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Sample records for earth niobium iron

  1. The Bayan Obo iron-rare-earth-niobium deposits, Inner Mongolia, China

    Drew, Lawrence J.; Qingrun, Meng; Weijun, Sun

    1990-01-01

    The plate tectonic setting, regional geology and certain aspects of the economic geology of the iron-rare-earth-niobium ore bodies at Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, China, were studied by a team of geologists from the Tianjin Geologic Research Academy and the U.S. Geological Survey between 1987 and 1989. These ore bodies were formed by hydrothermal replacement of Middle Proterozoic dolomite in an intra-continental rift setting. A variety of veins and/or dikes that have a carbonatitelike mineralogy cut the footwall clastic rocks and migmatites. A stockwork of veins occurs at several locations in the footwall. The hanging wall is a shale that has been converted to a K-metasomatite and has microcrystalline potassium feldspar as its principal constituent. This shale served as a sealing caprock that contained the chemical solutions that reacted with the dolomite and created the enormous concentration of mineralized rock in an 18-kilometer-long syncline. The rocks that host these ore bodies and the associated mineralized areas occur today as roof pendants in granitoid rocks of Permian age that were emplaced during a continent-to-continent collision during that period.

  2. Iron-niobium-aluminum alloy having high-temperature corrosion resistance

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Huey S.

    1988-04-14

    An alloy for use in high temperature sulfur and oxygen containing environments, having aluminum for oxygen resistance, niobium for sulfur resistance and the balance iron, is discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Rare-Earth Ions in Niobium-Based Devices as a Quantum Memory: Magneto-Optical Effects on Room Temperature Electrical Transport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    rare-earth neodymium by ion implantation in thin films of niobium and niobium-based heterostructure devices. We model the ion implantation process...the films and devices so they can properly designed and optimized for utility as quantum memory. We find that the magnetic field has a strong effect...thin films of niobium. Simulations are made at low 1013 cm-2 and high 1014 cm-2 dose at 60 keV. At high dose, disorder induced is significantly

  4. Iron Isotopic Fractionation in Earth's Lower Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Lin, J. F.; Hu, M. Y.; Bi, W.; Zhao, J.; Alp, E. E.; Roskosz, M.; Dauphas, N.; Okuchi, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's bulk chemical composition is vital for deciphering the origin of this planet. Our estimation of the iron isotopic composition of the bulk Earth relies on the iron isotopic composition difference between the metallic core and silicate mantle. Previous studies1,2,3 on this fractionation scale have mostly focused on the alloying effects of light elements in the iron metal phases, while the pressure effects of the silicate mantle phases especially due to iron partitioning4 in the lower mantle minerals have not been fully addressed. For instance, Polyakov (2009) simply assumed equal iron distribution between ferropericlase and post-perovskite in his model. Shahar et al. (2016) only used bridgmanite as a proxy for the mantle while another lower mantle mineral ferropericlase was neglected. Here we have investigated the force constant of iron bonds in lower-mantle ferropericlase and bridgmanite crystals up to 104GPa using NRIXS(Nuclear Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering) and SMS(Synchrotron Mössbauer Spectroscopy) in a diamond anvil cell at sector-3 of the Advance Photon Source. These results are used to evaluate the pressure effects as well as the spin/valence states of iron5,6 on the force constant of iron bonds and the iron isotope distributions within the lower mantle and at the core-mantle boundary. We found that the liquid-solid iron isotopic fractionation during magma ocean crystallization was limited, however, the inter-mineral fractionation between ferropericlase and bridgmanite could be significant influenced by the spin/valence states at the lowermost mantle conditions. 1.Polyakov, V. B. Science 323, 912-914 (2009). 2.Shahar, A. et al. Science 352, 580-582 (2016). 3.Liu, J. et al. Nat. Commun. 8, 14377 (2017). 4.Irifune, T. et al. Science 327, 193-195 (2010). 5.Lin, J. F., Speziale, S., Mao, Z. & Marquardt, Rev. Geophys. 51, 244-275 (2013). 6.Mao, Z. et al. Am. Mineral. 102 (2017).

  5. Native iron in the Earth and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechersky, D. M.; Kuzina, D. M.; Markov, G. P.; Tsel'movich, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    Thermomagnetic and microprobe studies of native iron in the terrestrial upper-mantle hyperbasites (xenoliths in basalts), Siberian traps, and oceanic basalts are carried out. The results are compared to the previous data on native iron in sediments and meteorites. It is established that in terms of the composition and grain size and shape, the particles of native iron in the terrestrial rocks are close to each other and to the extraterrestrial iron particles from sediments and meteorites. This suggests that the sources of the origin of these particles were similar; i.e., the formation conditions in the Earth were close to the conditions in the meteorites' parent bodies. This similarity is likely to be due to the homogeneity of the gas and dust cloud at the early stage of the solar system. The predominance of pure native iron in the sediments can probably be accounted for by the fact that interstellar dust is mostly contributed by the upper-mantle material of the planets, whereas the lower-mantle and core material falls on the Earth mainly in the form of meteorites. A model describing the structure of the planets in the solar system from the standpoint of the distribution of native iron and FeNi alloys is proposed.

  6. Large grain cavities from pure niobium ingot

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Yorktown, VA; Kneisel, Peter [Williamsburg, VA; Cameiro, Tadeu [McMurray, PA

    2012-03-06

    Niobium cavities are fabricated by the drawing and ironing of as cast niobium ingot slices rather than from cold rolled niobium sheet. This method results in the production of niobium cavities having a minimum of grain boundaries at a significantly reduced cost as compared to the production of such structures from cold rolled sheet.

  7. A summary of niobium and rare earth localities from Ha'il and other areas in western Saudi Arabia: a preliminary study

    Matzko, John J.; Naqvi, Mohammed Ibne

    1978-01-01

    Investigations in 1965 located veins containing radioactive material in the Halaban Group on the east side of a granite pluton at Jabal Aja near Ha'il. Later study extended the known area of radioactivity to a total length of about 30 km. Mineralogic studies indicated that the samples were low in uranium and that the radioactivity was due principally to thorium in niobium-bearing minerals. Two samples were reexamined to identify the sources of radioactivity, but X-ray and alpha plate studies did not reveal the radioactive minerals, even though uranium mineralization was indicated by the alpha plates. Further sampling is suggested to isolate the sources of radioactivity. This study indicates that niobium occurrences are related to alkaline intrusives in many areas of western Saudi Arabia. These areas should be investigated for their possible niobium and rare earth contents; their uranium content is apparently too low to be of economic interest.

  8. Geophysical expression of a buried niobium and rare earth element deposit: the Elk Creek carbonatite, Nebraska, USA

    Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    The lower Paleozoic Elk Creek carbonatite is a 6–8-km-diameter intrusive complex buried under 200 m of sedimentary rocks in southeastern Nebraska. It hosts the largest known niobium deposit in the U.S. and a rare earth element (REE) deposit. The carbonatite is composed of several lithologies, the relations of which are poorly understood. Niobium mineralization is most enriched within a magnetite beforsite (MB) unit, and REE oxides are most concentrated in a barite beforsite unit. The carbonatite intrudes Proterozoic country rocks. Efforts to explore the carbonatite have used geophysical data and drilling. A high-resolution airborne gravity gradient and magnetic survey was flown over the carbonatite in 2012. The carbonatite is associated with a roughly annular vertical gravity gradient high and a subdued central low and a central magnetic high surrounded by magnetic field values lower than those over the country rocks. Geophysical, borehole, and physical property data are combined for an interpretation of these signatures. The carbonatite is denser than the country rocks, explaining the gravity gradient high. Most carbonatite lithologies have weaker magnetic susceptibilities than those of the country rocks, explaining why the carbonatite does not produce a magnetic high at its margin. The primary source of the central magnetic high is interpreted to be mafic rocks that are strongly magnetized and are present in large volumes. MB is very dense (mean density 3200  kg/m3) and strongly magnetized (median 0.073 magnetic susceptibility), producing a gravity gradient high and contributing to the aeromagnetic high. Barite beforsite has physical properties similar to most of the carbonatite volume, making it a poor geophysical target. Geophysical anomalies indicate the presence of dense and strongly magnetized rocks at depths below existing boreholes, either a large volume of MB or another unknown lithology.

  9. Iron-magnesium alloy in the Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovinskaia, N.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Abrikosov, I.

    2005-12-01

    Composition of the Earth's outer core is a geochemical parameter crucial for understanding the evolution and current dynamics of our planet. Since it was recognized that the liquid metallic outer core is about 10% less dense than pure iron, different elements lighter than iron, including Si, S, O, C, and H, were proposed as major or at least significantly abundant in Earth's core. However, combination of experimental results with theoretical and geochemical considerations shows that it is unlikely that any one of these elements can account for the density deficit on its own. In series of experiments in a multianvil apparatus and in electrically- and laser-heated diamond anvil cells, we demonstrate that high pressure promotes solubility of magnesium in iron and at megabar pressure range more than 10 at% of Mg can dissolve in Fe. At pressures above 95 to 100 GPa, molten iron reacts with periclase MgO forming an iron-magnesium alloy and iron oxide. Our observations suggest that magnesium can be an important light element in Earth's outer core, but it cannot account for the seismologically determined density deficit on its own.

  10. Experimental evidence of body centered cubic iron in Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrubiak, R.; Meng, Y.; Shen, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's core is mainly composed of iron. While seismic evidence has shown a liquid outer core and a solid inner core, the crystalline nature of the solid iron at the core condition remains debated, largely due to the difficulties in experimental determination of exact polymorphs at corresponding pressure-temperature conditions. We have examined crystal structures of iron up to 220 GPa and 6000 K with x-ray diffraction using a double-sided laser heating system at HPCAT, Advanced Photon Source. The iron sample is confined in a small chamber surrounded by single crystal MgO. The laser power can be modulated together with temperature measurements. The modulated heating of iron in an MgO single crystal matrix allows for microstructure analysis during heating and after the sample is quenched. We present experimental evidence of a body-centered-cubic (BCC) iron from about 100 GPa and 3000 K to at least 220 GPa and 4000 K. The observed BCC phase may be consistent with a theoretically predicted BCC phase that is dynamically stable in similar pressure-temperature conditions [1]. We will discuss the stability region of the BCC phase and the melting curve of iron and their implications in the nature of the Earth's inner core. References: A. B. Belonoshko et al., Nat. Geosci., 1-6 (2017).

  11. Properties of iron alloys under the Earth's core conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morard, Guillaume; Andrault, Denis; Antonangeli, Daniele; Bouchet, Johann

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's core is constituted of iron and nickel alloyed with lighter elements. In view of their affinity with the metallic phase, their relative high abundance in the solar system and their moderate volatility, a list of potential light elements have been established, including sulfur, silicon and oxygen. We will review the effects of these elements on different aspects of Fe-X high pressure phase diagrams under Earth's core conditions, such as melting temperature depression, solid-liquid partitioning during crystallization, and crystalline structure of the solid phases. Once extrapolated to the inner-outer core boundary, these petrological properties can be used to constrain the Earth's core properties.

  12. Iron-carbonate interaction at Earth's core-mantle boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, S. M.; Badro, J.; Nabiei, F.; Prakapenka, V.; Gillet, P.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon storage and flux in the deep Earth are moderated by oxygen fugacity and interactions with iron-bearing phases. The amount of carbon stored in Earth's mantle versus the core depends on carbon-iron chemistry at the core-mantle boundary. Oxidized carbonates subducted from Earth's surface to the lowermost mantle may encounter reduced Fe0 metal from disproportionation of Fe2+ in lower mantle silicates or mixing with the core. To understand the fate of carbonates in the lowermost mantle, we have performed experiments on sandwiches of single-crystal (Ca0.6Mg0.4)CO3 dolomite and Fe foil in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell at lower mantle conditions of 49-110 GPa and 1800-2500 K. Syntheses were conducted with in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction to identify phase assemblages. After quench to ambient conditions, samples were sectioned with a focused Ga+ ion beam for composition analysis with transmission electron microscopy. At the centers of the heated spots, iron melted and reacted completely with the carbonate to form magnesiowüstite, iron carbide, diamond, magnesium-rich carbonate and calcium carbonate. In samples heated at 49 and 64 GPa, the two carbonates exhibit a eutectoid texture. In the sample heated at 110 GPa, the carbonates form rounded ~150-nm-diameter grains with a higher modal proportion of interspersed diamonds. The presence of reduced iron in the deep lower mantle and core-mantle boundary region will promote the formation of diamonds in carbonate-bearing subducted slabs. The complete reaction of metallic iron to oxides and carbides in the presence of mantle carbonate supports the formation of these phases at the Earth's core-mantle boundary and in ultra-low velocity zones.

  13. Ferroelectricity of domain walls in rare earth iron garnet films.

    PubMed

    Popov, A I; Zvezdin, K A; Gareeva, Z V; Mazhitova, F A; Vakhitov, R M; Yumaguzin, A R; Zvezdin, A K

    2016-11-16

    In this paper, we report on electric polarization arising in a vicinity of Bloch-like domain walls in rare-earth iron garnet films. The domain walls generate an intrinsic magnetic field that breaks an antiferroelectric structure formed in the garnets due to an exchange interaction between rare earth and iron sublattices. We explore 180° domain walls whose formation is energetically preferable in the films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Magnetic and electric structures of the 180° quasi-Bloch domain walls have been simulated at various relations between system parameters. Singlet, doublet ground states of rare earth ions and strongly anisotropic rare earth Ising ions have been considered. Our results show that electric polarization appears in rare earth garnet films at Bloch domain walls, and the maximum of magnetic inhomogeneity is not always linked to the maximum of electric polarization. A number of factors including the temperature, the state of the rare earth ion and the type of a wall influence magnetically induced electric polarization. We show that the value of polarization can be enhanced by the shrinking of the Bloch domain wall width, decreasing the temperature, and increasing the deviations of magnetization from the Bloch rotation that are regulated by impacts given by magnetic anisotropies of the films.

  14. The LPO Iron Pattern beneath the Earth's Inner Core Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattesini, Maurizio; Belonoshko, Anatoly; Tkalčić, Hrvoje

    2017-04-01

    An Earth's inner core surface pattern for the iron Lattice Preferred Orientation (LPO) has been addressed for various iron crystal polymorphs. The geographical distribution of the amount of crystal alienation was achieved by bridging high-quality inner core probing seismic data [PKP(bc-df)] together with ab initio computed elastic constants. We show that the proposed topographic crystal alignment may be used as a boundary condition for dynamo simulations, providing an additional way to discriminate in between different and, often controversial, geodynamical scenarios.

  15. The LPO Iron Pattern beneath the Earth's Inner Core Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattesini, M.; Tkalcic, H.; Belonoshko, A. B.; Buforn, E.; Udias, A.

    2015-12-01

    An Earth's inner core surface pattern for the iron Lattice Preferred Orientation (LPO) has been addressed for various iron crystal polymorphs. The geographical distribution of the amount of crystal alienation was achieved by bridging high-quality inner core probing seismic data [PKP(bc-df)] together with ab initio computed elastic constants. We show that the proposed topographic crystal alignment may be used as a boundary condition for dynamo simulations, providing an additional way to discriminate in between different and, often controversial, geodynamical scenarios.

  16. Deep-Earth Equilibration between Molten Iron and Solid Silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, M.; Zurkowski, C. C.; Chidester, B.; Campbell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental partitioning between iron-rich metals and silicate minerals influences the properties of Earth's deep interior, and is ultimately responsible for the nature of the core-mantle boundary. These interactions between molten iron and solid silicates were influential during planetary accretion, and persist today between the mantle and liquid outer core. Here we report the results of diamond anvil cell experiments at lower mantle conditions (40 GPa, >2500 K) aimed at examining systems containing a mixture of metals (iron or Fe-16Si alloy) and silicates (peridotite). The experiments were conducted at pressure-temperature conditions above the metallic liquidus but below the silicate solidus, and the recovered samples were analyzed by FIB/SEM with EDS to record the compositions of the coexisting phases. Each sample formed a three-phase equilibrium between bridgmanite, Fe-rich metallic melt, and an oxide. In one experiment, using pure Fe, the quenched metal contained 6 weight percent O, and the coexisting oxide was ferropericlase. The second experiment, using Fe-Si alloy, was highly reducing; its metal contained 10 wt% Si, and the coexisting mineral was stishovite. The distinct mineralogies of the two experiments derived from their different starting metals. These results imply that metallic composition is an important factor in determining the products of mixed phase iron-silicate reactions. The properties of deep-Earth interfaces such as the core-mantle boundary could be strongly affected by their metallic components.

  17. Sustainability evaluation of essential critical raw materials: cobalt, niobium, tungsten and rare earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkaczyk, A. H.; Bartl, A.; Amato, A.; Lapkovskis, V.; Petranikova, M.

    2018-05-01

    The criticality of raw materials has become an important issue in recent years. As the supply of certain raw materials is essential for technologically-advanced economies, the European Commission and other international counterparts have started several initiatives to secure reliable and unhindered access to raw materials. Such efforts include the EU Raw Materials Initiative, European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials, US Critical Materials Institute, and others. In this paper, the authors present a multi-faceted and multi-national review of the essentials for the critical raw materials (CRMs) Co, Nb, W, and rare earth elements (REEs). The selected CRMs are of specific interest as they are considered relevant for emerging technologies and will thus continue to be of increasing major economic importance. This paper presents a ‘sustainability evaluation’ for each element, including essential data about markets, applications and recycling, and possibilities for substitution have been summarized and analysed. All the presented elements are vital for the advanced materials and processes upon which modern societies rely. These elements exhibit superior importance in ‘green’ applications and products subject to severe conditions. The annual production quantities are quite low compared to common industrial metals. Of the considered CRMs, only Co and REE gross production exceed 100 000 t. At the same time, the prices are quite high, with W and Nb being in the range of 60 USD kg‑1 and some rare earth compounds costing almost 4000 USD kg‑1. Despite valiant effort, in practice some of the considered elements are de facto irreplaceable for many specialized applications, at today’s technological level. Often, substitution causes a significant loss of quality and performance. Furthermore, possible candidates for substitution may be critical themselves or available in considerably low quantities. It can be concluded that one preferred approach for the

  18. The Gravity Probe B `Niobium bird' experiment: Verifying the data reduction scheme for estimating the relativistic precession of Earth-orbiting gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uemaatsu, Hirohiko; Parkinson, Bradford W.; Lockhart, James M.; Muhlfelder, Barry

    1993-01-01

    Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is a relatively gyroscope experiment begun at Stanford University in 1960 and supported by NASA since 1963. This experiment will check, for the first time, the relativistic precession of an Earth-orbiting gyroscope that was predicted by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, to an accuracy of 1 milliarcsecond per year or better. A drag-free satellite will carry four gyroscopes in a polar orbit to observe their relativistic precession. The primary sensor for measuring the direction of gyroscope spin axis is the SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer. The data reduction scheme designed for the GP-B program processes the signal from the SQUID magnetometer and estimates the relativistic precession rates. We formulated the data reduction scheme and designed the Niobium bird experiment to verify the performance of the data reduction scheme experimentally with an actual SQUID magnetometer within the test loop. This paper reports the results from the first phase of the Niobium bird experiment, which used a commercially available SQUID magnetometer as its primary sensor, and adresses the issues they raised. The first phase resulted in a large, temperature-dependent bias drift in the insensitive design and a temperature regulation scheme.

  19. Iron-magnesium silicate bioweathering on Earth (and Mars?).

    PubMed

    Fisk, M R; Popa, R; Mason, O U; Storrie-Lombardi, M C; Vicenzi, E P

    2006-02-01

    We examined the common, iron-magnesium silicate minerals olivine and pyroxene in basalt and in mantle rocks to determine if they exhibit textures similar to bioweathering textures found in glass. Our results show that weathering in olivine may occur as long, narrow tunnels (1-3 microm in diameter and up to 100 microm long) and as larger irregular galleries, both of which have distinctive characteristics consistent with biological activity. These weathering textures are associated with clay mineral by-products and nucleic acids. We also examined olivine and pyroxene in martian meteorites, some of which experienced preterrestrial aqueous alteration. Some olivines and pyroxenes in the martian meteorite Nakhla were found to contain tunnels that are similar in size and shape to tunnels in terrestrial iron-magnesium silicates that contain nucleic acids. Though the tunnels found in Nakhla are similar to the biosignatures found in terrestrial minerals, their presence cannot be used to prove that the martian alteration features had a biogenic origin. The abundance and wide distribution of olivine and pyroxene on Earth and in the Solar System make bioweathering features in these minerals potentially important new biosignatures that may play a significant role in evaluating whether life ever existed on Mars.

  20. Semimicrodetermination of combined tantalum and niobium with selenous acid

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Schnepfe, M.

    1959-01-01

    Tantalum and niobium are separated and determined gravimetrically by precipitation with selenous acid from highly acidic solutions in the absence of complexing agents. Hydrogen peroxide is used in the preparation of the solution and later catalytically destroyed during digestion of the precipitate. From 0.2 to 30 mg., separately or in mixtures, of niobium or tantalum pentoxide can be separated from mixtures containing 100 mg. each of the oxides of scandium, yttrium, cerium, vanadium, molybdenum, iron, aluminum, tin, lead, and bismuth with a single precipitation; and from 30 mg. of titanium dioxide, and 50 mg. each of the oxides of antimony and thorium, when present separately, with three precipitations. At least 50 mg. of uranium(VI) oxide can be separated with a single precipitation when present alone; otherwise, three precipitations may be needed. Zirconium does not interfere when the tantalum and niobium contents of the sample are small, but in general, zirconium as well as tungsten interfere. The method is applied to the determination of the earth acids in tantaloniobate ores.

  1. Determination of niobium in the parts per million range in rocks

    Grimaldi, F.S.

    1960-01-01

    A modified niobium thiocyanate spectrophotometric procedure relatively insensitive to titanium interference is presented. Elements such as tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, and rhenium, which seriously interfere in the spectrophotometric determination of niobium, are separated by simple sodium hydroxide fusion and leach; iron and magnesium are used as carriers for the niobium. Tolerance limits are given for 28 elements in the spectrophotometric method. Specific application is made to the determination of niobium in the parts per million range in rocks. The granite G-1 contains 0.0022% niobium and the diabase W-1 0.00096% niobium.

  2. Method of forming magnetostrictive rods from rare earth-iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    McMasters, O. Dale

    1986-09-02

    Rods of magnetrostructive alloys of iron with rare earth elements are formed by flowing a body of rare earth-iron alloy in a crucible enclosed in a chamber maintained under an inert gas atmosphere, forcing such molten rare-earth-iron alloy into a hollow mold tube of refractory material positioned with its lower end portion within the molten body by means of a pressure differential between the chamber and mold tube and maintaining a portion of the molten alloy in the crucible extending to a level above the lower end of the mold tube so that solid particles of higher melting impurities present in the alloy collect at the surface of the molten body and remain within the crucible as the rod is formed in the mold tube.

  3. Method of forming magnetostrictive rods from rare earth-iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    McMasters, O.D.

    1986-09-02

    Rods of magnetostrictive alloys of iron with rare earth elements are formed by flowing a body of rare earth-iron alloy in a crucible enclosed in a chamber maintained under an inert gas atmosphere, forcing such molten rare-earth-iron alloy into a hollow mold tube of refractory material positioned with its lower end portion within the molten body by means of a pressure differential between the chamber and mold tube and maintaining a portion of the molten alloy in the crucible extending to a level above the lower end of the mold tube so that solid particles of higher melting impurities present in the alloy collect at the surface of the molten body and remain within the crucible as the rod is formed in the mold tube. 5 figs.

  4. The melting curve of iron to 250 gigapascals - A constraint on the temperature at earth's center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Quentin; Jeanloz, Raymond; Bass, Jay; Svendsen, Bob; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    The melting curve of iron, the primary constituent of earth's core, has been measured to pressures of 250 gigapascals with a combination of static and dynamic techniques. The melting temperature of iron at the pressure of the core-mantle boundary (136 GPa) is 4800 + or - 200 K, whereas at the inner core-outer core boundary (330 GPa), it is 7600 + or - 500 K. A melting temperature for iron-rich alloy of 6600 K at the inner core-outer core boundary and a maximum temperature of 6900 K at earth's center are inferred. This latter value is the first experimental upper bound on the temperature at earth's center, and these results imply that the temperature of the lower mantle is significantly less than that of the outer core.

  5. Semiconductor sensor for optically measuring polarization rotation of optical wavefronts using rare earth iron garnets

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.

  6. Iron-Nickel alloy in the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Heinz, Dion L.; Campbell, Andrew J.; Devine, James M.; Mao, Wendy L.; Shen, Guoyin

    2002-05-01

    The phase relations of an Fe10wt%Ni alloy were investigated in a diamond anvil cell up to 86 GPa and 2382 K. Adding nickel into iron stabilizes the fcc phase to higher pressures and lower temperatures compared to pure iron, and a region of two-phase coexistence between fcc and hcp phases is observed. Iron with up to 10 wt% nickel is likely to be in the hcp structure under inner core conditions. The axial ratio (c/a) of hcp-Fe10wt%Ni has a weak pressure dependence, but it increases substantially with increasing temperature. The extrapolated c/a ratio at ~5700 K and ~86 GPa is approximately 1.64, lower than a theoretically predicted value of nearly 1.7 for hcp-Fe at 5700 K and inner-core pressure. A lower c/a ratio should have an effect on the longitudinal anisotropy of the hcp phase, and hence, may influence the interpretation of the seismic wave anisotropy of the inner core.

  7. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Steven A.; Creech, Edward T.; Northcutt, Walter G.

    1983-01-01

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and leave an insoluble residue of niobium stannide, then separating the niobium stannide from the acid.

  8. Contributions of Rare Earth Element (La,Ce) Addition to the Impact Toughness of Low Carbon Cast Niobium Microalloyed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkamani, Hadi; Raygan, Shahram; Garcia Mateo, Carlos; Rassizadehghani, Jafar; Palizdar, Yahya; San-Martin, David

    2018-03-01

    In this research Rare Earth elements (RE), La and Ce (200 ppm), were added to a low carbon cast microalloyed steel to disclose their influence on the microstructure and impact toughness. It is suggested that RE are able to change the interaction between the inclusions and matrix during the solidification process (comprising peritectic transformation), which could affect the microstructural features and consequently the impact property; compared to the base steel a clear evolution was observed in nature and morphology of the inclusions present in the RE-added steel i.e. (1) they changed from MnS-based to (RE,Al)(S,O) and RE(S)-based; (2) they obtained an aspect ratio closer to 1 with a lower area fraction as well as a smaller average size. Besides, the microstructural examination of the matrix phases showed that a bimodal type of ferrite grain size distribution exists in both base and RE-added steels, while the mean ferrite grain size was reduced from 12 to 7 μm and the bimodality was redressed in the RE-added steel. It was found that pearlite nodule size decreases from 9 to 6 μm in the RE-added steel; however, microalloying with RE caused only a slight decrease in pearlite volume fraction. After detailed fractography analyses, it was found that, compared to the based steel, the significant enhancement of the impact toughness in RE-added steel (from 63 to 100 J) can be mainly attributed to the differences observed in the nature of the inclusions, the ferrite grain size distribution, and the pearlite nodule size. The presence of carbides (cementite) at ferrite grain boundaries and probable change in distribution of Nb-nanoprecipitation (promoted by RE addition) can be considered as other reasons affecting the impact toughness of steels under investigation.

  9. Contributions of Rare Earth Element (La,Ce) Addition to the Impact Toughness of Low Carbon Cast Niobium Microalloyed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkamani, Hadi; Raygan, Shahram; Garcia Mateo, Carlos; Rassizadehghani, Jafar; Palizdar, Yahya; San-Martin, David

    2018-07-01

    In this research Rare Earth elements (RE), La and Ce (200 ppm), were added to a low carbon cast microalloyed steel to disclose their influence on the microstructure and impact toughness. It is suggested that RE are able to change the interaction between the inclusions and matrix during the solidification process (comprising peritectic transformation), which could affect the microstructural features and consequently the impact property; compared to the base steel a clear evolution was observed in nature and morphology of the inclusions present in the RE-added steel i.e. (1) they changed from MnS-based to (RE,Al)(S,O) and RE(S)-based; (2) they obtained an aspect ratio closer to 1 with a lower area fraction as well as a smaller average size. Besides, the microstructural examination of the matrix phases showed that a bimodal type of ferrite grain size distribution exists in both base and RE-added steels, while the mean ferrite grain size was reduced from 12 to 7 μm and the bimodality was redressed in the RE-added steel. It was found that pearlite nodule size decreases from 9 to 6 μm in the RE-added steel; however, microalloying with RE caused only a slight decrease in pearlite volume fraction. After detailed fractography analyses, it was found that, compared to the based steel, the significant enhancement of the impact toughness in RE-added steel (from 63 to 100 J) can be mainly attributed to the differences observed in the nature of the inclusions, the ferrite grain size distribution, and the pearlite nodule size. The presence of carbides (cementite) at ferrite grain boundaries and probable change in distribution of Nb-nanoprecipitation (promoted by RE addition) can be considered as other reasons affecting the impact toughness of steels under investigation.

  10. Passivated niobium cavities

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Yorktown, VA; Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin [Lagga Arby, SE; Ciovati, Gianluigi [Newport News, VA

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  11. Antiferromagnetic Spin Coupling between Rare Earth Adatoms and Iron Islands Probed by Spin-Polarized Tunneling

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, David; Diez-Ferrer, José Luis; Serrate, David; Ciria, Miguel; Fuente, César de la; Arnaudas, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    High-density magnetic storage or quantum computing could be achieved using small magnets with large magnetic anisotropy, a requirement that rare-earth iron alloys fulfill in bulk. This compelling property demands a thorough investigation of the magnetism in low dimensional rare-earth iron structures. Here, we report on the magnetic coupling between 4f single atoms and a 3d magnetic nanoisland. Thulium and lutetium adatoms deposited on iron monolayer islands pseudomorphically grown on W(110) have been investigated at low temperature with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The spin-polarized current indicates that both kind of adatoms have in-plane magnetic moments, which couple antiferromagnetically with their underlying iron islands. Our first-principles calculations explain the observed behavior, predicting an antiparallel coupling of the induced 5d electrons magnetic moment of the lanthanides with the 3d magnetic moment of iron, as well as their in-plane orientation, and pointing to a non-contribution of 4f electrons to the spin-polarized tunneling processes in rare earths. PMID:26333417

  12. Iron-Tolerant Cyanobacteria for Human Habitation beyond Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Igor; Sarkisova, Svetlana; Jones, Jeff; Sternberg, Paul; Bayless, David; Mckay, David S.

    2006-01-01

    In light of the President's Moon/Mars initiative, lunar exploration has once again become a priority for NASA. In order to establish permanent bases on the Moon and proceed with human exploration of Mars, two key problems will be addressed: first, the production of O2 and second, the production of methane (CH4). While O2 is required for life support systems (LSS), both liquid O2 and CH4 are needed as an oxidizer and a propellant, respectively for the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) and the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Unlike previous propulsion systems, the new CEV will use liquid oxygen (LO2) as an oxidizer and liquid methane (LCH4) as a propellant. Existing technology (e.g. hydrogen reduction) for the production of liquid oxygen from lunar regolith is very energy intensive and requires high temperature reactors. We propose an alternative approach using iron-tolerant cyanobacteria. We have found that iron-tolerant cyanobacteria (IT CB) are capable of etching iron-bearing minerals, which may lead to bonds breaking between Fe and O of common lunar mare basalt Feoxides including ilmenite, pseudobrookite, ferropseudobrookite, and armalcolite with the subsequent release of both Fe, Ti and oxygen as by-products. We also propose to use CB biomass for CH4 production as carbon stock and a propellant. Both processes can be accomplished in an energy and cost effective manner because sunlight will be used as an energy source and allows the reactions at ambient temperatures between 10-60 C. Current evaluations include assessing the thermodynamics of such biogenic reactions using a variety of nutrients and atmospheric parameters, as well as assessing the rates and species variation effects of the driving reactions.

  13. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; McMasters, O. D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their Magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900.degree. to 1000.degree. C. for 20 minutes to six hours.

  14. A novel in vivo model for assessing the impact of geophagic earth on iron status

    The causes and consequences of geophagy, the craving and consumption of earth, remain enigmatic, despite its recognition as a behavior with public health implications. Iron deficiency has been proposed as both a cause and consequence of geophagy, but methodological limitations have precluded a decis...

  15. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900 to 1,000 C for 20 minutes to six hours.

  16. Current sensing using bismuth rare-earth iron garnet films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Michael; Garmire, Elsa

    1995-04-01

    Ferrimagnetic iron garnet films are investigated as current-sensing elements. The Faraday effect within the films permits measurement of the magnetic field or current by a simple polarimetric technique. Polarized diffraction patterns from the films have been observed that arise from the presence of magnetic domains in the films. A physical model for the diffraction is discussed, and results from a mathematical analysis are in good agreement with the experimental observations. A method of current sensing that uses this polarized diffraction is demonstrated.

  17. Stability of the body-centred-cubic phase of iron in the Earth's inner core.

    PubMed

    Belonoshko, Anatoly B; Ahuja, Rajeev; Johansson, Börje

    2003-08-28

    Iron is thought to be the main constituent of the Earth's core, and considerable efforts have therefore been made to understand its properties at high pressure and temperature. While these efforts have expanded our knowledge of the iron phase diagram, there remain some significant inconsistencies, the most notable being the difference between the 'low' and 'high' melting curves. Here we report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of iron based on embedded atom models fitted to the results of two implementations of density functional theory. We tested two model approximations and found that both point to the stability of the body-centred-cubic (b.c.c.) iron phase at high temperature and pressure. Our calculated melting curve is in agreement with the 'high' melting curve, but our calculated phase boundary between the hexagonal close packed (h.c.p.) and b.c.c. iron phases is in good agreement with the 'low' melting curve. We suggest that the h.c.p.-b.c.c. transition was previously misinterpreted as a melting transition, similar to the case of xenon, and that the b.c.c. phase of iron is the stable phase in the Earth's inner core.

  18. A Novel in Vivo Model for Assessing the Impact of Geophagic Earth on Iron Status

    PubMed Central

    Seim, Gretchen L.; Tako, Elad; Ahn, Cedric; Glahn, Raymond P.; Young, Sera L.

    2016-01-01

    The causes and consequences of geophagy, the craving and consumption of earth, remain enigmatic, despite its recognition as a behavior with public health implications. Iron deficiency has been proposed as both a cause and consequence of geophagy, but methodological limitations have precluded a decisive investigation into this relationship. Here we present a novel in vivo model for assessing the impact of geophagic earth on iron status: Gallus gallus (broiler chicken). For four weeks, animals were gavaged daily with varying dosages of geophagic material or pure clay mineral. Differences in haemoglobin (Hb) across treatment groups were assessed weekly and differences in liver ferritin, liver iron, and gene expression of the iron transporters divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), duodenal cytochrome B (DcytB) and ferroportin were assessed at the end of the study. Minimal impact on iron status indicators was observed in all non-control groups, suggesting dosing of geophagic materials may need refining in future studies. However, this model shows clear advantages over prior methods used both in vitro and in humans, and represents an important step in explaining the public health impact of geophagy on iron status. PMID:27304966

  19. The Effect of Nickel on Iron Isotope Fractionation and Implications for the Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, M. M.; Shahar, A.; Elardo, S. M.; Liu, J.; Xiao, Y.; Mao, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's core is thought to be composed mainly of an iron-rich iron nickel (FeNi) alloy. Therefore, determining the behavior of these alloys at core conditions is crucial for interpreting and constraining geophysical and geochemical models. Understanding the effect of nickel on iron isotope fractionation can shed light on planetary core formation. We collected a series of phonon excitation spectra using nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) on 57Fe-enriched FeNi alloys with varying (Fe0.9Ni0.1, Fe0.8Ni0.2, Fe0.7Ni0.3) nickel content in a diamond anvil cell at pressures up to 50 GPa. All three alloys studied exhibited differences from pure Fe, indicating that increasing nickel content could have an effect on iron isotope fractionation which would have implications for planetary core formation and provide constraints the bulk composition for terrestrial planets.

  20. Method for preparing high cure temperature rare earth iron compound magnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yuhong; Wei, Qiang; Zheng, Haixing

    2002-01-01

    Insertion of light elements such as H,C, or N in the R.sub.2 Fe.sub.17 (R=rare earth metal) series has been found to modify the magnetic properties of these compounds, which thus become prospective candidates for high performance permanent magnets. The most spectacular changes are increases of the Curie temperature, T.sub.c, of the magnetization, M.sub.s, and of coercivity, H.sub.c, upon interstitial insertion. A preliminary product having a component R--Fe--C,N phase is produced by a chemical route. Rare earth metal and iron amides are synthesized followed by pyrolysis and sintering in an inert or reduced atmosphere, as a result of which, the R--Fe--C,N phases are formed. Fabrication of sintered rare earth iron nitride and carbonitride bulk magnet is impossible via conventional process due to the limitation of nitridation method.

  1. Microanalysis of iron oxidation states in earth and planetary materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajt, S.; Sutton, S. R.; Delaney, J. S.

    1995-02-01

    Initial studies have been made on quantifying Fe oxidation states in different iron-bearing minerals using K-edge XANES. The energy of a weak pre-edge peak in the XANES spectrum due to 1s-3d electron transition was used to quantify ferric/ferrous ratios with microprobe spatial resolution. The estimated accuracy of the technique was +/- 10% in terms of Fe3+/((Fe2+ + Fe3+)). The detection limit was ~ 100 ppm with a synchrotron beam of ~ 100 μm in diameter. The pre-edge peak energy in well-characterized samples with known Fe oxidation states was found to be a linear function of the ferric/(ferrous) ratio. The technique was applied to altered magnetics (ideally Fe3O4), and various silicates and oxides from meteorites.

  2. Iron silicides at pressures of the Earth's inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feiwu; Oganov, Artem R.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's core is expected to contain around 10 wt % light elements (S, Si, O, possibly C, H, etc.) alloyed with Fe and Ni. Very little is known about these alloys at pressures and temperatures of the core. Here, using the evolutionary crystal structure prediction methodology, we investigate Fe-Si compounds at pressures of up to 400 GPa, i.e. covering the pressure range of the Earth's core. Evolutionary simulations correctly find that at atmospheric pressure the known non-trivial structure with P213 symmetry is stable, while at pressures above 20 GPa the CsCl-type structure is stable. We show that among the possible Fe silicides (Fe3Si, Fe2Si, Fe5Si3, FeSi, FeSi2 and FeSi3) only FeSi with CsCl-type structure is thermodynamically stable at core pressures, while the other silicides are unstable to decomposition into Fe + FeSi or FeSi + Si. This is consistent with previous works and suggests that Si impurities contribute to stabilization of the body-centered cubic phase of Fe in the inner core.

  3. Effects of spin crossover on iron isotope fractionation in Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, T.; Shukla, G.; Wu, Z.; Wentzcovitch, R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the iron isotope composition of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) is +0.1‰ richer in heavy Fe (56Fe) relative to chondrites, while basalts from Mars and Vesta have similar Fe isotopic composition as chondrites. Several hypotheses could explain these observations. For instance, iron isotope fractionation may have occurred during core formation or Earth may have lost some light Fe isotope during the high temperature event in the early Earth. To better understand what drove these isotopic observations, it is important to obtain accurate Fe isotope fractionation factors among mantle and core phases at the relevant P-T conditions. In bridgmanite, the most voluminous mineral in the lower mantle, Fe can occupy more than one crystalline site, be in ferrous and/or ferric states, and may undergo a spin crossover in the lower mantle. Iron isotopic fractionation properties under spin crossover are poorly constrained, while this may be relevant to differentiation of Earth's magma ocean. In this study we address the effect of these multiple states on the iron isotope fractionation factors between mantle and core phases.

  4. Recovery of niobium from irradiated targets

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Hamilton, Virginia T.

    1994-01-01

    A process for selective separation of niobium from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, contacting the first ion-containing solution with a cationic resin whereby ions selected form the group consisting of molybdenum, biobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in a second ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the cationic resin; adjusting the pH of the second ion-containing solution to within a range of from about 5.0 to about 6.0; contacting the pH adjusting second ion-containing solution with a dextran-based material for a time to selectively separate niobium from the solution and recovering the niobium from the dextran-based material.

  5. Laboratory experiments on the impact disruption of iron meteorites at temperature of near-Earth space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Takekuni; Nakamura, Akiko M.; Takabe, Ayana; Okamoto, Takaya; Sangen, Kazuyoshi; Hasegawa, Sunao; Liu, Xun; Mashimo, Tsutomu

    2014-10-01

    Iron meteorites and some M-class asteroids are generally understood to be fragments that were originally part of cores of differentiated planetesimals or part of local melt pools on primitive bodies. The parent bodies of iron meteorites may have formed in the terrestrial planet region, from which they were then scattered into the main belt (Bottke, W.F., Nesvorný, D., Grimm, R.E., Morbidelli, A., O'Brien, D.P. [2006]. Nature 439, 821-824). Therefore, a wide range of collisional events at different mass scales, temperatures, and impact velocities would have occurred between the time when the iron was segregated and the impact that eventually exposed the iron meteorites to interplanetary space. In this study, we performed impact disruption experiments of iron meteorite specimens as projectiles or targets at room temperature to increase understanding of the disruption process of iron bodies in near-Earth space. Our iron specimens (as projectiles or targets) were almost all smaller in size than their counterparts (as targets or projectiles, respectively). Experiments of impacts of steel specimens were also conducted for comparison. The fragment mass distribution of the iron material was different from that of rocks. In the iron fragmentation, a higher percentage of the mass was concentrated in larger fragments, probably due to the ductile nature of the material at room temperature. The largest fragment mass fraction f was dependent not only on the energy density but also on the size d of the specimen. We assumed a power-law dependence of the largest fragment mass fraction to initial peak pressure P0 normalized by a dynamic strength, Y, which was defined to be dependent on the size of the iron material. A least squares fit to the data of iron meteorite specimens resulted in the following relationship: f∝∝d, indicating a large size dependence of f. Additionally, the deformation of the iron materials in high-velocity shots was found to be most significant when the

  6. Iron-Nitride Alloy Magnets: Transformation Enabled Nitride Magnets Absent Rare Earths (TEN Mare)

    SciT

    None

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Case Western is developing a highly magnetic iron-nitride alloy to use in the magnets that power electric motors found in EVs and renewable power generators. This would reduce the overall price of the motor by eliminating the expensive imported rare earth minerals typically found in today’s best commercial magnets. The iron-nitride powder is sourced from abundant and inexpensive materials found in the U.S. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate this new magnet system, which contains no rare earths, in a prototype electric motor. This could significantly reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emitted in themore » U.S. each year by encouraging the use of clean alternatives to oil and coal.« less

  7. Method of increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; McMasters, O. Dale; Gibson, Edwin D.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Finnemore, Douglas K.

    1989-04-04

    This invention comprises a method of increasing the magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron (RFe) magnetostrictive alloy rods by a thermal-magnetic treatment. The rod is heated to a temperature above its Curie temperature, viz. from 400.degree. to 600.degree. C.; and, while the rod is at that temperature, a magnetic field is directionally applied and maintained while the rod is cooled, at least below its Curie temperature.

  8. Method of increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.; Gibson, E.D.; Ostenson, J.E.; Finnemore, D.K.

    1989-04-04

    This invention comprises a method of increasing the magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron (RFe) magnetostrictive alloy rods by a thermal-magnetic treatment. The rod is heated to a temperature above its Curie temperature, viz. from 400 to 600 C; and, while the rod is at that temperature, a magnetic field is directionally applied and maintained while the rod is cooled, at least below its Curie temperature. 2 figs.

  9. Sintered rare earth-iron Laves phase magnetostrictive alloy product and preparation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Malekzadeh, Manoochehr; Pickus, Milton R.

    1979-01-01

    A sintered rare earth-iron Laves phase magnetostrictive alloy product characterized by a grain oriented morphology. The grain oriented morphology is obtained by magnetically aligning powder particles of the magnetostrictive alloy prior to sintering. Specifically disclosed are grain oriented sintered compacts of Tb.sub.x Dy.sub.1-x Fe.sub.2 and their method of preparation. The present sintered products have enhanced magnetostrictive properties.

  10. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, S.A.; Creech, E.T.; Northcutt, W.G.

    1982-09-27

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and form a precipitate of niobium stannide, then separating the precipitate from the acid.

  11. Reaction between hydrous wadsleyite and iron: Implication for water distribution in Earth's transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, F.; Li, J.; Liu, J.; Dong, J.

    2017-12-01

    The mantle transition zone (TZ) is considered as a potential water reservoir due to large capacities of wadsleyite and ringwoodite to store water in the structures. Whether it is a hydrous layer or an empty reservoir, however, is still under debate. Because the TZ may contain metallic iron1, 2 and water is an oxidizing agent at > 5 GPa, the stability of coexisting iron and TZ hydrous phases needs to be examined. In this study, we conducted multi-anvil experiments on iron with synthetic hydrous wadsleyite or forsterite and water under TZ pressure-temperature conditions. Similar rapid reactions were observed for both types of starting materials, producing ferropericlase, iron-bearing wadsleyite or ringwoodite, and iron hydride. The results imply that a hydrous TZ is incompatible with a reduced state, and that water distribution of TZ is confined to subducting slabs and slab-mantle boundaries, where water or hydrous phases in slab must oxidize the adjacent mantle before they can hydrate the silicates. In contrast, the bulk transition zone may be mostly dry. The iron hydride produced from this slab-mantle interaction may sink to greater depths due to their low melting temperature3, thus providing a pathway for hydrogen to enter the lower mantle and core. References 1. O'Neill HSC, McCammon C, Canil D, Rubie D, Ross C, Seifert F. Mossbauer spectroscopy of mantle transition zone phases and determination of minimum Fe3+ content. American Mineralogist 1993, 78(3-4): 456-460. 2. Rohrbach A, Ballhaus C, Golla-Schindler U, Ulmer P, Kamenetsky VS, Kuzmin DV. Metal saturation in the upper mantle. Nature 2007, 449(7161): 456-458. 3. Sakamaki K, Takahashi E, Nakajima Y, Nishihara Y, Funakoshi K, Suzuki T, et al. Melting phase relation of FeH x up to 20GPa: Implication for the temperature of the Earth's core. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 2009, 174(1): 192-201.

  12. First-principles study of intermediate-spin ferrous iron in the Earth's lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Han; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2014-11-01

    Spin crossover of iron is of central importance in solid Earth geophysics. It impacts all physical properties of minerals that altogether constitute ˜95 vol% of the Earth's lower mantle: ferropericlase [(Mg,Fe)O] and Fe-bearing magnesium silicate (MgSiO3) perovskite. Despite great strides made in the past decade, the existence of an intermediate-spin (IS) state in ferrous iron (Fe2 +) (with total electron spin S =1 ) and its possible role in the pressure-induced spin crossover in these lower-mantle minerals still remain controversial. Using density functional theory + self-consistent Hubbard U (DFT+Usc ) calculations, we investigate all possible types of IS states of Fe2 + in (Mg,Fe)O and (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite. Among the possible IS states in these minerals, the most probable IS state has an electronic configuration that significantly reduces the electron overlap and the iron nuclear quadrupole splitting (QS). These most probable IS states, however, are still energetically disfavored, and their QSs are inconsistent with Mössbauer spectra. We therefore conclude that IS Fe2 + is highly unlikely in the Earth's lower mantle.

  13. An impact-induced terrestrial atmosphere and iron-water reactions during accretion of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, M. A.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Shock wave data and theoretical calculations were used to derive models of an impact-generated terrestrial atmosphere during accretion of the Earth. The models showed that impacts of infalling planetesimals not only provided the entire budget of terrestrial water but also led to a continuous depletion of near-surface layers of water-bearing minerals of their structural water. This resulted in a final atmospheric water reservoir comparable to the present day total water budget of the Earth. The interaction of metallic iron with free water at the surface of the accreting Earth is considered. We carried out model calcualtions simulating these processes during accretion. It is assumed that these processes are the prime source of the terrestrial FeO component of silicates and oxides. It is demonstrated that the iron-water reaction would result in the absence of atmospheric/hydrospheric water, if homogeneous accretion is assumed. In order to obtain the necessary amount of terrestrial water, slightly heterogeneous accretion with initially 36 wt% iron planetesimals, as compared with a homogeneous value of 34 wt% is required.

  14. Polymorphic Nature of Iron and Degree of Lattice Preferred Orientation Beneath the Earth's Inner Core Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattesini, Maurizio; Belonoshko, Anatoly B.; Tkalčić, Hrvoje

    2018-01-01

    Deciphering the polymorphic nature and the degree of iron lattice-preferred orientation in the Earth's inner core holds a key to understanding the present status and evolution of the inner core. A multiphase lattice-preferred orientation pattern is obtained for the top 350 km of the inner core by means of the ab initio based Candy Wrapper Velocity Model coupled to a Monte Carlo phase discrimination scheme. The achieved geographic distribution of lattice alignment is characterized by two regions of freezing, namely within South America and the Western Central Pacific, that exhibit an uncommon high degree of lattice orientation. In contrast, widespread regions of melting of relatively weak lattice ordering permeate the rest of the inner core. The obtained multiphase lattice-preferred orientation pattern is in line with mantle-constrained geodynamo simulations and allows to setup an ad hoc mineral physics scenario for the complex Earth's inner core. It is found that the cubic phase of iron is the dominating iron polymorph in the outermost part of the inner core.

  15. Deformation and recrystallization behavior of super high-purity niobium for SRF cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Doryo, H.; Yuasa, M.; Miyamoto, H.; Yamanaka, M.

    2017-05-01

    Deformation and recyrstallization behavior of pure niobium was investigated in order to clarify the origin of its low hydro-formability despite of its high ductility comparable with pure iron. It was found that pure niobium exhibits lower strain hardening in cold rolling compared with pure iron. Furthermore, in post-deformation annealing, the hardness of niobium decreased monotonously with an increase of temperature, and the typical sharp drop by recrystallization was not evident. This softening behavior was contrasted with the high-purity iron. It is suggested that niobium exhibit the so-called in-situ recrystallization possibly because of low elastic modulus and low accumulative plastic strain energy in spite of high melting temperature. The low hydro-formability of pure niobium sheets or tubes is caused by its low strain hardening and its unique plastic anisotropy which is associated with this recovered residual rolled texture.

  16. The problem of iron partition between Earth and Moon during simultaneous formation as a double planet system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    A planetary model is described which requires fractional vapor/liquid condensation, planet accumulation during condensation, a late start for accumulation of the Moon, and volatile accretion to the surfaces of each planet only near the end of the accumulation process. In the model, initial accumulation of small objects is helped if the agglomerating particles are somewhat sticky. Assuming that growth proceeds through this range, agglomeration continues. If the reservoir of vapor is being preferentially depleted in iron by fractional condensation, an iron-rich planetary core forms. As the temperature decreases, condensing material becomes progressively richer in silicates and poorer in iron, forming the silicate-rich mantle of an already differentiated Earth. A second center of agglomeration successfully forms near the growing Earth after most of the iron in the reservoir has been used up. The bulk composition of the Moon then is similar to the outer mantle of the accumulating Earth.

  17. Local magnetic moments in iron and nickel at ambient and Earth's core conditions.

    PubMed

    Hausoel, A; Karolak, M; Şaşιoğlu, E; Lichtenstein, A; Held, K; Katanin, A; Toschi, A; Sangiovanni, G

    2017-07-12

    Some Bravais lattices have a particular geometry that can slow down the motion of Bloch electrons by pre-localization due to the band-structure properties. Another known source of electronic localization in solids is the Coulomb repulsion in partially filled d or f orbitals, which leads to the formation of local magnetic moments. The combination of these two effects is usually considered of little relevance to strongly correlated materials. Here we show that it represents, instead, the underlying physical mechanism in two of the most important ferromagnets: nickel and iron. In nickel, the van Hove singularity has an unexpected impact on the magnetism. As a result, the electron-electron scattering rate is linear in temperature, in violation of the conventional Landau theory of metals. This is true even at Earth's core pressures, at which iron is instead a good Fermi liquid. The importance of nickel in models of geomagnetism may have therefore to be reconsidered.

  18. Thermal Equation of State of Iron: Constraint on the Density Deficit of Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Y.; Murphy, C. A.; Shibazaki, Y.; Huang, H.

    2013-12-01

    The seismically inferred densities of Earth's solid inner core and the liquid outer core are smaller than the measured densities of solid hcp-iron and liquid iron, respectively. The inner core density deficit is significantly smaller than the outer core density deficit, implying different amounts and/or identities of light-elements incorporated in the inner and outer cores. Accurate measurements of the thermal equation-of-state of iron over a wide pressure and temperature range are required to precisely quantify the core density deficits, which are essential for developing a quantitative composition model for the core. The challenge has been evaluating the experimental uncertainties related to the choice of pressure scales and the sample environment, such as hydrostaticity at multi-megabar pressures and extreme temperatures. We have conducted high-pressure experiments on iron in MgO, NaCl, and Ne pressure media and obtained in-situ X-ray diffraction data up to 200 GPa at room temperature. Using inter-calibrated pressure scales including the MgO, NaCl, Ne, and Pt scales, we have produced a consistent compression curve of hcp-Fe at room temperature. We have also performed laser-heated diamond-anvil cell experiments on both Fe and Pt in a Ne pressure medium. The experiment was designed to quantitatively compare the thermal expansion of Fe and Pt in the same sample environment using Ne as the pressure medium. The thermal expansion data of hcp-Fe at high pressure were derived based on the thermal equation of state of Pt. Using the 300-K isothermal compression curve of iron derived from our static experiments as a constraint, we have developed a thermal equation of state of hcp-Fe that is consistent with the static P-V-T data of iron and also reproduces the shock wave Hugoniot data for pure iron. The thermodynamic model, based on both static and dynamic data, is further used to calculate the density and bulk sound velocity of liquid iron. Our results define the solid

  19. Anisotropy and Microstructure of High Coercivity Rare Earth Iron Permanent Magnets, List of Papers Published

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    EARTH IRON PERMANENT MAGNETS. LIST OF PAPERS PUBLISHED 1986 - 1989 Contract No.: DAJA45-86-C-0010 Report No.: R/D-5295-MS-01 NOV 0 � A = LIST OF...R.Gr~ssinger - ’-Does a Co substitution really improve the temperature dependence of Nd-Fe-B based permanent magnets" .’ Proc. of 91h Int. Workshop...in NdzFe,4-4-iZx B (Z=A1,Si,Co, Ga) compounds", J. de Physique 49 (1988) CS-599. (16) R.Gr8ssinger, R.Krewenka, H.Buchn~r, H.Harada " A new analysis of

  20. The Earth's core composition from high pressure density measurements of liquid iron alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morard, G.; Siebert, J.; Andrault, D.; Guignot, N.; Garbarino, G.; Guyot, F.; Antonangeli, D.

