr) solid-state NMR experiments in a magnetic field of 21.1 T. In the 11 compounds studied as part of this work, a range of coordination motifs are observed including nitrogen atom binding to Ca(2+) and Sr(2+), a binding mode which has not been investigated previously by (43)Ca or (87)Sr solid-state NMR. (43)Ca isotopic enrichment has enabled the full characterization of the (43)Ca electric field gradient (EFG) and chemical shift tensors of the two calcium sites in calcium p-aminosalicylate (Ca(pams)), where both NMR interactions are affected by the presence of a nitrogen atom in the first coordination sphere of one of the metal sites. The (43)Ca isotropic chemical shift is sensitive to the Ca-N distance as exemplified by the NMR parameters of a second form of Ca(pams) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Studies of the strontium analogue, Sr(pams), confirm a similar sensitivity of the (87)Sr EFG tensor to the presence or absence of nitrogen in the first coordination sphere. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic (87)Sr NMR study of strontium complexes featuring organic ligands. The |CQ((87)Sr)| values are found to be sensitive to the coordination number about Sr(2+). In general, this work has also established a larger data set of reliable experimental |CQ((43)Ca)| values which correlate well with those obtained using gauge-including projector-augmented-wave (GIPAW) DFT calculations. It is found that the use of a recently recommended quadrupole moment for (43)Ca, -44.4 mbarn, improves the agreement with experimental values. This contribution lays the groundwork for the interpretation of (43)Ca and (87)Sr NMR spectra of more challenging systems, particularly where nitrogen-alkaline earth metal bonding is occurring.

  17. Oxidation behavior of Cr(III) during thermal treatment of chromium hydroxide in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides.

    PubMed

    Mao, Linqiang; Gao, Bingying; Deng, Ning; Liu, Lu; Cui, Hao

    2016-02-01

    The oxidation behavior of Cr(III) during the thermal treatment of chromium hydroxide in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2) was investigated. The amounts of Cr(III) oxidized at various temperatures and heating times were determined, and the Cr-containing species in the residues were characterized. During the transformation of chromium hydroxide to Cr2O3 at 300 °C approximately 5% of the Cr(III) was oxidized to form intermediate compounds containing Cr(VI) (i.e., CrO3), but these intermediates were reduced to Cr2O3 when the temperature was above 400 °C. Alkali and alkaline earth metals significantly promoted the oxidation of Cr(III) during the thermal drying process. Two pathways were involved in the influences the alkali and alkaline earth metals had on the formation of Cr(VI). In pathway I, the alkali and alkaline earth metals were found to act as electron transfer agents and to interfere with the dehydration process, causing more intermediate Cr(VI)-containing compounds (which were identified as being CrO3 and Cr5O12) to be formed. The reduction of intermediate compounds to Cr2O3 was also found to be hindered in pathway I. In pathway II, the alkali and alkaline earth metals were found to contribute to the oxidation of Cr(III) to form chromates. The results showed that the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals significantly increases the degree to which Cr(III) is oxidized during the thermal drying of chromium-containing sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular electrocatalysts for oxidation of hydrogen using earth-abundant metals: shoving protons around with proton relays.

    PubMed

    Bullock, R Morris; Helm, Monte L

    2015-07-21

    Sustainable, carbon-neutral energy is needed to supplant the worldwide reliance on fossil fuels in order to address the persistent problem of increasing emissions of CO2. Solar and wind energy are intermittent, highlighting the need to develop energy storage on a huge scale. Electrocatalysts provide a way to convert between electrical energy generated by renewable energy sources and chemical energy in the form of chemical bonds. Oxidation of hydrogen to give two electrons and two protons is carried out in fuel cells, but the typical catalyst is platinum, a precious metal of low earth abundance and high cost. In nature, hydrogenases based on iron or iron/nickel reversibly oxidize hydrogen with remarkable efficiencies and rates. Functional models of these enzymes have been synthesized with the goal of achieving electrocatalytic H2 oxidation using inexpensive, earth-abundant metals along with a key feature identified in the [FeFe]-hydrogenase: an amine base positioned near the metal. The diphosphine ligands P(R)2N(R')2 (1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane with alkyl or aryl groups on the P and N atoms) are used as ligands in Ni, Fe, and Mn complexes. The pendant amines facilitate binding and heterolytic cleavage of H2, placing the hydride on the metal and the proton on the amine. The pendant amines also serve as proton relays, accelerating intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfers. Electrochemical oxidations and deprotonations by an exogeneous amine base lead to catalytic cycles for oxidation of H2 (1 atm) at room temperature for catalysts derived from [Ni(P(Cy)2N(R')2)2](2+), Cp(C6F5)Fe(P(tBu)2N(Bn)2)H, and MnH(P(Ph)2N(Bn)2)(bppm)(CO) [bppm = (PAr(F)2)2CH2]. In the oxidation of H2 catalyzed by [Ni(P(Cy)2N(R')2)2](2+), the initial product observed experimentally is a Ni(0) complex in which two of the pendant amines are protonated. Two different pathways can occur from this intermediate; deprotonation followed by oxidation occurs with a lower overpotential than

  19. Fluoride release from fluoride varnishes under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lippert, F

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the in vitro fluoride release from fluoride varnishes under acidic conditions. Poly(methyl methacrylate) blocks (Perspex, n=3 per group) were painted with 80 ± 5 mg fluoride varnish (n=10) and placed into artificial saliva for 30 min. Then, blocks were placed into either 1% citric acid (pH 2.27) or 0.3% citric acid (pH 3.75) solutions (n=3 per solution and varnish) for 30 min with the solutions being replaced every 5 min. Saliva and acid solutions were analyzed for fluoride content. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA (varnish, solution, time). The three-way interaction was significant (p>0.0001). Fluoride release and release patterns varied considerably between varnishes. Fluoride release in saliva varied by a factor of more than 10 between varnishes. Some varnishes (CavityShield, Nupro, ProFluorid, Vanish) showed higher fluoride release in saliva than during the first 5 min of acid exposure, whereas other varnishes (Acclean, Enamel-Pro, MI Varnish, Vella) showed the opposite behavior. There was little difference between acidic solutions. Fluoride release from fluoride varnishes varies considerably and also depends on the dissolution medium. Bearing in mind the limitations of laboratory research, the consumption of acidic drinks after fluoride varnish application should be avoided to optimize the benefit/risk ratio.

  20. Antimony film sensor for sensitive rare earth metal analysis in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Makombe, Martin; van der Horst, Charlton; Silwana, Bongiwe; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Somerset, Vernon

    2016-07-02

    A sensor for the adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of rare earth elements has been developed. The electrochemical procedure is based on the oxidation of the rare earth elements complexed with alizarin complexone at a glassy carbon electrode that was in situ modified with an antimony film, during an anodic scan from -0.2 V to 1.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and deposition potential of -0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The factors influencing the adsorptive stripping capability were optimised, including the complexing agent concentration, plating concentration of antimony and deposition time. The detection of rare earth elements (La, Ce and Pr) were realised in 0.08 M sodium acetate (pH = 5.8) solution as supporting electrolyte, with 2 × 10(-6) M alizarin complexone and 1.0 mg L(-1) antimony solution. Under the optimised conditions, a deposition time of 360 s was obtained and a linear response was observed between 1 and 25 µg L(-1). The reproducibility of the voltammetric measurements was found to be within 5.0% RSD for 12 replicate measurements of cerium(III) concentration of 5 µg L(-1) using the same electrode surface. The detection limits obtained using stripping analysis was 0.06, 0.42 and 0.71 μg L(-1) for Ce(III), La(III) and Pr(III), respectively. The developed sensor has been successfully applied for the determination of cerium, lanthanum and praseodymium in municipal tap water samples.

  1. Heterobimetallic transition metal/rare earth metal bifunctional catalysis: a Cu/Sm/Schiff base complex for syn-selective catalytic asymmetric nitro-Mannich reaction.

    PubMed

    Handa, Shinya; Gnanadesikan, Vijay; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2010-04-07

    The full details of a catalytic asymmetric syn-selective nitro-Mannich reaction promoted by heterobimetallic Cu/Sm/dinucleating Schiff base complexes are described, demonstrating the effectiveness of the heterobimetallic transition metal/rare earth metal bifunctional catalysis. The first-generation system prepared from Cu(OAc)(2)/Sm(O-iPr)(3)/Schiff base 1a = 1:1:1 with an achiral phenol additive was partially successful for achieving the syn-selective catalytic asymmetric nitro-Mannich reaction. The substrate scope and limitations of the first-generation system remained problematic. After mechanistic studies on the catalyst prepared from Sm(O-iPr)(3), we reoptimized the catalyst preparation method, and a catalyst derived from Sm(5)O(O-iPr)(13) showed broader substrate generality as well as higher reactivity and stereoselectivity compared to Sm(O-iPr)(3). The optimal system with Sm(5)O(O-iPr)(13) was applicable to various aromatic, heteroaromatic, and isomerizable aliphatic N-Boc imines, giving products in 66-99% ee and syn/anti = >20:1-13:1. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of nemonapride is also demonstrated using the catalyst derived from Sm(5)O(O-iPr)(13).

  2. Versatile reactivities of rare-earth metal dialkyl complexes supported by a neutral pyrrolyl-functionalized β-diketiminato ligand.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiancui; Li, Yang; Guo, Dianjun; Wang, Shaowu; Wei, Yun; Zhou, Shuangliu

    2018-03-12

    Herein, rare-earth metal dialkyl complexes supported by a neutral pyrrolyl-functionalized β-diketiminato ligand with the formula LRE(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) 2 (thf) (RE = Y (1a), Dy (1b), Er (1c), Yb (1d); L = MeC(NDipp)CHC(Me)NCH 2 CH 2 NC 4 H 2 -2,5-Me 2 , Dipp = 2,6- i Pr 2 C 6 H 3 ) were synthesized via the reactions of the β-diketimine HL with the rare-earth metal trialkyl complexes RE(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) 3 (thf) 2 in high yields. The reactivities of 1 with pyridine derivatives, unsaturated substrates, and elemental sulfur were investigated, and some interesting chemical transformations were observed. Ligand exchange and activation of sp 2 and sp 3 C-H bonds occurred during the reactions with pyridine derivatives to afford different types of mononuclear rare-earth metal pyridyl complexes, namely, LEr(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) 2 (η 1 -NC 5 H 4 ) (2c), LRE(η 3 -CH 2 -2-NC 5 H 2 -4,6-Me 2 ) 2 (RE = Y (3a), Er (3c)), and LRE(CH 2 SiMe 3 )(η 2 -(C,N)-2-(2-C 6 H 4 NC 5 H 4 )) (RE = Er (4c), Yb = (4d)). Similarly, activation of the sp C-H bond occurred during the reaction of phenylacetylene with 1c to produce the dinuclear erbium alkynyl complex [LEr(CH 2 SiMe 3 )(μ-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)] 2 (5c). The mixed amidinate-β-diketiminato ytterbium complex LYb[(Dipp)NC(CH 2 SiMe 3 )N(Dipp)](CH 2 SiMe 3 ) (6d) was obtained by the insertion of bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)carbodiimide into a Yb-alkyl bond, as well as via the direct alkane elimination of a CH 2 SiMe 3 moiety with bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)formamidine to afford the erbium complex LEr(DippNCHNDipp)(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) (7c). A rare sp 2 C-H bond oxidation of the β-diketiminato backbone with elemental sulfur insertion was detected to provide the unprecedented dinuclear rare-earth metal thiolate complexes (LRE) 2 (μ-SCH 2 SiMe 3 ) 2 (μ-SCC(Me)(NDipp)C(Me)NCH 2 CH 2 NC 4 H 2 Me 2 -2,5) (RE = Y (8a), Er (8c)) in the reactions of S 8 with 1a and 1c, respectively. The molecular structures of the complexes 1-8 were determined by

  3. Optical probes for the detection of protons, and alkali and alkaline earth metal cations.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Graham R C; Sahoo, Suban K; Kamila, Sukanta; Singh, Narinder; Kaur, Navneet; Hyland, Barry W; Callan, John F

    2015-07-07

    Luminescent sensors and switches continue to play a key role in shaping our understanding of key biochemical processes, assist in the diagnosis of disease and contribute to the design of new drugs and therapies. Similarly, their contribution to the environment cannot be understated as they offer a portable means to undertake field testing for hazardous chemicals and pollutants such as heavy metals. From a physiological perspective, the Group I and II metal ions are among the most important in the periodic table with blood plasma levels of H(+), Na(+) and Ca(2+) being indicators of several possible disease states. In this review, we examine the progress that has been made in the development of luminescent probes for Group I and Group II ions as well as protons. The potential applications of these probes and the mechanism involved in controlling their luminescent response upon analyte binding will also be discussed.

  4. Surface shift of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels of the rare-earth metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldén, M.; Johansson, B.; Skriver, H. L.

    1995-02-01

    The surface energy shifts of the occupied and unoccupied 4f levels for the lanthanide metals have been calculated from first principles by means of a Green's-function technique within the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbitals method. We use the concept of complete screening to identify the occupied and unoccupied 4f energy level shifts as the surface segregation energy of a 4fn-1 and 4fn+1 impurity atom, respectively, in a 4fn host metal. The calculations include both initial- and final-state effects and give values that are considerably lower than those measured on polycrystalline samples as well as those found in previous initial-state model calculations. The present theory agrees well with very recent high-resolution, single-crystal film measurements for Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu. We furthermore utilize the unique possibility offered by the lanthanide metals to clarify the roles played by the initial and the different final states of the core-excitation process, permitted by the fact that the so-called initial-state effect is identical upon 4f removal and 4f addition. Surface energy and work function calculations are also reported.

  5. Spatial distribution mapping of drinking water fluoride levels in Karnataka, India: fluoride-related health effects.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Chitta R; Shahnawaz, Khijmatgar; Kumari, Divya; Chowdhury, Avidyuti; Bedi, Raman; Lynch, Edward; Harding, Stewart; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-11-01

    (1) To estimate the concentrations of fluoride in drinking water throughout different zones and districts of the state of Karnataka. (2) To investigate the variation of fluoride concentration in drinking water from different sources, and its relationships to daily temperature and rainfall status in the regional districts. (3) To develop an updated fluoride concentration intensity map of the state of Karnataka, and to evaluate these data in the context of fluoride-related health effects such as fluorosis and their prevalence. Aqueous standard solutions of 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm fluoride (F - ) were prepared with analytical grade Na + /F - and a buffer; TISAB II was incorporated in both calibration standard and analysis solutions in order to remove the potentially interfering effects of trace metal ions. This analysis was performed using an ion-selective electrode (ISE), and mean determination readings for n = 5 samples collected at each Karnataka water source were recorded. The F - concentration in drinking water in Karnataka state was found to vary substantially, with the highest mean values recorded being in the north-eastern zone (1.61 ppm), and the lowest in the south-western one (only 0.41 ppm). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that there were very highly significant 'between-zone' and 'between-districts-within-zones' sources of variation (p < 10 -5 -10 -9 ), results consistent with a substantial spatial variance of water source F - levels within this state. The southern part of Karnataka has low levels of F - in its drinking water, and may require fluoridation treatment in order to mitigate for dental caries and further ailments related to fluoride deficiency. However, districts within the north-eastern region have contrastingly high levels of fluoride, an observation which has been linked to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This highlights a major requirement for interventional actions in order to ensure maintenance of the recommended

  6. Design of ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides with potential good p-type conductivity

    DOE PAGES

    Du, Mao -Hua; Singh, David J.; Zhang, Lijun; ...

    2016-04-19

    Oxides with good p-type conductivity have been long sought after to achieve high performance all-oxide optoelectronic devices. Divalent Sn(II) based oxides are promising candidates because of their rather dispersive upper valence bands caused by the Sn-5s/O-2p anti-bonding hybridization. There are so far few known Sn(II) oxides being p-type conductive suitable for device applications. Here, we present via first-principles global optimization structure searches a material design study for a hitherto unexplored Sn(II)-based system, ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides in the stoichiometry of MSn 2O 3 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). We identify two stable compounds of SrSn 2O 3 andmore » BaSn 2O 3, which can be stabilized by Sn-rich conditions in phase stability diagrams. Their structures follow the Zintl behaviour and consist of basic structural motifs of SnO 3 tetrahedra. Unexpectedly they show distinct electronic properties with band gaps ranging from 1.90 (BaSn 2O 3) to 3.15 (SrSn 2O 3) eV, and hole effective masses ranging from 0.87 (BaSn 2O 3) to above 6.0 (SrSn 2O 3) m0. Further exploration of metastable phases indicates a wide tunability of electronic properties controlled by the details of the bonding between the basic structural motifs. Lastly, this suggests further exploration of alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides for potential applications requiring good p-type conductivity such as transparent conductors and photovoltaic absorbers.« less

  7. Small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James W; Plummer, Mark S; Blount, Kenneth F; Ames, Tyler D; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-04-23

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here, we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Small Molecule Fluoride Toxicity Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Nelson1, James W.; Plummer, Mark S.; Blount, Kenneth F.; Ames, Tyler D.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch-reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. PMID:25910244

  9. Ferrimyoglobin-Fluoride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an experiment which is designed to investigate the reaction of the protein ferrimyoglobin with fluoride. The activity uses readily available apparatus and the technique of optical absorbance for measurement of concentrations. Experimental design, procedures, and treatment of the equilibrium data are detailed. (CW)

  10. Fluorine (soluble fluoride)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fluorine ( soluble fluoride ) ; CASRN 7782 - 41 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  11. Method of making carbide/fluoride/silver composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor); Dellacorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A composition containing 30 to 70 percent chromium carbide, 5 to 20 percent soft noble metal, 5 to 20 percent metal fluorides, and 20 to 60 percent metal binder is used in a powdered metallurgy process for the production of self-lubricating components, such as bearings. The use of the material allows the self-lubricating bearing to maintain its low friction properties over an extended range of operating temperatures.

  12. Salt fluoridation and oral health.

    PubMed

    Marthaler, Thomas M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the caries-protective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%). In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67%) and Switzerland (85%). In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  13. Prediction of metastable metal-rare gas fluorides: FMRgF (M=Be and Mg; Rg=Ar, Kr and Xe).

    PubMed

    Jayasekharan, T; Ghanty, T K

    2008-04-14

    The structure, stability, charge redistribution, bonding, and harmonic vibrational frequencies of rare gas containing group II-A fluorides with the general formula FMRgF (where M=Be and Mg; Rg=Ar, Kr, and Xe) have been investigated using second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, density functional theory, and coupled cluster theory [CCSD(T)] methods. The species, FMRgF show a quasilinear structure at the minima and a bent structure at the transition state. The predicted species are unstable with respect to the two-body dissociation channel, leading to the global minima (MF2+Rg) on the singlet potential energy surface. However, with respect to other two-body dissociation channel (FM+RgF), they are found to be stable and have high positive energies on the same surface. The computed binding energy for the two-body dissociation channels are 94.0, 164.7, and 199.7 kJ mol(-1) for FBeArF, FBeKrF, FBeXeF, respectively, at CCSD(T) method. The corresponding energy values are 83.4, 130.7, and 180.1 kJ mol(-1) for FMgArF, FMgKrF, and FMgXeF, respectively, at the same level of theory. With respect to the three-body dissociation (FM+Rg+F) channel as well as dissociation into atomic constituent, they are also found to be stable and have high positive energies. The dissociation of the predicted species typically proceeds via MRgF bending mode at the transition state. The computed barrier heights for the transition states are 11.4, 32.2, and 57.6 kJ mol(-1) for FBeArF, FBeKrF, and FBeXeF, respectively, at the CCSD(T) method. The corresponding barrier heights for the Mg containing species are 2.1, 9.2, and 32.1 kJ mol(-1) along the series Ar--Kr--Xe, respectively. The M--Rg bond energies of the FMRgF species is significantly higher than the corresponding bond energies of the M+--Rg species ( approximately 53 and approximately 15 kJ mol(-1) for Be+--Ar and Mg+--Ar, respectively). The computed energy diagram as well as the geometrical parameters along with the AIM results

  14. Synthesis, structure, and catalytic activity of novel trinuclear rare-earth metal amido complexes incorporating μ-η5:η1 bonding indolyl and μ3-oxo groups.

    PubMed

    Yang, Song; Zhu, Xiancui; Zhou, Shuangliu; Wang, Shaowu; Feng, Zhijun; Wei, Yun; Miao, Hui; Guo, Liping; Wang, Fenhua; Zhang, Guangchao; Gu, Xiaoxia; Mu, Xiaolong

    2014-02-14

    The reactions of different pyrrolyl-functionalized indoles with rare-earth metal(III) amides [(Me3Si)2N]3RE(III)(μ-Cl)Li(THF)3 (RE = Yb, Er, Dy, Eu, Y) produced different kinds of rare-earth metal amido complexes. Reactions of N-((1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methylene)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanamine with rare-earth metal amides [(Me3Si)2N]3RE(III)(μ-Cl)Li(THF)3 (RE = Yb, Er, Dy, Eu, Y) in toluene or THF at temperatures of 75-80 °C afforded the novel trinuclear rare-earth metal amido complexes incorporating the indolyl ligand in μ-η(5):η(1) bonding modes and a μ3-O group, which is believed to originate from cleavage of the THF ring based on experimental results. Reactions of 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N-((1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methylene)ethanamine with rare-earth metal(III) amides [(Me3Si)2N]3RE(III)(μ-Cl)Li(THF)3 (RE = Yb, Dy) produced mononuclear ytterbium and dysprosium amides having the indolyl ligand in an η(1) bonding fashion. The results indicate that substituents not only have an influence on reactivity, but also have an influence on the bonding of the indolyl ligands with metals. The catalytic activities of the novel lanthanide amido complexes for the hydrophosphonylation of both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes and ketones were explored. The results indicate that these complexes display a high catalytic activity for the C-P bond formation under mild conditions when using low catalyst loadings (0.1 mol% for aldehydes and ketones). Thus, it provides a potential way to prepare α-hydroxy phosphonates.

  15. Site specific physics in RT5 (R = rare earths and T = transition metals) materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudyal, Durga

    Most of RT5 compounds form in hexagonal CaCu5-type structure with three non-equivalent sites: R (1a), T (2c), and T (3g). R atoms sit in the middle of the T (2c) hexagonal layers. Advanced density functional theory calculations including on-site electron correlation and spin orbit coupling show crystal field split localized R 4f states, which are responsible for the large part of the magnetic anisotropy exhibited by these systems. In addition, the hexagonal T (2c) layers help enhancing the magnetic anisotropy. Partially quenched R 4f orbital moment is the origin of magnetic anisotropy which also helps enhancing magnetic moment. The interchange of T sites by other transition metals and the partial substitution of R atoms by transition metals could optimize needed magnetic moment and magnetic anisotropy by forming a complex geometry structure favoring permanent magnetic properties. This research is supported by the Critical Materials Institute, an Energy Innovation Hub funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Advanced Manufacturing office.

  16. Effect of rare-earth doping on the thermoelectric and electrical transport properties of the transition metal pentatelluride hafnium pentatelluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowhorn, Nathan Dane

    The transition metal pentatellurides HfTe5 and ZrTe5 have been observed to possess interesting electrical transport properties. High thermopower and low resistivity values result in high thermoelectric power factors. In addition, they possess anomalous transport behavior. The temperature dependence of the resistivity is semimetallic except for a large resistive peak as a function of temperature at around 75 K for HfTe5 and 145 K for ZrTe5. At a temperature corresponding to this peak, the thermopower crosses zero as it moves from large positive values to large negative values. This behavior has been found to be extremely sensitive to changes in the energetics of the system through influences such as magnetic field, stress, pressure, microwave radiation, and substitutional doping. This behavior has yet to be fully explained. Previous doping studies have shown profound and varied effects on the anomalous transport behavior. In this study we investigate the effect on the electrical resistivity, thermopower, and magnetoresistance of doping HfTe5 with rare-earth elements. We have grown single crystals of nominal Hf0.75RE 0.25Te5 where RE = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho. Electrical resistivity and thermopower data from about 10 K to room temperature are presented and discussed in terms of the thermoelectric properties. Doping with rare-earth elements of increasing atomic number leads to a systematic suppression of the anomalous transport behavior. Rare-earth doping also leads to an enhancement of the thermoelectric power factor over that of previously studied pentatellurides and the commonly used thermoelectric material Bi2Te3. For nominal Hf0.75Nd0.25Te5 and Hf0.75 Sm0.25Te5, values more than a factor of 2 larger than that Bi2Te3 are observed. In addition, suppression of the anomalous transport behavior leads to a suppression of the large magnetoresistive effect observed in the parent compounds. Rare-earth doping of HfTe5 has a profound impact on the anomalous

  17. Coordination chemistry of vitamin C. Part I. Interaction of L-ascorbic acid with alkaline earth metal ions in the crystalline solid and aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    1990-10-01

    The interaction of L-ascorbic acid with alkaline earth metal ions has been investigated in aqueous solution at pH 6-7. The solid salts of the type Mg(L-ascorbate)2.4H2O, Ca(L-ascorbate)2.2H2O, Sr(L-ascorbate)2.2H2O and Ba(L-ascorbate)2.2H2O were isolated and characterized by means of 13C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectroscopic and other evidence suggested that in aqueous solution, the binding of the alkaline earth metal ions is through the O-3 atom of the ascorbate anion, while in the solid state the binding of the Mg(II) is different from those of the other alkaline earth metal ion salts. The Mg(II) ion binds to the O-3, O-1 atom of the two ascorbate anions and to two H2O molecules, while the eight-coordination around the Ca(II), Sr(II), and Ba(II) ions would be completed by the coordination of three acid anions, through O-5, O-6 of the first, O-3, O-5, O-6 of the second and O-1 of the third anion as well as to two H2O molecules. The structural properties of the alkaline earth metal-ascorbate salts are different in the solid and aqueous solution.