    2013-07-01

    High-pressure, high-temperature in situ X-ray diffraction has been measured in liquid iron alloys (Fe-5 wt% Ni-12 wt% S and Fe-5 wt% Ni-15 wt% Si) up to 94 GPa and 3200 K in laser-heated diamond anvil cells. From the analysis of the X-ray diffuse scattering signal of the metallic liquids, we determined density and bulk modulus of the two liquid alloys. Comparison with a reference Earth model indicates that a core composition containing 6% of sulfur and 2% of silicon by weight would best match the geophysical data. Models with 2.5% of sulfur and 4-5% of silicon are still consistent with geophysical constraints whereas silicon only compositions are not. These results suggest only moderate depletion of sulfur in the bulk Earth.

  1. Effects of rare earth doping on multi-core iron oxide nanoparticles properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petran, Anca; Radu, Teodora; Borodi, Gheorghe; Nan, Alexandrina; Suciu, Maria; Turcu, Rodica

    2018-01-01

    New multi-core iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles doped with rare earth metals (Gd, Eu) were obtained by a one step synthesis procedure using a solvothermal method for potential biomedical applications. The obtained clusters were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and magnetization measurements. They possess high colloidal stability, a saturation magnetization of up to 52 emu/g, and nearly spherical shape. The presence of rare earth ions in the obtained samples was confirmed by EDX and XPS. XRD analysis proved the homogeneous distribution of the trivalent rare earth ions in the inverse-spinel structure of magnetite and the increase of crystal strain upon doping the samples. XPS study reveals the valence state and the cation distribution on the octahedral and tetrahedral sites of the analysed samples. The observed shift of the XPS valence band spectra maximum in the direction of higher binding energies after rare earth doping, as well as theoretical valence band calculations prove the presence of Gd and Eu ions in octahedral sites. The blood protein adsorption ability of the obtained samples surface, the most important factor of the interaction between biomaterials and body fluids, was assessed by interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The rare earth doped clusters surface show higher afinity for binding BSA. In vitro cytotoxicity test results for the studied samples showed no cytotoxicity in low and medium doses, establishing a potential perspective for rare earth doped MNC to facilitate multiple therapies in a single formulation for cancer theranostics.

  2. Mineralogical modeling of the anisotropic inner core based on the phase relations and elasticity of iron and iron alloys under the Earth's core condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Y.; Tsuchiya, T.; Ohishi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The inner-core and the outer-core, which make up the center of the Earth, are thought to be composed predominantly of a solid and liquid iron alloying with 5 to 15 % nickel, respectively. Determination of the physical properties of iron alloy at extremely high pressures found in the deep Earth's core (>300 GPa) is a fundamental issue for understanding the thermal and dynamical state of the Earth's core. According to seismological observations, it is widely accepted that the Earth's inner-core is elastically anisotropic; the compressional wave in the inner-core propagates 3~4 % faster along its rotational axis than in the equatorial direction. A number of models on core dynamics have been proposed to explain the origin of the inner-core anisotropy, but all of them are based on the idea of the crystal preferred orientation of iron. The phase relation of iron at high pressures has been extensively studied using LH-DACs. At relatively low temperatures, around room temperature, the phase relations are already well established; a low pressure phase with a bcc structure transforms into an hcp structure above ~10 GPa and it persists above 300 GPa. In contrast, the phase relations of iron at high temperatures are highly controversial. Some experiments assigned different crystal structures including orthorhombic, dhcp, fcc, and bcc as candidate stable crystal structures, whereas others suggested that the hcp structure remains stable at high temperatures. Despite considerable attention on these new phases, there is, however, no experimental reproducibility. The lack of plausible data is mainly because of the substantial difficulties associated with high-temperature experiments at multimegabar pressures. In order to overcome these difficulties, we have developed experimental techniques using a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell for the past decade and succeeded in obtaining excellent quality data under extremely high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. In order to

  3. Pre-Melting in Iron and Iron Alloys at Earth's Core Conditions: Results from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocadlo, L.; Martorell, B.; Brodholt, J. P.; Wood, I. G.

    2014-12-01

    Seismically determined S-wave velocities in the Earth's inner core are observed to be much lower (10-30%) than those generally inferred from mineral physics. This is a remarkably large discrepancy - mineralogical models for the mantle and the outer core match the observed velocities to around 1%. In no other large volume of the Earth does such a difference exist. There have been a number of arguments put forward over the years to account for the difference, but none have been universally accepted and our inability to explain the seismic velocities of the inner core remains an uncomfortable truth. Here, we present results from ab initio molecular dynamics calculations performed at 360 GPa and core temperatures on hcp and fcc iron, and on fcc-Fe alloyed with nickel and hcp-Fe alloyed with silicon. The calculated shear modulus, and therefore seismic velocities, of pure hcp-Fe reduces dramatically just prior to melting, providing an elegant explanation for the observed velocities. Calculations on fcc-Fe show no such strong reduction in VS, with a transformation to an hcp-type structure prior to melting; addition of 6.5 atm% and 13 atm% Ni to fcc-Fe raises the temperature of this transition. When silicon is added to hcp-Fe, the pre-melting behaviour is found to be very similar to that of pure hcp-Fe with a strong nonlinear shear weakening just before melting and a corresponding reduction in VS. Because temperatures range from T/Tm = 1 at the inner-outer core boundary to T/Tm ≈ 0.99 at the centre, this strong nonlinear effect on VS should occur in the inner core, providing a compelling explanation for the low VS observed.

  4. Hydrogen-bearing iron peroxide and its implications to the deep Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Hu, Q.; Kim, D. Y.; Wu, Z.; Wang, W.; Alp, E. E.; Yang, L.; Xiao, Y.; Meng, Y.; Chow, P.; Greenberg, E.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Mao, H. K.; Mao, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrous materials subducted into the deep mantle may play a significant role in the geophysical and geochemical processes of the lower mantle through geological time, but their roles have not become clear yet in the region. Hydrogen-bearing iron peroxide (FeO2Hx) was recently discovered to form through dehydrogenation of goethite (e.g., FeOOH) and the reaction between hematite (Fe2O3) and water under deep lower mantle conditions. We conducted synchrotron Mössbauer, X-ray absorption, and X-ray emission spectroscopy measurements to investigate the electronic spin and valence states of iron in hydrogen-bearing iron peroxide (FeO2Hx) in-situ at high pressures. Combined with theoretical calculations and other high-pressure experiments (i.e., nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction coupled with laser-heated diamond-anvil cell techniques), we find that the intriguing properties of FeO2Hx could shed light on the origin of a number of the observed geochemical and geophysical anomalies in the deep Earth.

  5. One hundred angstrom niobium wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, H. E.; Rose, R. M.; Wulff, J.

    1968-01-01

    Composite of fine niobium wires in copper is used to study the size and proximity effects of a superconductor in a normal matrix. The niobium rod was drawn to a 100 angstrom diameter wire on a copper tubing.

  6. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    ... too little iron, you may develop iron deficiency anemia. Causes of low iron levels include blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from foods. People at higher risk of having too little iron are young children and women who are pregnant or have periods. ...

  7. Phase relations of iron and iron nickel alloys up to 300 GPa: Implications for composition and structure of the Earth's inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Kei; Sata, Nagayoshi; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2008-09-01

    We have investigated the phase relations of iron and iron-nickel alloys with 18 to 50 wt.% Ni up to over 300 GPa using a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. The synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements show the wide stability of hcp-iron up to 301 GPa and 2000 K and 319 GPa and 300 K without phase transition to dhcp, orthorhombic, or bcc phases. On the other hand, the incorporation of nickel has a remarkable effect on expanding the stability field of fcc phase. The geometry of the temperature-composition phase diagram of iron-nickel alloys suggests that the hcp-fcc-liquid triple point is located at 10 to 20 wt.% Ni at the pressure of the inner core boundary. The fcc phase could crystallize depending on the nickel and silicon contents in the Earth's core, both of which are fcc stabilizer.

  8. Proton in SRF Niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John Paul

    2011-03-01

    Hydrogen is a difficult impurity to physically deal with in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium, therefore, its properties in the metals should be well understood to allow the metal's superconducting properties to be optimized for minimum loss in the construction of resonant accelerator cavities. It is known that hydrogen is a paramagnetic impurity in niobium from NMR studies. This paramagnetism and its effect on superconducting properties are important to understand. To that end analytical induction measurements aimed at isolating the magnetic properties of hydrogen in SRF niobium are introduced along with optical reflection spectroscopy which is also sensitive to the presence of hydrogen. From the variety, magnitude and rapid kinetics found in the optical and magnetic properties of niobium contaminated with hydrogen forced a search for an atomic model. This yielded quantum mechanical description that correctly generates the activation energy for diffusion of the proton and its isotopes not only in niobium but the remaining metals for which data is available. This interpretation provides a frame work for understanding the individual and collective behavior of protons in metals.

  9. Niobium hyperfine structure in crystal calcium tungstate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, D. L.; Kikuchi, C.

    1972-01-01

    A study of the niobium hyperfine structure in single crystal calcium tungstate was made by the combination of the technique of electron paramagnetic resonance and electron nuclear double resonance (EPR/ENDOR). The microwave frequency was about 9.4 GHz and the radio frequency from 20MHz to 70 MHz. The rare earth ions Nd(3+), U(3+), or Tm(3+) were added as the charge compensator for Nb(5+). To create niobium paramagnetic centers, the sample was irradiated at 77 deg K with a 10 thousand curie Co-60 gamma source for 1 to 2 hours at a dose rate of 200 K rads per hour and then transferred quickly into the cavity. In a general direction of magnetic field, the spectra showed 4 sets of 10 main lines corresponding to 4 nonequivalent sites of niobium with I = 9/2. These 4 sets of lines coalesced into 2 sets of 10 in the ab-plane and into a single set of 10 along the c-axis. This symmetry suggested that the tungsten ions are substituted by the niobium ions in the crystal.

  10. METHOD OF PRODUCING NIOBIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Stevens, E.R.

    1960-05-24

    A process is given for preparing ductile niobium metal by the reduction of niobium pentoxide with carbon. The invention resides in the addition, to the reaction mass, of from 0.05 to 0.4 atom of titanium (in the form of metallic titanium, titanium carbide, and/or titanium oxide) per one mole of niobium pentoxide. The mixture is heated under subatmospheric pressure to above 1300 deg C but below the melting point of niobium, and the carbon- and oxygen-free niobium sponge obtained is cooled under reduced pressure.

  11. Niobium and tantalum

    Schulz, Klaus J.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Papp, John F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Niobium and tantalum are transition metals that are almost always found together in nature because they have very similar physical and chemical properties. Their properties of hardness, conductivity, and resistance to corrosion largely determine their primary uses today. The leading use of niobium (about 75 percent) is in the production of high-strength steel alloys used in pipelines, transportation infrastructure, and structural applications. Electronic capacitors are the leading use of tantalum for high-end applications, including cell phones, computer hard drives, and such implantable medical devices as pacemakers. Niobium and tantalum are considered critical and strategic metals based on the potential risks to their supply (because current production is restricted to only a few countries) and the significant effects that a restriction in supply would have on the defense, energy, high-tech industrial, and medical sectors.The average abundance of niobium and tantalum in bulk continental crust is relatively low—8.0 parts per million (ppm) niobium and 0.7 ppm tantalum. Their chemical characteristics, such as small ionic size and high electronic field strength, significantly reduce the potential for these elements to substitute for more common elements in rock-forming minerals and make niobium and tantalum essentially immobile in most aqueous solutions. Niobium and tantalum do not occur naturally as pure metals but are concentrated in a variety of relatively rare oxide and hydroxide minerals, as well as in a few rare silicate minerals. Niobium is primarily derived from the complex oxide minerals of the pyrochlore group ((Na,Ca,Ce)2(Nb,Ti,Ta)2(O,OH,F)7), which are found in some alkaline granite-syenite complexes (that is, igneous rocks containing sodium- or potassium-rich minerals and little or no quartz) and carbonatites (that is, igneous rocks that are more than 50 percent composed of primary carbonate minerals, by volume). Tantalum is derived mostly from the

  12. Field determination of microgram quantities of niobium in rocks

    Ward, F.N.; Marranzino, A.P.

    1955-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and moderately accurate method was needed for the determination of traces of niobium in rocks. The method developed is based on the reaction of niobium(V) with thiocyanate ion in a 4M hydrochloric acid and 0.5M tartaric acid medium, after which the complex is extracted with ethyl ether. The proposed procedure is applicable to rocks containing from 50 to 2000 p.p.m. of niobium, and, with modifications, can be used on rocks containing larger amounts. Five determinations on two rocks containing 100 p.p.m. or less of niobium agree within 5 p.p.m. of the mean, and the confidence limits at the 95% level are, respectively, ??6 and ??4 p.p.m. The addition of acetone to the ether extract of the niobium thiocyanate inhibits the polymerization of the thiocyanate ion and stabilizes the solution for at least 20 hours. The proposed procedure permits the determination of 20 ?? of niobium in the presence of 1000 ?? of iron, titanium, or uranium; 500 ?? of vanadium; or 100 ?? of tungsten or molybdenum or both.

  13. Ab initio simulations of iron-nickel alloys at Earth's core conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côté, Alexander S.; Vočadlo, Lidunka; Brodholt, John P.

    2012-09-01

    We report ab initio density functional theory calculations on iron-nickel (FeNi) alloys at conditions representative of the Earth's inner core. We test different concentrations of Ni, up to ∼39 wt% using ab initio lattice dynamics, and investigate the thermodynamic and vibrational stability of the three candidate crystal structures (bcc, hcp and fcc). First of all, at inner core pressures, we find that pure Fe transforms from the hcp to the fcc phase at around 6000 K. Secondly, in agreement with low pressure experiments on Fe-Ni alloys, we find the fcc structure is stabilised by the incorporation of Ni under core pressures and temperatures. Our results show that the fcc structure may, therefore, be stable under core conditions depending on the temperature in the inner core and the Ni content. Lastly, we find that within the quasi-harmonic approximation, there is no stability field for FeNi alloys in the bcc structure under core conditions.

  14. Mobility of rare earth elements in mine drainage: Influence of iron oxides, carbonates, and phosphates.

    PubMed

    Edahbi, Mohamed; Plante, Benoît; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Ward, Matthew; Pelletier, Mia

    2018-05-01

    The geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REE) was investigated using weathering cells. The influence of sorption and precipitation on dissolved REE mobility and fractionation is evaluated using synthetic iron-oxides, carbonates, and phosphates. Sorption cell tests are conducted on the main lithologies of the expected waste rocks from the Montviel deposit. The sorbed materials are characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a microanalysis system (energy dispersive spectroscopy EDS) (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) in order to understand the effect of the synthetic minerals on REE mobility. The results confirm that sorption and precipitation control the mobility and fractionation of REE. The main sorbent phases are the carbonates, phosphates (present as accessory minerals in the Montviel waste rocks), and iron oxides (main secondary minerals generated upon weathering of the Montviel lithologies). The XANES results show that REE are present as trivalent species after weathering. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations results using Visual Minteq suggest that REE could precipitate as secondary phosphates (REEPO 4 ). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Janus face of iron on anoxic worlds: iron oxides are both protective and destructive to life on the early Earth and present-day Mars.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Jennifer; Cockell, Charles S

    2017-05-01

    The surface of the early Earth was probably subjected to a higher flux of ultraviolet (UV) radiation than today. UV radiation is known to severely damage DNA and other key molecules of life. Using a liquid culture and a rock analogue system, we investigated the interplay of protective and deleterious effects of iron oxides under UV radiation on the viability of the model organism, Bacillus subtilis. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, there exists a fine balance between iron oxide's protective effects against this radiation and its deleterious effects caused by Photo-Fenton reactions. The maximum damage was caused by a concentration of hematite of ∼1 mg/mL. Concentrations above this confer increasing protection by physical blockage of the UV radiation, concentrations below this cause less effective UV radiation blockage, but also a correspondingly less effective Photo-Fenton reaction, providing an overall advantage. These results show that on anoxic worlds, surface habitability under a high UV flux leaves life precariously poised between the beneficial and deleterious effects of iron oxides. These results have relevance to the Archean Earth, but also the habitability of the Martian surface, where high levels of UV radiation in combination with iron oxides and hydrogen peroxide can be found. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effects of iron on the lattice thermal conductivity of Earth's deep mantle and implications for mantle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Deschamps, Frédéric; Okuchi, Takuo; Lin, Jung-Fu

    2018-04-17

    Iron may critically influence the physical properties and thermochemical structures of Earth's lower mantle. Its effects on thermal conductivity, with possible consequences on heat transfer and mantle dynamics, however, remain largely unknown. We measured the lattice thermal conductivity of lower-mantle ferropericlase to 120 GPa using the ultrafast optical pump-probe technique in a diamond anvil cell. The thermal conductivity of ferropericlase with 56% iron significantly drops by a factor of 1.8 across the spin transition around 53 GPa, while that with 8-10% iron increases monotonically with pressure, causing an enhanced iron substitution effect in the low-spin state. Combined with bridgmanite data, modeling of our results provides a self-consistent radial profile of lower-mantle thermal conductivity, which is dominated by pressure, temperature, and iron effects, and shows a twofold increase from top to bottom of the lower mantle. Such increase in thermal conductivity may delay the cooling of the core, while its decrease with iron content may enhance the dynamics of large low shear-wave velocity provinces. Our findings further show that, if hot and strongly enriched in iron, the seismic ultralow velocity zones have exceptionally low conductivity, thus delaying their cooling.

  17. Effects of iron on the lattice thermal conductivity of Earth's deep mantle and implications for mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Deschamps, Frédéric; Okuchi, Takuo; Lin, Jung-Fu

    2018-04-01

    Iron may critically influence the physical properties and thermochemical structures of Earth's lower mantle. Its effects on thermal conductivity, with possible consequences on heat transfer and mantle dynamics, however, remain largely unknown. We measured the lattice thermal conductivity of lower-mantle ferropericlase to 120 GPa using the ultrafast optical pump-probe technique in a diamond anvil cell. The thermal conductivity of ferropericlase with 56% iron significantly drops by a factor of 1.8 across the spin transition around 53 GPa, while that with 8–10% iron increases monotonically with pressure, causing an enhanced iron substitution effect in the low-spin state. Combined with bridgmanite data, modeling of our results provides a self-consistent radial profile of lower-mantle thermal conductivity, which is dominated by pressure, temperature, and iron effects, and shows a twofold increase from top to bottom of the lower mantle. Such increase in thermal conductivity may delay the cooling of the core, while its decrease with iron content may enhance the dynamics of large low shear-wave velocity provinces. Our findings further show that, if hot and strongly enriched in iron, the seismic ultralow velocity zones have exceptionally low conductivity, thus delaying their cooling.

  18. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of iron: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for Iron ( ...

  19. Method of surface preparation of niobium

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Schill, John F.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a method of preparing a surface of niobium. The preparation method includes polishing, cleaning, baking and irradiating the niobium surface whereby the resulting niobium surface has a high quantum efficiency.

  20. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; niobium (columbium) and tantalum

    Crockett, R.N.; Sutphin, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Major world resources of niobium and tantalum are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory (ISMI). ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Part I of this report presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of niobium and tantalum based on inventory information; Part II contains tables of both geologic and mineral-resource information and includes production data collected by ISMI participants. Niobium is used principally as an alloying element in special steels and superalloys, and tantalum is used mainly in electronics. Minerals in the columbite-tantalite series are principal ore minerals of niobium and tantalum. Pyrochlore is a principal source of niobium. These minerals are found in carbonatite, certain rocks in alkaline igneous complexes, pegmatite, and placer deposits. ISMI estimates show that there are over 7 million metric tons of niobium and almost 0.5 million metric tons of tantalum in known deposits, outside of China and the former Soviet Union, for which reliable estimates have been made. Brazilian deposits, followed by Canadian deposits, contain by far the largest source of niobium. Tantalum production is spread widely among several countries, and Brazil and Canada are the most significant of these producers. Brazil's position is further strengthened by potential byproduct columbite from tin mining. Present economically exploitable resources of niobium appear to be sufficient for the near future, but Brazil will continue to be the predominant world supplier of ferrocolumbium. Tantalum, a byproduct of tin production, has been captive to the fluctuations of that market, but resources in pegmatite in Canada and Australia make it likely that future increases in the present modest demand will be met.

  1. Niobium-bearing arsenides and germanides from elemental mixtures not involving niobium: a new twist to an old problem in solid-state synthesis.

    PubMed

    Baranets, Sviatoslav; He, Hua; Bobev, Svilen

    2018-05-01

    Three isostructural transition-metal arsenides and germanides, namely niobium nickel arsenide, Nb 0.92(1) NiAs, niobium cobalt arsenide, NbCoAs, and niobium nickel germanide, NbNiGe, were obtained as inadvertent side products of high-temperature reactions in sealed niobium containers. In addition to reporting for the very first time the structures of the title compounds, refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, this article also serves as a reminder that niobium containers may not be suitable for the synthesis of ternary arsenides and germanides by traditional high-temperature reactions. Synthetic work involving alkali or alkaline-earth metals, transition or early post-transition metals, and elements from groups 14 or 15 under such conditions may yield Nb-containing products, which at times could be the major products of such reactions.

  2. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    DOEpatents

    Blocher, Jr., John M.; Veigel, Neil D.; Landrigan, Richard B.

    1983-04-19

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  3. Stability of iron-rich magnesiowüstite in Earth's lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, K.; Fujino, K.; Kuwayama, Y.; Kondo, T.; Shimizu, K.; Ohishi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    At ambient conditions, MgO periclase and FeO wüstite form a solid solution (Mg1-xFex)O, named ferropericlase (x ≤ 0.5) and magnesiowüstite (x > 0.5). (Mg1-xFex)O ferropericlase is considered to be a major component of Earth's lower mantle, and may play an important role for its structure and dynamics. Iron-rich magnesiowüstite also needs to be considered because of possible iron enrichment at the core-mantle boundary region [e.g., Nomura et al., 2011]. Recent laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments on FeO revealed that NaCl-type (B1) structured FeO underwent an insulator-metal transition at about 70 GPa and 1800 K without any structural transformation [Fischer et al., 2011; Ohta et al., 2012]. These results imply that the metallic B1 FeO would require a two-phase field for the MgO-FeO binary system due to different chemical bonding between insulating MgO and metallic FeO. We performed simultaneous electrical conductivity and x-ray diffraction measurements on (Mg0.20Fe0.80)O and (Mg0.05Fe0.95)O magnesiowüstite up to 140 GPa and 2100 K, and then examined recovered samples by using analytical transmission electron microprobe. We obtained some evidences for the dissociation of (Mg0.05Fe0.95)O into lighter and heavier phases than starting material occurring above 70 GPa and 1900 K, which is most likely due to the metallization of FeO component. On the other hand, we did not observe such dissociation and metallization in (Mg0.20Fe0.80)O. Observed dissociation in (Mg0.05Fe0.95)O might contribute to the heterogeneity in seismic wave and electrical conductivity at the Earth's core-mantle boundary region.

  4. Iron and oxygen isotope fractionation during iron UV photo-oxidation: Implications for early Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Nicole X.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Greenwood, Richard C.

    2017-01-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) contain appreciable amounts of ferric iron (Fe3+). The mechanism by which ferrous iron (Fe2+) was oxidized into Fe3+ in an atmosphere that was globally anoxic is highly debated. Of the three scenarios that have been proposed to explain BIF formation, photo-oxidation by UV photons is the only one that does not involve life (the other two are oxidation by O2 produced by photosynthesis, and anoxygenic photosynthesis whereby Fe2+ is directly used as electron donor in place of water). We experimentally investigated iron and oxygen isotope fractionation imparted by iron photo-oxidation at a pH of 7.3. The iron isotope fractionation between precipitated Fe3+-bearing lepidocrocite and dissolved Fe2+ follows a Rayleigh distillation with an instantaneous 56Fe/54Fe fractionation factor of + 1.2 ‰. Such enrichment in the heavy isotopes of iron is consistent with the values measured in BIFs. We also investigated the nature of the mass-fractionation law that governs iron isotope fractionation in the photo-oxidation experiments (i.e., the slope of the δ56Fe-δ57Fe relationship). The experimental run products follow a mass-dependent law corresponding to the high-T equilibrium limit. The fact that a ∼3.8 Gyr old BIF sample (IF-G) from Isua (Greenland) falls on the same fractionation line confirms that iron photo-oxidation in the surface layers of the oceans was a viable pathway to BIF formation in the Archean, when the atmosphere was largely transparent to UV photons. Our experiments allow us to estimate the quantum yield of the photo-oxidation process (∼0.07 iron atom oxidized per photon absorbed). This yield is used to model iron oxidation on early Mars. As the photo-oxidation proceeds, the aqueous medium becomes more acidic, which slows down the reaction by changing the speciation of iron to species that are less efficient at absorbing UV-photons. Iron photo-oxidation in centimeter to meter-deep water ponds would take months to years to

  5. Shape preferred orientation of iron grains compatible with Earth's uppermost inner core hemisphericity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    Constraining the possible patterns of iron fabrics in the Earth's Uppermost Inner Core (UIC) is key to unravel the mechanisms controlling its growth and dynamics. In the framework of crystalline micro-structures composed of ellipsoidal, aligned grains, we discuss possible textural models of UIC compatible with observations of P-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion. Using recent results from multiple scattering theory in textured heterogeneous materials, we compute the P-wave phase velocity and scattering attenuation as a function of grain volume, shape, and orientation wrt to the propagation direction of seismic P-waves. Assuming no variations of the grain volume between the Eastern and Western hemisphere, we show that two families of texture are compatible with the degree-one structure of the inner core as revealed by the positive correlation between seismic velocity and attenuation. (1) Strong flattening of grains parallel to the Inner Core Boundary in the Western hemisphere and weak anisometry in the Eastern hemisphere. (2) Strong radial elongation of grains in the Western hemisphere and again weak anisometry in the Eastern hemisphere. Both textures can quantitatively explain the seismic data in a limited range of grain volumes. Furthermore, the velocity and attenuation anisotropy locally observed under Africa demands that the grains be locally elongated in the direction of Earth's meridians. Our study demonstrates that the hemispherical seismic structure of UIC can be entirely explained by changes in the shape and orientation of grains, thereby offering an alternative to changes in grain volumes. In the future, our theoretical toolbox could be used to systematically test the compatibility of textures predicted by geodynamical models with seismic observations.

  6. Growth-induced anisotropy in bismuth - Rare-earth iron garnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fratello, V. J.; Slusky, S. E. G.; Brandle, C. D.; Norelli, M. P.

    1986-01-01

    The bismuth-doped rare-earth iron garnets, (R3-x-yBixPby)Fe5O12 (Bi:RIG, R = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y), were prepared under constant growth conditions to investigate the influence of ionic species on the bismuth-based growth-induced uniaxial anisotropy K(u) exp g. The effect of ionic species on growth-induced anisotropy in Bi:RIG was not consistent with the ionic size model of site ordering. In particular, Bi:SmIG, Bi:EuIG, and Bi:TbIG displayed high growth-induced anisotropies, up to 331,000 erg/cu cm at room temperature for x of about 0.5. The temperature dependence of these K(u) exp gs was somewhat higher than that of the well studied Bi:YIG. The site ordering of Bi can be modeled by assuming that small, low-oxygen-coordination BiOw exp +3-2 w melt complexes have a strong site selectivity for small, high-oxygen coordination sites at the growth interface.

  7. Rare earth element partitioning between hydrous ferric oxides and acid mine water during iron oxidation

    Verplanck, P.L.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Taylor, Howard E.; Kimball, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ferrous iron rapidly oxidizes to Fe (III) and precipitates as hydrous Fe (III) oxides in acid mine waters. This study examines the effect of Fe precipitation on the rare earth element (REE) geochemistry of acid mine waters to determine the pH range over which REEs behave conservatively and the range over which attenuation and fractionation occur. Two field studies were designed to investigate REE attenuation during Fe oxidation in acidic, alpine surface waters. To complement these field studies, a suite of six acid mine waters with a pH range from 1.6 to 6.1 were collected and allowed to oxidize in the laboratory at ambient conditions to determine the partitioning of REEs during Fe oxidation and precipitation. Results from field experiments document that even with substantial Fe oxidation, the REEs remain dissolved in acid, sulfate waters with pH below 5.1. Between pH 5.1 and 6.6 the REEs partitioned to the solid phases in the water column, and heavy REEs were preferentially removed compared to light REEs. Laboratory experiments corroborated field data with the most solid-phase partitioning occurring in the waters with the highest pH. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantum Magnetism Applied to the Iron-Pnictides and Rare Earth Pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, Ryan

    This dissertation presents computational studies of two families of magnetic materials of significant current interest. The iron pnictides are new high temperature superconductors with interesting parent compound antiferromagnetism. The rare earth pyrochlore material Yb2Ti2O7 is a candidate quantum spin ice. The magnetic and structural phases of individual iron pnictides have both many common features and material specific differences. In an attempt to unify these behaviors as instances of a larger theoretical picture, we use Monte Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional Hamiltonian with coupled Heisenberg-spin and Ising-orbital degrees of freedom. We introduce spin-space and single-ion anisotropies and study the finite temperature transitions in our model. We develop a phase diagram and propose that the interplay of spin and orbital physics in the presence of anisotropy could explain how material details affect the transitions of the pnictide materials. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can study magnetic materials via the hyperfine interaction and the coupling between the nuclear moment and the field produced by the samples local moment environment. Recent measurements suggest that Zn doped BaFe2As2 may have quantum fluctuations about the striped phase that produce a distribution of fields at As nuclear sites. The non-magnetic ion Zn replaces Fe and can be treated as an impurity which can be studied by a zero-temperature Ising Series expansion method. We propose a Heisenberg-like J1a-J 1b-J2 model which has small ferromagnetic exchanges along the b axis and strong antiferromagnetic exchanges along the a axis. In our impurity model we find that the magnetic moments are everywhere reduced by quantum fluctuations, except on the nearest neighbor site in the AFM direction. We suggest that the presented impurity model may provide an explanation for the experimental measurements. Based on a recently proposed quantum spin ice model, we use numerical linked cluster (NLC

  9. NIOBIUM-TANTALUM SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Foos, R.A.

    1959-01-27

    The usual method for the separation of tantalum and niobium consists of a selective solvent extraction from an aqueous hydrofluoric acid solution of the metals. A difficulty encountered in this process is the fact that the corrosion problems associated with hydrofluoric acid are serious. It has been found that the corrosion caused by the hydrofluoric acid may be substantially reduced by adding to the acidic solution an amine, such as phenyl diethanolamine or aniline, and adjusting pH value to between 4 and 6.

  10. Phase relations in iron-rich systems and implications for the earth's core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William W.; Svendsen, Bob; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent experimental data concerning the properties of iron, iron sulfide, and iron oxide at high pressures are combined with theoretical arguments to constrain the probable behavior of the Fe-rich portions of the Fe-O and Fe-S phase diagrams. Phase diagrams are constructed for the Fe-S-O system at core pressures and temperatures. These properties are used to evaluate the current temperature distribution and composition of the core.

  11. Determination of micro amounts of iron, aluminum, and alkaline earth metals in silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirata, H.; Arai, M.

    1978-01-01

    A colorimetric method for analysis of micro components in silicon carbide used as the raw material for varistors is described. The microcomponents analyzed included iron soluble in hydrochloric acid, iron, aluminum, calcium and magnesium. Samples were analyzed by the method, and the results for iron and aluminum agreed well with the N.B.S. standard values and the values obtained by the other company. The method can therefore be applied to the analysis of actual samples.

  12. Bioavailability of iron in geophagic earths and clay minerals, and their effect on dietary iron absorption using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Seim, Gretchen L; Ahn, Cedric I; Bodis, Mary S; Luwedde, Flavia; Miller, Dennis D; Hillier, Stephen; Tako, Elad; Glahn, Raymond P; Young, Sera L

    2013-08-01

    Geophagy, the deliberate consumption of earth, is strongly associated with iron (Fe) deficiency. It has been proposed that geophagy may be practiced as a means to improve Fe status by increasing Fe intakes and, conversely, that geophagy may cause Fe deficiency by inhibiting Fe absorption. We tested these hypotheses by measuring Fe concentration and relative bioavailable Fe content of 12 samples of geophagic earth and 4 samples of pure clay minerals. Further, we assessed the impact of these samples on the bioavailability of Fe from an Fe-rich test meal (cooked white beans, WB). Fe concentrations were measured with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Fe bioavailability was determined using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model in which ferritin formation was used as an index of Fe bioavailability. Geophagic earth and clay mineral samples were evaluated with this model, both alone and in combination with WB (1 : 16 ratio, sample : WB). Median Fe concentration of the geophagic earth was 3485 (IQR 2462, 14 ,571) μg g⁻¹ and mean Fe concentration in the clay minerals was 2791 (±1782) μg g⁻¹. All specimens had Fe concentrations significantly higher (p ≤ 0.005) than the Fe concentration of WB (77 μg g⁻¹). Ferritin formation (i.e. Fe uptake) in cells exposed to geophagic earths and clay minerals was significantly lower than in cells exposed to WB (p ≤ 0.05) and Fe uptake responses of 11 of the 16 samples were not significantly different from the blank, indicating no bioavailable Fe. When samples were combined with WB, 5 of 16 had mean ferritin levels that were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05, one tail) than the WB alone, indicating that the samples inhibited Fe uptake from the WB. None of the ferritin responses of cells exposed to both WB and earth/clay were significantly higher than WB alone. Thus, although geophagic earths and mineral clays are high in total Fe, very little of this Fe is bioavailable. Further, some

  13. Bioavailability of iron in geophagic earths and clay minerals, and their effect on dietary iron absorption using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model

    PubMed Central

    Seim, Gretchen L.; Ahn, Cedric I.; Bodis, Mary S.; Luwedde, Flavia; Miller, Dennis D.; Hillier, Stephen; Tako, Elad; Glahn, Raymond P.; Young, Sera L.

    2014-01-01

    Geophagy, the deliberate consumption of earth, is strongly associated with iron (Fe) deficiency. It has been proposed that geophagy may be practiced as a means to improve Fe status by increasing Fe intakes and, conversely, that geophagy may cause Fe deficiency by inhibiting Fe absorption. We tested these hypotheses by measuring Fe concentration and relative bioavailable Fe content of 12 samples of geophagic earth and 4 samples of pure clay minerals. Further, we assessed the impact of these samples on the bioavailability of Fe from an Fe-rich test meal (cooked white beans, WB). Fe concentrations were measured with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Fe bioavailability was determined using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model in which ferritin formation was used as an index of Fe bioavailability. Geophagic earth and clay mineral samples were evaluated with this model, both alone and in combination with WB (1:16 ratio, sample:WB). Median Fe concentration of the geophagic earth was 3485 (IQR 2462, 14571) μg/g and mean Fe concentration in the clay minerals was 2791 (± 1782) μg/g. All specimens had Fe concentrations significantly higher (p ≤ 0.005) than the Fe concentration of WB (77 μg/g). Ferritin formation (i.e. Fe uptake) in cells exposed to geophagic earths and clay minerals was significantly lower than in cells exposed to WB (p ≤ 0.05) and Fe uptake responses of 11 of the 16 samples were not significantly different from the blank, indicating no bioavailable Fe. When samples were combined with WB, 5 of 16 had mean ferritin levels that were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05, one tail) than the WB alone, indicating that the samples inhibited Fe uptake from the WB. None of the ferritin responses of cells exposed to both WB and earth/clay were significantly higher than WB alone. Thus, although geophagic earths and mineral clays are high in total Fe, very little of this Fe is bioavailable. Further, some geophagic earth and clay mineral

  14. Niobium and tantalum: indispensable twins

    Schulz, Klaus; Papp, John

    2014-01-01

    Niobium and tantalum are transition metals almost always paired together in nature. These “twins” are difficult to separate because of their shared physical and chemical properties. In 1801, English chemist Charles Hatchett uncovered an unknown element in a mineral sample of columbite; John Winthrop found the sample in a Massachusetts mine and sent it to the British Museum in London in 1734. The name columbium, which Hatchet named the new element, came from the poetic name for North America—Columbia—and was used interchangeably for niobium until 1949, when the name niobium became official. Swedish scientist Anders Ekberg discovered tantalum in 1802, but it was confused with niobium, because of their twinned properties, until 1864, when it was recognized as a separate element. Niobium is a lustrous, gray, ductile metal with a high melting point, relatively low density, and superconductor properties. Tantalum is a dark blue-gray, dense, ductile, very hard, and easily fabricated metal. It is highly conductive to heat and electricity and renowned for its resistance to acidic corrosion. These special properties determine their primary uses and make niobium and tantalum indispensable.

  15. METHOD FOR COATING GRAPHITE WITH NIOBIUM CARBIDE

    DOEpatents

    Kane, J.S.; Carpenter, J.H.; Krikorian, O.H.

    1962-01-16

    A method is given for coating graphite with a hard, tenacious layer of niobium carbide up to 30 mils or more thick. The method makes use of the discovery that niobium metal, if degassed and heated rapidly below the carburization temperature in contact with graphite, spreads, wets, and penetrates the graphite without carburization. The method includes the obvious steps of physically contacting niobium powders or other physical forms of niobium with graphite, degassing the assembly below the niobium melting point, e.g., 1400 deg C, heating to about 2200 to 2400 deg C within about 15 minutes while outgassing at a high volume throughput, and thereafter carburizing the niobium. (AEC)

  16. Effect of light elements on the sound velocities in solid iron: Implications for the composition of Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badro, James; Fiquet, Guillaume; Guyot, François; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Occelli, Florent; Antonangeli, Daniele; d'Astuto, Matteo

    2007-02-01

    We measured compressional sound velocities in light element alloys of iron (FeO, FeSi, FeS, and FeS2) at high-pressure by inelastic X-ray scattering. This dataset provides new mineralogical constraints on the composition of Earth's core, and completes the previous sets formed by the pressure-density systematics for these compounds. Based on the combination of these datasets and their comparison with radial seismic models, we propose an average composition model of the Earth's core. We show that the incorporation of small amounts of silicon or oxygen is compatible with geophysical observations and geochemical abundances. The effect of nickel on the calculated light element contents is shown to be negligible. The preferred core model derived from our measurements is an inner core which contains 2.3 wt.% silicon and traces of oxygen, and an outer core containing 2.8 wt.% silicon and around 5.3 wt.% oxygen.

  17. Effect of rare earth Ce on the far infrared radiation property of iron ore tailings ceramics

    SciT

    Liu, Jie; Institute of Power Source and Ecomaterials Science, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130; Meng, Junping, E-mail: srlj158@sina.com

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Detailed process proposed for preparation of iron ore tailings ceramics. • Replace natural minerals with iron ore tailings as raw materials for preparing functional ceramics. • Impact mechanism of Ce on far infrared ceramics, as well as its optimum addition amounts can be obtained. • Propose a new perspective on considering the mechanism of far infrared radiation. - Abstract: A kind of far infrared radiation ceramics was prepared by using iron ore tailings, CaCO{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} as main raw materials, and Ce as additive. The result of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the sample exhibitsmore » excellent radiation value of 0.914 when doping 7 wt.% Ce. Ce{sup 4+} dissolved into iron diopside and formed interstitial solid solution with it sintered at 1150 °C. The oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} caused by Ce{sup 4+} led to a decrease of crystallite sizes and enhancement of Mg–O and Fe–O vibration in iron diopside, which consequently improved the far infrared radiation properties of iron ore tailings ceramics.« less

  18. Thermal equation of state of hcp-iron: Constraint on the density deficit of Earth's solid inner core: THERMAL EQUATION OF STATE OF HCP-IRON

    SciT

    Fei, Yingwei; Murphy, Caitlin; Shibazaki, Yuki

    We conducted high-pressure experiments on hexagonal close packed iron (hcp-Fe) in MgO, NaCl, and Ne pressure-transmitting media and found general agreement among the experimental data at 300 K that yield the best fitted values of the bulk modulus K 0 = 172.7(±1.4) GPa and its pressure derivative K 0'= 4.79(±0.05) for hcp-Fe, using the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. Using the derived thermal pressures for hcp-Fe up to 100 GPa and 1800 K and previous shockwave Hugoniot data, we developed a thermal equation of state of hcp-Fe. The thermal equation of state of hcp-Fe is further used to calculate themore » densities of iron along adiabatic geotherms to define the density deficit of the inner core, which serves as the basis for developing quantitative composition models of the Earth's inner core. We determine the density deficit at the inner core boundary to be 3.6%, assuming an inner core boundary temperature of 6000 K.« less

  19. Regional framework and geology of iron oxide-apatite-rare earth element and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Mesoproterozoic St. Francois Mountains Terrane, southeast Missouri

    Day, Warren C.; Slack, John F.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Seeger, Cheryl M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the genesis of Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks and associated iron oxide ± apatite (IOA) ± rare earth element, iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG), and iron-rich sedimentary deposits in the St. Francois Mountains terrane of southeast Missouri, USA. The St. Francois Mountains terrane lies along the southeastern margin of Laurentia as part of the eastern granite-rhyolite province. The province formed during two major pulses of igneous activity: (1) an older early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.50–1.44 Ga) episode of volcanism and granite plutonism, and (2) a younger middle Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.33–1.30 Ga) episode of bimodal gabbro and granite plutonism. The volcanic rocks are predominantly high-silica rhyolite pyroclastic flows, volcanogenic breccias, and associated volcanogenic sediments with lesser amounts of basaltic to andesitic volcanic and associated subvolcanic intrusive rocks. The iron oxide deposits are all hosted in the early Mesoproterozoic volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences. Previous studies have characterized the St. Francois Mountains terrane as a classic, A-type within-plate granitic terrane. However, our new whole-rock geochemical data indicate that the felsic volcanic rocks are effusive derivatives from multicomponent source types, having compositional similarities to A-type within-plate granites as well as to S- and I-type granites generated in an arc setting. In addition, the volcanic-hosted IOA and IOCG deposits occur within bimodal volcanic sequences, some of which have volcanic arc geochemical affinities, suggesting an extensional tectonic setting during volcanism prior to emplacement of the ore-forming systems.The Missouri iron orebodies are magmatic-related hydrothermal deposits that, when considered in aggregate, display a vertical zonation from high-temperature, magmatic ± hydrothermal IOA deposits emplaced at moderate depths (~1–2 km), to magnetite-dominant IOA veins and IOCG deposits emplaced at shallow

  20. Characterizing cosmochemical materials with genetic affinities to the Earth: Genetic and chronological diversity within the IAB iron meteorite complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsham, Emily A.; Bermingham, Katherine R.; Walker, Richard J.

    2017-06-01

    The IAB iron meteorite complex consists of a main group (MG) and five chemical subgroups (sLL, sLM, sLH, sHL, and sHH). Here, mass-independent Mo and radiogenic 182W isotope compositions are reported for IAB complex meteorites to evaluate the genetics and chronology, respectively, of the MG and subgroups. Osmium isotopes are used to correct for cosmic ray exposure effects on isotopes of Mo and W. The MG and three subgroups (i.e., sLL, sLM, and sLH), characterized by low Au abundances, have the same Mo isotopic compositions within analytical uncertainty, consistent with a common genetic origin. These meteorites, together with winonaites, are the only cosmochemical materials yet identified with Mo isotopic compositions that are identical to Earth. The Mo isotopic compositions of two subgroups characterized by higher Au abundances (sHL and sHH) are identical to one another within uncertainty, but differ from the low Au subgroups, indicating derivation from genetically distinct materials. The MG has a 182W, post calcium-aluminum inclusion (CAI) formation model age of 3.4 ± 0.7 Ma. One of the low Au subgroups (sLM) is ∼1.7 Ma younger, whereas the high Au subgroups are ∼1.5-3 Ma older. The new Mo-W data, coupled with chemical data, indicate that the MG and the low Au subgroups formed in different impact-generated melts, some of which evidently formed on a chemically disparate, but genetically identical parent body. The high Au subgroups likely formed via core-formation processes on separate, internally-heated parent bodies from other IAB subgroups. The IAB complex meteorites fall on a linear trend defined by 94Mo/96Mo vs. 95Mo/96Mo, along with most other iron meteorite groups. Variation along this line was caused by mixing between at least two nebular components. One component was likely a pure s-process enriched nucleosynthetic carrier, and the other a homogenized nebular component. Sombrerete, currently classified as an sHL iron, has a Mo isotopic composition that

  1. Iron Hill (Powderhorn) carbonatite complex, Gunnison County, CO - A potential source of several uncommon mineral resources

    Van Gosen, B. S.; Lowers, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Iron Hill (Powderhorn) carbonatite complex is a 31-kM2 (12-sq mile) alkalic intrusion located about 35 km (22 miles) south-southwest of Gunnison, CO. The intrusion has been well studied and described because of its classic petrology and architecture ofa carbonatite-alkalic complex. The complex is also noteworthy because it contains enrichments of titanium, rare earth elements, thorium, niobium (columbium), vanadium and deposits of vermiculite and nepheline syenite. In particular, the complex is thought to host the largest titanium and niobium resources in the United States, although neither has been developed. It may be economic to extract multiple resources from this complex with a well-coordinated mine and mill plan.

  2. Application of unsupervised pattern recognition approaches for exploration of rare earth elements in Se-Chahun iron ore, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarparandeh, Mohammadali; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

    2017-12-01

    The use of efficient methods for data processing has always been of interest to researchers in the field of earth sciences. Pattern recognition techniques are appropriate methods for high-dimensional data such as geochemical data. Evaluation of the geochemical distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) requires the use of such methods. In particular, the multivariate nature of REE data makes them a good target for numerical analysis. The main subject of this paper is application of unsupervised pattern recognition approaches in evaluating geochemical distribution of REEs in the Kiruna type magnetite-apatite deposit of Se-Chahun. For this purpose, 42 bulk lithology samples were collected from the Se-Chahun iron ore deposit. In this study, 14 rare earth elements were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Pattern recognition makes it possible to evaluate the relations between the samples based on all these 14 features, simultaneously. In addition to providing easy solutions, discovery of the hidden information and relations of data samples is the advantage of these methods. Therefore, four clustering methods (unsupervised pattern recognition) - including a modified basic sequential algorithmic scheme (MBSAS), hierarchical (agglomerative) clustering, k-means clustering and self-organizing map (SOM) - were applied and results were evaluated using the silhouette criterion. Samples were clustered in four types. Finally, the results of this study were validated with geological facts and analysis results from, for example, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ICP-MS and optical mineralogy. The results of the k-means clustering and SOM methods have the best matches with reality, with experimental studies of samples and with field surveys. Since only the rare earth elements are used in this division, a good agreement of the results with lithology is considerable. It is concluded that the combination of the proposed

  3. Heat capacity of rare-earth cuprates, orthovanadates, and aluminum garnets, gallium garnets, and iron garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, L. T.; Kargin, Yu. F.; Denisov, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    The correlation between the heat capacities of rare-earth cuprates, orthovanadates, and garnets with ionic radius R 3+ has been analyzed. It has been shown that the values of C {/p 0} change consistently depending on the radius R 3+ within the corresponding tetrads (La-Nd, Pm-Gd, Gd-Ho, Eu-Lu).

  4. Analysis of identified iron meteoroids: Possible relation with M-type Earth-crossing asteroids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelle, D. O.; Ceplecha, Z.

    1994-12-01

    We have used two different techniques to analyze the U. S. Prairie Network (PN) fireballs in order to search for possible nickel-iron meteoroids. The first approach used is that of ReVelle and Rajan which is similar to the analysis carried out earlier by Wetherill and ReVelle in a series of papers relating first to the chondrites and later to fireballs of cometary origin. The second approach is a new technique developed by Ceplecha and co-workers that can simultaneously determine the presence and location of gross fragmentation events and also determine an effective ablation parameter during the fireball entry. Using this combined approach we have determined that seven fireballs among the 287 that were analyzed are likely to be iron in composition. Using the method of Ceplecha we have determined that none of these objects experienced any gross fragmentation events during their entry to the atmosphere and most of the meteoroids also exhibited rather large ablation coefficients during entry as well, a feature that is also characteristic of the ReVelle and Rajan approach. For all of these objects for which we currently have available data, we have determined that gross fragmentation events did not occur during the entry.

  5. Synthesis of Xenon and Iron-Nickel Intermetallic Compounds at Earth's Core Thermodynamic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Yao, Yansun; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Lobanov, Sergey S.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Liu, Hanyu; Greenberg, Eran; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2018-03-01

    Using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in concert with first principles calculations we demonstrate the synthesis of stable Xe (Fe ,Fe /Ni )3 and XeNi3 compounds at thermodynamic conditions representative of Earth's core. Surprisingly, in the case of both the Xe-Fe and Xe-Ni systems Fe and Ni become highly electronegative and can act as oxidants. The results indicate the changing chemical properties of elements under extreme conditions by documenting that electropositive at ambient pressure elements could gain electrons and form anions.

  6. Geochemistry of Rock Samples Collected from the Iron Hill Carbonatite Complex, Gunnison County, Colorado

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    A study conducted in 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey collected 57 surface rock samples from nine types of intrusive rock in the Iron Hill carbonatite complex. This intrusive complex, located in Gunnison County of southwestern Colorado, is known for its classic carbonatite-alkaline igneous geology and petrology. The Iron Hill complex is also noteworthy for its diverse mineral resources, including enrichments in titanium, rare earth elements, thorium, niobium (columbium), and vanadium. This study was performed to reexamine the chemistry and metallic content of the major rock units of the Iron Hill complex by using modern analytical techniques, while providing a broader suite of elements than the earlier published studies. The report contains the geochemical analyses of the samples in tabular and digital spreadsheet format, providing the analytical results for 55 major and trace elements.

  7. First-principles theory of iron up to earth-core pressures: Structural, vibrational, and elastic properties

    SciT

    Soederlind, P.; Moriarty, J.A.; Wills, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    {ital Ab} {ital initio} electronic-structure calculations, based on density-functional theory and a full-potential linear-muffin-tin-orbital method, have been used to predict crystal-structure phase stabilities, elastic constants, and Brillouin-zone-boundary phonons for iron under compression. Total energies for five crystal structures, bcc, fcc, bct, hcp, and dhcp, have been calculated over a wide volume range. In agreement with experiment and previous theoretical calculations, a magnetic bcc ground state is obtained at ambient pressure and a nonmagnetic hcp ground state is found at high pressure, with a predicted bcc {r_arrow} hcp phase transition at about 10 GPa. Also in agreement with very recent diamond-anvil-cellmore » experiments, a metastable dhcp phase is found at high pressure, which remains magnetic and consequently accessible at high temperature up to about 50 GPa. In addition, the bcc structure becomes mechanically unstable at pressures above 2 Mbar (200 GPa) and a metastable, but still magnetic, bct phase ({ital c}/{ital a} {approx_equal} 0.875) develops. For high-pressure nonmagnetic iron, fcc and hcp elastic constants and fcc phonon frequencies have been calculated to above 4 Mbar. These quantities rise smoothly with pressure, but an increasing tendency towards elastic anisotropy as a function of compression is observed, and this has important implications for the solid inner-core of the earth. The fcc elastic-constant and phonon data have also been used in combination with generalized pseudopotential theory to develop many-body interatomic potentials, from which high-temperature thermodynamic properties and melting can be obtained. In this paper, these potentials have been used to calculate full fcc and hcp phonon spectra and corresponding Debye temperatures as a function of compression. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}« less

  8. Ammonia on the prebiotic Earth: Iron(II) reduction of nitrite. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, David P.; Chang, Sherwood

    1994-01-01

    Theories for the origin of life require the availability of reduced nitrogen. In the non-reducing atmosphere suggested by geochemical evidence, production in the atmosphere and survival of NH3 against photochemical destruction are problematic. Electric discharges and impact shocks would produce NO rather than HCN or NH3. Conversion of NO to nitrous and nitric acid (by way of HNO) and precipitation in acid rain would provide a source of fixed nitrogen to the early ocean. One solution to the NH3 problem may have been the reduction of nitrite/nitrate in the ocean with aqueous ferrous iron, Fe(2+): 6Fe(+2) + 7 H2O + NO2(-) yields 3Fe2O3 + 11 H(+) + NH3. We have measured the kinetics of this reaction as a function of temperature, pH, and concentrations of salts, Fe(+2), and NO2(-). Cations (Na(+), Mg(2+), K(+)) and anions (Cl(-), Br(-), SO4(2-)) increase the rate by factors of 4 to 8. Although a competing pathway yields N2, the efficiency of the conversion of nitrite to ammonia ranges from 25% to 85%. Nitrate reduction was not consistently reproducible; however, when it was observed, its rate was slower by at least 8X than that of nitrite reduction. If the prebiotic atmosphere contained 0.2 to 10 atmospheres CO2 as suggested by Walker (1985), the Fe(+2) concentration and the rate would have been limited by siderite (FeCO3) solubility.

  9. Process for alloying uranium and niobium

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Northcutt, Jr., Walter G.; Masters, David R.; Chapman, Lloyd R.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys such as U-6Nb are prepared by forming a stacked sandwich array of uraniun sheets and niobium powder disposed in layers between the sheets, heating the array in a vacuum induction melting furnace to a temperature such as to melt the uranium, holding the resulting mixture at a temperature above the melting point of uranium until the niobium dissolves in the uranium, and casting the uranium-niobium solution. Compositional uniformity in the alloy product is enabled by use of the sandwich structure of uranium sheets and niobium powder.

  10. Effects of thermomechanical processing on strength and toughness of iron - 12-percent-nickel - reactive metal alloys at -196 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermomechanical processing (TMP) was evaluated as a method of strengthening normally tough iron-12-nickel-reactive metal alloys at cryogenic temperatures. Five iron-12 nickel alloys with reactive metal additions of aluminum, niobium, titanium, vanadium, and aluminum plus niobium were investigated. Primary evaluation was based on the yield strength and fracture toughness of the thermomechanically processed alloys at -196 C.

  11. Rare earth/iron fluoride and methods for making and using same

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Wheelock, John T.; Peterson, David T.

    1991-12-17

    A particulate mixture of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and RE.sub.2 O.sub.3, where RE is a rare earth element, is reacted with an excess of HF acid to form an insoluble fluoride compound (salt) comprising REF.sub.3 and FeF.sub.3 present in solid solution in the REF.sub.3 crystal lattice. The REF.sub.3 /FeF.sub.3 compound is dried to render it usable as a reactant in the thermite reduction process as well as other processes which require an REF.sub.3 /FeF.sub.3 mixture. The dried REF.sub.3 /FeF.sub.3 compound comprises about 5 weight % to about 40 weight % of FeF.sub.3 and the balance REF.sub.3 to this end.

  12. Rare earths, other trace elements and iron in Luna 20 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Blanchard, D. P.; Jacobs, J. W.; Haskin, L.; Haskin, A.

    1973-01-01

    The results of the analysis by neutron activation of six samples from the Luna 20 mission and one sample of less than 1 mm fines from Apollo 16 are reported. The concentrations of the rare-earth elements (REE) in the samples of fines from Luna 20 and Apollo 16 are less than those found for corresponding materials from the mare areas but a negative Eu anomaly is still present. The concentrations of the REE in fines from Luna 20 are only about two-thirds as great as in the sample of Apollo 16 fines, but the concentration of Co, Sc and Cr are greater by factors ranging from 1.5 to 2.3.

  13. SRF MATERIALS OTHER THAN NIOBIUM

    SciT

    Valente, Anne-Marie

    2008-02-12

    For the past three decades, bulk niobium has been the material of choice for SRF cavity applications. Alternative materials, mainly Nb compounds and A15 compounds have been investigated with moderate effort in the past. In the recent years, RF cavity performance has approached the theoretical limit for bulk niobium. For further improvement of RF cavity performance for future accelerator projects, research interest is renewed towards alternative materials to niobium. A few laboratories around the world are now investigating superconductors with higher transition temperature Tc for application to SRF cavities. This paper gives an overview of the results obtained and challengesmore » encountered for Nb compounds and A15 compounds, as well as for MgB2, for SRF cavity applications. An interesting alternative has been recently proposed by Alex Gurevich with the Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor multilayer approach. This could potentially lead to further improvement in RF cavity performance using the benefit of the higher critical field Hc of higher-Tc superconductors without being limited with their lower Hc1.« less

  14. Earth

    2012-01-30

    Behold one of the more detailed images of the Earth yet created. This Blue Marble Earth montage shown above -- created from photographs taken by the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the new Suomi NPP satellite -- shows many stunning details of our home planet. The Suomi NPP satellite was launched last October and renamed last week after Verner Suomi, commonly deemed the father of satellite meteorology. The composite was created from the data collected during four orbits of the robotic satellite taken earlier this month and digitally projected onto the globe. Many features of North America and the Western Hemisphere are particularly visible on a high resolution version of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18033

  15. Critical evaluation and thermodynamic optimization of the Iron-Rare-Earth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, Bikram

    Rare-Earth elements by virtue of its typical magnetic, electronic and chemical properties are gaining importance in power, electronics, telecommunications and sustainable green technology related industries. The Magnets from RE-alloys are more powerful than conventional magnets which have more longevity and high temperature workability. The dis-equilibrium in the Rare-Earth element supply and demand has increased the importance of recycling and extraction of REE's from used permanent Magnets. However, lack of the thermodynamic data on RE alloys has made it difficult to design an effective extraction and recycling process. In this regard, Computational Thermodynamic calculations can serve as a cost effective and less time consuming tool to design a waste magnet recycling process. The most common RE permanent magnet is Nd magnet (Nd 2Fe14B). Various elements such as Dy, Tb, Pr, Cu, Co, Ni, etc. are also added to increase its magnetic and mechanical properties. In order to perform reliable thermodynamic calculations for the RE recycling process, accurate thermodynamic database for RE and related alloys are required. The thermodynamic database can be developed using the so-called CALPHAD method. The database development based on the CALPHAD method is essentially the critical evaluation and optimization of all available thermodynamic and phase diagram data. As a results, one set of self-consistent thermodynamic functions for all phases in the given system can be obtained, which can reproduce all reliable thermodynamic and phase diagram data. The database containing the optimized Gibbs energy functions can be used to calculate complex chemical reactions for any high temperature processes. Typically a Gibbs energy minimization routine, such as in FactSage software, can be used to obtain the accurate thermodynamic equilibrium in multicomponent systems. As part of a large thermodynamic database development for permanent magnet recycling and Mg alloy design, all

  16. Carbide/nitride grain refined rare earth-iron-boron permanent magnet and method of making

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R. William; Branagan, Daniel J.

    1996-01-23

    A method of making a permanent magnet wherein 1) a melt is formed having a base alloy composition comprising RE, Fe and/or Co, and B (where RE is one or more rare earth elements) and 2) TR (where TR is a transition metal selected from at least one of Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and Al) and at least one of C and N are provided in the base alloy composition melt in substantially stoichiometric amounts to form a thermodynamically stable compound (e.g. TR carbide, nitride or carbonitride). The melt is rapidly solidified in a manner to form particulates having a substantially amorphous (metallic glass) structure and a dispersion of primary TRC, TRN and/or TRC/N precipitates. The amorphous particulates are heated above the crystallization temperature of the base alloy composition to nucleate and grow a hard magnetic phase to an optimum grain size and to form secondary TRC, TRN and/or TRC/N precipitates dispersed at grain boundaries. The crystallized particulates are consolidated at an elevated temperature to form a shape. During elevated temperature consolidation, the primary and secondary precipitates act to pin the grain boundaries and minimize deleterious grain growth that is harmful to magnetic properties.

  17. Carbide/nitride grain refined rare earth-iron-boron permanent magnet and method of making

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Branagan, D.J.

    1996-01-23

    A method of making a permanent magnet is disclosed wherein (1) a melt is formed having a base alloy composition comprising RE, Fe and/or Co, and B (where RE is one or more rare earth elements) and (2) TR (where TR is a transition metal selected from at least one of Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and Al) and at least one of C and N are provided in the base alloy composition melt in substantially stoichiometric amounts to form a thermodynamically stable compound (e.g. TR carbide, nitride or carbonitride). The melt is rapidly solidified in a manner to form particulates having a substantially amorphous (metallic glass) structure and a dispersion of primary TRC, TRN and/or TRC/N precipitates. The amorphous particulates are heated above the crystallization temperature of the base alloy composition to nucleate and grow a hard magnetic phase to an optimum grain size and to form secondary TRC, TRN and/or TRC/N precipitates dispersed at grain boundaries. The crystallized particulates are consolidated at an elevated temperature to form a shape. During elevated temperature consolidation, the primary and secondary precipitates act to pin the grain boundaries and minimize deleterious grain growth that is harmful to magnetic properties. 33 figs.

  18. Synergetic effect of alkaline earth metal oxides and iron oxides on the degradation of hexachlorobenzene and its degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Su, Guijin; Liu, Yexuan; Huang, Linyan; Shi, Yali; Zhang, Aiqian; Zhang, Lixia; Liu, Wenbin; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was carried out over physical mixtures of a series of alkaline earth metal oxides (MO: M=Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and iron oxides with different crystal types (Fe(x)O(y):Fe(2)O(3) or Fe(3)O(4)) at 300°C. These physical mixtures all showed a synergetic effect toward the degradation of HCB. A range of degradation products were identified by various methods, including tri- to penta-chlorobenzenes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), tri- to penta-chlorophenols, tetrachlorocatechol (TCC) and tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) by GC-MS after derivatization, and formic and acetic acids by ion chromatography. Two degradation pathways, hydrodechlorination and oxidative degradation, appear to occur competitively. However, more sequential chlorinated benzene and phenol congeners were formed over mixed MO/Fe(3)O(4) than over mixed MO/Fe(2)O(3) under the same conditions. The oxidative reaction dominated over mixed MO/Fe(2)O(3) and was promoted as the major reaction by the synergetic effect, while both the oxidative and hydrodechlorination reactions were important over mixed MO/Fe(3)O(4), and both pathways are remarkably promoted by the synergetic effect. The enhanced hydrodechlorination may be attributed to free electrons generated by the transformation of Fe(3)O(4) into Fe(2)O(3), and hydrogen provided by water adsorbed on the MO. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of iron and aluminum incorporation on lattice thermal conductivity of bridgmanite at the Earth's lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Yoshiyuki; Ohta, Kenji; Yagi, Takashi; Sinmyo, Ryosuke; Wakamatsu, Tatsuya; Hirose, Kei; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2017-09-01

    Bridgmanite (Bdg), iron (Fe)- and aluminum (Al)-bearing magnesium silicate perovskite is the most abundant mineral in the Earth's lower mantle. Thus, its thermal conductivity governs the lower mantle thermal conductivity that critically controls the thermo-chemical evolution of both the core and the lower mantle. While there is extensive research for the lattice thermal conductivity of MgSiO3 Bdg, the effects of Fe and Al incorporation on its lattice thermal conduction are still controversial. Here we report the lattice thermal conductivity of Mg0.832Fe0.209Al0.060Si0.916O3 Bdg measured up to 142 GPa at 300 K using the pulsed light heating thermoreflectance technique in a diamond anvil cell. The results show that the lattice thermal conductivity of Bdg is 25.5 ± 2.2 W/m/K at 135 GPa and 300 K, which is 19% lower than that of Fe and Al-free Bdg at identical conditions. Considering the temperature effect on the lattice conductivity and the contribution of radiative thermal conductivity, the total thermal conductivity of Fe and Al-bearing Bdg does not change very much with temperature at 135 GPa, and could be higher than that of post-perovskite with identical chemical composition.

  20. Two-phase chromium-niobium alloys exhibiting improved mechanical properties at high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.; Takeyama, Masao

    1994-01-01

    The specification discloses chromium-niobium alloys which exhibit improved mechanical properties at high temperatures in the range of 1250.degree. C. and improved room temperature ductility. The alloys contain a Cr.sub.2 Nb-rich intermetallic phase and a Cr-rich phase with an overall niobium concentration in the range of from about 5 to about 18 at. %. The high temperature strength is substantially greater than that of state of the art nickel-based superalloys for enhanced high temperature service. Further improvements in the properties of the compositions are obtained by alloying with rhenium and aluminum; and additional rare-earth and other elements.

  1. Two-phase chromium-niobium alloys exhibiting improved mechanical properties at high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.; Takeyama, Masao.

    1994-02-01

    The specification discloses chromium-niobium alloys which exhibit improved mechanical properties at high temperatures in the range of 1250 C and improved room temperature ductility. The alloys contain a Cr[sub 2]Nb-rich intermetallic phase and a Cr-rich phase with an overall niobium concentration in the range of from about 5 to about 18 at. %. The high temperature strength is substantially greater than that of state of the art nickel-based superalloys for enhanced high temperature service. Further improvements in the properties of the compositions are obtained by alloying with rhenium and aluminum; and additional rare-earth and other elements. 14 figures.

  2. Niobium-aluminum base alloys having improved, high temperature oxidation resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G. (Inventor); Stephens, Joseph R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A niobium-aluminum base alloy having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures and consisting essentially of 48%-52% niobium, 36%-42% aluminum, 4%-10% chromium, 0%-2%, more preferably 1%-2%, silicon and/or tungsten with tungsten being preferred, and 0.1%-2.0% of a rare earth selected from the group consisting of yttrium, ytterbium and erbium. Parabolic oxidation rates, k.sub.p, at 1200.degree. C. range from about 0.006 to 0.032 (mg/cm.sup.2).sup.2 /hr. The new alloys also exhibit excellent cyclic oxidation resistance.

  3. Method of nitriding niobium to form a superconducting surface

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, Michael J.; Klopf, John Michael; Singaravelu, Senthilaraja

    2014-08-19

    A method of forming a delta niobium nitride .delta.-NbN layer on the surface of a niobium object including cleaning the surface of the niobium object; providing a treatment chamber; placing the niobium object in the treatment chamber; evacuating the chamber; passing pure nitrogen into the treatment chamber; focusing a laser spot on the niobium object; delivering laser fluences at the laser spot until the surface of the niobium object reaches above its boiling temperature; and rastering the laser spot over the surface of the niobium object.

  4. Multifilamentary niobium tin magnet conductors

    SciT

    Larbalestier, D.C.; Madsen, P.E.; Lee, J.A.

    1975-03-01

    Practical magnet conductors of multifilamentary Nb$sub 3$Sn have been produced. Evaluation of these bronze route conductors is described. Conductors studied range from a 1369 filament all-bronze matrix conductor to 5143 and approximately 42,000 filament conductors, containing internal high purity copper protected by diffusion barriers. Filament sizes vary from approximately 3 to 8 $mu$m diameter. The effect of heat treatment conditions on critical current and transition temperature is presented and it is shown that overall critical current densities greater than those available in niobium titanium can now be produced in multifilamentary Nb$sub 3$Sn magnet conductor.

  5. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    SciT

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Tian, Hui; Corcoran, Sean

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop.' In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature (? 120 °C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. Asmore » part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.« less

  6. Iron Isotope Systematics

    SciT

    Dauphas, Nicolas; John, Seth G.; Rouxel, Olivier

    Iron is a ubiquitous element with a rich (i.e., complex) chemical behavior. It possesses three oxidation states, metallic iron (Fe0), ferrous iron (Fe2+) and ferric iron (Fe3+). The distribution of these oxidation states is markedly stratified in the Earth.

  7. Effects of Composition and Iron Spin State on the Structural Transition of (Mg,Fe)CO3 in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H.; Huang, S. C.; Wei, C. M.; Hsing, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Iron-bearing magnesium carbonates (Mg,Fe)CO3 are believed the major carbon carriers in the Earth's deep lower mantle; they may play a crucial role in the Earth's deep carbon cycle. Knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of these carbonates is thus essential for our understanding of the mantle's role in global carbon cycle. Experiments have shown that (Mg,Fe)CO3 ferromagnesite (calcite structure) can be stable up to 80-100 GPa. At 45-50 GPa, ferromangsite undergoes a high-spin to low-spin transition, accompanied by a volume reduction and elastic anomalies. Starting ~100 GPa, ferromagnesite goes through a complicated structural transition. The detail of this transition and the atomic structures of high-pressure (Mg,Fe)CO3 phases are still highly debated. Experimental observations and theoretical results are inconsistent so far. In experiments, several distinct high-pressure (Mg,Fe)CO3 structures have been reported, including a P21/c phase [1] and a Pmm2 phase [2]. In theory, a C2/m phase [3] and a P-1 phase [4] have been suggested, while the Pmm2 phase is not found. One possible reason for such a discrepancy is that all available theoretical calculations so far are based on pure MgCO3, while experimental works are performed using (Mg,Fe)CO3 with high iron concentration ( > 50%). Clearly, the concentration of iron and the possible iron spin crossover can significantly affect the stability of these high-pressure (Mg,Fe)CO3 phases. Here, we use density functional theory + self-consistent Hubbard U (DFT+Usc) calculations to study this structural transition. The effects of composition and iron spin state on these (Mg,Fe)CO3 phases are also discussed. Our results can be expected to provide insightful information for better understanding the Earth's deep carbon cycle.[1] E. Boulard et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 5184 (2011).[2] J. Liu et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 7640 (2015). [3] A. R. Oganov et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 273, 38 (2008). [4] C. J. Pickard and

  8. Determination of niobium in rocks, ores and alloys by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Husler, J

    1972-07-01

    Niobium, in concentrations as low as 0.02% Nb(2)O(5), is determined in a variety of materials without separation or enrichment. Chemical and ionization interferences are controlled, and sensitivity is increased, by maintaining the iron, aluminium, hydrofluoric acid and potassium content within certain broad concentration limits. There is close agreement with the results of analyses by emission spectrographic, electron microprobe and X-ray fluorescence methods.

  9. A comparison of mutations induced by accelerated iron particles versus those induced by low earth orbit space radiation in the FEM-3 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, P. S.; Hlavacek, A.; Wilde, H.; Lewicki, D.; Schubert, W.; Kern, R. G.; Kazarians, G. A.; Benton, E. V.; Benton, E. R.; Nelson, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The fem-3 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans was employed to determine the mutation frequency as well as the nature of mutations induced by low earth orbit space radiation ambient to Space Shuttle flight STS-76. Recovered mutations were compared to those induced by accelerated iron ions generated by the AGS synchrotron accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. For logistical reasons, dauer larvae were prepared at TCU, transported to either Kennedy Space Center or Brookhaven National Laboratory, flown in space or irradiated, returned to TCU and screened for mutants. A total of 25 fem-3 mutants were recovered after the shuttle flight and yielded a mutation frequency of 2.1x10(-5), roughly 3.3-fold higher than the spontaneous rate of 6.3x10(-6). Four of the mutations were homozygous inviable, suggesting that they were large deletions encompassing fem-3 as well as neighboring, essential genes. Southern blot analyses revealed that one of the 25 contained a polymorphism in fem-3, further evidence that space radiation can induce deletions. While no polymorphisms were detected among the iron ion-induced mutations, three of the 15 mutants were homozygous inviable, which is in keeping with previous observations that high LET iron particles generate deficiencies. These data provide evidence, albeit indirect, that an important mutagenic component of ambient space radiation is high LET charged particles such as iron ions.

  10. Relationship Between the Melting Temperature of hcp Iron at ICB Pressure and the Light Impurity Content of Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, O. L.

    2001-12-01

    The table below leads the reader through calculation of the core density deficit starting from the melting temperature (solidus), Tm, at the pressure, P, of the inner core boundary (ICB) (330 GPa). Tm values come from recent data of four sets of authors. Thermal pressure, Δ PTH, values were calculated in the author's laboratory. P0 = 330 - PTH is the P corresponding to the volume, V, of iron at Tm, V0 (sol.). P0 yields V0 (sol.) from an equation of state. The volume change of melting, Δ Vm, which leads to the liquidus V, V0 (liq.), was determined by the author. The liquidus density, ρ 0 (liq.), is higher than the seismic density at 330 GPa by the core density deficit. S wt.% is the amount of sulfur alone that satisfies the core ρ deficit. Δ Tf is the freezing point depression arising from impurities. %table { \\setlength{\\tabcolsep}{.05truein} \\begin{center} \\begin{tabular}{lcccc} \\multicolumn{5}{l}{ Core density deficit and freezing point depression} multicolumn{5}{l}{calculated from Tm} \\hline Tm (330)& 4800 K& 5850 K& 6700 K& 7500 K \\hline Δ PTH& 64.0& 82.0& 97.0& 112\\P0 (330 K)& 266& 248& 233& 218\\V0 (sol.)& 4.25& 4.30& 4.37& 4.43Δ Vm& .055& .055& .055& .055\\V0 (liq.)& 4.305& 4.355& 4.425& 4.485ρ (liq.)& 13.09& 12.94& 12.73& 12.48 core ρ def.& 7.1& 6& 4& 2.9 S wt.% & 7.3& 6.2& 3.8& 2.5 Δ Tf& ~ 330& ~ 300& ~ 200& ~ 150 \\hline \\multicolumn{5}{l}{Units: PTH & P0, GPa; V0 & Δ Vm, cm3mol.-1;} multicolumn{5}{l}{ρ , kg m-3x 103; core ρ def., %; Δ Tf, K.}\\ } Cosmochemists' estimates of viable amounts of S and Si in the core are most easily satisfied by the core density deficit arising from Tm = 5850 K. High Tm values result in surprisingly high values for Earth's ICB temperature, because Δ Tf is low. A large Δ PTH results in a low Δ Tf.

  11. Delta Niobium or Delta VICE?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. W.

    2006-12-01

    Delta Niobium or Delta VICE? Niobium is one of a few chemical elements that can be used to discriminate between melts derived from upwelling mantle, represented by MORBs and OIBs, and those derived from subduction and continental crust environments. The Nb/U ratio was introduced because these two elements appear to partition nearly identically in upwelling environments, but very differently (from one another) in subduction and continental environments (Hofmann et al., 1986). Fitton et al. (1997, 2003) have taken a radically different approach, using log(Nb/Y)-log(Zr/Y) correlations that appear to discriminate between MORB and OIB (or plume) environments. MORB correlations are parallel to, and at lower Nb/Y ratios than, Iceland basalt correlations. This is expressed by a discrimination parameter defined as Delta Nb = 1.74 + log(Nb/Y) - 1.92 log(Zr/Y). N-MORB have negative Delta-Nb values, whereas Iceland and other OIBs have positive values. Fitton et al. interpret this in terms of a niobium deficiency in MORB that is balanced by a Nb excess in OIBs. This interpretation conflicts with evidence based on Nb/U ratios (Hofmann et al., 1986), that MORB and OIB are parts of a common reservoir, which is different from, and complementary to, the continental crust. Both parts of this MORB-OIB reservoir are characterized by higher-than-primitive Nb/U and Nb/Th ratios, whereas continental crust has dramatically lower Nb/U and Nb/Th ratios. The use of VICE/MICE (very-incompatible- element to moderately-incompatible-element) ratios, such as Nb/Y, obscures this. The significance of the VICE/MICE plot becomes clear if one replaces Nb by other VICEs in the log(Nb/Y)-log(Zr/Y) plot. This shows that any of these VICEs yield similar topologies as Nb/Y. Thus for a given Zr/Y ratio, depleted MORB have consistently lower Ba/Y, Th/Y, and La/Y ratios than do Iceland basalts, even the most incompatible-element- depleted Iceland picrites. This is caused by a less extreme depletion of

  12. Mineral Resource of the Month: Niobium

    Papp, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Niobium, also called columbium, is a transition metal with a very high melting point. It is in greatest demand in industrialized countries, like the United States, because of its defense-related uses in the aerospace, energy and transportation industries. Niobium is used mostly to make high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steel and stainless steel. HSLA steels are used in large-diameter pipes for oil and natural gas pipelines and automobile wheels.

  13. Mineral resource of the month: niobium (columbium)

    Papp, John F.

    2007-01-01

    It’s not just diamonds associated with conflict in Africa. Coltan, short for columbite-tantalite (a blend of niobium — also called columbium — and tantalum minerals), is linked with the recent conflicts in the Congo that involved several African countries. The metallic ore, which is processed to separate out niobium and the very valuable tantalum (see Geotimes, August 2004), is believed to be smuggled out and sold to help finance the armed conflicts.

  14. Niobium powder synthesized by calciothermic reduction of niobium hydroxide for use in capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2015-03-01

    Metallic niobium powder was produced for applications in electric capacitors via calciothermic reduction of niobium hydroxide in molten CaCl2. Sub-micrometer spherical metallic particles with coral-like morphologies reflected the particle size of the starting oxide powder. A fine powder was obtained from the mixtures of niobium hydroxide and CaO or Ca(OH)2, respectively. Sintered pellets of the metallic powder showed a higher capacitance (CV) than those of the simply reduced powder without pre-treatment, because the shrinkage during sintering was smaller. The CV was as large as that of commercially sintered pellets for tantalum capacitors. Therefore, this niobium powder would act as a higher-voltage capacitor by applying chemical anodic treatment at higher voltages, and lower oxygen content in the reduced power could realize a lower leak current.

  15. Aqueous corrosion of phosphide minerals from iron meteorites: a highly reactive source of prebiotic phosphorus on the surface of the early Earth.

    PubMed

    Pasek, Matthew A; Lauretta, Dante S

    2005-08-01

    We present the results of an experimental study of aqueous corrosion of Fe-phosphide under conditions relevant to the early Earth. The results strongly suggest that iron meteorites were an important source of reactive phosphorus (P), a requirement for the formation of P-based life. We further demonstrate that iron meteorites were an abundant source of phosphide minerals early in Earth history. Phosphide corrosion was studied in five different solutions: deionized water, deionized water buffered with sodium bicarbonate, deionized water with dissolved magnesium and calcium chlorides, deionized water containing ethanol and acetic acid, and deionized water containing the chlorides, ethanol, and acetic acid. Experiments were performed in the presence of both air and pure Ar gas to evaluate the effect of atmospheric chemistry. Phosphide corrosion in deionized water results in a metastable mixture of mixed-valence, P-bearing ions including pyrophosphate and triphosphate, key components for metabolism in modern life. In a pH-buffered solution of NaHCO(3), the condensed and reduced species diphosphonate is an abundant corrosion product. Corrosion in ethanol- and acetic acid-containing solutions yields additional P-bearing organic molecules, including acetyl phosphonate and a cyclic triphosphorus molecule. Phosphonate is a major corrosion product of all experiments and is the only P-bearing molecule that persists in solutions with high concentrations of magnesium and calcium chlorides, which suggests that phosphonate may have been a primitive oceanic source of P. The stability and reactivity of phosphonate and hypophosphite in solution were investigated to elucidate reaction mechanisms and the role of mineral catalysts on P-solution chemistry. Phosphonate oxidation is rapid in the presence of Fe metal but negligible in the presence of magnetite and in the control sample. The rate of hypophosphite oxidation is independent of reaction substrate.

  16. Pure Niobium as a Pressure Vessel Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, T. J.; Carter, H. F.; Foley, M. H.; Klebaner, A. L.; Nicol, T. H.; Page, T. M.; Theilacker, J. C.; Wands, R. H.; Wong-Squires, M. L.; Wu, G.

    2010-04-01

    Physics laboratories around the world are developing niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for use in particle accelerators. These SRF cavities are typically cooled to low temperatures by direct contact with a liquid helium bath, resulting in at least part of the helium container being made from pure niobium. In the U.S., the Code of Federal Regulations allows national laboratories to follow national consensus pressure vessel rules or use of alternative rules which provide a level of safety greater than or equal to that afforded by ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Thus, while used for its superconducting properties, niobium ends up also being treated as a material for pressure vessels. This report summarizes what we have learned about the use of niobium as a pressure vessel material, with a focus on issues for compliance with pressure vessel codes. We present results of a literature search for mechanical properties and tests results, as well as a review of ASME pressure vessel code requirements and issues.

  17. Monoclinic structures of niobium trisulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloodgood, Matthew A.; Wei, Pingrong; Aytan, Ece; Bozhilov, Krassimir N.; Balandin, Alexander A.; Salguero, Tina T.

    2018-02-01

    Two new polymorphs of niobium trisulfide are established by single crystal x-ray diffraction. NbS3-iv crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with lattice parameters a = 6.7515(5) Å, b = 4.9736(4) Å, c = 18.1315(13) Å, and β = 90.116(2)°. Its structure is based on chains of [NbS6] trigonal prisms containing Nb-Nb pairs with a bond length of 3.0448(8) Å; this pairing causes the chains to corrugate slightly along their axis, a feature also present in triclinic NbS3-i that leads to semiconductor properties. The stacking arrangement of chains is different in these polymorphs, however, with NbS3-i having an ABCDE repeating sequence of chain bilayers and NbS3-iv having an AB repeating sequence. HRTEM studies show the presence of topotactically-oriented intergrown zones and numerous dislocations, which result in mosaic structuring. A second new polymorph, NbS3-v, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/m with lattice parameters a = 4.950(5) Å, b = 3.358(4) Å, c = 9.079(10) Å, β = 97.35(2)°. In contrast to NbS3-iv, NbS3-v maintains fixed a Nb-Nb bond distance of 3.358(4) Å along the chains, and it has an ABCDE repeating sequence of chain bilayers similar to NbS3-i. High resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR-STEM) imaging of an exfoliated NbS3-v nanoribbon shows the continuous [NbS6] chains oriented along the b-axis. These results provide the first firmly established structural data for monoclinic NbS3. In addition, SEM images show the formation of NbS3 rings and cylinders, and a combination of powder x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy provides a way to distinguish between NbS3 polymorphs.

  18. Understanding the interdiffusion behavior and determining the long term stability of tungsten fiber reinforced niobium-base matrix composite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, John K.

    1990-01-01

    The long term interdiffusional stability of tungsten fiber reinforced niobium alloy composites is addressed. The matrix alloy that is most promising for use as a high temperature structural material for reliable long-term space power generation is Nb1Zr. As an ancillary project to this program, efforts were made to assess the nature and kinetics of interphase reaction between selected beryllide intermetallics and nickel and iron aluminides.

  19. Preconcentration and determination of rare-earth elements in iron-rich water samples by extraction chromatography and plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Hernández González, Carolina; Cabezas, Alberto J Quejido; Díaz, Marta Fernández

    2005-11-15

    A 100-fold preconcentration procedure based on rare-earth elements (REEs) separation from water samples with an extraction chromatographic column has been developed. The separation of REEs from matrix elements (mainly Fe, alkaline and alkaline-earth elements) in water samples was performed loading the samples, previously acidified to pH 2.0 with HNO(3), in a 2ml column preconditioned with 20ml 0.01M HNO(3). Subsequently, REEs were quantitatively eluted with 20ml 7M HNO(3). This solution was evaporated to dryness and the final residue was dissolved in 10ml 2% HNO(3) containing 1mugl(-1) of cesium used as internal standard. The solution was directly analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), using ultrasonic nebulization, obtaining quantification limits ranging from 0.05 to 0.10 ngl(-1). The proposed method has been applied to granitic waters running through fracture fillings coated by iron and manganese oxy-hydroxides in the area of the Ratones (Cáceres, Spain) old uranium mine.

  20. The fractionation and geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements measured in ambient size-resolved PM in an integrated iron and steelmaking industry zone.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qili; Li, Liwei; Yang, Jiamei; Liu, Baoshuang; Bi, Xiaohui; Wu, Jianhui; Zhang, YuFen; Yao, Lin; Feng, Yinchang

    2016-09-01

    Improved understanding of the fractionation and geochemical characteristic of rare earth elements (REEs) from steel plant emissions is important due to the unclear atmospheric signature of these elements and their adverse impact on human health and the environment. In this study, ambient particulate matter of different sizes was collected from one site in an integrated iron and steelmaking industrial zone (HG) and one urban background site with no direct industrial emissions (ZWY) during a 1-year sampling campaign in China. The total concentrations of REEs for TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were 27.248, 14.989, 3.542 ng/m(3) in HG and 6.326, 5.274, 1.731 ng/m(3), respectively, in ZWY, which revealed the local influence of the steelmaking activities to the air quality. With respect to ZWY, the REEs in HG site are obviously fractionated in the coarser fraction, and LREEs account for more than 80 % of the total REE burden in all of the samples. Additionally, the REEs in HG and ZWY show a homogeneous trend with successively increased LREE/HREE ratios from the coarse particles to the fine particles. In our samples, La, Ce, Nd, and Sm are the most enriched rare earth elements, especially in the HG site. Moreover, ternary diagrams of LaCeSm indicate that the REEs in HG are potentially contributed by steelworks, carrier vehicles, coal combustion, and road dust re-suspension.

  1. Proterozoic low-Ti iron-oxide deposits in New York and New Jersey: relation to Fe-oxide (Cu-U-Au-rare earth element) deposits and tectonic implications

    Foose, M.P.; McLelland, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Low-Ti iron-oxide deposits in exposed Grenville-age rocks of New York and New Jersey belong to a distinct class of iron-oxide (Cu-U-Au-rare earth element [REE]) deposits that includes similar iron deposits in southeastern Missouri and the Kiruna district of Sweden, the giant Olympic Dam U-Cu-Au-Ag deposit (Australia), and the Bayan Obo REE-Nb deposit (China). Most of the New York-New Jersey deposits exhibit features consistent with a hydrothermal origin and define a regionally significant metallogenic event that provides important clues to the evolution of this part of the Grenville orogen. In the Adirondacks, the tectonic setting of these deposits is consistent with postorogenic uplift and extensive crustal melting at 1070-1050 Ma that was accompanied by late tectonic to posttectonic deposition of iron. -Authors

  2. Niobium boride layers deposition on the surface AISI D2 steel by a duplex treatment

    SciT

    Kon, O., E-mail: okon42@htotmail.com; Pazarlioglu, S.; Sen, S.

    2015-03-30

    In this paper, we investigated the possibility of deposition of niobium boride layers on the surface of AISI D2 steel by a duplex treatment. At the first step of duplex treatment, boronizing was performed on AISI D2 steel samples at 1000{sup o}C for 2h and then pre-boronized samples niobized at 850°C, 900°C and 950°C using thermo-reactive deposition method for 1–4 h. The presence of the niobium boride layers such as NbB, NbB{sub 2} and Nb{sub 3}B{sub 4} and also iron boride phases such as FeB, Fe{sub 2}B were examined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micro-hardness measurementsmore » were realized. Experimental studies showed that the depth of the coating layers increased with increasing temperature and times and also ranged from 0.42 µm to 2.43 µm, depending on treatment time and temperature. The hardness of the niobium boride layer was 2620±180 HV{sub 0.005}.« less

  3. PROCESS OF COATING GRAPHITE WITH NIOBIUM-TITANIUM CARBIDE

    DOEpatents

    Halden, F.A.; Smiley, W.D.; Hruz, F.M.

    1961-07-01

    A process of coating graphite with niobium - titanium carbide is described. It is found that the addition of more than ten percent by weight of titanium to niobium results in much greater wetting of the graphite by the niobium and a much more adherent coating. The preferred embodiment comprises contacting the graphite with a powdered alloy or mixture, degassing simultaneously the powder and the graphite, and then heating them to a high temperature to cause melting, wetting, spreading, and carburization of the niobium-titanium powder.

  4. Controlling laser-induced magnetization reversal dynamics in a rare-earth iron garnet across the magnetization compensation point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Marwan; Molho, Pierre; Barbara, Bernard; Bigot, Jean-Yves

    2018-04-01

    In this work we explore the ultrafast magnetization dynamics induced by femtosecond laser pulses in a doped film of gadolinium iron garnet over a broad temperature range including the magnetization compensation point TM. By exciting the phonon-assisted 6S→4G and 6S→4P electronic d -d transitions simultaneously by one- and two-photon absorption processes, we find out that the transfer of heat energy from the lattice to the spin has, at a temperature slightly below TM, a large influence on the magnetization dynamics. In particular, we show that the speed and the amplitude of the magnetization dynamics can be strongly increased when increasing either the external magnetic field or the laser energy density. The obtained results are explained by a magnetization reversal process across TM. Furthermore, we find that the dynamics has unusual characteristics which can be understood by considering the weak spin-phonon coupling in magnetic garnets. These results open new perspectives for controlling the magnetic state of magnetic dielectrics using an ultrashort optically induced heat pulse.

  5. Bragg projection ptychography on niobium phase domain

    DOE PAGES

    Burdet, Nicolas; Shi, Xiaowen; Huang, Xiaojing; ...

    2016-08-10

    Here, we demonstrate that the highly sensitive phase-contrast properties of Bragg coherent diffraction measurements combined with the translational diversity of ptychography can provide a Bragg “dark field” imaging method capable of revealing the finger print of domain structure in metallic thin films. Experimental diffraction data was taken from a epitaxially grown niobium metallic thin film on sapphire; and analyzed with the help of a careful combination of implemented refinement mechanisms.

  6. Chemical Vapor Synthesis of Niobium Aluminides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    69 4.2.2 Deposition on Singly Supported Niobium Substrates ............ . . . ..... 72 4.3 DEPOSITION OF NbxSiy FROM H2, NbC15 , AND SICl4 ...direct CVD of NbxSiy from the hydrogen reduction of SiCl4 and NbCl5 is described by the overall reaction: xNbCl5 + ySiCl4 + (5x + 4y)/2 H2 - NbxSiy

  7. Structural phase transitions in niobium oxide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvakkumar, R.; Hong, Sun Ig

    2015-09-01

    Niobium oxide nanocrystals were successfully synthesized employing the green synthesis method. Phase formation, microstructure and compositional properties of 1, 4 and 7 days incubation treated samples after calcinations at 450 °C were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman, photoluminescence (PL), infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectra and transmission electron microscopic characterizations. It was observed that phase formation of Nb2O5 nanocrystals was dependent upon the incubation period required to form stable metal oxides. The characteristic results clearly revealed that with increasing incubation and aging, the transformation of cubic, orthorhombic and monoclinic phases were observed. The uniform heating at room temperature (32 °C) and the ligation of niobium atoms due to higher phenolic constituents of utilized rambutan during aging processing plays a vital role in structural phase transitions in niobium oxide nanocrystals. The defects over a period of incubation and the intensities of the PL spectra changing over a period of aging were related to the amount of the defects induced by the phase transition.

  8. Assessing the link between recent supernovae near Earth and the iron-60 anomaly in a deep-sea crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulreich, Michael M.; Breitschwerdt, Dieter

    2016-06-01

    Some time ago, an enhanced concentration of the radionuclide 60Fe was discovered in a deep-sea ferromanganese crust, isolated in layers dating from about 2.2, Myr ago. Since 60Fe (half-life of 2.6, Myr) is not naturally produced on Earth, such an excess can only be attributed to extraterrestrial sources, particularly one or several nearby supernovae in the recent past. It has been speculated that these supernovae might have been involved in the formation of the Local Superbubble, our Galactic habitat. The aim of this talk is to provide a quantitative evidence for this scenario. For that purpose, I will present results from high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the Local Superbubble and its neighbour Loop I in different environments, including a self-consistently evolved supernova-driven interstellar medium. For the superbubble modelling, the time sequence and locations of the generating core-collapse supernova explosions are taken into account, which are derived from the mass spectrum of the perished members of certain, carefully preselected stellar moving groups. The release and turbulent mixing of 60Fe is followed via passive scalars, where the yields of the decaying radioisotope were adjusted according to recent stellar evolution calculations. The models are able to reproduce both the timing and the intensity of the 60Fe excess observed with rather high precision.

  9. Clinical evaluation of neodymium-iron-boron (Ne2Fe14B) rare earth magnets in the treatment of mid line diastemas

    PubMed Central

    Manoj-Kumar, Mitta; Gowri-Sankar, Singaraju; Chaitanya, Nellore; Vivek-Reddy, Ganugapanta; Venkatesh, Nettam

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the closure of midline diastema using the Neodymium-Iron-Boron magnets and to compare the treatment duration of midline diastemas with the use of magnets compared to regular orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods Thirty patients with age group 12 to 30 years with the midline diastema ranging from 0.5 to 3mm were selected. These patients were divided into two groups. Diastema closure in one group was accomplished by conventional method, in other group was done with Ne2Fe14B magnets. These magnets were fitted to the labial surfaces of the maxillary central incisors such a way that the opposite poles of the magnets face each other. At each appointment, study models and radiographs were taken for study subjects and the midline diastema was measured using digital vernier calipers on the study models obtained. Descriptive statistics carried out using Paired t-test. Results Subjects treated with Ne2Fe14B magnets showed a significant difference compared to fixed orthodontic appliance subjects with respect to time of closure, rate of space closure and incisal inclination. Significant difference between 2 groups with reduction of 64.6 days in time to diastema closure in subjects treated with Ne2Fe14B magnets (P<0.05). Conclusions Ne2Fe14B magnets more efficient in complete closure of mid line diastema in less duration of time. Key words:Midline diastema, Ne2Fe14B magnets, rare earth magnets, space closure. PMID:27034757

  10. Ab initio study on rare-earth iron-pnictides RFeAsO (R = Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd) in low-temperature Cmma phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eryigit, Resul; Gurel, Tanju; Erturk, Esra; Lukoyanov, A. V.; Akcay, Guven; Anisimov, V. I.

    2014-03-01

    We present density functional theory calculations on iron-based pnictides RFeAsO (R = Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd). The calculations have been carried out using plane-waves and projector augmented wave (PAW) pseudopotential approach. Structural, magnetic and electronic properties are studied within generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and also within GGA+U in order to investigate the influence of electron correlation effects. Low-temperature Cmma structure is fully optimized by GGA considering both non-magnetic and magnetic cells. We have found that spin-polarized structure improves the agreement with experiments on equilibrium lattice parameters, particularly c lattice parameter and Fe-As bond-lengths. Electronic band structure, total density of states, and spin-dependent orbital-resolved density of states are also analyzed in the frameworks of GGA and GGA+U and discussed. For all materials, by including on-site Coulomb correction, rare earth 4f states move away from the Fermi level and the Fermi level features of the systems are found to be mostly defined by the 3d electron-electron correlations in Fe. This work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK Project No. TBAG-111T796) and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project No. 12-02-91371-CT_a).

  11. Reduction of Chlorate by Iron Mediated Processes: Implications for Oxy-Chlorine Species on Mars and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brundrett, M.; Yan, W.; Jackson, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have confirmed the presence of chlorate (ClO3-) and perchlorate (ClO4-) in terrestrial systems, lunar regolith, Martian surface soils, and meteorites [1, 2, 4]. A roughly equimolar ratio of ClO3- : ClO4- has been observed for most systems with the only major exceptions the Antarctica dry valley soils (MDV) and Martian surface material, where the ClO3- : ClO4- ratios are significantly less than 1 [3, 4]. All known ClO4- production mechanisms produce molar ratios of ClO3-: ClO4- equal to or greater than 1 [5]. Post depositional processes may explain the potential reduction of ClO3-. The objective of this study was to determine the potential abiotic transformation of ClO3- by Fe (II)-bearing minerals, similar to known reactions between NO3- and Fe (II) minerals. The presence of iron-derived minerals has been established in the MDV, Martian soils, and chondrite meteorites. Batch experiments were conducted by reacting four Fe (II)-bearing minerals (wustite, siderite, magnetite, and green rust) with ClO3- at various pH (4.5, 6.5, 8.9). Chlorate reduction was rapid (half-life on the order of hours to days) and generally ClO3- was quantitatively converted to Cl-. Results of this study will increase our understanding of surface reactions that produced and transformed oxy-chlorine compounds on Mars elucidating past and present Martian surface conditions. The study also has implications into the understanding of the evolutionary processes that previously or currently dictate the abiotic geochemical processing of oxy-chlorine anions through terrestrial systems. [1] Jackson et al. (2015) EPSL 430, 470-476. [2] Rao et al. (2010) ES&T 44, 8429-8434. [3] Jackson et al. (2010) ES&T 44, 4869-4876. [4] Hecht et al. (2009) SCI 325, 64-67. [5] Rao et al. (2010) ES&T 44, 2961-2967.

  12. Lateritic, supergene rare earth element (REE) deposits

    Cocker, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Intensive lateritic weathering of bedrock under tropical or sub-tropical climatic conditions can form a variety of secondary, supergene-type deposits. These secondary deposits may range in composition from aluminous bauxites to iron and niobium, and include rare earth elements (REE). Over 250 lateritic deposits of REE are currently known and many have been important sources of REE. In southeastern China, lateritic REE deposits, known as ion-adsorption type deposits, have been the world’s largest source of heavy REE (HREE). The lateritized upper parts of carbonatite intrusions are being investigated for REE in South America, Africa, Asia and Australia, with the Mt. Weld deposit in Australia being brought into production in late 2012. Lateritic REE deposits may be derived from a wide range of primary host rocks, but all have similar laterite and enrichment profiles, and are probably formed under similar climatic conditions. The weathering profile commonly consists of a depleted zone, an enriched zone, and a partially weathered zone which overlie the protolith. Lateritic weathering may commonly extend to depths of 30 to 60 m. REE are mobilized from the breakdown of primary REE-bearing minerals and redeposited in the enriched zone deeper in the weathering horizon as secondary minerals, as colloids, or adsorbed on other secondary minerals. Enrichment of REE may range from 3 to 10 times that of the source lithology; in some instances, enrichment may range up to 100 times.

  13. Extraction spectrophotometric determination of niobium in rocks with sulfochlorophenol S

    Childress, A.E.; Greenland, L.P.

    1980-01-01

    After acid decomposition and potassium pyrosulfate fusion, niobium (1-26 ppm) is separated from interfering elements by extraction into methyl isobutyl ketone from 6 M H2SO4-2 M HF and back-extracted into water. The niobium-sulfochloro-phenol S complex is extracted into amyl alcohol. ?? 1980.

  14. Processing of Niobium-Lined M240 Machine Gun Barrels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    different materials (the gun steel and the niobium liner). A large chunk of the niobium liner in barrel 2 was torn away from the end of the liner at...it to increase the frictional bond between the liner and gun steel . The barrels with liners were hammer forged by FN. FN experienced some...

  15. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOEpatents

    Murduck, James M.; Lepetre, Yves J.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.

    1989-01-01

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources.

  16. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOEpatents

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-07-04

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs.

  17. Niobium oxide compositions and methods for using same

    DOEpatents

    Goodenough, John B; Han, Jian-Tao

    2014-02-11

    The disclosure relates a niobium oxide useful in anodes of secondary lithium ion batteries. Such niobium oxide has formula Li.sub.xM.sub.1-yNb.sub.yNb.sub.2O.sub.7, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.3, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and M represents Ti or Zr. The niobium oxide may be in the form of particles, which may be carbon coated. The disclosure also relates to an electrode composition containing at least one or more niobium oxides of formula Li.sub.xM.sub.1-yNb.sub.yNb.sub.2O.sub.7. The disclosure further relates to electrodes, such as anodes, and batteries containing at least one or more niobium oxides of formula Li.sub.xM.sub.1-yNb.sub.yNb.sub.2O.sub.7. Furthermore, the disclosure relates to methods of forming the above.

  18. Dispersion Strengthening of High Temperature Niobium Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-31

    Fig. 2 for the alloys containing ZrC and Ta6 Si3 respectively. The former shows classical age .hardening response with hardening followed by softening...tILE COP) ION STRENGTH’ENING OF HIGH TEMATURE NIOBIUM ALLOYS Prepared by D.L. Anton 00 D.B. Snow In) A.F. Giamei ANNUAL REPORT Contract F49620486-C...Center / ni .’ - k- ADDRESS (Ciy, State, and ZIP Code) 7b ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) East Hartford, CT 06108 7-Jc\\ 4 0 _ .F3 A.C 8a. NAME OF

  19. SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM AND NIOBIUM BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Voiland, E.E.

    1958-05-01

    A process for separation of the uranium from zirconium and/or niobium values contained in 3 to 7M aqueous nitric acid solutions is described. This is accomplished by adding phosphoric acid anions to the nitric acid solution containing the uranium, zirconium, and/or niobium in an amount sufficient to make the solution 0.05 to 0.2M in phosphate ion and contacting the solution with an organic water-immiscible solvent such as MEK, whereby the uranyl values are taken up by the extract phase while the zirconium and niobium preferentially remain in the aqueous raffinate.

  20. Crystallography and Morphology of Niobium Carbide in As-Cast HP-Niobium Reformer Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Karl G.; Kral, Milo V.

    2012-06-01

    The microstructures of two as-cast heats of niobium-modified HP stainless steels were characterized. Particular attention was paid to the interdendritic niobium-rich carbides formed during solidification of these alloys. At low magnifications, these precipitates are grouped in colonies of similar lamellae. Higher magnifications revealed that the lamellae actually obtain two distinct morphologies. The type I morphology exhibits broad planar interfaces with a smooth platelike shape. Type II lamellae have undulating interfaces and an overall reticulated shape. To provide further insight into the origin of these two different morphologies, the microstructure and crystallography of each have been studied in detail using high resolution scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, various electron diffraction methods (electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), selected area diffraction (SAD), and convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED)), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  1. Mechanism of the high transition temperature for the 1111-type iron-based superconductors R FeAsO (R =rare earth ): Synergistic effects of local structures and 4 f electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifang; Meng, Junling; Liu, Xiaojuan; Yao, Fen; Meng, Jian; Zhang, Hongjie

    2017-07-01

    Among the iron-based superconductors, the 1111-type Fe-As-based superconductors REFeAs O1 -xFx (RE = rare earth) exhibit high transition temperatures (Tc) above 40 K. We perform first-principles calculations based on density functional theory with the consideration of both electronic correlations and spin-orbit couplings on rare earths and Fe ions to study the underlying mechanism as the microscopic structural distortions in REFeAsO tuned by both lanthanide contraction and external strain. The electronic structures evolve similarly in both cases. It is found that there exist an optimal structural regime that will not only initialize but also optimize the orbital fluctuations due to the competing Fe-As and Fe-Fe crystal fields. We also find that the key structural features in REFeAsO, such as As-Fe-As bond angle, intrinsically induce the modification of the Fermi surface and dynamic spin fluctuation. These results suggest that the superconductivity is mediated by antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations. Simultaneously, we show that the rare-earth 4 f electrons play important roles on the high transition temperature whose behavior might be analogous to that of the heavy-fermion superconductors. The superconductivity of these 1111-type iron-based superconductors with high-Tc is considered to originate from the synergistic effects of local structures and 4 f electrons.

  2. Electroplating and stripping copper on molybdenum and niobium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Power, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Molybdenum and niobium are often electroplated and subsequently stripped of copper. Since general standard plating techniques produce poor quality coatings, general procedures have been optimized and specified to give good results.

  3. The Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite: radiation exposure in low-earth orbit and supporting laboratory studies of iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride.

    PubMed

    Cook, Amanda M; Mattioda, Andrew L; Ricco, Antonio J; Quinn, Richard C; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricca, Alessandra; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren V

    2014-02-01

    We report results from the exposure of the metalloporphyrin iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (FeTPPCl) to the outer space environment, measured in situ aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses nanosatellite. FeTPPCl was exposed for a period of 17 months (3700 h of direct solar exposure), which included broad-spectrum solar radiation (∼122 nm to the near infrared). Motivated by the potential role of metalloporphyrins as molecular biomarkers, the exposure of thin-film samples of FeTPPCl to the space environment in low-Earth orbit was monitored in situ via ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy and reported telemetrically. The space data were complemented by laboratory exposure experiments that used a high-fidelity solar simulator covering the spectral range of the spaceflight measurements. We found that thin-film samples of FeTPPCl that were in contact with a humid headspace gas (0.8-2.3% relative humidity) were particularly susceptible to destruction upon irradiation, degrading up to 10 times faster than identical thin films in contact with dry headspace gases; this degradation may also be related to the presence of oxides of nitrogen in those cells. In the companion terrestrial experiments, simulated solar exposure of FeTPPCl films in contact with either Ar or CO2:O2:Ar (10:0.01:1000) headspace gas resulted in growth of a band in the films' infrared spectra at 1961 cm(-1). We concluded that the most likely carriers of this band are allene (C3H4) and chloropropadiene (C3H3Cl), putative molecular fragments of the destruction of the porphyrin ring. The thin films studied in space and in solar simulator-based experiments show qualitatively similar spectral evolution as a function of contacting gaseous species but display significant differences in the time dependence of those changes. The relevance of our findings to planetary science, biomarker research, and the photostability of organic materials in astrobiologically relevant environments is

  4. The Redox Dynamics of Iron in a Seasonally Waterlogged Forest Soil (Chaux Forest, Eastern France) Traced with Rare Earth Element Distribution Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, M.; Floch, A. L.; Lucot, E.; Badot, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The oxyhydroxides of iron are common soil minerals and known to control the availability of various major and trace elements essential for biogeochemical processes. We present a study from acidic natural forest soils, where reducing redox conditions due to seasonal waterlogging lead to the dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxides, and to the release of Fe to soil water. In order to study in detail the mechanism of redox cycling of Fe, we used Rare Earth Element (REE) distribution patterns, because an earlier study has shown that they are a suitable tool to identify trace metal sources during soil reduction in wetland soils (Davranche et al., 2011). The REE patterns of soil leachates obtained with the modified 3-step BCR extraction scheme of Rauret et al., (1999) were compared with those of natural soil water. The adsorbed fractions (F1 leach), the reducible fraction of the deepest soil horizon H4 (F2 leach, 50-120 cm), and the oxidizable fractions of horizons H2 to H4 (F3 leachs, 24-120 cm) yielded REE patterns almost identical to soil water (see figure), showing that the REE and trace metal content of soil water was mainly derived from the F1 pool, and from the F2 and F3 pools of the clay mineral-rich deep soil horizons. In contrast, the F2 leach mobilized mainly Fe-oxyhydroxides associated with organic matter of the surface soil and yielded REE patterns significantly different from those of soil water. These results suggest that the trace metal content of soil water in hydromorphic soils is primarily controlled by the clay fraction of the deeper soil horizons and not by organic matter and related Fe-oxyhydroxides of the surface soil. Additional analyses are in progress in order to verify whether the REE and trace metals of the deeper soil horizons were directly derived from clay minerals or from associated Fe-oxyhydroxide coatings. Refs cited: Davranche et al. (2011), Chem. Geol. 284; Rauret et al. (1999), J. Environ. Monit. 1.

  5. Bragg projection ptychography on niobium phase domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdet, Nicolas; Shi, Xiaowen; Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian

    2017-07-01

    Bragg projection ptychography (BPP) is a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging technique which combines the strengths of scanning microscopy with the phase contrast of x-ray ptychography. Here we apply it for high resolution imaging of the phase-shifted crystalline domains associated with epitaxial growth. The advantages of BPP are that the spatial extent of the sample is arbitrary, it is nondestructive, and it gives potentially diffraction limited spatial resolution. Here we demonstrate the application of BPP for revealing the domain structure caused by epitaxial misfit in a nanostructured metallic thin film. Experimental coherent diffraction data were collected from a niobium thin film, epitaxially grown on a sapphire substrate as the beam was scanned across the sample. The data were analyzed by BPP using a carefully selected combination of refinement procedures. The resulting image shows a close packed array of epitaxial domains, shifted with respect to each other due to misfit between the film and its substrate.

  6. Electrical Properties of Heavily Doped Niobium Pentoxide

    SciT

    Valletta, R.

    An analysis of the resistivity and thermoelectric power of heavily doped Nb 2O 5 [over-all composition (Nb 1-xW x) 2O 5 where x varies from 0.0025 to 0.15] shows that mixed valence semiconduction has been observed. The major factor determining the value of the thermoelectric power at high temperatures appears to be an entropy of mixing term. In samples with x > 0.10, it is concluded that the electrons can be trapped on tungsten ions as well as niobium ions. The low-temperature resistivity data indicate that the conduction mechanism is not simply described at temperatures where the tungsten impurity ionsmore » are incompletely ionized.« less

  7. Welding Niobium Bearing HSLA Steels 'Myths and Magic'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkwood, Phil

    Niobium is not currently added to ferritic steels with the specific objective of improving weldability and is more likely to be present to harness its combined beneficial effects on strength and toughness. Nevertheless, as carbon levels in many classes of HSLA steel, are progressively reduced, there is an increasing awareness that, amongst the microalloying elements, niobium is uniquely placed to deliver the mechanical property combinations that modern specifications demand and simultaneously deliver a `bonus' by way of enhanced weldability.