  18. Promoting effect of alkaline earth metal doping on catalytic activity of HC and NOx conversion over Pd-only three-way catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linyan; Lin, Siyu; Yang, Xue; Fang, Weimin; Zhou, Renxian

    2014-08-30

    The influence of alkaline earth metal (M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) promoter on the structural/textural properties of Ce0.67Zr0.33O2 (designated as CZ) and the catalytic behavior of its supported Pd-only three-way catalyst (Pd/CZM) have been investigated. The results show that the modification with alkaline earth metal obviously improves the catalytic activity for hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) conversion, especially the introduction of Ba. Furthermore, the operation window of the promoted catalysts has also been widened. The doping of alkaline earth metal leads to the formation of more homogeneous Ce-Zr-M ternary solid solution with higher surface area and smaller crystallite size, and the corresponding Pd/CZM catalysts present improved reducibility of PdO species. The modification with Ca, Sr and Ba improves the thermal aging resistance, especially Ba. DRIFTS results reveal that the doping of alkaline earth metal enhances the oxygen and electron transfer ability and favors the dissociation of NO, which promotes the activation and storage capacity of the acidic atoms like NOx, and leads to enhanced catalytic activity performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani

    2006-04-04

    Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

  20. Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani; Manivannan, Venkatesan

    2004-07-13

    Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

  1. Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Virginia L.

    1979-01-01

    Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

  2. Water fluoridation and oral health.

    PubMed

    Harding, Máiréad Antoinette; O'Mullane, Denis Martin

    2013-11-01

    Water fluoridation, is the controlled addition of fluoride to the water supply, with the aim of reducing the prevalence of dental caries. Current estimates suggest that approximately 370 million people in 27 countries consume fluoridated water, with an additional 50 million consuming water in which fluoride is naturally occurring. A pre-eruptive effect of fluoride exists in reducing caries levels in pit and fissure surfaces of permanent teeth and fluoride concentrated in plaque and saliva inhibits the demineralisation of sound enamel and enhances the remineralisation of demineralised enamel. A large number of studies conducted worldwide demonstrate the effectiveness of water fluoridation. Objections to water fluoridation have been raised since its inception and centre mainly on safety and autonomy. Systematic reviews of the safety and efficacy of water fluoridation attest to its safety and efficacy; dental fluorosis identified as the only adverse outcome. Water fluoridation is an effective safe means of preventing dental caries, reaching all populations, irrespective of the presence of other dental services. Regular monitoring of dental caries and fluorosis is essential particularly with the lifelong challenge which dental caries presents. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  3. Metal Amorphous Nanocomposite Soft Magnetic Material-Enabled High Power Density, Rare Earth Free Rotational Machines [Metal Amorphous Nanocomposite (MANC) Soft Magnetic Material (SMM) Enabled High Power Density, Rare Earth Free Rotational Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Simizu, Satoru; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; McHenry, Michael E.

    Metal amorphous nanocomposites (MANCs) are promising soft magnetic materials (SMMs) for power electronic applications offering low power loss at high frequency and maintaining a relatively high flux density. While applications in certain motor designs have been recently modeled, their widespread application awaits scaled manufacturing of MANC materials and proliferation of new higher speed motor designs. A hybrid motor design based on permanent magnets and doubly salient stator and rotor is reported here to develop a compact (a factor of 10 smaller than currently possible in Si steels), high-speed (>1 kHz, electrical), high-power (>2.5 kW) motor by incorporating low loss (<10more » W/kg at 1 kHz) MANCs such as recently reported Fe-Ni-based alloys. A feature of this motor design is flux focusing from the permanent magnet allowing use of lower energy permanent magnet chosen from among non-rare earth containing compositions and attractive due to constraints posed by rare earth criticality. A 2-D finite element analysis model reported here indicates that a 2.5 kW hybrid motor may be built with a permanent magnet with a 0.4 T remanence at a rotor speed of 6000 rpm. At a magnetic switching frequency of 1.4 kHz, the core loss may be limited to <3 W by selecting an appropriate MANC SMM. The projected efficiency exceeds 96% not including power loss in the controller. Under full load conditions, the flux density distributions for the SMM stay predominantly <1.3 T, the saturation magnetization of optimized FeNi-based MANC alloys. As a result, the maximum demagnetizing field in the permanent magnet is less than 2.2 × 10 5 A/m sustainable, for example, with a high-grade hard ferrite magnet.« less

  4. Metal Amorphous Nanocomposite Soft Magnetic Material-Enabled High Power Density, Rare Earth Free Rotational Machines [Metal Amorphous Nanocomposite (MANC) Soft Magnetic Material (SMM) Enabled High Power Density, Rare Earth Free Rotational Machines

    DOE PAGES

    Simizu, Satoru; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; McHenry, Michael E.

    2018-02-27

    Metal amorphous nanocomposites (MANCs) are promising soft magnetic materials (SMMs) for power electronic applications offering low power loss at high frequency and maintaining a relatively high flux density. While applications in certain motor designs have been recently modeled, their widespread application awaits scaled manufacturing of MANC materials and proliferation of new higher speed motor designs. A hybrid motor design based on permanent magnets and doubly salient stator and rotor is reported here to develop a compact (a factor of 10 smaller than currently possible in Si steels), high-speed (>1 kHz, electrical), high-power (>2.5 kW) motor by incorporating low loss (<10more » W/kg at 1 kHz) MANCs such as recently reported Fe-Ni-based alloys. A feature of this motor design is flux focusing from the permanent magnet allowing use of lower energy permanent magnet chosen from among non-rare earth containing compositions and attractive due to constraints posed by rare earth criticality. A 2-D finite element analysis model reported here indicates that a 2.5 kW hybrid motor may be built with a permanent magnet with a 0.4 T remanence at a rotor speed of 6000 rpm. At a magnetic switching frequency of 1.4 kHz, the core loss may be limited to <3 W by selecting an appropriate MANC SMM. The projected efficiency exceeds 96% not including power loss in the controller. Under full load conditions, the flux density distributions for the SMM stay predominantly <1.3 T, the saturation magnetization of optimized FeNi-based MANC alloys. As a result, the maximum demagnetizing field in the permanent magnet is less than 2.2 × 10 5 A/m sustainable, for example, with a high-grade hard ferrite magnet.« less

  5. Deep Structure of the Earth and Concentration of Metals in the Lithosphere: A Geodynamic Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.; Kutina, J.; Pei, R.

    2004-01-01

    A discussion of and introduction to satellite-altitude geopotential fields studies and their interpretation with emphasis on results from metalliferous regions will be given. The magnetic and gravimetric measurements from satellite altitudes show heterogeneity in deeper parts of the lithosphere. These patterns of magnetic anomalies do not only reveal the largest iron ore deposits such as Kiruna, Sweden and Kursk, Russia, but also linear features indicating structural discontinuities. Changes of magnetic amplitude of these patterns are caused by intersecting transverse fractures localizing magmatism and concentration of metals. The role of trans-regional mantle-rooted structural discontinuities in the concentration of metals will be discussed and a new type of mineral prognosis map will be presented. Deep-rooted structural discontinuities, defined by combination of geological and geophysical criteria, with spacing of several hundred kilometers, reveal a quite uniform pattern in the deeper parts of the lithosphere. As these structures provide favorable pathways for the ascent of heat, magmas and ore-forming fluids, their recognition is of crucial importance and can be used in the compilation of a new type of mineral prognosis map. Examples are shown from the United States, Canada, China, Burma, South America, Europe and Australia. The European example includes a pattern of east west trending structural discontinuities or belts and their junction with the NW-trending Tornqvist-Teisseyre Line. The Upper Silesian-Cracovian Zn-Pb district occurs along one of the latitudinal belts. Leslaw Teper of the University of Silesia has been invited to show the fractures in crystalline basement beneath the sediments hosting the Zn-Pb ores.

  6. A geological reconnaissance of electrical and electronic waste as a source for rare earth metals.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sandra R; Wäger, Patrick A; Widmer, Rolf; Williams, Ian D

    2015-11-01

    The mining of material resources requires knowledge about geogenic and anthropogenic deposits, in particular on the location of the deposits with the comparatively highest concentration of raw materials. In this study, we develop a framework that allows the establishment of analogies between geological and anthropogenic processes. These analogies were applied to three selected products containing rare earth elements (REE) in order to identify the most concentrated deposits in the anthropogenic cycle. The three identified anthropogenic deposits were characterised according to criteria such as "host rock", "REE mineralisation" and "age of mineralisation", i.e. regarding their "geological" setting. The results of this characterisation demonstrated that anthropogenic deposits have both a higher concentration of REE and a longer mine life than the evaluated geogenic deposit (Mount Weld, Australia). The results were further evaluated by comparison with the geological knowledge category of the United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009 (UNFC-2009) to determine the confidence level in the deposit quantities. The application of our approach to the three selected cases shows a potential for recovery of REE in anthropogenic deposits; however, further exploration of both potential and limitations is required. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. A volatile topic: Parsing out the details of Earth's formation through experimental metal-silicate partitioning of volatile and moderately volatile elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, B. M.; Siebert, J.; Blanchard, I.; Badro, J.; Sossi, P.; Moynier, F.

    2017-12-01

    Volatile and moderately volatile elements display different volatilities and siderophilities, as well as varying sensitivity to thermodynamic controls (X, P, T, fO2) during metal-silicate differentiation. The experimental determination of the metal-silicate partitioning of these elements permits us to evaluate processes controlling the distribution of these elements in Earth. In this work, we have combined metal-silicate partitioning data and results for S, Sn, Zn and Cu, and input these characterizations into Earth formation models. Model parameters such as source material, timing of volatile delivery, fO2 path, and degree of impactor equilibration were varied to encompass an array of possible formation scenarios. These models were then assessed to discern plausible sets of conditions that can produce current observed element-to-element ratios (e.g. S/Zn) in the Earth's present-day mantle, while also satisfying current estimates on the S content of the core, at no more than 2 wt%. The results of our models indicate two modes of accretion that can maintain chondritic element-to-element ratios for the bulk Earth and can arrive at present-day mantle abundances of these elements. The first mode requires the late addition of Earth's entire inventory of these elements (assuming a CI-chondritic composition) and late-stage accretion that is marked by partial equilibration of large impactors. The second, possibly more intuitive mode, requires that Earth accreted - at least initially - from volatile poor material preferentially depleted in S relative to Sn, Zn, and Cu. From a chemical standpoint, this source material is most similar to type I chondrule rich (and S poor) materials (Hewins and Herzberg, 1996; Mahan et al., 2017; Amsellem et al., 2017), such as the metal-bearing carbonaceous chondrites.

  8. PROCESS OF PREPARING A FLUORIDE OF TETRAVLENT URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Wheelwright, E.J.

    1959-02-17

    A method is described for producing a fluoride salt pf tetravalent uranium suitable for bomb reduction to metallic uranium. An aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate is treated with acetic acid and a nitrite-suppressor and then contacted with metallic lead whereby uranium is reduced from the hexavalent to the tetravalent state and soluble lead acetate is formed. Sulfate ions are then added to the solution to precipitate and remove the lead values. Hydrofluoric acid and alkali metal ions are then added causing the formation of an alkali metal uranium double-fluoride in which the uranium is in the tetravalent state. After recovery, this precipitate is suitable for using in the limited production of metallic uranium.

  9. Experimental investigation of the partitioning of phosphorus between metal and silicate phases - Implications for the earth, moon and eucrite parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, H. E.; Drake, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental study is reported of the partitioning of Phosphorus between solid metal and basaltic silicate liquid as a function of temperature and oxygen fugacity and of the implications for the earth, moon and eucrite parent body (EPB). The relationship established between the partition coefficient and the fugacity is given at 1190 C by log D(P) = -1.12 log fO2 - 15.95 and by log D(P) = -1.53 log fO2 17.73 at 1300 C. The partition coefficient D(P) was determined, and it is found to be consistent with a valence state of 5 for P in the molten silicate. Using the determined coefficient the low P/La ratios of the earth, moon, and eucrites relative to C1 chondrites can be explained. The lowering of the P/La ratio in the eucrites relative to Cl chondrite by a factor of 40 can be explained by partitioning P into 20-25 wt% sulfur-bearing metallic liquid corresponding to 5-25% of the total metal plus silicate system. The low P/La and W/La ratios in the moon may be explained by the partitioning of P and W into metal during formation of a small core by separation of liquid metal from silicate at low degrees of partial melting of the silicates. These observations are consistent with independent formation of the moon and the earth.

  10. Environmentally Friendly Economical Sequestration of Rare Earth Metals from Geothermal Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, Dean P.

    The purpose of this work was to complete a proof of concept study to apply and validate a novel method developed by Tusaar for the capture and recovery of rare earth elements (known as REEs) and other critical and valuable elements from geothermal waters produced from deep within the earth. Geothermal water provides heat for power production at many geothermal power plants in the western United States. The target elements, the REEs, are vital to modern day electronics, batteries, motors, automobiles and many other consumer favorites and necessities. Currently there are no domestic sources of REEs while domestic and internationalmore » demand for the products they are used in continues to rise. Many of the REEs are considered “strategically” important. A secure supply of REEs in the USA would benefit consumers and the country at large. A new method to recover these REEs from geothermal waters used at existing geothermal power plants around the country is a high priority and would benefit consumers and the USA. The result of this project was the successful development and demonstration of an integrated process for removal and recovery of the REEs from synthetic geothermal brines on a small laboratory scale. The work included preparation of model geothermal brines to test, selection of the most effective proprietary sorbent media to capture the REEs and testing of the media under a variety of potential operating conditions. Geothermal brines are generally very high in salt content and contain a wide range of elements and anions associated with the rock layers from which they are produced. Processing the geothermal water is difficult because it is corrosive and the dissolved minerals in the water precipitate easily once the temperature and pressure change. No commercial technologies have been shown to be effective or robust enough under these geothermal brine conditions to be commercially viable for removal of REEs. Technologies including ion exchange

  11. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  12. Contemporary biological markers of exposure to fluoride.

    PubMed

    Rugg-Gunn, Andrew John; Villa, Alberto Enrique; Buzalaf, Marília Rabelo Afonso

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary biological markers assess present, or very recent, exposure to fluoride: fluoride concentrations in blood, bone surface, saliva, milk, sweat and urine have been considered. A number of studies relating fluoride concentration in plasma to fluoride dose have been published, but at present there are insufficient data on plasma fluoride concentrations across various age groups to determine the 'usual' concentrations. Although bone contains 99% of the body burden of fluoride, attention has focused on the bone surface as a potential marker of contemporary fluoride exposure. From rather limited data, the ratio surface-to-interior concentration of fluoride may be preferred to whole bone fluoride concentration. Fluoride concentrations in the parotid and submandibular/sublingual ductal saliva follow the plasma fluoride concentration, although at a lower concentration. At present, there are insufficient data to establish a normal range of fluoride concentrations in ductal saliva as a basis for recommending saliva as a marker of fluoride exposure. Sweat and human milk are unsuitable as markers of fluoride exposure. A proportion of ingested fluoride is excreted in urine. Plots of daily urinary fluoride excretion against total daily fluoride intake suggest that daily urinary fluoride excretion is suitable for predicting fluoride intake for groups of people, but not for individuals. While fluoride concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine have some ability to predict fluoride exposure, present data are insufficient to recommend utilizing fluoride concentrations in these body fluids as biomarkers of contemporary fluoride exposure for individuals. Daily fluoride excretion in urine can be considered a useful biomarker of contemporary fluoride exposure for groups of people, and normal values have been published. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Comparison of Fluoridated Miswak and Toothbrushing with Fluoridated Toothpaste on Plaque Removal and Fluoride Release.

    PubMed

    Baeshen, Hosam; Salahuddin, Sabin; Dam, Robel; Zawawi, Khalid H; Birkhed, Dowen

    2017-04-01

    Dental caries and periodontal diseases are all induced by oral biofilm (dental plaque). This study was conducted to evaluate if fluoride-impregnated miswak is as effective in plaque removal and fluoride release as toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste. This single-blind, randomized, crossover study was conducted at the Department of Cariology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, from February 2010 to January 2011. Fifteen healthy subjects participated in this study. The participants were instructed to use the following: (1) 0.5% NaF-impregnated miswak, (2) nonfluoridated miswak, (3) toothbrush with nonfluoride toothpaste, and (4) toothbrush with 1450 ppm fluoride toothpaste. Each method was used twice a day for 1 week after which plaque amount and fluoride concentration in resting saliva were measured. There was a 1-week washout period between each method. No significant difference between miswak and tooth-brushing was found regarding plaque removal on buccal and lingual surfaces. A somewhat higher fluoride concentration in resting saliva was found after using impregnated miswak when compared with toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste (p < 0.05). Miswak and toothbrushing showed the same plaque removing effect on buccal and lingual surfaces. Miswak impregnated with 0.5% NaF resulted in a higher concentration of fluoride in saliva than brushing with 1450 ppm fluoride toothpaste. Miswak impregnated with 0.5% NaF and toothbrushing results in comparable plaque removal and about the same fluoride concentration in saliva even it was somewhat higher for impregnated miswak.

  14. METHOD OF PRODUCING URANIUM METAL BY ELECTROLYSIS

    DOEpatents

    Piper, R.D.

    1962-09-01

    A process is given for making uranium metal from oxidic material by electrolytic deposition on the cathode. The oxidic material admixed with two moles of carbon per one mole of uranium dioxide forms the anode, and the electrolyte is a mixture of from 40 to 75% of calcium fluoride or barium fluoride, 15 to 45% of uranium tetrafluoride, and from 10 to 20% of lithium fluoride or magnesium fluoride; the temperature of the electrolyte is between 1150 and 1175 deg C. (AEC)

  15. Physiology and toxicity of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Vineet; Bhatnagar, Maheep

    2009-01-01

    Fluoride has been described as an essential element needed for normal development and growth of animals and extremely useful for human beings. Fluoride is abundant in the environment and the main source of fluoride to humans is drinking water. It has been proved to be beneficial in recommended doses, and at the same time its toxicity at higher levels has also been well established. Fluoride gets accumulated in hard tissues of the body and has been know to play an important role in mineralization of bone and teeth. At high levels it has been known to cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. There are suggested effects of very high levels of fluoride on various body organs and genetic material. The purpose of this paper is to review the various aspects of fluoride and its importance in human life.

  16. Method for converting UF5 to UF4 in a molten fluoride salt

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Melvin R.; Bamberger, Carlos E.; Kelmers, A. Donald

    1977-01-01

    The reduction of UF.sub.5 to UF.sub.4 in a molten fluoride salt by sparging with hydrogen is catalyzed by metallic platinum. The reaction is also catalyzed by platinum alloyed with gold reaction equipment.

  17. Structural diversity in binuclear complexes of alkaline earth metal ions with 4,6-diacetylresorcinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebl, Magdy; Khalil, Saied M. E.; Taha, A.; Mahdi, M. A. N.

    2012-11-01

    A new series of binuclear and mixed-ligand complexes with the general formula: [M 2(LO)yClz]; where M = Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II); H2L = 4,6-diacetylresorcinol, the secondary ligand L' = acetylacetone (acac), 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) or 2,2'-bipyridyl (Bipy), n = 0-2, m = 1, 2, x = 0, 1, 2, 4, y = 0, 2, 4, 5 and z = 0-2; have been synthesized. They have been characterized by the analytical and spectral methods (IR, 1H NMR and mass) as well as TGA and molar conductivity measurements. The spectroscopic and conductance data suggested that the H2L ligand behaves as a neutral, monobasic or dibasic tetradentate ligand, depending on the basicity of the secondary ligand, through the two phenolic and two carbonyl groups. Binuclear octahedral geometry has been assigned to all of the prepared complexes in various molar ratios 2:2; 2:2:2; 1:2:1 and 1:2:4 (L:M:L'). Molecular orbital calculations were performed for the ligands and their complexes using Hyperchem 7.52 program on the bases of PM3 level and the results were correlated with the experimental data. The ligand and some of its alkaline metal(II) complexes showed antibacterial activity towards some of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeast (Candida albicans) and fungus (Aspergillus fumigatus).

  18. Fluoride glass fibers: applications and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulain, Marcel

    1998-09-01

    Fluoride glass fibers have been intensively developed for the last 20 years. A major effort was devoted to the fabrication of low loss fibers for repeaterless long haul telecommunications. This step which ended in the late eighties provided the basic technology for the manufacturing of multimode and single mode fibers with minimum losses below 10 dB/km. Such fibers area now used for various passive applications requiring the handling of IR signal. In this respect, fluoride fibers are complementary to silica fibers when wavelength exceeds 2 micrometers . Some practical set ups are operating for IR imaging, remote spectroscopy and thermometry. Special fibers such as polarization maintaining fibers have been developed for interferometric astronomy, which could also apply to sensors. UV transmission has still to be developed. Laser power delivery is another field of application for these fibers. YAG:Er laser at 2.9 micrometers attracts a growing interest for medical applications, ophthalmology and dentistry, while prospects for CO laser are positive. Active fibers are based on rare earth doped single mode fibers. They lead to the definition of numerous new laser lines and emphasized the potential of up conversion for the generation of visible light using IR pumping laser diodes. High power output has been achieved in the blue and the red light, which open prospects for compact and all solid state fiber lasers for a wide range of applications, from displays to medical uses. Optical amplification makes another field of R and D centered on telecommunication needs. Pr3+ doped fluoride fibers have been used for the 1.3 micrometers band, and Er based fluoride fiber amplifiers exhibit wider and flatter gain than those made from silica. Optical amplification may be implemented at other wavelengths for more general purposes.

  19. Anomalies in Trace Metal and Rare-Earth Loads below a Waste-Water Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antweiler, R.; Writer, J. H.; Murphy, S.

    2013-12-01

    The changes in chemical loads were examined for 54 inorganic elements and compounds in a 5.4-km reach of Boulder Creek, Colorado downstream of a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) outfall. Elements were partitioned into three categories: those showing a decrease in loading downstream, those showing an increase, and those which were conservative, at least over the length of the study reach. Dissolved loads which declined - generally indicative of in-stream loss via precipitation or sorption - were typically rapid (occurring largely before the first sampling site, 2.3 km downstream); elements showing this behavior were Bi, Cr, Cs, Ga, Ge, Hg, Se and Sn. These results were as expected before the experiment was performed. However, a large group (28 elements, including all the rare-earth elements, REE, except Gd) exhibited dissolved load increases indicating in-stream gains. These gains may be due to particulate matter dissolving or disaggregating, or that desorption is occurring below the WWTP. As with the in-stream loss group, the processes tended to be rapid, typically occurring before the first sampling site. Whole-water samples collected concurrently also had a large group of elements which showed an increase in load downstream of the WWTP. Among these were most of the group which had increases in the dissolved load, including all the REE (except Gd). Because whole-water samples include both dissolved and suspended particulates within them, increases in loads cannot be accounted for by invoking desorption or disaggregation mechanisms; thus, the only source for these increases is from the bed load of the stream. Further, the difference between the whole-water and dissolved loads is a measure of the particulate load, and calculations show that not only did the dissolved and whole-water loads increase, but so did the particulate loads. This implies that at the time of sampling the bed sediment was supplying a significant contribution to the suspended load. In general

  20. Neutron diffraction studies of some rare earth-transition metal deuterides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, W. J.

    1984-04-01

    Neutron diffraction studies of the ternary alloy system Y6(Fel-xMnx)23 reveal that the unusual magnetic behavior upon substitution of Mn or Fe into the end members, is a consequence of atomic ordering wherein there is strong site preference of Mn for the f sub 2 sites and of Fe for the f sub 1 sites. In the Mn-rich compositions, Fe is found to have no spontaneous moments. Therefore, the long range magnetic ordering arises solely from Mn-Mn interactions. Upon substitution of Mn into the Fe-rich ternaries, the Fe moments are considerably reduced. Neutron diffraction studies of Y6Mn23D23 show that a transition occurs below 180K from a fcc structure to a primitive tetragonal structure, space group P4/mmm with the onset of antiferromagnetic ordering. The Mn moments are directed along the c-axis. The transition probably results from atomic ordering of the D atoms at low temperature which induces c axis magnetic ordering. The question of the appropriate space group of LaNi4.5Al0.5D4.5, P6/mmm or P3/m has been resolved by a careful refinement and analysis of neutron diffraction data. The preferred space group is P6/mmm. Neutron powder diffraction and thermal magnetization measurements on small single crystals of ErNi3, ErCo3, and ErFe3 (space group R3m) show that the magnetocrystalline properties are a consequence of competing local site anisotropies between the two non-equivalent crystallographic sites of Er and two of the three non-equivalent sites of the 3d-transition metal.

  1. [Water fluoridation and public health].

    PubMed

    Barak, Shlomo

    2003-11-01

    Fluoridation in Israel was first mooted in 1973 and finally incorporated into law in November 2002 obligating the Ministry of Health to add fluoride to the nation's water supply. Epidemiology studies in the USA have shown that the addition of one part per million of fluoride to the drinking water reduced the caries rate of children's teeth by 50% to 60% with no side effects. Both the WHO in 1994 and the American Surgeon General's report of 2000 declared that fluoridation of drinking water was the safest and most efficient way of preventing dental caries in all age groups and populations. Opposition to fluoridation has arisen from "antifluoridation" groups who object to the "pollution" of drinking water by the addition of chemicals and mass medication in violation of the "Patient's Rights" law and the Basic Law of Human Dignity and Liberty. A higher prevalence of hip fractures in elderly osteoporotic women and osteosarcoma in teenagers has been reported in areas where excess fluoride exists in the drinking water. However, none of the many independent professional committees reviewing the negative aspects of fluoridation have found any scientific evidence associating fluoridation with any ill-effects or health problems. In Israel, where dental treatment is not included in the basket of Health Services, fluoridation is the most efficient and cheapest way of reducing dental disease, especially for the poorer members of the population.