  8. Niobium (columbium) and tantalum resources of Brazil

    White, Max Gregg

    1975-01-01

    Most of the niobium resources of Brazil occur as pyrochlore in carbonatites within syenitic intrusives of Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary age in western Minas Gerais and southeastern Goils. Minor amounts of it are produced together with tantalum from columbite-tantalite concentrates from pegmatites and placers adjacent to them, in the Sao Joao del Rei district in south-central Minas Gerais. All the niobium and tantalum produced in Brazil is exported. The only pyrochlore mined is from the Barreiro carbonatite deposit near Araxa in Minas Gerais where concentrates and ferroniobium are produced. Exploration work for pyrochlore and other mineral resources are being undertaken on other carbonatites, particularly at Catalao I in southeast Goias and at Tapira and Serra Negra in western Minas Gerais. Annual production and export from the Barreiro deposit are about 8,000 metric tons of pyrochlore concentrate containing about 60 percent Nb205 and about 2,700 metric tons of ferroniobium with 63 percent Nb2O5. The annual production capacity of the Barreiro plant is 18,000 tons of concentrate and 4,000 tons of ferroniobium. Ore reserves of the Barreiro deposit in all categories are 380 million tons with percent Nb2O5. Annual production of tantalite-columbite from the Sao Joao del Rei district, most of which is exported to the United States, is about 290 tons, of which about 79 percent is tantalite and about percent is columbite. Reserves of tantalite-columbite in the Sao Joao del Rei district are about 43,000 tons of proved and 73,000 tons of probable ore.

  9. Surface processing for bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Kelly, M. P.; Reid, T.

    2017-02-21

    The majority of niobium cavities for superconducting particle accelerators continue to be fabricated from thin-walled (2-4mm) polycrystalline niobium sheet and, as a final step, require material removal from the radio frequency (RF) surface in order to achieve performance needed for use as practical accelerator devices. More recently bulk niobium in the form of, single-or large-grain slices cut from an ingot has become a viable alternative for some cavity types. In both cases the so-called damaged layer must be chemically etched or electrochemically polished away. The methods for doing this date back at least four decades, however, vigorous empirical studies onmore » real cavities and more fundamental studies on niobium samples at laboratories worldwide have led to seemingly modest improvements that, when taken together, constitute a substantial advance in the reproducibility for surface processing techniques and overall cavity performance. This article reviews the development of niobium cavity surface processing, and summarizes results of recent studies. We place some emphasis on practical details for real cavity processing systems which are difficult to find in the literature but are, nonetheless, crucial for achieving the good and reproducible cavity performance. New approaches for bulk niobium surface treatment which aim to reduce cost or increase performance, including alternate chemical recipes, barrel polishing and 'nitrogen doping' of the RF surface, continue to be pursued and are closely linked to the requirements for surface processing.« less

  10. Surface processing for bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. P.; Reid, T.

    2017-04-01

    The majority of niobium cavities for superconducting particle accelerators continue to be fabricated from thin-walled (2-4 mm) polycrystalline niobium sheet and, as a final step, require material removal from the radio frequency (RF) surface in order to achieve performance needed for use as practical accelerator devices. More recently bulk niobium in the form of, single- or large-grain slices cut from an ingot has become a viable alternative for some cavity types. In both cases the so-called damaged layer must be chemically etched or electrochemically polished away. The methods for doing this date back at least four decades, however, vigorous empirical studies on real cavities and more fundamental studies on niobium samples at laboratories worldwide have led to seemingly modest improvements that, when taken together, constitute a substantial advance in the reproducibility for surface processing techniques and overall cavity performance. This article reviews the development of niobium cavity surface processing, and summarizes results of recent studies. We place some emphasis on practical details for real cavity processing systems which are difficult to find in the literature but are, nonetheless, crucial for achieving the good and reproducible cavity performance. New approaches for bulk niobium surface treatment which aim to reduce cost or increase performance, including alternate chemical recipes, barrel polishing and ‘nitrogen doping’ of the RF surface, continue to be pursued and are closely linked to the requirements for surface processing.

  11. Surface processing for bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    SciT

    Kelly, M. P.; Reid, T.

    The majority of niobium cavities for superconducting particle accelerators continue to be fabricated from thin-walled (2-4mm) polycrystalline niobium sheet and, as a final step, require material removal from the radio frequency (RF) surface in order to achieve performance needed for use as practical accelerator devices. More recently bulk niobium in the form of, single-or large-grain slices cut from an ingot has become a viable alternative for some cavity types. In both cases the so-called damaged layer must be chemically etched or electrochemically polished away. The methods for doing this date back at least four decades, however, vigorous empirical studies onmore » real cavities and more fundamental studies on niobium samples at laboratories worldwide have led to seemingly modest improvements that, when taken together, constitute a substantial advance in the reproducibility for surface processing techniques and overall cavity performance. This article reviews the development of niobium cavity surface processing, and summarizes results of recent studies. We place some emphasis on practical details for real cavity processing systems which are difficult to find in the literature but are, nonetheless, crucial for achieving the good and reproducible cavity performance. New approaches for bulk niobium surface treatment which aim to reduce cost or increase performance, including alternate chemical recipes, barrel polishing and 'nitrogen doping' of the RF surface, continue to be pursued and are closely linked to the requirements for surface processing.« less

  12. The Earth's Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the earth's core is described. Indirect evidence (such as that determined from seismological data) indicates that it is an iron alloy, solid toward its center but otherwise liquid. Evidence also suggests that it is the turbulent flow of the liquid that generates the earth's magnetic field. (JN)

  13. Melting relations in the iron-sulfur system at ultra-high pressures - Implications for the thermal state of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Quentin; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    The melting temperatures of FeS-troilite and of a 10-wt-pct sulfur iron alloy have been measured to pressures of 120 and 90 GPa, respectively. The results document that FeS melts at a temperature of 4100 (+ or - 300) K at the pressure of the core-mantle boundary. Eutecticlike behavior persists in the iron-sulfur system to the highest pressures of measurements, in marked contrast to the solid-solutionlike behavior observed at high pressures in the iron-iron oxide system. Iron with 10-wt-pct sulfur melts at a similar temperature as FeS at core-mantle boundary conditions. If the sole alloying elements of iron within the core are sulfur and oxygen and the outer core is entirely liquid, the minimum temperature at the top of the outer core is 4900 (+ or - 400) K. Calculations of mantle geotherms dictate that there must be a temperature increase of between 1000 and 2000 K across thermal boundary layers within the mantle. If D-double-prime is compositionally stratified, it could accommodate the bulk of this temperature jump.

  14. Geochemistry, Nd-Pb Isotopes, and Pb-Pb Ages of the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge Iron Oxide-Apatite–Rare Earth Element Deposit, Southeast Missouri

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Slack, John F.; Day, Warren C.; McCafferty, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxide-apatite and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits occur within ~1.48 to 1.47 Ga volcanic rocks of the St. Francois Mountains terrane near a regional boundary separating crustal blocks having contrasting depleted-mantle Sm-Nd model ages (TDM). Major and trace element analyses and Nd and Pb isotope data were obtained to characterize the Pea Ridge deposit, improve identification of exploration targets, and better understand the regional distribution of mineralization with respect to crustal blocks. The Pea Ridge deposit is spatially associated with felsic volcanic rocks and plutons. Mafic to intermediate-composition rocks are volumetrically minor. Data for major element variations are commonly scattered and strongly suggest element mobility. Ratios of relatively immobile elements indicate that the felsic rocks are evolved subalkaline dacite and rhyolite; the mafic rocks are basalt to basaltic andesite. Granites and rhyolites display geochemical features typical of rocks produced by subduction. Rare earth element (REE) variations for the rhyolites are diagnostic of rocks affected by hydrothermal alteration and associated REE mineralization. The magnetite-rich rocks and REE-rich breccias show similar REE and mantle-normalized trace element patterns.Nd isotope compositions (age corrected) show that: (1) host rhyolites have ɛNd from 3.44 to 4.25 and TDM from 1.51 to 1.59 Ga; (2) magnetite ore and specular hematite rocks display ɛNd from 3.04 to 4.21 and TDM from 1.6 to 1.51 Ga, and ɛNd from 2.23 to 2.81, respectively; (3) REE-rich breccias have ɛNd from 3.04 to 4.11 and TDM from 1.6 to 1.51 Ga; and (4) mafic to intermediate-composition rocks range in ɛNd from 2.35 to 3.66 and in TDM from 1.66 to 1.56. The ɛNd values of the magnetite and specular hematite samples show that the REE mineralization is magmatic; no evidence exists for major overprinting by younger, crustal meteoric fluids, or by externally derived Nd. Host rocks, breccias, and

  15. Loading rate and test temperature effects on fracture of In Situ niobium silicide-niobium composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigney, Joseph D.; Lewandowski, John J.

    1996-10-01

    Arc cast, extruded, and heat-treated in situ composites of niobium suicide (Nb5Si3) intermetallic with niobium phases (primary—Nbp and secondary—Nbs) exhibited high fracture resistance in comparison to monolithic Nb5Si3. In toughness tests conducted at 298 K and slow applied loading rates, the fracture process proceeded by the microcracking of the Nb5Si3 and plastic deformation of the Nbp and Nbs phases, producing resistance-curve behavior and toughnesses of 28 MPa√m with damage zone lengths less than 500 μm. The effects of changes in the Nbp yield strength and fracture behavior on the measured toughnesses were investigated by varying the loading rates during fracture tests at both 77 and 298 K. Quantitative fractography was utilized to completely characterize each fracture surface created at 298 K in order to determine the type of fracture mode ( i.e., dimpled, cleavage) exhibited by the Nbp. Specimens tested at either higher loading rates or lower test temperatures consistently exhibited a greater amount of cleavage fracture in the Nbp, while the Nbs, always remained ductile. However, the fracture toughness values determined from experiments spanning six orders of magnitude in loading rate at 298 and 77 K exhibited little variation, even under conditions when the majority of Nbp phases failed by cleavage at 77 K. The changes in fracture mode with increasing loading rate and/or decreasing test temperature and their effects on fracture toughness are rationalized by comparison to existing theoretical models.

  16. THE COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF VANADIUM IN NIOBIUM-VANADIUM ALLOYS

    SciT

    Articolo, O.J.

    1959-06-26

    A procedure is described for the analysis of vanadium in niobium-- vanadium alloys in the range >0.1% vanadium with an accuracy of better than 3%. The method was applied to the analysis of niobium alloys in which the nominal per cent vanadium varied between 0.3 to 4.6%. The sample is dissolved in a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acid and then evaporated to fumes with sulfuric acid. The niobium is hydrolyzed with sulfurous acid and separated from the vanadium by filtration. Hydrogen peroxide is added to the filtrate to form a reddish brown complex with the vanadium. The optical densitymore » of the resulting solution is obtained at 450 m mu on a model B Beckman spectrophotometer. (auth)« less

  17. Precipitation of hydrides in high purity niobium after different treatments

    SciT

    Barkov, F.; Romanenko, A.; Trenikhina, Y.

    Precipitation of lossy non-superconducting niobium hydrides represents a known problem for high purity niobium in superconducting applications. Using cryogenic optical and laser confocal scanning microscopy we have directly observed surface precipitation and evolution of niobium hydrides in samples after different treatments used for superconducting RF cavities for particle acceleration. Precipitation is shown to occur throughout the sample volume, and the growth of hydrides is well described by the fast diffusion-controlled process in which almost all hydrogen is precipitated atmore » $T=140$~K within $$\\sim30$$~min. 120$$^{\\circ}$$C baking and mechanical deformation are found to affect hydride precipitation through their influence on the number of nucleation and trapping centers.« less

  18. SRF niobium characterization using SIMS and FIB-TEM

    SciT

    Stevie, F. A.

    2015-12-04

    Our understanding of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerator cavities has been improved by elemental analysis at high depth resolution and by high magnification microscopy. This paper summarizes the technique development and the results obtained on poly-crystalline, large grain, and single crystal SRF niobium. Focused ion beam made possible sample preparation using transmission electron microscopy and the images obtained showed a very uniform oxide layer for all samples analyzed. Secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the presence of a high concentration of hydrogen and the hydrogen content exhibited a relationship with improvement in performance. Depth profiles of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen didmore » not show major differences with heat treatment. Niobium oxide less than 10 nm thick was shown to be an effective hydrogen barrier. Niobium with titanium contamination showed unexpected performance improvement.« less

  19. Does asteroid 4 Vesta, with watery 1 Ceres and the Galilean moons, record the Ringwood-mode iron core construction now predicated for Earth and even apply to the other terrestrial planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, M. F.

    2014-04-01

    I reason that Vesta, the source of HED but too small for appreciable magmatic resurfacing after accretion had ended, preserves valuable clues as to how the Earth and the other terrestrials were built. Setting the scene. Core formation in the terrestrial planets has long been attributed to the percolation of molten iron accreted from the solar nebula, either inward from the surface or from a magma ocean at depth. But it has been found [1,2] that the 56Fe/54Fe ratio in Earth peridotites still has a chondritic ratio, which rules out that Fe percolation has occurred. So we must revert now to Ringwood's model (1960-1978) e.g.[3] for core formation. This uses the nebula to reduce hot FeO in lavas erupted in volcanoes at the protoplanet's surface. The Fe, which then drains to the bottom of the magma chamber and solidifies, is subsequently 'loadsubducted' rapidly to form the core. For Earth's core alone this would generate ~400 earth-ocean volumes of reaction water, a Solar System benefit already foreseen by Ringwood, water being low in star-forming clouds. The heat for the volcanism is internal (accretion, gravitation, radiogenic) so orbital distance in the presence of nebular opacity is immaterial; and important for making the cores in the Galilean moons, otherwise labelled as being at the 'snowline' in the disc. In order to work, prior iron accretion to form the body must have been in oxide form. Thermodynamically this is correct if the nebula is cool (<600K [4]), and should be achieved naturally if the protoplanetary disc material were acquired while the protoSun traversed a further dust cloud (typical 10K or less) [5,6]. Related 'contamination' of the outer Sun, an unmixed star, would explain why its spectrum nearly matches the planets. Ringwood-mode core formation needs nebular presence for the reaction, so it would cease at nebular departure on exit from that cloud, leaving the body's mantle replete with reaction water. For Earth, we see this in the 4374Ma detrital

  20. Low noise niobium dc SQUID with a planar input coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waal, V. J.; van den Hamer, P.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    1983-02-01

    A practical all-niobium dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with a niobium spiral input coil has been developed. The SQUID utilizes submicron Josephson junctions. The best intrinsic energy resolution obtained with a 1-nH SQUID is 4×10-32 J/Hz. A 20-turn 1.2-μH input coil is coupled to a 2.3-nH SQUID with an efficiency of 0.5. The energy resolution with respect to the coil is 1×10-30 J/Hz.

  1. Niobium-Matrix-Composite High-Temperature Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Richard B.; Tuffias, Robert H.; La Ferla, Raffaele; Heng, Sangvavann; Harding, John T.

    1995-01-01

    High-temperture composite-material turbine blades comprising mainly niobium matrices reinforced with refractory-material fibers being developed. Of refractory fibrous materials investigated, FP-AL(2)0(3), tungsten, and polymer-based SiC fibers most promising. Blade of this type hollow and formed in nearly net shape by wrapping mesh of reinforcing refractory fibers around molybdenum mandrel, then using thermal-gradient chemical-vapor infiltration (CVI) to fill interstices with niobium. CVI process controllable and repeatable, and kinetics of both deposition and infiltration well understood.

  2. Iron overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1222) from anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient Iron can be harmful in large amounts. Where Found Iron is an ingredient in many mineral and vitamin supplements. Iron supplements ...

  3. Iron Chelation

    MedlinePlus

    ... fortified cereals and eggs. What is Iron Chelation Therapy? Drugs called iron chelators remove extra iron from ... form that must be dissolved in juice or water and taken (by mouth) once a day. Most ...

  4. Niobium: a rare metal with prospects (in German)

    SciT

    Beier, E.

    1972-01-01

    BS>Important chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of niobium and its alloys arc described. These underline the fact that this highly heat- resistant metal has gained more and more importance in the airplane and spaceship industry as well as in chemical processes and nuclear technology during the last decade. The processing characterization (machining, pressing, and welding) are discussed. (GT)

  5. Studies of Niobium Thin Film Produced by Energetic Vacuum Deposition

    SciT

    Genfa Wu; Anne-Marie Valente; H. Phillips

    2004-05-01

    An energetic vacuum deposition system has been used to study deposition energy effects on the properties of niobium thin films on copper and sapphire substrates. The absence of working gas avoids the gaseous inclusions commonly seen with sputtering deposition. A biased substrate holder controls the deposition energy. Transition temperature and residual resistivity ratio of the niobium thin films at several deposition energies are obtained together with surface morphology and crystal orientation measurements by AFM inspection, XRD and TEM analysis. The results show that niobium thin films on sapphire substrate exhibit the best cryogenic properties at deposition energy around 123 eV.more » The TEM analysis revealed that epitaxial growth of film was evident when deposition energy reaches 163 eV for sapphire substrate. Similarly, niobium thin film on copper substrate shows that film grows more oriented with higher deposition energy and grain size reaches the scale of the film thickness at the deposition energy around 153 eV.« less

  6. Mechanical properties of niobium radio-frequency cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Matalevich, Joseph R.; ...

    2015-07-02

    Radio-frequency cavities made of bulk niobium are one of the components used in modern particle accelerators. The mechanical stability is an important aspect of cavity design, which typically relies on finite-element analysis simulations using material properties from tensile tests on sample. This contribution presents the results of strain and resonant frequency measurements as a function of a uniform pressure up to 722 kPa, applied to single-cell niobium cavities with different crystallographic structure, purity and treatments. In addition, burst tests of high-purity multi-cell cavities with different crystallographic structure have been conducted up to the tensile strength of the material. Finite-element analysismore » of the single-cell cavity geometry is in good agreement with the observed behavior in the elastic regime assuming a Young's modulus value of 88.5 GPa and a Poisson's ratio of 0.4, regardless of crystallographic structure, purity or treatment. However, the measured yield strength and tensile strength depend on crystallographic structure, material purity and treatment. In particular, the results from this study show that the mechanical properties of niobium cavities with large crystals are comparable to those of cavities made of fine-grain niobium.« less

  7. Extreme diffusion limited electropolishing of niobium radiofrequency cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Crawford, Anthony C.

    2017-01-04

    In this study, a deeply modulated, regular, continuous, oscillating current waveform is reliably and repeatably achieved during electropolishing of niobium single-cell elliptical radiofrequency cavities. Details of the technique and cavity test results are reported here. The method is applicable for cavity frequencies in the range 500 MHz to 3.9 GHz and can be extended to multicell structures.

  8. First-principles calculations of niobium hydride formation in superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    SciT

    Ford, Denise C.; Cooley, Lance D.; Seidman, David N.

    Niobium hydride is suspected to be a major contributor to degradation of the quality factor of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. In this study, we connect the fundamental properties of hydrogen in niobium to SRF cavity performance and processing. We modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities and present their thermodynamic, electronic, and geometric properties determined from calculations based on density-functional theory. We find that the absorption of hydrogen from the gas phase into niobium is exothermic and hydrogen becomes somewhat anionic. The absorption of hydrogen by niobium lattice vacancies is strongly preferred over absorption intomore » interstitial sites. A single vacancy can accommodate six hydrogen atoms in the symmetrically equivalent lowest-energy sites and additional hydrogen in the nearby interstitial sites affected by the strain field: this indicates that a vacancy can serve as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. Small hydride precipitates may then occur near lattice vacancies upon cooling. Vacancy clusters and extended defects should also be enriched in hydrogen, potentially resulting in extended hydride phase regions upon cooling. We also assess the phase changes in the niobium-hydrogen system based on charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen, the strain field associated with interstitial hydrogen, and the geometry of the hydride phases. The results of this study stress the importance of not only the hydrogen content in niobium, but also the recovery state of niobium for the performance of SRF cavities.« less

  9. Method for etching thin films of niboium and niobium-containing compounds for preparing superconductive circuits

    DOEpatents

    Kampwirth, R.T.; Schuller, I.K.; Falco, C.M.

    1979-11-23

    An improved method of preparing thin film superconducting electrical circuits of niobium or niobium compounds is provided in which a thin film of the niobium or niobium compound is applied to a nonconductive substrate and covered with a layer of photosensitive material. The sensitive material is in turn covered with a circuit pattern exposed and developed to form a mask of the circuit in photoresistive material on the surface of the film. The unmasked excess niobium film is removed by contacting the substrate with an aqueous etching solution of nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrogen fluoride, which will rapidly etch the niobium compound without undercutting the photoresist. A modification of the etching solution will permit thin films to be lifted from the substrate without further etching.

  10. Melting in super-earths.

    PubMed

    Stixrude, Lars

    2014-04-28

    We examine the possible extent of melting in rock-iron super-earths, focusing on those in the habitable zone. We consider the energetics of accretion and core formation, the timescale of cooling and its dependence on viscosity and partial melting, thermal regulation via the temperature dependence of viscosity, and the melting curves of rock and iron components at the ultra-high pressures characteristic of super-earths. We find that the efficiency of kinetic energy deposition during accretion increases with planetary mass; considering the likely role of giant impacts and core formation, we find that super-earths probably complete their accretionary phase in an entirely molten state. Considerations of thermal regulation lead us to propose model temperature profiles of super-earths that are controlled by silicate melting. We estimate melting curves of iron and rock components up to the extreme pressures characteristic of super-earth interiors based on existing experimental and ab initio results and scaling laws. We construct super-earth thermal models by solving the equations of mass conservation and hydrostatic equilibrium, together with equations of state of rock and iron components. We set the potential temperature at the core-mantle boundary and at the surface to the local silicate melting temperature. We find that ancient (∼4 Gyr) super-earths may be partially molten at the top and bottom of their mantles, and that mantle convection is sufficiently vigorous to sustain dynamo action over the whole range of super-earth masses.

  11. Initial Assessment of CSA Group Niobium Boron Based Coatings on 4340 Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-17026 Initial Assessment of CSA Group Niobium- Boron Based Coatings on 4340 Steel C.P. Mulligan...REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Initial Assessment of CSA Group Niobium- Boron Based Coatings on 4340...metallographic mounts reported as (1) thin and (2) thick Niobium- Boron (Nb-B) type coatings on steel. CSA Group is interested in providing coatings for potential

  12. Physics-Based Crystal Plasticity Modeling of Single Crystal Niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Tias

    Crystal plasticity models based on thermally activated dislocation kinetics has been successful in predicting the deformation behavior of crystalline materials, particularly in face-centered cubic (fcc) metals. In body-centered cubic (bcc) metals success has been limited owing to ill-defined slip planes. The flow stress of a bcc metal is strongly dependent on temperature and orientation due to the non-planar splitting of a/2 screw dislocations. As a consequence of this, bcc metals show two unique deformation characteristics: (a) thermally-activated glide of screw dislocations--the motion of screw components with their non-planar core structure at the atomistic level occurs even at low stress through the nucleation (assisted by thermal activation) and lateral propagation of dislocation kink pairs; (b) break-down of the Schmid Law, where dislocation slip is driven only by the resolved shear stress. Since the split dislocation core has to constrict for a kink pair formation (and propagation), the non-planarity of bcc screw dislocation cores entails an influence of (shear) stress components acting on planes other than the primary glide plane on their mobility. Another consequence of the asymmetric core splitting on the glide plane is a direction-sensitive slip resistance, which is termed twinning/atwinning sense of shear and should be taken into account when developing constitutive models. Modeling thermally-activated flow including the above-mentioned non-Schmid effects in bcc metals has been the subject of much work, starting in the 1980s and gaining increased interest in recent times. The majority of these works focus on single crystal deformation of commonly used metals such as Iron (Fe), Molybdenum (Mo), and Tungsten (W), while very few published studies address deformation behavior in Niobium (Nb). Most of the work on Nb revolves around fitting parameters of phenomenological descriptions, which do not capture adequately the macroscopic multi-stage hardening

  13. Influence of iron substitution by selected rare-earth ions on the properties of NiZn ferrite fillers and PVC magneto-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ušák, Elemír; Ušáková, Mariana; Dosoudil, Rastislav; Šoka, Martin; Dobročka, Edmund

    2018-04-01

    Nickel-zinc ferrites are very important soft magnetic materials from the point of view of diverse technical applications (such as, e.g., various electronic devices and components) for their high magnetic permeability and permittivity, low core loss, high resistivity, high Curie temperature as well as mechanical strength and chemical stability. Due to their good absorbing properties, they can be used as microwave absorbing and shielding materials with the aim of decreasing the environmental pollution caused by non-ionizing microwave radiation. The ferrite material incorporated into the polymer matrix creates qualitatively new magneto-polymer composite material taking benefits from both components. The properties typical for polymers (elasticity, mouldability, etc.) are combined with good high-frequency magnetic parameters, thus allowing to utilize these materials, e.g., in high-frequency applications where especially flexibility of composite materials plays a key role. Small amounts of selected rare-earth (RE) ions, in particular Y3+, La3+, Eu3+ and Gd3+ have been embedded into the nickel-zinc ferrite that has been used as the magnetic filler in magnetic polymer composites with polyvinylchloride (PVC) acting as the polymeric matrix. The effect of various types of rare-earth ions on the structural as well as quasi-static and dynamic (electro)magnetic properties of the ferrite fillers as well as ferrite/PVC composites, in particular the frequency dispersion of the complex permeability, has been studied.

  14. Determination of niobium in rocks by an isotope dilution spectrophotometric method

    Greenland, L.P.; Campbell, E.Y.

    1970-01-01

    Rocks and minerals are fused with sodium peroxide in the presence of carrierfree 95Nb. The fusion cake is leached with water and the precipitate dissolved in hydrofluoric-sulfuric acid mixture. Niobium is extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone and further purified by ion exchange. The amount of niobium is determined spectrophotometrically with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol, and the chemical yield of the separations determined by counting 95Nb. This procedure is faster and less sensitive to interferences than previously proposed methods for determining niobium in rocks.The high purity of the separated niobium makes the method applicable to nearly all matrices. ?? 1970.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF NIOBIUM-BASE ALLOYS. Period covered January 1, 1956 to March 1, 1957

    SciT

    Begley, R.T. ed.

    1957-11-01

    The flow and fracture characteristics of commercial purity powder metallurgy niobium were investigated in the range 250 to --196 deg C. Niobium was found to undergo a ductile-brittle transition in the range --125 to --196 deg C, and the transition temperature range of niobium was found to be less affected by the presence of interstitial impurities than many other body-centered cubic metals. The creeprupture properties of powder metallurgy niobium were investigated at 982 and 1O93 deg C (1800 and 2OOO deg F), and the 100-hour rupture strength of commercial niobium in vacuum was determined to be sigdicantiy greater than unalloyedmore » molybdenum. The creep-rupture results suggest that small quantities of gaseous contaminants may be responslble for the high strength of commercial niobium at elevated temperatures. The oxidation behavior of nioblum was investigated in the temperature range 350 to 7OO C. At the higher temperatures, oxidation followed a linear rate law. Between 500 and 625 deg C, the rate of oxidation was found to be nearly independent of temperature. Oxygen and nitrogen contamination of welding atmospheres was studied to determine its effect on the weld properties of niobium. Nitrogen was establlshed to be very detrimental to the mechanical properties of niobium welds. High-purity niobium, having a hardness of less than 60 VPN, was produced by cage-zone refinieg techniques. (auth)« less

  16. Magnetic Property in Large Array Niobium Antidot Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinghui, Chen; Hsiang-Hsi, Kung; Wei-Li, Lee; Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan Team

    2014-03-01

    In a superconducting ring, the total flux inside the ring is required to be an integer number of the flux quanta. Therefore, a supercurrent current can appear within the ring in order to satisfy this quantization rule, which gives rise to certain magnetic response. By using a special monolayer polymer/nanosphere hybrid we developed previously, we fabricated a series of superconducting niobium antidot thin films with different antidot diameters. The antidots form well-ordered triangular lattice with a lattice spacing about 200 nm and extend over an area larger than 1 cm2, which enables magnetic detections simply by a SQUID magnetometer. We observed magnetization oscillation with external magnetic field due to the supercurrent screening effect, where different features for large and small antidot thin films were found. Detailed size and temperature dependencies of the magnetization in niobium antidot nanostructures will be presented.

  17. Distribution of Stress in Deformation Zone of Niobium Microalloyed Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandrlić, Ivan; Rešković, Stoja; Brlić, Tin

    2018-03-01

    Microalloyed steels today represent a significant part of total world production and processing of steel. Although widely used, there are scarce data on the stress distribution in the deformation zone of these steels. Research was carried out on two steel grades, both low-carbon structural steels with the same basic chemical composition, with one of them additionally microalloyed with niobium. Differences in the stress distribution in the deformation zone between two tested steels were continuously observed and measured using the methods of digital image correlation and thermography. It has been found out that niobium microalloyed steel has significantly more complex material flow and stress distribution in the deformation zone when compared to the plain low carbon steel.

  18. Distribution of Stress in Deformation Zone of Niobium Microalloyed Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandrlić, Ivan; Rešković, Stoja; Brlić, Tin

    2018-07-01

    Microalloyed steels today represent a significant part of total world production and processing of steel. Although widely used, there are scarce data on the stress distribution in the deformation zone of these steels. Research was carried out on two steel grades, both low-carbon structural steels with the same basic chemical composition, with one of them additionally microalloyed with niobium. Differences in the stress distribution in the deformation zone between two tested steels were continuously observed and measured using the methods of digital image correlation and thermography. It has been found out that niobium microalloyed steel has significantly more complex material flow and stress distribution in the deformation zone when compared to the plain low carbon steel.

  19. Parallel Critical Field in Thin Niobium Films: Comparison to Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broussard, P. R.

    2017-10-01

    For the first time, a comparison to the predicted behavior for parallel critical field is carried out for the model of Kogan and the model of Hara and Nagai. In this study, thin niobium films in the moderately dirty regime were considered. Experimental values of the -C2 term are seen to be lower than those from the model of Hara and Nagai. A possible reason for this could be not including the non-spherical Fermi surface of niobium into the model. There is clearly disagreement with the model of Kogan as the films get cleaner and thinner, and two films which should be below his critical thickness still show positive values of -C2, in disagreement with his theory.

  20. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of electrospun niobium oxide nanofibers

    SciT

    Qi, Shishun; Zuo, Ruzhong, E-mail: piezolab@hfut.edu.cn; Liu, Yi

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Different morphologies are obtained for the electrospun niobium oxide nanofibers with different phase structures. The nanofibers of the two phase structures present different band gap value and the light absorption. Hexagonal phase nanofibers show better photocatalytic activity compared with the orthorhombic nanofibers. Highlights: ► Niobium oxide nanofibers of two phase structures were fabricated by electrospinning. ► Photocatalytic properties of the niobium oxide nanofibers were first explored. ► Nanofibers of different phase structures showed different photocatalytic activities. ► Reasons for the differences in the photocatalysis were carefully discussed. - Abstract: Niobium oxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanofibers have been synthesizedmore » by sol–gel based electrospinning technique. Pure hexagonal phase (H-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and orthorhombic phase (O-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanofibers were obtained by thermally annealing the electrospun Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/polyvinylpyrrolidone composite fibers in air at 500 °C and 700 °C, respectively. The fibers were characterized using the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area analyzer and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activities of the obtained nanofibers were evaluated depending on the degradation of methyl orange. The results indicate that the heat-treatment temperature, the crystalline structure and the morphology affected the physical and chemical properties of the as-prepared Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers. The H-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanofibers obtained at lower temperature showed better potential for the application as a promising photocatalyst.« less

  1. The preparation of pure niobium for neutron dosimetry purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Klaus; Krehl, Michael

    1985-06-01

    A technique is described for the preparation of high purity niobium for use in fast neutron dosimetry. Based on results of known purification processes for niobium, an optimized method has been developed, consisting of: (1) a double electrolytic refining in an eutectic lithium-, sodium-, potassium-fluoride melt, containing fluoro-potassium niobate (K 2NbF 7), (2) electron beam float zone melting (EBFZM) in ultra high vacuum (UHV) and (3) UHV treatments. Starting with EBFZM of niobium of commercial quality (140 μg/g Ta, 35 μg/g W) the tantalum and tungsten contents were reduced by a first electrolysis to approximately 4 and 4 × 10 -2 μg/g, respectively. For a second electrolytic refining using a salt bath with extremely low tantalum and tungsten contents, this material was subjected to an additional EBFZM process. The niobium metal produced by this step was three times zone melted to reduce those elements (e.g. Fe, Co, Ni, O, N) which increased during the electrolyses. Material produced by this technique has impurity concentrations below 0.4 μg/g of tantalum and 10 -2 μg/g of tungsten. The concentration of the interstitials (C, O, N except H) is below the detection limit of classical analytical methods. A further reduction of the interstitials by annealing treatments in UHV of this material resulted in an electrical residual resistivity ratio (RRR) ρ(295 K)/ ρ(4.2 K) = 24 500 indicating an impurity concentration far below 1 μg/g.

  2. Field dependent surface resistance of niobium on copper cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junginger, T.

    2015-07-01

    The surface resistance RS of superconducting cavities prepared by sputter coating a niobium film on a copper substrate increases significantly stronger with the applied rf field compared to cavities of bulk material. A possible cause is that the thermal boundary resistance between the copper substrate and the niobium film induces heating of the inner cavity wall, resulting in a higher RS. Introducing helium gas in the cavity, and measuring its pressure as a function of applied field allowed to conclude that the inner surface of the cavity is heated up by less than 120 mK when RS increases with Eacc by 100 n Ω . This is more than one order of magnitude less than what one would expect from global heating. Additionally, the effects of cooldown speed and low temperature baking have been investigated in the framework of these experiments. It is shown that for the current state of the art niobium on copper cavities there is only a detrimental effect of low temperature baking. A fast cooldown results in a lowered RS.

  3. A volatile rich Earth's core?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morard, G.; Antonangeli, D.; Andrault, D.; Nakajima, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The composition of the Earth's core is still an open question. Although mostly composed of iron, it contains impurities that lower its density and melting point with respect to pure Fe. Knowledge of the nature and abundance of light elements (O, S, Si, C or H) in the core has major implications for establishing the bulk composition of the Earth and for building the model of Earth's differentiation. Geochemical models of the Earth's formation point out that its building blocks were depleted in volatile elements compared to the chondritic abundance, therefore light elements such as S, H or C cannot be the major elements alloyed with iron in the Earth's core. However, such models should be compatible with the comparison of seismic properties of the Earth's core and physical properties of iron alloys under extreme conditions, such as sound velocity or density of solid and liquid. The present work will discuss the recent progress for compositional model issued from studies of phase diagrams and elastic properties of iron alloys under core conditions and highlight the compatibility of volatile elements with observed properties of the Earth's core, in potential contradiction with models derived from metal-silicate partitioning experiments.

  4. Process for the generation of .alpha., .beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters using niobium catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gogate, Makarand Ratnakav; Spivey, James Jerome; Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1999-01-01

    A process using a niobium catalyst includes the step of reacting an ester or carboxylic acid with oxygen and an alcohol in the presence a niobium catalyst to respectively produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated ester or carboxylic acid. Methanol may be used as the alcohol, and the ester or carboxylic acid may be passed over the niobium catalyst in a vapor stream containing oxygen and methanol. Alternatively, the process using a niobium catalyst may involve the step of reacting an ester and oxygen in the presence the niobium catalyst to produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acid. In this case the ester may be a methyl ester. In either case, niobium oxide may be used as the niobium catalyst with the niobium oxide being present on a support. The support may be an oxide selected from the group consisting of silicon oxide, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide and mixtures thereof. The catalyst may be formed by reacting niobium fluoride with the oxide serving as the support. The niobium catalyst may contain elemental niobium within the range of 1 wt % to 70 wt %, and more preferably within the range of 10 wt % to 30 wt %. The process may be operated at a temperature from 150 to 450.degree. C. and preferably from 250 to 350.degree. C. The process may be operated at a pressure from 0.1 to 15 atm. absolute and preferably from 0.5-5 atm. absolute. The flow rate of reactants may be from 10 to 10,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h, and preferably from 100 to 1,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h.

  5. Potassium-bearing Iron-Nickel Sulfides in Nature and High-Pressure Experiments: Geochemical Consequences of Potassium in the Earth's Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keshav, S.; Corgne, A.; McDonough, W. F.; Fei, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Potassium (K) as a large ion lithophile element has dominantly been concentrated in the Earth s crust and the mantle through differentiation, and in the form of K-40 contributes to the planet s heat budget. However, whether or not K also enters core-forming phases, has been debated for over three decades. Arguments favoring entry of K in the core are based on: (1) K-sulfide (with Fe, Ni, Cu, Na, and Cl; djerfisherite) found in highly reduced enstatite chondrites (or aubrites, enstatite achondrites); (2) demonstration that K, owing to an s-d electronic switch at high-pressure, exhibits transition- element like character, (3) solubility of measurable K in Fe-Ni-S liquids at high pressure, temperature conditions, and (4) models of cooling of the core that seem to require, besides convection, some form of radioactivity, and thus lending support to the experimental work. In this contribution, we assess the effect of sequestering K in the core, as it is perhaps an element that is a key to reconciling geochemistry, paleomagnetism, accretion, and thermal evolution models for the planet.

  6. Criticality of iron and its principal alloying elements.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Philip; Harper, E M; Nassar, N T; Reck, Barbara K; Graedel, T E

    2014-04-01

    Because modern technology depends on reliable supplies of a wide variety of materials and because of increasing concern about those supplies, a comprehensive methodology was created to quantify the degree of criticality of the metals of the periodic table. In this paper, we apply this methodology to iron and several of its main alloying elements (i.e., vanadium, chromium, manganese, and niobium). These elements represent the basic metals of any industrial society and are vital for national security and economic well-being. Assessments relating to the dimensions of criticality - supply risk, vulnerability to supply restriction, and environmental implications - for 2008 are made on the global level and for the United States. Evaluations of each of the multiple indicators are presented, with aggregate results plotted in "criticality space", together with Monte Carlo simulation-derived "uncertainty cloud" estimates. Iron has the lowest supply risk, primarily because of its widespread geological occurrence. Vanadium displays the highest cradle-to-gate environmental implications, followed by niobium, chromium, manganese, and iron. Chromium and manganese, both essential in steel making, display the highest vulnerability to supply restriction, largely because substitution or substitution at equal performance is not possible for all end-uses. From a comprehensive perspective, we regard the overall criticality as low for iron and modest for the alloying elements we evaluated.

  7. Effect of low temperature baking on niobium cavities

    SciT

    Peter Kneisel; Ganapati Myneni; William Lanford

    A low temperature (100 C-150 C) ''in situ'' baking under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor and a recovery from the so-called ''Q-drop'' without field emission at high field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity qualitymore » factor in the temperature range 1.37K-280K and resonant frequency shift between 6K-9.3K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity using a modified version of the computer code originally written by J. Halbritter [1] . Small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation were analyzed with respect to their hydrogen content with a Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). The single cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different models. This paper describes the results from these experiments and comments on the existing models to explain the effect of baking on the performance of niobium RF cavities.« less

  8. Monolithic Gyroidal Mesoporous Mixed Titanium–Niobium Nitrides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous transition metal nitrides are interesting materials for energy conversion and storage applications due to their conductivity and durability. We present ordered mixed titanium–niobium (8:2, 1:1) nitrides with gyroidal network structures synthesized from triblock terpolymer structure-directed mixed oxides. The materials retain both macroscopic integrity and mesoscale ordering despite heat treatment up to 600 °C, without a rigid carbon framework as a support. Furthermore, the gyroidal lattice parameters were varied by changing polymer molar mass. This synthesis strategy may prove useful in generating a variety of monolithic ordered mesoporous mixed oxides and nitrides for electrode and catalyst materials. PMID:25122534

  9. Identification of neutron deficient niobium, molybdenum and technetium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, C. J.

    We report on the in-beam identification of fourteen new isotopes in the A=80-90 region. Heavy-ion reactions with a recoil separator or charged particle and neutron detectors provided identification of γ-rays from these new niobium, molybdenum, and technetium isotopes. The procedures used are described and energy level systematics are discussed. The energy levels appear to be organized into rotational bands in nuclei with N≤44 while those with N ≥ 46 have more single-particle-like transitions. Lifetime measurements in 87Mo and 87Nb indicate that g {9}/{2} particle alignment strongly influences the collectivity of these nuclei.

  10. Sulfur Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  11. MODIFYING IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES TO INCREASE ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron and manganese are naturally occurring substances that are normally found in insoluble forms in many ground waters in the US. Similar to iron and manganese, arsenic also occurs widely in the earth's crust and is a natural contaminant of many ground waters. Iron and manganese ...

  12. Water oxidation: High five iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloret-Fillol, Julio; Costas, Miquel

    2016-03-01

    The oxidation of water is essential to the sustainable production of fuels using sunlight or electricity, but designing active, stable and earth-abundant catalysts for the reaction is challenging. Now, a complex containing five iron atoms is shown to efficiently oxidize water by mimicking key features of the oxygen-evolving complex in green plants.

  13. Progress on a high current density low cost Niobium3Tin conductor scaleable to modern niobium titanium production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitlin, Bruce A.; Pyon, Taeyoung; Gregory, Eric; Scanlan, R. M.

    2002-05-01

    A number of configurations of a mono element internal tin conductor (MEIT) were fabricated designed to explore the effect of local ratio, niobium content, and tin content on the overall current density. Critical current densities on four configurations were measured, two to 17T. Current density as a function of filament size was also measured with filaments sizes ranging from 1.8 to 7.1 microns. A Nb60wt%Ta barrier was also explored as a means to reduce the high cost of the Tantalum barrier. The effectiveness of radial copper channels in high Nb conductors is also evaluated. Results are used to suggest designs for more optimized conductors.

  14. Niobium superconducting rf cavity fabrication by electrohydraulic forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantergiani, E.; Atieh, S.; Léaux, F.; Perez Fontenla, A. T.; Prunet, S.; Dufay-Chanat, L.; Koettig, T.; Bertinelli, F.; Capatina, O.; Favre, G.; Gerigk, F.; Jeanson, A. C.; Fuzeau, J.; Avrillaud, G.; Alleman, D.; Bonafe, J.; Marty, P.

    2016-11-01

    Superconducting rf (SRF) cavities are traditionally fabricated from superconducting material sheets or made of copper coated with superconducting material, followed by trim machining and electron-beam welding. An alternative technique to traditional shaping methods, such as deep-drawing and spinning, is electrohydraulic forming (EHF). In EHF, half-cells are obtained through ultrahigh-speed deformation of blank sheets, using shockwaves induced in water by a pulsed electrical discharge. With respect to traditional methods, such a highly dynamic process can yield interesting results in terms of effectiveness, repeatability, final shape precision, higher formability, and reduced springback. In this paper, the first results of EHF on high purity niobium are presented and discussed. The simulations performed in order to master the multiphysics phenomena of EHF and to adjust its process parameters are presented. The microstructures of niobium half-cells produced by EHF and by spinning have been compared in terms of damage created in the material during the forming operation. The damage was assessed through hardness measurements, residual resistivity ratio (RRR) measurements, and electron backscattered diffraction analyses. It was found that EHF does not worsen the damage of the material during forming and instead, some areas of the half-cell have shown lower damage compared to spinning. Moreover, EHF is particularly advantageous to reduce the forming time, preserve roughness, and to meet the final required shape accuracy.

  15. Alkali oxide-tantalum, niobium and antimony oxide ionic conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. S.; Brower, W. S.; Parker, H. S.; Minor, D. B.; Waring, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The phase equilibrium relations of four systems were investigated in detail. These consisted of sodium and potassium antimonates with antimony oxide and tantalum and niobium oxide with rubidium oxide as far as the ratio 4Rb2O:llB2O5 (B=Nb, Ta). The ternary system NaSbO3-Sb2O4-NaF was investigated extensively to determine the actual composition of the body centered cubic sodium antimonate. Various other binary and ternary oxide systems involving alkali oxides were examined in lesser detail. The phases synthesized were screened by ion exchange methods to determine mobility of the mobility of the alkali ion within the niobium, tantalum or antimony oxide (fluoride) structural framework. Five structure types warranted further investigation; these structure types are (1) hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB), (2) pyrochlore, (3) the hybrid HTB-pyrochlore hexagonal ordered phases, (4) body centered cubic antimonates and (5) 2K2O:3Nb2O5. Although all of these phases exhibit good ion exchange properties only the pyrochlore was prepared with Na(+) ions as an equilibrium phase and as a low porosity ceramic. Sb(+3) in the channel interferes with ionic conductivity in this case, although relatively good ionic conductivity was found for the metastable Na(+) ion exchanged analogs of RbTa2O5F and KTaWO6 pyrochlore phases.

  16. Joining of alumina via copper/niobium/copper interlayers

    SciT

    Marks, Robert A.; Chapman, Daniel R.; Danielson, David T.

    2000-03-15

    Alumina has been joined at 1150 degrees C and 1400 degrees C using multilayer copper/niobium/copper interlayers. Four-point bend strengths are sensitive to processing temperature, bonding pressure, and furnace environment (ambient oxygen partial pressure). Under optimum conditions, joints with reproducibly high room temperature strengths (approximately equal 240 plus/minus 20 MPa) can be produced; most failures occur within the ceramic. Joints made with sapphire show that during bonding an initially continuous copper film undergoes a morphological instability, resulting in the formation of isolated copper-rich droplets/particles at the sapphire/interlayer interface, and extensive regions of direct bonding between sapphire and niobium. For optimized aluminamore » bonds, bend tests at 800 degrees C-1100 degrees C indicate significant strength is retained; even at the highest test temperature, ceramic failure is observed. Post-bonding anneals at 1000 degrees C in vacuum or in gettered argon were used to assess joint stability and to probe the effect of ambient oxygen partial pressure on joint characteristics. Annealing in vacuum for up to 200 h causes no significant decrease in room temperature bend strength or change in fracture path. With increasing anneal time in a lower oxygen partial pressure environment, the fracture strength decreases only slightly, but the fracture path shifts from the ceramic to the interface.« less

  17. Preliminary Experience with ''In-Site'' Baking of Niobium Cavities

    SciT

    P. Kneisel

    In a series of experiments several single cell and multi-cell niobium cavities made from reactor grade and high RRR niobium (frequencies were 700 MHz, 1300 MHz and 1497 MHz) have been baked--after initial testing--in-situ around 145 C for up to 90 hours prior to being recooled. Surprisingly, all cavities showed significant improvements in Q-values between 4.2 and 1.6K. The BCS surface resistance was lowered by nearly a factor of two. This cannot be explained by solely a reduction of dielectric losses caused by adsorbates at the surface or by a decrease of the mean free path due to possibly diffusionmore » of oxygen into the surface layer. In several experiments also the high field behavior of the cavity improved after the in-situ baking procedure. The observed effect opens the possibility for the CEBAF upgrade cavities, which in turn will permit to run the cavities at higher gradients if field emission loading can be prevented. Utilizing this effect can possibly translate into sizeable cost savings since fewer modules are needed for the upgrade program.« less

  18. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    SciT

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  19. Tracing iron-carbon redox from surface to core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCammon, C. A.; Cerantola, V.; Bykova, E.; Kupenko, I.; Bykov, M.; Chumakov, A. I.; Rüffer, R.; Dubrovinsky, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous redox reactions separate the Earth's oxidised surface from its reduced core. Many involve iron, the Earth's most abundant element and the mantle's most abundant transition element. Most iron redox reactions (although not all) also involve other elements, including carbon, where iron-carbon interactions drive a number of important processes within the Earth, for example diamond formation. Many of the Earth's redox boundaries are sharp, much like the seismic properties that define them, for example between the lower mantle and the core. Other regions that appear seismically homogeneous, for example the lower mantle, harbour a wealth of reactions between oxidised and reduced phases of iron and carbon. We have undertaken many experiments at high pressure and high temperature on phases containing iron and carbon using synchrotron-based X-rays to probe structures and iron oxidation states. Results demonstrate the dominant role that crystal structures play in determining the stable oxidation states of iron and carbon, even when oxygen fugacity (and common sense) would suggest otherwise. Iron in bridgmanite, for example, occurs predominantly in its oxidised form (ferric iron) throughout the lower mantle, despite the inferred reducing conditions. Newly discovered structures of iron carbonate also stabilise ferric iron, while simultaneously reducing some carbon to diamond to balance charge. Other high-pressure iron carbonates appear to be associated with the emerging zoo of iron oxide phases, involving transitions between ferrous and ferric iron through the exchange of oxygen. The presentation will trace redox relations between iron and carbon from the Earth's surface to its core, with an emphasis on recent experimental results.

  20. High-Performance Supercapacitors from Niobium Nanowire Yarns.

    PubMed

    Mirvakili, Seyed M; Mirvakili, Mehr Negar; Englezos, Peter; Madden, John D W; Hunter, Ian W

    2015-07-01

    The large-ion-accessible surface area of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene sheets formed as yarns, forests, and films enables miniature high-performance supercapacitors with power densities exceeding those of electrolytics while achieving energy densities equaling those of batteries. Capacitance and energy density can be enhanced by depositing highly pseudocapacitive materials such as conductive polymers on them. Yarns formed from carbon nanotubes are proposed for use in wearable supercapacitors. In this work, we show that high power, energy density, and capacitance in yarn form are not unique to carbon materials, and we introduce niobium nanowires as an alternative. These yarns show higher capacitance and energy per volume and are stronger and 100 times more conductive than similarly spun carbon multiwalled nanotube (MWNT) and graphene yarns. The long niobium nanowires, formed by repeated extrusion and drawing, achieve device volumetric peak power and energy densities of 55 MW·m(-3) (55 W·cm(-3)) and 25 MJ·m(-3) (7 mWh·cm(-3)), 2 and 5 times higher than that for state-of-the-art CNT yarns, respectively. The capacitance per volume of Nb nanowire yarn is lower than the 158 MF·m(-3) (158 F·cm(-3)) reported for carbon-based materials such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and CNT wet-spun yarns, but the peak power and energy densities are 200 and 2 times higher, respectively. Achieving high power in long yarns is made possible by the high conductivity of the metal, and achievement of high energy density is possible thanks to the high internal surface area. No additional metal backing is needed, unlike for CNT yarns and supercapacitors in general, saving substantial space. As the yarn is infiltrated with pseudocapacitive materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), the energy density is further increased to 10 MJ·m(-3) (2.8 mWh·cm(-3)). Similar to CNT yarns, niobium nanowire yarns are highly flexible and show potential for weaving into textiles

  1. Nonresonant valence-to-core x-ray emission spectroscopy of niobium

    SciT

    Ravel, Bruce; Kropf, A. Jeremy; Yang, Dali

    The valence-to-core (V2C) portion of x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measures the electron states close to the Fermi level. These states are involved in bonding, thus providing a measure of the chemistry of the material. For this paper, we show the V2C XES spectra for several niobium compounds. The Kβ" peak in the V2C XES results from the transition of a ligand 2s electron into the 1s core-hole of the niobium, a transition allowed by hybridization with the niobium 4p . This location in energy of this weak peak shows a strong ligand dependence, thus providing a sensitive probe of themore » ligand environment about the niobium.« less

  2. Reclamation of niobium compounds from ionic liquid electrochemical polishing of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    SciT

    Wixtrom, Alex I.; Buhler, Jessica E.; Reece, Charles E.

    2013-06-01

    Recent research has shown that choline chloride (vitamin B4)-based solutions can be used as a greener alternative to acid-based electrochemical polishing solutions. This study demonstrated a successful method for electrochemical deposition of niobium compounds onto the surface of copper substrates using a novel choline chloride-based ionic liquid. Niobium ions present in the ionic liquid solution were dissolved into the solution prior to deposition via electrochemical polishing of solid niobium. A black coating was clearly visible on the surface of the Cu following deposition. This coating was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopymore » (AFM), and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). This ionic liquid-based electrochemical deposition method effectively recycles previously dissolved niobium from electrochemical polishing of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities.« less

  3. Nonresonant valence-to-core x-ray emission spectroscopy of niobium

    DOE PAGES

    Ravel, Bruce; Kropf, A. Jeremy; Yang, Dali; ...

    2018-03-23

    The valence-to-core (V2C) portion of x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measures the electron states close to the Fermi level. These states are involved in bonding, thus providing a measure of the chemistry of the material. For this paper, we show the V2C XES spectra for several niobium compounds. The Kβ" peak in the V2C XES results from the transition of a ligand 2s electron into the 1s core-hole of the niobium, a transition allowed by hybridization with the niobium 4p . This location in energy of this weak peak shows a strong ligand dependence, thus providing a sensitive probe of themore » ligand environment about the niobium.« less

  4. METABOLISM OF IRON STORES

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, HIROSHI

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Remarkable progress was recently achieved in the studies on molecular regulators of iron metabolism. Among the main regulators, storage iron, iron absorption, erythropoiesis and hepcidin interact in keeping iron homeostasis. Diseases with gene-mutations resulting in iron overload, iron deficiency, and local iron deposition have been introduced in relation to the regulators of storage iron metabolism. On the other hand, the research on storage iron metabolism has not advanced since the pioneering research by Shoden in 1953. However, we recently developed a new method for determining ferritin iron and hemosiderin iron by computer-assisted serum ferritin kinetics. Serum ferritin increase or decrease curves were measured in patients with normal storage iron levels (chronic hepatitis C and iron deficiency anemia treated by intravenous iron injection), and iron overload (hereditary hemochromatosis and transfusion dependent anemia). We thereby confirmed the existence of two iron pathways where iron flows followed the numbered order (1) labile iron, (2) ferritin and (3) hemosiderin in iron deposition and mobilization among many previously proposed but mostly unproven routes. We also demonstrated the increasing and decreasing phases of ferritin iron and hemosiderin iron in iron deposition and mobilization. The author first demonstrated here the change in proportion between pre-existing ferritin iron and new ferritin iron synthesized by removing iron from hemosiderin in the course of iron removal. In addition, the author disclosed the cause of underestimation of storage iron turnover rate which had been reported by previous investigators in estimating storage iron turnover rate of normal subjects. PMID:25741033

  5. Directionally solidified iron-base eutectic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    Pseudobinary eutectic alloys with nominal compositions of Fe-25Ta-22Ni-10Cr and Fe-15.5Nb-14.5Ni-6.0Cr were directionally solidified at 0.5 centimeter per hour. Their microstructure consisted of the fcc, iron solid-solution, matrix phase reinforced by about 41-volume-percent, hcp, faceted Fe2Ta fibers and 41-volume-percent, hcp, Fe2Nb lamellae for the tantalum- and niobium-containing alloys, respectively. The microstructural stability under thermal cycling and the temperature dependence of tensile properties were investigated. These alloys showed low elevated-temperature strength and were not considered suitable for application in aircraft-gas-turbine blades although they may have applicability as vane materials.

  6. Iron-nickel-chromium alloy having improved swelling resistance and low neutron absorbence

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1986-01-01

    An iron-nickel-chromium age-hardenable alloy suitable for use in fast breeder reactor ducts and cladding which utilizes the gamma-double prime strengthening phase and characterized in having a delta or eta phase distributed at or near grain boundaries. The alloy consists essentially of about 33-39.5% nickel, 7.5-16% chromium, 1.5-4% niobium, 0.1-0.7% silicon, 0.01-0.2% zirconium, 1-3% titanium, 0.2-0.6% aluminum, and the remainder essentially all iron. Up to 0.4% manganese and up to 0.010% magnesium can be added to inhibit trace element effects.

  7. Surface Participation Effects in Titanium Nitride and Niobium Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, Allison; Kreikebaum, John Mark; Livingston, William; Delva, Remy; Qiu, Yanjie; Lolowang, Reinhard; Ramasesh, Vinay; O'Brien, Kevin; Siddiqi, Irfan

    Improving the coherence time of superconducting qubits requires a precise understanding of the location and density of surface defects. Superconducting microwave resonators are commonly used for quantum state readout and are a versatile testbed to systematically characterize materials properties as a function of device geometry and fabrication method. We report on sputter deposited titanium nitride and niobium on silicon coplanar waveguide resonators patterned using reactive ion etches to define the device geometry. We discuss the impact of different growth conditions (temperature and electrical bias) and processing techniques on the internal quality factor (Q) of these devices. In particular, to investigate the effect of surface participation, we use a Bosch process to etch many-micron-deep trenches in the silicon substrate and quantify the impact of etch depth and profile on the internal Q. This research was supported by the ARO.

  8. Mechanical Behavior of Additively Manufactured Uranium-6 wt. pct. Niobium

    SciT

    Wu, A. S.; Wraith, M. W.; Burke, S. C.

    This report describes an effort to process uranium-6 weight% niobium using laser powder bed fusion. The chemistry, crystallography, microstructure and mechanical response resulting from this process are discussed with particular emphasis on the effect of the laser powder bed fusion process on impurities. In an effort to achieve homogenization and uniform mechanical behavior from different builds, as well as to induce a more conventional loading response, we explore post-processing heat treatments on this complex alloy. Elevated temperature heat treatment for recrystallization is evaluated and the effect of recrystallization on mechanical behavior in laser powder bed fusion processed U-6Nb is discussed.more » Wrought-like mechanical behavior and grain sizes are achieved through post-processing and are reported herein.« less

  9. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Hydrogen Absorption by Niobium During SRF Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, R. E.; Myneni, G. R.

    2011-03-01

    The properties and performance of the ultra high purity Nb used to fabricate superconducting radio frequency (SRF) particle accelerator cavities have been found to vary with processing conditions. One hypothesis for these variations is that hydrogen, absorbed during processing, is responsible for this behavior. The key assumption behind this hypothesis is that niobium can absorb hydrogen from one or more of the processing environments. This paper reviews work examining the validity of this assumption. It was determined that Nb will spontaneously react with water producing adsorbed atomic hydrogen that is readily absorbed into the metal. The passivating oxide film normally prevents this reaction, but this film is frequently removed during processing and it is attacked by the fluoride ion used in the polishing solutions for SRF cavities. However, during electropolishing that cathodic reduction of hydrogen is transferred to the auxiliary electrode and this should suppress hydrogen absorption.

  10. Method of manufacturing a niobium-aluminum-germanium superconductive material

    DOEpatents

    Wang, John L.; Pickus, Milton R.; Douglas, Kent E.

    1980-01-01

    A method for manufacturing flexible Nb.sub.3 (Al,Ge) multifilamentary superconductive material in which a sintered porous niobium compact is infiltrated with an aluminum-germanium alloy and thereafter deformed and heat treated in a series of steps at different successively higher temperatures preferably below 1000.degree. C. to produce filaments composed of Nb.sub.3 (Al,G3) within the compact. By avoiding temperatures in excess of 1000.degree. C. during the heat treatment, cladding material such as copper can be applied to facilitate a deformation step preceding the heat treatment and can remain in place through the heat treatment to also serve as a temperature stabilizer for supeconductive material produced. Further, these lower heat treatment temperatures favor formation of filaments with reduced grain size and, hence with more grain boundaries which in turn increase the current-carrying capacity of the superconductive material.

  11. Recent Niobium Developments for High Strength Steel Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansto, Steven G.

    Niobium-containing high strength steel materials have been developed for oil and gas pipelines, offshore platforms, nuclear plants, boilers and alternative energy applications. Recent research and the commercialization of alternative energy applications such as windtower structural supports and power transmission gear components provide enhanced performance. Through the application of these Nb-bearing steels in demanding energy-related applications, the designer and end user experience improved toughness at low temperature, excellent fatigue resistance and fracture toughness and excellent weldability. These enhancements provide structural engineers the opportunity to further improve the structural design and performance. For example, through the adoption of these Nb-containing structural materials, several design-manufacturing companies are initiating new windtower designs operating at higher energy efficiency, lower cost, and improved overall material design performance.

  12. Niobium Application, Metallurgy and Global Trends in Pressure Vessel Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansto, Steven G.

    Niobium-containing high strength steel materials have been developed for a variety of pressure vessel applications. Through the application of these Nb-bearing steels in demanding applications, the designer and end user experience improved toughness at low temperature, excellent fatigue resistance and fracture toughness and excellent weldability. These enhancements provide structural engineers the opportunity to further improve the pressure vessel design and performance. The Nb-microalloy alloy designs also result in reduced operational production cost at the steel operation, thereby embracing the value-added attribute Nb provides to both the producer and the end user throughout the supply chain. For example, through the adoption of these Nb-containing structural materials, several design-manufacturing companies are considering improved designs which offer improved manufacturability, lower overall cost and better life cycle performance.

  13. XPS studies of nitrogen doping niobium used for accelerator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ziqin; Lu, Xiangyang; Tan, Weiwei; Zhao, Jifei; Yang, Deyu; Yang, Yujia; He, Yuan; Zhou, Kui

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen doping study on niobium (Nb) samples used for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities was carried out. The samples' surface treatment was attempted to replicate that of the Nb SRF cavities, which includes heavy electropolishing (EP), nitrogen doping and the subsequent EP with different amounts of material removal. The surface chemical composition of Nb samples with different post treatments has been studied by XPS. The chemical composition of Nb, O, C and N was presented before and after Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) etching. No signals of poorly superconducting nitrides NbNx was found on the surface of any doped Nb sample with the 2/6 recipe before GCIB etching. However, in the depth range greater than 30 nm, the content of N element is below the XPS detection precision scope even for the Nb sample directly after nitrogen doping treatment with the 2/6 recipe.

  14. Fabricating niobium test loops for the SP-100 space reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryhan, Anthony J.; Chan, Ricky C.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the successful fabrication, operation, and evaluation of a series of niobium-alloy (Nb-1 Zr and PWC-11) thermal convection loops designed to contain and circulate molten lithium at 1,350 K. These loops were used to establish the fabrication variables of significance for a nuclear power supply for space. Approximately 200 weldments were evaluated for their tendency to be attacked by lithium as a function of varying atmospheric contamination. No attack occurred for any weldment free of contamination, with or without heat treatment, and no welds accidentally deviated from purity. The threshold oxygen content for weldment attack was determined to be 170-200 ppm. Attack varied directly with weldment oxygen and nitrogen contents.

  15. Secondary electron emission from plasma processed accelerating cavity grade niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basovic, Milos

    by different techniques. Specifically, this work provides the results of SEY from the plasma cleaned cavity grade niobium (Nb) samples. Pure niobium is currently the material of choice for the fabrication of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities. The effect of plasma processing with two different gases will be examined in two groups of samples. The first group of samples is made from cavity grade niobium. The second group of samples is made from the same material, but include a welded joint made by electron beam welding, since in niobium SRF cavities the peak electric and magnetic field are seen in close proximity to the welded joints. Both groups of samples will be exposed to nitrogen (N2) and a mixture of argon with oxygen (Ar/O2) plasma. It is the goal of this research to determine the SEY on these two groups of samples before and after plasma processing as a function of the energy of primary electrons. The SEY as a function of the angle of incidence of the primary electrons is tested on the samples treated with Ar/O2 plasma.

  16. Characterization on RF magnetron sputtered niobium pentoxide thin films

    SciT

    Usha, N.; Sivakumar, R., E-mail: krsivakumar1979@yahoo.com; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2014-10-15

    Niobium pentoxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films with amorphous nature were deposited on microscopic glass substrates at 100°C by rf magnetron sputtering technique. The effect of rf power on the structural, morphological, optical, and vibrational properties of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films have been investigated. Optical study shows the maximum average transmittance of about 87% and the optical energy band gap (indirect allowed) changes between 3.70 eV and 3.47 eV. AFM result indicates the smooth surface nature of the samples. Photoluminescence measurement showed the better optical quality of the deposited films. Raman spectra show the LO-TO splitting of Nb-O stretching ofmore » Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films.« less

  17. Niobium flex cable for low temperature high density interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Weers, H. J.; Kunkel, G.; Lindeman, M. A.; Leeman, M.

    2013-05-01

    This work describes the fabrication and characterization of a Niobium on polyimide flex cable suitable for sub-Kelvin temperatures. The processing used can be extended to high density interconnects and allows for direct integration with printed circuit boards. Several key parameters such as RRR, Tc, current carrying capability at 4 K and thermal conductivity in the range from 0.15 to 10 K have been measured. The average Tc was found to be 8.9 K, with a minimum of 8.3 K. Several samples allowed for more than 50 mA current at 4 K while remaining in the superconducting state. The thermal conductivity for this flex design is dominated by the polyimide, in our case Pyralin PI-2611, and is in good agreement with published thermal conductivity data for a polyimide called Upilex R. Registered trademark of Ube Industries, Japan.

  18. Secondary Electron Emission from Plasma Processed Accelerating Cavity Grade Niobium

    SciT

    Basovic, Milos

    treated by different techniques. Specifically, this work provides the results of SEY from the plasma cleaned cavity grade niobium (Nb) samples. Pure niobium is currently the material of choice for the fabrication of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities. The effect of plasma processing with two different gases will be examined in two groups of samples. The first group of samples is made from cavity grade niobium. The second group of samples is made from the same material, but include a welded joint made by electron beam welding, since in niobium SRF cavities the peak electric and magnetic field are seen in close proximity to the welded joints. Both groups of samples will be exposed to nitrogen (N2) and a mixture of argon with oxygen (Ar/O2) plasma. It is the goal of this research to determine the SEY on these two groups of samples before and after plasma processing as a function of the energy of primary electrons. The SEY as a function of the angle of incidence of the primary electrons is tested on the samples treated with Ar/O2 plasma.« less

  19. Transient high-field behavior of niobium superconducting cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campisi, I. E.; Farkas, Z. D.; Deruyter, H.; Hogg, H. A.

    1983-03-01

    The breakdown behavior of a TM010 mode, S-band niobium cavity at low temperatures was examined. Unloaded Q's of 9 x 10(7) at 4.2 K and of 7 x 10(9) at 1.35 K were measured. The response of the cavity at 4.2 K to 1 MW, 2.5 (SIGMA)s pulses was tested in several cool downs. In these tests the cavity was heavily overcoupled to lower its time constant to a value of 0.80 times the RF pulse length of 2.5 (SIGMA)s. This condition maximizes the energy transfer from the klystron source to the cavity. It is indicated that fields of about 50 MV/m are reached in the cavity without breakdown.

  20. High-gradient, pulsed operation of superconducting niobium cavities

    SciT

    Campisi, I.E.; Farkas, Z.D.

    1984-02-01

    Tests performed on several Niobium TM/sub 010/ cavities at frequencies of about 2856 MHz using a high-power, pulsed method indicate that, at the end of the charging pulse, peak surface magnetic fields of up to approx. 1300 Oe, corresponding to a peak surface electric field of approx. 68 MV/m, can be reached at 4.2/sup 0/K without appreciable average losses. Further studies of the properties of superconductors under pulsed operation might shed light on fundamental properties of rf superconductivity, as well as lead to the possibility of applying the pulse method to the operation of high-gradient linear colliders. 7 references, 30more » figures, 2 tables.« less

  1. Iridium anomalies and fractionated siderophile element patterns in impact ejecta, Brockman Iron Formation, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia: evidence for a major asteroid impact in simatic crustal regions of the early Proterozoic earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, Andrew; Allen, Charlotte

    2004-04-01

    A stratigraphically consistent <20-cm-thick unit of microkrystite spherule and microtektite-bearing impact fallout ejecta overlying volcanic tuff of the 4th Shale Macroband (DGS4) of the Dales Gorge Member (2.47-2.50 Ga), Brockman Iron Formation, Hamersley Group, Western Australia, displays anomalous platinum group element (PGE) and other trace metal patterns. The unit has high Ir (13 ppb) and Pt (35 ppb), and low Pd (2.7 ppb) and Au (1.55-1.88 ppb). The low Pd/Ir ratios and low Cr/V suggest depletion in volatile PGE and metals relative to refractory PGE and V, contrasted to the ubiquitous high Pd/Ir of most terrestrial rocks. Marked depletion in the volatile Rare Earth Element (REE) abundances in stilpnomelane spherule cores is consistent with this model. The loss of volatile PGE, analogous to relations in 3.24 Ga impact fallout units of the Barberton greenstone belt (S3 and S4), suggests fractionation related to atmospheric spherule condensation. The microkrystite spherule unit locally incorporate fragments and up to meter-scale boulders of banded chert and stromatolite carbonate, suggesting tsunami transport postdating spherule deposition. DGS4 microkrystite spherules are dominated by stilpnomelane mantled by K-feldspar shells, which consist of inward-radiating fibrous feldspar aggregates suggestive of devitrification. The K and REE enrichment of spherule margins are contrasted to flat REE patterns of the stilpnomelane cores, suggesting adsorption of lithophile elements during settling of the spherules through the hydrosphere. K-feldspar shells contain submicron-scale Ni metal, oxide, sulfide and arsenide grains and euhedral needles of feldspar-exsolved ilmenite. Associated magnetite may have high nickel (<1.25% NiO). The generally mafic composition of the spherules and high Ni/Cr and Ni/Co are consistent with a target mafic-ultramafic crust, consistent with the lack of shock-metamorphosed quartz. Mixing calculations suggest a contribution of 2.5-3% projectile

  2. Investigation of niobium surface structure and composition for improvement of superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenikhina, Yulia

    Nano-scale investigation of intrinsic properties of niobium near-surface is a key to control performance of niobium superconducting radio-frequency cavities. Mechanisms responsible for the performance limitations and their empirical remedies needs to be justified in order to reproducibly control fabrication of SRF cavities with desired characteristics. The high field Q-slope and mechanism behind its cure (120°C mild bake) were investigated by comparison of the samples cut out of the cavities with high and low dissipation regions. Material evolution during mild field Q-slope nitrogen treatment was characterized using the coupon samples as well as samples cut out of nitrogen treated cavity. Evaluation of niobium near-surface state after some typical and novel cavity treatments was accomplished. Various TEM techniques, SEM, XPS, AES, XRD were used for the structural and chemical characterization of niobium near-surface. Combination of thermometry and structural temperature-dependent comparison of the cavity cutouts with different dissipation characteristics revealed precipitation of niobium hydrides to be the reason for medium and high field Q-slopes. Step-by-step effect of the nitrogen treatment processing on niobium surface was studied by analytical and structural characterization of the cavity cutout and niobium samples, which were subject to the treatment. Low concentration nitrogen doping is proposed to explain the benefit of nitrogen treatment. Chemical characterization of niobium samples before and after various surface processing (Electropolishing (EP), 800°C bake, hydrofluoric acid (HF) rinsing) showed the differences that can help to reveal the microscopic effects behind these treatments as well as possible sources of surface contamination.

  3. Quench-age method for the fabrication of niobium-aluminum superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Pickus, Milton R.; Ciardella, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    A flexible Nb.sub.3 Al superconducting wire is fabricated from a niobium-aluminum composite wire by heating to form a solid solution which is retained at room temperature as a metastable solid solution by quenching. The metastable solid solution is then transformed to the stable superconducting A-15 phase by low temperature aging. The transformation induced by aging can be controlled to yield either a multifilamentary or a solid A-15 core surrounded by ductile niobium.

  4. Hardness behavior of binary and ternary niobium alloys at 77 and 300 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of alloy additions of zirconium, hafnium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, ruthenium, osmium, rhodium, and iridium on the hardness of niobium was determined. Both binary and ternary alloys were investigated by means of hardness tests at 77 K and 300 K. Results showed that atomic size misfit plays a dominant role in controlling hardness of binary niobium alloys. Alloy softening, which occurred at dilute solute additions, is most likely due to an extrinsic mechanism involving interaction between solute elements and interstitial impurities.

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic application of ordered mesoporous carbon–niobium oxide composites

    SciT

    Gao, Juan-Li; Gao, Shuang; Liu, Chun-Ling

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The ordered mesoporous carbon–niobium oxide composites have been synthesized by a multi-component co-assembly method associated with a carbonization process. - Highlights: • Ordered mesoporous carbon–niobium oxide composites were synthesized. • The content of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} in the composites could be tuned from 38 to 75%. • Niobium species were highly dispersed in amorphous carbon framework walls. • The composites exhibited good catalytic performance in the dehydration of fructose. - Abstract: Ordered mesoporous carbon–niobium oxide composites have been synthesized by a multi-component co-assembly method associated with a carbonization process using phenolic resol as carbon source, niobium chloride asmore » precursor and amphiphilic triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 as template. The resulting materials were characterized using a combination of techniques including differential scanning calorimetry–thermogravimetric analysis, N{sub 2} physical adsorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that with increasing the content of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} from 38 to 75% the specific surface area decreases from 306.4 to 124.5 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, while the ordered mesoporous structure is remained. Niobium species is well dispersed in the amorphous carbon framework. The mesoporous carbon–niobium oxide composites exhibit high catalytic activity in the dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. A 100% conversion of fructose and a 76.5% selectivity of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural were obtained over the carbon–niobium oxide composite containing 75% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} under the investigated reaction conditions.« less

  6. High-performance dc SQUIDs with submicrometer niobium Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waal, V. J.; Klapwijk, T. M.; van den Hamer, P.

    1983-11-01

    We report on the fabrication and performance of low-noise, all-niobium, thin-film planar dc SQUIDs with submicrometer Josephson junctions. The junctions are evaporated obliquely through a metal shadow evaporation mask, which is made using optical lithography with 0.5 µm tolerance. The Josephson junction barrier is formed by evaporating a thin silicon film and with a subsequent oxidation in a glow discharge. The junction parameters can be reproduced within a factor of two. Typical critical currents of the SQUIDs are about 3 µA and the resistances are about 100 Ω. With SQUIDs having an inductance of 1 nH the voltage modulation is at least 60 µV. An intrinsic energy resolution of 4×10-32 J/Hz has been reached. The SQUIDs are coupled to wire-wound input coils or with thin-film input coils. The thin-film input coil consists of a niobium spiral of 20 turns on a separate substrate. In both cases the coil is glued onto a 2-nH SQUID with a coupling efficiency of at least 0.5. Referred to the thin-film input coil, the best coupled energy resolution achieved is 1.2×10-30 J/Hz measured in a flux-locked loop at frequencies above 10 Hz. As far as we know, this is the best figure achieved with an all-refractory-metal thin-film SQUID. The fabrication technique used is suited for making circuits with SQUID and pickup coil on the same substrate. We describe a compact, planar, first-order gradiometer integrated with a SQUID on a single substrate. The gradient noise of this device is 3×10-12 T m-1. The gradiometer has a size of 12 mm×17 mm, is simple to fabricate, and is suitable for biomedical applications.

  7. A niobium oxide-tantalum oxide selector-memristor self-aligned nanostack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Leon, Juan J.; Norris, Kate J.; Yang, J. Joshua; Sevic, John F.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P.

    2017-03-01

    The integration of nonlinear current-voltage selectors and bi-stable memristors is a paramount step for reliable operation of crossbar arrays. In this paper, the self-aligned assembly of a single nanometer-scale device that contains both a selector and a memristor is presented. The two components (i.e., selector and memristor) are vertically assembled via a self-aligned fabrication process combined with electroforming. In designing the device, niobium oxide and tantalum oxide are chosen as materials for selector and memristor, respectively. The formation of niobium oxide is visualized by exploiting the self-limiting reaction between niobium and tantalum oxide; crystalline niobium (di)oxide forms at the interface between metallic niobium and tantalum oxide via electrothermal heating, resulting in a niobium oxide selector self-aligned to a tantalum oxide memristor. A steady-state finite element analysis is used to assess the electrothermal heating expected to occur in the device. Current-voltage measurements and structural/chemical analyses conducted for the virgin device, the electroforming process, and the functional selector-memristor device are presented. The demonstration of a self-aligned, monolithically integrated selector-memristor device would pave a practical pathway to various circuits based on memristors attainable at manufacturing scales.

  8. Review of ingot niobium as a material for superconducting radiofrequency accelerating cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneisel, P.; Ciovati, G.; Dhakal, P.; Saito, K.; Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Myneni, G. R.

    2015-02-01

    As a result of collaboration between Jefferson Lab and niobium manufacturer Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração (CBMM), ingot niobium was explored as a possible material for superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavity fabrication. The first single cell cavity from large-grain high purity niobium was fabricated and successfully tested at Jefferson Lab in 2004. This work triggered research activities in other SRF laboratories around the world. Large-grain (LG) niobium became not only an interesting alternative material for cavity builders, but also material scientists and surface scientists were eager to participate in the development of this technology. Many single cell cavities made from material of different suppliers have been tested successfully and several multi-cell cavities have shown performances comparable to the best cavities made from standard fine-grain niobium. Several 9-cell cavities fabricated by Research Instruments and tested at DESY exceeded the best performing fine grain cavities with a record accelerating gradient of Eacc=45.6 MV/m. The quality factor of those cavities was also higher than that of fine-grain (FG) cavities processed with the same methods. Such performance levels push the state-of-the art of SRF technology and are of great interest for future accelerators. This contribution reviews the development of ingot niobium technology and highlights some of the differences compared to standard FG material and opportunities for further developments.

  9. Review of ingot niobium as a material for superconducting radiofrequency accelerating cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Kneisel, P.; Ciovati, G.; Dhakal, P.; ...

    2014-12-01

    As a result of collaboration between Jefferson Lab and niobium manufacturer Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração (CBMM), ingot niobium was explored as a possible material for superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavity fabrication. The first single cell cavity from large-grain high purity niobium was fabricated and successfully tested at Jefferson Lab in 2004. This work triggered research activities in other SRF laboratories around the world. The large-grain (LG) niobium became not only an interesting alternative material for cavity builders, but also material scientists and surface scientists were eager to participate in the development of this technology. Many single cell cavities mademore » from material of different suppliers have been tested successfully and several multi-cell cavities have shown performances comparable to the best cavities made from standard fine-grain niobium. Several 9-cell cavities fabricated by Research Instruments and tested at DESY exceeded the best performing fine grain cavities with a record accelerating gradient of E acc=45.6 MV/m. The quality factor of those cavities was also higher than that of fine-grain (FG) cavities processed with the same methods. Such performance levels push the state-of-the art of SRF technology and are of great interest for future accelerators. This contribution reviews the development of ingot niobium technology and highlights some of the differences compared to standard FG material and opportunities for further developments.« less

  10. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    SciT

    Coale, Kenneth H.

    Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments. Seattle, WA. Geological Society of America. Coale, K., 2003. Open Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments: What they have told us, what they have not. American Society for Limnology and Oceanography and The Oceanography Society, Honolulu, February 2004. Coale, K., 2004. Recent Research from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX), in Taking the Heat: What is the impact of ocean fertilization on climate and ocean ecology? Science of earth and sky. AAAS, February 12-16, Seattle, WA« less

  11. Preliminary report on the geology and deposits of monazite, thorite and niobium-bearing rutile of the Mineral Hill district, Lemhi County, Idaho

    Kaiser, Edward Peck

    1956-01-01

    Deposits of minerals containing niobium (columbium), thorium, and rare earths occur in the Mineral Hill district, 30 miles northwest of Salmon, Lemhi County, Idaho. Monazite, thorite, allanite, and niobium-bearing rutile form deposits in metamorphic limestone layers less than 8 feet thick. The known deposits are small, irregular, and typically located in or near small folds. Minor faults are common. Monazite generally is coarsely crystalline and contains less than one percent thorium. Rutile forms massive lumps up to 3 inches across; it contains between 5 and 10 percent niobium. Rutile occurs in the northwestern half of the district, thorite in the central and southeastern parts. Monazite occurs in all deposits. Allanite is locally abundant and contains several percent thorium. Magnetite and ilmenite are also locally abundant. A major thrust fault trending northwest across the map-area separates moderately folded quartzite and phyllitic rocks of Belt age, on the northeast, from more intensely metamorphosed and folded rocks on the southwest. The more metamorphosed rocks include amphibolite, porphyroblastic feldspar gneiss, quartzite, and limestone, all probably of sedimentary origin, and probably also of Belt (late Precambrian) age. The only rocks of definite igneous origin are rhyolite dikes of probable Tertiary age. The more metamorphosed rocks were formed by metasomatic metamorphism acting on clastic sediments, probably of Belt age, although they may be older than Belt. Metamorphism doubtless was part of the episode of emplacement of the Idaho batholith, but the history of that episode is not well understood. The rare-element deposits show no evidence of fracture-controlled hydrothermal introduction, such as special fracture systems, veining, and gangue material. They may, however, be of hydrothermal type. More likely they are metamorphic segregations or secretions, deposited in favorable stratigraphic and structural positions during regional metamorphism.

  12. Models of the Earth's Core.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D J

    1981-11-06

    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with the following properties. Core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and laboratory data.

  13. Models of the earth's core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with five basic properties. These are that core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and labroatory data.

  14. Earth Observation

    2014-06-01

    ISS040-E-006327 (1 June 2014) --- A portion of International Space Station solar array panels and Earth?s horizon are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the space station.

  15. Iron Dextran Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Iron and alloys of iron. [lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastri, Sankar

    1992-01-01

    All lunar soil contains iron in the metallic form, mostly as an iron-nickel alloy in concentrations of a few tenths of 1 percent. Some of this free iron can be easily separated by magnetic means. It is estimated that the magnetic separation of 100,000 tons of lunar soil would yield 150-200 tons of iron. Agglutinates contain metallic iron which could be extracted by melting and made into powder metallurgy products. The characteristics and potential uses of the pure-iron and iron-alloy lunar products are discussed. Processes for working iron that might be used in a nonterrestrial facility are also addressed.

  17. Earthing the Human Body Influences Physiologic Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sokal, Karol

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1—effect of earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2—effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3—effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4—effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5—effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Results Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Conclusions Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems. PMID:21469913

  18. Earthing the human body influences physiologic processes.

    PubMed

    Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments: Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1-effect of earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2-effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3-effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4-effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5-effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems.

  19. Iron Homeostasis and Nutritional Iron Deficiency123

    PubMed Central

    Theil, Elizabeth C.

    2011-01-01

    Nonheme food ferritin (FTN) iron minerals, nonheme iron complexes, and heme iron contribute to the balance between food iron absorption and body iron homeostasis. Iron absorption depends on membrane transporter proteins DMT1, PCP/HCP1, ferroportin (FPN), TRF2, and matriptase 2. Mutations in DMT1 and matriptase-2 cause iron deficiency; mutations in FPN, HFE, and TRF2 cause iron excess. Intracellular iron homeostasis depends on coordinated regulation of iron trafficking and storage proteins encoded in iron responsive element (IRE)-mRNA. The noncoding IRE-mRNA structures bind protein repressors, IRP1 or 2, during iron deficiency. Integration of the IRE-RNA in translation regulators (near the cap) or turnover elements (after the coding region) increases iron uptake (DMT1/TRF1) or decreases iron storage/efflux (FTN/FPN) when IRP binds. An antioxidant response element in FTN DNA binds Bach1, a heme-sensitive transcription factor that coordinates expression among antioxidant response proteins like FTN, thioredoxin reductase, and quinone reductase. FTN, an antioxidant because Fe2+ and O2 (reactive oxygen species generators) are consumed to make iron mineral, is also a nutritional iron concentrate that is an efficiently absorbed, nonheme source of iron from whole legumes. FTN protein cages contain thousands of mineralized iron atoms and enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, an absorption mechanism distinct from transport of nonheme iron salts (ferrous sulfate), iron chelators (ferric-EDTA), or heme. Recognition of 2 nutritional nonheme iron sources, small and large (FTN), will aid the solution of iron deficiency, a major public health problem, and the development of new policies on iron nutrition. PMID:21346101

  20. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1980-01-01

    A method for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime phase, the alloy consisting essentially of about 40 to 50% nickel, 7.5 to 14% chromium, 1.5 to 4% niobium, 0.3 to 0.75% silicon, 1 to 3% titanium, 0.1 to 0.5% aluminum, 0.02 to 1% carbon, 0.002 to 0.0015% boron and the remain substantially all iron. To obtain optimal results, the alloy is cold-worked 20 to 60% followed by heating at 1050.degree. C. for 1/2 hour with an air-cool plus heating at 800.degree. C. for 2 hours with a furnace cool to 625.degree. C. The alloy is then held at 625.degree. C. for 12 hours, followed by an air-cool.

  1. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-04-03

    A method is described for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime, the alloy consisting essentially of about 25 to 45% nickel, 10 to 16% chromium, 1.5 to 3% of an element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and niobium, about 2% titanium, about 3% aluminum, and the remainder substantially all iron. To obtain optimum results, the alloy is heated to a temperature of 1025 to 1075/sup 0/C for 2 to 5 minutes, cold-worked about 20 to 60%, aged at a temperature of about 775/sup 0/C for 8 hours followed by an air-cool, and then heated to a temperature in the range of 650 to 700/sup 0/C for 2 hours followed by an air-cool.

  2. Iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for high temperature applications

    DOEpatents

    McKamey, Claudette G.; Liu, Chain T.

    1990-01-01

    An improved iron aluminide alloy of the DO.sub.3 type that has increased room temperature ductility and improved high elevated temperature strength. The alloy system further is resistant to corrosive attack in the environments of advanced energy corrosion systems such as those using fossil fuels. The resultant alloy is relatively inexpensive as contrasted to nickel based and high nickel steels currently utilized for structural components. The alloy system consists essentially of 26-30 at. % aluminum, 0.5-10 at. % chromium, 0.02-0.3 at. % boron plus carbon, up to 2 at. % molybdenum, up to 1 at. % niobium, up to 0.5 at. % zirconium, up to 0.1 at. % yttrium, up to 0.5 at. % vanadium and the balance iron.

  3. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOEpatents

    Merrick, Howard F.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1982-01-01

    A method for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a bimodal distribution of gamma prime phase within a network of dislocations, the alloy consisting essentially of about 25% to 45% nickel, 10% to 16% chromium, 1.5% to 3% of an element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and niobium, about 2% titanium, about 3% aluminum, and the remainder substantially all iron. To obtain optimum results, the alloy is heated to a temperature of 1025.degree. C. to 1075.degree. C. for 2-5 minutes, cold-worked about 20% to 60%, aged at a temperature of about 775.degree. C. for 8 hours followed by an air-cool, and then heated to a temperature in the range of 650.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. for 2 hours followed by an air-cool.

  4. Iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for high temperature applications

    DOEpatents

    McKamey, C.G.; Liu, C.T.

    1990-10-09

    An improved iron aluminide alloy of the DO[sub 3] type is described that has increased room temperature ductility and improved high elevated temperature strength. The alloy system further is resistant to corrosive attack in the environments of advanced energy conversion systems such as those using fossil fuels. The resultant alloy is relatively inexpensive as contrasted to nickel based and high nickel steels currently utilized for structural components. The alloy system consists essentially of 26--30 at. % aluminum, 0.5--10 at. % chromium, 0.02--0.3 at. % boron plus carbon, up to 2 at. % molybdenum, up to 1 at. % niobium, up to 0.5 at. % zirconium, up to 0.1 at. % yttrium, up to 0.5 at. % vanadium and the balance iron. 3 figs.

  5. ON THE GEOCHEMISTRY OF NIOBIUM AND TANTALUM IN CLAYS (in Russian)

    SciT

    Pachadzhanov, D.N.

    1963-10-01

    With the aid of the spectral method with a preliminary enrichment in tannin, the niobium and tantalum content was determined in some humid and arid clays of the Russian platform. The investigated samples were composed of 354 specimens. The average content of niobium in humid clays is 0.0020%, of tantalum 0.00024% (the Nb/Ta ratio is 8.4) and in arid clays is respectively the content of niobium 0.00133% and the content of tantalum 0.00009% (the Nb/Ta ratio is 14.8). The average value of the content of niobium content for all studied clays is 0.00183% and of the tantalum content 0.00020%, themore » Nb/Ta ratio being 9.1. In clays an interconnection of niobium with tantalum, as well as with aluminium, titanium, zirconium, and hafnium was observed. However, on the background of this connection some separation of the named elements is noted. A tendency for the Nb/Ta ratio shift from the region of matter removal towards the center of the marine basin was observed. The study of niobium and tantalum distribution over different clay fractions showed that one part of elements is connected with zircon and titanium minerals in aleuosand fraction (0.1-- 0.01 mm). Another, approximately similar part is contained in the proper clay fraction (<0. 01 mm), the tantalum somewhat more concentrating in the aleurosand fraction and niobium in the clay fraction. (P.C.H.)« less

  6. Laser Spectroscopy and Density Functional Study on Niobium Dimer Cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Metin; Lombardi, John R.

    2009-06-01

    Resonant multiphoton fragmentation spectra of niobium dimer cation (Nb2+) have been obtained by utilizing laser vaporization of a Nb metal target. Ions are mass-selected with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer followed by a mass gate, then fragmented with a pulsed dye laser, and the resulting fragment ions are detected with a second time-of-flight reflectron mass spectrometer and multichannel plate. Photon resonances are detected by monitoring ion current as a function of fragmentation laser wavelength. A rich, but complex spectrum of the cation is obtained. The bands display a characteristic multiplet structure that may be interpreted as due to transitions from the ground state X^{4}{Σ}^{-}({Ω}g) to several excited states, X^{4}{Π}({Ω}u) and X^{4}{Σ}(^{-}{Ω}u). The ground state X^{4}{Σ}^{-}({Ω}g) is derived from the electron configuration ({π}{_u})^{4} (1{σ}{_g})^{2}(2{σ}{_g})^{1} ({δ}{_g})^{2}. The two spin-orbit components are split by 145 cm^{-1} due to a strong second-order isoconfigurational spin-orbit interaction with the low-lying ^{2}{Σ}^{+}({Ω}g) state. The vibrational frequencies of the ground sate and the excited state of Nb2+ are identified as well as molecular spin-orbit constants (A{_S}{_O}) in the excited state. The electronic structure of niobium dimer cation was investigated using density functional theory. For the electronic ground state, the predicted spectroscopic properties were in good agreement with experiment. Calculations on excited states reveal congested manifolds of quartet and doublet electronic states in the range 0-30,000 cm^{-1}, reflecting the multitude of possible electronic promotions among the 4d- and 5s-based molecular orbitals. Comparisons are drawn between Nb^{+}{_2} and the prevalent isoelectronic molecules V^{+}{_2}/NbV^{+}/Nb{_2}/V{_2}/NbV. M. Aydin and John R. Lombardi J. Phys. Chem. A. xx XXXX 2009.

  7. Iron-Tolerant Cyanobacteria: Ecophysiology and Fingerprinting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, I. I.; Mummey, D.; Lindsey, J.; McKay, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    Although the iron-dependent physiology of marine and freshwater cyanobacterial strains has been the focus of extensive study, very few studies dedicated to the physiology and diversity of cyanobacteria inhabiting iron-depositing hot springs have been conducted. One of the few studies that have been conducted [B. Pierson, 1999] found that cyanobacterial members of iron depositing bacterial mat communities might increase the rate of iron oxidation in situ and that ferrous iron concentrations up to 1 mM significantly stimulated light dependent consumption of bicarbonate, suggesting a specific role for elevated iron in photosynthesis of cyanobacteria inhabiting iron-depositing hot springs. Our recent studies pertaining to the diversity and physiology of cyanobacteria populating iron-depositing hot springs in Great Yellowstone area (Western USA) indicated a number of different isolates exhibiting elevated tolerance to Fe(3+) (up to 1 mM). Moreover, stimulation of growth was observed with increased Fe(3+) (0.02-0.4 mM). Molecular fingerprinting of unialgal isolates revealed a new cyanobacterial genus and species Chroogloeocystis siderophila, an unicellular cyanobacterium with significant EPS sheath harboring colloidal Fe(3+) from iron enriched media. Our preliminary data suggest that some filamentous species of iron-tolerant cyanobacteria are capable of exocytosis of iron precipitated in cytoplasm. Prior to 2.4 Ga global oceans were likely significantly enriched in soluble iron [Lindsay et al, 2003], conditions which are not conducive to growth of most contemporary oxygenic cyanobacteria. Thus, iron-tolerant CB may have played important physiological and evolutionary roles in Earths history.

  8. Nitrate-dependent iron oxidation limits iron transport in anoxic ocean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Florian; Löscher, Carolin R.; Fiskal, Annika; Sommer, Stefan; Hensen, Christian; Lomnitz, Ulrike; Wuttig, Kathrin; Göttlicher, Jörg; Kossel, Elke; Steininger, Ralph; Canfield, Donald E.

    2016-11-01

    Iron is an essential element for life on Earth and limits primary production in large parts of the ocean. Oxygen-free continental margin sediments represent an important source of bioavailable iron to the ocean, yet little of the iron released from the seabed reaches the productive sea surface. Even in the anoxic water of oxygen minimum zones, where iron solubility should be enhanced, most of the iron is rapidly re-precipitated. To constrain the mechanism(s) of iron removal in anoxic ocean regions we explored the sediment and water in the oxygen minimum zone off Peru. During our sampling campaign the water column featured two distinct redox boundaries separating oxic from nitrate-reducing (i.e., nitrogenous) water and nitrogenous from weakly sulfidic water. The sulfidic water mass in contact with the shelf sediment contained elevated iron concentrations >300 nM. At the boundary between sulfidic and nitrogenous conditions, iron concentrations dropped sharply to <20 nM coincident with a maximum in particulate iron concentration. Within the iron gradient, we found an increased expression of the key functional marker gene for nitrate reduction (narG). Part of this upregulation was related to the activity of known iron-oxidizing bacteria. Collectively, our data suggest that iron oxidation and removal is induced by nitrate-reducing microbes, either enzymatically through anaerobic iron oxidation or by providing nitrite for an abiotic reaction. Given the important role that iron plays in nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis and respiration, nitrate-dependent iron oxidation likely represents a key-link between the marine biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon.

  9. Iron isotope biogeochemistry of Neoproterozoic marine shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunzmann, Marcus; Gibson, Timothy M.; Halverson, Galen P.; Hodgskiss, Malcolm S. W.; Bui, Thi Hao; Carozza, David A.; Sperling, Erik A.; Poirier, André; Cox, Grant M.; Wing, Boswell A.

    2017-07-01

    Iron isotopes have been widely applied to investigate the redox evolution of Earth's surface environments. However, it is still unclear whether iron cycling in the water column or during diagenesis represents the major control on the iron isotope composition of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Interpretation of isotopic data in terms of oceanic redox conditions is only possible if water column processes dominate the isotopic composition, whereas redox interpretations are less straightforward if diagenetic iron cycling controls the isotopic composition. In the latter scenario, iron isotope data is more directly related to microbial processes such as dissimilatory iron reduction. Here we present bulk rock iron isotope data from late Proterozoic marine shales from Svalbard, northwestern Canada, and Siberia, to better understand the controls on iron isotope fractionation in late Proterozoic marine environments. Bulk shales span a δ 56Fe range from -0.45 ‰ to +1.04 ‰ . Although δ 56Fe values show significant variation within individual stratigraphic units, their mean value is closer to that of bulk crust and hydrothermal iron in samples post-dating the ca. 717-660 Ma Sturtian glaciation compared to older samples. After correcting for the highly reactive iron content in our samples based on iron speciation data, more than 90% of the calculated δ 56Fe compositions of highly reactive iron falls in the range from ca. -0.8 ‰ to +3 ‰ . An isotope mass-balance model indicates that diagenetic iron cycling can only change the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron by < 1 ‰ , suggesting that water column processes, namely the degree of oxidation of the ferrous seawater iron reservoir, control the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron. Considering a long-term decrease in the isotopic composition of the iron source to the dissolved seawater Fe(II) reservoir to be unlikely, we offer two possible explanations for the Neoproterozoic δ 56Fe trend. First, a

  10. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  11. Evaluation of niobium as candidate electrode material for DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    DOE PAGES

    BastaniNejad, M.; Mohamed, Md. Abdullah; Elmustafa, A. A.; ...

    2012-08-17

    In this study, the field emission characteristics of niobium electrodes were compared to those of stainless steel electrodes using a DC high voltage field emission test apparatus. A total of eight electrodes were evaluated: two 304 stainless steel electrodes polished to mirror-like finish with diamond grit and six niobium electrodes (two single-crystal, two large-grain and two fine-grain) that were chemically polished using a buffered-chemical acid solution. Upon the first application of high voltage, the best large-grain and single-crystal niobium electrodes performed better than the best stainless steel electrodes, exhibiting less field emission at comparable voltage and gradient. In all cases,more » field emission from electrodes (stainless steel and/or niobium) could be significantly reduced and sometimes completely eliminated, by introducing krypton gas into the vacuum chamber while the electrode was biased at high voltage. Of all the electrodes tested, a large-grain niobium electrode performed the best, exhibiting no measurable field emission (< 10 pA) at 225 kV with 20 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a gradient of 18.7 MV/m.« less

  12. Evaluation of Niobium as Candidate Electrode Material for DC High Voltage Photoelectron Guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    BastaniNejad, M.; Mohamed, Abdullah; Elmustafa, A. A.; Adderley, P.; Clark, J.; Covert, S.; Hansknecht, J.; Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M.; Mammei, R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The field emission characteristics of niobium electrodes were compared to those of stainless steel electrodes using a DC high voltage field emission test apparatus. A total of eight electrodes were evaluated: two 304 stainless steel electrodes polished to mirror-like finish with diamond grit and six niobium electrodes (two single-crystal, two large-grain, and two fine-grain) that were chemically polished using a buffered-chemical acid solution. Upon the first application of high voltage, the best large-grain and single-crystal niobium electrodes performed better than the best stainless steel electrodes, exhibiting less field emission at comparable voltage and field strength. In all cases, field emission from electrodes (stainless steel and/or niobium) could be significantly reduced and sometimes completely eliminated, by introducing krypton gas into the vacuum chamber while the electrode was biased at high voltage. Of all the electrodes tested, a large-grain niobium electrode performed the best, exhibiting no measurable field emission (< 10 pA) at 225 kV with 20 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a field strength of 18:7 MV/m.

  13. Method of low tantalum amounts determination in niobium and its compounds by ICP-OES technique.

    PubMed

    Smolik, Marek; Turkowska, Magdalena

    2013-10-15

    A method of determination of low amounts of tantalum in niobium and niobium compounds without its prior separation by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) has been worked out. The method involves dissolution of the analyzed samples of niobium as well as its various compounds (oxides, fluorides, chlorides, niobates(V)) in fluoride environments, precipitation of sparingly soluble niobic(tantalic) acid (Nb2O5(Ta2O5) · xH2O), converting them into soluble complex compounds by means of oxalic acid with addition of hydrogen peroxide and finally analyzing directly obtained solutions by ICP-OES. This method permits determination of Ta in niobium at the level of 10(-3)% with relatively good precision (≤ 8% RSD) and accuracy (recovery factor: 0.9-1.1). Relative differences in the results obtained by two independent methods (ICP-OES and ICP-MS) do not exceed 14%, and other elements present in niobium compounds (Ti, W, Zr, Hf, V, Mo, Fe, Cr) at the level of 10(-2)% do not affect determination. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. First-Principles Study of Carbon and Vacancy Structures in Niobium

    DOE PAGES

    Ford, Denise C.; Zapol, Peter; Cooley, Lance D.

    2015-04-03

    The interstitial chemical impurities hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon are important for niobium metal production, and particularly for the optimization of niobium SRF technology. These atoms are present in refined sheets and can be absorbed into niobium during processing treatments, resulting in changes to the residual resistance and the performance of SRF cavities. A first-principles approach is taken to study the properties of carbon in niobium, and the results are compared and contrasted with the properties of the other interstitial impurities. The results indicate that C will likely form precipitates or atmospheres around defects rather than strongly bound complexes withmore » other impurities. Based on the analysis of carbon and hydrogen near niobium lattice vacancies and small vacancy chains and clusters, the formation of extended carbon chains and hydrocarbons is not likely to occur. Association of carbon with hydrogen atoms can, however, occur through the strain fields created by interstitial binding of the impurity atoms. In conclusion, calculated electronic densities of states indicate that interstitial C may have a similar effect as interstitial O on the superconducting transition temperature of Nb.« less

  15. Qualification of niobium materials for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications: View of a condensed matter physicist

    SciT

    Roy, S. B., E-mail: sbroy@rrcat.gov.in; Myneni, G. R., E-mail: rao@jlab.org

    2015-12-04

    We address the issue of qualifications of the niobium materials to be used for superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavity fabrications, from the point of view of a condensed matter physicist/materials scientist. We focus on the particular materials properties of niobium required for the functioning a SCRF cavity, and how to optimize the same properties for the best SCRF cavity performance in a reproducible manner. In this way the niobium materials will not necessarily be characterized by their purity alone, but in terms of those materials properties, which will define the limit of the SCRF cavity performance and also other relatedmore » material properties, which will help to sustain this best SCRF cavity performance. Furthermore we point out the need of standardization of the post fabrication processing of the niobium-SCRF cavities, which does not impair the optimized superconducting and thermal properties of the starting niobium-materials required for the reproducible performance of the SCRF cavities according to the design values.« less

  16. Radiation damage and nanocrystal formation in uranium-niobium titanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, J.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, L. M.; Ewing, R. C.

    2001-07-01

    Two uranium-niobium titanates, U 2.25Nb 1.90Ti 0.32O 9.8 and Nb 2.75U 1.20Ti 0.36O 10, formed during the synthesis of brannnerite (UTi 2O 6), a minor phase in titanate-based ceramics investigated for plutonium immobilization. These uranium titanates were subjected to 800 keV Kr 2+ irradiation from 30 to 973 K. The critical amorphization dose of the U-rich and Nb-rich titanates at room temperature were 4.72×10 17 and 5×10 17 ions/ m2, respectively. At elevated temperature, the critical amorphization dose increases due to dynamic thermal annealing. The critical amorphization temperature for both Nb-rich and U-rich titanates is ˜933 K under a 800 keV Kr 2+ irradiation. Above the critical amorphization temperature, nanocrystals with an average size of ˜15 nm were observed. The formation of nanocrystals is due to epitaxial recrystallization. At higher temperatures, an ion irradiation-induced nucleation-growth mechanism also contributes to the formation of nanocrystals.

  17. Biomimetic novel nanoporous niobium oxide coating for orthopaedic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauline, S. Anne; Rajendran, N.

    2014-01-01

    Niobium oxide was synthesized by sol-gel methodology and a crystalline, nanoporous and adherent coating of Nb2O5 was deposited on 316L SS using the spin coating technique and heat treatment. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain a nanoporous morphology. The coating was characterized using attenuated total reflectance-Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the formation of crystalline Nb2O5 coating with nanoporous morphology was confirmed. Mechanical studies confirmed that the coating has excellent adherence to the substrate and the hardness value of the coating was excellent. Contact angle analysis showed increased hydrophilicity for the coated substrate. In vitro bioactivity test confirmed that the Nb2O5 coating with nanoporous morphology facilitated the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAp). This was further confirmed by the solution analysis test where increased uptake of calcium and phosphorous ions from simulated body fluid (SBF) was observed. Electrochemical evaluation of the coating confirmed that the crystalline coating is insulative and protective in nature and offered excellent corrosion protection to 316L SS. Thus, this study confirmed that the nanoporous crystalline Nb2O5 coating conferred bioactivity and enhanced corrosion resistance on 316L SS.

  18. Hydrometallurgical Separation of Niobium and Tantalum: A Fundamental Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nete, Motlalepula; Purcell, Walter; Nel, Johann T.

    2016-02-01

    A mixture of pure Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 was dissolved using two different fluxes, namely NH4F·HF and Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4·H2O. Selective precipitation and ion exchange were used as separation techniques. Selective precipitation using p-phenylediamine in a fluoride matrix resulted in the isolation of 73(3)% tantalum accompanied by 23(5)% niobium. A separation factor of 11(4) was obtained. A single solvent extraction step using methyl-isobutyl ketone at a 4 M H2SO4 yielded excellent Ta and Nb separation in the fluoride solution with 80% of the Ta and only 2% Nb recovered in the organic layer. A two-step extraction recovered 100% Ta at 0.5-4 M H2SO4 with a separation factor of ~2000. A study of the extraction mechanism indicated that the stability of the protonated compounds such as H2TaF7/H2NbOF5 is in the extraction and separation determining steps in this process. A K' (double de-protonated constant) of approximately 0.2 was calculated for H2TaF7. Only 91.7% Nb and 73.4% Ta were recovered from anion separation using strong Amberlite resin and 96.1% Nb and 52.3% using the weak Dowex Marathon resin from fluoride dissolution.

  19. Pulsed laser deposition of niobium nitride thin films

    SciT

    Farha, Ashraf Hassan, E-mail: ahass006@odu.edu; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E., E-mail: helsayed@odu.edu; Applied Research Center, Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606

    2015-12-04

    Niobium nitride (NbN{sub x}) films were grown on Nb and Si(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. NbN{sub x} films were deposited on Nb substrates using PLD with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm, ∼40 ns pulse width, and 10 Hz repetition rate) at different laser fluences, nitrogen background pressures and deposition substrate temperatures. When all the fabrication parameters are fixed, except for the laser fluence, the surface roughness, nitrogen content, and grain size increase with increasing laser fluence. Increasing nitrogen background pressure leads to a change in the phase structure of the NbN{sub x} films from mixed β-Nb{sub 2}N and cubicmore » δ-NbN phases to single hexagonal β-Nb{sub 2}N. The substrate temperature affects the preferred orientation of the crystal structure. The structural and electronic, properties of NbN{sub x} deposited on Si(100) were also investigated. The NbN{sub x} films exhibited a cubic δ-NbN with a strong (111) orientation. A correlation between surface morphology, electronic, and superconducting properties was found. The observations establish guidelines for adjusting the deposition parameters to achieve the desired NbN{sub x} film morphology and phase.« less

  20. Optoelectronic properties of valence-state-controlled amorphous niobium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onozato, Takaki; Katase, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Katayama, Shota; Matsushima, Koichi; Itagaki, Naho; Yoshida, Hisao; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2016-06-01

    In order to understand the optoelectronic properties of amorphous niobium oxide (a-NbO x ), we have investigated the valence states, local structures, electrical resistivity, and optical absorption of a-NbO x thin films with various oxygen contents. It was found that the valence states of Nb ion in a-NbO x films can be controlled from 5+  to 4+  by reducing oxygen pressure during film deposition at room temperature, together with changing the oxide-ion arrangement around Nb ion from Nb2O5-like to NbO2-like local structure. As a result, a four orders of magnitude reduction in the electrical resistivity of a-NbO x films was observed with decreasing oxygen content, due to the carrier generation caused by the appearance and increase of an oxygen-vacancy-related subgap state working as an electron donor. The tunable optoelectronic properties of a-NbO x films by valence-state-control with oxygen-vacancy formation will be useful for potential flexible optoelectronic device applications.

  1. Tunneling study of SRF cavity-grade niobium.

    SciT

    Proslier, T.; Zasadzinski, J.; Cooley, L.

    Niobium, with its very high H{sub C1}, has been used in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for accelerator systems for 40 years with continual improvement. The quality factor of cavities (Q) is governed by the surface impedance R{sub BCS}, which depends on the quasiparticle gap, delta, and the superfluid density. Both of these parameters are seriously affected by surface imperfections (metallic phases, dissolved oxygen, magnetic impurities). Loss mechanism and surface treatments of Nb cavities found to improve the Q factor are still unsolved mysteries. We present here an overview of the capabilities of the point contact tunneling spectroscopy and Atomicmore » layer deposition methods and how they can help understanding the High field Q-drop and the mild baking effect. Tunneling spectroscopy was performed on Nb pieces from the same processed material used to fabricate SRF cavities. Air exposed, electropolished Nb exhibited a surface superconducting gap Delta = 1.55 meV, characteristic of clean, bulk Nb, however the tunneling density of states (DOS) was broadened significantly. Nb pieces treated with the same mild baking used to improve the Q-slope in SRF cavities revealed a much sharper DOS. Good fits to the DOS are obtained using Shiba theory suggesting that magnetic scattering of quasiparticles is the origin of the degraded surface superconductivity and the Q-slope problem of Nb SRF cavities.« less

  2. Superconducting RF materials other than bulk niobium: a review

    DOE PAGES

    Valente-Feliciano, Anne-Marie

    2016-09-26

    For the last five decades, bulk niobium (Nb) has been the material of choice for Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity applications. Thin film alternatives such as Nb and other higher-Tc materials, mainly Nb compounds and A15 compounds, have been investigated with moderate effort in the past. In recent years, RF cavity performance has approached the theoretical limit for bulk Nb. For further improvement of RF cavity performance for future accelerator projects, research interest is renewed towards alternatives to bulk Nb. Institutions around the world are now investing renewed efforts in the investigation of Nb thin films and superconductors with higher transitionmore » temperature Tc for application to SRF cavities. Our paper gives an overview of the results obtained so far and challenges encountered for Nb films as well as other materials, such as Nb compounds, A15 compounds, MgB2, and oxypnictides, for SRF cavity applications. An interesting alternative using a Superconductor-Insulator- Superconductor multilayer approach has been recently proposed to delay the vortex penetration in Nb surfaces. This could potentially lead to further improvement in RF cavities performance using the benefit of the higher critical field Hc of higher-Tc superconductors without being limited with their lower Hc1.« less

  3. Superconducting RF materials other than bulk niobium: a review

    SciT

    Valente-Feliciano, Anne-Marie

    For the last five decades, bulk niobium (Nb) has been the material of choice for Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity applications. Thin film alternatives such as Nb and other higher-Tc materials, mainly Nb compounds and A15 compounds, have been investigated with moderate effort in the past. In recent years, RF cavity performance has approached the theoretical limit for bulk Nb. For further improvement of RF cavity performance for future accelerator projects, research interest is renewed towards alternatives to bulk Nb. Institutions around the world are now investing renewed efforts in the investigation of Nb thin films and superconductors with higher transitionmore » temperature Tc for application to SRF cavities. Our paper gives an overview of the results obtained so far and challenges encountered for Nb films as well as other materials, such as Nb compounds, A15 compounds, MgB2, and oxypnictides, for SRF cavity applications. An interesting alternative using a Superconductor-Insulator- Superconductor multilayer approach has been recently proposed to delay the vortex penetration in Nb surfaces. This could potentially lead to further improvement in RF cavities performance using the benefit of the higher critical field Hc of higher-Tc superconductors without being limited with their lower Hc1.« less

  4. Transport property correlations for the niobium-1% zirconium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senor, David J.; Thomas, J. Kelly; Peddicord, K. L.