  2. Empirical links between trace metal cycling and marine microbial ecology during a large perturbation to Earth's carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Jeremy D.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Rohrssen, Megan; Love, Gordon D.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the global redox state of the oceans and its cause-and-effect relationship with periods of widespread organic-carbon deposition is vital to interpretations of Earth's climatic and biotic feedbacks during periods of expanded oceanic oxygen deficiency. Here, we present a compilation of new and published data from an organic-rich locality within the proto-North Atlantic Ocean during the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event that shows a dramatic drawdown of redox-sensitive trace elements. Iron geochemistry independently suggests euxinic deposition (i.e., anoxic and sulfidic bottom waters) for the entire section, thus confirming its potential as an archive of global marine metal inventories. In particular, depleted molybdenum (Mo) and vanadium (V) concentrations effectively record the global expansion of euxinic and oxygen-deficient but non-sulfidic waters, respectively. The V drawdown precedes the OAE, fingerprinting an expansion of oxygen deficiency prior to an expansion of euxinia. Molybdenum drawdown, in contrast, is delayed with respect to V and coincides with the onset of OAE2. Parallel lipid biomarker analyses provide evidence for significant and progressive reorganization of marine microbial ecology during the OAE in this region of the proto-North Atlantic, with the smallest relative eukaryotic contributions to total primary production occurring during metal-depleted intervals. This relationship may be related to decreasing supplies of enzymatically important trace elements. Similarly, box modeling suggests that oceanic drawdown of Mo may have approached levels capable of affecting marine nitrogen fixation. Predictions of possible nitrogen stress on eukaryotic production, locally and globally, are consistent with the low observed levels of Mo and a rise in 2-methylhopane index values during the peak of the OAE. At the same time, the environmental challenge presented by low dissolved oxygen and euxinia coincides with increased turnover rates of

  3. Water fluoridation and osteoporotic fracture.

    PubMed

    Hillier, S; Inskip, H; Coggon, D; Cooper, C

    1996-09-01

    Osteoporotic fractures constitute a major public health problem. These fractures typically occur at the hip, spine and distal forearm. Their pathogenesis is heterogeneous, with contributions from both bone strength and trauma. Water fluoridation has been widely proposed for its dental health benefits, but concerns have been raised about the balance of skeletal risks and benefits of this measure. Fluoride has potent effects on bone cell function, bone structure and bone strength. These effects are mediated by the incorporation of fluoride ions in bone crystals to form fluoroapatite, and through an increase in osteoblast activity. It is believed that a minimum serum fluoride level of 100 ng/ml must be achieved before osteoblasts will be stimulated. Serum levels associated with drinking water fluoridated to 1 ppm are usually several times lower than this value, but may reach this threshold at concentrations of 4 ppm in the drinking water. Animal studies suggest no effect of low-level (0-3 ppm) fluoride intake on bone strength, but a possible decrease at higher levels. Sodium fluoride has been used to treat established osteoporosis for nearly 30 years. Recent trials of this agent, prescribed at high doses, have suggested that despite a marked increase in bone mineral density, there is no concomitant reduction in vertebral fracture incidence. Furthermore, the increase in bone density at the lumbar spine may be achieved at the expense of bone mineral in the peripheral cortical skeleton. As a consequence, high dose sodium fluoride (80 mg daily) is not currently used to treat osteoporosis. At lower doses, recent trials have suggested a beneficial effect on both bone density and fracture. The majority of epidemiological evidence regarding the effect of fluoridated drinking water on hip fracture incidence is based on ecological comparisons. Although one Finnish study suggested that hip fracture rates in a town with fluoridated water were lower than those in a matching town

  4. Structural and Dynamical Properties of Alkaline Earth Metal Halides in Supercritical Water: Effect of Ion Size and Concentration.

    PubMed

    Keshri, Sonanki; Tembe, B L

    2017-11-22

    Constant temperature-constant pressure molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for aqueous alkaline earth metal chloride [M 2+ -Cl - (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba)] solutions over a wide range of concentrations (0.27-5.55 m) in supercritical (SC) and ambient conditions to investigate their structural and dynamical properties. A strong influence of the salt concentration is observed on the ion-ion pair correlation functions in both ambient and SC conditions. In SC conditions, significant clustering is observed in the 0.27 m solution, whereas the reverse situation is observed at room temperature and this is also supported by the residence times of the clusters. The concentration and ion size (cation size) seem to have opposite effects on the average number of hydrogen bonds. The simulation results show that the self-diffusion coefficients of water, cations, and the chloride ion increase with increasing temperature, whereas they decrease with increasing salt concentration. The cluster size distribution shows a strong density dependence in both ambient and SC conditions. In SC conditions, cluster sizes display a near-Gaussian distribution, whereas the distribution decays monotonically in ambient conditions.

  5. Hydrogen storage property of alkali and alkaline-earth metal atoms decorated C24 fullerene: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yafei; Cheng, Xinlu

    2018-04-01

    The hydrogen storage behavior of alkali and alkaline-earth metal (AM = Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca) atoms decorated C24 fullerene was investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) study. Our results indicate that the AM atoms prefer to adsorb atop the center of tetragon of C24 fullerene with the largest binding energy than other possible adsorption sites. Moreover, the hydrogen storage gravimetric density of 24H2/6Li/C24, 24H2/6Na/C24 and 36H2/6Ca/C24 configurations reaches up to 12.7 wt%, 10.1 wt% and 12 wt%, higher than the year 2020 target from the US department of energy (DOE). Also, the average adsorption energies of H2 molecules of the 24H2/6Li/C24, 24H2/6Na/C24 and 36H2/6Ca/C24 configurations are -0.198 eV/H2, -0.164 eV/H2 and -0.138 eV/H2, locate the desirable range under the physical adsorption at near ambient conditions. These findings will have important implications on designing new hydrogen storage materials in the future.

  6. Rapid enrichment of rare-earth metals by carboxymethyl cellulose-based open-cellular hydrogel adsorbent from HIPEs template.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongfeng; Wang, Wenbo; Zheng, Yian; Wang, Feng; Wang, Aiqin

    2016-04-20

    A series of monolithic open-cellular hydrogel adsorbents based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were prepared through high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) and used to enrich the rare-earth metals La(3+) and Ce(3+). The changes of pore structure, and the effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration on the adsorption performance were systematically studied. The results show that the as-prepared monolithic hydrogel adsorbents possess good open-cellular framework structure and have fast adsorption kinetics and high adsorption capacity for La(3+) and Ce(3+). The involved adsorption system can reach equilibrium within 30min and the maximal adsorption capacity is determined to be 384.62mg/g for La(3+) and 333.33mg/g for Ce(3+). Moreover, these porous hydrogel adsorbents show an excellent adsorptive reusability for La(3+) and Ce(3+) through five adsorption-desorption cycles. Such a pore hierarchy structure makes this monolithic open-cellular hydrogel adsorbent be an effective adsorbent for effective enrichment of La(3+) and Ce(3+) from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Distortion and Targeting Errors from Strong Rare Earth Metal Magnetic Dental Implant Requiring Revision.

    PubMed

    Seong-Cheol, Park; Chong Sik, Lee; Seok Min, Kim; Eu Jene, Choi; Do Hee, Lee; Jung Kyo, Lee

    2016-12-22

    Recently, the use of magnetic dental implants has been re-popularized with the introduction of strong rare earth metal, for example, neodymium, magnets. Unrecognized magnetic dental implants can cause critical magnetic resonance image distortions. We report a case involving surgical failure caused by a magnetic dental implant. A 62-year-old man underwent deep brain stimulation for medically insufficiently controlled Parkinson's disease. Stereotactic magnetic resonance imaging performed for the first deep brain stimulation showed that the overdenture was removed. However, a dental implant remained and contained a neodymium magnet, which was unrecognized at the time of imaging; the magnet caused localized non-linear distortions that were the largest around the dental magnets. In the magnetic field, the subthalamic area was distorted by a 4.6 mm right shift and counter clockwise rotation. However, distortions were visually subtle in the operation field and small for distant stereotactic markers, with approximately 1-2 mm distortions. The surgeon considered the distortion to be normal asymmetry or variation. Stereotactic marker distortion was calculated to be in the acceptable range in the surgical planning software. Targeting errors, approximately 5 mm on the right side and 2 mm on the left side, occurred postoperatively. Both leads were revised after the removal of dental magnets. Dental magnets may cause surgical failures and should be checked and removed before stereotactic surgery. Our findings should be considered when reviewing surgical precautions and making distortion-detection algorithm improvements.

  8. Solvent-free mechanochemical synthesis and magnetic properties of rare-earth based metal-organic frameworks

    DOE PAGES

    Singh, N. K.; Gupta, S.; Pecharsky, V. K.; ...

    2016-11-17

    Mechanical milling of benzene 1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid [C 6H 3(COOH) 3], both with the single and mixed rare earth carbonates [R 2(CO 3) 3·xH 2O; R = Gd, Tb and Dy], leads to the formation of metal-organic frameworks [R{C 6H 3(COO) 3}] that adopt MIL-78 type structure. M(T) data of the investigated MOFs do not show any apparent onset of long range magnetic ordering down to 2 K. The M(H) data for Gd{C 6H 3(COO) 3}collected at 2 K show deviations from the magnetization behavior expected for non-interacting Gd 3+ ions. For the Gd based MOF the temperature dependence of themore » isothermal magnetic entropy change (i.e. magnetocaloric effect, ΔS M) exhibits a monotonous increase with decreasing temperature and at T = 3.5 K it reaches 34.1 J kg $-$1K $-$1 for a field change (ΔH) of 50 kOe. Finally, for the same ΔH the maximum values of ΔS M for R = Tb and Dy are 5.5 J kg $-$1K $-$1 and 8.5 J kg $-$1K $-$1 at 9.5 K and 4.5 K, respectively.« less

  9. Fabrication of novel metal ion imprinted xanthan gum-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite for adsorption of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Iftekhar, Sidra; Srivastava, Varsha; Hammouda, Samia Ben; Sillanpää, Mika

    2018-08-15

    The work focus to enhance the properties of xanthan gum (XG) by anchoring metal ions (Fe, Zr) and encapsulating inorganic matrix (M@XG-ZA). The fabricated nanocomposite was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), surface area (BET) and zeta potential analysis. The adsorption of Sc, Nd, Tm and Yb was investigated after screening of synthesized materials in detail to understand the influence of pH, contact time, temperature and initial REE (rare earth element) concentration both in single and multicomponent system via batch adsorption. The adsorption mechanism was verified by FTIR, SEM and elemental mapping. The SEM images of Zr@XG-ZA demonstrate scutes structure, which disappeared after adsorption of REEs. The maximum adsorption capacities were 132.30, 14.01, 18.15 and 25.73 mg/g for Sc, Nd, Tm and Yb, respectively. The adsorption efficiency over Zr@XG-ZA in multicomponent system was higher than single system and the REEs followed the order: Sc > Yb > Tm > Nd. The Zr@XG-ZA demonstrate good adsorption behavior for REEs up to five cycles and then it can be used as photocatalyst for the degradation of tetracycline. Thus, the work adds a new insight to design and preparation of efficient bifunctional adsorbents from sustainable materials for water purification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel fluorescent probe (dtpa-bis(cytosine)) for detection of Eu(III) in rare earth metal ions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Ren, Peipei; Liu, Guanhong; Song, Youtao; Bu, Naishun; Wang, Jun

    2018-03-15

    In this paper, a novel fluorescent probe, dtpa-bis(cytosine), was designed and synthesized for detecting europium (Eu 3+ ) ion. Upon addition of Eu 3+ ions into the dtpa-bis(cytosine) solution, the fluorescence intensity can strongly be enhanced. Conversely, adding other rare earth metal ions, such as Y 3+ , Ce 3+ , Pr 3+ , Nd 3+ , Sm 3+ , Gd 3+ , Tb 3+ , Dy 3+ , Ho 3+ , Er 3+ , Yb 3+ and Lu 3+ , into dtpa-bis(cytosine) solution, the fluorescence intensity is decreased slightly. Some parameters affecting the fluorescence intensity of dtpa-bis(cytosine) solution in the presence of Eu 3+ ions were investigated, including solution pH value, Eu 3+ ion concentration and interfering substances. The detection mechanism of Eu 3+ ion using dtpa-bis(cytosine) as fluorescent probe was proposed. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence emission intensities of Eu III -dtpa-bis(cytosine) at 375nm in the concentration range of 0.50×10 -5 mol∙L -1 -5.00×10 -5 mol∙L -1 of Eu 3+ ion display a better linear relationship. The limit of detection (LOD) was determined as 8.65×10 -7 mol∙L -1 and the corresponding correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of the linear equation is 0.9807. It is wished that the proposed method could be applied for sensitively and selectively detecting Eu 3+ ion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between domestic smoking and metals and rare earth elements concentration in indoor PM2.5.

    PubMed

    Drago, Gaspare; Perrino, Cinzia; Canepari, Silvia; Ruggieri, Silvia; L'Abbate, Luca; Longo, Valeria; Colombo, Paolo; Frasca, Daniele; Balzan, Martin; Cuttitta, Giuseppina; Scaccianoce, Gianluca; Piva, Giuseppe; Bucchieri, Salvatore; Melis, Mario; Viegi, Giovanni; Cibella, Fabio; Balzan, Martin; Bilocca, David; Borg, Charles; Montefort, Stephen; Zammit, Christopher; Bucchieri, Salvatore; Cibella, Fabio; Colombo, Paolo; Cuttitta, Giuseppina; Drago, Gaspare; Ferrante, Giuliana; L'Abbate, Luca; Grutta, Stefania La; Longo, Valeria; Melis, Mario R; Ruggieri, Silvia; Viegi, Giovanni; Minardi, Remo; Piva, Giuseppe; Ristagno, Rosaria; Rizzo, Gianfranco; Scaccianoce, Gianluca

    2018-04-16

    Cigarette smoke is the main source of indoor chemical and toxic elements. Cadmium (Cd), Thallium (Tl), Lead (Pb) and Antimony (Sb) are important contributors to smoke-related health risks. Data on the association between Rare Earth Elements (REE) Cerium (Ce) and Lanthanum (La) and domestic smoking are scanty. To evaluate the relationship between cigarette smoke, indoor levels of PM 2.5 and heavy metals, 73 children were investigated by parental questionnaire and skin prick tests. The houses of residence of 41 "cases" and 32 "controls" (children with and without respiratory symptoms, respectively) were evaluated by 48-h PM 2.5 indoor/outdoor monitoring. PM 2.5 mass concentration was determined by gravimetry; the extracted and mineralized fractions of elements (As, Cd, Ce, La, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, Tl) were evaluated by ICP-MS. PM 2.5 and Ce, La, Cd, and Tl indoor concentrations were higher in smoker dwellings. When corrected for confounding factors, PM 2.5 , Ce, La, Cd, and Tl were associated with more likely presence of respiratory symptoms in adolescents. We found that: i) indoor smoking is associated with increased levels of PM 2.5 , Ce, La, Cd, and Tl and ii) the latter with increased presence of respiratory symptoms in children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel fluorescent probe (dtpa-bis(cytosine)) for detection of Eu(III) in rare earth metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Ren, Peipei; Liu, Guanhong; Song, Youtao; Bu, Naishun; Wang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel fluorescent probe, dtpa-bis(cytosine), was designed and synthesized for detecting europium (Eu3 +) ion. Upon addition of Eu3 + ions into the dtpa-bis(cytosine) solution, the fluorescence intensity can strongly be enhanced. Conversely, adding other rare earth metal ions, such as Y3 +, Ce3 +, Pr3 +, Nd3 +, Sm3 +, Gd3 +, Tb3 +, Dy3 +, Ho3 +, Er3 +, Yb3 + and Lu3 +, into dtpa-bis(cytosine) solution, the fluorescence intensity is decreased slightly. Some parameters affecting the fluorescence intensity of dtpa-bis(cytosine) solution in the presence of Eu3 + ions were investigated, including solution pH value, Eu3 + ion concentration and interfering substances. The detection mechanism of Eu3 + ion using dtpa-bis(cytosine) as fluorescent probe was proposed. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence emission intensities of EuIII-dtpa-bis(cytosine) at 375 nm in the concentration range of 0.50 × 10- 5 mol • L- 1-5.00 × 10- 5 mol • L- 1 of Eu3 + ion display a better linear relationship. The limit of detection (LOD) was determined as 8.65 × 10- 7 mol • L- 1 and the corresponding correlation coefficient (R2) of the linear equation is 0.9807. It is wished that the proposed method could be applied for sensitively and selectively detecting Eu3 + ion.

  13. Effect of alkaline earth metals on the liquid-phase hydrogenation of hydroquinone over Ru-based catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongwei; Ji, Dong; Li, Yu; Liang, Yalan; Li, Gui Xian

    2015-12-01

    A series of Ru-based catalysts modified by alkaline earth metals were prepared by the impregnation-precipitation method and characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ICP optical emission spectroscopy, Infrared Spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine analysis and surface area analysis. The performance of the catalysts was measured via liquid-phase hydroquinone hydrogenation reaction. Results show that the Ru-Sr/NaY catalyst has the best activity and selectivity among those Ru-based catalysts. The conversion of hydroquinone and the selectivity to 1,4-cyclohexanediol reached up to 99.6% and 89.6% at optimum reaction condition (700 r/min, 423 K and 5 MPa pressure of H2 in 3 h). This may be attributed to the fact that the right amount of Strontium is beneficial to the good dispersion of the ruthenium nanoclusters on the surface of NaY and modify the acidic properties of the catalyst. Moreover, IR of adsorbed pyridine analysis suggested the proper ratio of L/B acid of the catalysts played an important role in the performance of the hydroquinone hydrogenation reaction.

  14. Magnetic coupling at rare earth ferromagnet/transition metal ferromagnet interfaces: A comprehensive study of Gd/Ni.

    PubMed

    Higgs, T D C; Bonetti, S; Ohldag, H; Banerjee, N; Wang, X L; Rosenberg, A J; Cai, Z; Zhao, J H; Moler, K A; Robinson, J W A

    2016-07-22

    Thin film magnetic heterostructures with competing interfacial coupling and Zeeman energy provide a fertile ground to study phase transition between different equilibrium states as a function of external magnetic field and temperature. A rare-earth (RE)/transition metal (TM) ferromagnetic multilayer is a classic example where the magnetic state is determined by a competition between the Zeeman energy and antiferromagnetic interfacial exchange coupling energy. Technologically, such structures offer the possibility to engineer the macroscopic magnetic response by tuning the microscopic interactions between the layers. We have performed an exhaustive study of nickel/gadolinium as a model system for understanding RE/TM multilayers using the element-specific measurement technique x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and determined the full magnetic state diagrams as a function of temperature and magnetic layer thickness. We compare our results to a modified Stoner-Wohlfarth-based model and provide evidence of a thickness-dependent transition to a magnetic fan state which is critical in understanding magnetoresistance effects in RE/TM systems. The results provide important insight for spintronics and superconducting spintronics where engineering tunable magnetic inhomogeneity is key for certain applications.

  15. Magnetic coupling at rare earth ferromagnet/transition metal ferromagnet interfaces: A comprehensive study of Gd/Ni

    DOE PAGES

    Higgs, T. D. C.; Bonetti, S.; Ohldag, H.; ...

    2016-07-22

    Thin film magnetic heterostructures with competing interfacial coupling and Zeeman energy provide a fertile ground to study phase transition between different equilibrium states as a function of external magnetic field and temperature. A rare-earth (RE)/transition metal (TM) ferromagnetic multilayer is a classic example where the magnetic state is determined by a competition between the Zeeman energy and antiferromagnetic interfacial exchange coupling energy. Technologically, such structures offer the possibility to engineer the macroscopic magnetic response by tuning the microscopic interactions between the layers. We have performed an exhaustive study of nickel/gadolinium as a model system for understanding RE/TM multilayers using themore » element-specific measurement technique x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and determined the full magnetic state diagrams as a function of temperature and magnetic layer thickness. We compare our results to a modified Stoner-Wohlfarth-based model and provide evidence of a thickness-dependent transition to a magnetic fan state which is critical in understanding magnetoresistance effects in RE/TM systems. In conclusion, the results provide important insight for spintronics and superconducting spintronics where engineering tunable magnetic inhomogeneity is key for certain applications.« less

  16. Magnetic coupling at rare earth ferromagnet/transition metal ferromagnet interfaces: A comprehensive study of Gd/Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgs, T. D. C.; Bonetti, S.; Ohldag, H.; Banerjee, N.; Wang, X. L.; Rosenberg, A. J.; Cai, Z.; Zhao, J. H.; Moler, K. A.; Robinson, J. W. A.

    2016-07-01

    Thin film magnetic heterostructures with competing interfacial coupling and Zeeman energy provide a fertile ground to study phase transition between different equilibrium states as a function of external magnetic field and temperature. A rare-earth (RE)/transition metal (TM) ferromagnetic multilayer is a classic example where the magnetic state is determined by a competition between the Zeeman energy and antiferromagnetic interfacial exchange coupling energy. Technologically, such structures offer the possibility to engineer the macroscopic magnetic response by tuning the microscopic interactions between the layers. We have performed an exhaustive study of nickel/gadolinium as a model system for understanding RE/TM multilayers using the element-specific measurement technique x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and determined the full magnetic state diagrams as a function of temperature and magnetic layer thickness. We compare our results to a modified Stoner-Wohlfarth-based model and provide evidence of a thickness-dependent transition to a magnetic fan state which is critical in understanding magnetoresistance effects in RE/TM systems. The results provide important insight for spintronics and superconducting spintronics where engineering tunable magnetic inhomogeneity is key for certain applications.

  17. Synergetic effect of alkaline earth metal oxides and iron oxides on the degradation of hexachlorobenzene and its degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Su, Guijin; Liu, Yexuan; Huang, Linyan; Shi, Yali; Zhang, Aiqian; Zhang, Lixia; Liu, Wenbin; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was carried out over physical mixtures of a series of alkaline earth metal oxides (MO: M=Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and iron oxides with different crystal types (Fe(x)O(y):Fe(2)O(3) or Fe(3)O(4)) at 300°C. These physical mixtures all showed a synergetic effect toward the degradation of HCB. A range of degradation products were identified by various methods, including tri- to penta-chlorobenzenes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), tri- to penta-chlorophenols, tetrachlorocatechol (TCC) and tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) by GC-MS after derivatization, and formic and acetic acids by ion chromatography. Two degradation pathways, hydrodechlorination and oxidative degradation, appear to occur competitively. However, more sequential chlorinated benzene and phenol congeners were formed over mixed MO/Fe(3)O(4) than over mixed MO/Fe(2)O(3) under the same conditions. The oxidative reaction dominated over mixed MO/Fe(2)O(3) and was promoted as the major reaction by the synergetic effect, while both the oxidative and hydrodechlorination reactions were important over mixed MO/Fe(3)O(4), and both pathways are remarkably promoted by the synergetic effect. The enhanced hydrodechlorination may be attributed to free electrons generated by the transformation of Fe(3)O(4) into Fe(2)O(3), and hydrogen provided by water adsorbed on the MO. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. One Electron-Initiated Two-Electron Oxidation of Water by Aluminum Porphyrins with Earth's Most Abundant Metal.

    PubMed

    Kuttassery, Fazalurahman; Mathew, Siby; Sagawa, Shogo; Remello, Sebastian Nybin; Thomas, Arun; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Onuki, Satomi; Nabetani, Yu; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Inoue, Haruo

    2017-05-09

    We report herein a new molecular catalyst for efficient water splitting, aluminum porphyrins (tetra-methylpyridiniumylporphyrinatealuminum: AlTMPyP), containing earth's most abundant metal as the central ion. One-electron oxidation of the aluminum porphyrin initiates the two-electron oxidation of water to form hydrogen peroxide as the primary reaction product with the lowest known overpotential (97 mV). The aluminum-peroxo complex was detected by a cold-spray ionization mass-spectrometry in high-resolution MS (HRMS) mode and the structure of the intermediate species was further confirmed using laser Raman spectroscopy, indicating the hydroperoxy complex of AlTMPyP to be the key intermediate in the reaction. The two-electron oxidation of water to form hydrogen peroxide was essentially quantitative, with a Faradaic efficiency of 99 %. The catalytic reaction was found to be highly efficient, with a turnover frequency up to ∼2×10 4  s -1 . A reaction mechanism is proposed involving oxygen-oxygen bond formation by the attack of a hydroxide ion on the oxyl-radical-like axial ligand oxygen atom in the one-electron-oxidized form of AlTMPyP(O - ) 2 , followed by a second electron transfer to the electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Drinking water fluoridation and bone.

    PubMed

    Allolio, B; Lehmann, R

    1999-01-01

    Drinking water fluoridation has an established role in the prevention of dental caries, but may also positively or negatively affect bone. In bone fluoride is incorporated into hydroxylapatite to form the less soluble fluoroapatite. In higher concentrations fluoride stimulates osteoblast activity leading to an increase in cancellous bone mass. As optimal drinking water fluoridation (1 mg/l) is widely used, it is of great interest, whether long-term exposition to artificial water fluoridation has any impact on bone strength, bone mass, and -- most importantly -- fracture rate. Animal studies suggest a biphasic pattern of the effect of drinking water fluoridation on bone strength with a peak strength at a bone fluoride content of 1200 ppm followed by a decline at higher concentrations eventually leading to impaired bone quality. These changes are not paralleled by changes in bone mass suggesting that fluoride concentrations remain below the threshold level required for activation of osteoblast activity. Accordingly, in most epidemiological studies in humans bone mass was not altered by optimal drinking water fluoridation. In contrast, studies on the effect on hip fracture rate gave conflicting results ranging from an increased fracture incidence to no effect, and to a decreased fracture rate. As only ecological studies have been performed, they may be biased by unknown confounding factors -- the so-called ecological fallacy. However, the combined results of these studies indicate that any increase or decrease in fracture rate is likely to be small. It has been calculated that appropriately designed cohort studies to solve the problem require a sample size of >400,000 subjects. Such studies will not be performed in the foreseeable future. Future investigations in humans should, therefore, concentrate on the effect of long-term drinking water fluoridation on bone fluoride content and bone strength.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of fluoride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Olivier; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Del Razo, Luz María

    2010-11-05

    Halfway through the twentieth century, fluoride piqued the interest of toxicologists due to its deleterious effects at high concentrations in human populations suffering from fluorosis and in in vivo experimental models. Until the 1990s, the toxicity of fluoride was largely ignored due to its "good reputation" for preventing caries via topical application and in dental toothpastes. However, in the last decade, interest in its undesirable effects has resurfaced due to the awareness that this element interacts with cellular systems even at low doses. In recent years, several investigations demonstrated that fluoride can induce oxidative stress and modulate intracellular redox homeostasis, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content, as well as alter gene expression and cause apoptosis. Genes modulated by fluoride include those related to the stress response, metabolic enzymes, the cell cycle, cell-cell communications and signal transduction. The primary purpose of this review is to examine recent findings from our group and others that focus on the molecular mechanisms of the action of inorganic fluoride in several cellular processes with respect to potential physiological and toxicological implications. This review presents an overview of the current research on the molecular aspects of fluoride exposure with emphasis on biological targets and their possible mechanisms of involvement in fluoride cytotoxicity. The goal of this review is to enhance understanding of the mechanisms by which fluoride affects cells, with an emphasis on tissue-specific events in humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Utility of Lithium in Rare-Earth Metal Reduction Reactions to Form Nontraditional Ln2+ Complexes and Unusual [Li(2.2.2-cryptand)]1+ Cations.

    PubMed

    Huh, Daniel N; Darago, Lucy E; Ziller, Joseph W; Evans, William J

    2018-02-19

    The utility of lithium compared to other alkali metals in generating Ln 2+ rare-earth metal complexes via reduction of Ln 3+ precursors in reactions abbreviated as LnA 3 /M (Ln = rare-earth metal; A = anionic ligand; M = alkali metal) is described. Lithium reduction of Cp' 3 Ln (Cp' = C 5 H 4 SiMe 3 ; Ln = Y, Tb, Dy, Ho) under Ar in the presence of 2.2.2-cryptand (crypt) forms new examples of crystallographically characterizable Ln 2+ complexes of these metals, [Li(crypt)][Cp' 3 Ln]. In each complex, lithium is found in an N 2 O 4 donor atom coordination geometry that is unusual for the cryptand ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data on these new examples of nontraditional divalent lanthanide complexes are consistent with 4f n 5d 1 electronic configurations. The Dy and Ho complexes have exceptionally high single-ion magnetic moments, 11.35 and 11.67 μ B , respectively. Lithium reduction of Cp' 3 Y under N 2 at -35 °C forms the Y 2+ complex (Cp' 3 Y) 1- , which reduces dinitrogen upon warming to room temperature to generate the (N 2 ) 2- complex [Cp' 2 Y(THF)] 2 (μ-η 2 :η 2 -N 2 ). These results provide insight on the factors that lead to reduced dinitrogen complexes and/or stable divalent lanthanide complexes as a function of the specific reducing agent and conditions.

  2. Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  3. WET FLUORIDE SEPARATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1958-11-25

    The separation of U/sup 233/ from thorium, protactinium, and fission products present in neutron-irradiated thorium is accomplished by dissolving the irradiated materials in aqueous nitric acid, adding either a soluble fluoride, iodate, phosphate, or oxalate to precipltate the thorium, separating the precipltate from the solution, and then precipitating uranlum and protactinium by alkalizing the solution. The uranium and protactinium precipitate is removcd from the solution and dissolved in nitric acid. The uranyl nitrate may then be extracted from the acid solution by means of ether, and the protactinium recovered from the aqueous phase.

  4. Tutorial on the Role of Cyclopentadienyl Ligands in the Discovery of Molecular Complexes of the Rare-Earth and Actinide Metals in New Oxidation States

    DOE PAGES

    Evans, William J.

    2016-09-15

    A fundamental aspect of any element is the range of oxidation states accessible for useful chemistry. This tutorial describes the recent expansion of the number of oxidation states available to the rare-earth and actinide metals in molecular complexes that has resulted through organometallic chemistry involving the cyclopentadienyl ligand. These discoveries demonstrate that the cyclopentadienyl ligand, which has been a key component in the development of organometallic chemistry since the seminal discovery of ferrocene in the 1950s, continues to contribute to the advancement of science. Lastly, we present background information on the rare-earth and actinide elements, as well as the sequencemore » of events that led to these unexpected developments in the oxidation state chemistry of these metals.« less

  5. Tutorial on the Role of Cyclopentadienyl Ligands in the Discovery of Molecular Complexes of the Rare-Earth and Actinide Metals in New Oxidation States

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, William J.

    A fundamental aspect of any element is the range of oxidation states accessible for useful chemistry. This tutorial describes the recent expansion of the number of oxidation states available to the rare-earth and actinide metals in molecular complexes that has resulted through organometallic chemistry involving the cyclopentadienyl ligand. These discoveries demonstrate that the cyclopentadienyl ligand, which has been a key component in the development of organometallic chemistry since the seminal discovery of ferrocene in the 1950s, continues to contribute to the advancement of science. Lastly, we present background information on the rare-earth and actinide elements, as well as the sequencemore » of events that led to these unexpected developments in the oxidation state chemistry of these metals.« less

  6. K2-111 b - a short period super-Earth transiting a metal poor, evolved old star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridlund, Malcolm; Gaidos, Eric; Barragán, Oscar; Persson, Carina M.; Gandolfi, Davide; Cabrera, Juan; Hirano, Teruyuki; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Csizmadia, Sz.; Nowak, Grzegorz; Endl, Michael; Grziwa, Sascha; Korth, Judith; Pfaff, Jeremias; Bitsch, Bertram; Johansen, Anders; Mustill, Alexander J.; Davies, Melvyn B.; Deeg, Hans J.; Palle, Enric; Cochran, William D.; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Guenther, Eike; Hatzes, Artie P.; Kiilerich, Amanda; Kudo, Tomoyuki; MacQueen, Phillip; Narita, Norio; Nespral, David; Pätzold, Martin; Prieto-Arranz, Jorge; Rauer, Heike; Van Eylen, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Context. From a light curve acquired through the K2 space mission, the star K2-111(EPIC 210894022) has been identified as possibly orbited by a transiting planet. Aims: Our aim is to confirm the planetary nature of the object and derive its fundamental parameters. Methods: We analyse the light curve variations during the planetary transit using packages developed specifically for exoplanetary transits. Reconnaissance spectroscopy and radial velocity observations have been obtained using three separate telescope and spectrograph combinations. The spectroscopic synthesis package SME has been used to derive the stellar photospheric parameters that were used as input to various stellar evolutionary tracks in order to derive the parameters of the system. The planetary transit was also validated to occur on the assumed host star through adaptive imaging and statistical analysis. Results: The star is found to be located in the background of the Hyades cluster at a distance at least 4 times further away from Earth than the cluster itself. The spectrum and the space velocities of K2-111 strongly suggest it to be a member of the thick disk population. The co-added high-resolution spectra show that that it is a metal poor ([Fe/H] = - 0.53 ± 0.05 dex) and α-rich somewhat evolved solar-like star of spectral type G3. We find Teff = 5730 ± 50 K, log g⋆ = 4.15 ± 0.1 cgs, and derive a radius of R⋆ = 1.3 ± 0.1 R⊙ and a mass of M⋆ = 0.88 ± 0.02 M⊙. The currently available radial velocity data confirms a super-Earth class planet with a mass of 8.6 ± 3.9 M⊕ and a radius of 1.9 ± 0.2 R⊕. A second more massive object with a period longer than about 120 days is indicated by a long-term radial velocity drift. Conclusions: The radial velocity detection together with the imaging confirms with a high level of significance that the transit signature is caused by a planet orbiting the star K2-111. This planet is also confirmed in the radial velocity data. A second more

  7. Effect of Rare Earth Elements (Er, Ho) on Semi-Metallic Materials (ScN) in an Applied Electric Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-01-01

    The development of materials and fabrication technology for field-controlled spectrally active optics is essential for applications such as membrane optics, filters for LIDARs, windows for sensors, telescopes, spectroscopes, cameras and flat-panel displays. The dopants of rare earth elements, in a host of optical systems, create a number of absorption and emission band structures and can easily be incorporated into many high quality crystalline and amorphous hosts. In wide band-gap semiconductors like ScN, the existing deep levels can capture or emit the mobile charges, and can be ionized with the loss or capture of the carriers which are the fundamental basis of concept for smart optic materials. The band gap shrinkage or splitting with dopants supports the possibility of this concept. In the present work, a semi-metallic material (ScN) was doped with rare earth elements (Er, Ho) and tested under an applied electric field to characterize spectral and refractive index shifts by either Stark or Zeeman Effect. These effects can be verified using the UV-Vis spectroscopy, the Hall Effect measurement and the ellipsometric spectroscopy. The optical band gaps of ScN doped with Er and doped with Ho were experimentally estimated as 2.33eV and 2.24eV ( 0.2eV) respectively. This is less than that of undoped ScN (2.5 0.2eV). The red-shifted absorption onset is a direct evidence for the decrease of band gap energy (Eg), and the broadening of valence band states is attributable to the doping cases. A decrease in refractive index with an applied field was observed as a small shift in absorption coefficient using a variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer. In the presence of an electric field, mobile carriers are redistributed within the space charge region (SCR) to produce this electro-refractive effect. The shift in refractive index is also affected by the density and location of deep potential wells within the SCR. In addition, the microstructure change was observed by a TEM

  8. Topical fluoride for caries prevention

    PubMed Central

    Weyant, Robert J.; Tracy, Sharon L.; Anselmo, Theresa (Tracy); Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D.; Donly, Kevin J.; Frese, William A.; Hujoel, Philippe P.; Iafolla, Timothy; Kohn, William; Kumar, Jayanth; Levy, Steven M.; Tinanoff, Norman; Wright, J. Timothy; Zero, Domenick; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Meyer, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A panel of experts convened by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs presents evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding professionally applied and prescription-strength, home-use topical fluoride agents for caries prevention. These recommendations are an update of the 2006 ADA recommendations regarding professionally applied topical fluoride and were developed by using a new process that includes conducting a systematic review of primary studies. Types of Studies Reviewed The authors conducted a search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library for clinical trials of professionally applied and prescription-strength topical fluoride agents—including mouthrinses, varnishes, gels, foams and pastes—with caries increment outcomes published in English through October 2012. Results The panel included 71 trials from 82 articles in its review and assessed the efficacy of various topical fluoride caries-preventive agents. The panel makes recommendations for further research. Practical Implications The panel recommends the following for people at risk of developing dental caries: 2.26 percent fluoride varnish or 1.23 percent fluoride (acidulated phosphate fluoride) gel, or a prescription-strength, home-use 0.5 percent fluoride gel or paste or 0.09 percent fluoride mouthrinse for patients 6 years or older. Only 2.26 percent fluoride varnish is recommended for children younger than 6 years. The strengths of the recommendations for the recommended products varied from “in favor” to “expert opinion for.” As part of the evidence-based approach to care, these clinical recommendations should be integrated with the practitioner's professional judgment and the patient's needs and preferences. PMID:24177407

  9. New stable ternary alkaline-earth metal Pb(II) oxides: Ca / Sr / BaPb 2 O 3 and BaPbO 2

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Lijun; Singh, David J.

    2017-10-16

    The different but related chemical behaviors of Pb(II) oxides compared to Sn(II) oxides, and the existence of known alkali/alkali-earth metal Sn(II) ternary phases, suggest that there should be additional ternary Pb(II) oxide phases. Here, we report structure searches on the ternary alkaline-earth metal Pb(II) oxides leading to four new phases. These are two ternary Pb(II) oxides, SrPb 2O 3 and BaPb 2O 3, which have larger chemical potential stability ranges compared with the corresponding Sn(II) oxides, and additionally two other ternary Pb(II) oxides, CaPb 2O 3 and BaPbO 2, for which there are no corresponding Sn(II) oxides. Those Pb(II) oxidesmore » are stabilized by Pb-rich conditions. These structures follow the Zintl behavior and consist of basic structural motifs of (PbO 3) 4- anionic units separated and stabilized by the alkaline-earth metal ions. They show wide band gaps ranging from 2.86 to 3.12 eV, and two compounds (CaPb 2O 3 and SrPb 2O 3) show rather light hole effective masses (around 2m 0). The valence band maxima of these compounds have a Pb-6s/O-2p antibonding character, which may lead to p-type defect (or doping) tolerant behavior. This then suggests alkaline-earth metal Pb(II) oxides may be potential p-type transparent conducting oxides.« less

  10. New stable ternary alkaline-earth metal Pb(II) oxides: Ca / Sr / BaPb 2 O 3 and BaPbO 2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Lijun; Singh, David J.

    The different but related chemical behaviors of Pb(II) oxides compared to Sn(II) oxides, and the existence of known alkali/alkali-earth metal Sn(II) ternary phases, suggest that there should be additional ternary Pb(II) oxide phases. Here, we report structure searches on the ternary alkaline-earth metal Pb(II) oxides leading to four new phases. These are two ternary Pb(II) oxides, SrPb 2O 3 and BaPb 2O 3, which have larger chemical potential stability ranges compared with the corresponding Sn(II) oxides, and additionally two other ternary Pb(II) oxides, CaPb 2O 3 and BaPbO 2, for which there are no corresponding Sn(II) oxides. Those Pb(II) oxidesmore » are stabilized by Pb-rich conditions. These structures follow the Zintl behavior and consist of basic structural motifs of (PbO 3) 4- anionic units separated and stabilized by the alkaline-earth metal ions. They show wide band gaps ranging from 2.86 to 3.12 eV, and two compounds (CaPb 2O 3 and SrPb 2O 3) show rather light hole effective masses (around 2m 0). The valence band maxima of these compounds have a Pb-6s/O-2p antibonding character, which may lead to p-type defect (or doping) tolerant behavior. This then suggests alkaline-earth metal Pb(II) oxides may be potential p-type transparent conducting oxides.« less

  11. Monitoring of photoluminescence decay by alkali and alkaline earth metal cations using a photoluminescent bolaamphiphile self-assembly as an optical probe.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunhyung; Kwak, Jinyoung; Lee, Sang-Yup

    2014-05-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) decay induced by the displacement of an ionic fluorescence component, Tb(3+), with alkali and alkaline earth metal cations was investigated using photoluminescent spherical self-assemblies as optical probes. The photoluminescent spherical self-assembly was prepared by the self-organization of a tyrosine-containing bolaamphiphile molecule with a photosensitizer and Tb(3+) ion. The lanthanide ion, Tb(3+), electrically bound to the carboxyl group of the bolaamphiphile molecule, was displaced by alkali and alkaline earth metal cations that had stronger electrophilicity. The PL of the self-assembly decayed remarkably due to the substitution of lanthanide ions with alkali and alkaline earth metal cations. The PL decay showed a positive correlation with cation concentration and was sensitive to the cation valency. Generally, the PL decay was enhanced by the electrophilicity of the cations. However, Ca(2+) showed greater PL decay than Mg(2+) because Ca(2+) could create various complexes with the carboxyl groups of the bolaamphiphile molecule. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigations were conducted to study the photon energy transfer and displacement of Tb(3+) by the cation exchange. This study demonstrated that the PL decay by the displacement of the ionic fluorescent compound was applied to the detection of various cations in aqueous media and is applicable to the development of future optical sensors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Universal viscosity growth in metallic melts at megabar pressures: the vitreous state of the Earth's inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazhkin, Vadim V.; Lyapin, A. G.

    2000-05-01

    Experimental data on and theoretical models for the viscosity of various types of liquids and melts under pressure are reviewed. Experimentally, the least studied melts are those of metals, whose viscosity is considered to be virtually constant along the melting curve. The authors' new approach to the viscosity of melts involves the measurement of the grain size in solidified samples. Measurements on liquid metals at pressures up to 10 GPa using this method show, contrary to the empirical approach, that the melt viscosity grows considerably along the melting curves. Based on the experimental data and on the critical analysis of current theories, a hypothesis of a universal viscosity behavior is introduced for liquids under pressure. Extrapolating the liquid iron results to the pressures and temperatures at the Earth's core reveals that the Earth's outer core is a very viscous melt with viscosity values ranging from 102 Pa s to 1011 Pa s depending on the depth. The Earth's inner core is presumably an ultraviscous (>1011 Pa s) glass-like liquid — in disagreement with the current idea of a crystalline inner core. The notion of the highly viscous interior of celestial bodies sheds light on many mysteries of planetary geophysics and astronomy. From the analysis of the pressure variation of the melting and glass-transition temperatures, an entirely new concept of a stable metallic vitreous state arises, calling for further experimental and theoretical study.

  13. Urinary Fluoride Concentration in Children with Disabilities Following Long-Term Fluoride Tablet Ingestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Jung-Ren; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Hsiao, Szu-Yu; Huang, Shun-Te; Chen, Hong-Sen

    2011-01-01

    Urine is the most commonly utilized biomarker for fluoride excretion in public health and epidemiological studies. Approximately 30-50% of fluoride is excreted from urine in children. Urinary fluoride excretion reflects the total fluoride intake from multiple sources. After administering fluoride tablets to children with disabilities, urinary…

  14. Biosorption of metal and salt tolerant microbial isolates from a former uranium mining area. Their impact on changes in rare earth element patterns in acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Haferburg, Götz; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

    2007-12-01

    The concentration of metals in microbial habitats influenced by mining operations can reach enormous values. Worldwide, much emphasis is placed on the research of resistance and biosorptive capacities of microorganisms suitable for bioremediation purposes. Using a collection of isolates from a former uranium mining area in Eastern Thuringia, Germany, this study presents three Gram-positive bacterial strains with distinct metal tolerances. These strains were identified as members of the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. Acid mine drainage (AMD) originating from the same mining area is characterized by high metal concentrations of a broad range of elements and a very low pH. AMD was analyzed and used as incubation solution. The sorption of rare earth elements (REE), aluminum, cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel, strontium, and uranium through selected strains was studied during a time course of four weeks. Biosorption was investigated after one hour, one week and four weeks by analyzing the concentrations of metals in supernatant and biomass. Additionally, dead biomass was investigated after four weeks of incubation. The maximum of metal removal was reached after one week. Up to 80% of both Al and Cu, and more than 60% of U was shown to be removed from the solution. High concentrations of metals could be bound to the biomass, as for example 2.2 mg/g U. The strains could survive four weeks of incubation. Distinct and different patterns of rare earth elements of the inoculated and non-inoculated AMD water were observed. Changes in REE patterns hint at different binding types of heavy metals regarding incubation time and metabolic activity of the cells. (c) 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Quest for highly connected metal-organic framework platforms: rare-earth polynuclear clusters versatility meets net topology needs.

    PubMed

    Alezi, Dalal; Peedikakkal, Abdul Malik P; Weseliński, Łukasz J; Guillerm, Vincent; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Cairns, Amy J; Chen, Zhijie; Wojtas, Łukasz; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-04-29

    Gaining control over the assembly of highly porous rare-earth (RE) based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) remains challenging. Here we report the latest discoveries on our continuous quest for highly connected nets. The topological exploration based on the noncompatibility of a 12-connected RE polynuclear carboxylate-based cluster, points of extension matching the 12 vertices of the cuboctahedron (cuo), with 3-connected organic ligands led to the discovery of two fascinating and highly connected minimal edge-transitive nets, pek and aea. The reduced symmetry of the employed triangular tricarboxylate ligand, as compared to the prototype highly symmetrical 1,3,5-benzene(tris)benzoic acid guided the concurrent occurrence of nonanuclear [RE9(μ3-OH)12(μ3-O)2(O2C-)12] and hexanuclear [RE6(OH)8(O2C-)8] carboxylate-based clusters as 12-connected and 8-connected molecular building blocks in the structure of a 3-periodic pek-MOF based on a novel (3,8,12)-c trinodal net. The use of a tricarboxylate ligand with modified angles between carboxylate moieties led to the formation of a second MOF containing solely nonanuclear clusters and exhibiting once more a novel and a highly connected (3,12,12)-c trinodal net with aea topology. Notably, it is the first time that RE-MOFs with double six-membered ring (d6R) secondary building units are isolated, representing therefore a critical step forward toward the design of novel and highly coordinated materials using the supermolecular building layer approach while considering the d6Rs as building pillars. Lastly, the potential of these new MOFs for gas separation/storage was investigated by performing gas adsorption studies of various probe gas molecules over a wide range of pressures. Noticeably, pek-MOF-1 showed excellent volumetric CO2 and CH4 uptakes at high pressures.

  16. Body burden of toxic metals and rare earth elements in non-smokers, cigarette smokers and electronic cigarette users.

    PubMed

    Badea, Mihaela; Luzardo, Octavio P; González-Antuña, Ana; Zumbado, Manuel; Rogozea, Liliana; Floroian, Laura; Alexandrescu, Dana; Moga, Marius; Gaman, Laura; Radoi, Mariana; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto

    2018-06-13

    Smoking is considered an important source for inorganic elements, most of them toxic for human health. During the last years, there has been a significant increase in the use of e-cigarettes, although the role of them as source of inorganic elements has not been well established. A cross-sectional study including a total of 150 subjects from Brasov (Romania), divided into three groups (non-smokers, cigarette smokers and electronic cigarettes smokers) were recruited to disclose the role of smoking on the human exposure to inorganic elements. Concentration of 42 elements, including trace elements, elements in the ATSDR's priority pollutant list and rare earth elements (REE) were measured by ICP-MS in the blood serum of participants. Cigarette smokers showed the highest levels of copper, molybdenum, zinc, antimony, and strontium. Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users presented the highest concentrations of selenium, silver, and vanadium. Beryllium, europium and lanthanides were detected more frequently among e-cigarette users (20.6%, 23.5%, and 14.7%) than in cigarette smokers (1.7%, 19.0%, and 12.1%, respectively); and the number of detected REE was also higher among e-cigarette users (11.8% of them showed more than 10 different elements). Serum levels of cerium and erbium increased as the duration of the use of e-cigarettes was longer. We have found that smoking is mainly a source of heavy metals while the use of e-cigarettes is a potential source of REE. However, these elements were detected at low concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned in...

  18. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned in...

  19. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned in...

  20. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned in...

  1. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned in...

  2. Origin of low sodium capacity in graphite and generally weak substrate binding of Na and Mg among alkali and alkaline earth metals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyue; Merinov, Boris V; Goddard, William A

    2016-04-05

    It is well known that graphite has a low capacity for Na but a high capacity for other alkali metals. The growing interest in alternative cation batteries beyond Li makes it particularly important to elucidate the origin of this behavior, which is not well understood. In examining this question, we find a quite general phenomenon: among the alkali and alkaline earth metals, Na and Mg generally have the weakest chemical binding to a given substrate, compared with the other elements in the same column of the periodic table. We demonstrate this with quantum mechanics calculations for a wide range of substrate materials (not limited to C) covering a variety of structures and chemical compositions. The phenomenon arises from the competition between trends in the ionization energy and the ion-substrate coupling, down the columns of the periodic table. Consequently, the cathodic voltage for Na and Mg is expected to be lower than those for other metals in the same column. This generality provides a basis for analyzing the binding of alkali and alkaline earth metal atoms over a broad range of systems.

  3. Magnesium fluoride reduction-vessel liners. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Latham-Brown, C.E.

    1986-03-26

    The work described in this report details a program that demonstrated a method by which magnesium fluoride, the by-product of the reduction reaction of uranium tetrafluoride to uranium metal could be used to replace the present graphite used to line the reduction vessel. Utilization of magnesium fluoride (MgF2) as a reduction-vessel liner has the potential to decrease carbon contamination and thereby reduce DU derby rejects due to chemistry. Additionally, there would be the elimination of the cost of the graphite crucible liner and the associated disposal costs by replacement with the by-product of the reduction reaction, which is magnesium fluoride.more » The process would ultimately result in reduced manufacturing costs for derby metal and higher yield of finished penetrators. This was to be accomplished in such a manner as to produce uranium metal derbies which would be accommodated into the present Nuclear Metals-Carolina Metals penetrator production process with minimal changes in equipment and procedures.« less

  4. Estimated dietary fluoride intake for New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Cressey, Peter; Gaw, Sally; Love, John

    2010-01-01

    Existing fluoride concentration and consumption data were used to estimate fluoride intakes from the diet and toothpaste use, for New Zealand subpopulations, to identify any population groups at risk of high-fluoride intake. For each sub-population, two separate dietary intake estimates were made--one based on a non-fluoridated water supply (fluoride concentration of 0.1 mg/L), and the other based on a water supply fluoridated to a concentration of 1.0 mg/L. Fluoride concentration data were taken from historical surveys, while food consumption data were taken from national 24-hour dietary recall surveys or from simulated diets. Mean and 95th percentile estimations of dietary fluoride intake were well below the upper level of intake (UL), whether intakes were calculated on the basis of a non-fluoridated or fluoridated water supply. The use of fluoride-containing toothpastes provides additional fluoride intake. For many of the population groups considered, mean fluoride intakes were below the adequate intake (AI) level for caries protection, even after inclusion of the fluoride contribution from toothpaste. Intake of fluoride was driven by consumption of dietary staples (bread, potatoes),beverages (particularly tea, soft drinks, and beer), and the fluoride status of drinking water. Estimates of fluoride intake from the diet and toothpaste did not identify any groups at risk of exceeding the UL, with the exception of infants (6-12 months) living in areas with fluoridated water supplies and using high-fluoride toothpaste. In contrast, much of the adult population may be receiving insufficient fluoride for optimum caries protection from these sources, as represented by the AI.

  5. Natural fluoride levels in some springs and streams from the late Maastrichtian Ajali formation in Ohafia-Arochukwu area of south eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibe, K K; Adlegbembo, A O; Mafeni, J O; Danfillo, I S

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide baseline data on the fluoride levels in waters associated with the late Maastrichtian Ajali formation in Ohafia-Arochukwu area of South Eastern Nigeria. Water samples from 14 artesian, perched springs and eight streams from the formation were collected with plastic containers. Fluoride analysis was carried out with inductively coupled plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) equipment at the laboratories of the Department of Earth Science, University of Leeds, United Kingdom. The results showed that fluoride occurred in only one of the 14 spring water samples. Fluoride level in the sample was 0.03 ppm. The spring water, which contained some fluoride, was possibly associated with another rock formation: namely, the limestone bearing Nsukka formation, which overlies the Ajali formation. No fluoride was observed in all the stream water samples. This study reported the absence of fluoride in spring and stream waters associated with the late Maastrichtian formations in Nigeria.

  6. Fluorination utilizing thermodynamically unstable fluorides and fluoride salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Bartlett, Neil; Whalen, J. Marc; Chacon, Lisa

    2000-12-12

    A method for fluorinating a carbon compound or cationic carbon compound utilizes a fluorination agent selected from thermodynamically unstable nickel fluorides and salts thereof in liquid anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. The desired carbon compound or cationic organic compound to undergo fluorination is selected and reacted with the fluorination agent by contacting the selected organic or cationic organic compound and the chosen fluorination agent in a reaction vessel for a desired reaction time period at room temperature or less.