    1990-10-01

    Correlations were developed for the electrical resistivity (ρ), thermal conductivity ( k), and hemispherical total emittance (ɛ) of niobium-1% zirconium as functions of temperature. All three correlations were developed as empirical fits to experimental data. ρ = 5.571 + 4.160 × 10 -2(T) - 4.192 × 10 -6(T) 2 μΩcm , k = 13.16( T) 0.2149W/ mK, ɛ = 6.39 × 10 -2 + 4.98 × 10 -5( T) + 3.62 × 10 -8( T) 2 - 7.28 × 10 -12( T) 3. The relative standard deviation of the electrical resistivity correlation is 1.72% and it is valid over the temperature range 273 to 2700 K. The thermal conductivity correlation has a relative standard deviation of 3.24% and is valid over the temperature range 379 to 1421 K. The hemispherical total emittance correlation was developed for smooth surface materials only and represents a conservative estimate of the emittance of the alloy for space reactor fuel element modeling applications. It has a relative standard deviation of 9.50% and is valid over the temperature range 755 to 2670 K.

  5. Structure and mechanical properties of a multilayer carbide-hardened niobium composite material fabricated by diffusion welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzhov, V. P.; Ershov, A. E.; Stroganova, T. S.; Prokhorov, D. V.

    2016-04-01

    The structure, the bending strength, and the fracture mechanism of an artificial niobium-based composite material, which is fabricated by high-pressure diffusion welding of multilayer stacks assembled from niobium foils with a two-sided carbon coating, are studied. The microstructure of the composite material is found to consist of alternating relatively plastic layers of the solid solution of carbon in niobium and hardening niobium carbide layers. The room-temperature proportional limit of the developed composite material is threefold that of the composite material fabricated from coating-free niobium foils using the proposed technology. The proportional limit of the developed composite material and the stress corresponding to the maximum load at 1100°C are 500 and 560 MPa, respectively. The developed material is considered as an alternative to Ni-Al superalloys.

  6. Understanding Quality Factor Degradation in Superconducting Niobium Cavities at Low Microwave Field Amplitudes

    DOE PAGES

    Romanenko, A.; Schuster, D. I.

    2017-12-28

    In niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for particle acceleration, a decrease of the quality factor at lower fields—a so-called low field Q slope or LFQS—has been a long-standing unexplained effect. By extending the high Q measurement techniques to ultralow fields, we discover two previously unknown features of the effect: (i) saturation at rf fields lower than E acc~0.1 MV/m; (ii) strong degradation enhancement by growing thicker niobium pentoxide. Our findings suggest that the LFQS may be caused by the two level systems in the natural niobium oxide on the inner cavity surface, thereby identifying a new source of residual resistance andmore » providing guidance for potential nonaccelerator low-field applications of SRF cavities.« less

  7. Understanding Quality Factor Degradation in Superconducting Niobium Cavities at Low Microwave Field Amplitudes

    SciT

    Romanenko, A.; Schuster, D. I.

    In niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for particle acceleration, a decrease of the quality factor at lower fields—a so-called low field Q slope or LFQS—has been a long-standing unexplained effect. By extending the high Q measurement techniques to ultralow fields, we discover two previously unknown features of the effect: (i) saturation at rf fields lower than E acc~0.1 MV/m; (ii) strong degradation enhancement by growing thicker niobium pentoxide. Our findings suggest that the LFQS may be caused by the two level systems in the natural niobium oxide on the inner cavity surface, thereby identifying a new source of residual resistance andmore » providing guidance for potential nonaccelerator low-field applications of SRF cavities.« less

  8. Solid - solid and solid - liquid phase transitions of iron and iron alloys under laser shock compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmand, M.; Krygier, A.; Appel, K.; Galtier, E.; Hartley, N.; Konopkova, Z.; Lee, H. J.; McBride, E. E.; Miyanishi, K.; Nagler, B.; Nemausat, R.; Vinci, T.; Zhu, D.; Ozaki, N.; Fiquet, G.

    2017-12-01

    An accurate knowledge of the properties of iron and iron alloys at high pressures and temperatures is crucial for understanding and modelling planetary interiors. While Earth-size and Super-Earth Exoplanets are being discovered in increasingly large numbers, access to detailed information on liquid properties, melting curves and even solid phases of iron and iron at the pressures and temperatures of their interiors is still strongly limited. In this context, XFEL sources coupled with high-energy lasers afford unique opportunities to measure microscopic structural properties at far extreme conditions. Also the achievable time resolution allows the shock history and phase transition mechanisms to be followed during laser compression, improving our understanding of the high pressure and high strain experiments. Here we present recent studies devoted to investigate the solid-solid and solid-liquid transition in laser-shocked iron and iron alloys (Fe-Si, Fe-C and Fe-O alloys) using X-ray diffraction and X-ray diffuse scattering. Experiment were performed at the MEC end-station of the LCLS facility at SLAC (USA). Detection of the diffuse scattering allowed the identification of the first liquid peak position along the Hugoniot, up to 4 Mbar. The time resolution shows ultrafast (between several tens and several hundreds of picoseconds) solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transitions. Future developments at XFEL facilities will enable detailed studies of the solid and liquid structures of iron and iron alloys as well as out-of-Hugoniot studies.

  9. Phase Relations of Iron and Iron-Nickel Alloys up to 3 Mbars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Y.; Hirose, K.; Sata, N.; Ohishi, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Iron is believed to be the major component of the Earth's core because it is the most abundant element that satisfies the observed seismic densities. Based on cosmochemical models and the studies of iron meteorites, it is generally accepted that the Earth's core also contains substantial amounts of nickel. Therefore, the high pressure behaviour of iron-nickel alloys is crucially important for interpreting and constraining geophysical and geochemical models of the Earth's core. The phase relation of iron at relatively low pressure has been well established. α-Fe with bcc structure at ambient condition transforms to γ-Fe at high temperature and to ɛ-Fe with hcp structure at above ~ 10 GPa. In contrast, the phase relation and the crystal structure at high pressure and temperature are still highly controversial. The phase relations of iron-nickel alloys were also studied in an externally-heated diamond-anvil cell (Huang et al. 1988, 1992) and in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell (Lin et al. 2002, Mao et al. 2005, Dubrovinsky et al. 2007), but these experiments were limited to the pressure of 225 GPa. Applications of the previous results to the Earth's inner core conditions required significant extrapolations. In this study, we have investigated the phase relations of iron and a number of iron-nickel alloys in a wide range of pressures (>300 GPa), temperatures (>2000 K) and compositions (0-80 wt% Ni) using a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell with synchrotron x-ray diffraction. For iron, in-situ x-ray diffraction studies showed a wide range of stability of ɛ-Fe with an hcp structure up to 300 GPa and 2000 K and up to 343 GPa at room temperature. No evidence for the existence of phases other than ɛ-Fe, such as β-Fe with a dhcp structure (suggested by Dubrovinsky et al. 2000) or orthorhombic structure (suggested by Andrault et al. 1997), was observed. For iron-nickel alloys, high pressure and temperature experiments were conducted on Fe-18.4 wt% Ni, Fe-24.9 wt% Ni, Fe

  10. Earth Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Steve

    1985-01-01

    In our human-centered ignorance and arrogance we are rapidly destroying the earth. We must start helping people understand the big picture of ecological concepts. What these concepts mean for our own lives and how we must begin to change our lifestyles in order to live more harmoniously with the earth. (JHZ)

  11. Earth Science

    1976-01-01

    The LAGEOS I (Laser Geodynamics Satellite) was developed and launched by the Marshall Space Flight Center on May 4, 1976 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California . The two-foot diameter satellite orbited the Earth from pole to pole and measured the movements of the Earth's surface.

  12. Immune Cells and Microbiota Response to Iron Starvation.

    PubMed

    Chieppa, Marcello; Giannelli, Gianluigi

    2018-01-01

    Metal ions are essential for life on Earth, mostly as crucial components of all living organisms; indeed, they are necessary for bioenergetics functions as crucial redox catalysts. Due to the essential role of iron in biological processes, body iron content is finely regulated and is the battlefield of a tug-of-war between the host and the microbiota.

  13. Dependence of the microwave surface resistance of superconducting niobium on the magnitude of the rf field

    SciT

    Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A.

    Utilizing difference in temperature dependencies we decoupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and residual components of the microwave surface resistance of superconducting niobium at all rf fields up to B{sub rf}{approx}115 mT. We reveal that the residual resistance decreases with field at B{sub rf} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 40 mT and strongly increases in chemically treated niobium at B{sub rf}>80 mT. We find that BCS surface resistance is weakly dependent on field in the clean limit, whereas a strong and peculiar field dependence emerges after 120 Degree-Sign C vacuum baking.

  14. PHYSICOCHEMICAL INTERACTION OF MANGANESE WITH NIOBIUM (in Russian)

    SciT

    Savitskii, E.M.; Kopetskii, Ch.V.

    1960-03-01

    Microstructural, x-ray phase, and thermal analyses as well as hardness and microhardness determinations were performed on different manganese alloys containing 2.26, with a small Nb content have a two-phase structure characteristic of a eutectic. With increasing Nb content, an increasing amount of an intermetallic compound is formed. With a 2.98 wt.% Nb alloy interference lines of only alpha -Mn with a lattice parameter a = 8.892 kX in the annealed state or of ore resistant t -Mn with a lattice parameter a = 6.290 kX in the molten state can be detected by x-ray analysis. With 5.64 wt.% Nb, linesmore » of a new phase can be detected whose intensities increase with increasing Nb content. This new phase is an intermetallic compound Mn/sub 2/Nb Laves phase with a structure of the MgZn/sub 2/ type. The lattice parameters of the Mn/sub 2/Nb phase are: a = 4.881 kX, c = 7.953 kX, c/a = 1.629. With increasing niobium content the hardness values fall from 900 to 950 hg/mm/sup 2/ for pure manganese to 650 to 700 kg/mm/sup 2/ for the 29.85 wt.% niobium alloy. The hardness of the intermetallic compound is less than the hardness of the alpha -Mn. Thermal analysis showed that additions of niobium to manganese significantly increased the temperature of the alpha = ore resistant t transition which is shifted from 727 tained C for pure manganese to 800 tained C for the alloys. A ore resistant t transition takes place at 1135 tained C by a peritectic reaction. Fusion of a eutectic mixture of -Mn and Mn/sub 2/ Nb occurs at 1220 tained C. The intermetallic compound MnNb melts at 1500 tained C. A phase diagram for the Mn-Nb system is constructed on the basis of these resuits. (TTT) Iodide-derived titanium (99.97%) and neodymium (99.8%) were fused in an electric arc furnace in a helium atmosphere to prepare nine alloys with a necdymium content of 0 to 10%. Smelted and forged samples were annealed in evacuated quartz ampoules for 25 hours at 1000 tained C and 100 hours at 850 tained C

  15. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Panelists pose for a group photo at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  16. Iron and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... get iron by eating foods like meat and dark green leafy vegetables. Iron is also added to ... tofu dried beans and peas dried fruits leafy dark green vegetables iron-fortified breakfast cereals, breads, and ...

  17. Iron and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Angela V; Craig, Winston J; Baines, Surinder K; Posen, Jennifer S

    2013-08-19

    Vegetarians who eat a varied and well balanced diet are not at any greater risk of iron deficiency anaemia than non-vegetarians. A diet rich in wholegrains, legumes, nuts, seeds, dried fruits, iron-fortified cereals and green leafy vegetables provides an adequate iron intake. Vitamin C and other organic acids enhance non-haem iron absorption, a process that is carefully regulated by the gut. People with low iron stores or higher physiological need for iron will tend to absorb more iron and excrete less. Research to date on iron absorption has not been designed to accurately measure absorption rates in typical Western vegetarians with low ferritin levels.

  18. Iron chemistry at the service of life.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Manu; Sabio, Laura; Gálvez, Natividad; Capdevila, Mercè; Dominguez-Vera, Jose M

    2017-06-01

    Iron is an essential element for almost all organisms on Earth. It is necessary for a number of crucial processes such as hemoglobin and myoglobin transport and storage of oxygen in mammals; electron transfer support in a variety of iron-sulfur protein or cytochrome reactions; and activation and catalysis of reactions of a wide range of substrate like alkanes, olefins, and alcohols. Living organisms adopted iron as the main metal to carry out all of these functions due to the rich coordination chemistry of its two main redox states, Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ , and because of its abundance in the Earth's crust and oceans. This paper presents an overview of the coordination chemistry of iron that makes it suitable for a large variety of functions within biological systems. Despite iron's chemical advantages, organisms were forced to manage with some drawbacks: Fe 3+ insolubility and the formation of toxic radicals, especially the hydroxyl radical. Iron chemistry within biology is an example of how organisms evolved by creating molecular machinery to overcome these difficulties and perform crucial processes with extraordinary elegance and efficiency. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(6):382-388, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. Niobium Solar Mobile Project — High Strength Niobium Microalloyed Steel as a Solution to Improve Electric Super Scooter and Motorcycle Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Terry; Kauppi, Erik; Flanagan, Lauren; Ribeio, Eduardo A. A. G.; Nogueira, Marcos A. Stuart; McCourtney, Ian

    This paper presents the advantages of replacing mild steel with high strength niobium microalloyed steel in the structure of Electric Super Scooters, Electric Cargo Motorcycles and Solar Charging Stations. The Mini-Fleet-in-a-Box concept was developed by Current Motor to guarantee mobility, efficiency and solar generated electricity. With the adoption of niobium microalloyed high strength steel for more than 90% of the Super Scooter and Motorcycle structures, it was possible to redesign the frame, resulting in a 31% weight reduction and a very modern and functional body. Together with a new powertrain, these changes were responsible for increasing Motorcycle autonomy by more than 15%, depending on average speed. The new frame design reduced the number of high strain points in the frame, increasing the safety of the project. The Solar Charging Station was built using the container concept and designed with high strength niobium microalloyed steel, which resulted in a weight reduction of 25%. CBMM's facility in Araxá, Brazil was selected in the second half of 2013 as the demonstration site to test the efficiency of the Super Scooter and Solar Charging Station. Each Super Scooter has run more than 2,000 km maintenance-free with an autonomy of more than 100 km per charge.

  20. Earth Observation

    2013-08-20

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Looking southwest over northern Africa. Libya, Algeria, Niger.

  1. Earth Observation

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. On crewmember's Flickr page - Look straight down into an aurora.

  2. Earth Observation

    2014-06-07

    ISS040-E-008174 (7 June 2014) --- Layers of Earth's atmosphere, brightly colored as the sun rises, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  3. Earth Observation

    2014-06-02

    ISS040-E-006817 (2 June 2014) --- Intersecting the thin line of Earth's atmosphere, International Space Station solar array wings are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station.

  4. Earth Science

    1992-07-18

    Workers at Launch Complex 17 Pad A, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) encapsulate the Geomagnetic Tail (GEOTAIL) spacecraft (upper) and attached payload Assist Module-D upper stage (lower) in the protective payload fairing. GEOTAIL project was designed to study the effects of Earth's magnetic field. The solar wind draws the Earth's magnetic field into a long tail on the night side of the Earth and stores energy in the stretched field lines of the magnetotail. During active periods, the tail couples with the near-Earth magnetosphere, sometimes releasing energy stored in the tail and activating auroras in the polar ionosphere. GEOTAIL measures the flow of energy and its transformation in the magnetotail and will help clarify the mechanisms that control the imput, transport, storage, release, and conversion of mass, momentum, and energy in the magnetotail.

  5. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  6. Earth Observation

    2014-05-31

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: CEO - Arena de Sao Paolo. View used for Twitter message: Cloudy skies over São Paulo Brazil

  7. Earth Observation

    2013-07-26

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Never tire of finding shapes in the clouds! These look very botanical to me. Simply perfect.

  8. Earth Observation

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of a solar array is also visible.

  9. Earth Science

    1990-10-24

    Solar Vector Magnetograph is used to predict solar flares, and other activities associated with sun spots. This research provides new understanding about weather on the Earth, and solar-related conditions in orbit.

  10. Earth Observation

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: Perhaps a dandelion losing its seeds in the wind? Love clouds!

  11. Earth Observation

    2014-06-27

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Part of Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is visible. Folder lists this as: the Middle East, Israel.

  12. Earth Observations

    2010-06-16

    ISS024-E-006136 (16 June 2010) --- Polar mesospheric clouds, illuminated by an orbital sunrise, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. Polar mesospheric, or noctilucent (?night shining?), clouds are observed from both Earth?s surface and in orbit by crew members aboard the space station. They are called night-shining clouds as they are usually seen at twilight. Following the setting of the sun below the horizon and darkening of Earth?s surface, these high clouds are still briefly illuminated by sunlight. Occasionally the ISS orbital track becomes nearly parallel to Earth?s day/night terminator for a time, allowing polar mesospheric clouds to be visible to the crew at times other than the usual twilight due to the space station altitude. This unusual photograph shows polar mesospheric clouds illuminated by the rising, rather than setting, sun at center right. Low clouds on the horizon appear yellow and orange, while higher clouds and aerosols are illuminated a brilliant white. Polar mesospheric clouds appear as light blue ribbons extending across the top of the image. These clouds typically occur at high latitudes of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and at fairly high altitudes of 76?85 kilometers (near the boundary between the mesosphere and thermosphere atmospheric layers). The ISS was located over the Greek island of Kos in the Aegean Sea (near the southwestern coastline of Turkey) when the image was taken at approximately midnight local time. The orbital complex was tracking northeastward, nearly parallel to the terminator, making it possible to observe an apparent ?sunrise? located almost due north. A similar unusual alignment of the ISS orbit track, terminator position, and seasonal position of Earth?s orbit around the sun allowed for striking imagery of polar mesospheric clouds over the Southern Hemisphere earlier this year.

  13. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  14. Niobium oxide nanocolumns formed via anodic alumina with modulated pore diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pligovka, A.; Zakhlebayeva, A.; Lazavenka, A.

    2018-03-01

    Niobium oxide nanocolumns with modulated diameters were formed for the first time. An Al/Nb bilayer specimen was prepared by successive sputter-deposition of 300 nm niobium layer and 1200 nm aluminum layer onto silicon wafer. Regular anodic alumina matrix with modulated pore diameters was formed by sequential anodization of initial specimen in tartaric acid at 180 V, and in oxalic acid at 37 V. Further potentiodynamic reanodization of the specimen up to 400 V causes the simultaneous growth of 440 nm continuous niobium oxide layer beneath the alumina film and two types of an array of oxide nanocolumns (thick – with 100 nm width and 630 nm high and thin – with 25 nm width and 170 nm high), which are the filling of the alumina pores. The morphology of the formed anodic niobium oxide nanocolumns with modulated diameters was determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The formed nanostructures can be used for perspective devices of nano- and optoelectronics such as photonic crystals.

  15. Effect of interstitial impurities on the field dependent microwave surface resistance of niobium

    SciT

    Martinello, M., E-mail: mmartine@fnal.gov; Checchin, M.; Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616

    Previous work has demonstrated that the radio frequency surface resistance of niobium resonators is dramatically reduced when nitrogen impurities are dissolved as interstitial in the material. This effect is attributed to the lowering of the Mattis-Bardeen surface resistance with increasing accelerating field; however, the microscopic origin of this phenomenon is poorly understood. Meanwhile, an enhancement of the sensitivity to trapped magnetic field is typically observed for such cavities. In this paper, we conduct a systematic study on these different components contributing to the total surface resistance as a function of different levels of dissolved nitrogen, in comparison with standard surfacemore » treatments for niobium resonators. Adding these results together, we are able to show which is the optimum surface treatment that maximizes the Q-factor of superconducting niobium resonators as a function of expected trapped magnetic field in the cavity walls. These results also provide insights on the physics behind the change in the field dependence of the Mattis-Bardeen surface resistance, and of the trapped magnetic vortex induced losses in superconducting niobium resonators.« less

  16. Examination of total cross section resonance structure of niobium and silicon in neutron transmission experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrianova, Olga; Lomakov, Gleb; Manturov, Gennady

    2017-09-01

    The neutron transmission experiments are one of the main sources of information about the neutron cross section resonance structure and effect in the self-shielding. Such kind of data for niobium and silicon nuclides in energy range 7 keV to 3 MeV can be obtained from low-resolution transmission measurements performed earlier in Russia (with samples of 0.027 to 0.871 atom/barn for niobium and 0.076 to 1.803 atom/barn for silicon). A significant calculation-to-experiment discrepancy in energy range 100 to 600 keV and 300 to 800 keV for niobium and silicon, respectively, obtained using the evaluated nuclear data library ROSFOND, were found. The EVPAR code was used for estimation the average resonance parameters in energy range 7 to 600 keV for niobium. For silicon a stochastic optimization method was used to modify the resolved resonance parameters in energy range 300 to 800 keV. The improved ROSFOND evaluated nuclear data files were tested in calculation of ICSBEP integral benchmark experiments.

  17. Long range ordered alloys modified by addition of niobium and cerium

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    1984-08-22

    Long range ordered alloys are described having the nominal composition (Fe,Ni,Co)/sub 3/ (V,M) where M is a ductility enhancing metal selected from the group Ti, Zr, Hf with additions of small amounts of cerium and niobium to dramatically enhance the creep properties of the resulting alloys.

  18. Superconducting 500 MHz accelerating copper cavities sputter-coated with niobium films

    SciT

    Benvenuti, C.; Circelli, N.; Hauer, M.

    Thermal breakdown induced either by electron loading or by local defects of enhanced RF losses limits the accelerating field of superconducting niobium cavities. Replacing niobium with a material of higher thermal conductivity would be highly desirable to increase the maximum field. Therefore, cavities made of OFHC copper were coated by D.C. bias sputtering with a thin niobium film (1.5 to 5 ..mu..). Accelerating fields up to 8.6 MVm/sup -1/ were obtained without observing any field breakdown, the limitation being due to the available rf power. The Q values achieved at 4.2 K and low field were similar to those ofmore » niobium sheet cavities (i.e. about 2 x 10/sup 9/), but a fast initial decrease of Q to about 10/sup 9/ was reproducibly experienced. Subsequent inspection of regions of enhanced rf losses revealed defects the origin of which is under study. The apparatus used for coating the cavities and the results obtained are presented and discussed.« less

  19. Characterization of high-purity niobium structures fabricated using the electron beam melting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrazas Najera, Cesar Adrian

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to the varied set of technologies utilized for the fabrication of complex 3D components from digital data in a layer-by-layer fashion. The use of these technologies promises to revolutionize the manufacturing industry. The electron beam melting (EBM) process has been utilized for the fabrication of fully dense near-net-shape components from various metallic materials. This process, catalogued as a powder bed fusion technology, consists of the deposition of thin layers (50 - 120microm) of metallic powder particles which are fused by the use of a high energy electron beam and has been commercialized by Swedish company Arcam AB. Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities are key components that are used in linear accelerators and other light sources for studies of elemental physics. Currently, cavity fabrication is done by employing different forming processes including deep-drawing and spinning. In both of the latter techniques, a feedstock high-purity niobium sheet with a thickness ranging from 3-4 mm is mechanically deformed and shaped into the desired geometry. In this manner, half cavities are formed that are later joined by electron beam welding (EBW). The welding step causes variability in the shape of the cavity and can also introduce impurities at the surface of the weld interface. The processing route and the purity of niobium are also of utmost importance since the presence of impurities such as inclusions or defects can be detrimental for the SRF properties of cavities. The focus of this research was the use of the EBM process in the manufacture of high purity niobium parts with potential SRF applications. Reactor grade niobium was plasma atomized and used as the precursor material for fabrication using EBM. An Arcam A2 system was utilized for the fabrication. The system had all internal components of the fabrication chamber replaced and was cleaned to prevent contamination of niobium powder. A mini-vat, developed at

  20. Long range ordered alloys modified by addition of niobium and cerium

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    1987-01-01

    Long range ordered alloys are described having the nominal composition (Fe,Ni,Co).sub.3 (V,M) where M is a ductility enhancing metal selected from the group Ti, Zr, Hf with additions of small amounts of cerium and niobium to drammatically enhance the creep properties of the resulting alloys.

  1. Iron, ferritin, and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Theil, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    Ferritin, a major form of endogenous iron in food legumes such as soybeans, is a novel and natural alternative for iron supplementation strategies where effectiveness is limited by acceptability, cost, or undesirable side effects. A member of the nonheme iron group of dietary iron sources, ferritin is a complex with Fe3+ iron in a mineral (thousands of iron atoms inside a protein cage) protected from complexation. Ferritin illustrates the wide range of chemical and biological properties among nonheme iron sources. The wide range of nonheme iron receptors matched to the structure of the iron complexes that occurs in microorganisms may, by analogy, exist in humans. An understanding of the chemistry and biology of each type of dietary iron source (ferritin, heme, Fe2+ ion, etc.), and of the interactions dependent on food sources, genes, and gender, is required to design diets that will eradicate global iron deficiency in the twenty-first century.

  2. Surface polishing of niobium for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity applications

    SciT

    Zhao, Liang

    2014-08-01

    Niobium cavities are important components in modern particle accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) technology. The interior of SRF cavities are cleaned and polished in order to produce high accelerating field and low power dissipation on the cavity wall. Current polishing methods, buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and electro-polishing (EP), have their advantages and limitations. We seek to improve current methods and explore laser polishing (LP) as a greener alternative of chemical methods. The topography and removal rate of BCP at different conditions (duration, temperature, sample orientation, flow rate) was studied with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electronmore » backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Differential etching on different crystal orientations is the main contributor to fine grain niobium BCP topography, with gas evolution playing a secondary role. The surface of single crystal and bi-crystal niobium is smooth even after heavy BCP. The topography of fine grain niobium depends on total removal. The removal rate increases with temperature and surface acid flow rate within the rage of 0~20 °C, with chemical reaction being the possible dominate rate control mechanism. Surface flow helps to regulate temperature and avoid gas accumulation on the surface. The effect of surface flow rate on niobium EP was studied with optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Within the range of 0~3.7 cm/s, no significant difference was found on the removal rate and the macro roughness. Possible improvement on the micro roughness with increased surface flow rate was observed. The effect of fluence and pulse accumulation on niobium topography during LP was studied with optical microscopy, SEM, AFM, and PSD analysis. Polishing on micro scale was achieved within fluence range of 0.57~0.90 J/cm2, with pulse accumulation adjusted accordingly. Larger area treatment was proved

  3. Laser nitriding for niobium superconducting radio-frequency accelerator cavities

    SciT

    Senthilraja Singaravelu, John Klopf, Gwyn Williams, Michael Kelley

    2010-10-01

    Particle accelerators are a key tool for scientific research ranging from fundamental studies of matter to analytical studies at light sources. Cost-forperformance is critical, both in terms of initial capital outlay and ongoing operating expense, especially for electricity. It depends on the niobium superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities at the heart of most of these machines. Presently Nb SRF cavities operate near 1.9 K, well (and expensively) below the 4.2 K atmospheric boiling point of liquid He. Transforming the 40 nm thick active interior surface layer from Nb to delta NbN (Tc = 17 K instead of 9.2 K) appearsmore » to be a promising approach. Traditional furnace nitriding appears to have not been successful for this. Further, exposing a complete SRF cavity to the time-temperature history required for nitriding risks mechanical distortion. Gas laser nitriding instead has been applied successfully to other metals [P.Schaaf, Prog. Mat. Sci. 47 (2002) 1]. The beam dimensions and thermal diffusion length permit modeling in one dimension to predict the time course of the surface temperature for a range of per-pulse energy densities. As with the earlier work, we chose conditions just sufficient for boiling as a reference point. We used a Spectra Physics HIPPO nanosecond laser (l = 1064 nm, Emax= 0.392 mJ, beam spot@ 34 microns, PRF =15 – 30 kHz) to obtain an incident fluence of 1.73 - 2.15 J/cm2 for each laser pulse at the target. The target was a 50 mm diameter SRF-grade Nb disk maintained in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of 550 – 625 torr and rotated at a constant speed of 9 rpm. The materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM images show a sharp transition with fluence from a smooth, undulating topography to significant roughening, interpreted here as the onset of ablation. EPMA measurements of N/Nb atom ratio as a function of depth found a

  4. Magnetic field of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws

  5. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  6. A model for Cryogenian iron formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Grant M.; Halverson, Galen P.; Poirier, André; Le Heron, Daniel; Strauss, Justin V.; Stevenson, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Tatonduk (Alaska) and Holowilena (South Australia) iron formations share many characteristics including their broadly coeval (Sturtian) ages, intimate association with glaciogenic sediments, and mineralogy. We show that these shared characteristics extend to their neodymium (εNd) and iron isotope (δ56Fe) systematics. In both regions δ56Fe values display a distinct up-section trend to isotopically heavier values, while εNd values are primitive and similar to non-ferruginous mudstones within these successions. The δ56Fe profiles are consistent with oxidation of ferruginous waters during marine transgression, and the εNd values imply that much of this iron was sourced from the leaching of continental margin sediments largely derived from continental flood basalts. Rare earth element data indicate a secondary hydrothermal source for this iron.

  7. Effect of niobium content on the microstructure and thermal properties of fluorapatite glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Denry, I L; Holloway, J A; Nakkula, R J; Walters, J D

    2005-10-01

    Niobium oxide has been shown to improve biocompatibility and promote bioactivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of niobium oxide additions on the microstructure and thermal properties of fluorapatite glass-ceramics for biomedical applications. Four glass-ceramic compositions with increasing amounts of niobium oxide from 0 to 5 wt % were prepared. The glass compositions were melted at 1,525 degrees C for 3 h, quenched, ground, melted again at 1,525 degrees C for 3 h and furnace cooled. The coefficient of thermal expansion was measured by dilatometry. The crystallization behavior was evaluated by differential thermal analysis. The nature of the crystalline phases was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The microstructure was studied by SEM. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the ceramics was evaluated according to the ASTM standard F895--84. The results from X-ray diffraction analyses showed that fluorapatite was the major crystalline phase in all glass-ceramics. Differential thermal analyses revealed that fluorapatite crystallization occurred between 800 and 934 degrees C depending on the composition. The coefficient of thermal expansion varied from 7.6 to 9.4 x 10(-6)/ degrees C. The microstructure after heat treatment at 975 degrees C for 30 min consisted of submicroscopic fluorapatite crystals (200--300 nm) for all niobium-containing glass-ceramics, whereas the niobium-free glass-ceramic contained needle-shaped fluorapatite crystals, 2 microm in length. None of the glass-ceramics tested exhibited any cytotoxic activity as tested by ASTM standard F895--84. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2005.

  8. New porous titanium–niobium oxide for photocatalytic degradation of bromocresol green dye in aqueous solution

    SciT

    Chaleshtori, Maryam Zarei, E-mail: mzarei@utep.edu; Hosseini, Mahsa; Edalatpour, Roya

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic activity of different porous titanium–niobium oxides was evaluated toward degradation of bromocresol green (BG) under UV light. A better catalytic activity was observed for all samples at lower pH. Catalysts have a stronger ability for degradation of BG in acid media than in alkaline media. - Highlights: • Different highly structured titanium–niobium oxides have been prepared using improved methods of synthesis. • Photo-degradation of bromocresol green dye (BG) with nanostructure titanium–niobium oxide catalysts was carried out under UV light. • The photo-catalytic activity of all catalysts was higher in lower pH. • Titanium–niobium oxide catalysts aremore » considerably stable and reusable. - Abstract: In this study, high surface area semiconductors, non porous and porous titanium–niobium oxides derived from KTiNbO{sub 5} were synthesized, characterized and developed for their utility as photocatalysts for decontamination with sunlight. These materials were then used in the photocatalytic degradation of bromocresol green dye (BG) in aqueous solution using UV light and their catalytic activities were evaluated at various pHs. For all catalysts, the photocatalytic degradation of BG was most efficient in acidic solutions. Results show that the new porous oxides have large porous and high surface areas and high catalytic activity. A topotactic dehydration treatment greatly improves catalyst performance at various pHs. Stability and long term activity of porous materials (topo and non-topo) in photocatalysis reactions was also tested. These results suggest that the new materials can be used to efficiently purify contaminated water.« less

  9. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Panelists discuss how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  10. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist, Planetary Science Institute, moderates a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and highlighted how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  11. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    An audience member asks the panelists a question at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  12. Thorium and rare earth minerals in the Powderhorn district, Gunnison County, Colorado

    Olson, Jerry C.; Wallace, Stewart R.

    1954-01-01

    Thorium has been found since 1949 in at least 33 deposits in an area 6 miles wide and 20 miles long in the Powderhorn district, Gunnison County, Colo. The district is composed largely of pre-Jurassic metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are chiefly if not entirely pre-Cambrian in age. The metamorphic and igneous rocks are overlain by sandstone of the Morrison formation of Jurassic age, and by volcanic rocks of the Alboroto group and Hinsdale formation of Miocene and Pliocene (?) age, respectively. The thorium deposits occur in or near alkalic igneous rocks in which such elements as titanium, rare earths, barium, strontium, and niobium occur in greater-than-average amounts. The greatest mass of the alkalic igneous rocks the Iron Hill composite stoc,- occupies an area of 12 square miles in the southeastern part of the district. The age of the thorium deposits, like that of the alkalic igneous rocks, is not known other than pre-Jurassic. The thorium veins and mineralized shear zones range from a few inches to 18 feet in thickness and from a few feet to 3,500 feet in length. The veins are composed of calcite,.dolomite, siderite, ankerite, quartz, barite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, goethite,. apatite, alkali feldspar, and many other minerals. The thorium occurs at least partly in thorite or hydrothorite. Sparse xenotime has been tentatively identified in one deposit. Several minerals containing rare earths of the cerium group as major constituents are found in carbonate veins near Iron Hill. Bastnaesite has been identified by X-ray methods, and cerite and synchisite are probably present also.The fluorapatite in some veins and in parts of the carbonate rock mass that occupies 2 square miles in the central part of the Iron Hill complex contains rare earths of the cerium group, generally in amounts of a fraction of a percent of the rock. The radioactivity of the deposits appears to be due almost entirely to thorium and its daughter products The ThO2 content of selected

  13. Iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  14. Iron homeostasis in plants - a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Connorton, James M; Balk, Janneke; Rodríguez-Celma, Jorge

    2017-07-19

    Iron plays a crucial role in biochemistry and is an essential micronutrient for plants and humans alike. Although plentiful in the Earth's crust it is not usually found in a form readily accessible for plants to use. They must therefore sense and interact with their environment, and have evolved two different molecular strategies to take up iron in the root. Once inside, iron is complexed with chelators and distributed to sink tissues where it is used predominantly in the production of enzyme cofactors or components of electron transport chains. The processes of iron uptake, distribution and metabolism are overseen by tight regulatory mechanisms, at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, to avoid iron concentrations building to toxic excess. Iron is also loaded into seeds, where it is stored in vacuoles or in ferritin. This is important for human nutrition as seeds form the edible parts of many crop species. As such, increasing iron in seeds and other tissues is a major goal for biofortification efforts by both traditional breeding and biotechnological approaches.

  15. Earth Science

    1994-03-08

    Workers at the Astrotech processing facility in Titusville prepared for a news media showing of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-1 (GOES-1). GOES-1 was the first in a new generation of weather satellites deployed above Earth. It was the first 3-axis, body-stabilized meteorological satellite to be used by the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA. These features allowed GOES-1 to continuously monitor the Earth, rather than viewing it just five percent of the time as was the case with spin-stabilized meteorological satellites. GOES-1 also has independent imaging and sounding instruments which can operate simultaneously yet independently. As a result, observations provided by each instrument will not be interrupted. The imager produces visual and infrared images of the Earth's surface, oceans, cloud cover and severe storm development, while the prime sounding products include vertical temperature and moisture profiles, and layer mean moisture.

  16. Earth Science

    1994-09-02

    This image depicts a full view of the Earth, taken by the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES-8). The red and green charnels represent visible data, while the blue channel represents inverted 11 micron infrared data. The north and south poles were not actually observed by GOES-8. To produce this image, poles were taken from a GOES-7 image. Owned and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), GOES satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. They circle the Earth in a geosynchronous orbit, which means they orbit the equatorial plane of the Earth at a speed matching the Earth's rotation. This allows them to hover continuously over one position on the surface. The geosynchronous plane is about 35,800 km (22,300 miles) above the Earth, high enough to allow the satellites a full-disc view of the Earth. Because they stay above a fixed spot on the surface, they provide a constant vigil for the atmospheric triggers for severe weather conditions such as tornadoes, flash floods, hail storms, and hurricanes. When these conditions develop, the GOES satellites are able to monitor storm development and track their movements. NASA manages the design and launch of the spacecraft. NASA launched the first GOES for NOAA in 1975 and followed it with another in 1977. Currently, the United States is operating GOES-8, positioned at 75 west longitude and the equator, and GOES-10, which is positioned at 135 west longitude and the equator. (GOES-9, which malfunctioned in 1998, is being stored in orbit as an emergency backup should either GOES-8 or GOES-10 fail. GOES-11 was launched on May 3, 2000 and GOES-12 on July 23, 2001. Both are being stored in orbit as a fully functioning replacement for GOES-8 or GOES-10 on failure.

  17. Earth Observation

    2010-08-23

    ISS024-E-016042 (23 Aug. 2010) --- This night time view captured by one of the Expedition 24 crew members aboard the International Space Station some 220 miles above Earth is looking southward from central Romania over the Aegean Sea toward Greece and it includes Thessaloniki (near center), the larger bright mass of Athens (left center), and the Macedonian capital of Skopje (lower right). Center point coordinates of the area pictured are 46.4 degrees north latitude and 25.5 degrees east longitude. The picture was taken in August and was physically brought back to Earth on a disk with the return of the Expedition 25 crew in November 2010.

  18. Earth Observation

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070412 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 panorama featuring wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. (Note: south is at the top of the frame). The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above Earth at the time of the photo. Parts of Oregon and Washington are included in the scene. Mt. Jefferson, Three Sisters and Mt. St. Helens are all snow-capped and visible in the photo, and the Columbia River can also be delineated.

  19. Earth Observation

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070424 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 image of wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above Earth at the time of the photo. Lightning has been given as the cause of the Ochoco Complex fires in the Ochoco National Forest in central Oregon. The complex has gotten larger since this photo was taken.

  20. Earth observation

    2014-09-04

    ISS040-E-129950 (4 Sept. 2014) --- In this photograph. taken by one of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, the orange spot located in the very center is the sun, which appears to be sitting on Earth's limb. At far right, a small bright spot is believed to be a reflection from somewhere in the camera system or something on the orbital outpost. When the photographed was exposed, the orbital outpost was flying at an altutude of 226 nautical miles above a point near French Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean.

  1. Earth Science

    2004-08-13

    This panoramic view of Hurricane Charley was photographed by the Expedition 9 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) on August 13, 2004, at a vantage point just north of Tampa, Florida. The small eye was not visible in this view, but the raised cloud tops near the center coincide roughly with the time that the storm began to rapidly strengthen. The category 2 hurricane was moving north-northwest at 18 mph packing winds of 105 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  2. Earth Science

    2004-09-11

    This image hosts a look at the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm topped the western Caribbean Sea on Saturday, September 11, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, the category 5 storm sustained winds in the eye of the wall that were reported at about 160 mph. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  3. Earth Science

    2004-09-15

    Except for a small portion of the International Space Station (ISS) in the foreground, Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, fills this image over the northern Gulf of Mexico. As the downgraded category 4 storm approached landfall on the Alabama coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the ISS at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  4. Earth Science

    2004-09-15

    This image hosts a look into the eye of Hurricane Ivan, one of the strongest hurricanes on record, as the storm approached landfall on the central Gulf coast Wednesday afternoon on September 15, 2004. The hurricane was photographed by astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke from aboard the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of approximately 230 miles. At the time, sustained winds in the eye of the wall were reported at about 135 mph as the downgraded category 4 storm approached the Alabama coast. Crew Earth Observations record Earth surface changes over time, as well as more fleeting events such as storms, floods, fires, and volcanic eruptions.

  5. Electrochemical Deposition of Niobium onto the Surface of Copper Using a Novel Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid

    SciT

    Wixtroma, Alex I.; Buhlera, Jessica E.; Reece, Charles E.

    2013-06-01

    Recent research has shown that choline chloride-based solutions can be used to replace acid-based electrochemical polishing solutions. In this study niobium metal was successfully deposited on the surface of copper substrate via electrochemical deposition using a novel choline chloride-based ionic liquid. The niobium metal used for deposition on the Cu had been dissolved in the solution from electrochemical polishing of a solid niobium piece prior to the deposition. The visible coating on the surface of the Cu was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This deposition method effectively recycles previously dissolved niobium from electrochemicalmore » polishing.« less

  6. Rare-Earth Metals and Their Applications in Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    metals are not as common as iron and steel which are visible everywhere, yet they are not unfamiliar to us. We often encounter them in everyday life...the flint of a lighter. It is an alloy of rare-earth metal and iron . It contains about 30% iron and the remainder is a composite rare-earth alloy...used to manufacture the detonators of bullets and shells as well as the pyrophoric alloys of firing devices. This type of alloy has a 49.5% content of

  7. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  8. High strength nickel-chromium-iron austenitic alloy

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, Robert C.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1980-01-01

    A solid solution strengthened Ni-Cr-Fe alloy capable of retaining its strength at high temperatures and consisting essentially of 42 to 48% nickel, 11 to 13% chromium, 2.6 to 3.4% niobium, 0.2 to 1.2% silicon, 0.5 to 1.5% vanadium, 2.6 to 3.4% molybdenum, 0.1 to 0.3% aluminum, 0.1 to 0.3% titanium, 0.02 to 0.05% carbon, 0.002 to 0.015% boron, up to 0.06 zirconium, and the balance iron. After solution annealing at 1038.degree. C. for one hour, the alloy, when heated to a temperature of 650.degree. C., has a 2% yield strength of 307 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 513 MPa and a rupture strength of as high as 400 MPa after 100 hours.

  9. Earth Observation

    2014-08-10

    ISS040-E-091158 (10 Aug. 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members 225 nautical miles above Earth onboard the International Space Station used a 200mm lens to record this image of Hawke's Bay, New Zealand on Aug. 10, 2014. Napier and the bay area's most populous area are at bottom center of the frame.

  10. Earth Observation

    2013-06-13

    ISS036-E-007619 (13 June 2013) --- To a crew member aboard the International Space Station, the home planet is seen from many different angles and perspectives, as evdenced by this Expedition 36 image of Earth's atmophere partially obscured by one of the orbital outpost's solar panels.

  11. Think Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred; Ice, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Describes a series of environmental education instructional units for grades K-6 developed by the Think Earth Consortium that cover topics such as conservation, pollution control, and waste reduction. Provides testimony from one sixth-grade teacher that field tested the second-grade unit. (MDH)

  12. Earth Observation

    2014-09-01

    Earth Observation taken during a night pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: New Zealand Aurora night pass. Docked Soyuz and Progress spacecraft are visible. On crewmember's Flickr page - The Moon, about to dive into a glowing ocean of green᥿9.

  13. Earth Observation

    2013-07-21

    Earth observation taken during night pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message this is labeled as : Tehran, Iran. Lights along the coast of the Caspian Sea visible through clouds. July 21.

  14. Earth Observation

    2013-05-19

    ISS036-E-002224 (21 May 2013) --- The sun is captured in a "starburst" mode over Earth's horizon by one of the Expedition 36 crew members as the orbital outpost was above a point in southwestern Minnesota on May 21, 2013.

  15. Earth Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaufele, Christopher; Zumoff, Nancy

    Earth Algebra is an entry level college algebra course that incorporates the spirit of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics at the college level. The context of the course places mathematics at the center of one of the major current concerns of the world. Through…

  16. Earth Science

    1993-03-29

    Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) is a tethered date collecting satellite and is intended to demonstrate a versatile and economical way of delivering smaller payloads to higher orbits or downward toward Earth's atmosphere. 19th Navstar Global Positioning System Satellite mission joined with previously launched satellites used for navigational purposes and geodite studies. These satellites are used commercially as well as by the military.

  17. Earth Observation

    2014-06-14

    ISS040-E-011868 (14 June 2014) --- The dark waters of the Salton Sea stand out against neighboring cultivation and desert sands in the middle of the Southern California desert, as photographed by one of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station on June 14, 2014.

  18. Earth Observation

    2013-08-03

    Earth observation taken during day pass by an Expedition 36 crew member on board the International Space Station (ISS). Per Twitter message: From southernmost point of orbit over the South Pacific- all clouds seemed to be leading to the South Pole.

  19. Earth Sky

    1965-12-16

    S65-63282 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Area of Indian Ocean, just east of the island of Madagascar, as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 15th revolution of Earth. Land mass at top of picture is the Malagasy Republic (Madagascar). Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  20. Rare earths

    Gambogi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

  1. Earth Observation

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015354 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires near the Manicouagan Reservoir (seen at lower left) were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  2. Earth Observation

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015355 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires near the Manicouagan Reservoir (seen at bottom center) were recorded in a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  3. Earth Observation

    2013-07-03

    ISS036-E-015292 (3 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 3-4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station. This image was recorded on July 3.

  4. Earth Observation

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015342 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  5. Earth Observation

    2013-07-04

    ISS036-E-015335 (4 July 2013) --- A number of Quebec, Canada wildfires southeast of James Bay were recorded as part of a series of photographs taken and downlinked to Earth on July 4 by the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station.

  6. Earth Observation

    2014-06-12

    Earth Observation taken during a day pass by the Expedition 40 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Folder lists this as: Moon, Japan, Kamchatka with a wild cloud. Part of the U.S. Lab and PMM are also visible.

  7. Earth Observation

    2013-08-29

    ISS036-E-038117 (29 Aug. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed massive smoke plumes from the California wildfires. When this image was exposed on Aug. 29, the orbital outpost was approximately 220 miles above a point located at 38.6 degrees north latitude and 123.2 degrees west longitude.

  8. Earth Observation

    2013-08-29

    ISS036-E-038114 (29 Aug. 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed massive smoke plumes from the California wildfires. When this image was exposed on Aug. 29, the orbital outpost was approximately 220 miles above a point located at 38.6 degrees north latitude and 123.3 degrees west longitude.

  9. Earth Observations

    2014-11-18

    ISS042E006751 (11/08/2014) --- Earth observation taken from the International Space Station of the coastline of the United Arab Emirates. The large wheel along the coast center left is "Jumeirah" Palm Island, with a conference center, hotels, recreation areas and a large marine zoo.

  10. Earth Moon

    1998-06-08

    NASA Galileo spacecraft took this image of Earth moon on December 7, 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. The distinct bright ray crater at the bottom of the image is the Tycho impact basin. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00405

  11. Earth's horizon

    2005-07-30

    S114-E-6076 (30 July 2005) --- The blackness of space and Earth’s horizon form the backdrop for this view of the extended Space Shuttle Discovery’s remote manipulator system (RMS) robotic arm while docked to the International Space Station during the STS-114 mission.

  12. Microbial Biosignatures in High Iron Thermal Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parenteau, M. N.; Embaye, T.; Jahnke, L. L.; Cady, S. L.

    2003-12-01

    The emerging anoxic source waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park contain 2.6 to 11.2 mg/L Fe(II) and are 51-54° C and pH 5.5-6.0. These waters flow down the accumulating iron deposits and over three major phototrophic mat communities: Synechococcus/Chloroflexus at 51-54° C, Pseudanabaena at 51-54° C, and a narrow Oscillatoria at 36-45° C. We are assessing the contribution of the phototrophs to biosignature formation in this high iron system. These biosignatures can be used to assess the biological contribution to ancient iron deposits on Earth (e.g. Precambrian Banded Iron Formations) and, potentially, to those found on Mars. Most studies to date have focused on chemotrophic iron-oxidizing communities; however, recent research has demonstrated that phototrophs have a significant physiological impact on these iron thermal springs (Pierson et al. 1999, Pierson and Parenteau 2000, and Trouwborst et al., 2003). We completed a survey of the microfossils, biominerals, biofabrics, and lipid biomarkers in the phototrophic mats and stromatolitic iron deposits using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The Synechococcus/Chloroflexus mat was heavily encrusted with iron silicates while the narrow Oscillatoria mat was encrusted primarily with iron oxides. Encrustation of the cells increased with depth in the mats. Amorphous 2-line ferrihydrite is the primary precipitate in the spring and the only iron oxide mineral associated with the mats. Goethite, hematite, and siderite were detected in dry sediment samples on the face of the main iron deposit. Analysis of polar lipid fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) generated a suite of lipid biomarkers. The Synechococcus/Chloroflexus mat contained two mono-unsaturated isomers of n-C18:1 with smaller amounts of polyunsaturated n-C18:2, characteristic of cyanobacteria

  13. Effect of low temperature baking on the RF properties of niobium superconducting cavities for particle accelerators

    SciT

    Gianluigi Ciovati

    Radio-frequency superconducting (SRF) cavities are widely used to accelerate a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk niobium has significantly improved over the last ten years and is approaching the theoretical limit for niobium. Nevertheless, RF tests of niobium cavities are still showing some ''anomalous'' losses that require a better understanding in order to reliably obtain better performance. These losses are characterized by a marked dependence of the surface resistance on the surface electromagnetic field and can be detected by measuring the quality factor of the resonator as a function of the peakmore » surface field. A low temperature (100 C-150 C) ''in situ'' bake under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor at low field and a recovery from ''anomalous'' losses (so-called ''Q-drop'') without field emission at higher field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single-cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity quality factor in the temperature range 1.37 K-280 K and resonant frequency shift between 6 K-9.3 K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity. The hydrogen content of small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation was analyzed with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). The single-cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different

  14. Earth Observations

    2010-09-09

    ISS024-E-014071 (9 Sept. 2010) --- This striking panoramic view of the southwestern USA and Pacific Ocean is an oblique image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member looking outwards at an angle from the International Space Station (ISS). While most unmanned orbital satellites view Earth from a nadir perspective?in other words, collecting data with a ?straight down? viewing geometry?crew members onboard the space station can acquire imagery at a wide range of viewing angles using handheld digital cameras. The ISS nadir point (the point on Earth?s surface directly below the spacecraft) was located in northwestern Arizona, approximately 260 kilometers to the east-southeast, when this image was taken. The image includes parts of the States of Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and California together with a small segment of the Baja California, Mexico coastline at center left. Several landmarks and physiographic features are readily visible. The Las Vegas, NV metropolitan area appears as a gray region adjacent to the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range (both covered by white clouds). The Grand Canyon, located on the Colorado Plateau in Arizona, is visible (lower left) to the east of Las Vegas with the blue waters of Lake Mead in between. The image also includes the Mojave Desert, stretching north from the Salton Sea (left) to the Sierra Nevada mountain range. The Sierra Nevada range is roughly 640 kilometers long (north-south) and forms the boundary between the Central Valley of California and the adjacent Basin and Range. The Basin and Range is so called due to the pattern of long linear valleys separated by parallel linear mountain ranges ? this landscape, formed by extension and thinning of Earth?s crust, is particularly visible at right.

  15. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Shawn Domagal-Goldman, Research Space Scientist, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  16. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Phoebe Cohen, Professor of Geosciences, Williams College, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  17. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Christopher House, Professor of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  18. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Dawn Sumner, Professor of Geology, UC Davis, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  19. Ancient Earth, Alien Earths Event

    2014-08-20

    Dr. Timothy Lyons, Professor of Biogeochemistry, UC Riverside, speaks on a panel at the “Ancient Earth, Alien Earths” Event at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC Wednesday, August 20, 2014. The event was sponsored by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Smithsonian Institution and was moderated by Dr. David H. Grinspoon, Senior Scientist at the Planetary Science Institute. Six scientists discussed how research on early Earth could help guide our search for habitable planets orbiting other stars. Photo Credit: (NASA/Aubrey Gemignani)

  20. Earth meandering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone

  1. Mineral resource of the month: Iron and steel

    Fenton, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant elements on Earth, but it does not occur in nature in a useful metallic form. Although ancient people may have recovered some iron from meteorites, it wasn’t until smelting was invented that iron metal could be derived from iron oxides. After the beginning of the Iron Age in about 1200 B.C., knowledge of iron- and steelmaking spread from the ancient Middle East through Greece to the Roman Empire, then to Europe and, in the early 17th century, to North America. The first successful furnace in North America began operating in 1646 in what is now Saugus, Mass. Introduction of the Bessemer converter in the mid-19th century made the modern steel age possible.

  2. Effects of niobium additions on the structure, depth, and austenite grain size of the case of carburized 0.07% C steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. A.; Bepari, M. M. A.

    1996-10-01

    Carbon (0.07%) steel samples containing about 0.04% Nb singly and in combination with nitrogen were carburized in a natural Titas gas atmosphere at a temperature of 1223 K (950 °C) and a pressure of about 0.10 MPa for 1/2 to 4 h, followed by slow cooling in the furnace. Their microstructures were studied by optical microscopy. The austenite grain size of the case and the case depths were determined on baseline samples of low-carbon steels and also on niobium and (Nb + N) microalloyed steel samples. It was found that, when compared to the baseline steel, niobium alone or in combination with nitrogen decreased the thickness of cementite network near the surface of the carburized case of the steels. However, niobium in combination with nitrogen was more effective than niobium in reducing the thickness of cementite network. Niobium with or without nitrogen inhibited the formation of Widmanstätten cementite plates at grain boundaries and within the grains near the surface in the hypereutectoid zone of the case. It was also revealed that, when compared to the baseline steel, niobium decreased the case depth of the carburized steels, but that niobium with nitrogen is more effective than niobium alone in reducing the case depth. Niobium as niobium carbide (NbC) and niobium in the presence of nitrogen as niobium carbonitride, [Nb(C,N)] particles refined the austenite grain size of the carburized case, but Nb(C,N) was more effective than NbC in inhibiting austenite grain growth.