  7. Investigating the Intercalation Chemistry of Alkali Ions in Fluoride Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Tanghong; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Lei

    Reversible intercalation reactions provide the basis for modern battery electrodes. In spite of the decades of exploration of electrode materials, the potential for materials in the nonoxide chemical space with regards to intercalation chemistry is vast and rather untested. Transition metal fluorides stand out as an obvious target. To this end, we report herein a new family of iron fluoride-based perovskite cathode materials A xK 1–xFeF 3 (A = Li, Na). By starting with KFeF 3, approximately 75% of K+ ions were subsequently replaced by Li + and Na + through electrochemical means. X-ray diffraction and Fe X-ray absorption spectroscopymore » confirmed the existence of intercalation of alkali metal ions in the perovskite structure, which is associated with the Fe 2+/3+ redox couple. A computational study by density functional theory showed agreement with the structural and electrochemical data obtained experimentally, which suggested the possibility of fluoride-based materials as potential intercalation electrodes. Our study increases our understanding of the intercalation chemistry of ternary fluorides, which could inform efforts toward the exploration of new electrode materials.« less

  8. Investigating the Intercalation Chemistry of Alkali Ions in Fluoride Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Tanghong; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Lei

    Reversible intercalation reactions provide the basis for modern battery electrodes. Despite decades of exploration of electrode materials, the potential for materials in the nonoxide chemical space with regards to intercalation chemistry is vast and rather untested. Transition metal fluorides stand out as an obvious target. To this end, we report herein a new family of iron fluoride-based perovskite cathode materials A xK 1–xFeF 3 (A = Li, Na). By starting with KFeF 3, approximately 75% of K + ions were subsequently replaced by Li + and Na + through electrochemical means. X-ray diffraction and Fe X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirmed themore » existence of intercalation of alkali metal ions in the perovskite structure, which is associated with the Fe 2+/3+ redox couple. A computational study by density functional theory showed agreement with the structural and electrochemical data obtained experimentally, which suggested the possibility of fluoride-based materials as potential intercalation electrodes. This study increases our understanding of the intercalation chemistry of ternary fluorides, which could inform efforts toward the exploration of new electrode materials.« less

  9. Investigating the Intercalation Chemistry of Alkali Ions in Fluoride Perovskites

    DOE PAGES

    Yi, Tanghong; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Lei; ...

    2017-01-20

    Reversible intercalation reactions provide the basis for modern battery electrodes. In spite of the decades of exploration of electrode materials, the potential for materials in the nonoxide chemical space with regards to intercalation chemistry is vast and rather untested. Transition metal fluorides stand out as an obvious target. To this end, we report herein a new family of iron fluoride-based perovskite cathode materials A xK 1–xFeF 3 (A = Li, Na). By starting with KFeF 3, approximately 75% of K+ ions were subsequently replaced by Li + and Na + through electrochemical means. X-ray diffraction and Fe X-ray absorption spectroscopymore » confirmed the existence of intercalation of alkali metal ions in the perovskite structure, which is associated with the Fe 2+/3+ redox couple. A computational study by density functional theory showed agreement with the structural and electrochemical data obtained experimentally, which suggested the possibility of fluoride-based materials as potential intercalation electrodes. Our study increases our understanding of the intercalation chemistry of ternary fluorides, which could inform efforts toward the exploration of new electrode materials.« less

  10. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    ... and School-Linked Dental Sealant Programs Coordinate Community Water Fluoridation Programs Targeted Clinical Preventive Services & Health Systems Changes State Oral Health Plans Research & Publications Oral Health In America: Summary of the ...

  11. Do Fluoride Ions Protect Teeth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Begins with the procedure and results from an investigation on the effect of fluoride on the reaction between eggshell (substitute teeth) and dilute ethanoic acid. Describes an elegantly modified and improvised apparatus. (DDR)

  12. Fluoride glass: Crystallization, surface tension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    Fluoride glass was levitated acoustically in the ACES apparatus on STS-11, and the recovered sample had a different microstructure from samples cooled in a container. Further experiments on levitated samples of fluoride glass are proposed. These include nucleation, crystallization, melting observations, measurement of surface tension of molten glass, and observation of bubbles in the glass. Ground experiments are required on sample preparation, outgassing, and surface reactions. The results should help in the development and evaluation of containerless processing, especially of glass, in the development of a contaminent-free method of measuring surface tensions of melts, in extending knowledge of gas and bubble behavior in fluoride glasses, and in increasing insight into the processing and properties of fluoride glasses.

  13. Atomic layer deposition of magnesium fluoride via bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)magnesium and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessy, John, E-mail: hennessy@caltech.edu; Jewell, April D.; Greer, Frank

    2015-01-15

    A new process has been developed to deposit magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) thin films via atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as optical coatings in the ultraviolet. MgF{sub 2} was deposited in a showerhead style ALD reactor using bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)magnesium and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF) as precursors at substrate temperatures from 100 to 250 °C. The use of HF was observed to result in improved morphology and reduced impurity content compared to other reported MgF{sub 2} ALD approaches that use metal fluoride precursors as the fluorine-containing chemistry. Characterization of these films has been performed using spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and x-raymore » photoelectron spectroscopy for material deposited on silicon substrates. Films at all substrate temperatures were transparent at wavelengths down to 190 nm and the low deposition temperature combined with low surface roughness makes these coatings good candidates for a variety of optical applications in the far ultraviolet.« less

  14. Laboratory calibration and field testing of the Chemcatcher-Metal for trace levels of rare earth elements in estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jördis; Pröfrock, Daniel; Paschke, Albrecht; Broekaert, Jose A C; Prange, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Little knowledge is available about water concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in the marine environment. The direct measurement of REEs in coastal waters is a challenging task due to their ultra-low concentrations as well as the high salt content in the water samples. To quantify these elements at environmental concentrations (pg L(-1) to low ng L(-1)) in coastal waters, current analytical techniques are generally expensive and time consuming, and require complex chemical preconcentration procedures. Therefore, an integrative passive sampler was tested as a more economic alternative sampling approach for REE analysis. We used a Chemcatcher-Metal passive sampler consisting of a 3M Empore Chelating Disk as the receiving phase, as well as a cellulose acetate membrane as the diffusion-limiting layer. The effect of water turbulence and temperature on the uptake rates of REEs was analyzed during 14-day calibration experiments by a flow-through exposure tank system. The sampling rates were in the range of 0.42 mL h(-1) (13 °C; 0.25 m s(-1)) to 4.01 mL h(-1) (13 °C; 1 m s(-1)). Similar results were obtained for the different REEs under investigation. The water turbulence was the most important influence on uptake. The uptake rates were appropriate to ascertain time-weighted average concentrations of REEs during a field experiment in the Elbe Estuary near Cuxhaven Harbor (exposure time 4 weeks). REE concentrations were determined to be in the range 0.2 to 13.8 ng L(-1), where the highest concentrations were found for neodymium and samarium. In comparison, most of the spot samples measured along the Chemcatcher samples had REE concentrations below the limit of detection, in particular due to necessary dilution to minimize the analytical problems that arise with the high salt content in marine water samples. This study was among the first efforts to measure REE levels in the field using a passive sampling approach. Our results suggest that passive samplers could be

  15. Gas phase reactions of doubly charged alkaline earth and transition metal(II)-ligand complexes generated by electrospray ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Martin; Leary, Julie A.

    1997-03-01

    Doubly charged metal(II)-complexes of [alpha] 1-3, [alpha] 1-6 mannotriose and the conserved trimannosyl core pentasaccharide as well as doubly charged complexes of Co(II), Mn(II), Ca(II) and Sr(II) with acetonitrile generated by electrospray ionization were studied by low energy collision induced dissociation (CID). Two main fragmentation pathways were observed for the metal(II)-oligosaccharide complexes. Regardless of the coordinating metal, loss of a neutral dehydrohexose residue (162 Da) from the doubly charged precursor ion is observed, forming a doubly charged product ion. However, if the oligosaccharide is coordinated to Co(II) or Mn(II), loss of a dehydroxyhexose cation is also observed. Investigation of the low mass region of the mass spectra of the metal coordinated oligosaccharides revealed intense signals corresponding to [metal(II) + (CH3CN)n2+ (where n = 1-6) species which were being formed by the metal(II) ions and the acetonitrile present in the sample. Analysis of these metal(II)-acetonitrile complexes provided further insight into the processes occurring upon low energy CID of doubly charged metal complexes. The metal(II)-acetonitrile system showed neutral loss and ligand cleavage as observed with the oligosaccharide complexes, as well as a series of six different dissociation mechanisms, most notable among them reduction from [metal(II) + (CH3CN)n2+ to the bare [metal(I)]+ species by electron transfer. Depending on the metal and collision gas chosen, one observes electron transfer from the ligand to the metal, electron transfer from the collision gas to the metal, proton transfer between ligands, heterolytic cleavage of the ligands, reactive collisions and loss of neutral ligands.

  16. Influence of rare earth content on Mm-based AB 5 metal hydride alloys for Ni-MH batteries-An X-ray fluorescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, M. V.; Raju, M.; Manimaran, K.; Balachandran, G.; Nair, Lekshmi M.

    AB 5-type MH alloys with Mm (Misch metal) as the A part (with varied rare earth contents in Mm) were investigated for rare earth by XRF analysis and battery performance by life cycle tests with an objective of understanding the influence of rare earth content on electrochemical hydrogen storage. The La/Ce ratio was found to vary from 0.51 to 18.73. The capacity output varied between 179 and 266 mAh g -1. The results show that the La/Ce ratio has a strong influence on the performance, with the best performance realized with samples having an La/Ce ratio of around 12. La enhancement facilitates easy activation due to refinement in grain size and interstitial dimensions. Also, an orderly influence on crystalline structure could be seen. The study demonstrates that the rare earth content is an essential factor in determining the maximum capacity output because of its influence on crystal orientation as well as an increase in the radius of the interstitials, lattice constants and cell volumes.

  17. Urinary fluoride excretion in preschool children after intake of fluoridated milk and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Norman, M; Twetman, S; Hultgren Talvilahti, A; Granström, E; Stecksén-Blicks, C

    2017-03-01

    To assess the urinary fluoride excretion in preschool children after drinking fluoridated milk with 0.185 mg F and 0.375 mg F and to study the impact of use of fluoride toothpaste. Double-blind cross-over study. Nine healthy children, 2.5-4.5 years of age. In a randomized order, participants drank 1.5 dl milk once daily for 7 days with no fluoride added (control), 0.185 mg fluoride added and 0.375 mg fluoride added. The experiment was performed twice with (Part I) and without (Part II) parental tooth brushing with 1,000 ppm fluoride toothpaste. The fluoride content in the piped drinking water was 0.5 mg F/L. Urinary fluoride excretion. The 24-hour urinary fl uoride excretion/kg body weight varied from 0.014 mg F for the placebo intervention and non-fluoride toothpaste to 0.027 mg F for the 0.375 mg intervention with use of 1,000 ppm fluoride toothpaste. The difference compared with the placebo intervention was not statistically significant for any of the interventions when fluoride toothpaste was used (p⟩0.05) while it was statistically significantly different when non-fluoride toothpaste was used (p⟨0.05). All sources of fluoride must be considered when designing community programs. With 0.5 mg F/L in the drinking water and daily use of fluoride toothpaste, most children had a fluoride intake optimal for dental health. In this setting, additional intake of fluoride milk was within safe limits up to 0.185 mg/day while conclusions about the safety of 0.375 mg/day were uncertain. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd

  18. Dehydrogenation of secondary amines: synthesis, and characterization of rare-earth metal complexes incorporating imino- or amido-functionalized pyrrolyl ligands.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinghai; Zhou, Shuangliu; Wang, Shaowu; Zhu, Xiancui; Zhang, Lijun; Feng, Zhijun; Guo, Liping; Wang, Fenhua; Wei, Yun

    2013-02-28

    The dehydrogenation of pyrrolyl-functionalized secondary amines initiated by rare-earth metal amides was systematically studied. Reactions of the rare-earth metal amides [(Me(3)Si)(2)N](3)RE(μ-Cl)Li(THF)(3) with pyrrolyl-functionalized secondary amines 2-(t)BuNHCH(2)-5-R-C(4)H(2)NH (R = H (1), R = (t)Bu (2)) led to dehydrogenation of the secondary amines with isolation of imino-functionalized pyrrolyl rare-earth metal complexes [2-(t)BuN=CH-5-R-C(4)H(2)N](2)REN(SiMe(3))(2) (R = H, RE = Y (3a), Dy (3b), Yb (3c), Eu (3d); R = (t)Bu, RE = Y (4a), Dy (4b), Er (4c)). The mixed ligands erbium complex [2-(t)BuNCH(2)-5-(t)Bu-C(4)H(2)N]Er[2-(t)BuN=CH-5-(t)BuC(4)H(2)N](2)ClLi(2)(THF) (4c') was isolated in a short reaction time for the synthesis of complex 4c. Reaction of the deuterated pyrrolyl-functionalized secondary amine 2-((t)BuNHCHD)C(4)H(3)NH with yttrium amide [(Me(3)Si)(2)N](3)Y(μ-Cl)Li(THF)(3) further proved that pyrrolyl-amino ligands were transferred to pyrrolyl-imino ligands. Treatment of 2-((t)BuNHCH(2))C(4)H(3)NH (1) with excess (Me(3)Si)(2)NLi gave the only pyrrole deprotonated product {[η(5):η(2):η(1)-2-((t)BuNHCH(2))C(4)H(3)N]Li(2)N(SiMe(3))(2)}(2) (5), indicating that LiN(SiMe(3))(2) could not dehydrogenate the secondary amines to imines and rare-earth metal ions had a decisive effect on the dehydrogenation. The reaction of the rare-earth metal amides [(Me(3)Si)(2)N](3)RE(μ-Cl)Li(THF)(3) with 1 equiv. of more bulky pyrrolyl-functionalized secondary amine 2-[(2,6-(i)Pr(2)C(6)H(3))NHCH(2)](C(4)H(3)NH) (6) in toluene afforded the only amine and pyrrole deprotonated dinuclear rare-earth metal amido complexes {(μ-η(5):η(1)):η(1)-2-[(2,6-(i)Pr(2)C(6)H(3))NCH(2)]C(4)H(3)N]LnN(SiMe(3))(2)}(2) (RE = Nd (7a), Sm (7b), Er (7c)), no dehydrogenation of secondary amine to imine products were observed. On the basis of experimental results, a plausible mechanism for the dehydrogenation of secondary amines to imines was proposed.

  19. Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

  20. Fate and transport of trace metals and rare earth elements in the Snake River, an AMD/ARD-impacted watershed. Montezuma, Colorado USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, D. M.; Rue, G.

    2017-12-01

    Recent research in Snake River Watershed, located near the historic boomtown of Montezuma and adjacent the Continental Divide in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, has revealed the distinctive occurrence of rare earth elements (REE) at high concentrations. Here the weathering of the mineralized lithology naturally generates acid rock drainage (ARD) in addition to drainage recieved from abandoned mine adits throughout the area, results in aqueous REE concentrations three orders of magnitude higher than in most major rivers. The dominant mechanism responsible for this enrichment; their dissolution from secondary and accessory mineral stocks, abundant in REEs, promoted by the low pH waters generated from geochemical weathering of disseminated sulfide minerals. While REEs behave conservatively in acidic conditions, as well as in the presence of stabilizing ligands such as sulfate, downstream circumneutral inputs from pristine streams and a rising pH are resulting in observed fractional losses of heavy rare earth elements as well as partitioning towards colloidal and solid phases. These finding in combination with the established role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in binding with both trace metals and REEs, suggest that competitive interactions, complexation, and scavenging are likely contributing to these proportional losses. However, outstanding questions yet remain regarding the effects of an increasing flux of trace metals as well as REEs from the Snake River Watershed into Dillon Reservoir, a major drinking water supply for the City of Denver, in part due to hydroclimatological drivers that are enhancing geochemical weathering and reducing groundwater recharge in alpine areas across the Colorado Rockies. Based on these findings also we seek to broaden this body of work to further investigate the behavior of rare earth elements (REE) in other aquatic environment as well the influence of trace metals, DOM, and pH in altering their reactivity and subsequent watershed

  1. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Chronic Fluoride Toxicity: Dental Fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    DenBesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2–3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enamel is caused by a hypomineralized enamel subsurface; with more severe dental fluorosis, pitting and a loss of the enamel surface occurs, leading to secondary staining (appearing as a brown color). Many of the changes caused by fluoride are related to cell/matrix/mineral interactions as the teeth are forming. At the early maturation stage, the relative quantity of amelogenin protein is increased in fluorosed enamel in a dose-related manner. This appears to result from a delay in the removal of amelogenins as the enamel matures. In vitro, when fluoride is incorporated into the mineral, more protein binds to the forming mineral, and protein removal by proteinases is delayed. This suggests that altered protein/mineral interactions are in part responsible for retention of amelogenins and the resultant hypomineralization that occurs in fluorosed enamel. Fluoride also appears to enhance mineral precipitation in forming teeth, resulting in hypermineralized bands of enamel, which are then followed by hypomineralized bands. Enhanced mineral precipitation with local increases in matrix acidity may affect maturation stage ameloblast modulation, potentially explaining the doserelated decrease in cycles of ameloblast modulation from ruffleended to smooth-ended cells that occur with fluoride exposure in rodents. Specific cellular effects of fluoride have been implicated, but more research is needed to determine which of these changes are relevant to the formation of fluorosed teeth. As

  3. Chronic fluoride toxicity: dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Denbesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2-3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enamel is caused by a hypomineralized enamel subsurface. With more severe dental fluorosis, pitting and a loss of the enamel surface occurs, leading to secondary staining (appearing as a brown color). Many of the changes caused by fluoride are related to cell/matrix interactions as the teeth are forming. At the early maturation stage, the relative quantity of amelogenin protein is increased in fluorosed enamel in a dose-related manner. This appears to result from a delay in the removal of amelogenins as the enamel matures. In vitro, when fluoride is incorporated into the mineral, more protein binds to the forming mineral, and protein removal by proteinases is delayed. This suggests that altered protein/mineral interactions are in part responsible for retention of amelogenins and the resultant hypomineralization that occurs in fluorosed enamel. Fluoride also appears to enhance mineral precipitation in forming teeth, resulting in hypermineralized bands of enamel, which are then followed by hypomineralized bands. Enhanced mineral precipitation with local increases in matrix acidity may affect maturation stage ameloblast modulation, potentially explaining the dose-related decrease in cycles of ameloblast modulation from ruffle-ended to smooth-ended cells that occur with fluoride exposure in rodents. Specific cellular effects of fluoride have been implicated, but more research is needed to determine which of these changes are relevant to the formation of fluorosed teeth. As further

  4. Fluoride-sulfophosphate glasses as hosts for broadband optical amplification through transition metal activators† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7tc01853c

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W. C.; Le, Q. H.; Zhang, Q. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Unusually stable multi-anion glasses of the fluoride-sulfophosphate type (FPS) are introduced as a new host material for optically active cation species. Despite a notoriously low polymerization grade, anion mixing in this glass system enables facile manufacture of bulk or fiber devices which combine several advantages of fluoride and phosphate glasses while using the stabilizing effect of sulfate additions. Using the example of chromium doping, we demonstrate broad red photoluminescence at 734 nm and inhomogeneous broadening of the R-line at 694 nm, originating from the 4T2 → 4A2 and 2E → 4A2 transitions of Cr3+, respectively. The luminescence mechanism is further analyzed on the basis of the corresponding Tanabe–Sugano diagram. Tailored through chemical composition, internally nucleated precipitation of a nanocrystalline fluoride phase enables switching between high-field and low-field configurations of the Cr3+ ion, resulting in the specific emission properties and setting the path towards FPS-based optical devices. PMID:29308205

  5. Health effects of groundwater fluoride contamination.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Bishwajit; Roy, Madan Mohan; Das, Bhaskar; Pal, Arup; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; De, Shankar Prasad; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2009-04-01

    The people in Berhait block, Sahibganj district, Jharkhand state, India, have been exposed chronically to fluoridecontaminated groundwater. Hereby, we report the clinical effects of chronic exposure to fluoride. The study population was a convenience sample of 342 adults and 258 children living in the affected area. All volunteers filled out questionnaires and were examined. Well water from the six affected villages and urine samples were analyzed for fluoride using an ion-sensitive electrode. Twenty nine percent of 89 well water samples had fluoride concentrations above the Indian permissible limit of fluoride in drinking water. Eighty-five children and 72 adults had clinical fluorosis. Urine fluoride concentrations in children were 0.758-2.88 mg/L whereas in adults they were 0.331-10.36 mg/L. Clinical effects of fluoride included abnormal tooth enamel in children; adults had joint pain and deformity of the limbs and spine, along with ligamentous calcifications and exostosis formations in seven patients. Elevated urine fluoride concentrations supported the clinical diagnosis of fluorosis. Owing to insufficient fluoride-safe wells and lack of awareness of the danger of fluoride toxicity, villagers often drink fluoride-contaminated water. Villagers of Berhait block, including children, are at risk from chronic fluoride toxicity. To combat the situation, villagers need fluoride-safe water, education, and awareness of the danger about fluoride toxicity.

  6. Fluoride metabolism when added to salt.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Gary M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the general characteristics of the metabolism of fluoride particularly as it occurs when ingested with fluoridated salt. Following the absorption of salt-borne fluoride from the stomach and intestines, its metabolism is identical to that of water-borne fluoride or other vehicles containing ionized fluoride. Because fluoridated salt is almost always ingested with food, however, absorption from the gastrointestinal tract may be delayed or reduced. Reports dealing with this subject have shown that fluoride absorption is delayed and, therefore, peak plasma concentrations are lower than when fluoride is ingested with water. The amount of ingested fluoride that is finally absorbed, however, is not appreciably affected unless the meal is composed mainly of components with high calcium concentrations. In this case, the extent of absorption can be reduced by as much as 50%. Fluoridated salt is also ingested less frequently than fluoridated water. Data are presented to show that the dose size and frequency of ingestion have only minor effects on fluoride retention in the body and on the concentrations in plasma, bone and enamel. Finally, calculations are presented to show that the risk of acute toxicity from fluoridated salt is virtually non-existent.

  7. Fluoride bioavailability in saliva and plaque

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Different fluoride formulations may have different effects on caries prevention. It was the aim of this clinical study to assess the fluoride content, provided by NaF compared to amine fluoride, in saliva and plaque. Methods Eight trained volunteers brushed their teeth in the morning for 3 minutes with either NaF or amine fluoride, and saliva and 3-day-plaque-regrowth was collected at 5 time intervals during 6 hours after tooth brushing. The amount of collected saliva and plaque was measured, and the fluoride content was analysed using a fluoride sensitive electrode. All subjects repeated all study cycles 5 times, and 3 cycles per subject underwent statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results Immediately after brushing the fluoride concentration in saliva increased rapidly and dropped to the baseline level after 360 minutes. No difference was found between NaF and amine fluoride. All plaque fluoride levels were elevated after 30 minutes until 120 minutes after tooth brushing, and decreasing after 360 minutes to baseline. According to the highly individual profile of fluoride in saliva and plaque, both levels of bioavailability correlated for the first 30 minutes, and the fluoride content of saliva and plaque was back to baseline after 6 hours. Conclusions Fluoride levels in saliva and plaque are interindividually highly variable. However, no significant difference in bioavailability between NaF and amine fluoride, in saliva, or in plaque was found. PMID:22230722

  8. Fluoride content of tank water in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, N J; Hopcraft, M S; Tong, A C; Thean, H l; Thum, Y S; Tong, D E; Wen, J; Zhao, S C; Stanton, D P; Yuan, Y; Shen, P; Reynolds, E C

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) analyse the fluoride content of tank water; (2) determine whether the method of water collection or storage influenced fluoride content; and (3) survey participant attitudes towards water fluoridation. Plastic tubes and a questionnaire were distributed through dentists to households with water tanks in Victoria. A midstream tank water sample was collected and fluoride analysed in triplicate using ion chromatography All samples (n = 123) contained negligible amounts of fluoride, with a mean fluoride concentration of <0.01 ppm (range: <0.01-0.18 ppm). No statistically significant association was found between fluoride content and variables investigated such as tank material, tank age, roof material and gutter material. Most people did not know whether their tank water contained fluoride and 40.8% preferred to have access to fluoridated water. The majority thought fluoride was safe and more than half of the respondents supported fluoridation. Fluoride content of tank water was well below the optimal levels for caries prevention. People who rely solely on tank water for drinking may require additional exposure to fluoride for optimal caries prevention. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  9. Experimental investigation of anaerobic nitrogen fixation rates with varying pressure, temperature and metal concentration with application to the atmospheric evolution of early Earth and Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Prateek

    2012-07-01

    The atmosphere of the early Earth is thought to have been significantly different than the modern composition of 21% O2 and 78% N2, yet the planet has been clearly established as hosting microbial life as far back as 3.8 billion years ago. As such, constraining the atmospheric composition of the early Earth is fundamental to establishing a database of habitable atmospheric compositions. A similar argument can be made for the planet Mars, where nitrates have been hypothesized to exist in the subsurface. During the early period on Mars when liquid water was likely more abundant, life may have developed to take advantage of available nitrates and a biologically-driven Martian nitrogen cycle could have evolved. Early Earth atmospheric composition has been investigated numerically, but only recently has the common assumption of a pN2 different than modern been investigated. Nonetheless, these latest attempts fail to take into account a key atmospheric parameter: life. On modern Earth, nitrogen is cycled vigorously by biology. The nitrogen cycle likely operated on the early Earth, but probably differed in the metabolic processes responsible, dominantly due to the lack of abundant oxygen which stabilizes oxidized forms of N that drive de-nitrification today. Recent advances in evolutionary genomics suggest that microbial pathways that are relatively uncommon today (i.e. vanadium and iron-based nitrogen fixation) probably played important roles in the early N cycle. We quantitatively investigate in the laboratory the effects of variable pressure, temperature and metal concentration on the rates of anoxic nitrogen fixation, as possible inputs for future models investigating atmospheric evolution, and better understand the evolution of the nitrogen cycle on Earth. A common anaerobic methanogenic archaeal species with i) a fully sequenced genome, ii) all three nitrogenases (molybdenum, vanadium and iron-based) and iii) the ability to be genetically manipulated will be used as

  10. Cysteine-Functionalized Chitosan Magnetic Nano-Based Particles for the Recovery of Light and Heavy Rare Earth Metals: Uptake Kinetics and Sorption Isotherms

    PubMed Central

    Galhoum, Ahmed A.; Mafhouz, Mohammad G.; Abdel-Rehem, Sayed T.; Gomaa, Nabawia A.; Atia, Asem A.; Vincent, Thierry; Guibal, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine-functionalized chitosan magnetic nano-based particles were synthesized for the sorption of light and heavy rare earth (RE) metal ions (La(III), Nd(III) and Yb(III)). The structural, surface, and magnetic properties of nano-sized sorbent were investigated by elemental analysis, FTIR, XRD, TEM and VSM (vibrating sample magnetometry). Experimental data show that the pseudo second-order rate equation fits the kinetic profiles well, while sorption isotherms are described by the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic constants (ΔG°, ΔH°) demonstrate the spontaneous and endothermic nature of sorption. Yb(III) (heavy RE) was selectively sorbed while light RE metal ions La(III) and Nd(III) were concentrated/enriched in the solution. Cationic species RE(III) in aqueous solution can be adsorbed by the combination of chelating and anion-exchange mechanisms. The sorbent can be efficiently regenerated using acidified thiourea. PMID:28347004

  11. Tuning bad metal and non-Fermi liquid behavior in a Mott material: Rare-earth nickelate thin films

    PubMed Central

    Mikheev, Evgeny; Hauser, Adam J.; Himmetoglu, Burak; Moreno, Nelson E.; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Resistances that exceed the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit (known as bad metal behavior) and non-Fermi liquid behavior are ubiquitous features of the normal state of many strongly correlated materials. We establish the conditions that lead to bad metal and non-Fermi liquid phases in NdNiO3, which exhibits a prototype bandwidth-controlled metal-insulator transition. We show that resistance saturation is determined by the magnitude of Ni eg orbital splitting, which can be tuned by strain in epitaxial films, causing the appearance of bad metal behavior under certain conditions. The results shed light on the nature of a crossover to a non-Fermi liquid metal phase and provide a predictive criterion for Anderson localization. They elucidate a seemingly complex phase behavior as a function of film strain and confinement and provide guidelines for orbital engineering and novel devices. PMID:26601140

  12. Capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for the quantification of fluoride in lithium ion battery electrolytes and in ionic liquids-A comparison to the results gained with a fluoride ion-selective electrode.

    PubMed

    Pyschik, Marcelina; Klein-Hitpaß, Marcel; Girod, Sabrina; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2017-02-01

    In this study, an optimized method using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with a direct contactless conductivity detector (C 4 D) for a new application field is presented for the quantification of fluoride in common used lithium ion battery (LIB) electrolyte using LiPF 6 in organic carbonate solvents and in ionic liquids (ILs) after contacted to Li metal. The method development for finding the right buffer and the suitable CE conditions for the quantification of fluoride was investigated. The results of the concentration of fluoride in different LIB electrolyte samples were compared to the results from the ion-selective electrode (ISE). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) and recovery rates for fluoride were obtained with a very high accuracy in both methods. The results of the fluoride concentration in the LIB electrolytes were in very good agreement for both methods. In addition, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values were determined for the CE method. The CE method has been applied also for the quantification of fluoride in ILs. In the fresh IL sample, the concentration of fluoride was under the LOD. Another sample of the IL mixed with Li metal has been investigated as well. It was possible to quantify the fluoride concentration in this sample. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Theoretical study of mixed MLaX(4) (M = Na, K, Cs; X = F, Cl, Br, I) rare earth/alkali metal halide complexes.

    PubMed

    Groen, Cornelis Petrus; Oskam, Ad; Kovács, Attila

    2003-02-10

    The structure, bonding, and vibrational properties of the mixed MLaX(4) (M = Na, K, Cs; X = F, Cl, Br, I) rare earth/alkali metal halide complexes have been studied using the MP2 method in conjunction with polarized triple-zeta valence basis sets and quasi-relativistic effective core potentials for the heavy atoms. From the three characteristic structures, possessing 1- (C(3)(v)), 2- (C(2)(v)), or 3-fold coordination (C(3)(v)) between the alkali metal and the bridging halide atoms, the bi- and tridentate forms are stable isomers with close dissociation energies. In general, for the complexes existing of lighter alkali metals and halogens, the bidentate structure corresponds to the global minimum of the potential energy surface, while the heavier analogues favor the tridentate structure. At experimentally relevant temperatures (T > 800 K), however, the isomerization entropy leads to a domination of the bidentate structures over the tridentate forms for all complexes. An important effect of the size of the alkali metal is manifested in the larger stabilities of the K and Cs complexes. The natural atomic charges are in agreement with strong electrostatic interactions in the title complexes. The marginal covalent contributions show a slight increasing trend in the heavier analogues. The calculated vibrational data indicate that infrared spectroscopy may be an effective tool for experimental investigation and characterization of MLaX(4) molecules.

  14. Exposure to water fluoridation and caries increment.

    PubMed

    Spencer, A J; Armfield, J M; Slade, G D

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to examine the association between exposure to water fluoridation and the increment of dental caries in two Australian states: Queensland (Qld)--5 per cent fluoridation coverage; and South Australia (SA)--70 per cent fluoridation coverage. Stratified random samples were drawn from fluoridated Adelaide and the largely non-fluoridated rest-of-state in SA, and fluoridated Townsville and non-fluoridated Brisbane in Qld. Children were enrolled between 1991 and 1992 (SA: 5-15 yrs old, n = 9,980; Qld: 5-12 yrs old, n = 10,695). Follow-up caries status data for 3 years (+/- 1/2 year) were available on 8,183 children in SA and 6,711 children in Qld. Baseline data on lifetime exposure to fluoridated water, use of other fluorides and socio-economic status (SES) were collected by questionnaire, and tooth surface caries status by dental examinations in school dental service clinics. Higher per cent lifetime exposure to fluoridated water (6 categories: 0;1-24; 25-49; 50-74; 75-99; 100 per cent) was a significant predictor (ANOVA, p < 0.01) of lower annualised Net Caries Increment (NCI) for the deciduous dentition in SA and Qld, but only for Qld in the permanent dentition. These associations persisted in multiple linear regression analyses controlling for age, gender, exposure to other fluorides and SES (p < 0.05). Water fluoridation was effective in reducing caries increment, even in the presence of a dilution effect from other fluorides. The effect of fluoridated water consumption was strongest in the deciduous dentition and where diffusion of food and beverages from fluoridated to non-fluoridated areas was less likely.

  15. Effect of CO2 Laser and Fluoride Varnish Application on Microhardness of Enamel Surface Around Orthodontic Brackets

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudzadeh, Majid; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Farhadian, Nasrin; Jamalian, Seyed Farzad; Akbarzadeh, Mahdi; Momeni, Mohammadali; Basamtabar, Masome

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Orthodontic treatment has many advantages such as esthetic improvement and self-esteem enhancement; yet it has some disadvantages such as increasing the risk of formation of white spot lesions, because it makes oral hygiene more difficult. It is rational to implement procedures to prevent these lesions. The present study was aimed to assess the effect of CO2 laser and fluoride varnish on the surface of the enamel surface microhardness around the orthodontic braces. Methods: Eighty extracted premolar teeth were selected, scaled, polished with nonfluoridated pumic and metal brackets were bonded to them. Then, they were randomly allocated to 5 groups: control (neither fluoride nor laser is used on enamel surfaces), fluoride (4 minutes fluoride varnish treatment of the enamel surfaces), CO2 laser (10.6 µm CO2 laser irradiation of the teeth), laserfluoride (fluoride application after laser irradiation) and fluoride-laser (fluoride was applied and then teeth were irradiated with laser). After surface treatment around brackets on enamel, the samples were stored in 0.1% thymol for less than 5 days and then they were exposed to a 10-day microbiological caries model. Microhardness values of enamel were evaluated with Vickers test. One sample of each group (5 teeth from 80 samples) was prepared for SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and the data from 75 remaining teeth were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests (α =0.05). Results: Microhardness mean values from high to low were as follow: fluoride-laser, laser-fluoride, laser, fluoride and control. Microhardness in fluoride-laser group was significantly higher compared with that of the control group. Distribution adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were significantly different between groups and most of bond failures occurred at the enamel-adhesive interface in groups 2 to 5 and at the adhesive-bracket interface in the control group. Conclusion: Combination of fluoride varnish and CO2

  16. Effect of CO2 Laser and Fluoride Varnish Application on Microhardness of Enamel Surface Around Orthodontic Brackets.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudzadeh, Majid; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Farhadian, Nasrin; Jamalian, Seyed Farzad; Akbarzadeh, Mahdi; Momeni, Mohammadali; Basamtabar, Masome

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Orthodontic treatment has many advantages such as esthetic improvement and self-esteem enhancement; yet it has some disadvantages such as increasing the risk of formation of white spot lesions, because it makes oral hygiene more difficult. It is rational to implement procedures to prevent these lesions. The present study was aimed to assess the effect of CO 2 laser and fluoride varnish on the surface of the enamel surface microhardness around the orthodontic braces. Methods: Eighty extracted premolar teeth were selected, scaled, polished with nonfluoridated pumic and metal brackets were bonded to them. Then, they were randomly allocated to 5 groups: control (neither fluoride nor laser is used on enamel surfaces), fluoride (4 minutes fluoride varnish treatment of the enamel surfaces), CO 2 laser (10.6 µm CO 2 laser irradiation of the teeth), laserfluoride (fluoride application after laser irradiation) and fluoride-laser (fluoride was applied and then teeth were irradiated with laser). After surface treatment around brackets on enamel, the samples were stored in 0.1% thymol for less than 5 days and then they were exposed to a 10-day microbiological caries model. Microhardness values of enamel were evaluated with Vickers test. One sample of each group (5 teeth from 80 samples) was prepared for SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and the data from 75 remaining teeth were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests (α =0.05). Results: Microhardness mean values from high to low were as follow: fluoride-laser, laser-fluoride, laser, fluoride and control. Microhardness in fluoride-laser group was significantly higher compared with that of the control group. Distribution adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were significantly different between groups and most of bond failures occurred at the enamel-adhesive interface in groups 2 to 5 and at the adhesive-bracket interface in the control group. Conclusion: Combination of fluoride varnish and

  17. High-fluoride groundwater.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Subba

    2011-05-01

    Fluoride (F(-)) is essential for normal bone growth, but its higher concentration in the drinking water poses great health problems and fluorosis is common in many parts of India. The present paper deals with the aim of establishment of facts of the chemical characteristics responsible for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater, after understanding the chemical behavior of F(-) in relation to pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH), non-carbonate hardness (NCH), and excess alkalinity (EA) in the groundwater observed from the known areas of endemic fluorosis zones of Andhra Pradesh that have abundant sources of F(-)-bearing minerals of the Precambrians. The chemical data of the groundwater shows that the pH increases with increase F(-); the concentration of TH is more than the concentration of TA at low F(-) groundwater, the resulting water is represented by NCH; the TH has less concentration compared to TA at high F(-) groundwater, causing the water that is characterized by EA; and the water of both low and high concentrations of F(-) has CH. As a result, the F(-) has a positive relation with pH and TA, and a negative relation with TH. The operating mechanism derived from these observations is that the F(-) is released from the source into the groundwater by geochemical reactions and that the groundwater in its flowpath is subjected to evapotranspiration due to the influence of dry climate, which accelerates a precipitation of CaCO(3) and a reduction of TH, and thereby a dissolution of F(-). Furthermore, the EA in the water activates the alkalinity in the areas of alkaline soils, leading to enrichment of F(-). Therefore, the alkaline condition, with high pH and EA, and low TH, is a more conducive environment for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater.

  18. Fabrication and Testing of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buritz, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    High energy density capacitors made from metallized polyvinylidene fluoride film were built and tested. Terminations of aluminum-babbitt, tin-babbitt, and all-babbitt were evaluated. All-babbit terminations appeared to be better. The 0.1 microfarad and 2 microfarad capacitors were made of 6 micrometer material. Capacitance, dissipation factor, and insulation resistance measurements were made over the ranges -55 C to 125 C and 10 Hz to 100 kHz. Twelve of forty-one 0.1 microfarad capacitors survived a 5000 hour dc plus ac life test. Under the same conditions, the 2 microfarad capacitors exhibited overheating because of excessive power loss. Some failures occurred after low temperature exposures for 48 hours. No failures were caused by vibration or temperature cycling.

  19. Developments in the use of rare earth metal complexes as efficient catalysts for ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters used in biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cota, Iuliana

    2017-04-01

    Biodegradable polymers represent a class of particularly useful materials for many biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Among these types of polyesters, poly(ɛ-caprolactone) and polylactides are considered very promising for controlled drug delivery devices. These polymers are mainly produced by ring-opening polymerization of their respective cyclic esters, since this method allows a strict control of the molecular parameters (molecular weight and distribution) of the obtained polymers. The most widely used catalysts for ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters are tin- and aluminium-based organometallic complexes; however since the contamination of the aliphatic polyesters by potentially toxic metallic residues is particularly of concern for biomedical applications, the possibility of replacing organometallic initiators by novel less toxic or more efficient organometallic complexes has been intensively studied. Thus, in the recent years, the use of highly reactive rare earth initiators/catalysts leading to lower polymer contamination has been developed. The use of rare earth complexes is considered a valuable strategy to decrease the polyester contamination by metallic residues and represents an attractive alternative to traditional organometallic complexes.

  20. Robust and Porous β-Diketiminate-Functionalized Metal–Organic Frameworks for Earth-Abundant-Metal-Catalyzed C–H Amination and Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Zekai; Zhang, Teng

    We have designed a strategy for postsynthesis installation of the β-diketiminate (NacNac) functionality in a metal–organic framework (MOF) of UiO-topology. Metalation of the NacNac-MOF (I) with earth-abundant metal salts afforded the desired MOF-supported NacNac-M complexes (M = Fe, Cu, and Co) with coordination environments established by detailed EXAFS studies. The NacNac-Fe-MOF catalyst, I•Fe(Me), efficiently catalyzed the challenging intramolecular sp 3 C–H amination of a series of alkyl azides to afford α-substituted pyrrolidines. The NacNac-Cu-MOF catalyst, I•Cu(THF), was effective in promoting the intermolecular sp 3 C–H amination of cyclohexene using unprotected anilines to provide access to secondary amines in excellent selectivity.more » Finally, the NacNac-Co-MOF catalyst, I•Co(H), was used to catalyze alkene hydrogenation with turnover numbers (TONs) as high as 700 000. All of the NacNac-M-MOF catalysts were more effective than their analogous homogeneous catalysts and could be recycled and reused without a noticeable decrease in yield. The NacNac-MOFs thus provide a novel platform for engineering recyclable earth-abundant-element-based single-site solid catalysts for many important organic transformations.« less

  1. Environmental impacts of heavy metals, rare earth elements and natural radionuclides in marine sediment from Ras Tanura, Saudi Arabia along the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, Atef; Alshahri, Fatimh; Elsaman, Reda

    2018-02-01

    Ras Tanura city is one of the most important cities in Saudi Arabia because of the presence of the largest and oldest oil refinery in the Middle East which was began operations in September 1945. Also its contains gas plant and two ports. The concentration of natural radionuclides, heavy metals and rare earth elements were measured in marine sediment samples collected from Ras Tanura. The specific activities of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs (Bq/kg) were measured using A hyper-pure Germanium detector (HPGe), and ranged from (20.4 ± 4.0-55.1 ± 9.9), (6.71 ± 0.7-46.1 ± 4.5), (3.51 ± 0.5-18.2 ± 1.5), (105 ± 4.4-492 ± 13) and from (0.33 ± 0.04-2.10 ± 0.4) for 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs respectively. Heavy metals and rare earth elements were measured using ICPE-9820 Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer. Also the frequency distributions for all radioactive variables in sediment samples were analyzed. Finally the radiological hazards due to natural radionuclides in marine sediment were calculated to the public and it's diagramed by Surfer program in maps. Comparing with the international recommended values, its values found to be within the international level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Indirect ultraviolet detection of alkaline earth metal ions using an imidazolium ionic liquid as an ultraviolet absorption reagent in ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Yu, Hong

    2017-04-01

    A convenient and versatile method was developed for the separation and detection of alkaline earth metal ions by ion chromatography with indirect UV detection. The chromatographic separation of Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , and Sr 2+ was performed on a carboxylic acid base cation exchange column using imidazolium ionic liquid/acid as the mobile phase, in which the imidazolium ionic liquid acted as an UV-absorption reagent. The effects of imidazolium ionic liquids, detection wavelength, acids in the mobile phase, and column temperature on the retention of Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , and Sr 2+ were investigated. The main factors influencing the separation and detection were the background UV absorption reagent and the concentration of hydrogen ion in ion chromatography with indirect UV detection. The successful separation and detection of Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , and Sr 2+ within 14 min were achieved using the selected chromatographic conditions, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.06, 0.12, and 0.23 mg/L, respectively. A new separation and detection method of alkaline earth metal ions by ion chromatography with indirect UV detection was developed, and the application range of ionic liquids was expanded. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Levels of rare earth elements, heavy metals and uranium in a population living in Baiyun Obo, Inner Mongolia, China: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhe; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Wei, Binggan; Liao, Xiaoyong; Liang, Tao; Yu, Jiangping

    2015-06-01

    The Baiyun Obo deposit is the world's largest rare earth elements (REE) deposit. We aimed to investigate levels of REE, heavy metals (HMs) and uranium (U) based on morning urine samples in a population in Baiyun Obo and to assess the possible influence of rare earth mining processes on human exposure. In the mining area, elevated levels were found for the sum of the concentrations of light REE (LREE) and heavy REE (HREE) with mean values at 3.453 and 1.151 μg g(-1) creatinine, which were significantly higher than those in the control area. Concentrations of HMs and U in the population increased concomitantly with increasing REE levels. The results revealed that besides REE, HMs and U were produced with REE exploitation. Gender, age, educational level, alcohol and smoking habit were major factors contributing to inter-individual variation. Males were more exposed to these metals than females. Concentrations in people in the senior age group and those with only primary education were low. Drinking and smoking were associated with the levels of LREE, Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb in morning urine. Hence this study provides basic and useful information when addressing public and environmental health challenges in the areas where REE are mined and processed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte battery. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1972-06-26

    It is an object of the invention to provide a primary cell or battery using ammonium fluoride--anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte having improved current and power production capabilities at low temperatures. It is operable at temperatures substantially above the boiling point of hydrogen fluoride. (GRA)

  5. A Manual for Rural School Fluoridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprouse, Larman W.; Brooks, John

    The product of a 1972 Dental Health Branch contract with the U.S. Public Health Service, this manual is designed to aid in the development of school fluoridation programs and presents: background information on general concepts relating to the action of fluoride on teeth; discussions dealing with community and school fluoridation studies; and the…

  6. The Effect of Fluoride in Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlund, L. R.; Gallagher, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of fluoride on bone tissue and the possible role of fluoride in the treatment of osteoporosis. At present, fluoride treatment should be restricted to clinical trials until its risks and benefits have been further evaluated. (Author/MT)

  7. High mobilization of arsenic, metals and rare earth elements in seepage waters driven by respiration of old allochthonous organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Weiske, Arndt; Schaller, Jörg; Hegewald, Tilo; Machill, Susanne; Werner, Ingo; Dudel, E Gert

    2013-12-01

    Metal and metalloid mobilization processes within seepage water are of major concern in a range of water reservoir systems. The mobilization process of arsenic and heavy metals within a dam and sediments of a drinking water reservoir was investigated. Principle component analysis (PCA) on time series data of seepage water showed a clear positive correlation of arsenic with iron and DOC (dissolved organic carbon), and a negative correlation with nitrate due to respiratory processes. A relationship of reductive metal and metalloid mobilization with respiration of old carbon was shown. The system is influenced by sediment layers as well as a recent DOC input from degraded ombrotrophic peatbogs in the catchment area. The isotopic composition ((12)C, (13)C and (14)C) of DOC is altered along the path from basin to seepage water, but no significant changes in structural parameters (LC-OCD-OND, FT-IR) could be seen. DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) in seepage water partly originates from respiratory processes, and a higher relationship of it with sediment carbon than with the DOC inventory of infiltrating water was found. This study revealed the interaction of respiratory processes with metal and metalloid mobilization in sediment water flows. In contrast to the presumption that emerging DOC via respiratory processes mainly controls arsenic and metal mobilization it could be shown that the presence of aged carbon compounds is essential. The findings emphasize the importance of aged organic carbon for DOC, DIC, arsenic and metal turnover.

  8. Characterization of nanoscopic calcium fluoride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehmer, A.; Kemnitz, E.

    2016-09-01

    Nano metal fluorides are appropriate materials for different applications e.g. heterogeneous catalysis, ceramic materials for laser applications and antireflective layers on glass, respectively. An easy way to synthesize such nano metal fluorides is the fluorolytic sol-gel synthesis which was developed some few years ago for HS-AlF3 [1] and MgF2.[2] CaF2 exhibits similar optical properties as MgF2, and thus, is a promising candidate for antireflective (AR) coatings. That means, CaF2 exhibits a lower refractive index (n500 = 1.44) as compared to common soda lime glass (n500 = 1.53). Hence, we present an easy synthesis approach toward nanoscaled CaF2 sols to fabricate finally AR-CaF2 films by dip coating. Irrespective of the choice of the calcium precursor, the CaF2 films are porous in comparison to thin dense CaF2 films which are generated by physical vapor deposition. The characterization of CaF2 films was performed by different analytical methods like HR-SEM, XPS, EDX, EP (ellipsometric porosimetry), DLS (dynamic light scattering) and CA (contact angle measurement). Beside the good optical and mechanical properties, we have investigated the surface properties of CaF2 films on glass and silicon wafer e.g. surface morphology with elemental composition, open porosity, zeta potentials at the surfaces as well as the free energy of interaction between water and the CaF2 film.

  9. Controlled synthesis of racemic indenyl rare-earth metal complexes via the cooperation between the intramolecular coordination of donor atoms and a bridge.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuangliu; Wu, Zhangshuan; Zhou, Lingmin; Wang, Shaowu; Zhang, Lijun; Zhu, Xiancui; Wei, Yun; Zhai, Jinhua; Wu, Jie

    2013-06-03

    The reactions of Me2Si(C9H6CH2CH2-DG)2 (DG = NMe2 (1), CH2NMe2 (2), OMe (3), and N(CH2CH2)2O (4)) with [(Me3Si)2N]3RE(μ-Cl)Li(THF)3 in toluene afforded a series of racemic divalent rare-earth metal complexes: {η(5):η(1):η(5):η(1)-Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2-DG)2}RE (DG = NMe2, RE = Yb (6) and Eu (7); DG = CH2NMe2, RE = Yb (8), Eu (9), and Sm (10); DG = OMe, RE = Yb (11) and Eu (12); DG = N(CH2CH2)2O, RE = Yb (13) and Eu (14)). Similarly, the racemic divalent rare-earth metal complexes {η(5):η(1):η(5):η(1)-Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2CH2NMe2)(C9H5CH2CH2OMe)}RE (RE = Yb (15) and Eu (16)) were also obtained. The reaction of Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2OMe)2Li2 with NdCl3 gave a racemic dimeric neodymium chloride {η(5):η(1):η(5)-Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2OMe)2NdCl}2 (17), whereas the reaction of Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2NMe2)2Li2 with SmCl3 afforded a racemic dinuclear samarium chloride bridged by lithium chloride {η(5):η(1):η(5):η(1)-Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2NMe2)2SmCl}2(μ-LiCl) (18). Further reaction of complex 18 with LiCH2SiMe3 provided an unexpected rare-earth metal alkyl complex {η(5):η(1):η(5):η(1):σ-Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2NMe2)[(C9H5CH2CH2N(CH2)Me]}Sm (19) through the activation of an sp(3) C-H bond α-adjacent to the nitrogen atom. Complexes 19 and {η(5):η(1):η(5):η(1):σ-Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2NMe2)[(C9H5CH2CH2N(CH2)Me]}Y (20) were also obtained by one-pot reactions of Me2Si(C9H5CH2CH2NMe2)2Li2 with RECl3 followed by treatment with LiCH2SiMe3. All compounds were fully characterized by spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis. Complexes 6-10 and 14-20 were further characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All of the prepared rare-earth metal complexes were racemic, suggesting that racemic organo rare-earth metal complexes could be controllably synthesized by the cooperation between a bridge and the intramolecular coordination of donor atoms.

  10. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Xin D.; Tiwari, Prabhat

    1995-01-01

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  11. Emission beyond 4  μm and mid-infrared lasing in a dysprosium-doped indium fluoride (InF3) fiber.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Matthew R; Woodward, Robert I; Carreé, Jean-Yves; Poulain, Samuel; Poulain, Marcel; Jackson, Stuart D

    2018-04-15

    Optical emission from rare-earth-doped fluoride fibers has thus far been limited to less than 4 μm. We extend emission beyond this limit by employing an indium fluoride (InF 3 ) glass fiber as the host, which exhibits an increased infrared transparency over commonly used zirconium fluoride (ZBLAN). Near-infrared pumping of a dysprosium-doped InF 3 fiber results in broad emission centered around 4.3 μm, representing the longest emission yet achieved from a fluoride fiber. The first laser emission in an InF 3 fiber is also demonstrated from the 3 μm dysprosium transition. Finally, a frequency domain excited state lifetime measurement comparison between fluoride hosts suggests that multiphonon effects are significantly reduced in indium fluoride fiber, paving the way to more efficient, longer wavelength lasers compared to ZBLAN fibers.

  12. Doping of alkali, alkaline-earth, and transition metals in covalent-organic frameworks for enhancing CO2 capture by first-principles calculations and molecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Lan, Jianhui; Cao, Dapeng; Wang, Wenchuan; Smit, Berend

    2010-07-27

    We use the multiscale simulation approach, which combines the first-principles calculations and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, to comprehensively study the doping of a series of alkali (Li, Na, and K), alkaline-earth (Be, Mg, and Ca), and transition (Sc and Ti) metals in nanoporous covalent organic frameworks (COFs), and the effects of the doped metals on CO2 capture. The results indicate that, among all the metals studied, Li, Sc, and Ti can bind with COFs stably, while Be, Mg, and Ca cannot, because the binding of Be, Mg, and Ca with COFs is very weak. Furthermore, Li, Sc, and Ti can improve the uptakes of CO2 in COFs significantly. However, the binding energy of a CO2 molecule with Sc and Ti exceeds the lower limit of chemisorptions and, thus, suffers from the difficulty of desorption. By the comparative studies above, it is found that Li is the best surface modifier of COFs for CO2 capture among all the metals studied. Therefore, we further investigate the uptakes of CO2 in the Li-doped COFs. Our simulation results show that at 298 K and 1 bar, the excess CO2 uptakes of the Li-doped COF-102 and COF-105 reach 409 and 344 mg/g, which are about eight and four times those in the nondoped ones, respectively. As the pressure increases to 40 bar, the CO2 uptakes of the Li-doped COF-102 and COF-105 reach 1349 and 2266 mg/g at 298 K, respectively, which are among the reported highest scores to date. In summary, doping of metals in porous COFs provides an efficient approach for enhancing CO2 capture.