  3. Earth's inner core nucleation paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguet, Ludovic; Van Orman, James A.; Hauck, Steven A.; Willard, Matthew A.

    2018-04-01

    The conventional view of Earth's inner core is that it began to crystallize at Earth's center when the temperature dropped below the melting point of the iron alloy and has grown steadily since that time as the core continued to cool. However, this model neglects the energy barrier to the formation of the first stable crystal nucleus, which is commonly represented in terms of the critical supercooling required to overcome the barrier. Using constraints from experiments, simulations, and theory, we show that spontaneous crystallization in a homogeneous liquid iron alloy at Earth's core pressures requires a critical supercooling of order 1000 K, which is too large to be a plausible mechanism for the origin of Earth's inner core. We consider mechanisms that can lower the nucleation barrier substantially. Each has caveats, yet the inner core exists: this is the nucleation paradox. Heterogeneous nucleation on a solid metallic substrate tends to have a low energy barrier and offers the most straightforward solution to the paradox, but solid metal would probably have to be delivered from the mantle and such events are unlikely to have been common. A delay in nucleation, whether due to a substantial nucleation energy barrier, or late introduction of a low energy substrate, would lead to an initial phase of rapid inner core growth from a supercooled state. Such rapid growth may lead to distinctive crystallization texturing that might be observable seismically. It would also generate a spike in chemical and thermal buoyancy that could affect the geomagnetic field significantly. Solid metal introduced to Earth's center before it reached saturation could also provide a nucleation substrate, if large enough to escape complete dissolution. Inner core growth, in this case, could begin earlier and start more slowly than standard thermal models predict.

  4. Earth Observation

    2014-07-19

    ISS040-E-070439 (19 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station recorded this July 19 image of wildfires which are plaguing the Northwest and causing widespread destruction. The orbital outpost was flying 223 nautical miles above a point on Earth located at 48.0 degrees north latitude and 116.9 degrees west longitude when the image was exposed. The state of Washington is especially affected by the fires, many of which have been blamed on lightning. This particular fire was part of the Carlton Complex Fire, located near the city of Brewster in north central Washington. The reservoir visible near the center of the image is Banks Lake.

  5. CONTRIBUTION TO THE GEOCHEMISTRY OF TANTALUM AND NIOBIUM IN THE HYDROTHERMAL-PNEUMATHOLYTIC PROCESS (in Russian)

    SciT

    Beus, A.A.; Sitnin, A.A.

    1961-01-01

    S>Data obtained as a result of geochemical investigations show that tantalum and niobium are typical elements of high-temperature postmagmatic processes (early albitization, greysening) connected with granites. The separation of tantalum and niobium in the hydrothermal-pneumatholytic process (greysening stage), which leads to the concentration of tantalum in albitized and greysenized granites (40 to 100 times compared to the average content in granites) is connected with the different mobility and stability of their acido- complex compounds (in particular fluor- and oxyfluorcomplexes), the existence of which in greysening solutions is suggested. A natural analogy in the behavior of both elements in the processesmore » of postmagmatic metasomatose in granites and granitic pegmatites is suggested. (tr-auth)« less

  6. Thin film integrated capacitors with sputtered-anodized niobium pentoxide dielectric for decoupling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Susan

    Electronics system miniaturization is a major driver for high-k materials. High-k materials in capacitors allow for high capacitance, enabling system miniaturization. Ta2O5 (k˜24) has been the dominant high-k material in the electronic industry for decoupling capacitors, filter capacitors, etc. In order to facilitate further system miniaturization, this project has investigated thin film integrated capacitors with Nb2O5 dielectric. Nb2O 5 has k˜41 and is a potential candidate for replacing Ta2O5. But, the presence of suboxides (NbO2 and NbO) in the dielectric deteriorates the electrical properties (leakage current, thermal instability of capacitance, etc.). Also, the high oxygen solubility of niobium results in oxygen diffusion from the dielectric to niobium metal, if any is present. The major purpose of this project was to check the ability of NbN as a diffusion barrier and fabricate thermally stable niobium capacitors. As a first step to produce niobium capacitors, the material characterizations of reactively sputtered Nb2O5 and NbN were done. Thickness and film composition, and crystal structures of the sputtered films were obtained and the deposition parameters for the desired stoichiometry were found. Also, anodized Nb2O5 was characterized for its stoichiometry and thickness. To study the effect of nitrides on capacitance and thermal stability, Ta2O5 capacitors were initially fabricated with and without TaN. The results showed that the nitride does not affect the capacitance, and that capacitors with TaN are stable up to 150°C. In the next step, niobium capacitors were first fabricated with anodized dielectric and the oxygen diffusion issues associated with capacitor processing were studied. Reactively sputtered Nb2O5 was anodized to form complete Nb2O5 (with few oxygen vacancies) and NbN was used to sandwich the dielectric. The capacitor fabrication was not successful due to the difficulties in anodizing the sputtered dielectric. Another method, anodizing

  7. Frequency optimization in the eddy current test for high purity niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, Mijoung; Jung, Yoochul; Kim, Hyungjin

    2017-01-01

    The eddy current test (ECT) is frequently used as a non-destructive method to check for the defects of high purity niobium (RRR300, Residual Resistivity Ratio) in a superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity. Determining an optimal frequency corresponding to specific material properties and probe specification is a very important step. The ECT experiments for high purity Nb were performed to determine the optimal frequency using the standard sample of high purity Nb having artificial defects. The target depth was considered with the treatment step that the niobium receives as the SRF cavity material. The results were analysed via the selectivity that led to a specific result, depending on the size of the defects. According to the results, the optimal frequency was determined to be 200 kHz, and a few features of the ECT for the high purity Nb were observed.

  8. The impact of dispersion on selective laser melting of titanium and niobium fine powders mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razin, A.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Akhmetshin, R.; Krinitcyn, M.; Fedorov, V.; Akhmetshina, V.

    2016-11-01

    This paper is dedicated to the study of selective laser melting process of metal powders. Experiments were performed in the Research Center Modern Manufacturing Technologies of TPU with the fine powders of titanium and niobium. The research was carried out on 3D laser printer designed at TPU. In the framework of experiments aimed at determining possibilities of obtaining niobium-titanium alloy by SLS (selective laser sintering) there were studied the basic processes of laser melting and their effect on the quality of final samples and products. We determined operation modes of 3D printers which allow obtaining high quality of printed sample surface. The research results show that rigid requirements related to powder dispersiveness and proportions are needed to achieve better quality of products.

  9. Nanoporous niobium nitride (Nb2N) with enhanced electrocatalytic performance for hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Jianli; Qian, Xingyue; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Yining; Hu, Rudan; Yao, Chao; Zhu, Junwu

    2018-01-01

    The transition metal nitrides (TMNs) with nanoporous structure have shown great promise as potential electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, self-organized nanoporous Nb2N was first successfully synthesized through the anodization of niobium in mixed oxalic acid/HF electrolyte, followed by a simple annealing treatment in the ammonia atmosphere. Due to the highly ordered nanoporous structure with abundant active sites and the enhanced electrical conductivity, the Nb2N exhibits a high catalytic current (326.3 mA cm-2) and low onset potential (96.3 mV), which is almost 3.9 times and 4.2 times better than that of Nb2O5, respectively. Meanwhile, the Nb2N also presents low Tafel slope (92 mV dec-1), and excellent cycling durability. More importantly, this study will provide more opportunities for designing and fabricating niobium compounds as an innovative HER catalysts.

  10. Niobium thin film coating on a 500-MHz copper cavity by plasma deposition

    SciT

    Haipeng Wang; Genfa Wu; H. Phillips

    2005-05-16

    A system using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma source for the deposition of a thin niobium film inside a copper cavity for superconducting accelerator applications has been designed and is being constructed. The system uses a 500-MHz copper cavity as both substrate and vacuum chamber. The ECR plasma will be created to produce direct niobium ion deposition. The central cylindrical grid is DC biased to control the deposition energy. This paper describes the design of several subcomponents including the vacuum chamber, RF supply, biasing grid and magnet coils. Operational parameters are compared between an operating sample deposition system andmore » this system. Engineering work progress toward the first plasma creation will be reported here.« less

  11. Use of Niobium High Strength Steels with 450 MPA Yield Strength for Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestre, Leonardo; Langenberg, Peter; Amaral, Thiago; Carboni, Marcelo; Meira, Marcos; Jordão, Alexandre

    This paper presents an actual case of a new industrial building at CBMM's plant in Araxá, Brazil as an example of lean design using microalloyed steels. The structure consists mostly of microalloyed ASTM A572 steel grades 65 and 50 instead of the conventional carbon manganese ASTM A36 steel. The application of grade 65 with more than 450 MPa of yield strength is an innovative solution for this type of construction in South America. A complete welding evaluation performed on the low carbon, niobium microalloyed grade 65 steel showed the welding properties and benefits. Niobium's effect of increasing strength and toughness simultaneously resulted in relevant savings in total steel consumption for the project. The paper also quantifies the expected savings in costs, energy and carbon dioxide emissions.

  12. Determination of Activities of Niobium in Cu-Nb Melts Containing Dilute Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Daya; Yan, Baijun; Sichen, Du

    2015-04-01

    The activity coefficients of niobium in Cu-Nb melts were measured by equilibrating solid NbO2 with liquid copper under controlled oxygen potentials in the temperature range of 1773 K to 1898 K (1500 °C to 1625 °C). Either CO-CO2 gas mixture or H2-CO2 gas mixture was employed to obtain the desired oxygen partial pressures. Cu-Nb system was found to follow Henry's law in the composition range studied. The temperature dependence of Henry's constant in the Cu-Nb melts could be expressed as follows: The partial molar excess Gibbs energy change of niobium in Cu-Nb melts can be expressed as follows:

  13. Dual-step synthesis of 3-dimensional niobium oxide - Zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Rozina Abdul; Zoolfakar, Ahmad Sabirin; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    A facile fabrication process for constructing 3-dimensional (3D) structure of Niobium oxide - Zinc oxide (Nb2O5-ZnO) consisting of branched ZnO microrods on top of nanoporous Nb2O5 films was developed based on dual-step synthesis approach. The preliminary procedure was anodization of sputtered niobium metal on Fluorine doped Tin Oxide (FTO) to produce nanoporous Nb2O5, and continued with the growth of branched microrods of ZnO by hydrothermal process. This approach offers insight knowledge on the development of novel 3D metal oxide films via dual-step synthesis process, which might potentially use for multi-functional applications ranging from sensing to photoconversion.

  14. Analysis of the medium field Q-slope in superconducting cavities made of bulk niobium

    SciT

    Gianluigi Ciovati; J. Halbritter

    The quality factor of superconducting radio-frequency cavities made of high purity, bulk niobium increases with rf field in the medium field range (peak surface magnetic field between 20 and about 100 mT). The causes for this effect are not clear yet. The dependence of the surface resistance on the peak surface magnetic field is typically linear and quadratic. This contribution will present an analysis of the medium field Q-slope data measured on cavities treated with buffered chemical polishing (BCP) at Jefferson Lab, as function of different treatments such as post-purification and low-temperature baking. The data have been compared with amore » model involving a combination of heating and of hysteresis losses due to ''strong-links'' formed or weakened at niobium surfaces during oxidation, which correlate to {delta}{Delta}/kT{sub c} changes by baking.« less

  15. Crystallography and Morphology of MC Carbides in Niobium-Titanium Modified As-Cast HP Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Karl G.; Kral, Milo V.; Bishop, Catherine M.

    2014-07-01

    The microstructures of two as-cast heats of HP alloy stainless steels modified with niobium and titanium were examined with particular attention paid to the interdendritic niobium-titanium-rich carbides formed during solidification of these alloys. Generally, these precipitates obtain a blocky morphology in the as-cast condition. However, the (NbTi)C precipitates may obtain a nodular morphology. To provide further insight to the origin of the two different morphologies obtained by the (NbTi)C precipitates in the HP-NbTi alloy, the microstructure and crystallography of each have been studied in detail using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, various electron diffraction methods (EBSD, SAD, and CBED), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  16. Earth Observation

    2014-07-25

    ISS040-E-081008 (25 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the International Space Station, flying 225 nautical miles above Earth, photographed this image of the Tifernine dunes and the Tassili Najjer Mountains in Algeria. The area is about 800 miles south, southeast of Algiers, the capital of Algeria. The dunes are in excess of 1,000 feet in height.

  17. Earth Observation

    2014-07-15

    ISS040-E-063578 (15 July 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, flying some 225 nautical miles above the Caribbean Sea in the early morning hours of July 15, photographed this north-looking panorama that includes parts of Cuba, the Bahamas and Florida, and even runs into several other areas in the southeastern U.S. The long stretch of lights to the left of center frame gives the shape of Miami.

  18. Earth Observations

    2011-05-28

    ISS028-E-006059 (28 May 2011) --- One of the Expedition 28 crew members, photographing Earth images onboard the International Space Station while docked with the space shuttle Endeavour and flying at an altitude of just under 220 miles, captured this frame of the Salton Sea. The body of water, easily identifiable from low orbit spacecraft, is a saline, endorheic rift lake located directly on the San Andreas Fault. The agricultural area is within the Coachella Valley.

  19. Earth Science

    1991-01-01

    In July 1990, the Marshall Space Flight Center, in a joint project with the Department of Defense/Air Force Space Test Program, launched the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) using an Atlas I launch vehicle. The mission was designed to study the effects of artificial ion clouds produced by chemical releases on the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere, and to monitor the effects of space radiation environment on sophisticated electronics.

  20. Earth Observation

    2011-06-27

    ISS028-E-009979 (27 June 2011) --- The Massachusetts coastline is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 28 crew member on the International Space Station. The Crew Earth Observations team at NASA Johnson Space Center sends specific ground targets for photography up to the station crew on a daily basis, but sometimes the crew takes imagery on their own of striking displays visible from orbit. One such display, often visible to the ISS crew due to their ability to look outwards at angles between 0 and 90 degrees, is sunglint on the waters of Earth. Sunglint is caused by sunlight reflecting off of a water surface?much as light reflects from a mirror?directly towards the observer. Roughness variations of the water surface scatter the light, blurring the reflection and producing the typical silvery sheen of the sunglint area. The point of maximum sunglint is centered within Cape Cod Bay, the body of water partially enclosed by the ?hook? of Cape Cod in Massachusetts (bottom). Cape Cod was formally designated a National Seashore in 1966. Sunglint off the water provides sharp contrast with the coastline and the nearby islands of Martha?s Vineyard and Nantucket (lower left), both popular destinations for tourists and summer residents. To the north, rocky Cape Ann extends out into the Atlantic Ocean; the border with New Hampshire is located approximately 30 kilometers up the coast. Further to the west, the eastern half of Long Island, New York is visible emerging from extensive cloud cover over the mid-Atlantic and Midwestern States. Persistent storm tracks had been contributing to record flooding along rivers in the Midwest at the time this image was taken in late June 2011. Thin blue layers of the atmosphere, contrasted against the darkness of space, are visible extending along the Earth?s curvature at top.

  1. Cloudy Earth

    2015-05-08

    Decades of satellite observations and astronaut photographs show that clouds dominate space-based views of Earth. One study based on nearly a decade of satellite data estimated that about 67 percent of Earth’s surface is typically covered by clouds. This is especially the case over the oceans, where other research shows less than 10 percent of the sky is completely clear of clouds at any one time. Over land, 30 percent of skies are completely cloud free. Earth’s cloudy nature is unmistakable in this global cloud fraction map, based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite. While MODIS collects enough data to make a new global map of cloudiness every day, this version of the map shows an average of all of the satellite’s cloud observations between July 2002 and April 2015. Colors range from dark blue (no clouds) to light blue (some clouds) to white (frequent clouds). Read more here: 1.usa.gov/1P6lbMU Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Earth Observation

    2011-08-02

    ISS028-E-020276 (2 Aug. 2011) --- This photograph of polar mesospheric clouds was acquired at an altitude of just over 202 nautical miles (about 322 kilometers) in the evening hours (03:19:54 Greenwich Mean Time) on Aug. 2, 2011, as the International Space Station was passing over the English Channel. The nadir coordinates of the station were 49.1 degrees north latitude and 5.5 degrees west longitude. Polar mesospheric clouds (also known as noctilucent, or ?night-shining? clouds) are transient, upper atmospheric phenomena that are usually observed in the summer months at high latitudes (greater than 50 degrees) of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. They appear bright and cloudlike while in deep twilight. They are illuminated by sunlight when the lower layers of the atmosphere are in the darkness of Earth?s shadow. The horizon of Earth appears at the bottom of the image, with some layers of the lower atmosphere already illuminated by the rising sun. The higher, bluish-colored clouds look much like wispy cirrus clouds, which can be found as high as 60,000 feet (18 kilometers) in the atmosphere. However noctilucent clouds, as seen here, are observed in the mesosphere at altitudes of 250,000 to 280,000 feet (about 76 to 85 kilometers). Astronaut observations of polar mesospheric clouds over northern Europe in the summer are not uncommon.

  3. Layered composites made from bimetallic strips produced by plasma spraying of TiAl on niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmistrov, V. I.; Antonova, A. V.; Povarova, K. B.; Bannykh, I. O.

    2007-12-01

    The production and structure of a multilayer TiAl/Nb composite material made from bimetallic TiAl/Nb strips fabricated by plasma spraying of TiAl granules onto niobium plates are studied. Here, 3-mm-and 2-mm-thick plates of a layered composite material (LCM) are produced by hot isostatic pressing of a stack of 35 bimetallic plates followed by hot rolling (the total degree of reduction is 78.6 and 85.7%, respectively). The LCM consists of discontinuous TiAl layers separated by niobium layers, and the adhesion between the layers is good. Diffusional intermediate layers form at the TiAl/Nb interfaces in the 3-mm-thick LCM and consist of the following two solid solutions: an α2-Ti3Al-based solid solution contains up to 28 at % Nb, and a niobiumbased solid solution contains up to 27 at % Ti and 32 at % Al. The diffusional intermediate layers in the 2-mmthick LCM plates consist of an α2-Ti3Al-based solid solution with up to 16.0 at % Nb; a τ-Ti3Al2Nb-or Ti4Al3Nb-based solid solution with 51.5 at % Ti, 32 at % Al, and 16.5 at % Nb; and a niobium-based solid solution with up to 22 at % Ti and 30.5 at % Al. When a bimetallic TiAl/Nb strip is fabricated by plasma spraying of granules of the Ti-48 at % Al alloy, this alloy is depleted of aluminum to 42 45 at %, and the fraction of the α2-Ti3Al phase in the sprayed layer increases. When the LCM is produced by hot isostatic pressing followed by hot rolling, the layer of plain niobium (Nb1) dissolves up to 5 at % Ti and 7 at % Al.

  4. Magnetic field penetration in niobium- and vanadium-based Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucolo, A. M.; Pace, S.; Vaglio, R.; di Chiara, A.; Peluso, G.; Russo, M.

    1983-02-01

    Measurements on the temperature dependence of the magnetic field penetration in Nb-NbxOy-Pb and V-VxOy-Pb Josephson junctions have been performed. Results on the zero-temperature penetration depth in niobium films are far above the bulk values although consistent with other measurements on junctions reported in the literature. For vanadium junctions anomalously large penetration depth values are obtained at low temperatures. Nevertheless, the temperature dependence is in reasonable agreement with the local dirty limit model.

  5. Understanding the High Temperature Behavior of Niobium Aluminides; First Year Summary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-08

    characterization to follow. Near-net shape processing may be used to form test specimens. A transmission elec- tron microscopy effort will be used ...to identify deformation mechanisms. ,, 20 DISTRIBUTION/AVAII ABILITY OF ABSTRACT SK’NCI ASSIFIFD’UNL MITED • SAME AS R"T • DTC USEDS J...ingots have been processed for us (gratis) by Nippon Mining Corporation by vacuum induction melted from a stock of niobium oxide and elemental aluminum

  6. Apatite grown in niobium by two-step plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruno Leandro; Lepienski, Carlos Maurício; Mazzaro, Irineu; Kuromoto, Neide Kazue

    2017-08-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of niobium plates were done electrochemically in two steps with electrolytes containing phosphorous and calcium being observed the formation of crystalline apatite. All samples were submitted to a first step of PEO using an electrolyte containing phosphate ions. The second oxidization step was made using three different electrolytes. Some samples were oxidized by PEO in electrolyte containing calcium, while in other samples it was used two mixtures of phosphoric acid and calcium acetate monohydrate solutions. Three different surface layers were obtained. The morphology and chemical composition of the films were analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) respectively. It was observed that all samples submitted to two-step oxidation shown porous surface and a calcium and phosphorus rich layer. Average surface roughness (Ra) was measured by a profilometer remaining in the sub-micrometric range. The contact angle by sessile drop technique, using 1μL of distilled water was performed with an optical goniometer. It was verified a higher hydrophilicity in all surfaces compared to the polished niobium. Orthorhombic Nb 2 O 5 was identified by XRD in the oxide layer. Crystalline apatite was identified by XRD in surfaces after the second oxidation made with the Ca-rich electrolyte and a mixture of an electrolyte richer in Ca compared to P. These results indicate that a two-step oxidized niobium surface present great features for applications in the osseointegration processes: favorable chemical composition that increase the biocompatibility, the formation of crystalline niobium pentoxide (orthorhombic), high hydrophilicity and formation of crystalline calcium phosphate (apatite) under adequate electrolyte composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Integration of optically active Neodymium ions in Niobium devices (Nd:Nb): quantum memory for hybrid quantum entangled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayfeh, O. M.; Chao, D.; Djapic, N.; Sims, P.; Liu, B.; Sharma, S.; Lerum, L.; Fahem, M.; Dinh, V.; Zlatanovic, S.; Lynn, B.; Torres, C.; Higa, B.; Moore, J.; Upchurch, A.; Cothern, J.; Tukeman, M.; Barua, R.; Davidson, B.; Ramirez, A. D.; Rees, C. D.; Anant, V.; Kanter, G. S.

    2017-08-01

    Optically active rare-earth Neodymium (Nd) ions are integrated in Niobium (Nb) thin films forming a new quantum memory device (Nd:Nb) targeting long-lived coherence times and multi-functionality enabled by both spin and photon storage properties. Nb is implanted with Nd spanning 10-60 keV energy and 1013-1014 cm-2 dose producing a 1- 3% Nd:Nb concentration as confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Scanning confocal photoluminescence (PL) at 785 nm excitation are made and sharp emission peaks from the 4F3/2 -< 4I11/2 Nd3+ transition at 1064-1070 nm are examined. In contrast, un-implanted Nb is void of any peaks. Line-shapes at room temperature are fit with Lorentzian profiles with line-widths of 4-5 nm and 1.3 THz bandwidth and the impacts of hyperfine splitting via the metallic crystal potential are apparent and the co-contribution of implant induced defects. With increasing Nd from 1% to 3%, there is a 0.3 nm red shift and increased broadening to a 4.8 nm linewidth. Nd:Nb is photoconductive and responds strongly to applied fields. Furthermore, optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) measurements are presented spanning near-infrared telecom band. The modulation of the emission intensity with magnetic field and microwave power by integration of these magnetic Kramer type Nd ions is quantified along with spin echoes under pulsed microwave π-π/2 excitation. A hybrid system architecture is proposed using spin and photon quantum information storage with the nuclear and electron states of the Nd3+ and neighboring Nb atoms that can couple qubit states to hyperfine 7/2 spin states of Nd:Nb and onto NIR optical levels excitable with entangled single photons, thus enabling implementation of computing and networking/internet protocols in a single platform.

  8. Raman and and x-ray diffraction study of iron and iron-nickel alloys at varying P-T conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A.; Struzhkin, V.; Gregoryanz, E.; Maddury, S.; Huang, E.; Hemley, R. J.; Mao, H.

    2002-05-01

    High-pressure properties of iron and iron-rich alloys are crucial for understanding of the Earth interior, because iron is the major constitute element of the Earth core. Using recently developed [1,2] Raman spectroscopy technique for shear elastic modulus determination, we studied iron-rich alloys of Ni (0 to 20 % Ni) up to 150 GPa, and also at varying temperatures (78-400 K). We find substantial decrease of the Raman hcp-phonon frequency compared to the pure iron, and also considerable anharmonic temperature effects. In contrast, low-temperature x-ray diffraction measurements indicate a usual temperature variation of the lattice constants. Possible implications to the Earth core composition and properties are discussed. [1] A. P. Jephcoat, H. Olijnyk, K. Refson, Eos 80, F929 (1999). [2] S. Merkel et al., Science 288, 1626 (2000).

  9. Effect of interstitial impurities on the field dependent microwave surface resistance of niobium

    DOE PAGES

    Martinello, M.; Grassellino, A.; Checchin, M.; ...

    2016-08-09

    Previous work has demonstrated that the radio frequency surface resistance of niobium resonators is dramatically reduced when nitrogen impurities are dissolved as interstitial in the material. The origin of this effect is attributed to the lowering of the Mattis and Bardeen surface resistance contribution with increasing accelerating field. Meanwhile, an enhancement of the sensitivity to trapped magnetic field is typically observed for such cavities. In this paper we conduct the first systematic study on these different components contributing to the total surface resistance as a function of different levels of dissolved nitrogen, in comparison with standard surface treatments for niobiummore » resonators. Adding these results together we are able to show for the first time which is the optimum surface treatment that maximizes the Q-factor of superconducting niobium resonators as a function of expected trapped magnetic field in the cavity walls. Lastly, these results also provide new insights on the physics behind the change in the field dependence of the Mattis and Bardeen surface resistance, and of the trapped magnetic vortex induced losses in superconducting niobium resonators.« less

  10. Spectroellipsometric detection of silicon substrate damage caused by radiofrequency sputtering of niobium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohner, Tivadar; Serényi, Miklós; Szilágyi, Edit; Zolnai, Zsolt; Czigány, Zsolt; Khánh, Nguyen Quoc; Petrik, Péter; Fried, Miklós

    2017-11-01

    Substrate surface damage induced by deposition of metal atoms by radiofrequency (rf) sputtering or ion beam sputtering onto single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface has been characterized earlier by electrical measurements. The question arises whether it is possible to characterize surface damage using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). In our experiments niobium oxide layers were deposited by rf sputtering on c-Si substrates in gas mixture of oxygen and argon. Multiple angle of incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were performed, a four-layer optical model (surface roughness layer, niobium oxide layer, native silicon oxide layer and ion implantation-amorphized silicon [i-a-Si] layer on a c-Si substrate) was created in order to evaluate the spectra. The evaluations yielded thicknesses of several nm for the i-a-Si layer. Better agreement could be achieved between the measured and the generated spectra by inserting a mixed layer (with components of c-Si and i-a-Si applying the effective medium approximation) between the silicon oxide layer and the c-Si substrate. High depth resolution Rutherford backscattering (RBS) measurements were performed to investigate the interface disorder between the deposited niobium oxide layer and the c-Si substrate. Atomic resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy investigation was applied to visualize the details of the damaged subsurface region of the substrate.

  11. Recent Developments in Niobium Containing Austenitic Stainless Steels for Thermal Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Mariana Perez; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Hongyao; Bao, Hansheng; Xie, Xishan

    The challenge of growing continuously in a sustainable way is the main driver to improve efficiency in the use of natural resources. The increasing demand for energy has made thermal power based countries to set audacious programs to increase efficiency of thermal power generation. In China, coal-burning accounts nowadays for approximately 65% of the total primary energy supply being responsible for around 25% of the countries' CO2 emission, this coal-based energy supply scenario is believed to continue until 2020. Therefore, the country has invested strongly in the last years in the construction of more efficient power plants. To attend higher operating temperatures and steam pressures, the application of higher performance materials is mandatory, presenting improved mechanical resistance — to stand the higher pressures applied — and having sufficient high temperature and corrosion resistance with the best cost-benefit relation possible. The present work addresses some research developments made in niobium containing austenitic stainless steels for super heaters and re-heater tubes in the past years as a joint effort between industry and academia to understand mechanisms and optimize the steel chemical composition, improving its performance. Niobium role has been studied in detail in heat resistant stainless steels TP347H, Super 304 and HR3C, a summary of such studies is presented in this paper. Niobium improves high temperature properties as it precipitates as nano-size MX and NbCrN, well dispersed in the matrix, hindering dislocation movement, increasing precipitation strengthening and creep resistance.

  12. Test Result of 650 MHz, Beta 0.61 Single Cell Niobium Cavity

    SciT

    Seth, Sudeshna; Bhattacharyya, Pranab; Dutta Gupta, Anjan

    VECC has been involved in the design, analysis and development of 650 MHz, beta 0.61 (LB650), elliptical Superconducting RF linac cavity, as part of research and development activities on SRF cavities and associated technologies under Indian Institutions Fermilab Collaboration (IIFC). A single-cell niobium cavity has been indigenously designed and developed at VECC, with the help of Electron Beam Welding (EBW) facility at IUAC, New Delhi. Various measurements, processing and testing at 2K in Vertical Test Stand (VTS) of the single-cell cavity was carried out at ANL and Fermilab, USA, with active participation of VECC engineers. It achieved a maximum acceleratingmore » gradient(Eacc) of 34.5 MV/m with Quality Factor of 2·10⁹ and 30 MV/m with Quality Factor of 1.5·10¹⁰. This is probably the highest accelerating gradient achieved so far in the world for LB650 cavities. This paper describes the design, fabrication and measurement of the single cell niobium cavity. Cavity processing and test results of Vertical Test of the single-cell niobium cavity are also presented.« less

  13. Effect of interstitial impurities on the field dependent microwave surface resistance of niobium

    SciT

    Martinello, M.; Grassellino, A.; Checchin, M.

    Previous work has demonstrated that the radio frequency surface resistance of niobium resonators is dramatically reduced when nitrogen impurities are dissolved as interstitial in the material. The origin of this effect is attributed to the lowering of the Mattis and Bardeen surface resistance contribution with increasing accelerating field. Meanwhile, an enhancement of the sensitivity to trapped magnetic field is typically observed for such cavities. In this paper we conduct the first systematic study on these different components contributing to the total surface resistance as a function of different levels of dissolved nitrogen, in comparison with standard surface treatments for niobiummore » resonators. Adding these results together we are able to show for the first time which is the optimum surface treatment that maximizes the Q-factor of superconducting niobium resonators as a function of expected trapped magnetic field in the cavity walls. Lastly, these results also provide new insights on the physics behind the change in the field dependence of the Mattis and Bardeen surface resistance, and of the trapped magnetic vortex induced losses in superconducting niobium resonators.« less

  14. The role of niobium carbide in radiation induced segregation behaviour of type 347 austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmedabadi, Parag; Kain, Vivekanand; Gupta, Manu; Samajdar, I.; Sharma, S. C.; Bhagwat, P.; Chowdhury, R.

    2011-08-01

    The effect of niobium carbide precipitates on radiation induced segregation (RIS) behaviour in type 347 stainless steel was investigated. The material in the as-received condition was irradiated using double-loop 4.8 MeV protons at 300 °C for 0.43 dpa (displacement per atom). The RIS in the proton irradiated specimen was characterized using double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) test followed by atomic force microscopic examination. The nature of variation of DL-EPR values with the depth matched with the variation of the calculated irradiation damage (dpa) with the depth. The attack on grain boundaries during EPR tests was negligible indicating absence of chromium depletion zones. The interface between niobium carbide and the matrix acts as a sink for point defects generated during irradiation and this had reduced point defect flux toward grain boundaries. The attack was noticed at a few large cluster of niobium carbide after the DL-EPR test at the depth of maximum attack for the irradiated specimen. Pit-like features were not observed within the matrix indicating the absence of chromium depletion regions within the matrix.

  15. Silicide Coating Fabricated by HAPC/SAPS Combination to Protect Niobium Alloy from Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia; Fu, Qian-Gang; Guo, Li-Ping; Wang, Lu

    2016-06-22

    A combined silicide coating, including inner NbSi2 layer and outer MoSi2 layer, was fabricated through a two-step method. The NbSi2 was deposited on niobium alloy by halide activated pack cementation (HAPC) in the first step. Then, supersonic atmospheric plasma spray (SAPS) was applied to obtain the outer MoSi2 layer, forming a combined silicide coating. Results show that the combined coating possessed a compact structure. The phase constitution of the combined coating prepared by HAPC and SAPS was NbSi2 and MoSi2, respectively. The adhesion strength of the combined coating increased nearly two times than that for single sprayed coating, attributing to the rougher surface of the HAPC-bond layer whose roughness increased about three times than that of the grit-blast substrate. After exposure at 1200 °C in air, the mass increasing rate for single HAPC-silicide coating was 3.5 mg/cm(2) because of the pest oxidation of niobium alloy, whereas the combined coating displayed better oxidation resistance with a mass gain of only 1.2 mg/cm(2). Even more, the combined coating could significantly improve the antioxidation ability of niobium based alloy at 1500 °C. The good oxidation resistance of the combined silicide coating was attributed to the integrity of the combined coating and the continuous SiO2 protective scale provided by the oxidation of MoSi2.

  16. JSC Materials Laboratory Reproduction and Failure Analysis of Cracked Orbiter Reaction Control System Niobium Thruster Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Willard L.; Jacobs, Jeremy B.

    2006-01-01

    In April 2004 a Space Shuttle Orbiter Reaction Control System (RCS) thruster was found to be cracked while undergoing a nozzle (niobium/C103 alloy) retrofit. As a failure resulting from an in-flight RCS thruster burn-through (initiated from a crack) could be catastrophic, an official Space Shuttle Program flight constraint was issued until flight safety could be adequately demonstrated. This paper describes the laboratory test program which was undertaken to reproduce the cracking in order to fully understand and bound the driving environments. The associated rationale developed to justify continued safe flight of the Orbiter RCS system is also described. The laboratory testing successfully reproduced the niobium cracking, and established specific bounding conditions necessary to cause cracking in the C103 thruster injectors. Each of the following conditions is necessary in combination together: 1) a mechanically disturbed / cold-worked free surface, 2) an externally applied sustained tensile stress near yield strength, 3) presence of fluorine-containing fluids on exposed tensile / cold-worked free surfaces, and 4) sustained exposure to temperatures greater than 400 F. As a result of this work, it was concluded that fluorine-containing materials (e.g. HF acid, Krytox , Brayco etc.) should be carefully controlled or altogether eliminated during processing of niobium and its alloys.

  17. Synthesis and thermal evolution of structure in alkoxide-derived niobium pentoxide gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1993-01-01

    Niobium pentoxide gels in the form of transparent monoliths and powder have been synthesized from the controlled hydrolysis and polycondensation of niobium pentaethoxide under different experimental conditions using various mole ratios of Nb(OC2H5)5:H2O:C2H5OH:HCl. Alcohol acted as the mutual solvent and HCl as the deflocculating agent. In the absence of HCl, precipitation of colloidal particles was encountered on the addition of any water to the alkoxide. The gels were subjected to various thermal treatments and characterized by differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. After drying at 400 C, the gels were amorphous to x-rays. The amorphous powder crystallized into the low-temperature orthorhombic form of Nb2O5 at approximately 500 C, which transformed irreversibly into the high-temperature monoclinic alpha-Nb2O5 between 900 to 1000 C. The kinetics of crystallization of the amorphous niobium pentoxide have been investigated by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry. The crystallization activation energy was determined to be 399 kJ/mol.

  18. Iron in diet

    MedlinePlus

    The best sources of iron include: Dried beans Dried fruits Eggs (especially egg yolks) Iron-fortified cereals Liver Lean red meat (especially beef) Oysters Poultry, dark red meat Salmon Tuna Whole ...

  19. Iron losses in sweat

    SciT

    Brune, M.; Magnusson, B.; Persson, H.

    The losses of iron in whole body cell-free sweat were determined in eleven healthy men. A new experimental design was used with a very careful cleaning procedure of the skin and repeated consecutive sampling periods of sweat in a sauna. The purpose was to achieve a steady state of sweat iron losses with minimal influence from iron originating from desquamated cells and iron contaminating the skin. A steady state was reached in the third sauna period (second sweat sampling period). Iron loss was directly related to the volume of sweat lost and amounted to 22.5 micrograms iron/l sweat. The findingsmore » indicate that iron is a physiological constituent of sweat and derived not only from contamination. Present results imply that variations in the amount of sweat lost will have only a marginal effect on the variation in total body iron losses.« less

  20. Taking iron supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... GM. Disorders of iron homeostasis: iron deficiency and overload. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  1. Serum iron test

    MedlinePlus

    ... GM. Disorders of iron homeostasis: iron deficiency and overload. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  2. Chemical composition of Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, S.

    2017-12-01

    Many planetary scientists accept that the condensed planetesimals in the solar nebula eventually led to accretion of the earth. The details of the process have not been worked out. From the metallurgical experience, it is assumed that Earth's core may have formed by density differentiation with iron sinking to the core and the slag forming the mantle. This would be a post-accretionary process with temperature developing with self-compression. The problem with this hypothesis was recognized some time ago in that the seismic density profile of the core does not match the density of iron and requires the addition of a light element. Many elements such as Si, O, C and s have been proposed as diluents to decrease the density of a purely iron core. How and when this will be accomplished is still under discussion. Since the planetesimals (or condensates) formed in a well stirred nebula, it may be argued that a variety of condensed solids and fluids may have accreted and compressed without differentiation and the core does not necessarily contain mainly the differentiated iron. It is a matter of accumulating the condensate composition that would result in a density of 12 to 13 g/cm3 in the inner core. Therefore, we need a thermodynamic database that extends to 6000 K over the pressure range of ambient to 360 GPa. The development of such a database is currently in progress. It is a database with multicomponent solutions (C-Fe-Ni-S-Si) and all the major elements in the solar gas. Thermodynamic calculations using a preliminary dataset reveal that the solid species condensed at a temperature of 650 K and a pressure of 0.001 bar pressure, when self-compressed to various pressures and temperatures, yield densities that are appropriate for the mantle and core. Depending on H2/O of the escaping fluid, the formation of hydrous minerals, carbides, carbonates and iron melts with significant other elements have been found. Earth's core may have formed from solar condensate materials

  3. Iron and Prochlorococcus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    greatly influenced by the sources of iron to the marine environment, which include riverine input, hydrothermal upwelling, and atmospheric...deposition (Jickells et al, 2005). While the amount of iron introduced to the oceans from riverine and hydrothermal sources is high, precipitation occurs...rapidly in both cases and removes iron from seawater, minimizing the impact of hydrothermal and riverine sources on the concentration of iron in the

  4. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  5. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Iron Stain on Wood

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  7. Earth Observations

    2010-09-11

    ISS024-E-014233 (11 Sept. 2010) --- A smoke plume near the northern Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station. This broad view of the north coast of the Caspian Sea shows a smoke plume (left) and two river deltas (bottom and lower right). The larger delta is that of the Volga River which appears prominently here in sunglint (light reflected off a water surface back towards the observer), and the smaller less prominent delta is that of the Ural River. Wide angle, oblique views ? taken looking outward at an angle, rather than straight down towards Earth ? such as this give an excellent impression of how crew members onboard the space station view Earth. For a sense of scale, the Caucasus Mts. (across the Caspian, top right) are approximately 1,100 kilometers to the southwest of the International Space Station?s nadir point location ? the point on Earth directly underneath the spacecraft ? at the time this image was taken. The smoke plume appears to be sourced in the dark-toned coastal marsh vegetation along the outer fringe of the Ural River delta, rather than in a city or at some oil storage facility. Although even small fires produce plumes that are long and bright and thus easily visible from space, the density of the smoke in this plume, and its 350-kilometer length across the entire north lobe of the Caspian Sea, suggest it was a significant fire. The smoke was thick enough nearer the source to cast shadows on the sea surface below. Lines mark three separate pulses of smoke, the most recent, nearest the source, extending directly south away from the coastline (lower left). With time, plumes become progressively more diffuse. The oldest pulse appears to be the thinnest, casting no obvious shadows (center left).

  8. Precipitation hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy having good swelling resistance and low neutron absorbence

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.; Merrick, Howard F.; Gibson, Robert C.

    1980-01-01

    An iron-nickel-chromium age-hardenable alloy suitable for use in fast breeder reactor ducts and cladding which utilizes the gamma-double prime strengthening phase and characterized in having a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime phase and delta phase distributed at or near the grain boundaries. The alloy consists essentially of about 40-50% nickel, 7.5-14% chromium, 1.5-4% niobium, 0.25-0.75% silicon, 1-3% titanium, 0.1-0.5% aluminum, 0.02-0.1% carbon, 0.002-0.015% boron, and the balance iron. Up to 2% manganese and up to 0.01% magnesium may be added to inhibit trace element effects; up to 0.1% zirconium may be added to increase radiation swelling resistance; and up to 3% molybdenum may be added to increase strength.

  9. Earth Observation

    2016-04-20

    ISS047e069406 (04/20/2016) ---Earth observation image taken by the Expedition 47 crew aboard the International Space Station. This is an oblique south-looking view of the main Bahama island chain. Cuba is across the entire top of the image, the Florida Peninsula on the right margin. In the Bahamas, the main Andros island is just distinguishable under cloud upper left of center. Under less cloud is the Abaco Islands in the foreground (middle of pic nearest camera left of center.)

  10. Earth Observation

    2014-06-24

    ISS040-E-018729 (24 June 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed this image featuring the peninsular portion of the state of Florida. Lake Okeechobee stands out in the south central part of the state. The heavily-populated area of Miami can be traced along the Atlantic Coast near the bottom of the scene. Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center are just below center frame on the Atlantic Coast. The Florida Keys are at the south (left) portion of the scene and the Gulf Coast, including the Tampa-St. Petersburg area, is near frame center.

  11. Earth Observation

    2014-05-29

    ISS040-E-005979 (29 May 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the International Space Station used a 200mm lens to photograph this image from 222 nautical miles above Earth showing Harris County and Galveston County, Texas plus several other surrounding counties, including a long stretch along the Gulf of Mexico (bottom left). The entirety of Galveston Bay is visible at bottom center. Just below center lies the 1625-acre site of NASA's Johnson Space Center, one of the training venues for all space station crew members and the nearby long-time area of residence for NASA astronauts.

  12. Earth Observation

    2013-07-31

    ISS036-E-027014 (31 July 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, as it was passing over Eastern Europe on July 31, 2013, took this night picture looking toward the Mediterranean Sea, which almost blends into the horizon. Also visible are the Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Parts of the following countries are among those visible as well: Greece, Italy, Sicily, Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia and Albania. The high oblique 50mm lens shot includes a number of stars in the late July sky. A solar array panel is visible in the darkness on the right side of the frame.

  13. Earth Explorer

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Explorer Web site provides access to millions of land-related products, including the following: Satellite images from Landsat, advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR), and Corona data sets. Aerial photographs from the National Aerial Photography Program, NASA, and USGS data sets.  Digital cartographic data from digital elevation models, digital line graphs, digital raster graphics, and digital orthophoto quadrangles. USGS paper maps Digital, film, and paper products are available, and many products can be previewed before ordering.

  14. Earth Science

    1992-07-24

    A Delta II rocket carrying the Geomagnetic Tail Lab (GEOTAIL) spacecraft lifts off at Launch Complex 17, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) into a cloud-dappled sky. This liftoff marks the first Delta launch under the medium expendable launch vehicle services contract between NASA and McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Co. The GEOTAIL mission, a joint US/Japanese project, is the first in a series of five satellites to study the interactions between the Sun, the Earth's magnetic field, and the Van Allen radiation belts.

  15. Earth Science

    1996-01-31

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft embarks on a journey that will culminate in a close encounter with an asteroid. The launch of NEAR inaugurates NASA's irnovative Discovery program of small-scale planetary missions with rapid, lower-cost development cycles and focused science objectives. NEAR will rendezvous in 1999 with the asteroid 433 Eros to begin the first long-term, close-up look at an asteroid's surface composition and physical properties. NEAR's science payload includes an x-ray/gamma ray spectrometer, an near-infrared spectrograph, a laser rangefinder, a magnetometer, a radio science experiment and a multi-spectral imager.

  16. Melting of Iron to 290 Gigapascals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinmyo, R.; Hirose, K.; Ohishi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's core is composed mainly of iron. Since liquid core coexists with solid core at the inner core boundary (ICB), the melting point of iron at 330 gigapascals offers a key constraint on core temperatures. However, previous results using a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell (DAC) have been largely inconsistent with each other, likely because of an intrinsic large temperature gradient and its temporal fluctuation. Here we employed an internal-resistance-heated DAC and determined the melting temperature of pure iron up to 290 gigapascals, the highest ever in static compression experiments. A small extrapolation indicates a melting point of 5500 ± 80 kelvin at the ICB, about 500-1000 degrees lower than earlier shock-compression data. It suggests a relatively low temperature for the core-mantle boundary, which avoids global melting of the lowermost mantle in the last more than 1.5 billion years.

  17. The Chemistry of Meteoric Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, D. E.; Plane, J. M. C.

    About 120 tonnes of interplanetary dust enters the earth's atmosphere each day. Iron comprises a large fraction of this dust (12% by mass), and ablation of the particles gives rise to the layer of Fe atoms that occurs globally in the mesosphere around 85 km. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that Fe reacts rapidly with O3 to form FeO, which in turn reacts with O3, O2 and H2O to form FeO2, FeO3 and Fe(OH)2, respectively. The purpose of the present study was to determine which of these com- pounds provide stable reservoirs for iron below the atomic Fe layer, and hence form the "building blocks" of meteoric smoke particles which are implicated in phenomena lower in the atmosphere (e.g., noctilucent clouds and polar stratospheric ozone deple- tion). The reactions of these iron compounds were studied in a fast flow tube using the pulsed laser ablation of a rotating iron rod as the source of Fe atoms in the up- stream section of the tube. Iron compounds were produced by adding reactants further down the tube, and finally atomic O or H was added through a movable injector. At the downstream end of the tube, atomic Fe was detected by laser induced fluorescence at 248 nm. The following reactions were studied: FeO + O, FeO2 + O, FeO3 + O, FeO2 + O3, FeO3 + H2O, FeO3 + H, Fe(OH)2 + H, and FeOH + H. It is clear that the iron reservoir around 80 km is FeO3, which reacts very slowly with atomic O, in agreement with the requirements of a recent atmospheric model. However, Fe(OH)2 and FeO(OH), which are thermodynamically the most stable of these Fe species and eventually form from FeO3, are the likely building blocks of meteoric smoke.

  18. ``An Earth-Shaking Experience''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2005-03-01

    Last month's annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco drew an estimated 11,000 scientists, teachers, journalists and geophysics groupies. The schedule of talks could be found in a bound volume as thick as a phone book. You never see a geophysicist in ordinary life, but apparently the world is crawling with them. They came to talk about everything from the ozone layer to the big wad of iron at the center of the Earth. Also about other planets. And magnetic fields. Solar wind. Water on Mars. To be at this convention was to be immersed to the eyebrows in scientific knowledge. It is intellectually fashionable to fetishize the unknown, but at AGU, a person will get the opposite feeling-that science is a voracious, relentless and tireless enterprise, and that soon there may not remain on this Earth an unturned stone.

  19. Herbal Earth

    2017-12-08

    Subtle vegetation changes are visible in this year-long visualization. Large-scale patterns vary with seasons, but the local variations in green are also sensitive precipitation, drought and fire. High values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, represent dense green functioning vegetation and low NDVI values represent sparse green vegetation or vegetation under stress from limiting conditions, such as drought. The visualization was created from a year’s worth of data from April 2012 to April 2013. The information was sent back to Earth from the Visible-Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership or Suomi NPP satellite, a partnership between NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA. Credit: NASA/NOAA To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NPP/news/vegetation.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  20. Earth Observation

    2013-06-17

    ISS036-E-009405 (17 June 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the International Space Station, some 240 miles above Earth, used a 50mm lens to record this oblique nighttime image of a large part of the nation’s second largest state in area, including the four largest metropolitan areas in population. The extent of the metropolitan areas is easily visible at night due to city and highway lights. The largest metro area, Dallas-Fort Worth, often referred to informally as the Metroplex, is the heavily cloud-covered area at the top center of the photo. Neighboring Oklahoma, on the north side of the Red River, less than 100 miles to the north of the Metroplex, appears to be experiencing thunderstorms. The Houston metropolitan area, including the coastal city of Galveston, is at lower right. To the east near the Texas border with Louisiana, the metropolitan area of Beaumont-Port Arthur appears as a smaller blotch of light, also hugging the coast of the Texas Gulf. Moving inland to the left side of the picture one can delineate the San Antonio metro area. The capital city of Austin can be seen to the northeast of San Antonio. This and hundreds of thousands of other Earth photos taken by astronauts and cosmonauts over the past 50 years are available on http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov

  1. Earth Observation

    2011-07-06

    ISS028-E-014782 (6 July 2011) --- The Shoemaker (formerly Teague) Impact Structure, located in Western Australia in a drainage basin south of the Waldburg Range, presents an other-worldly appearance in this detailed photograph recorded from onboard the International Space Station on July 6. The Shoemaker impact site is approximately 30 kilometers in diameter, and is clearly defined by concentric ring structures formed in sedimentary rocks (brown to dark brown, image center) that were deformed by the impact event approximately 1630 million years ago, according to the Earth Impact Database. Several saline and ephemeral lakes?Nabberu, Teague, Shoemaker, and numerous smaller ponds?occupy the land surface between the concentric ring structures. Differences in color result from both water depth and suspended sediments, with some bright salt crusts visible around the edges of smaller ponds (image center The Teague Impact Structure was renamed Shoemaker in honor of the late Dr. Eugene M. Shoemaker, a pioneer in the field of impact crater studies and planetary geology, and founder of the Astrogeology Branch of the United States Geological Survey. The image was recorded with a digital still camera using a 200 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  2. Near-Earth asteroids: Metals occurrence, extraction, and fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westfall, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Near-earth asteroids occur in three principle types of orbits: Amor, Apollo, and Aten. Amor asteroids make relatively close (within 0.3 AU) approaches to the earth's orbit, but do not actually overlap it. Apollo asteroids spend most of their time outside the earth's orbital path, but at some point of close approach to the sun, they cross the orbit of the earth. Aten asteroids are those whose orbits remain inside the earth's path for the majority of their time, with semi-major axes less than 0.1 AU. Near-earth orbit asteroids include: stones, stony-irons, irons, carbonaceous, and super-carbonaceous. Metals within these asteroids include: iron, nickel, cobalt, the platinum group, aluminum, titanium, and others. Focus is on the extraction of ferrous and platinum group metals from the stony-iron asteroids, and the iron asteroids. Extraction of the metal fraction can be accomplished through the use of tunnel-boring-machines (TBM) in the case of the stony-irons. The metals within the story-iron asteroids occur as dispersed granules, which can be separated from the stony fraction through magnetic and gaseous digestion separation techniques. The metal asteroids are processes by drilling and gaseous digestion or by gaseous digestion alone. Manufacturing of structures, housings, framing networks, pressure vessels, mirrors, and other products is accomplished through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal coating on advanced composites and on the inside of contour-defining inflatables (CDI). Metal coatings on advanced composites provide: resistance to degradation in the hostile environments of space; superior optical properties; superior heat dissipation; service as wear coatings; and service as evidential coatings. Metal coatings on the inside of CDI produce metal load-bearing products. Fibers such as graphite, kevlar, glass, ceramic, metal, etc., can be incorporated in the metal coatings on the inside of CDI producing metal matrix products which exhibit high strength

  3. Near-Earth asteroids: Metals occurrence, extraction, and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westfall, Richard

    Near-earth asteroids occur in three principle types of orbits: Amor, Apollo, and Aten. Amor asteroids make relatively close (within 0.3 AU) approaches to the earth's orbit, but do not actually overlap it. Apollo asteroids spend most of their time outside the earth's orbital path, but at some point of close approach to the sun, they cross the orbit of the earth. Aten asteroids are those whose orbits remain inside the earth's path for the majority of their time, with semi-major axes less than 0.1 AU. Near-earth orbit asteroids include: stones, stony-irons, irons, carbonaceous, and super-carbonaceous. Metals within these asteroids include: iron, nickel, cobalt, the platinum group, aluminum, titanium, and others. Focus is on the extraction of ferrous and platinum group metals from the stony-iron asteroids, and the iron asteroids. Extraction of the metal fraction can be accomplished through the use of tunnel-boring-machines (TBM) in the case of the stony-irons. The metals within the story-iron asteroids occur as dispersed granules, which can be separated from the stony fraction through magnetic and gaseous digestion separation techniques. The metal asteroids are processes by drilling and gaseous digestion or by gaseous digestion alone. Manufacturing of structures, housings, framing networks, pressure vessels, mirrors, and other products is accomplished through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal coating on advanced composites and on the inside of contour-defining inflatables (CDI). Metal coatings on advanced composites provide: resistance to degradation in the hostile environments of space; superior optical properties; superior heat dissipation; service as wear coatings; and service as evidential coatings. Metal coatings on the inside of CDI produce metal load-bearing products. Fibers such as graphite, kevlar, glass, ceramic, metal, etc., can be incorporated in the metal coatings on the inside of CDI producing metal matrix products which exhibit high strength

  4. Fundamental Mvssbauer Parameters of Hydrous Iron Sulfates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothstein, Y.; Dyar, M. D.; Schaefer, M. W.; Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrous iron sulfates, which form as alteration products of sulfides, are rare on Earth. On Mars, the low temperature and pH found in the martian permafrost create ideal conditions for the formation of this group of minerals [1], which includes such phases as coquimbite (Fe2(SO4) 9H2O) and amarantite (FeSO4(OH) 3H2O). Viking, Mars Pathfinder, MER and OMEGA data [e.g., [2

  5. Early Earth differentiation [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Michael J.; Trønnes, Reidar G.

    2004-09-01

    The birth and infancy of Earth was a time of profound differentiation involving massive internal reorganization into core, mantle and proto-crust, all within a few hundred million years of solar system formation ( t0). Physical and isotopic evidence indicate that the formation of iron-rich cores generally occurred very early in planetesimals, the building blocks of proto-Earth, within about 3 million years of t0. The final stages of terrestrial planetary accretion involved violent and tremendously energetic giant impacts among core-segregated Mercury- to Mars-sized objects and planetary embryos. As a consequence of impact heating, the early Earth was at times partially or wholly molten, increasing the likelihood for high-pressure and high-temperature equilibration among core- and mantle-forming materials. The Earth's silicate mantle harmoniously possesses abundance levels of the siderophile elements Ni and Co that can be reconciled by equilibration between iron alloy and silicate at conditions comparable to those expected for a deep magma ocean. Solidification of a deep magma ocean possibly involved crystal-melt segregation at high pressures, but subsequent convective stirring of the mantle could have largely erased nascent layering. However, primitive upper mantle rocks apparently have some nonchondritic major and trace element refractory lithophile element ratios that can be plausibly linked to early mantle differentiation of ultra-high-pressure mantle phases. The geochemical effects of crystal fractionation in a deep magma ocean are partly constrained by high-pressure experimentation. Comparison between compositional models for the primitive convecting mantle and bulk silicate Earth generally allows, and possibly favors, 10-15% total fractionation of a deep mantle assemblage comprised predominantly of Mg-perovskite and with minor but geochemically important amounts of Ca-perovskite and ferropericlase. Long-term isolation of such a crystal pile is generally

  6. Structure of a bimetallic strip produced by plasma spraying of a TiAl powder on a niobium sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povarova, K. B.; Antonova, A. V.; Burmistrov, V. I.; Safronov, B. V.; Perfilov, L. S.; Chukanov, A. P.