  13. Absorption spectroscopy of heavy alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in rare gas matrices—CCSD(T) calculations and atomic site occupancies

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Barry M.; McCaffrey, John G., E-mail: john.mccaffrey@nuim.ie

    2016-01-28

    Isolation of the heavier alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in the solid rare gases (RGs) Ar, Kr, and Xe is analysed with absorption spectroscopy and interpreted partly with the assistance of ab initio calculations of the diatomic M ⋅ RG ground state interaction potentials. The y{sup 1}P←a{sup 1}S resonance transitions in the visible spectral region are used to compare the isolation conditions of these two metal atom systems and calcium. Complex absorption bands were recorded in all three metal atom systems even after extensive sample annealing. Coupled cluster calculations conducted on the ground states of the nine M ⋅more » RG diatomics (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba; RG = Ar, Kr, and Xe) at the coupled cluster single, double, and non-iterative triple level of theory revealed long bond lengths (>5 Å) and shallow bound regions (<130 cm{sup −1}). All of the M ⋅ RG diatomics have bond lengths considerably longer than those of the rare gas dimers, with the consequence that isolation of these metal atoms in a single substitutional site of the solid rare gas is unlikely, with the possible exception of Ca/Xe. The luminescence of metal dimer bands has been recorded for Ba and Sr revealing very different behaviours. Resonance fluorescence with a lifetime of 15 ns is observed for the lowest energy transition of Sr{sub 2} while this transition is quenched in Ba{sub 2}. This behaviour is consistent with the absence of vibrational structure on the dimer absorption band in Ba{sub 2} indicating lifetime broadening arising from efficient relaxation to low-lying molecular states. More extensive 2D excitation-emission data recorded for the complex site structures present on the absorption bands of the atomic Ba and Sr systems will be presented in future publications.« less

  14. The Lewis superacid Al[N(C6F5)2]3 and its higher homolog Ga[N(C6F5)2]3 – structural features, theoretical investigation and reactions of a metal amide with higher fluoride ion affinity than SbF5† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. CCDC 1557072–1557076. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c7sc03988c

    PubMed Central

    Kögel, J. F.; Sorokin, D. A.; Khvorost, A.; Scott, M.; Harms, K.; Himmel, D.; Krossing, I.

    2017-01-01

    Herein we present the synthesis of the two Lewis acids Al[N(C6F5)2]3 (ALTA) and Ga[N(C6F5)2]3 (GATA) via salt elimination reactions. The metal complexes were characterized by NMR-spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction analysis revealing the stabilization of the highly Lewis acidic metal centers by secondary metal–fluorine contacts. The Lewis acidic properties of Al[N(C6F5)2]3 and Ga[N(C6F5)2]3 are demonstrated by reactions with Lewis bases resulting in the formation of metallates accompanied by crucial structural changes. The two metallates [Cs(Tol)3]+[FAl(N(C6F5)2)3]– and [AsPh4]+[ClGa(N(C6F5)2)3]– contain interesting weakly coordinating anions. The reaction of Al[N(C6F5)2]3 with trityl fluoride yielded [CPh3]+[FAl(N(C6F5)2)3]– which could find application in the activation of metallocene polymerization catalysts. The qualitative Lewis acidity of Al[N(C6F5)2]3 and Ga[N(C6F5)2]3 was investigated by means of competition experiments for chloride ions in solution. DFT calculations yielded fluoride ion affinities in the gas phase (FIA) of 555 kJ mol–1 for Al[N(C6F5)2]3 and 472 kJ mol–1 for Ga[N(C6F5)2]3. Thus, Al[N(C6F5)2]3 can be considered a Lewis superacid with a fluoride affinity higher than SbF5 (493 kJ mol–1) whereas the FIA of the corresponding gallium complex is slightly below the threshold to Lewis superacidity. PMID:29629094

  15. The role of fluoride on the process of titanium corrosion in oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Noguti, Juliana; de Oliveira, Flavia; Peres, Rogério Correa; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2012-10-01

    Titanium is known to possess excellent biocompatibility as a result of corrosion resistance, lack of allergenicity when compared with many other metals. Fluoride is well known as a specific and effective caries prophylactic agent and its systemic application has been recommended widely over recent decades. Nevertheless, high fluoride concentrations impair the corrosion resistance of titanium. The purpose of this article is to summarize the current data regarding the influence of fluoride on titanium corrosion process in the last 5 years. These data demonstrate noxious effects induced by high fluoride concentration as well as low pH in the oral cavity. Therefore, such conditions should be considered when prophylactic actions are administrated in patients containing titanium implants or other dental devices.

  16. Toxic effects of fluoride on organisms.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Huan; Chen, Liang; Kong, Ming; Qiu, Lipeng; Lü, Peng; Wu, Peng; Yang, Yanhua; Chen, Keping

    2018-04-01

    Accumulation of excess fluoride in the environment poses serious health risks to plants, animals, and humans. This endangers human health, affects organism growth and development, and negatively impacts the food chain, thereby affecting ecological balance. In recent years, numerous studies focused on the molecular mechanisms associated with fluoride toxicity. These studies have demonstrated that fluoride can induce oxidative stress, regulate intracellular redox homeostasis, and lead to mitochondrial damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress and alter gene expression. This paper reviews the present research on the potential adverse effects of overdose fluoride on various organisms and aims to improve our understanding of fluoride toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Response of the Lattice across the Filling-Controlled Mott Metal-Insulator Transition of a Rare Earth Titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Honggyu; Marshall, Patrick B.; Ahadi, Kaveh

    The lattice response of a prototype Mott insulator, SmTiO 3, to hole doping is investigated with atomic-scale spatial resolution. SmTiO 3 films are doped with Sr on the Sm site with concentrations that span the insulating and metallic sides of the filling-controlled Mott metal-insulator transition (MIT). The GdFeO 3-type distortions are investigated using an atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy technique that can resolve small lattice distortions with picometer precision. We show that these distortions are gradually and uniformly reduced as the Sr concentration is increased without any phase separation. Significant distortions persist into the metallic state. In conclusion, themore » results present a new picture of the physics of this prototype filling-controlled MIT, which is discussed.« less

  18. Response of the Lattice across the Filling-Controlled Mott Metal-Insulator Transition of a Rare Earth Titanate

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Honggyu; Marshall, Patrick B.; Ahadi, Kaveh; ...

    2017-11-02

    The lattice response of a prototype Mott insulator, SmTiO 3, to hole doping is investigated with atomic-scale spatial resolution. SmTiO 3 films are doped with Sr on the Sm site with concentrations that span the insulating and metallic sides of the filling-controlled Mott metal-insulator transition (MIT). The GdFeO 3-type distortions are investigated using an atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy technique that can resolve small lattice distortions with picometer precision. We show that these distortions are gradually and uniformly reduced as the Sr concentration is increased without any phase separation. Significant distortions persist into the metallic state. In conclusion, themore » results present a new picture of the physics of this prototype filling-controlled MIT, which is discussed.« less

  19. Source and path identification of metals pollution in a mining area by PMF and rare earth element patterns in road dust.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shuhan; Liang, Tao; Li, Kexin; Wang, Lingqing

    2018-08-15

    To better assess pollution and offer efficient protection for local residents, it is necessary to both conduct an exhaustive investigation into pollution levels and quantify its contributing sources and paths. As it is the biggest light rare earth element (REE) reserve in the world, Bayan Obo deposit releases large amounts of heavy metals into the surrounding environment. In this study, road dust from zones located at different distances to the mining area was collected and sieved using seven sizes. This allowed for subsequent analysis of size-dependent influences of mining activities. A receptor model was used to quantitatively assess mine contributions. REE distribution patterns and other REE parameters were compared with those in airborne particulates and the surrounding soil to analyze pollution paths. Results showed that 27 metals were rated as moderately to extremely polluted (2metals in residential area road dust originated directly from the mine. The provenance index (PI) calculated using the REE parameters confirmed this result. While the REE distribution pattern showed that airborne particulates may not be the path for mining-derived particles, they may be one for other sources. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. K2-155: A Bright Metal-poor M Dwarf with Three Transiting Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Dai, Fei; Livingston, John H.; Fujii, Yuka; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Gandolfi, Davide; Redfield, Seth; Winn, Joshua N.; Guenther, Eike W.; Prieto-Arranz, Jorge; Albrecht, Simon; Barragan, Oscar; Cabrera, Juan; Cauley, P. Wilson; Csizmadia, Szilard; Deeg, Hans; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Fridlund, Malcolm; Fukui, Akihiko; Grziwa, Sascha; Hatzes, Artie P.; Korth, Judith; Narita, Norio; Nespral, David; Niraula, Prajwal; Nowak, Grzegorz; Pätzold, Martin; Palle, Enric; Persson, Carina M.; Rauer, Heike; Ribas, Ignasi; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Van Eylen, Vincent

    2018-03-01

    We report on the discovery of three transiting super-Earths around K2-155 (EPIC 210897587), a relatively bright early M dwarf (V = 12.81 mag) observed during Campaign 13 of the NASA K2 mission. To characterize the system and validate the planet candidates, we conducted speckle imaging and high-dispersion optical spectroscopy, including radial velocity measurements. Based on the K2 light curve and the spectroscopic characterization of the host star, the planet sizes and orbital periods are {1.55}-0.17+0.20 {R}\\oplus and 6.34365 ± 0.00028 days for the inner planet; {1.95}-0.22+0.27 {R}\\oplus and 13.85402 ± 0.00088 days for the middle planet; and {1.64}-0.17+0.18 {R}\\oplus and 40.6835 ± 0.0031 days for the outer planet. The outer planet (K2-155d) is near the habitable zone, with an insolation 1.67 ± 0.38 times that of the Earth. The planet’s radius falls within the range between that of smaller rocky planets and larger gas-rich planets. To assess the habitability of this planet, we present a series of three-dimensional global climate simulations, assuming that K2-155d is tidally locked and has an Earth-like composition and atmosphere. We find that the planet can maintain a moderate surface temperature if the insolation proves to be smaller than ∼1.5 times that of the Earth. Doppler mass measurements, transit spectroscopy, and other follow-up observations should be rewarding, as K2-155 is one of the optically brightest M dwarfs known to harbor transiting planets.

  1. Thirty years of fluoridation: a review.

    PubMed

    Richmond, V L

    1985-01-01

    Fluoride contributes to stability of both teeth and bones and to reduction of caries, especially if ingested before eruption of teeth. Reduction of caries continues at about 60% in persons drinking fluoridated water only as long as fluoride washes over teeth. One-half the population of the US does not have access to water with an optimal fluoride concentration of about 1 mg/L. Misinformation about fluoridation contributes to reluctance of communities to supplement the natural but inadequate fluoride of those water supplies. Fluoridation of water has no positive or negative effect on incidence or mortality rates due to cancer, heart disease, intracranial lesions, nephritis, cirrhosis, mongoloid births, or from all causes together. The collective decision to increase the natural fluoride content of water supplies is not an infringement of civil rights, nor does it establish a precedent in the binding sense of the law. Supplemental fluoride in water makes it available to all members of the community in a safe, practical, economical and reliable manner. Fluoridation saves money in dental costs and time lost from work. Fluoridation is an appropriate action of government in promoting the health and welfare of society.

  2. Di and trinuclear rare-earth metal complexes supported by 3-amido appended indolyl ligands: synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity towards isoprene 1,4-cis polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangchao; Deng, Baojia; Wang, Shaowu; Wei, Yun; Zhou, Shuangliu; Zhu, Xiancui; Huang, Zeming; Mu, Xiaolong

    2016-10-21

    Different di and trinuclear rare-earth metal complexes supported by 3-amido appended indolyl ligands were synthesized and their catalytic activities towards isoprene polymerization were investigated. Treatment of [RE(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) 3 (thf) 2 ] with 1 equiv. of 3-(CyN[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C 8 H 5 NH in toluene or in THF afforded dinuclear rare-earth metal alkyl complexes having indolyl ligands in different hapticities with central metals {[η 2 :η 1 -μ-η 1 -3-(CyNCH(CH 2 SiMe 3 ))Ind]RE-(thf)(CH 2 SiMe 3 )} 2 (Cy = cyclohexyl, Ind = Indolyl, RE = Yb (1), Er (2), Y (3)) or {[η 1 -μ-η 1 -3-(CyNCH(CH 2 SiMe 3 ))Ind]RE-(thf) 2 (CH 2 SiMe 3 )} 2 (RE = Yb (4), Er (5), Y (6), Gd (7)), respectively. These two series of dinuclear complexes could be transferred to each other easily by only changing the solvents in the process. Reaction of [Er(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) 3 (thf) 2 ] with 1 equiv. of 3-t-butylaminomethylindole 3-( t BuNHCH 2 )C 8 H 5 NH in THF afforded the unexpected trinuclear erbium alkyl complex [η 2 :η 1 -μ-η 1 -3-( t BuNCH 2 )Ind] 4 Er 3 (thf) 5 (CH 2 SiMe 3 ) (8), which can also be prepared by reaction of 3 equiv. of [Er(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) 3 (thf) 2 ] with 4 equiv. of 3-( t BuNHCH 2 )C 8 H 5 NH in THF. Accordingly, complexes [η 2 :η 1 -μ-η 1 -3-( t BuNCH 2 )Ind] 4 RE 3 (thf) 5 (CH 2 SiMe 3 ) (RE = Y (9), Dy (10)) were prepared by reactions of 3 equiv. of [RE(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) 3 (thf) 2 ] with 4 equiv. of 3-( t BuNHCH 2 )C 8 H 5 NH in THF. Reactions of [RE(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) 3 (thf) 2 ] with 1 equiv. of 3-t-butylaminomethylindole 3-( t BuNHCH 2 )C 8 H 5 NH in THF, followed by treatment with 1 equiv. of [(2,6- i Pr 2 C 6 H 3 )N[double bond, length as m-dash]CHNH(C 6 H 3 i Pr 2 -2,6)] afforded, after workup, the dinuclear rare-earth metal complexes [η 1 -μ-η 1 :η 1 -3-( t BuNCH 2 )Ind][η 1 -μ-η 1 :η 3 -3-( t BuNCH 2 )Ind]RE 2 (thf)[(η 3 -2,6- i Pr 2 C 6 H 3 )NCHN(C 6 H 3 i Pr 2 -2,6)] 2 (RE = Er (11), Y (12)) having the indolyl ligands bonded with the

  3. Special Report: Fluoridation of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hileman, Bette

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the controversy regarding water fluoridation in the United States during the last 50 years. Discusses the current status; benefits; and health risks including skeletal fluorosis, kidney disease, hypersensitivity, mutagenic effects, birth defects, and cancer. Presents statistics and anecdotal accounts. (CW)

  4. Structure and Electrochemistry of Copper Fluoride Nanocomposites Utilizing Mixed Conducting Matrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    similar to the conversion reaction of the metal fluoride. Attractive materials such as V2O5 , MoS2, and MoO3-δ can be utilized. Examples of metal...fluorides enabled by these MCM matrices are nanocomposites of FeF3 ( V2O5 ),2 BiF3 (MoS2),15 and as discussed herein, CuF2 (MoO3). In all cases, the...filled dry box using Whatman GF/D glass fiber separators saturated with 1M LiPF6 in 1:1 vol/vol ethylene carbonate:dimethyl carbonate elec- trolyte

  5. Implementing a geographical information system to assess endemic fluoride areas in Lamphun, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Theerawasttanasiri, Nonthaphat; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Pingchai, Wichain; Nimchareon, Yuwaree; Sriwichai, Sangworn

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have shown that fluoride can cross the placenta and that exposure to high fluoride during pregnancy may result in premature birth and/or a low birth weight. Lamphun is one of six provinces in Thailand where natural water fluoride (WF) concentrations >10.0 mg/L were found, and it was also found that >50% of households used water with high fluoride levels. Nevertheless, geographical information system (GIS) and maps of endemic fluoride areas are lacking. We aimed to measure the fluoride level of village water supplies to assess endemic fluoride areas and present GIS with maps in Google Maps. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July 2016 to January 2017. Purpose sampling was used to identify villages of districts with WF >10.0 mg/L in the Mueang Lamphun, Pasang, and Ban Thi districts. Water samples were collected with the geolocation measured by Smart System Info. Fluoride was analyzed with an ion-selective electrode instrument using a total ionic strength adjustment buffer. WF >0.70 mg/L was used to identify unsafe drinking water and areas with high endemic fluoride levels. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the findings, and MS Excel was used to create the GIS database. Maps were created in Google Earth and presented in Google Maps. Results We found that WF concentrations ranged between 0.10–13.60 mg/L. Forty-four percent (n=439) of samples were at unsafe levels (>0.70 mg/L), and. 54% (n=303) of villages and 46% (n=79,807) of households used the unsafe drinking water. Fifty percent (n=26) of subdistricts were classified as being endemic fluoride areas. Five subdistricts were endemic fluoride areas, and in those, there were two subdistricts in which every household used unsafe drinking water. Conclusion These findings show the distribution of endemic fluoride areas and unsafe drinking water in Lamphun. This is useful for health policy authorities, local governments, and villagers and enables collaboration to

  6. Implementing a geographical information system to assess endemic fluoride areas in Lamphun, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Theerawasttanasiri, Nonthaphat; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Pingchai, Wichain; Nimchareon, Yuwaree; Sriwichai, Sangworn

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have shown that fluoride can cross the placenta and that exposure to high fluoride during pregnancy may result in premature birth and/or a low birth weight. Lamphun is one of six provinces in Thailand where natural water fluoride (WF) concentrations >10.0 mg/L were found, and it was also found that >50% of households used water with high fluoride levels. Nevertheless, geographical information system (GIS) and maps of endemic fluoride areas are lacking. We aimed to measure the fluoride level of village water supplies to assess endemic fluoride areas and present GIS with maps in Google Maps. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July 2016 to January 2017. Purpose sampling was used to identify villages of districts with WF >10.0 mg/L in the Mueang Lamphun, Pasang, and Ban Thi districts. Water samples were collected with the geolocation measured by Smart System Info. Fluoride was analyzed with an ion-selective electrode instrument using a total ionic strength adjustment buffer. WF >0.70 mg/L was used to identify unsafe drinking water and areas with high endemic fluoride levels. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the findings, and MS Excel was used to create the GIS database. Maps were created in Google Earth and presented in Google Maps. We found that WF concentrations ranged between 0.10-13.60 mg/L. Forty-four percent (n=439) of samples were at unsafe levels (>0.70 mg/L), and. 54% (n=303) of villages and 46% (n=79,807) of households used the unsafe drinking water. Fifty percent (n=26) of subdistricts were classified as being endemic fluoride areas. Five subdistricts were endemic fluoride areas, and in those, there were two subdistricts in which every household used unsafe drinking water. These findings show the distribution of endemic fluoride areas and unsafe drinking water in Lamphun. This is useful for health policy authorities, local governments, and villagers and enables collaboration to resolve these issues. The GIS data are

  7. The effect of fluoridation and its discontinuation on fluoride profiles in the alveolar bone of rat.

    PubMed

    Ohmi, Kyohei; Nakagaki, Haruo; Tsuboi, Shinji; Okumura, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Thuy, Tran Thu; Robinson, Colin

    2005-10-01

    We investigated the effect of fluoridation and its discontinuation on fluoride content in the alveolar portion of the mandible in rats. Drinking water with three different fluoride contents (0, 50, 100 ppmF) was given to rats for three different periods (4, 13 and 25 weeks). Fluoride concentrations were measured in the crest, the middle, and the apical parts of the alveolar bone and in the body of the mandible. Furthermore, after fluoridated drinking water was given to rats for 4 or 13 weeks, distilled water was given to them for 21 or 12 weeks respectively; and the effect of the discontinuation on fluoride profiles was investigated. Layer samples were analyzed by abrasive microsampling. Fluoride and phosphorus concentrations were determined by ion-specific electrode and colorimetric procedures, respectively. There was an increase in fluoride concentrations in the mandible in proportion to the fluoride content in the drinking water and the duration of fluoridation. After fluoridation was discontinued, fluoride concentrations in the surface layers of the mandible presented a decrease. Among the four different parts of the mandible, the upper part of the alveolar bone and the alveolar crest part presented the highest rates of reduction. The relative reduction rate of fluoride concentration was closely related to the duration of discontinuation. The alveolar crest was affected most by the discontinuation of fluoridation, presenting the greatest reduction.

  8. Effect of H2O on metal-silicate partitioning of Ni, Co, V, Cr, Mn and Fe: Implications for the oxidation state of the Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clesi, V.; Bouhifd, M. A.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Manthilake, G.; Fabbrizio, A.; Andrault, D.

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the metal-silicate partitioning of Ni, Co, V, Cr, Mn and Fe during core mantle differentiation of terrestrial planets under hydrous conditions. For this, we equilibrated a molten hydrous CI chondrite model composition with various Fe-rich alloys in the system Fe-C-Ni-Co-Si-S in a multi-anvil over a range of P, T, fO2 and water content (5-20 GPa, 2073-2500 K, from 1 to 5 log units below the iron-wüstite (IW) buffer and for XH2O varying from 500 ppm to 1.5 wt%). By comparing the present experiments with the available data sets on dry systems, we observes that the effect of water on the partition coefficients of moderately siderophile elements is only moderate. For example, for iron we observed a decrease in the partition coefficient of Fe (Dmet/silFe) from 9.5 to 4.3, with increasing water content of the silicate melt, from 0 to 1.44 wt%, respectively. The evolution of metal-silicate partition coefficients of Ni, Co, V, Cr, Mn and Fe are modelled based on sets of empirical parameters. These empirical models are then used to refine the process of core segregation during accretion of Mars and the Earth. It appears that the likely presence of 3.5 wt% water on Mars during the core-mantle segregation could account for ∼74% of the FeO content of the Martian mantle. In contrast, water does not play such an important role for the Earth; only 4-6% of the FeO content of its mantle could be due to the water-induced Fe-oxidation, for a likely initial water concentration of 1.8 wt%. Thus, in order to reproduce the present-day FeO content of 8 wt% in the mantle, the Earth could initially have been accreted from a large fraction (between 85% and 90%) of reducing bodies (similar to EH chondrites), with 10-15% of the Earth's mass likely made of more oxidized components that introduced the major part of water and FeO to the Earth. This high proportion of enstatite chondrites in the original constitution of the Earth is consistent with the 17O,48Ca,50Ti,62Ni

  9. Fluoride in groundwater: toxicological exposure and remedies.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Singh, R K; Damodaran, T; Mishra, V K; Sharma, D K; Rai, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is a chemical element that is found most frequently in groundwater and has become one of the most important toxicological environmental hazards globally. The occurrence of fluoride in groundwater is due to weathering and leaching of fluoride-bearing minerals from rocks and sediments. Fluoride when ingested in small quantities (<0.5 mg/L) is beneficial in promoting dental health by reducing dental caries, whereas higher concentrations (>1.5 mg/L) may cause fluorosis. It is estimated that about 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, may suffer from fluorosis and the causes have been ascribed to fluoride contamination in groundwater including India. High fluoride occurrence in groundwaters is expected from sodium bicarbonate-type water, which is calcium deficient. The alkalinity of water also helps in mobilizing fluoride from fluorite (CaF2). Fluoride exposure in humans is related to (1) fluoride concentration in drinking water, (2) duration of consumption, and (3) climate of the area. In hotter climates where water consumption is greater, exposure doses of fluoride need to be modified based on mean fluoride intake. Various cost-effective and simple procedures for water defluoridation techniques are already known, but the benefits of such techniques have not reached the rural affected population due to limitations. Therefore, there is a need to develop workable strategies to provide fluoride-safe drinking water to rural communities. The study investigated the geochemistry and occurrence of fluoride and its contamination in groundwater, human exposure, various adverse health effects, and possible remedial measures from fluoride toxicity effects.

  10. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  11. Determining the optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water for fluoride endemic regions in South India.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Gopalan; Jaswanth, A; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S; Aditya, G

    2009-10-01

    Fluoride ion in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through drinking water owing to more than 90% bioavailability. The objective of this study is to predict optimal fluoride level in drinking water for fluoride endemic regions by comprising the levels of fluoride and other water quality parameters in drinking water, prevalence of fluorosis, fluoride intake through water, food and beverages such as tea and coffee and also considering the progressive accumulation of fluoride in animal bones, by comparing with non fluoride endemic areas comprise of the same geological features with the aid of regression analysis. Result of this study shows that increase of fluoride level above 1.33 mg/l in drinking water increases the community fluorosis index (CFI) value more than 0.6, an optimum index value above which fluorosis is considered to be a public health problem. Regression plot between water fluoride and bone fluoride levels indicates that, every increase of 0.5mg/l unit of water fluoride level increases the bone fluoride level of 52 mg/kg unit within 2 to 3 years. Furthermore, the consumption of drinking water containing more than 0.65 mg/l of fluoride can raise the total fluoride intake per day more than 4 mg, which is the optimum fluoride dose level recommended for adults by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. From the result, the people in fluoride endemic areas in South India are advised to consume drinking water with fluoride level within the limit of 0.5 to 0.65 mg/l to avoid further fluorosis risk.

  12. Fluoride glass starting materials - Characterization and effects of thermal treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, William; Dunn, Bruce; Shlichta, Paul; Neilson, George F.; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    The production of heavy metal fluoride (HMF) glasses, and the effects of thermal treatments on the HMF glasses are investigated. ZrF4, BaF2, AlF3, LaF3, and NaF were utilized in the synthesis of zirconium-barium-lanthanum-aluminum-sodium fluoride glass. The purity of these starting materials, in particular ZrF4, is evaluated using XRD analysis. The data reveal that low temperature heating of ZrF4-H2O is effective in removing the water of hydration, but causes the production of ZrF4 and oxyfluorides; however, dehydration followed by sublimation results in the production of monoclinic ZrFe without water or oxyfluoride contaminants.

  13. The luminescence and decay enhancement by variation in atomic size of alkaline earth metals in Pr3+ incorporated sodium lead borate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenkennavar, Susheela K.; Madhu, A.; Eraiah, B.; Kokila, M. K.

    2018-05-01

    The glasses used for the present study are prepared by the melting and quenching techniques of composition 20Na2O-10PbO-10MO-60B2O3-xPr2O3 (where, M=Ba, Ca, Sr and x= 0.5 mol% of Pr3+). For different alkaline considered with same Pr3+ concemtartion incorporation on present work as resulted in interesting facts. Due to the effect of different atomic size, the luminescence and life time of glasses are affected. Only for calcium alkaline earth metal incorporated samples has proved to have highest intensity in emission and longer life time. The detailed studies of them have been reported for the better understanding.