    2007-10-01

    Ti-48 at % Al alloy granules produced by centrifugal spraying are milled into a powder with a particle size of 40 100 μm, and are applied onto a niobium foil using plasma spraying in an argon atmosphere. The fabricated TiAl/Nb bimetallic strip consists of a 100-μm-thick niobium layer and a porous 300-to 400-μm-thick TiAl layer formed by flattened particles. Directly after the preparation of the bimetallic strip, the surface of the TiAl porous layer is rough. Vacuum annealing at 1000, 1100, and 1200°C for 0.5 1.5 h leads to intense pore healing. After deposition and annealing, the interlayer adhesion is strong. The preparation of TiAl granules and spraying of the powder is accompanied by aluminum depletion of the Ti-48 at % Al alloy to 42 45 at % and an increase in the fraction of the α2-Ti3Al phase in the deposited layer. The prepared material has a duplex structure. An intermediate diffuse layer characterized by a variable composition and thickness is formed at the interface. This layer consists of two solid solutions; one of them, which is formed at the TiAl layer, is an α2-Ti3Al-based solid solution of niobium and the other, which is formed at the niobium foil, is a niobium-based solid solution of titanium and aluminum.

  7. Ultrathin niobium nanofilms on fiber optical tapers - a new route towards low-loss hybrid plasmonic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieduwilt, Torsten; Tuniz, Alessandro; Linzen, Sven; Goerke, Sebastian; Dellith, Jan; Hübner, Uwe; Schmidt, Markus A.

    2015-11-01

    Due to the ongoing improvement in nanostructuring technology, ultrathin metallic nanofilms have recently gained substantial attention in plasmonics, e.g. as building blocks of metasurfaces. Typically, noble metals such as silver or gold are the materials of choice, due to their excellent optical properties, however they also possess some intrinsic disadvantages. Here, we introduce niobium nanofilms (~10 nm thickness) as an alternate plasmonic platform. We demonstrate functionality by depositing a niobium nanofilm on a plasmonic fiber taper, and observe a dielectric-loaded niobium surface-plasmon excitation for the first time, with a modal attenuation of only 3-4 dB/mm in aqueous environment and a refractive index sensitivity up to 15 μm/RIU if the analyte index exceeds 1.42. We show that the niobium nanofilm possesses bulk optical properties, is continuous, homogenous, and inert against any environmental influence, thus possessing several superior properties compared to noble metal nanofilms. These results demonstrate that ultrathin niobium nanofilms can serve as a new platform for biomedical diagnostics, superconducting photonics, ultrathin metasurfaces or new types of optoelectronic devices.

  8. Studying Prokaryotic Communities in Iron Depositing Hot Springs (IDHS): Implication for Early Mars Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisova, S. A.; Tringe, S. G.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Allen, C. c.; Garrison, D. H.; McKay, David S.; Brown, I. I.

    2010-01-01

    We speculate that both external and intracellular iron precipitate in iron-tolerant CB might be involved in oxidative stress suppression shown by [9]. Significant differences are apparent between a set of proteins involved in the maintenance of Fe homeostasis and oxidative stress protection in iron-tolerant and fresh-water and marine CB. Correspondingly, these properties may help to make iron-tolerant CB as dominant organisms in IDHS and probably on early Earth and Mars. Further comparative analyses of hot springs metagenomes and the genomes of iron-tolerant microbes versus fresh-water/marine ones may point out to different habitable zones on early Mars.

  9. Iron Isotopes in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehm, K.; Alexander, C. M.; Hauri, E. H.

    2001-12-01

    The recent identification of naturally occurring isotopic mass fractionation of the transition met-als on the Earth has prompted a search for similar variability in meteorites. Studies of Cu, Zn, and Fe, for example, have revealed per-mil level and larger mass fractionations between different bulk meteorites. Such variations can result from temperature-sensitive isotope exchange reactions and kinetic processes, and therefore may reflect conditions in the solar nebula and on meteorite parent bodies. Recent advances in ICP-MS have permitted isotope studies of transition metals and other elements with similarly small isotopic mass dispersions. Among the transition metals, Fe is perhaps the most difficult to analyze by ICP-MS because plasma sources are copious producers of argide molecules that interfere with the measurement of iron isotopes. However, the stable isotope behavior of Fe is of special interest because it is a non-refractory major element in meteorites, present in a variety of mineral associations and redox states. Considerable effort has gone into overcoming the inherent analytical difficulties of measuring Fe using ICP-MS. We recently reported on a technique that achieves argide reduction by operating the plasma source in so-called 'cold' mode. In this presentation, we report results from this ongoing work. To date, analyses of nine different meteorites, and eight individual Tieschitz (H3) chondrules have been completed, along with a number of measurements of the Hawaiian basalt sample Kil1919. All of the bulk meteorite compositions, which include both chondrites and irons, have identical 56Fe/54Fe to within ~ 0.14 per mil (2 sigma), and are indistinguishable from the composition of the terrestrial basalt. The Tieschitz chondrules, on the other hand, tend to have isotopically light compositions. This could reflect formation from fractionated starting material. Alternatively, Fe condensation, under non-equilibrium conditions can enrich light isotopes

  10. Weldability of high-toughness iron - 12 percent-nickel alloys with reactive metal additions of titanium, aluminum, or niobium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delvetian, J. H.; Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Three exceptionally high toughness Fe-12Ni alloys designed for cryogenic service were welded by using the gas tungsten arc welding process. Evaluation of their weldability included equivalent energy fracture toughness tests, transverse weld tensile tests at -196 and 25 C, and weld crack sensitivity tests. The Fe-12Ni-0.25Ti alloy proved extremely weldable for cryogenic applications, having weld and heat affected zone properties comparable to those of the wrought base alloy. The Fe-12Ni-0.5Al alloy had good weld properties only after the weld joint was heat treated. The Fe-12Ni-0.25Nb alloy was not considered weldable for cryogenic use because of its poor weld joint properties at -196 C and its susceptibility to hot cracking.

  11. Direct DC 10 V comparison between two programmable Josephson voltage standards made of niobium nitride (NbN)-based and niobium (Nb)-based Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Maruyama, M.; Urano, C.; Kaneko, N.-H.; Rüfenacht, A.

    2018-04-01

    BIPM’s new transportable programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) has been used for an on-site comparison at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (NMIJ/AIST, hereafter called just NMIJ unless otherwise noted). This is the first time that an array of niobium-based Josephson junctions with amorphous niobium silicon Nb x Si1-x barriers, developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology4 (NIST), has been directly compared to an array of niobium nitride (NbN)-based junctions (developed by the NMIJ in collaboration with the Nanoelectronics Research Institute (NeRI), AIST). Nominally identical voltages produced by both systems agreed within 5 parts in 1012 (0.05 nV at 10 V) with a combined relative uncertainty of 7.9  ×  10-11 (0.79 nV). The low side of the NMIJ apparatus is, by design, referred to the ground potential. An analysis of the systematic errors due to the leakage current to ground was conducted for this ground configuration. The influence of a multi-stage low-pass filter installed at the output measurement leads of the NMIJ primary standard was also investigated. The number of capacitances in parallel in the filter and their insulation resistance have a direct impact on the amplitude of the systematic voltage error introduced by the leakage current, even if the current does not necessarily return to ground. The filtering of the output of the PJVS voltage leads has the positive consequence of protecting the array from external sources of noise. Current noise, when coupled to the array, reduces the width or current range of the quantized voltage steps. The voltage error induced by the leakage current in the filter is an order of magnitude larger than the voltage error in the absence of all filtering, even though the current range of steps is significantly decreased without filtering.

  12. Anthropogenic combustion iron as a complex climate forcer

    DOE PAGES

    Matsui, Hitoshi; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Moteki, Nobuhiro; ...

    2018-04-23

    Atmospheric iron affects the global carbon cycle by modulating ocean biogeochemistry through the deposition of soluble iron to the ocean. Iron emitted by anthropogenic (fossil fuel) combustion is a source of soluble iron that is currently considered less important than other soluble iron sources, such as mineral dust and biomass burning. Here we show that the atmospheric burden of anthropogenic combustion iron is 8 times greater than previous estimates by incorporating recent measurements of anthropogenic magnetite into a global aerosol model. This new estimation increases the total deposition flux of soluble iron to southern oceans (30–90 °S) by 52%, withmore » a larger contribution of anthropogenic combustion iron than dust and biomass burning sources. The direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic magnetite is estimated to be 0.021 W m –2 globally and 0.22 W m –2 over East Asia. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that anthropogenic combustion iron is a larger and more complex climate forcer than previously thought, and therefore plays a key role in the Earth system.« less

  13. Anthropogenic combustion iron as a complex climate forcer.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Hitoshi; Mahowald, Natalie M; Moteki, Nobuhiro; Hamilton, Douglas S; Ohata, Sho; Yoshida, Atsushi; Koike, Makoto; Scanza, Rachel A; Flanner, Mark G

    2018-04-23

    Atmospheric iron affects the global carbon cycle by modulating ocean biogeochemistry through the deposition of soluble iron to the ocean. Iron emitted by anthropogenic (fossil fuel) combustion is a source of soluble iron that is currently considered less important than other soluble iron sources, such as mineral dust and biomass burning. Here we show that the atmospheric burden of anthropogenic combustion iron is 8 times greater than previous estimates by incorporating recent measurements of anthropogenic magnetite into a global aerosol model. This new estimation increases the total deposition flux of soluble iron to southern oceans (30-90 °S) by 52%, with a larger contribution of anthropogenic combustion iron than dust and biomass burning sources. The direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic magnetite is estimated to be 0.021 W m -2 globally and 0.22 W m -2 over East Asia. Our results demonstrate that anthropogenic combustion iron is a larger and more complex climate forcer than previously thought, and therefore plays a key role in the Earth system.

  14. Anthropogenic combustion iron as a complex climate forcer

    SciT

    Matsui, Hitoshi; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Moteki, Nobuhiro

    Atmospheric iron affects the global carbon cycle by modulating ocean biogeochemistry through the deposition of soluble iron to the ocean. Iron emitted by anthropogenic (fossil fuel) combustion is a source of soluble iron that is currently considered less important than other soluble iron sources, such as mineral dust and biomass burning. Here we show that the atmospheric burden of anthropogenic combustion iron is 8 times greater than previous estimates by incorporating recent measurements of anthropogenic magnetite into a global aerosol model. This new estimation increases the total deposition flux of soluble iron to southern oceans (30–90 °S) by 52%, withmore » a larger contribution of anthropogenic combustion iron than dust and biomass burning sources. The direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic magnetite is estimated to be 0.021 W m –2 globally and 0.22 W m –2 over East Asia. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that anthropogenic combustion iron is a larger and more complex climate forcer than previously thought, and therefore plays a key role in the Earth system.« less

  15. An Earth-sized planet with an Earth-like density.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Francesco; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Latham, David W; Molinari, Emilio; Udry, Stéphane; Bonomo, Aldo S; Buchhave, Lars A; Charbonneau, David; Cosentino, Rosario; Dressing, Courtney D; Dumusque, Xavier; Figueira, Pedro; Fiorenzano, Aldo F M; Gettel, Sara; Harutyunyan, Avet; Haywood, Raphaëlle D; Horne, Keith; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Lovis, Christophe; Malavolta, Luca; Mayor, Michel; Micela, Giusi; Motalebi, Fatemeh; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Phillips, David; Piotto, Giampaolo; Pollacco, Don; Queloz, Didier; Rice, Ken; Sasselov, Dimitar; Ségransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Watson, Christopher A

    2013-11-21

    Recent analyses of data from the NASA Kepler spacecraft have established that planets with radii within 25 per cent of the Earth's (R Earth symbol) are commonplace throughout the Galaxy, orbiting at least 16.5 per cent of Sun-like stars. Because these studies were sensitive to the sizes of the planets but not their masses, the question remains whether these Earth-sized planets are indeed similar to the Earth in bulk composition. The smallest planets for which masses have been accurately determined are Kepler-10b (1.42 R Earth symbol) and Kepler-36b (1.49 R Earth symbol), which are both significantly larger than the Earth. Recently, the planet Kepler-78b was discovered and found to have a radius of only 1.16 R Earth symbol. Here we report that the mass of this planet is 1.86 Earth masses. The resulting mean density of the planet is 5.57 g cm(-3), which is similar to that of the Earth and implies a composition of iron and rock.

  16. Cloudy Earth

    2015-05-08

    Decades of satellite observations and astronaut photographs show that clouds dominate space-based views of Earth. One study based on nearly a decade of satellite data estimated that about 67 percent of Earth’s surface is typically covered by clouds. This is especially the case over the oceans, where other research shows less than 10 percent of the sky is completely clear of clouds at any one time. Over land, 30 percent of skies are completely cloud free. Earth’s cloudy nature is unmistakable in this global cloud fraction map, based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite. While MODIS collects enough data to make a new global map of cloudiness every day, this version of the map shows an average of all of the satellite’s cloud observations between July 2002 and April 2015. Colors range from dark blue (no clouds) to light blue (some clouds) to white (frequent clouds).

  17. Earth observation

    2014-08-31

    ISS040-E-113700 (31 Aug. 2014) --- This panorama view, photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station, shows tan-colored dust of a major dust storm obscuring the Persian Gulf and the its northern shoreline. Strong north winds often blow in summer, churning up dust from the entire length of the desert surfaces of the Tigris and Euphrates valleys (top left). Dust partly obscures the hundreds of kilometers of Iraq’s light-green agricultural lands along these rivers (left). A line of thunderstorms is being set off by the Zagros Mountains of Iran (right), with the setting sun casting long shadows from the thunderheads. Space station crews see sixteen sunrises and sunsets every day from low Earth orbit. Here the crew captured dusk in a darkening Iranian landscape (right).

  18. Earth Observation

    2014-06-24

    ISS040-E-018725 (24 June 2014) --- One of the Expedition 40 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station photographed this image featuring most of the peninsular portion of the state of Florida. Lake Okeechobee stands out in the south central part of the state. The heavily-populated area of Miami can be traced along the Atlantic Coast near the bottom of the scene. Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center are in lower right portion of the image on the Atlantic Coast. The Florida Keys are at the south (left) portion of the scene and the Gulf Coast, including the Tampa-St. Petersburg area, is near frame center.

  19. Earth Observation

    2013-07-29

    ISS036-E-025908 (29 July 2013) --- One of the Expedition 36 crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, as it was passing over Africa, took this night picture of Sicily (center frame) and much of Italy (frame left to frame center) on July 29, 2013. The Stretto de Messina, which separates Sicily from Italy, is near frame center. The high oblique 50mm lens shot includes a scenic horizon with a number of stars in the late July sky. Barely visible in the darkness, part of the long arm of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System or Canadarm2 runs diagonally through the right one-third of the image.

  20. Earth Observation

    2011-07-15

    ISS028-E-017123 (16 July 2011) --- Separate atmospheric optical phenomena were captured in this electronic still photograph from the Inernational Space Station. The thin greenish band stretching along the Earth's horizon is airglow; light emitted by the atmosphere from a layer about 30 kilometers thick and about 100 kilometers in altitude. The predominant emission in airglow is the green 5577 Angstrom wavelength light from atomic oxygen atoms. Airglow is always and everywhere present in the atmosphere; it results from the recombination of molecules that have been broken apart by solar radiation during the day. But airglow is so faint that it can only be seen at night by looking "edge on" at the emission layer, such as the view astronauts and cosmonauts have in orbit. The second phenomenon is the appearnce of Aurora Australis.

  1. Earth Observation

    2014-11-22

    ISS042E007131 (11/22/2014) — Astronauts aboard the International Space Station captured this image of a huge crater in Africa on Nov. 22, 2014. This is the Richat Structure in northwestern Mauritania, otherwise known as the “Eye of the Sahara.” Scientists are still deciding whether this was formed by a subterranean volcano or impact from a large meteor. Deep in the Sahara Desert it is nearly a perfect circle, it is 1.2 miles (1.9 kilometers) wide, and sports a rim 330 feet (100 meters) tall. The crater sits in a vast plain of rocks so ancient they were deposited hundreds of millions of years before the first dinosaurs walked the Earth.

  2. Earth Science

    1996-01-13

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft undergoing preflight preparation in the Spacecraft Assembly Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). NEAR will perform two critical mission events - Mathilde flyby and the Deep-Space maneuver. NEAR will fly-by Mathilde, a 38-mile (61-km) diameter C-type asteroid, making use of its imaging system to obtain useful optical navigation images. The primary science instrument will be the camera, but measurements of magnetic fields and mass also will be made. The Deep-Space Maneuver (DSM) will be executed about a week after the Mathilde fly-by. The DSM represents the first of two major burns during the NEAR mission of the 100-pound bi-propellant (Hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide) thruster. This maneuver is necessary to lower the perihelion distance of NEAR's trajectory. The DSM will be conducted in two segments to minimize the possibility of an overburn situation.

  3. Exploring Iron Silicate Precursors of Ancient Iron Formations through Rock Record, Laboratory and Field Analogue Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. E.; Rasmussen, B.; Muhling, J.; Benzerara, K.; Jezequel, D.; Cosmidis, J.; Templeton, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    crater lakes that are variably iron- and silica-rich. As we continue to probe the mechanism of Fe(II/III)-silicate formation, we can constrain the activity of silica, pH, and pO2 on early Earth and describe any potential influence of microbial activity on the precipitation of these phases.

  4. Pelagic photoferrotrophy and iron cycling in a modern ferruginous basin.

    PubMed

    Llirós, Marc; García-Armisen, Tamara; Darchambeau, François; Morana, Cédric; Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Inceoğlu, Özgül; Borrego, Carles M; Bouillon, Steven; Servais, Pierre; Borges, Alberto V; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Canfield, Don E; Crowe, Sean A

    2015-09-08

    Iron-rich (ferruginous) ocean chemistry prevailed throughout most of Earth's early history. Before the evolution and proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis, biological production in the ferruginous oceans was likely driven by photoferrotrophic bacteria that oxidize ferrous iron {Fe(II)} to harness energy from sunlight, and fix inorganic carbon into biomass. Photoferrotrophs may thus have fuelled Earth's early biosphere providing energy to drive microbial growth and evolution over billions of years. Yet, photoferrotrophic activity has remained largely elusive on the modern Earth, leaving models for early biological production untested and imperative ecological context for the evolution of life missing. Here, we show that an active community of pelagic photoferrotrophs comprises up to 30% of the total microbial community in illuminated ferruginous waters of Kabuno Bay (KB), East Africa (DR Congo). These photoferrotrophs produce oxidized iron {Fe(III)} and biomass, and support a diverse pelagic microbial community including heterotrophic Fe(III)-reducers, sulfate reducers, fermenters and methanogens. At modest light levels, rates of photoferrotrophy in KB exceed those predicted for early Earth primary production, and are sufficient to generate Earth's largest sedimentary iron ore deposits. Fe cycling, however, is efficient, and complex microbial community interactions likely regulate Fe(III) and organic matter export from the photic zone.

  5. Ferric Iron Production in Magma Oceans and Evolution of Mantle Oxidation State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, L.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Pahlevan, K.

    2018-05-01

    Self-oxidation of the magma ocean by ferric iron production at high pressure may explain the mantle oxidation state of the Earth. Partitioning during fractional crystallization can further increase the mantle oxygen fugacity during solidification.

  6. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Observations of earth eigen vibrations possibly excited by low frequency gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuman, V. S.

    1971-01-01

    A cryogenic gravity meter made of two parts, a magnetic suspension unit and a detection module, was used to monitor earth eigen vibrations. The magnetic field and field gradient are generated by energizing a set of superconducting coils made of niobium-zirconium alloy wire. The detection module is a double Josephson junction magnetometer. The output is printed on a chart recorder and later digitized using a computer; a Fourier transformation is performed on the accumulated data. The measurements of eigen vibrations are summarized in tabular and graphical representations.

  8. The oxidation of TaBe sub 12 and NbBe sub 12 coatings on niobium

    SciT

    Courtright, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of tantalum and niobium beryllide coatings on niobium were evaluated. Intermetallic bond layers consisting of Ir{sub 3}Ta and Ir{sub 3}Nb were used to butter the large thermal expansion mismatch between the beryllide coatings and underlying niobium substrate. All coatings were applied by Triode Sputtering except for a final environmental protection layer of stabilized zirconia deposited by RF Diode using a ceramic target. Severe delamination and spalling occurred during cyclic oxidation exposure, even at temperatures as low as 925{degrees}C, indicating that the bond layer did not prevent the differential expansion stresses from reaching the delamination failure threshold, particularlymore » at the edges and corners. Hot pressed samples of the two beryllide compounds were also exposed to a similar cyclic oxidation history, but, in contrast to the coatings, exhibited excellent oxidation resistance to temperatures as high as 1370{degrees}C. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.« less

  9. Siderophilic Cyanobacteria: Implications for Early Earth.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, I. I.; Mummey, D.; Sarkisova, S.; Shen, G.; Bryant, D. A.; Lindsay, J.; Garrison, D.; McKay, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    Of all extant environs, iron-depositing hot springs (IDHS) may exhibit the greatest similarity to late Precambrian shallow warm oceans in regards to temperature, O2 gradients and dissolved iron and H2S concentrations. Despite the insights into the ecology, evolutionary biology, paleogeobiochemistry, and astrobiology examination of IDHS could potentially provide, very few studies dedicated to the physiology and diversity of cyanobacteria (CB) inhabiting IDHS have been conducted. Results. Here we describe the phylogeny, physiology, ultrastructure and biogeochemical activity of several recent CB isolates from two different greater Yellowstone area IDHS, LaDuke and Chocolate Pots. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that 6 of 12 new isolates examined couldn't be placed within established CB genera. Some of the isolates exhibited pronounced requirements for elevated iron concentrations, with maximum growth rates observed when 0.4-1 mM Fe(3+) was present in the media. In light of "typical" CB iron requirements, our results indicate that elevated iron likely represents a salient factor selecting for "siderophilicM CB species in IDHS. A universal feature of our new isolates is their ability to produce thick EPS layers in which iron accumulates resulting in the generation of well preserved signatures. In parallel, siderophilic CB show enhanced ability to etch the analogs of iron-rich lunar regolith minerals and impact glasses. Despite that iron deposition by CB is not well understood mechanistically, we recently obtained evidence that the PS I:PS II ratio is higher in one of our isolates than for other CB. Although still preliminary, this finding is in direct support of the Y. Cohen hypothesis that PSI can directly oxidize Fe(2+). Conclusion. Our results may have implications for factors driving CB evolutionary relationships and biogeochemical processes on early Earth and probably Mars.

  10. A Study of the Batch Annealing of Cold-Rolled HSLA Steels Containing Niobium or Titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chao; Garcia, C. Isaac; Choi, Shi-Hoon; DeArdo, Anthony J.

    2015-08-01

    The batch annealing behavior of two cold-rolled, microalloyed HSLA steels has been studied in this program. One steel was microalloyed with niobium while the other with titanium. A successfully batch annealed steel will exhibit minimum variation in properties along the length of the coil, even though the inner and outer wraps experience faster heating and cooling rates and lower soaking temperatures, i.e., the so-called "cold spot" areas, than the mid-length portion of the coil, i.e., the so-called "hot spot" areas. The variation in strength and ductility is caused by differences in the extent of annealing in the different areas. It has been known for 30 years that titanium-bearing HSLA steels show more variability after batch annealing than do the niobium-bearing steels. One of the goals of this study was to try to explain this observation. In this study, the annealing kinetics of the surface and center layers of the cold-rolled sheet were compared. The surface and center layers of the niobium steel and the surface layer of the titanium steel all showed similar annealing kinetics, while the center layer of the titanium steel exhibited much slower kinetics. Metallographic results indicate that the stored energy of the cold-rolled condition, as revealed by grain center sub-grain boundary density, appeared to strongly influence the annealing kinetics. The kinetics were followed by the Kernel Average Misorientation reconstruction of the microstructure at different stages on annealing. Possible pinning effects caused by microalloy precipitates were also considered. Methods of improving uniformity and increasing kinetics, involving optimizing both hot-rolled and cold-rolled microstructure, are suggested.

  11. An initial demonstration of hierarchically porous niobium alkylphosphonates coordination polymers as potent radioanalytical separation materials.

    PubMed

    Lv, Kai; Yang, Chu-Ting; Han, Jun; Hu, Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Lin

    2017-06-30

    Combining the merits of soft-templating and perchlorate oxidation methods, the first-case investigation of niobium alkylphosphonates has uncovered their unique morphology, backbone composition, thermal behavior and huge potentiality as radioanalytical separation materials. These hierarchically porous solids are random aggregates of densely stacked nanolayers perforated with worm-like holes or vesicular voids, manifesting the massif-, tower-like "polymer brush" elevated up to ∼150nm driven by the minimal surface free energy principle. These coordination polymers consist of distorted niobium (V) ions strongly linked with tetrahedral alkylphosphonate building units, exposing uncoordinated phosphonate moieties and defective metal sites. Despite the amorphous features, they demonstrate multimodal porosity covering continuous micropores, segregated mesopores and fractional macropores, beneficial for the sequestration by active Lewis acid-base center. Evidenced by the maximum distribution coefficients of thorium, lanthanides reaching 9.0×10 4 , 9.5×10 4 mLg -1 and large separation factor at pH≤1 20-element cocktail, this category of niobium alkylphosphonates are capable of harvesting thorium, lanthanides directly from the radionuclide surrogate, comparable to or even surpass the performance of the metal (IV) arylphosphonates counterparts. They also display appreciable SF Eu/Sm ∼20 in 1molL -1 HNO 3 , shedding light on dual approaches to achieve the isolation of americium from curium. A combinatorial radioanalytical separation protocol has been proposed to enrich thorium and europium, revealing facile utilization of these highly stable, phosphonated hybrids in sustainable development of radioanalytical separation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms of mammalian iron homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pantopoulos, Kostas; Porwal, Suheel Kumar; Tartakoff, Alan; Devireddy, L.

    2012-01-01

    Iron is vital for almost all organisms because of its ability to donate and accept electrons with relative ease. It serves as a cofactor for many proteins and enzymes necessary for oxygen and energy metabolism, as well as for several other essential processes. Mammalian cells utilize multiple mechanisms to acquire iron. Disruption of iron homeostasis is associated with various human diseases: iron deficiency resulting from defects in acquisition or distribution of the metal causes anemia; whereas iron surfeit resulting from excessive iron absorption or defective utilization causes abnormal tissue iron deposition, leading to oxidative damage. Mammals utilize distinct mechanisms to regulate iron homeostasis at the systemic and cellular levels. These involve the hormone hepcidin and iron regulatory proteins, which collectively ensure iron balance. This review outlines recent advances in iron regulatory pathways, as well as in mechanisms underlying intracellular iron trafficking, an important but less-studied area of mammalian iron homeostasis. PMID:22703180

  13. Cellular iron transport.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  14. Radioactive rare-earth deposit at Scrub Oaks mine, Morris County, New Jersey

    Klemic, Harry; Heyl, A.V.; Taylor, Audrey R.; Stone, Jerome

    1959-01-01

    A deposit of rare-earth minerals in the Scrub Oaks iron mine, Morris County, N. J., was mapped and sampled in 1955. The rare-earth minerals are mainly in coarse-grained magnetite ore and in pegmatite adjacent to it. Discrete bodies of rare-earth-bearing magnetite ore apparently follow the plunge of the main magnetite ore body at the north end of the mine. Radioactivity of the ore containing rare earths is about 0.2 to 0.6 mllliroentgens per hour. The principal minerals of the deposit are quartz, magnetite, hematite, albiteoligoclase, perthite and antiperthite. Xenotime and doverite aggregates and bastnaesite with intermixed leucoxene are the most abundant rare-earth minerals, and zircon, sphene, chevkinite, apatite, and monazite are of minor abundance in the ore. The rare-earth elements are partly differentiated into cerium-rich bastnaesite, chevkinite, and monazite, and yttrium-rich xenotime and doverite. Apatite, zircon, and sphene contain both cerium and yttrium group earths. Eleven samples of radioactive ore and rock average 0.009 percent uranium, 0.062 percent thorium, 1.51 percent combined rare-earth oxides including yttrium oxide and 24.8 percent iron. Scatter diagrams of sample data show a direct correlation between equivalent uranium, uranium, thorium, and combined rare^ earth oxides. Both cerium- and yttrium-group earths are abundant in the rare-earth minerals. Radioactive magnetite ore containing rare-earth minerals probably formed as a variant of the magnetite mineralization that produced the main iron ore of the Scrub Oaks deposit. The rare-earth minerals and the iron ore were deposited contemporaneously. Zircon crystals, probably deposited at the same time, have been determined by the Larsen method to be about 550 to 600 million years old (late Precambrian age). Uranium, thorium, and rare-earth elements are potential byproducts of iron in the coarse-grained magnetite ore.

  15. Oxygen in the Martian atmosphere: Regulation of PO2 by the deposition of iron formations on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1992-01-01

    During Earth's early history, and prior to the evolution of its present day oxygenated atmosphere, extensive iron rich siliceous sedimentary rocks were deposited, consisting of alternating layers of silica (chert) and iron oxide minerals (hematite and magnetite). The banding in iron formations recorded changes of atmosphere-hydrosphere interactions near sea level in the ancient ocean, which induced the oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron, precipitation of insoluble ferric oxides and silica, and regulation of oxygen in Earth's early atmosphere. Similarities between the Archean Earth and the composition of the present day atmosphere on Mars, together with the pervasive presence of ferric oxides in the Martian regolith suggest that iron formation might also have been deposited on Mars and influenced the oxygen content of the Martian atmosphere. Such a possibility is discussed here with a view to assessing whether the oxygen content of the Martian atmosphere has been regulated by the chemical precipitation of iron formations on Mars.

  16. Earth Observation

    2014-08-30

    ISS040E112662 (08/30/2014) ---- Cancún, Mexico. A long lens was used by astronauts aboard the International Space Station to take this image, and it highlights many natural and built features. The street pattern of Mexico’s tourist mecca, Cancún, contrasts with the waterways of the marinas that open into the bay and the lagoons. Brilliant blue water over coral reefs contrast with the dark waters of inland lagoons. The reefs are the second largest reef system on Earth, and draw tourists from all over the world. The wide, well developed beach on the gulf coast (image upper right) is the result of vigorous wave energy; the white sand makes the beach easily visible from space. But wave energy is reduced along Cancún’s protected shoreline (image center) and the beaches are thin or non-existant. Fair-weather cumulus clouds are scattered across the image top left. To shoot crisp mages with long lenses, astronaut photographers must learn to brace themselves against the ISS bulkhead to prevent any slight shaking that would blur or “smear” the picture. Counterintuitively, they then need to move the camera carefully retaining the target at the same point in the viewfinder (the landscape moves across the viewfinder quickly with long lenses). This is called tracking the target and requires good coordination by the photographer—again, to prevent blurring. Shorter lenses do not require this skill because the image appears to pass more slowly across the viewfinder.

  17. Earth Observations

    2010-09-20

    ISS024-E-015121 (20 Sept. 2010) --- Twitchell Canyon Fire in central Utah is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 24 crew member on the International Space Station (ISS). The Twitchell Canyon Fire near central Utah?s Fishlake National Forest is reported to have an area of approximately 13,383 hectares (approximately 134 square kilometers, or 33,071 acres). This detailed image shows smoke plumes generated by several fire spots close to the southwestern edge of the burned area. The fire was started by a lightning strike on July 20, 2010. Whereas many of the space station images of Earth are looking straight down (nadir), this photograph was exposed at an angle. The space station was located over a point approximately 509 kilometers (316 miles) to the northeast, near the Colorado/Wyoming border, at the time the image was taken on Sept. 20. Southwesterly winds were continuing to extend smoke plumes from the fire to the northeast. While the Twitchell Canyon region is sparsely populated, Interstate Highway 15 is visible at upper left.

  18. Earth Observation

    2014-08-05

    ISS040-E-088891 (5 Aug. 2014) --- Thunderheads near Borneo, Indonesia are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member on the International Space Station. Late afternoon sun casts long shadows from high thunderhead anvils over southern Borneo. Crews aboard the space station have recently concentrated on panoramic views of clouds?taken with lenses similar to the focal length of the human eye. These images reveal the kinds of views crews see -- huge areas of the planet, with a strong three-dimensional sense of what it is like to fly 350 kilometers above Earth. Winds usually blow in different directions at different altitudes. High-altitude winds are clearly sweeping the tops off the many tallest thunderclouds, generating long anvils of diffuse cirrus plumes that trail south. At low levels, ?streets? of white dots -- fair-weather cumulus clouds -- are aligned with west-moving winds (lower left). Small smoke plumes from forest fires onshore are also aligned west. Storm formation near the horizon -- more than 1,000 kilometers away (center) -- is assisted by air currents rising over the central mountains of Borneo.

  19. Earth Observation

    2013-10-14

    ISS037-E-011470 (14 Oct. 2013) --- Man-made archipelagos near Dubai, United Arab Emirates, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 37 crew member on the International Space Station, flying at approximately 220 miles above Earth. The municipality of Dubai is the largest city of the Persian Gulf emirate of the same name, and has built a global reputation for large-scale developments and architectural works. Among the most visible of these developments -- particularly from the perspective of astronauts onboard the space station -- are three man-made archipelagos. The two Palm Islands -- Palm Jumeirah (right) and Palm Jebel Ali (out of frame further to the right) -- appear as stylized palm trees when viewed from above. The World Islands (center frame) evoke a rough map of the world from an air- or space-borne perspective. The Palm Jumeirah project began in 2001 and required more than 50 million cubic meters of dredged sand to raise the islands above the Persian Gulf sea level. Construction of the Palm Jumeirah islands was completed in 2006; for several years now they have been developed for residential and commercial housing and infrastructure. Creation of the World Islands was begun in 2003 and completed in 2008, using 320 million cubic meters of sand and 37 million tons of rock for the surrounding 27 kilometer-long protective breakwater.

  20. Carbonates of the Gunflint Banded Iron Formation as Analogs of Martian Carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pun, A.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2001-01-01

    Terrestrial iron formations preserve remnants of life on Earth and may serve as analogs for identifying evidence of biologic activity in martian rocks. We report on the petrography, mineralogy and trace-element abundances of carbonates of the Gunflint banded iron formation. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. New energy levels of atomic niobium (Nb I) discovered by laser-spectroscopic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, S.; Windholz, L.; Başar, Gü.; Başar, Gö.

    2018-06-01

    We report the discovery of 9 previously unknown energy levels of the atomic niobium, all having even parity. Two levels have energies below 19,500 cm-1 and angular momentum J = 3/2, while the energies of the others are located between 39,700 and 43,420 cm-1. The levels were discovered by laser excitation of several unclassified spectral lines in the wavelength range between 554 nm and 650 nm and detection of laser-induced fluorescence with a monochromator.

  2. Niobium in R And (S6, 6e) and HR 1105 (S5, 3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D. N.

    Lines of the first multiplet of niobium are strong in R And and HR 1105. These lines are also present in other S stars: HR 8714, R Cam, V Cnc, R CMi, and T Sgr. They are also visible in the M stars, Beta-Peg and Mu-UMa. An approximation to the abundance ratio, Nb/Fe, has been deduced from pairs of lines having nearly equal intensity. In R And, the ratio is about 200 times the solar value. It is hoped that good plates will soon be obtained for the near infrared region, so that the significant Nb/Rb abundance ratio may be determined.

  3. Improving the work function of the niobium surface of SRF cavities by plasma processing

    SciT

    Tyagi, P. V.; Doleans, M.; Hannah, B.

    2016-01-01

    An in situ plasma processing technique using chemically reactive oxygen plasma to remove hydrocarbons from superconducting radio frequency cavity surfaces at room temperature was developed at the spallation neutron source, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To understand better the interaction between the plasma and niobium surface, surface studies on small samples were performed. In this article, we report the results from those surface studies. The results show that plasma processing removes hydrocarbons from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5₋1.0 eV. Improving the work function of RF surface of cavities can help to improve their operational performance.

  4. Diffusion and Creep in Niobium Carbide as a Function of Temperature and Carbon Content.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-05

    ADORESSj’It dIffloren fr.o Co"~~IIInEtfi e) i.IfT FUPITY CL ASS. (.1 thI. report) OF DCLASSIFtEiCIODOWNG;RADING’ LE EL SCHEDUJLE Approved frpublic...olock - rojo .’) :,1 obii’r;i Carbide, Self Diffusion, Carbon, Niobium, Creep, Deformation L&in 𔃼. ATdrACT "Cm’tm*. a ,.,Wmrea aide #0 w ad fdwaulfy by...34 portion of the oro i les, was investigadted in this program ot research and fouid to be caused by factor-s extrinsic to the crystal itself

  5. Studies of the metastable decay of met-cars. The vanadium and niobium systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnell, J.; Wei, S.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    1994-10-01

    The decay fractions and metastable decomposition channels were measured for V(m)C(n)(+) and Nb(m)C(n)(+) clusters using a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. These measurements for the V(m)C(n)(+) clusters reveal stable (8, 12) and (8, 13) met-car species. However, under the present experimental conditions, the Nb(m)C(n)(+) clusters display dominantly cubic structures, but the decay fraction and metastable decomposition measurements also show the presence of a stable (8, 12) species in the parent cluster spectrum. This evidence indicates that cubic structures and met-cars are being formed simultaneously for the niobium system.

  6. Heat capacity and transport measurements in sputtered niobium-zirconium multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broussard, P. R.; Mael, D.

    1989-08-01

    We have studied the electrical resistivity and heat capacity for multilayers of niobium and zirconium prepared by magnetron sputtering for values of the bilayer period Λ varying from 4 to 950 Å. We find a transition in the thermal part of the resistivity that correlates with the coherent-to-incoherent transition seen in earlier work. The heat capacity data for the normal state show anomalous behavior for both the electronic coefficient γ and the Debye temperature. We also study the variation in Tc and the jump in the specific heat.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of chemical compatibility of several reinforcement materials with niobium aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical compatibility of several reinforcement materials with three niobium aluminides, Nb3Al, Nb2Al, and NbAl3, were examined from thermodynamic considerations. The reinforcement materials considered in this study include carbides, borides, nitrides, oxides, silicides, and Engel-Brewer compounds. Thermodynamics of the Nb-Al system were reviewed and activities of Nb and Al were derived at desired calculation temperatures. Criteria for chemical compatibility between the reinforcement material and Nb-Al compounds have been defined and several chemically compatible reinforcement materials have been identified.

  8. Iron, Meat and Health

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Catherine; Singh, Mamta

    2011-01-01

    This article is a summary of the publication “Iron and Health” by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) to the U.K. Government (2010), which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health status of the U.K. population. It concludes that several uncertainties make it difficult to determine dose-response relationships or to confidently characterize the risks associated with iron deficiency or excess. The publication makes several recommendations concerning iron intakes from food, including meat, and from supplements, as well as recommendations for further research. PMID:22254098

  9. 35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. GREY IRON TUMBLERS, IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY ROTATE CASTINGS WITH SHOT TO REMOVE AND SURFACE OXIDES AND REMAINING EXCESS METALS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. Standard methods for chemical analysis of steel, cast iron, open-hearth iron, and wrought iron

    SciT

    None

    1973-01-01

    Methods are described for determining manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, copper, nickel, chromium, vanadium, tungsten, titanium, lead, boron, molybdenum ( alpha -benzoin oxime method), zirconium (cupferron --phosphate method), niobium and tantalum (hydrolysis with perchloric and sulfurous acids (gravimetric, titrimetric, and photometric methods)), and beryllium (oxide method). (DHM)

  11. Earth Observations

    2013-06-21

    ISS036-E-011034 (21 June 2013) --- The Salton Trough is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member on the International Space Station. The Imperial and Coachella Valleys of southern California – and the corresponding Mexicali Valley and Colorado River Delta in Mexico – are part of the Salton Trough, a large geologic structure known to geologists as a graben or rift valley that extends into the Gulf of California. The trough is a geologically complex zone formed by interaction of the San Andreas transform fault system that is, broadly speaking, moving southern California towards Alaska; and the northward motion of the Gulf of California segment of the East Pacific Rise that continues to widen the Gulf of California by sea-floor spreading. According to scientists, sediments deposited by the Colorado River have been filling the northern rift valley (the Salton Trough) for the past several million years, excluding the waters of the Gulf of California and providing a fertile environment – together with irrigation—for the development of extensive agriculture in the region (visible as green and yellow-brown fields at center). The Salton Sea, a favorite landmark of astronauts in low Earth orbit, was formed by an irrigation canal rupture in 1905, and today is sustained by agricultural runoff water. A wide array of varying landforms and land uses in the Salton Trough are visible from space. In addition to the agricultural fields and Salton Sea, easily visible metropolitan areas include Yuma, AZ (lower left); Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico (center); and the San Diego-Tijuana conurbation on the Pacific Coast (right). The approximately 72-kilometer-long Algodones Dunefield is visible at lower left.

  12. Earth Observation

    2012-07-10

    ISS032-E-006129 (10 July 2012) --- Flooding in Krymsk in the Krasnodar region of southern Russia is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 32 crew member on the International Space Station. On the night of July 7, 2012 a major storm dumped more than a foot of water on the southern Russian area of Krasnodar, near the Black Sea. The resulting flood was likened to a tsunami, and to date, more than 170 people died, most from the city of Krymsk. The Moscow times reports that more than 19,000 people lost everything. This image taken by cosmonauts aboard the space station shows the city of Krymsk. The tan-colored areas indicate some of the regions that were flooded; the color is probably due to the mud and debris that were left by the floodwaters. Krymsk is located in the western foothills on the northern slope of the Caucasus Mountains?a range that stretches between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. The vast amount of rain quickly overwhelmed the small river channels that flow northward from the mountains to the Russian lowlands and the Kuban River; Krymsk, located on one of those tributaries, was directly in the pathway of the flash flood. As part of the international partner agreement to use the International Space Station to benefit humanity, crew members and other Earth observing instruments provide best-effort support to the International Disaster Charter (IDC) when it is activated by collecting imagery of areas on the ground impacted by natural events such as the flooding in Krymsk. This image was acquired July 10, 2012 in response to the IDC activation.

  13. Earth Observations

    2011-06-02

    ISS028-E-006687 (2 June 2011) --- Estuaries on the northwestern coast of Madagascar are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 28 crew member on the International Space Station. Regions where fresh water flowing in rivers and salt water from the seas and oceans mix are called estuaries, and they are among the most biologically productive ecosystems on Earth. This photograph highlights two estuaries located along the northwestern coastline of the island of Madagascar. The Mozambique Channel (top) separates Madagascar from the southeastern coast of Africa. Bombetoka Bay (upper left) is fed by the Betsiboka River and is a frequent subject of astronaut photography due to its striking red floodplain sediments. Mahajamba Bay (right) is fed by several rivers including the Mahajamba and Sofia Rivers; like the Betsiboka, the floodplains of these rivers also contain reddish sediments eroded from their basins upstream. The brackish (mix of fresh and salty water) conditions found in most estuaries host unique plant and animal species adapted to live in such environments. Mangroves in particular are a common plant species found in and around Madagascar estuaries, and Bombetoka Bay contains some of the largest remaining stands. Estuaries also host abundant fish and shellfish species ? many of which need access to freshwater for a portion of their life cycles ? and these in turn support local and migratory bird species that prey on them. However, human activities such as urban development, overfishing, and increased sediment loading from erosion of upriver highlands threaten the ecosystem health of the estuaries. In particular, the silt deposits in Bombetoka Bay at the mouth of the Betsiboka River have been filling in the bay.

  14. Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    For pipeline companies, mapping, facilities inventory, pipe inspections, environmental reporting, etc. is a monumental task. An Automated Mapping/Facilities Management/Geographic Information Systems (AM/FM/GIS) is the solution. However, this is costly and time consuming. James W. Sewall Company, an AM/FM/GIS consulting firm proposed an EOCAP project to Stennis Space Center (SSC) to develop a computerized system for storage and retrieval of digital aerial photography. This would provide its customer, Algonquin Gas Transmission Company, with an accurate inventory of rights-of-way locations and pipeline surroundings. The project took four years to complete and an important byproduct was SSC's Digital Aerial Rights-of-Way Monitoring System (DARMS). DARMS saves substantial time and money. EOCAP enabled Sewall to develop new products and expand its customer base. Algonquin now manages regulatory requirements more efficiently and accurately. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology. Because changes on Earth's surface are accelerating, planners and resource managers must assess the consequences of change as quickly and accurately as possible. Pacific Meridian Resources and NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed a system for monitoring changes in land cover and use, which incorporated the latest change detection technologies. The goal of this EOCAP project was to tailor existing technologies to a system that could be commercialized. Landsat imagery enabled Pacific Meridian to identify areas that had sustained substantial vegetation loss. The project was successful and Pacific Meridian's annual revenues have substantially increased. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in and broader use of NASA remote sensing technology.

  15. Exploring Microbial Iron Oxidation in Wetland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Muyzer, G.; Bodelier, P. L. E.; den Oudsten, F.; Laanbroek, H. J.

    2009-04-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant elements on earth and is essential for life. Because of its importance, iron cycling and its interaction with other chemical and microbial processes has been the focus of many studies. Iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) have been detected in a wide variety of environments. Among those is the rhizosphere of wetland plants roots which release oxygen into the soil creating suboxic conditions required by these organisms. It has been reported that in these rhizosphere microbial iron oxidation proceeds up to four orders of magnitude faster than strictly abiotic oxidation. On the roots of these wetland plants iron plaques are formed by microbial iron oxidation which are involved in the sequestering of heavy metals as well organic pollutants, which of great environmental significance.Despite their important role being catalysts of iron-cycling in wetland environments, little is known about the diversity and distribution of iron-oxidizing bacteria in various environments. This study aimed at developing a PCR-DGGE assay enabling the detection of iron oxidizers in wetland habitats. Gradient tubes were used to enrich iron-oxidizing bacteria. From these enrichments, a clone library was established based on the almost complete 16s rRNA gene using the universal bacterial primers 27f and 1492r. This clone library consisted of mainly α- and β-Proteobacteria, among which two major clusters were closely related to Gallionella spp. Specific probes and primers were developed on the basis of this 16S rRNA gene clone library. The newly designed Gallionella-specific 16S rRNA gene primer set 122f/998r was applied to community DNA obtained from three contrasting wetland environments, and the PCR products were used in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. A second 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed using the PCR products from one of our sampling sites amplified with the newly developed primer set 122f/998r. The cloned 16S rRNA gene

  16. Loparite, a rare-earth ore (Ce, Na, Sr, Ca)(Ti, Nb, Ta, Fe+3)O3

    Hedrick, James B.; Sinha, Shyama P.; Kosynkin, Valery D.

    1997-01-01

    The mineral loparite (Ce, NA, Sr, Ca)(Ti, Nb, Ta, Fe+3)O3 is the principal ore of the light-group rare-earth elements (LREE) in Russia. The complex oxide has a perovskite (ABO3) structure with coupled substitutions, polymorphism, defect chemistry and a tendency to become metamict. The A site generally contains weakly bonded, easily exchanged cations of the LREE, Na and Ca. The B site generally contains smaller, highly charged cations of Ti, Nb or Fe+3. Mine production is from Russia's Kola Peninsula. Ore is beneficiated to produce a 95% loparite concentrate containing 30% rare-earth oxides. Loparite concentrate is refined by either a chlorination process or acid decomposition process to recover rare-earths, titanium, niobium and tantalum. Rare-earths are separated by solvent extraction and selective precipitation/dissolution. The concentrate is processed at plants in Russia, Estonia and Kazakstan.

  17. Iron microbial mats in modern and phanerozoic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baele, Jean-Marc; Bouvain, Frédéric; De Jong, Jeroen; Matielli, Nadine; Papier, Séverine; Préat, Alain

    2008-08-01

    The recognition of iron microbial mats in terrestrial environments is of great relevance for the search for extraterrestrial life, especially on mars where significant iron minerals were identified in the subsurface. Most researches focused on very ancient microbial mats (e.g. BIFs) since they formed on Earth at a time where similar conditions are supposed to have prevailed on Mars too. However, environmental proxies are often difficult to use for these deposits on Earth which, in addition, may be heavily transformed due to diagenesis or even metamorphism. Here we present modern and phanerozoic iron microbial mats occurrences illustrating the wide variety of environments in which they form, including many marine settings, ponds, creeks, caves, volcanoes, etc. Contrarily to their Precambrian counterparts, Modern and Phanerozoic deposits are usually less affected by diagenesis and the environmental conditions likely to be better constrained. Therefore, their investigation may help for the search for morphological and geochemical biosignatures (e.g. iron isotopes) in ancient iron microbial occurrences on Earth but also on other Planets. In particular, many of the case studies presented here show that microstromatolithe-like morphologies may be valuable targets for screening potential biosignatures in various rock types.

  18. Earth Observation

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-011843 (24 June 2013) --- Gravity waves and sunglint on Lake Superior are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 36 crew member on the International Space Station. From the vantage point of the space station, crew members frequently observe Earth atmospheric and surface phenomena in ways impossible to view from the ground. Two such phenomena?gravity waves and sunglint?are illustrated in this photograph of northeastern Lake Superior. The Canadian Shield of southern Ontario (bottom) is covered with extensive green forest canopy typical of early summer. Offshore, and to the west and southwest of Pukaskwa National Park several distinct sets of parallel cloud bands are visible. Gravity waves are produced when moisture-laden air encounters imbalances in air density, such as might be expected when cool air flows over warmer air; this can cause the flowing air to oscillate up and down as it moves, causing clouds to condense as the air rises (cools) and evaporate away as the air sinks (warms). This produces parallel bands of clouds oriented perpendicular to the wind direction. The orientation of the cloud bands visible in this image, parallel to the coastlines, suggests that air flowing off of the land surfaces to the north is interacting with moist, stable air over the lake surface, creating gravity waves. The second phenomenon?sunglint?effects the water surface around and to the northeast of Isle Royale (upper right). Sunglint is caused by light reflection off a water surface; some of the reflected light travels directly back towards the observer, resulting in a bright mirror-like appearance over large expanses of water. Water currents and changes in surface tension (typically caused by presence of oils or surfactants) alter the reflective properties of the water, and can be highlighted by sunglint. For example, surface water currents are visible to the east of Isle Royale that are oriented similarly to the gravity waves ? suggesting that they too

  19. Current understanding of iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gregory J; Frazer, David M

    2017-12-01

    Iron is an essential trace element, but it is also toxic in excess, and thus mammals have developed elegant mechanisms for keeping both cellular and whole-body iron concentrations within the optimal physiologic range. In the diet, iron is either sequestered within heme or in various nonheme forms. Although the absorption of heme iron is poorly understood, nonheme iron is transported across the apical membrane of the intestinal enterocyte by divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and is exported into the circulation via ferroportin 1 (FPN1). Newly absorbed iron binds to plasma transferrin and is distributed around the body to sites of utilization with the erythroid marrow having particularly high iron requirements. Iron-loaded transferrin binds to transferrin receptor 1 on the surface of most body cells, and after endocytosis of the complex, iron enters the cytoplasm via DMT1 in the endosomal membrane. This iron can be used for metabolic functions, stored within cytosolic ferritin, or exported from the cell via FPN1. Cellular iron concentrations are modulated by the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) IRP1 and IRP2. At the whole-body level, dietary iron absorption and iron export from the tissues into the plasma are regulated by the liver-derived peptide hepcidin. When tissue iron demands are high, hepcidin concentrations are low and vice versa. Too little or too much iron can have important clinical consequences. Most iron deficiency reflects an inadequate supply of iron in the diet, whereas iron excess is usually associated with hereditary disorders. These disorders include various forms of hemochromatosis, which are characterized by inadequate hepcidin production and, thus, increased dietary iron intake, and iron-loading anemias whereby both increased iron absorption and transfusion therapy contribute to the iron overload. Despite major recent advances, much remains to be learned about iron physiology and pathophysiology. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. A Comparison of Methods for Computing the Residual Resistivity Ratio of High-Purity Niobium

    PubMed Central

    Splett, J. D.; Vecchia, D. F.; Goodrich, L. F.

    2011-01-01

    We compare methods for estimating the residual resistivity ratio (RRR) of high-purity niobium and investigate the effects of using different functional models. RRR is typically defined as the ratio of the electrical resistances measured at 273 K (the ice point) and 4.2 K (the boiling point of helium at standard atmospheric pressure). However, pure niobium is superconducting below about 9.3 K, so the low-temperature resistance is defined as the normal-state (i.e., non-superconducting state) resistance extrapolated to 4.2 K and zero magnetic field. Thus, the estimated value of RRR depends significantly on the model used for extrapolation. We examine three models for extrapolation based on temperature versus resistance, two models for extrapolation based on magnetic field versus resistance, and a new model based on the Kohler relationship that can be applied to combined temperature and field data. We also investigate the possibility of re-defining RRR so that the quantity is not dependent on extrapolation. PMID:26989580