  14. Low pressure ion chromatography with a low cost paired emitter-detector diode based detector for the determination of alkaline earth metals in water samples.

    PubMed

    Barron, Leon; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Diamond, Dermot; O'Toole, Martina; Lau, King Tong; Paull, Brett

    2006-09-01

    The use of a low pressure ion chromatograph based upon short (25 mm x 4.6 mm) surfactant coated monolithic columns and a low cost paired emitter-detector diode (PEDD) based detector, for the determination of alkaline earth metals in aqueous matrices is presented. The system was applied to the separation of magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium in less than 7min using a 0.15M KCl mobile phase at pH 3, with post-column reaction detection at 570 nm using o-cresolphthalein complexone. A comparison of the performance of the PEDD detector with a standard laboratory absorbance detector is shown, with limits of detection for magnesium and calcium using the low cost PEDD detector equal to 0.16 and 0.23 mg L(-1), respectively. Finally, the developed system was used for the determination of calcium and magnesium in a commercial spring water sample.

  15. Diversity, metal resistance and uranium sequestration abilities of bacteria from uranium ore deposit in deep earth stratum.

    PubMed

    Islam, Ekramul; Sar, Pinaki

    2016-05-01

    Metal resistance and uranium (U) sequestration abilities of bacteria residing in subsurface U ore was investigated using 122 pure culture strains isolated through enrichment. The cumulative frequencies of isolates resistant to each metal tested were as follows: As(V), 74%; Zn, 58%; Ni, 53%; Cd, 47%; Cr(VI), 41%; Co, 40%; Cu, 20%; and Hg, 4%. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that isolated bacteria belonged to 14 genera with abundance of Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas. Cobalt did not interfere with the growth of most of the bacterial isolates belonging to different groups while U allowed growth of four different genera of which Stenotrophomonas and Microbacterium showed high U tolerance. Interestingly, tolerance to Ni, Zn, Cu, and Hg was observed only in Microbacterium, Arthrobacter, Paenibacillus¸ and Acinetobacter, respectively. However, Microbacterium was found to be dominant when isolated from other five different metal enrichments including U. Uranium removal study showed that 84% of the test bacteria could remove more than 50mgUg(-1) dry weight from 80 or 160mgL(-1) U within 48h. In general, Microbacterium, Arthrobacter and Acinetobacter could remove a higher amount of U. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study of U exposed cells revealed that accumulated U sequestered mostly around the cell periphery. The study highlights that indigenous U ore deposit bacteria have the potential to interact with U, and thus could be applied for bioremediation of U contaminated sites or wastes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Galvanic corrosion between orthodontic wires and brackets in fluoride mouthwashes.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Nicolas; Boinet, Mickaël; Morgon, Laurent; Lissac, Michèle; Dalard, Francis; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of fluoride in certain mouthwashes on the risk of corrosion through galvanic coupling of orthodontic wires and brackets. Two titanium alloy wires, nickel-titanium (NiTi) and copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi), and the three most commonly used brackets, titanium (Ti), iron-chromium-nickel (FeCrNi) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr), were tested in a reference solution of Fusayama-Meyer artificial saliva and in two commercially available fluoride (250 ppm) mouthwashes, Elmex and Meridol. Corrosion resistance was assessed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-MS), analysis of released metal ions, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of the metal surfaces after immersion of different wire-bracket pairs in the test solutions. The study was completed by an electrochemical analysis. Meridol mouthwash, which contains stannous fluoride, was the solution in which the NiTi wires coupled with the different brackets showed the highest corrosion risk, while in Elmex mouthwash, which contains sodium fluoride, the CuNiTi wires presented the highest corrosion risk. Such corrosion has two consequences: deterioration in mechanical performance of the wire-bracket system, which would negatively affect the final aesthetic result, and the risk of local allergic reactions caused by released Ni ions. The results suggest that mouthwashes should be prescribed according to the orthodontic materials used. A new type of mouthwash for use during orthodontic therapy could be an interesting development in this field.

  17. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used... fluoride resins consist of basic resins produced by the polymerization of vinylidene fluoride. (b) The...

  18. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from calcium fluoride reduction slag

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, D.C.

    A pyrochemical method of recovering finely dispersed plutonium metal from calcium fluoride reduction slag is claimed. The plutonium-bearing slag is crushed and melted in the presence of at least an equimolar amount of calcium chloride and a few percent metallic calcium. The calcium chloride reduces the melting point and thereby decreases the viscosity of the molten mixture. The calcium reduces any oxidized plutonium in the mixture and also causes the dispersed plutonium metal to coalesce and settle out as a separate metallic phase at the bottom of the reaction vessel. Upon cooling the mixture to room temperature, the solid plutonium can be cleanly separated from the overlying solid slag, with an average recovery yield on the order of 96 percent.

  19. Development of a sustained fluoride delivery system.

    PubMed

    Baturina, Olga; Tufekci, Eser; Guney-Altay, Ozge; Khan, Shadeed M; Wnek, Gary E; Lindauer, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    To develop a novel delivery system by which fluoride incorporated into elastomeric rings, such as those used to ligate orthodontic wires, will be released in a controlled and constant manner. Polyethylene co-vinyl acetate (PEVA) was used as the model elastomer. Samples (N = 3) were prepared by incorporating 0.02 to 0.4 g of sodium fluoride (NaF) into previously prepared PEVA solution. Another group of samples prepared in the same manner were additionally dip-coated in PEVA to create an overcoat. Fluoride release studies were conducted in vitro using an ion selective electrode over a period of 45 days. The amount of fluoride released was compared to the optimal therapeutic dose of 0.7 microg F(-)/ring/d. Only coated samples with the highest fluoride content (group D, 0.4 g of NaF) were able to release fluoride at therapeutic levels. When fluoride release from coated and uncoated samples with the same amount of NaF were compared, it was shown that the dip-coating technique resulted in a fluoride release in a controlled manner while eliminating the initial burst effect. This novel fluoride delivery matrix provided fluoride release at a therapeutically effective rate and profile.

  20. Focus on Fluorides: Update on the Use of Fluoride for the Prevention of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title: Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Background Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Methods Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Conclusions The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. PMID:24929594

  1. Focus on fluorides: update on the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Carey, Clifton M

    2014-06-01

    Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Eukaryotic resistance to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Sanshu; Smith, Kathryn D; Davis, Jared H; Gordon, Patricia B; Breaker, Ronald R; Strobel, Scott A

    2013-11-19

    Fluorine is an abundant element and is toxic to organisms from bacteria to humans, but the mechanisms by which eukaryotes resist fluoride toxicity are unknown. The Escherichia coli gene crcB was recently shown to be regulated by a fluoride-responsive riboswitch, implicating it in fluoride response. There are >8,000 crcB homologs across all domains of life, indicating that it has an important role in biology. Here we demonstrate that eukaryotic homologs [renamed FEX (fluoride exporter)] function in fluoride export. FEX KOs in three eukaryotic model organisms, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans, are highly sensitized to fluoride (>200-fold) but not to other halides. Some of these KO strains are unable to grow in fluoride concentrations found in tap water. Using the radioactive isotope of fluoride, (18)F, we developed an assay to measure the intracellular fluoride concentration and show that the FEX deletion strains accumulate fluoride in excess of the external concentration, providing direct evidence of FEX function in fluoride efflux. In addition, they are more sensitive to lower pH in the presence of fluoride. These results demonstrate that eukaryotic FEX genes encode a previously unrecognized class of fluoride exporter necessary for survival in standard environmental conditions.

  3. Eukaryotic resistance to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sanshu; Smith, Kathryn D.; Davis, Jared H.; Gordon, Patricia B.; Breaker, Ronald R.; Strobel, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine is an abundant element and is toxic to organisms from bacteria to humans, but the mechanisms by which eukaryotes resist fluoride toxicity are unknown. The Escherichia coli gene crcB was recently shown to be regulated by a fluoride-responsive riboswitch, implicating it in fluoride response. There are >8,000 crcB homologs across all domains of life, indicating that it has an important role in biology. Here we demonstrate that eukaryotic homologs [renamed FEX (fluoride exporter)] function in fluoride export. FEX KOs in three eukaryotic model organisms, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans, are highly sensitized to fluoride (>200-fold) but not to other halides. Some of these KO strains are unable to grow in fluoride concentrations found in tap water. Using the radioactive isotope of fluoride, 18F, we developed an assay to measure the intracellular fluoride concentration and show that the FEX deletion strains accumulate fluoride in excess of the external concentration, providing direct evidence of FEX function in fluoride efflux. In addition, they are more sensitive to lower pH in the presence of fluoride. These results demonstrate that eukaryotic FEX genes encode a previously unrecognized class of fluoride exporter necessary for survival in standard environmental conditions. PMID:24173035

  4. Influence of Fluoride Ion on the Performance of Pb-Ag Anode During Long-Term Galvanostatic Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiaocong; Yu, Xiaoying; Jiang, Liangxing; Lv, Xiaojun; Liu, Fangyang; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Anodic potential, morphology and phase composition of the anodic layer, corrosion morphology of the metallic substrate, and oxygen evolution behavior of Pb-Ag anode in H2SO4 solution without/with fluoride ion were investigated and compared. The results showed that the presence of fluoride ions contributed to a smoother anodic layer with lower PbO2 concentration, which resulted in lower double layer capacity and higher charge transfer resistance for the oxygen evolution reaction. Consequently, the Pb-Ag anode showed a higher anodic potential (about 35 mV) in the fluoride-containing electrolyte. In addition, the fluoride ions accelerated the detachment of loose flakes on the anodic layer. It was demonstrated that the anodic layer formed in the fluoride-containing H2SO4 solution was thinner. Furthermore, fluoride ions aggravated the corrosion of the metallic substrate at interdendritic boundary regions. Hence, the presence of fluoride ions is detrimental to oxygen evolution reactivity and increases the corrosion of the Pb-Ag anode, which may further increase the energy consumption and capital cost of zinc plants.

  5. 76 FR 37129 - Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F-18) Injection, 10 to 200 Millicuries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...] Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F-18) Injection, 10 to 200 Millicuries per Milliliter... FLUORIDE F 18 (sodium fluoride F-18) injection, 10 to 200 millicuries per milliliter (mCi/mL), was not... abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 injection, 10 to 200 mCi/mL, if all other...

  6. Tracing metal-silicate segregation and late veneer in the Earth and the ureilite parent body with palladium stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creech, J. B.; Moynier, F.; Bizzarro, M.

    2017-11-01

    Stable isotope studies of highly siderophile elements (HSE) have the potential to yield valuable insights into a range of geological processes. In particular, the strong partitioning of these elements into metal over silicates may lead to stable isotope fractionation during metal-silicate segregation, making them sensitive tracers of planetary differentiation processes. We present the first techniques for the precise determination of palladium stable isotopes by MC-ICPMS using a 106Pd-110Pd double-spike to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. Results are expressed as the per mil (‰) difference in the 106Pd/105Pd ratio (δ106Pd) relative to an in-house solution standard (Pd_IPGP) in the absence of a certified Pd isotopic standard. Repeated analyses of the Pd isotopic composition of the chondrite Allende demonstrate the external reproducibility of the technique of ±0.032‰ on δ106Pd. Using these techniques, we have analysed Pd stable isotopes from a range of terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples. We find that chondrites define a mean δ106Pdchondrite = -0.19 ± 0.05‰. Ureilites reveal a weak trend towards heavier δ106Pd with decreasing Pd content, similar to recent findings based on Pt stable isotopes (Creech et al., 2017), although fractionation of Pd isotopes is significantly less than for Pt, possibly related to its weaker metal-silicate partitioning behaviour and the limited field shift effect. Terrestrial mantle samples have a mean δ106Pdmantle = -0.182 ± 0.130‰, which is consistent with a late-veneer of chondritic material after core formation.

  7. Phase characteristics of rare earth elements in metallic fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor by injection casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuk, Seoung Woo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Oh, Seok Jin; Park, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Chan Bock; Youn, Young-Sang; Kim, Jong-Yun

    2017-04-01

    Uranium-zirconium-rare earth (U-Zr-RE) fuel slugs for a sodium-cooled fast reactor were manufactured using a modified injection casting method, and investigated with respect to their uniformity, distribution, composition, and phase behavior according to RE content. Nd, Ce, Pr, and La were chosen as four representative lanthanide elements because they are considered to be major RE components of fuel ingots after pyroprocessing. Immiscible layers were found on the top layers of the melt-residue commensurate with higher fuel slug RE content. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) data showed that RE elements in the melt-residue were distributed uniformly throughout the fuel slugs. RE element agglomeration did not contaminate the fuel slugs but strongly affected the RE content of the slugs.

  8. Study of the use of Metal-Oxide-Silicon (MOS) devices for particulate detection and monitoring in the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, A. D.; Monteith, L. K.; Wortman, J. J.; Mulligan, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-type particulate sensor was evaluated for use in atmospheric measurements. An accelerator system was designed and tested for the purpose of providing the necessary energy to trigger the MOS-type sensor. The accelerator system and the MOS sensor were characterized as a function of particle size and velocity. Diamond particles were used as particulate sources in laboratory tests. Preliminary tests were performed in which the detector was mounted on an aircraft and flown in the vicinity of coal-fired electric generating plants.

  9. [Fluoride in drinking water in Cuba and its association with geological and geographical variables].

    PubMed

    Luna, Liliam Cuéllar; Melián, Maricel García

    2003-11-01

    To determine the association between different concentrations of the fluoride ion in drinking water and some geological and geographical variables in Cuba, by using a geographic information system. From November 1998 to October 1999 we studied the fluoride concentration in the sources of drinking water for 753 Cuban localities that had at least 1 000 inhabitants. For the information analysis we utilized the MapInfo Professional version 5.5 geographic information system, using the overlaying method. The study variables were the concentration of the fluoride ion in the water sources, the geological characteristics of the area, the alignments (geological characteristics that were found together), the types of water sources, and whether an area was a plain or mountainous. The results were grouped by locality and municipality. In 83.1% of the localities, the water samples were collected from wells and springs, and the remaining 16.9% came from dams and rivers. Of the 753 localities studied, 675 of them (89.6%) had low or medium fluoride concentrations (under 0.7 mg/L). The eastern region of the country was the one most affected by high fluoride concentrations in the waters, followed by the central region of the country. The majority of the localities with high natural fluoride concentrations were in areas located on Cretaceous volcanic arc rocks. The presence of fluoride in the drinking waters was related to the alignments with the earth's crust, in rock complexes of volcanic-sedimentary origin and of intrusive origin and also in carbonate rocks. However, the highest fluoride concentrations generally coincided with rock complexes of volcanic-sedimentary origin and of intrusive origin. All the localities with high fluoride concentrations in the water were associated with wells. The fluoride concentration is low or medium in the drinking water sources for 89.6% of the Cuban localities with at least 1 000 inhabitants. Geological and geographical characteristics can help

  10. Effects of fluoride residue on thermal stability in Cu/porous low-k interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Y.; Ozaki, S.; Nakamura, T.

    2014-06-19

    We have investigated the effects of fluoride residue on the thermal stability of a Cu/barrier metal (BM)/porous low-k film (k < 2.3) structure. We confirmed that the Cu agglomerated more on a BM/inter layer dielectric (ILD) with a fluoride residue. To consider the effect of fluoride residue on Cu agglomeration, the structural state at the Cu/BM interface was evaluated with a cross-section transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). In addition, the chemical bonding state at the Cu/BM interface was evaluated with the interface peeling-off method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, we confirmed the ionization of fluoridemore » residue and oxidation of Cu with fluoride and moisture to clarify the effect of fluoride residue on Cu. Our experimental results indicated that the thermal stability in Cu/porous low-k interconnects was degraded by enhancement of Cu oxidation with fluoride ions diffusion as an oxidizing catalyst.« less

  11. Fluoride Supplementation Adherence and Barriers in a Community Without Water Fluoridation.

    PubMed

    Flood, Shannon; Asplund, Karin; Hoffman, Benjamin; Nye, Allison; Zuckerman, Katharine E

    2017-04-01

    To prevent early childhood caries, the American Dental Association recommends oral fluoride supplementation for children in communities lacking water fluoridation who are at high caries risk. However, patient adherence to oral fluoride supplementation has not been studied in this population. This study assessed adherence to oral fluoride and barriers to adherence in a community lacking water fluoridation. A self-administered survey was completed in a systematic sample of 209 parents of children aged 6 months to 4 years, during a primary care visit in an urban academic medical center. Participants reported frequency of administering oral fluoride to their children, as well as agreement or disagreement with proposed barriers to supplementation. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess adherence with oral supplementation and the association of barriers to supplementation and child receipt of fluoride on the day before. More than half of parents either had not or did not know if their child had received fluoride on the day before. Approximately 1 in 4 of parents had given fluoride in 0 of the previous 7 days. Difficulty remembering to give fluoride and agreeing that the child does not need extra fluoride were associated with not receiving fluoride on the day before. Adherence to oral fluoride supplementation in the primary care setting is low. Difficulty remembering to give fluoride daily is the greatest barrier to adherence. Further research on interventions to reduce common barriers is needed to increase fluoride administration and reduce early childhood caries in communities lacking water fluoridation. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydration Energies and Structures of Alkaline Earth Metal Ions, M2+ (H2O)n, n = 5–7, M = Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Cruz, Sandra E.; Jockusch, Rebecca A.

    2005-01-01

    The evaporation of water from hydrated alkaline earth metal ions, produced by electrospray ionization, was studied in a Fourier transform mass spectrometer. Zero-pressure-limit dissociation rate constants for loss of a single water molecule from the hydrated divalent metal ions, M2+(H2O)n (M = Mg, Ca, and Sr for n = 5–7, and M = Ba for n = 4–7), are measured as a function of temperature using blackbody infrared radiative dissociation. From these values, zero-pressure-limit Arrhenius parameters are obtained. By modeling the dissociation kinetics using a master equation formalism, threshold dissociation energies (Eo) are determined. These reactions should have a negligible reverse activation barrier; therefore, Eo values should be approximately equal to the binding energy or hydration enthalpy at 0 K. For the hepta- and hexahydrated ions at low temperature, binding energies follow the trend expected on the basis of ionic radii: Mg > Ca > Sr > Ba. For the hexahydrated ions at high temperature, binding energies follow the order Ca > Mg > Sr > Ba. The same order is observed for the pentahydrated ions. Collisional dissociation experiments on the tetrahydrated species result in relative dissociation rates that directly correlate with the size of the metals. These results indicate the presence of two isomers for hexahydrated magnesium ions: a low-temperature isomer in which the six water molecules are located in the first solvation shell, and a high-temperature isomer with the most likely structure corresponding to four water molecules in the inner shell and two water molecules in the second shell. These results also indicate that the pentahydrated magnesium ions have a structure with four water molecules in the first solvation shell and one in the outer shell. The dissociation kinetics for the hexa- and pentahydrated clusters of Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+ are consistent with structures in which all the water molecules are located in the first solvation shell. PMID:16429612

  13. Hydration energies and structures of alkaline earth metal ions, M2+(H2O)n, n = 5-7, M = Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Cruz, S E; Jockusch, R A; Williams, E R

    1999-09-29

    The evaporation of water from hydrated alkaline earth metal ions, produced by electrospray ionization, was studied in a Fourier transform mass spectrometer. Zero-pressure-limit dissociation rate constants for loss of a single water molecule from the hydrated divalent metal ions, M(2+)(H(2)O)(n) (M = Mg, Ca, and Sr for n = 5-7, and M = Ba for n = 4-7), are measured as a function of temperature using blackbody infrared radiative dissociation. From these values, zero-pressure-limit Arrhenius parameters are obtained. By modeling the dissociation kinetics using a master equation formalism, threshold dissociation energies (E(o)) are determined. These reactions should have a negligible reverse activation barrier; therefore, E(o) values should be approximately equal to the binding energy or hydration enthalpy at 0 K. For the hepta- and hexahydrated ions at low temperature, binding energies follow the trend expected on the basis of ionic radii: Mg > Ca > Sr > Ba. For the hexahydrated ions at high temperature, binding energies follow the order Ca > Mg > Sr > Ba. The same order is observed for the pentahydrated ions. Collisional dissociation experiments on the tetrahydrated species result in relative dissociation rates that directly correlate with the size of the metals. These results indicate the presence of two isomers for hexahydrated magnesium ions: a low-temperature isomer in which the six water molecules are located in the first solvation shell, and a high-temperature isomer with the most likely structure corresponding to four water molecules in the inner shell and two water molecules in the second shell. These results also indicate that the pentahydrated magnesium ions have a structure with four water molecules in the first solvation shell and one in the outer shell. The dissociation kinetics for the hexa- and pentahydrated clusters of Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and Ba(2+) are consistent with structures in which all the water molecules are located in the first solvation shell.

  14. Fluoride-Containing Metabolites after Methoxyflurane Anesthesia,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Methoxyflurane (2,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethyl methyl ether) has been used for about 12 years for analgesia and anesthesia in surgery and obstetrics...Interest in methoxyflurane fluorometabolites arose when markedly elevated serum fluoride concentrations in a nephrotoxic patient were traced to the...use of methoxyflurane anesthesia for surgery. These high fluoride levels were peculiar in that the ionselective fluoride electrode did not detect a

  15. FLUORIDATION CHEMISTRY: EQUILIBRIA AND KINETICS OF FLUORIDE AND FLUORO-COMPLEXES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common fluoridating agents used by major American waterworks are hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and sodium hexxafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6). According to the 1992 Water Fluoridation Census where 10,002 utilities responded affirmatively to fluoridating their water, 59
    % ...

  16. Mid-infrared ultra-high-Q resonators based on fluoride crystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecaplain, C.; Javerzac-Galy, C.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Kippenberg, T. J.

    2016-11-01

    The unavailability of highly transparent materials in the mid-infrared has been the main limitation in the development of ultra-sensitive molecular sensors or cavity-based spectroscopy applications. Whispering gallery mode microresonators have attained ultra-high-quality (Q) factor resonances in the near-infrared and visible. Here we report ultra-high Q factors in the mid-infrared using polished alkaline earth metal fluoride crystals. Using an uncoated chalcogenide tapered fibre as a high-ideality coupler in the mid-infrared, we study via cavity ringdown technique the losses of BaF2, CaF2, MgF2 and SrF2 microresonators. We show that MgF2 is limited by multiphonon absorption by studying the temperature dependence of the Q factor. In contrast, in SrF2 and BaF2 the lower multiphonon absorption leads to ultra-high Q factors at 4.5 μm. These values correspond to an optical finesse of , the highest value achieved for any type of mid-infrared resonator to date.

  17. Mid-infrared ultra-high-Q resonators based on fluoride crystalline materials

    PubMed Central

    Lecaplain, C.; Javerzac-Galy, C.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Kippenberg, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    The unavailability of highly transparent materials in the mid-infrared has been the main limitation in the development of ultra-sensitive molecular sensors or cavity-based spectroscopy applications. Whispering gallery mode microresonators have attained ultra-high-quality (Q) factor resonances in the near-infrared and visible. Here we report ultra-high Q factors in the mid-infrared using polished alkaline earth metal fluoride crystals. Using an uncoated chalcogenide tapered fibre as a high-ideality coupler in the mid-infrared, we study via cavity ringdown technique the losses of BaF2, CaF2, MgF2 and SrF2 microresonators. We show that MgF2 is limited by multiphonon absorption by studying the temperature dependence of the Q factor. In contrast, in SrF2 and BaF2 the lower multiphonon absorption leads to ultra-high Q factors at 4.5 μm. These values correspond to an optical finesse of , the highest value achieved for any type of mid-infrared resonator to date. PMID:27869119

  18. Mid-infrared ultra-high-Q resonators based on fluoride crystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Lecaplain, C; Javerzac-Galy, C; Gorodetsky, M L; Kippenberg, T J

    2016-11-21

    The unavailability of highly transparent materials in the mid-infrared has been the main limitation in the development of ultra-sensitive molecular sensors or cavity-based spectroscopy applications. Whispering gallery mode microresonators have attained ultra-high-quality (Q) factor resonances in the near-infrared and visible. Here we report ultra-high Q factors in the mid-infrared using polished alkaline earth metal fluoride crystals. Using an uncoated chalcogenide tapered fibre as a high-ideality coupler in the mid-infrared, we study via cavity ringdown technique the losses of BaF 2 , CaF 2 , MgF 2 and SrF 2 microresonators. We show that MgF 2 is limited by multiphonon absorption by studying the temperature dependence of the Q factor. In contrast, in SrF 2 and BaF 2 the lower multiphonon absorption leads to ultra-high Q factors at 4.5 μm. These values correspond to an optical finesse of , the highest value achieved for any type of mid-infrared resonator to date.

  19. Rare-earth metal halogenide encapsulation-induced modifications in Raman spectra of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharlamova, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, a detailed Raman spectroscopy investigation on the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) filled with praseodymium chloride, terbium chloride and thulium chloride was performed. The salts were incorporated inside the SWCNTs by a capillary filling method using melts, and the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy data proved the high filling degree of the nanotube channels. A thorough analysis of the radial breathing mode and G-band of the Raman spectra of the pristine and filled SWCNTs showed that the encapsulated salts cause acceptor doping of the host nanotubes, and the doping efficiency depends on the compound. The incorporated thulium chloride has the strongest doping effect on the SWCNTs, whereas praseodymium chloride has the weakest effect. It was found that the encapsulated salts modify more significantly the electronic structure of metallic nanotubes than semiconducting SWCNTs.

  20. Metal-silicate thermochemistry at high temperature - Magma oceans and the 'excess siderophile element' problem of the earth's upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capobianco, Christopher J.; Jones, John H.; Drake, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Low-temperature metal-silicate partition coefficients are extrapolated to magma ocean temperatures. If the low-temperature chemistry data is found to be applicable at high temperatures, an important assumption, then the results indicate that high temperature alone cannot account for the excess siderophile element problem of the upper mantle. For most elements, a rise in temperature will result in a modest increase in siderophile behavior if an iron-wuestite redox buffer is paralleled. However, long-range extrapolation of experimental data is hazardous when the data contains even modest experimental errors. For a given element, extrapolated high-temperature partition coefficients can differ by orders of magnitude, even when data from independent studies is consistent within quoted errors. In order to accurately assess siderophile element behavior in a magma ocean, it will be necessary to obtain direct experimental measurements for at least some of the siderophile elements.